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Sample records for metallic nanorods doped

  1. Ag-doped ZnO nanorods coated metal wire meshes as hierarchical photocatalysts with high visible-light driven photoactivity and photostability.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mu-Hsiang; Chang, Chi-Jung

    2014-08-15

    Ag-doped ZnO nanorods were grown on stainless-steel wire meshes to fabricate the hierarchical photocatalysts with excellent visible light driven activity and anti-photocorrosion property. Effects of Ag doping and the surface structure on the surface chemistry, surface wetting properties, absorption band shift, photoelectrochemical response, and photocatalytic decolorization properties of the hierarchical photocatalysts, together with the stability of photocatalytic activity for recycled photocatalysts were investigated. Ag doping leads to red-shift in the absorption band and increased visible light absorption. Nanorods coated wire meshes hierarchical structure not only increases the surface area of photocatalysts but also makes the surface hydrophilic. The photocatalytic activity enhancement and reduced photocorrosion can be achieved because of increased surface area, enhanced hydrophilicity, and the interaction between the metal wire/ZnO and Ag/ZnO heterostructure interface which can improve the charge separation of photogenerated charge carriers. PMID:24997260

  2. Study on structural, optical properties of solvothermally synthesized Ni doped CdS nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Kamaldeep Verma, N. K.

    2015-05-15

    Undoped and alkali metal i.e Ni doped CdS nanorods (Cd{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}S) with (x = 0.0, 0.3,) has been synthesized by using a convenient solvothermal technique. In order to confirm the structure of the synthesized nanorods X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been done which reveals the formation of hexagonal phase of the dilute magnetic semiconducting nanorods having size of undoped 27.79nm and doped 17.49nm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis depicts the presence of elements Cd, Ni and S in their stoichiometric ratio. Optical behavior of undoped and doped nanorods has been investigated. UV-visible spectra show the blue shift in the band gap, as compared to the bulk CdS which may be due the quantum confinement occurs in the nanostructures. Morphological analysis has been done with the help of Transmission electron microscope which confirms the polycrystalline nature of the synthesized nanorods.

  3. Alternative motif toward high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods via subtle sulfur element doping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Yang, Xinyi; Sui, Yongming; Xiao, Guanjun; Wei, Yingjin; Zou, Bo

    2016-04-28

    The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine-manganese solutions at room temperature. The existence of manganese polysulfide clusters with polymeric sulfur structures makes the system more reactive, inducing fast wurtzite-phase nucleation. This can overcome the natural kinetic barrier of wurtzite MnSe and lead to subsequent growth of targeted NCs. On the other hand, no sulfur doping would produce MnSe NCs in a thermodynamically favorable rock-salt phase. As expected, different doping contents and sulfur sources also resulted in the formation of high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods. This success establishes that a facile strategy can be anticipated to synthesize high-quality metal chalcogenide NCs with a metastable phase, especially wurtzite nanorods, for potential applications from spintronics to solar cells. PMID:27064941

  4. Chemical sensing and imaging with metallic nanorods.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Catherine J; Gole, Anand M; Hunyadi, Simona E; Stone, John W; Sisco, Patrick N; Alkilany, Alaaldin; Kinard, Brian E; Hankins, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    In this Feature Article, we examine recent advances in chemical analyte detection and optical imaging applications using gold and silver nanoparticles, with a primary focus on our own work. Noble metal nanoparticles have exciting physical and chemical properties that are entirely different from the bulk. For chemical sensing and imaging, the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles provide a wide range of opportunities, all of which ultimately arise from the collective oscillations of conduction band electrons ("plasmons") in response to external electromagnetic radiation. Nanorods have multiple plasmon bands compared to nanospheres. We identify four optical sensing and imaging modalities for metallic nanoparticles: (1) aggregation-dependent shifts in plasmon frequency; (2) local refractive index-dependent shifts in plasmon frequency; (3) inelastic (surface-enhanced Raman) light scattering; and (4) elastic (Rayleigh) light scattering. The surface chemistry of the nanoparticles must be tunable to create chemical specificity, and is a key requirement for successful sensing and imaging platforms. PMID:18209787

  5. Doping-free bandgap tuning in one-dimensional Magnéli-phase nanorods of Mo4O11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Duy Van; Patil, Ranjit A.; Lin, Jin-Han; Lai, Chien-Chih; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-03-01

    We synthesized one-dimensional (1D) Magnéli-phase nanorods of Mo4O11 using the hot filament metal-oxide vapor deposition technique. The 1D Magnéli-phase Mo4O11 nanorods synthesized at 1000, 1050, 1100, 1150, and 1200 °C contain varying combinations of two orthorhombic (α) and monoclinic (η) phases, and various mixtures of Mo4+, Mo5+ and Mo6+ cations, while those synthesized at a higher temperature look bluer. The shifts of the transmittance maximum and absorbance minimum of the 1D Magnéli-phase Mo4O11 nanorods are inversely and linearly proportional to the elevated temperature, verifying that the bandgaps (Eg) are inversely proportional to the elevated temperature. The bandgap (Eg) of the 1D Magnéli-phase Mo4O11 nanorods can be tuned by simply controlling the synthesis temperature without doping with other materials, giving the 1D Magnéli-phase Mo4O11 nanorods good potential for use in optoelectronic nanodevices and bandgap engineering.We synthesized one-dimensional (1D) Magnéli-phase nanorods of Mo4O11 using the hot filament metal-oxide vapor deposition technique. The 1D Magnéli-phase Mo4O11 nanorods synthesized at 1000, 1050, 1100, 1150, and 1200 °C contain varying combinations of two orthorhombic (α) and monoclinic (η) phases, and various mixtures of Mo4+, Mo5+ and Mo6+ cations, while those synthesized at a higher temperature look bluer. The shifts of the transmittance maximum and absorbance minimum of the 1D Magnéli-phase Mo4O11 nanorods are inversely and linearly proportional to the elevated temperature, verifying that the bandgaps (Eg) are inversely proportional to the elevated temperature. The bandgap (Eg) of the 1D Magnéli-phase Mo4O11 nanorods can be tuned by simply controlling the synthesis temperature without doping with other materials, giving the 1D Magnéli-phase Mo4O11 nanorods good potential for use in optoelectronic nanodevices and bandgap engineering. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Statistical distribution of

  6. Doping concentration dependence of microstructure and magnetic behaviours in Co-doped TiO2 nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Co-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods with different doping concentrations were fabricated by a molten salt method. It is found that the morphology of TiO2 changes from nanorods to nanoparticles with increasing doping concentration. The mechanism for the structure and phase evolution is investigated in detail. Undoped TiO2 nanorods show strong ferromagnetism at room temperature, whereas incorporating of Co deteriorates the ferromagnetic ordering. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) results demonstrate that the ferromagnetism is associated with Ti vacancy. PMID:25593558

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods chemically grown on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabannia, R.

    2016-08-01

    Vertically aligned undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods array were successfully grown on flexible substrate by chemical bath deposition method at a low 0074emperature. The fabricated materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD analysis showed that Cu doping improves the crystallinity of the fabricated ZnO nanorods. The mean diameter and bending of the ZnO nanorods increase with an increase of Cu doping, but the density of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods almost unchanged. Room temperature PL measurement displayed increased intensity in UV peak and decreased visible peak after Cu doping.

  8. Highly efficient yttrium-doped ZnO nanorods for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Punnoose, Dinah; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-03-01

    Yttrium-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were applied to photoanodes of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The introduction of yttrium to ZnO nanostructures facilitates the growth of ZnO nanorods and increases the amount of QD deposition with a large surface area. Furthermore, lower electrical resistance and longer electron lifetime were achieved with yttrium-doping owing to fewer defects and trap sites on the surface of yttrium-doped ZnO nanorods. As a result, the conversion efficiency of 3.3% was achieved with the optimized concentration of yttrium.

  9. Alternative motif toward high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods via subtle sulfur element doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Yang, Xinyi; Sui, Yongming; Xiao, Guanjun; Wei, Yingjin; Zou, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine-manganese solutions at room temperature. The existence of manganese polysulfide clusters with polymeric sulfur structures makes the system more reactive, inducing fast wurtzite-phase nucleation. This can overcome the natural kinetic barrier of wurtzite MnSe and lead to subsequent growth of targeted NCs. On the other hand, no sulfur doping would produce MnSe NCs in a thermodynamically favorable rock-salt phase. As expected, different doping contents and sulfur sources also resulted in the formation of high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods. This success establishes that a facile strategy can be anticipated to synthesize high-quality metal chalcogenide NCs with a metastable phase, especially wurtzite nanorods, for potential applications from spintronics to solar cells.The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine

  10. Electronic structure of Co-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neffati, Ahmed; Souissi, Hajer; Kammoun, Souha

    2012-10-01

    The optical transmission spectra, the photoluminescence (PL), and the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of the cobalt doped zinc oxide nanorods Zn1-xCoxO (x = 0.01, 0.10) were measured by Loan et al. [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42, 065412 (2009)] in the region 1.5-4 eV. These spectra exhibit a group of ultraviolet narrow lines in the region of 3.0-3.4 eV related to the near-band-edge emission of the host ZnO materials and a group of emission lines in the red region of 1.8-1.9 eV assigned to the radiative transitions within the tetrahedral Co2+ ions in the ZnO host crystal. The group of lines in the visible region provides important information about the electronic structure of the cobalt doped zinc oxide nanorods. This work investigates a theoretical crystal-field analysis of the visible lines associated to the Co2+ ion transition occupying a Td site symmetry in ZnO host crystal. A satisfactory correlations were obtained between experimental and calculated energy levels. The electronic structure was compared with the reported for cobalt transition ion doped in ZnO nanoparticles and bulk crystals [Volbers et al., Appl. Phys. A 88, 153 (2007) and H. J. Schulz and M. Thiede, Phys. Rev. B 35, 18 (1987)]. In order to explain the existence of excitation peaks observed near the band edge of the ZnO host, an energy transfer mechanism is proposed.

  11. Room temperature ferromagnetism in undoped and Fe doped ZnO nanorods: Microwave-assisted synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Limaye, Mukta V.; Singh, Shashi B.; Das, Raja; Poddar, Pankaj; Kulkarni, Sulabha K.

    2011-02-15

    One-dimensional (1D) undoped and Fe doped ZnO nanorods of average length {approx}1 {mu}m and diameter {approx}50 nm have been obtained using a microwave-assisted synthesis. The magnetization (M) and coercivity (H{sub c}) value obtained for undoped ZnO nanorods at room temperature is {approx}5x10{sup -3} emu/g and {approx}150 Oe, respectively. The Fe doped ZnO samples show significant changes in M -H loop with increasing doping concentration. Both undoped and Fe doped ZnO nanorods exhibit a Curie transition temperature (T{sub c}) above 390 K. Electron spin resonance and Moessbauer spectra indicate the presence of ferric ions. The origin of ferromagnetism in undoped ZnO nanorods is attributed to localized electron spin moments resulting from surface defects/vacancies, where as in Fe doped samples is explained by F center exchange mechanism. -- Graphical abstract: Room temperature ferromagnetism has been reported in undoped and Fe doped ZnO nanorods of average length {approx}1 {mu}m and diameter {approx}50 nm. Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} Microwave-assisted synthesis of undoped and Fe doped ZnO nanorods. {yields} Observation of room temperature ferromagnetism in undoped and Fe doped ZnO nanorods. {yields} Transition temperature (T{sub c}) obtained in undoped and doped samples is above 390 K. {yields} In undoped ZnO origin of ferromagnetism is explained in terms of defects/vacancies. {yields} Ferromagnetism in Fe doped ZnO is explained by F-center exchange mechanism.

  12. Molecularly doped metals.

    PubMed

    Avnir, David

    2014-02-18

    The many millions of organic, inorganic, and bioorganic molecules represent a very rich library of chemical, biological, and physical properties that do not show up among the approximately 100 metals. The ability to imbue metals with any of these molecular properties would open up tremendous potential for the development of new materials. In addition to their traditional features and their traditional applications, metals would have new traits, which would merge their classical virtues such as conductivity and catalytic activity with the diverse properties of these molecules. In this Account, we describe a new materials methodology, which enables, for the first time, the incorporation and entrapment of small organic molecules, polymers, and biomolecules within metals. These new materials are denoted dopant@metal. The creation of dopant@metal yields new properties that are more than or different from the sum of the individual properties of the two components. So far we have developed methods for the doping of silver, copper, gold, iron, palladium, platinum, and some of their alloys, as well as Hg-Ag amalgams. We have successfully altered classical metal properties (such as conductivity), induced unorthodox properties (such as rendering a metal acidic or basic), used metals as heterogeneous matrices for homogeneous catalysts, and formed new metallic catalysts such as metals doped with organometallic complexes. In addition, we have created materials that straddle the border between polymers and metals, we have entrapped enzymes to form bioactive metals, we have induced chirality within metals, we have made corrosion-resistant iron, we formed efficient biocidal materials, and we demonstrated a new concept for batteries. We have developed a variety of methods for synthesizing dopant@metals including aqueous homogeneous and heterogeneous reductions of the metal cations, reductions in DMF, electrochemical entrapments, thermal decompositions of zerovalent metal carbonyls

  13. UV light sensing properties of Sm doped vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D. Ranjith; Ranjith, K. S.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-24

    Samarium doped ZnO nanorods were grown on silicon substrate by using vapor phase transport method (VPT) with the growth temperature of 950°C. The synthesized nanorods were characterized by XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, and photocurrent measurements. The XRD result revealed that Sm was successfully doped into lattice plane of hexagonal ZnO nanorods. The FESEM result confirms the pure ZnO has nanorod like morphology with an average diameter and length of 130nm and 10µm respectively. The above observation is supported by the Micro-Raman spectroscopy result. The photocurrent in the visible region has been significantly enhanced due to deposition of Sm on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. Sm acts as a visible sensitizer because of its lower band gap compared to ZnO.

  14. Structural, morphological and optical investigations on Sm{sup 3+} doped gadolinium oxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathi, G.; Mohan, R.; Raj, S. Gokul; Kumar, G. Ramesh

    2014-04-24

    One dimensional uniform Sm{sup 3+} doped gadolinium hydroxide nanorods have been prepared via simple co– precipitation technique at 60 °C temperature for 1 hour. The samples were calcinated at 750 °C to obtain Sm{sup 3+} doped gadolinium oxide nanorods. The 1D nanorods were then subjected to different characterization techniques to ascertain its structural stability and its morphology were investigated using high–resolution transmission electron microscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometry was investigated and the obtained results were discussed in detail.

  15. Fast Responsive Gas Sensor of Vertically Aligned Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanorod Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chan-Woo; Lee, Jong-Heun; Riu, Doh-Hyung; Kim, Chang-Yeoul

    2012-04-01

    We prepared fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanorod films and a conventional FTO thin film for the application of a semiconducting gas sensor by spray pyrolysis method. The lengths of FTO nanorods (FTON, 100 and 500 nm) were controlled by changing deposition times, and FTO thin film (FTOT) was also prepared as a reference. The gas sensitivity test shows FTON with long nanorods had higher sensitivity for both hydrogen and ethanol gases but slow response and recovery times, despite an advantage of the higher gas sensitivity. FTO nanorod film with short length about 100 nm showed relatively lower sensitivity, but fast gas response and recovery characteristics. The fast response and recovery for the analyte gases are attributed to the conductance of FTO nanorods, which is closely related to the diameter and length of nanorods.

  16. Vertically aligned nanostructures based on Na-doped ZnO nanorods for wide band gap semiconductor memory applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Qi, Jing; Li, Zonglin; Liu, Jianlin

    2013-10-01

    Vertically aligned undoped ZnO nanotips, nanotubes and nanorods were synthesized on the top facets of Na-doped ZnO nanorods without catalytic assistance under different growth times in a chemical vapor deposition system. The growth mechanism is discussed. The Na-doped nanorods were grown on a ZnO seed layer on Si. The p-type conductivity of the Na-doped nanorods was studied by temperature-dependent photoluminescence and nanorod back-gated field effect transistor measurements. The undoped nanorods, Na-doped nanorods and undoped seed layer form an n-p-n memory structure. The programming and retention characteristics have been demonstrated. PMID:24013400

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Mg-doped ZnO Nanorods for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemar, H.; Das, N. C.; Wanekaya, A.; Delong, R.; Ghosh, K.

    2013-03-01

    Nanomaterials research has become a major attraction in the field of advanced materials research in the area of Physics, Chemistry, and Materials Science. Bio-compatible and chemically stable metal nanoparticles have biomedical applications that includes drug delivery, cell and DNA separation, gene cloning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This research is aimed at the fabrication and characterization of Mg-doped ZnO nanorods. Hydrothermal synthesis of undoped ZnO and Mg-doped ZnO nanorods is carried out using aqueous solutions of Zn(NO3)2 .6H2O, MgSO4, and using NH4OH as hydrolytic catalyst. Nanomaterials of different sizes and shapes were synthesized by varying the process parameters such as molarity (0.15M, 0.3M, 0.5M) and pH (8-11) of the precursors, growth temperature (130°C), and annealing time during the hydrothermal Process. Structural, morphological, and optical properties are studied using various techniques such as XRD, SEM, UV-vis and PL spectroscopy. Detailed structural, and optical properties will be discussed in this presentation. This work is partially supported by National Cancer Institute (1 R15 CA139390-01).

  18. Fabrication of tunable hydrophobic surface of ZnO nanorods with Cu doping

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.

    2015-08-28

    In this work, tunable wettability of the Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface with Cu doping prepared by a hydrothermal method. These grown samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, AFM and water contact angle measurements. The wettability of the ZnO nanorods surface area was controlled and tuned by different concentration of copper doping. It was found that the hydrophobic surface of doped ZnO Nanorods shows a maximum and minimum contact angle of about 156.60° and 136.36° was achieved with doping concentration of 10 and 20 M % respectively. Further, the surface properties such as surface energy and work of adhesion were calculated for undoped and Cu doped ZnO nanostructure surfaces. These nanosructures can be potentially applicable to enlarge time honoured application of ZnO based electronic devices.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of metal-semiconductor-metal nanorod using template synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyohyeok; Kwon, Namyong; Hong, Junki; Chung, Ilsub

    2009-07-15

    The authors attempted to fabricate and characterize one dimensional metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) nanorod using a template. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) and polypyrrole (Ppy) were chosen as n-type and p-type semiconductor materials, respectively, whereas Au was chosen as a metal electrode. The fabrication of the nanorod was achieved by ''template synthesis'' method using polycarbonate membrane. The structure of the fabricated nanorod was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, the electrical properties of MSM nanorods were characterized using scanning probe microscopy (Seiko Instruments, SPA 300 HV) by probing with a conductive cantilever. I-V characteristics as a function of the temperature give the activation energy, as well as the barrier height of a metal-semiconductor contact, which is useful to understand the conduction mechanism of MSM nanorods.

  20. Noble metal nanodisks epitaxially formed on ZnO nanorods and their effect on photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sheng; Ren, Jingjian; Yan, Dong; Huang, Jian; Liu, Jianlin

    2012-07-01

    Triangular and hexagonal shaped noble metal (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd) nanodisks were synthesized on the top facets of ZnO nanorods via simple deposition-annealing method. Other metals (Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Al) only formed irregular shaped nanostructures on ZnO nanorods. The morphology, elemental composition, as well as growth mechanism of the metal nanodisks/ZnO nanorod composite materials were studied. The localized surface plasmon resonant effects from different metal nanodisks on the photoluminescence of ZnO nanorods were investigated. It was demonstrated that the carriers transfer between the metal nanodisks and ZnO can efficiently manipulate the photoluminescence intensities from the nanorods.

  1. Nanoscale size effects in crystallization of metallic glass nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sungwoo; Jung, Yeonwoong; Xie, Yujun; Osuji, Chinedum; Schroers, Jan; Cha, Judy J.

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic understanding of crystallization in solids is incomplete due to the lack of appropriate materials and direct experimental tools. Metallic glasses possess simple metallic bonds and slow crystallization kinetics, making them suitable to study crystallization. Here, we investigate crystallization of metallic glass-forming liquids by in-situ heating metallic glass nanorods inside a transmission electron microscope. We unveil that the crystallization kinetics is affected by the nanorod diameter. With decreasing diameters, crystallization temperature decreases initially, exhibiting a minimum at a certain diameter, and then rapidly increases below that. This unusual crystallization kinetics is a consequence of multiple competing factors: increase in apparent viscosity, reduced nucleation probability and enhanced heterogeneous nucleation. The first two are verified by slowed grain growth and scatter in crystallization temperature with decreasing diameters. Our findings provide insight into relevant length scales in crystallization of supercooled metallic glasses, thus offering accurate processing conditions for predictable metallic glass nanomolding. PMID:26323828

  2. Nanoscale size effects in crystallization of metallic glass nanorods.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sungwoo; Jung, Yeonwoong; Xie, Yujun; Osuji, Chinedum; Schroers, Jan; Cha, Judy J

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic understanding of crystallization in solids is incomplete due to the lack of appropriate materials and direct experimental tools. Metallic glasses possess simple metallic bonds and slow crystallization kinetics, making them suitable to study crystallization. Here, we investigate crystallization of metallic glass-forming liquids by in-situ heating metallic glass nanorods inside a transmission electron microscope. We unveil that the crystallization kinetics is affected by the nanorod diameter. With decreasing diameters, crystallization temperature decreases initially, exhibiting a minimum at a certain diameter, and then rapidly increases below that. This unusual crystallization kinetics is a consequence of multiple competing factors: increase in apparent viscosity, reduced nucleation probability and enhanced heterogeneous nucleation. The first two are verified by slowed grain growth and scatter in crystallization temperature with decreasing diameters. Our findings provide insight into relevant length scales in crystallization of supercooled metallic glasses, thus offering accurate processing conditions for predictable metallic glass nanomolding. PMID:26323828

  3. Optoelectrical and magnetic characteristics of Mn doped Zn1-xSnxO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Tsung-Yin; Lai, Shang-Hung; Hsieh, Hui-Huang; Lan, Ming-Der; Su, Chih-Chuan; Ho, Mon-Shu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new method of fabricating Mn doped Zn1-xSnxO nanorod arrays on a silicon (111) substrate. The proposed method is a gold catalytic vapor-liquid-solid mechanism in a multi-layer deposition process using nanosphere lithographic patterning. Each step of the growth process was monitored using atomic force microscopy to ensure uniformity in the patterns and nanorods. The crystal structure and characteristics of the Mn doped Zn1-xSnxO nanaorods were determined using the X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction patterns corresponding to the selected area. The lattice constant along the Z-axis was calculated from the indexed pattern, as approximately 5.1 Å. This differs slightly from what was expected for undoped ZnO nanorods. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry provided information related to the chemistry of the ZnO nanorods and electro-optical properties at 363 nm were determined from photoluminescence emissions. Using conductive AFM, the band gap for single doped-ZnO nanorods was determined to be 3-3.45 eV. The magnetic properties were characterized by the measurement of a hysteresis loop. This investigation demonstrates the outstanding potential of patterned Mn doped Zn1-xSnxO nanorods for applications requiring dilute magnetic semiconductors in the future.

  4. Ferromagnetism in Sm doped ZnO nanorods by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Jingyuan; Tseng, Li-Ting; Yi, Jiabao

    2016-04-01

    Sm doped ZnO nanorods with various concentrations have been successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method. XRD analysis indicates that there are no impurities or secondary phases in all the samples. The continuous expansion of d-spacing from XRD and TEM analysis suggests the effective corporation of Sm ions in ZnO. It is found that pure ZnO is paramagnetic. Both 1% and 5% Sm doped ZnO nanorods are ferromagnetic at room temperature. 5% Sm doped ZnO has a large paramagnetic signal at low temperature, suggesting the formation of the precipitation or clusters of samarium oxide.

  5. The photoluminescence, drug delivery and imaging properties of multifunctional Eu3+/Gd3+ dual-doped hydroxyapatite nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Huang, Peng; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Wu, Jin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Cui, Da-Xiang

    2011-12-01

    The design and synthesis of multifunctional systems with high biocompatibility are very significant for the future of clinical applications. Herein, we report a microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of multifunctional Eu(3+)/Gd(3+) dual-doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods, and the photoluminescence (PL), drug delivery and in vivo imaging of as-prepared Eu(3+)/Gd(3+) doped HAp nanorods. The photoluminescent and magnetic multifunctions of HAp nanorods are realized by the dual-doping with Eu(3+) and Gd(3+). The PL intensity of doped HAp nanorods can be adjusted by varying Eu(3+) and Gd(3+) concentrations. The magnetization of doped HAp nanorods increases with the concentration of doped Gd(3+). The as-prepared Eu(3+)/Gd(3+)-doped HAp nanorods exhibit inappreciable toxicity to the cells in vitro. More importantly, the Eu(3+)/Gd(3+)-doped HAp nanorods show a high drug adsorption capacity and sustained drug release using ibuprofen as a model drug, and the drug release is governed by a diffusion process. Furthermore, the noninvasive visualization of nude mice with subcutaneous injection indicates that the Eu(3+)/Gd(3+)-doped HAp nanorods with the photoluminescent function are suitable for in vivo imaging. In vitro and in vivo imaging tests indicate that Eu(3+)/Gd(3+)-doped HAp nanorods have a potential in applications such as a multiple-model imaging agent for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, photoluminescence imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging. The Eu(3+)/Gd(3+) dual-doped HAp nanorods are promising for applications in the biomedical fields such as multifunctional drug delivery systems with imaging guidance. PMID:21875748

  6. Above room-temperature ferromagnetism of Mn delta-doped GaN nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y. T.; Wadekar, P. V.; Kao, H. S.; Chen, T. H.; Chen, Q. Y.; Tu, L. W.; Huang, H. C.; Ho, N. J.

    2014-02-10

    One-dimensional nitride based diluted magnetic semiconductors were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Delta-doping technique was adopted to dope GaN nanorods with Mn. The structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The GaMnN nanorods with a single crystalline structure and with Ga sites substituted by Mn atoms were verified by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering, respectively. Secondary phases were not observed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the magnetic hysteresis curves show that the Mn delta-doped GaN nanorods are ferromagnetic above room temperature. The magnetization with magnetic field perpendicular to GaN c-axis saturates easier than the one with field parallel to GaN c-axis.

  7. Synthesis of rare earth doped TiO2 nanorods as photocatalysts for lignin degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liang; Zhao, Xueyuan; Cao, Lixin; Moon, Ji-Won; Gu, Baohua; Wang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    A two-step process is developed to synthesize rare earth doped titania nanorods (RE-TiO2 NRs) as photocatalysts for efficient degradation of lignin under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this approach, protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structures were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and rare earth metal ions were subsequently bound to the negatively charged surface of the synthesized titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The as-synthesized RE-TiO2 NRs after calcination generally showed much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than those of undoped TiO2 NRs or the commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Using methyl orange (MO) as a probing molecule, we demonstrate that Eu-TiO2 NRs are among the best for degrading MO, with an observed rate constant of 4.2 × 10-3 s-1. The La3+, Sm3+, Eu3+ and Er3+ doped TiO2 NRs also showed higher photocatalytic efficiencies in degrading MO than the commercial P25 TiO2. We further demonstrate that lignin can be photodegraded effectively and rapidly at room temperature under simulated sunlight through two reaction routes, which could be important in controlling ways of lignin depolymerization or the formation of reaction products.A two-step process is developed to synthesize rare earth doped titania nanorods (RE-TiO2 NRs) as photocatalysts for efficient degradation of lignin under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this approach, protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structures were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and rare earth metal ions were subsequently bound to the negatively charged surface of the synthesized titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The as-synthesized RE-TiO2 NRs after calcination generally showed much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than those of undoped TiO2 NRs or the commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Using methyl orange (MO) as a probing molecule, we demonstrate that Eu-TiO2 NRs are among the best for degrading MO, with an observed rate constant of 4.2 × 10-3 s-1

  8. Structural and optical properties of Nd3+ doped gadolinium oxide 1D nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathi, G.; Raj, S. Gokul; Kumar, G. Ramesh; Mohan, R.

    2014-04-01

    Neodymium doped gadolinium hydroxide [Nd:Gd(OH)3] nanorods were successfully synthesized at 60 °C through co-precipitation method. The dopant percentage was maintained at 5% and calcination was done at 750 °C temperature for 1 hour to form the respective neodymium doped gadolinium oxide [Nd:Gd2O3] nanorods. The as-formed and annealed products were investigated in detail by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometry.

  9. Structural and optical properties of Nd{sup 3+} doped gadolinium oxide 1D nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathi, G. Mohan, R.; Raj, S. Gokul; Kumar, G. Ramesh

    2014-04-24

    Neodymium doped gadolinium hydroxide [Nd:Gd(OH)3] nanorods were successfully synthesized at 60 °C through co-precipitation method. The dopant percentage was maintained at 5% and calcination was done at 750 °C temperature for 1 hour to form the respective neodymium doped gadolinium oxide [Nd:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}] nanorods. The as-formed and annealed products were investigated in detail by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometry.

  10. Gold nanorod-enhanced light emission in quantum-dot-doped polymer nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianguang; Xu, Rui; Bao, Dinghua; Li, Baojun

    2014-08-13

    One-dimensional nanomaterials have attracted great interest in both fundamental research and technological applications because they can function as device elements and be used to effectively generate, guide, and detect light. Here we report a gold nanorod-enhanced light emission in quantum-dot-doped polymer nanofibers. By incorporating gold nanorods into quantum-dot-doped polymer nanofiber, a 67% increment in 600 nm red light emission efficiency was obtained with an extinction coefficient of 100 cm(-1), a low excitation power operation of 100 nW, and a 100 min increment in photostability. PMID:25027239

  11. Structure and photocatalytic activity of Ni-doped ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Li; Yan, Xiaoqin; Yang, Ya; Lei, Yang; Zhou, Jing; Huang, Yunhua; Gu, Yousong; Zhang, Yue

    2011-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Degradation rates of rhodamine B by Zn{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}O photocatalyst. Highlights: {yields} The Ni-doped ZnO nanorods show a new band at {approx}130 cm{sup -1} in Raman spectra at room temperature. We conclude this mode is caused by an ordered arrangement of Ni dopants in the ZnO lattice. {yields} When the Ni-doping concentration raises, the band gap first increases and then decreases. {yields} The ZnO nanorods with different Ni-doping concentraton all exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than un-doped ZnO. The order of photocatalytic activities is Zn{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05}O > Zn{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O > Zn{sub 0.98}Ni{sub 0.02}O > ZnO. -- Abstract: The one-dimensional (1D) Zn{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10) nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. New bands show at {approx}130 cm{sup -1} in the Raman spectra of Ni-doped ZnO nanorods and their relative intensity depends on the doping concentration of nickel. The optical band gap of the ZnO nanorods have been tuned by Ni-doping, which is revealed by absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of Zn{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}O was studied by comparing the degradation rate of rhodamine B (RB) under UV-light irradiation. It was found that Zn{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05}O exhibited the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency among the samples.

  12. Multifunctional particles: Magnetic nanocrystals and gold nanorods coated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells

    SciTech Connect

    Heitsch, Andrew T.; Smith, Danielle K.; Patel, Reken N.; Ress, David; Korgel, Brian A.

    2008-07-15

    Multifunctional colloidal core-shell nanoparticles of magnetic nanocrystals (of iron oxide or FePt) or gold nanorods encapsulated in silica shells doped with the fluorescent dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy) were synthesized. The as-prepared magnetic nanocrystals are initially hydrophobic and were coated with silica using a microemulsion approach, while the as-prepared gold nanorods are hydrophilic and were coated with silica using a Stoeber type of process. Each approach yielded monodisperse nanoparticles with uniform fluorescent dye-doped silica shells. These colloidal heterostructures have the potential to be used as dual-purpose tags-exhibiting a fluorescent signal that could be combined with either dark-field optical contrast (in the case of the gold nanorods), or enhanced contrast in magnetic resonance images (in the case of magnetic nanocrystal cores). The optical and magnetic properties of the fluorescent silica-coated gold nanorods and magnetic nanocrystals are reported. - Graphical abstract: Colloidal gold nanorods and iron platinum and iron oxide nanocrystals were encapsulated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells using a generic coating strategy. These heterostructures are promising contrast agents for dual-mode medical imaging. Their optical and magnetic properties were studied and are reported here.

  13. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mahmood, Arshad

    2014-04-21

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects in ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.

  14. Optical and ferromagnetic properties of Cr doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bao-Zhu; Zhou, Lin; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Fu, De-Jun; Kang, Tae-Won

    2014-10-01

    ZnO nanorods doped with 1-2 wt% Cr were grown on Si substrates by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction show the hexagonal structure of the nanorods with ZnO oriented along (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1) and (1 0 2) and CrO2 along (2 1 1). Ionized donor bound exciton, neutral donor bound exciton, free exciton, two-electron-satellite of hydrogen donor bound exciton, and donor acceptor pairs were observed in low temperature photoluminescence spectra. The photoluminescence spectra along with XPS results confirm that Zni was formed in the low temperature hydrothermal process. Superconducting quantum interference device measurement reveals that the Cr-doped ZnO nanorods are ferromagnetic with saturation magnetization of 2.421 × 10-3 emu/g. The room temperature ferromagnetic properties are explained by defect-mediated bound magnetic polarons based on Zni.

  15. Effect of silver doping on the current-voltage characteristic of PbS nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arup Ratan; Bekturganova, Aizhan; Ishteev, Artur; Choudhury, Sandip Paul; Karunakaran, Gopalu; Kunetsov, Denis

    2016-05-01

    We report on field emission property from a single nanorod measured by using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. It has been shown that field emission from nanorods of small band gap semiconductor is significantly increasing by doping. The current transport mechanism is explained using double barrier tunnel junction formalism. It is observed experimentally that the Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling mechanism is dominant and governs the transport mechanism. The transport properties of PbS nanostructures in the form of nanorod are investigated in terms of various conduction mechanism. The minimum voltage necessary for triggering Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling under the revised biased for intrinsic sample ~0.95 V and decreases to ~0.67 V for increase doping concentration up to 1.76 wt%.

  16. Self-assembly of doped semiconductor nanocrystals leading to the formation of highly luminescent nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor, K.; Aditya, V.; Vadera, S. R.; Kumar, N.; Kutty, T. R. N.

    2006-03-01

    Meso-scale self-assembly of doped semiconductor nanocrystals leading to the formation of monocrystalline nanorods showing enhanced photo- and electro-luminescence properties are reported. Polycrystalline ZnS: Cu +-Al 3+ nanoparticles of zinc-blended (cubic) structure with an average size of ˜4 nm were aggregated in aqueous solution and grown into nanorods of length ˜400 nm and aspect ratio ˜12. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images indicate crystal growth mechanisms involving particle-to-particle oriented-attachment assisted by sulphur-sulphur catenation leading to covalent-linkage. The nanorods exhibit self-assembly dependant luminescence properties such as quenching of the lattice defect-related emissions accompanied by enhancement of dopant-related emission, efficient low-voltage electroluminescence (EL) and super-linear voltage-brightness EL characteristics. This study demonstrates the technological importance of aggregation based self-assembly in doped semiconductor nanosystems.

  17. Synthesis of rare earth doped TiO2 nanorods as photocatalysts for lignin degradation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, Liang; Zhao, Xueyuan; Cao, Lixin; Moon, Ji-Won; Gu, Baohua; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-10

    In this paper, a two-step process is developed to synthesize rare earth doped titania nanorods (RE–TiO2 NRs) as photocatalysts for efficient degradation of lignin under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this approach, protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structures were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and rare earth metal ions were subsequently bound to the negatively charged surface of the synthesized titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The as-synthesized RE–TiO2 NRs after calcination generally showed much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than those of undoped TiO2 NRs or the commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Using methyl orange (MO) as a probing molecule, we demonstrate that Eu–TiO2more » NRs are among the best for degrading MO, with an observed rate constant of 4.2 × 10-3 s-1. The La3+, Sm3+, Eu3+ and Er3+ doped TiO2 NRs also showed higher photocatalytic efficiencies in degrading MO than the commercial P25 TiO2. Finally, we further demonstrate that lignin can be photodegraded effectively and rapidly at room temperature under simulated sunlight through two reaction routes, which could be important in controlling ways of lignin depolymerization or the formation of reaction products.« less

  18. Synthesis of rare earth doped TiO2 nanorods as photocatalysts for lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Zhao, Xueyuan; Cao, Lixin; Moon, Ji-Won; Gu, Baohua; Wang, Wei

    2015-10-28

    A two-step process is developed to synthesize rare earth doped titania nanorods (RE-TiO2 NRs) as photocatalysts for efficient degradation of lignin under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this approach, protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structures were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and rare earth metal ions were subsequently bound to the negatively charged surface of the synthesized titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The as-synthesized RE-TiO2 NRs after calcination generally showed much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than those of undoped TiO2 NRs or the commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Using methyl orange (MO) as a probing molecule, we demonstrate that Eu-TiO2 NRs are among the best for degrading MO, with an observed rate constant of 4.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). The La(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+) and Er(3+) doped TiO2 NRs also showed higher photocatalytic efficiencies in degrading MO than the commercial P25 TiO2. We further demonstrate that lignin can be photodegraded effectively and rapidly at room temperature under simulated sunlight through two reaction routes, which could be important in controlling ways of lignin depolymerization or the formation of reaction products. PMID:26400095

  19. Synthesis of Sn-doped ZnO nanorods and their photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Changle; Shen, Li; Yu, Huaguang; Huang, Qingli; Zhang, Yong Cai

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Sn-doped ZnO nanorods have been fabricated by a hydrothermal route. Photocatalytic activity of the Sn-doped ZnO samples increases gradually with an increase of the Sn content. Highlights: {yields} Sn-doped ZnO nanorods were fabricated by a hydrothermal route. {yields} Solid-state NMR result confirms Sn{sup 4+} was incorporated into the lattice of ZnO. {yields} The visible luminescence intensity increased with increase in Sn concentration. {yields} Photocatalytic activity of Sn-doped ZnO increases with increasing Sn content. -- Abstract: Sn-doped ZnO nanorods were fabricated by a hydrothermal route, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectra, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Solid-state NMR result confirms that Sn{sup 4+} was successfully incorporated into the crystal lattice of ZnO. Room temperature photoluminescence showed that all the as-synthesized products exhibited a weak UV emission (380 nm) and a strong visible emission (540 nm), but the intensities of the latter emission increased with increase in Sn concentration. The improvement of visible emission at 540 nm in the Sn-doped ZnO samples was suggested to be a result of the lattice defects increased by doping of Sn in zinc oxide. In addition, the photocatalytic studies indicated that Sn-doped ZnO nanorods are a kind of promising photocatalyst in remediation of water polluted by some chemically stable azo dyes.

  20. Surface Engineered Doping of Hematite Nanorod Arrays for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shaohua; Zhou, Jigang; Dong, Chung-Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Tseng, Eric Nestor; Guo, Penghui; Guo, Liejin; Mao, Samuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the narrow band gap enabling excellent optical absorption, increased charge carrier density and accelerated surface oxidation reaction kinetics become the key points for improved photoelectrochemical performances for water splitting over hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes. In this study, a facile and inexpensive method was demonstrated to develop core/shell structured α-Fe2O3 nanorod arrays. A thin, Ag-doped overlayer of ~2–3 nm thickness was formed along α-Fe2O3 nanorods via ultrasonication treatment of solution-based β-FeOOH nanorods in Ag precursor solution followed by high temperature annealing. The obtained α-Fe2O3/AgxFe2−xO3 core/shell nanorod films demonstrated much higher photoelectrochemical performances as photoanodes than the pristine α-Fe2O3 nanorod film, especially in the visible light region; the incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) at 400 nm was increased from 2.2% to 8.4% at 1.23 V vs. RHE (Reversible hydrogen electrode). Mott-Schottky analysis and X-ray absorption spectra revealed that the Ag-doped overlayer not only increased the carrier density in the near-surface region but also accelerated the surface oxidation reaction kinetics, synergistically contributing to the improved photoelectrochemical performances. These findings provide guidance for the design and optimization of nanostructured photoelectrodes for efficient solar water splitting. PMID:25316219

  1. Eradication of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria by Ni Doped ZnO Nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mansoor, Qaisar; Mahmood, Arshad; Ahmad, Amaar

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanorods doped with varying amounts of Ni have been prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. Structural investigations provide the evidence that Ni is successfully doped into ZnO host matrix without having any secondary phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal the formation of rodlike structure of undoped ZnO with average length and diameter of 1 μm and 80 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results show that the E1LO phonons mode band shifts to the higher values with Ni doping, which is attributed to large amount of crystal defects. Ni doping is also found to greatly influence the optical properties of ZnO nanorods. The influence of Ni doping on antibacterial characteristics of ZnO nanorods have been studied by measuring the growth curves of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria in the presence of prepared nanorods. ZnO nanorods antibacterial potency is found to increase remarkably with Ni doping against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa microbials, which might possibly be due to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, it is observed that Ni doped ZnO nanorods completely eradicates these multi-drug resistant bacteria.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of europium ions doping of hydroxyapatite nanorods by the simple two step method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Deyan; Xiao, Xinli; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Shen; Yang, Yulin

    2015-07-01

    Europium doping hydroxyapatite (HAp:Eu3+) nanorods have been successfully prepared via the simple precipitation-hydrolysis route at atmospheric pressure. The precursor samples were testified to be monetite (CaHPO4) by the precipitation step. The HAp:Eu3+ nanorods were single phase and highly crystallized after hydrolysis process. The different doping concentration of Eu3+ ions can change obviously in size and aspect ratio of the HAp:Eu3+ particles. HAp:Eu3+ nanorods show the characteristic emission of Eu3+. The different emission intensity should be due to the doping concentration of Eu3+. The emission intensity of IBU-loading nanoparticles decreased to 63% of that of the as-prepared HAp:Eu3+ nanoparticles, which indicates that the HAp:Eu3+ nanoparticles can be used as a fluorescent label in the drug system. The low load capacity and speedy release were because of the weak reaction between HAp:Eu3+ nanorods and IBU molecules.

  3. Degenerate doping of metallic anodes

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A; Zeller, Robert A; Johnson, Paul B; Switzer, Elise E

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the invention relate to an electrochemical cell comprising: (i) a fuel electrode comprising a metal fuel, (ii) a positive electrode, (iii) an ionically conductive medium, and (iv) a dopant; the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the metal fuel is oxidized at the fuel electrode and the dopant increases the conductivity of the metal fuel oxidation product. In an embodiment, the oxidation product comprises an oxide of the metal fuel which is doped degenerately. In an embodiment, the positive electrode is an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, wherein during discharge mode, oxygen is reduced at the air electrode. Embodiments of the invention also relate to methods of producing an electrode comprising a metal and a doped metal oxidation product.

  4. Metal-doped organic foam

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1982-01-01

    Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for producing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

  5. Hybrid Semiconductor-Metal Nanorods as Photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Banin, Uri

    2016-08-01

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanoparticles manifest combined and often synergistic properties exceeding the functionality of the individual components, thereby opening up interesting opportunities for controlling their properties through the direct manipulation of their unique semiconductor-metal interface. Upon light absorption, these structures exhibit spatial charge separation across the semiconductor-metal junction. A significant and challenging application involves the use of these nanoparticles as photocatalysts. Through this process, the charge carriers transferred to the metal co-catalyst are available as reduction or oxidation reagents to drive the surface chemical reactions. In this review, we discuss synthesis approaches that offer a high degree of control over the hybrid nanoparticle structure and composition, the number of catalytic sites and the interfacial characteristics, including examples of a variety of photocatalyst architectures. We describe the structural and surface effects with regard to the functionality of hybrid nanosystems in photocatalysis, along with the effects of solution and chemical conditions on photocatalytic activity and efficiency. We conclude with a perspective on the rational design of advanced semiconductor-metal hybrid nanoparticles towards their functionality as highly efficient photocatalysts. PMID:27573406

  6. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Li-doped p -type luminescent ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Santa; Jayanthi, K.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2009-03-01

    We have observed ferromagnetism in Li-doped ZnO nanorods with Curie temperature up to 554 K. Li forms shallow acceptor states in substitutional zinc sites giving rise to p -type conductivity. An explicit correlation emerges between increase in hole concentration with decrease in magnetization and Curie temperature in ZnO:Li. Occurrence of ferromagnetism at room temperature has been established with observed magnetic domain formation in ZnO:Li pellets in magnetic force microscopy and prominent ferromagnetic resonance signal in electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. Magnetic ZnO:Li nanorods are luminescent, showing strong near UV emission. Substitutional Li atoms can induce local moments on neighboring oxygen atoms, which when considered in a correlated model for oxygen orbitals with random potentials introduced by dopant atom could explain the observed ferromagnetism and high Curie temperature in ZnO:Li nanorods.

  7. Influence of ZnO nanorod on the luminescent and electrical properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Xu, Z.; Qian, L.; Tao, D. L.; Teng, F.; Xu, X. R.

    2006-11-01

    The luminescent properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer dispersed with ZnO nanorods were investigated. Embedding ZnO nanorods in blend film results in a blue-shifted emission of fluorescent dye. It is accounted for in terms of the difference in permittivity between inorganic oxide nano-material and dye-doped polymer. Moreover, polymer light-emitting diodes with the addition of ZnO nanorods showed the lower threshold voltage and the higher charge current and electroluminescence efficiency.

  8. Quantum Plasmonics: Optical Properties and Tunability of Metallic Nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Zuloaga, Jorge; Prodan, Emil; Nordlander, Peter

    2010-09-28

    The plasmon resonances in metallic nanorods are investigated using fully quantum mechanical time-dependent density functional theory. The computed optical absorption curves display well-defined longitudinal and transverse plasmon resonances whose energies depend on the aspect ratio of the rods, in excellent agreement with classical electromagnetic modeling. The field enhancements obtained from the quantum mechanical calculations, however, differ significantly from classical predictions for distances shorter than 0.5 nm from the nanoparticle surfaces. These deviations can be understood as arising from the nonlocal screening properties of the conduction electrons at the nanoparticle surface.

  9. Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2011-05-25

    Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/{mu}m and 5.6 V/{mu}m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

  10. Surface electrochemical properties of niobium-doped titanium dioxide nanorods and their effect on carrier collection efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mengjin; Ding, Bo; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2014-01-01

    We explore the effect of Nb-doping on the electronic band structure and microstructure of 1-dimensional rutile TiO2 nanorods as a photoanode of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The nanorods with different Nb concentration are directly grown on top of fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates and then assembled into DSSCs. Nb-doping is found to greatly enhance the energy conversion efficiency of nanorod-based DSSCs by more than 70%. This improvement in the photon-electron conversion process is attributed to enhanced electron injection and suppressed carrier recombination at the dye-nanorod interface and at the nanorod-FTO interface. Flat band potential analysis shows that Nb-doping shifts the surface potential of the nanorods positively to promote electron injection from the dye sensitizers to the nanorods. In addition, the nanoscale conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) measurement of individual nanorods shows that the high carrier concentration of the Nb-doped nanorods facilitates electron tunneling at the nanorod-FTO interface. New observations in this study indicate that Nb-doping into the nanorods modifies their surface states and the interface resistance between TiO2 and FTO. This facilitates the carrier transport from the excited dye to the FTO film by suppressing carrier recombination and improving electron collection efficiency.

  11. Multifunctional Particles: Magnetic Nanocrystals and Gold Nanorods Coated with Fluorescent Dye-Doped Silica Shells

    PubMed Central

    Heitsch, Andrew T.; Smith, Danielle K.; Patel, Reken E.; Ress, David; Korgel, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctional colloidal core-shell nanoparticles of magnetic nanocrystals (of iron oxide or FePt) or gold nanorods encapsulated in silica shells doped with the fluorescent dye, Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy) were synthesized. The as-prepared magnetic nanocrystals are initially hydrophobic and were coated with silica using a microemulsion approach, while the as-prepared gold nanorods are hydrophilic and were coated with silica using a Stöber-type of process. Each approach yielded monodisperse nanoparticles with uniform fluorescent dye-doped silica shells. These colloidal heterostructures have the potential to be used as dual-purpose tags—exhibiting a fluorescent signal that could be combined with either dark-field optical contrast (in the case of the gold nanorods), or enhanced contrast in magnetic resonance images (in the case of magnetic nanocrystal cores). The optical and magnetic properties of the fluorescent silica-coated gold nanorods and magnetic nanocrystals are reported. PMID:19578476

  12. Thermoluminesence of gamma rays irradiated CaSO4 nanorods doped with different elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan

    2015-01-01

    Nanorods of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) activated by Ag, Cu, Dy, Eu and Tb were synthesized by the co-precipitation technique. They were irradiated by γ-rays in a wide range of exposures and studied for their thermoluminesence (TL) properties. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra. SEM images show that the samples doped with rare earths elements (i.e. Dy, Eu and Tb) have thinner nanorods than the other samples, while XRD pattern shows a complete crystalline structures in a monoclinic phase. The TL glow curves of these samples show two components. The first one include low temperature glow peaks at around 125 °C, while the second component shows high temperature peaks in the range 230-270 °C. These glow peaks diver from sample to sample by their TL intensity. The TL results are promising, particularly that of Tb and Eu. Tb doped sample is found to be a highly TL sensitive with a prominent glow peak at around 270 °C, while Eu has created very active, high dense electron traps. The later shows quite linear response in the whole studied exposures i.e. 10 Gy-10 kGy. These results show that Eu or Tb doped CaSO4 nanorods might be proper candidates as dosimeters for high doses of ionizing radiations used in irradiation of foods and seeds.

  13. Structural studies and physical properties of novel Sm 3+ -doped Sb 2 Se 3 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemi, Abdolali; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo; Min, Bong-Ki

    2011-10-01

    Sm 3+ doped Sb 2Se 3 nanorods were synthesized by the co-reduction method at 180 °C and pH=12 for 48 h. Powder XRD patterns indicate that the Sm xSb 2- xSe 3 crystals ( x=0.00-0.05) are isostructural with Sb 2Se 3. The cell parameters increase for Sm 3+ upon increasing the dopant content ( x). SEM images show that doping of Sm 3+ ions in the lattice of Sb 2Se 3 results in nanorods. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) studies reveal that the Sm 0.05Sb 1.95Se 3 is oriented in the [1 0 -1] growth direction. UV-vis absorption reveals mainly electronic transitions of the Sm 3+ ions in doped nanomaterials. Emission spectra of doped materials, in addition to the characteristic red emission peaks of Sb 2Se 3, show other emission bands originating from f-f transitions of the Sm 3+ ions. The electrical conductance of Sm-doped Sb 2Se 3 is higher than undoped Sb 2Se 3 and increase with temperature.

  14. Magnesium-doped zinc oxide nanorod-nanotube semiconductor/p-silicon heterojunction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Yasemin; Görgün, Kamuran; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Mujdat; Yakuphanoğlu, Fahrettin

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide material is usable in electronic device applications such as light-emitting diodes, heterojunction diode, sensors, solar cell due to its interesting electrical conductivity and optical properties. Magnesium-doped zinc oxide nanorod (NR)-nanotube (NT) films were grown by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition to fabricate ZnO-based heterojunction diode. It is found that ZnO hexagonal nanorods turn into hexagonal nanotubes when the Mg doping ratio is increased from 1 to 10 %. The values of the optical band gap for 1 % Mg-doped ZnO NR and 10 % Mg-doped ZnO NT films are found to be 3.14 and 3.22 eV, respectively. The n-ZnO:Mg/p-Si heterojunction diodes were fabricated. The diodes exhibited a rectification behavior with ideality factor higher than unity due to the presence of surface states in the junction and series resistance. The obtained results indicate that Mg doping improves the electrical and optical properties of ZnO.

  15. Enhanced piezoelectric output voltage and Ohmic behavior in Cr-doped ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Nidhi; Ray, Geeta; Godara, Sanjay; Gupta, Manoj K.; Kumar, Binay

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Low cost highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized. • Enhancement in dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were observed. • A high output voltage was obtained in AFM. • Cr-doping resulted in enhanced conductivity and better Ohmic behavior in ZnO/Ag contact. - Abstract: Highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by solution technique. The size distribution was analyzed by high resolution tunneling electron microscope (HRTEM) and particle size analyzer. In atomic force microscope (AFM) studies, peak to peak 8 mV output voltage was obtained on the application of constant normal force of 25 nN. It showed high dielectric constant (980) with phase transition at 69 °C. Polarization vs. electric field (P–E) loops with remnant polarization (6.18 μC/cm{sup 2}) and coercive field (0.96 kV/cm) were obtained. In I–V studies, Cr-doping was found to reduce the rectifying behavior in the Ag/ZnO Schottky contact which is useful for field effect transistor (FET) and solar cell applications. With these excellent properties, Cr-doped ZnO NRs can be used in nanopiezoelectronics, charge storage and ferroelectric applications.

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cell fabricated using Al-doped ZnO nanorod electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, M.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Balasundrapraphu, R.; Senthil, T. S.; Agilan, S.

    2015-04-01

    ZnO and Al doped ZnO nanorods have been successfully synthesized on ITO substrate via solgel dip coating method without using any catalyst. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that the Al doped ZnO samples are of hexagonal wurtzite structure. The Al ions were successfully incorporated into the ZnO lattice. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the average diameter of ZnO nanorods and Al doped ZnO nanorods are ∼300 nm and ∼200 nm respectively. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence Al in the ZnO thin films. The CdS quantum dot sensitized Al doped ZnO solar cell exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.5%.

  17. Solvothermal synthesis of nanorods of ZnO, N-doped ZnO and CdO

    SciTech Connect

    Varghese, Neenu; Panchakarla, L.S.; Hanapi, M.; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2007-12-04

    ZnO nanorods with diameters in the 80-800 nm range are readily synthesized by the reaction of zinc acetate, ethanol and ethylenediamine under solvothermal conditions. The best products are obtained at 330 deg. C with a slow heating rate. Addition of the surfactant Triton -X 100 gave nanorods of uniform (300 nm) diameter. By adding a small amount of liquid NH{sub 3} to the reaction mixture, N-doped ZnO nanorods, with distinct spectroscopic features are obtained. CdO nanorods of 80 nm diameter have been prepared under solvothermal conditions using a mixture of cadmium cupferronate, ethylenediamine and ethanol at 330 deg. C. Similarly, Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O nanorods of a 70 nm diameter are obtained under solvothermal conditions starting with a mixture of zinc acetate, cadmium cupferronate, ethanol and ethylenediamine.

  18. Effect of Cobalt Concentration and Oxygen Vacancy on Magnetism of Co Doped ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Congli; Che, Ping; Sun, Changyan; Li, Wenjun

    2016-03-01

    Zn(1-x)Co(x)O (x = 0-0.07) single-crystalline nanorods were prepared by a modified microemulsion route. The crystalline structure, morphology, optical, and hysteresis loop at low and room temperature of as-prepared materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, PL spectra, and magnetic measurement respectively. The nanorods are 80-250 nm in diameter and about 3 μm in length. X-ray diffraction data, TEM images confirm that the materials synthesized in optimal conditions are ZnO:Co single crystalline solid solution without any impurities related to Co. The PL spectra show that the ferromagnetic samples exhibit strong Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancy emission indicating defects may stabilize ferromagnetic order in the obtained diluted magnetic semiconductors. Magnetic measurements show that the Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanorods exist obvious ferromagnetic characteristics with T(c) above 300 K. M(s) and coercivities first increase and then decrease with dopant concentration increasing, reaching the highest for 3% doping level. The structural and magnetic properties of these samples support the hypothesis that the FM of DMS nanorods is due to a defect mediated mechanism instead of cobalt nanoclusters and carrier mediated. PMID:27455697

  19. Synthesis and optical characteristics of yttrium-doped zinc oxide nanorod arrays grown by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunggil; Kim, Younggyu; Ji, Iksoo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jin Soo; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    Yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal growth on a quartz substrate with various post-annealing temperatures. To investigate the effects of post-annealing on the optical properties and parameters of the nanorods, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurement, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy were used. From the XRD investigation, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the dislocation density of the nanorods was found to increase with an increase in the post-annealing temperature. In the PL spectra, the intensity of the near band edge (NBE) emission peak in the UV region also increases with an increase in the temperature of post-annealing. The deep level emission (DLE) peak in the visible region changes with various post-annealing temperatures, and its intensity increases remarkably with post-annealing at 800 degrees C. In this paper, changes in the optical parameters of the nanorods caused by variation in the behavior of Y during post-annealing was investigated, with properties such as absorption coefficients, refractive indices, and dispersion parameters being obtained from transmittance and reflectance analysis. PMID:25958523

  20. Highly active lanthanum doped ZnO nanorods for photodegradation of metasystox.

    PubMed

    Korake, P V; Dhabbe, R S; Kadam, A N; Gaikwad, Y B; Garadkar, K M

    2014-01-01

    La-doped ZnO nanorods with different La contents were synthesized by microwave assisted method and characterized by various sophisticated techniques such as XRD, UV-Vis., EDS, XPS, SEM and TEM. The XRD patterns of the La-doped ZnO indicate hexagonal crystal structure with an average crystallite size of 30nm. It was found that the crystallite size of La-doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to pure ZnO and decreases with increasing La content. The photocatalytic activity of 0.5mol% La-doped ZnO in the degradation of metasystox was studied. It was observed that degradation efficiency of metasystox over La-doped ZnO increases up to 0.5mol% doping then decreases for higher doping levels. Among the catalyst studied, the 0.5mol% La-doped ZnO was the most active, showing high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of metasystox. The maximum reduction of concentration of metasystox was observed under static condition at pH 8. Reduction in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of metasystox was observed after 150min. The cytotoxicological studies of meristematic root tip cells of Allium cepa were studied. The results obtained indicate that photocatalytically degraded products of metasystox were less toxic as compared to metasystox. PMID:24231392

  1. Synthesis and in-depth analysis of highly ordered yttrium doped hydroxyapatite nanorods prepared by hydrothermal method and its mechanical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanael, A. Joseph; Mangalaraj, D.; Hong, S.I.; Masuda, Y.

    2011-12-15

    In this study, undoped and yttrium (Y) doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite crystals were synthesized by the hydrothermal method at 180 Degree-Sign C for 24 h. Highly ordered and oriented hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods were prepared by yttrium doping and their nanostructure and physical properties were compared with those of undoped HAp rods. FESEM images showed that the doping with Y ions reduced the diameter (from 25 nm to 15 nm) and increased the length (from 95 nm to 115 nm) of the synthesized rods. The aspect ratio of the undoped and Y-doped nanorods were calculated to be 4.303 (SD = 0.0959) and 7.61 (SD = 0.0355), respectively. Specific surface area (SSA) analysis showed that SSA also increased from 66.74 m{sup 2}/g to 68.57 m{sup 2}/g with the addition of yttrium. Y-doped HAp nanorod reinforced HMWPE composites displayed the better mechanical performance than those reinforced with pure HAp nanorods. The possible strengthening of nanorods and the increase of SSA due to the reduction in the size of nanorods in the presence of yttrium may have contributed to the strengthening of Y-doped HAp/HMWPE composites. - Graphical Abstract: Highly ordered and oriented yttrium doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal method. For undoped HAp the average length of the nanorod is 95 nm with mean diameter of 24 nm and for a Y doped nanorod the average length is {approx} 115 nm and the mean diameter is 15 nm. Mechanical analysis was carried out by polymer/nanoparticle composite method. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yttrium doped hydroxyapatite nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanorods have highly uniform size distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yttrium substitution and nanostructure formation was confirmed by careful analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical strength was analyzed by polymer nanoparticle reinforcement method.

  2. Optical parameters of boron-doped ZnO nanorods grown by low-temperature hydrothermal reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soaram; Park, Hyunggil; Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Younggyu; Kim, Byunggu; Ji, Iksoo; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    Sol-gel spin-coating was used to deposit ZnO seed layers onto quartz substrates, and ZnO nanorods doped with various concentrations of B (i.e., BZO nanorods) ranging from 0 to 2.0 at% were hydrothermally grown on the ZnO seed layers. The effects of B doping on the absorption coefficient, optical band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index, extinction coefficient, single-oscillator energy, dispersion energy, average oscillator strength, average oscillator wavelength, dielectric constant, and optical conductivity of the hydrothermally grown BZO nanorods were investigated. The optical band gaps were 3.255, 3.243, 3.254, 3.258, and 3.228 eV for the nanorods grwon at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 at% B, respectively. B doping increased the Urbach energy from 40.7 to 65.1 meV for the nanorods grown at 0 and 2.0 at% B, respectively, and significantly affected the dispersion energy, the single-oscillator energy, the average oscillator wavelength, the average oscillator strength, the refractive index, and the optical conductivity of the hydrothermally grown BZO nanorods. PMID:25958555

  3. Porous ZnAl2O4 spinel nanorods doped with Eu3+: synthesis and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baochang; Qu, Shengchun; Zhou, Huiying; Wang, Zhanguo

    2006-06-01

    Eu3+-doped zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) nanorods with a spinel structure were successfully synthesized via an annealing transformation of layered precursors obtained by a homogeneous coprecipitation method combined with surfactant assembly. These spinel nanorods, which consist of much finer nanofibres together with large quantities of irregular mesopores and which possess a large surface area of 93.2 m2 g-1 and a relatively narrow pore size distribution in the range of 6-20 nm, are an ideal optical host for Eu3+ luminescent centres. In this nanostructure, rather disordered surroundings induce the typical electric-dipole emission ({\\mathrm {{}^{5}D_{0}\\to {}^{7}F_{2}}}) of Eu3+ to predominate and broaden.

  4. Dye-doped polystyrene-coated gold nanorods: towards wavelength tuneable SPASER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Peng; Birch, David J. S.; Chen, Yu

    2014-06-01

    We present the synthesis and photophysical study of a new type of fluorescent gold core-polystyrene shell nanoparticles fabricated by emulsion polymerization at neutral pH. The thickness of the PS shell can be controlled by varying the synthesis conditions. Decrease in the fluorescence intensity and lifetime of Rhodamine 800 (Rh800) were observed, indicating energy transfer from Rh800 to gold nanorods. This study suggests the possibility of exploiting dye-doped polystyrene shells as a gain medium to compensate for the energy loss of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods and paving the way for eventually realizing a SPASER (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) optical source of tuneable wavelength.

  5. Synthesis and properties of boron doped ZnO nanorods on silicon substrate by low-temperature hydrothermal reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qi; Li, Liuan; Li, Hongdong; Gao, Shiyong; Sang, Dandan; Yuan, Jujun; Zhu, Pinwen

    2011-05-01

    Boron doped ZnO nanorods were fabricated by hydrothermal technique on silicon substrate covered with a ZnO seed layer. It is found that the concentration of boric acid in the reaction solution plays a key role in varying the morphology and properties of the products. The growth rate along the [0 0 0 1] orientation (average size in diameter) of the doped ZnO nanorods decreased (increased) with the increase of boric acid concentration. Based on the results of XRD, EDX and XPS, it is demonstrated that the boron dopants tend to occupy the octahedral interstice sites. The photoluminescence of the ZnO nanorods related to boron doping are investigated.

  6. Enhanced electroluminescence properties of doped ZnS nanorods formed by the self-assembly of colloidal nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor, K.; Aditya, V.; Vadera, S. R.; Kumar, N.; Kutty, T. R. N.

    2005-07-01

    Aggregation based meso-scale self-assembly of doped semiconductor nanocrystals leading to the formation of monocrystalline nanorods showing enhanced photo- and electro-luminescence properties is reported. ˜4 nm sized, polycrystalline ZnS nanoparticles of zinc-blende (cubic) structure, doped with Cu +-Al 3+ have been aggregated in the aqueous solution and grown into nanorods of length ˜400 nm and aspect ratio ˜12. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images indicate crystal growth mechanisms involving particle-to-particle oriented-attachment assisted by sulphur-sulphur catenation leading to covalent-linkage. The nanorods exhibit self-assembly dependant luminescence properties such as quenching of the lattice defect-related emissions accompanied by the enhancement in the dopant-related emission, efficient low-voltage electroluminescence (EL) and super-linear voltage-brightness EL characteristics. This study demonstrates the technological importance of aggregation based self-assembly in doped semiconductor nanosystems.

  7. Self-assembled growth of inclined GaN nanorods on (10-10) m-plane sapphire using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Sooryong; Lee, Kyuseung; Jang, Jongjin; Min, Daehong; Kim, Jaehwan; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-01-01

    We report the self-assembled growth of inclined and highly ordered GaN nanorods on (10-10) m-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, without metal catalyst. To determine the growth mechanism we performed a systematic study of the effect of the SiH4 flow, V/III ratio, growth temperature and growth time on growth behavior, demonstrating that optimized parameters were required for the growth of nanorods with high aspect ratios. High resolution X-ray diffraction showed that the nanorods were inclined at an angle of 58.4° with respect to the substrate normal and followed a well-defined epitaxial relationship with respect to the on-axis plane of the nanorods, the (11-22) semipolar plane, and the (10-10) m-plane sapphire. Finally cathodoluminescence showed that the near band edge emission of the Si-doped nanorod was asymmetric and broad owing to the band filling effect resulting from high carrier concentration, compared to the undoped GaN.

  8. Crystal Structure Anisotropy Explains Anomalous Elastic Properties of Metal Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goupalov, Serguei

    2014-03-01

    It is demonstrated that the frequency of the extensional vibrational mode of a nanorod made of an elastically anisotropic crystalline material deviates widely from the predictions of the theories based on the analysis of the long-wavelength limit. The dispersion relation for the fundamental extensional mode of a gold rod grown in the [ 100 ] direction is calculated and found to be in an excellent agreement with experimental data obtained from the transient optical absorption measurements on gold nanorods.[1] This explains an anomaly in the elastic properties of nanorods which was previously attributed to a 26% decrease in Young's modulus for nanorods compared to its bulk value.

  9. Improve photovoltaic performance of titanium dioxide nanorods based dye-sensitized solar cells by Ca-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weixin; Yang, Junyou Zhang, Jiaqi; Gao, Sheng; Luo, Yubo; Liu, Ming

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanorods doped with Ca ions were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method. • The flat band edge of rutile TiO{sub 2} shifted positively via Ca-doping. • The photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO{sub 2} electrode was much enhanced by Ca-doping. • A relatively high open circuit voltage was obtained by adopting Ca-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods electrode. - Abstract: Ca-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays were prepared via the one-step hydrothermal method successfully, and the effect of Ca ions content on the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been fully discussed in the paper. Although no obvious change on the microstructure and morphology was observed by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope for the Ca-doped samples, the results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that Ti{sup 4+} was substituted with Ca{sup 2+} successfully. UV–vis spectroscopy results revealed that the flat band edge shifted positively by Ca ions doping. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells based on the 2 mol% Ca-doped TiO{sub 2} electrode was 43% higher than that of the undoped one due to the less recombination possibility.

  10. Stochastic memristive nature in Co-doped CeO{sub 2} nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei Li, Sean

    2013-12-16

    In this Letter, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of electrochemically deposited pure and Cobalt doped CeO{sub 2} nanorods architectures were reported. A conducting filament based model to address resistive switching process in these devices was proposed. Furthermore, the randomness in individual switching events and the prediction of switching probabilities were studied by imposing weak programming conditions. The present study offers insights into scrutinize the inherent stochastic nature in resistive switching characteristics within these devices rather than stressfully achieve high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time.

  11. Influence of Y-doped induced defects on the optical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-temperature hydrothermal process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional pure zinc oxide (ZnO) and Y-doped ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully fabricated on the silicon substrate for comparison by a simple hydrothermal process at the low temperature of 90°C. The Y-doped nanorods exhibit the same c-axis-oriented wurtzite hexagonal structure as pure ZnO nanorods. Based on the results of photoluminescence, an enhancement of defect-induced green-yellow visible emission is observed for the Y-doped ZnO nanorods. The decrease of E2(H) mode intensity and increase of E1(LO) mode intensity examined by the Raman spectrum also indicate the increase of defects for the Y-doped ZnO nanorods. As compared to pure ZnO nanorods, Y-doped ZnO nanorods show a remarked increase of saturation magnetization. The combination of visible photoluminescence and ferromagnetism measurement results indicates the increase of oxygen defects due to the Y doping which plays a crucial role in the optical and magnetic performances of the ZnO nanorods. PMID:22768847

  12. Fabrication and resistive switching characteristics of high compact Ga-doped ZnO nanorod thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, I.-Chuan; Lee, Dai-Ying; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Lin, Pang

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the resistive switching behavior of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) nanorod thin films with various Ga/Zn molar ratios. Vertically well-aligned and uniform GZO nanorod thin films were successfully grown on Au/Ti/SiO2/p-Si substrates using an aqueous solution method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that GZO nanorods have [0001] highly preferred orientation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show the formation of highly ordered and dense nanorod thin films. These compact GZO nanorod thin films can be used to make resistive switching memory devices. Such memory devices can be reversibly switched between ON and OFF states, with a stable resistance ratio of ten times, narrow dispersion of ON and OFF voltages, and good endurance performance of over 100 cycles. The resistive switching mechanism in these devices is related to the formation and rupture of conducting filaments consisting of oxygen vacancies, occurring at interfaces between GZO nanorods (grain boundaries). Results show that the resulting compact GZO nanorod thin films have a high potential for resistive memory applications.

  13. Enhanced UV absorbance and photoluminescence properties of ultrasound assisted synthesized gold doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Dojalisa; Panda, N. R.; Acharya, B. S.; Panda, A. K.

    2014-06-01

    Au doped ZnO (ZnO:Au) nanostructures were synthesized by ultrasound assisted wet chemical method. The concentration of dopant was varied and both structural and optical properties of ZnO:Au were investigated. The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results showed the formation of nanorods of ZnO:Au having wurtzite structure and c-axis orientation. Gradual increase in crystallite size and bond length was also observed with the increase in gold concentration in ZnO intending the expansion of lattice after gold doping. The optical absorption measurements showed high ultraviolet (UV) absorbance property of ZnO:Au with sharp and intense absorption band in this region as compared to pristine ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed excitonic emission band of ZnO around 390 nm for both undoped and Au doped ZnO nanoparticles. Further, a strong emission around 467 nm was observed in the PL spectra of ZnO/ZnO:Au which was attributed to the transitions related to excess of oxygen vacancies. Interestingly, a new band was observed at 582 nm for doped ZnO samples which grew in intensity with doping concentration. This band was ascribed to the gold nanoparticle adsorbed on the surface of ZnO.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped Gd2O3 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sandeep K. S.; Dhak, Prasanta; Kim, Min-Kwan; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt-doped Gd2O3 (Gd2-xCoxO3, 0≤x≤0.06) nanorods of about 100 nm diameter and 2 μm length were synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method. XRD, Raman, XPS, and TEM measurements showed the samples to have a single cubic phase structure of Gd2O3 doped with Co2+ cations, without any cobalt clusters. All the samples showed paramagnetism at room temperature as well as at 5 K. The samples' high magnetization values at 5 K were due to reduction of the thermal randomization of the magnetic spins. The Curie-Weiss fitting of the magnetic data reflected antiferromagnetism along with paramagnetism due to the exchange interactions of Gd3+ via O2- ions and coupling between Co2+-Co2+ pairs.

  15. Magnetic and optical properties of Mn-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, J.; Sasmal, I.; Nath, T. K.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we have reported the synthesis of high quality vertically aligned undoped and Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline nanorods arrays on Si (100) substrates using two steps process, namely, initial slow seed layer formation followed by solution growth employing wet chemical hydrothermal method. The shapes of the as grown single crystalline nanorods are hexagonal. The diameter and length of the as grown undoped ZnO nanorods varies in the range of 80-150 nm and 1.0 - 1.4 μm, respectively. Along with the lattice parameters of the hexagonal crystal structure, the diameter and length of Mn doped ZnO nanorods are found to increase slightly as compared to the undoped ZnO nanorods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Mn atoms in Mn2+ state in the single crystalline ZnO nanorods. The recorded photoluminescence spectrum contains two emissions peaks having UV exciton emissions along with a green-yellow emission. The green-yellow emissions provide the evidence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies. The magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements [M (H)] and zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization [M(T)] measurements have been carried out at different isothermal conditions in the temperature range of 5-300 K. The Mn doped ZnO nanorods clearly show room temperature ferromagnetic ordering near room temperature down to 5 K. The observed magnetization may be attributed to the long range ferromagnetic interaction between bound magnetic polarons led by singly charged oxygen vacancies.

  16. Synthesis of rare earth doped TiO2 nanorods as photocatalysts for lignin degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Liang; Zhao, Xueyuan; Cao, Lixin; Moon, Ji-Won; Gu, Baohua; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-10

    In this paper, a two-step process is developed to synthesize rare earth doped titania nanorods (RE–TiO2 NRs) as photocatalysts for efficient degradation of lignin under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this approach, protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structures were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and rare earth metal ions were subsequently bound to the negatively charged surface of the synthesized titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The as-synthesized RE–TiO2 NRs after calcination generally showed much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than those of undoped TiO2 NRs or the commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Using methyl orange (MO) as a probing molecule, we demonstrate that Eu–TiO2 NRs are among the best for degrading MO, with an observed rate constant of 4.2 × 10-3 s-1. The La3+, Sm3+, Eu3+ and Er3+ doped TiO2 NRs also showed higher photocatalytic efficiencies in degrading MO than the commercial P25 TiO2. Finally, we further demonstrate that lignin can be photodegraded effectively and rapidly at room temperature under simulated sunlight through two reaction routes, which could be important in controlling ways of lignin depolymerization or the formation of reaction products.

  17. Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Orendorff, Christopher J; Murphy, Catherine J

    2006-03-01

    The seed-mediated approach to making gold nanorods in aqueous surfactant solutions has become tremendously popular in recent years. Unlike the use of strong chemical reductants to make spherical gold nanoparticles, the growth of gold nanorods requires weak reducing conditions, leading to an unknown degree of gold reduction. The metal content of gold nanorods, made in high yield in the presence of silver ion, is determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Through the use of the known gold concentration in nanorods, molar extinction coefficients are calculated for nanorods of varying aspect ratios from 2.0 to 4.5. The extinction coefficients at the longitudinal plasmon band peak maxima for these nanorods vary from 2.5x10(9) to 5.5x10(9) M-1 cm-1, respectively, on a per-particle basis. Many of the gold ions present in the growth solution remain unreacted; insights into the growth mechanism of gold nanorods are discussed. PMID:16509687

  18. Metal molybdate nanorods as non-precious electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tian; Zhang, Lieyu

    2015-12-01

    Development of non-precious electrocatalysts with applicable electrocatalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is important to fulfill broad-based and large-scale applications of metal/air batteries and fuel cells. Herein, nickel and cobalt molybdates with uniform nanorod morphology are synthesized using a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The ORR activity of the prepared metal molybdate nanorods in alkaline media are investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperomety in rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. The present study suggests that the prepared metal molybdate nanorods exhibit applicable electrocatalytic activities towards the ORR in alkaline media, promising the applications as non-precious cathode in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  19. Thermo-electrochemical selective growth of ZnO nanorods on any noble metal electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Xueqiu; Park, Jungil; Choi, Jae-hoon; Pak, James Jungho

    2010-10-01

    Selective growth of ZnO nanorods has been successfully performed on the patterned Au/Ti metal electrode regions on a glass substrate by using a seeded thermo-electrochemical method in an acidic growth solution. The selective growth mechanism of the thermo-electrochemical method was proposed by using a series of chemical reactions for the first time. The thermo-electrochemical selective ZnO growth was performed on the cathode electrode at a temperature below 90 °C. A ZnO seed layer was precoated and selectively etched away from the non-metal regions in order to create the patterned selective nucleation sites on which the precursors are transferred and crystallized into ZnO nanorods. Both the dimensions and the placements of the ZnO nanorods have been simultaneously controlled. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed that the selectively grown ZnO nanorods consist of only Zn and O, indicating that the selectively grown ZnO nanorods are pure and contamination free. XRD and electron diffraction patterns revealed that the obtained ZnO nanorods have a wurtzite single-crystal structure.

  20. CeO2 nanorods-supported transition metal catalysts for CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mock, Samantha A; Sharp, Shannon E; Stoner, Thomas R; Radetic, Michael J; Zell, Elizabeth T; Wang, Ruigang

    2016-03-15

    A catalytically active oxide support in combination with metal catalysts is required in order to achieve better low temperature activity and selectivity. Here, we report that CeO2 nanorods with a superior surface oxygen release/storage capability were used as an active support of transition metal (TM) catalysts (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) for CO oxidation reaction. The as-prepared CeO2 nanorods supported 10 wt% TM catalysts were highly active for CO oxidation at low temperature, except for the Fe sample. It is found that the 10%Cu-CeO2 catalyst performed best, and it provided a lower light-off temperature with T50 (50% conversion) at 75 °C and T100 (100% conversion) of CO to CO2 at 194 °C. The atomic level surface structure of CeO2 nanorods was investigated in order to understand the improved low temperature catalytic activity. The richness of surface roughness and various defects (voids, lattice distortion, bending, steps, twinning) on CeO2 nanorods could facilitate oxygen release and storage. According to XRD and Raman analysis, copper species migrate into the bulk CeO2 nanorods to a greater degree. Since CO adsorbed over the surface of the catalyst/support is detrimental to its catalytic activity, the surface defects on the CeO2 nanorods and CeO2-TM interactions were critical to the enhanced activity. PMID:26745742

  1. Enhanced performance of branched TiO{sub 2} nanorod based Mn-doped CdS and Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Lee, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-04-28

    TiO{sub 2} branched nanostructures could be efficient as photoanodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) due to their large surface area for QD deposition. In this study, Mn-doped CdS/Mn-doped CdSe deposited branched TiO{sub 2} nanorods were fabricated to enhance the photovoltaic performance of QDSCs. Mn doping in CdS and CdSe retards the recombination losses of electrons, while branched TiO{sub 2} nanorods facilitate effective electron transport and compensate for the low surface area of the nanorod structure. As a result, the charge-transfer resistance (R{sub CT}), electron lifetime (τ{sub e}), and the amount of QD deposition were significantly improved with branched TiO{sub 2} nanorod based Mn-doped CdS/Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cell.

  2. Inkjet printing lanthanide doped nanorods test paper for visual assays of nitroaromatic explosives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Mei, Qingsong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Renyong; Han, Mingyong; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2013-11-13

    The facile and sensitive strategies for detections of nitroaromatic explosives are highly desirable in many challenging environments, especially for homeland security against terrorism. Here, we inkjet printed polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated Ce, Tb co-doped NaGdF4 nanorods (NaGdF4:Ce/Tb NRs) onto common filter paper to construct test paper for visual and instant detections of a typical explosive 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP). Polyethylenimine molecules not only facilitate the formation of uniform NaGdF4 nanorods but also provide specific recognized sites for TNP by the acid-base pairing interaction. The resultant TNP bound at the surface of PEI-coated NaGdF4:Ce/Tb NRs can strongly quench the phosphorescence with a remarkably high quenching constant by the charge transfer mechanism from NaGdF4:Ce/Tb NRs to TNP. By printing of the probe on a piece of filter paper, trace amounts of TNP can be visually detected by the appearance of a dark color against a bright green background under a UV lamp. This test paper can detect TNP as low as 0.45 ng mm(-2) by the naked eye, which provides a potential application in the rapid, on-line detections of explosives. PMID:24176509

  3. Solution growth of Ta-doped hematite nanorods for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting: a tradeoff between electronic structure and nanostructure evolution.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanming; Dong, Chung-Li; Zhou, Zhaohui; Lee, Wan-Yi; Chen, Jie; Guo, Penghui; Zhao, Liang; Shen, Shaohua

    2016-02-01

    Ta-doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanorod array films were successfully prepared on fluorine-doped tin dioxide (FTO) coated glass substrates via a facile solution growth process with TaCl5 as a Ta doping precursor. Under 1 sun illumination and at an applied potential of 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the Ta-doped α-Fe2O3 photoanode with optimized dopant concentration showed a photocurrent density as high as 0.53 mA cm(-2), which was about 3.5 times higher than that of the undoped sample. As demonstrated by Mott-Schottky and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements, considerable increase in photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance achieved for Ta-doped α-Fe2O3 nanorod films should be mainly attributed to the increased electron donor density induced by Ta doping. However, with superfluous Ta doping, the [110]-oriented nanorod structure was destroyed, which caused greatly restrained photoinduced holes transferring to the surface and retarded surface water oxidation reaction, leading to decreased PEC water splitting activity. This study clearly demonstrated that doping could be effective to enhance the PEC activity of α-Fe2O3 nanorods as photoanodes, while it is of great necessity to balance the trade-off between the electronic structure and nanostructure evolution by optimizing the dopant concentration, for increased donor density and meanwhile with the nanorod nanostructure well preserved for directed charge transfer. PMID:26763113

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Cr-doped ZnO nanorod-array photocatalysts with improved activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chi-Jung Yang, Tsung-Lin; Weng, Yu-Ching

    2014-06-01

    Immobilized photocatalysts with high catalytic activity under UV light were prepared by growing Cr-doped ZnO nanorods on glass substrates by a hydrothermal method. The effects of Cr dopant on the surface texture, crystallinity, surface chemistry, and photoinduced charge separation and their relation with the photocatalytic degradation of Cr-doped ZnO were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra, photoelectrochemical scanning electrochemical microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Adding the appropriate amount of Cr dopant is a powerful way to enhance the separation of charge carriers in ZnO photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity was improved due to the increase in surface oxygen vacancies, the separation of charge carriers, modification of the band gap, and the large surface area of the doped ZnO nanorod photocatalyst. - Graphical abstract: Photoinduced charge separation and its relation with the photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr-doped ZnO were investigated by photoelectrochemical scanning electrochemical microscopy. - Highlights: • Cr dopant enhances separation of charge carries in ZnO nanorod photocatalyst. • Photoinduced charge carries separation monitored by PEC-SECM. • The higher the photocurrent is, the higher the photocatalytic activity is. • Degradation of DB86 dye solutions under visible light finished within 50 min. • Higher activity due to more oxygen vacancy, tuned band gap and more surface area.

  5. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti3+ self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene. PMID:24974890

  6. Fe solubility, growth mechanism, and luminescence of Fe doped ZnO nanowires and nanorods grown by evaporation-deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemán, Belén; Ortega, Yanicet; García, José Ángel; Fernández, Paloma; Piqueras, Javier

    2011-07-01

    Fe doped ZnO nanowires, nanorods, and urchin-like nanostructures have been grown using an evaporation-deposition method with compacted mixtures of ZnS and Fe2O3 powders, with different Fe contents as precursors. Treatments at 950 °C under argon flow lead to the growth of iron doped nanowires, nanorods, and other nanostructures on the surface of the compacted sample. The incorporation of iron into the nanostructures has been investigated via energy dispersive spectroscopy as well as by cathodoluminescence in a scanning electron microscope and photoluminescence in an optical microscope. The iron content in the structures is limited to the range of 0.5-0.7 at.% and does not depend on the content in the precursor. Bright and dark field imaging and twist contour analysis via transmission electron microscopy support the possibility of a dislocation driven growth of the nanowires.

  7. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO nanorods with hidden secondary phases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Zheng, Rongkun; Liu, Zongwen; Ho, Ho-Pui; Xu, Jianbin; Ringer, Simon P

    2008-11-12

    Co-doped ZnO nanorods (composition: Zn(0.955)Co(0.045)O) were grown by a simple surfactant-assisted hydrothermal technique. The morphological, structural, optical and magnetic properties of the as-prepared nanorods were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, micro-cathodoluminescence, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results showed that the sample had rod-like morphology and that the preferential growth direction was along the c axis. While Co was successfully doped into the ZnO wurtzite lattice structure as revealed by several characterization techniques, hidden secondary phases of Zn(y)Co(3-y)O(4) (0≤y≤1) were also clearly detected by the micro-Raman spectroscopic technique. We propose that the predominant diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening crystal growth mechanism under the hydrothermal coarsening yielded such phase segregation. VSM results showed that the nanorods displayed relatively weak room-temperature ferromagnetism. We suggest that the origin of the ferromagnetism is probably due to the presence of the mixed cation valence of Co via a d-d double-exchange mechanism rather than the real doping effect. It is essential to control the crystal growth mechanism and defect states associated with the ferromagnetism in order to realize the intrinsic diluted magnetic semiconductors. PMID:21832791

  8. High performance of Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on the vertical ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Juan; Zhao, Haifeng; Huang, Fei; Jing, Qun; Cao, Haibin; Wu, Qiang; Peng, Shanglong; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-09-01

    Doping transition metal ions Mn2+ to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extremely interesting for the development of photovoltaic devices. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are able to show promising power conversion efficiencies (PCE) by employing Mn2+ doped QDs. Herein we achieve effective CdS/Mnsbnd CdSe/ZnS QDs co-sensitized vertical ZnO nanorod arrays film that provides an appreciable enhancement in photovoltaic performance. The measured PCE of the solar cells with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs is 4.14%, which is higher than the efficiency of 2.91% for the solar cells without Mn2+ or a ∼42% increase. The improvement in PCE is ascribed to a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc = 0.74 V) and a superior short-circuit current density (Jsc = 12.6 mA cm-2) with the introduction of Mn2+ into CdSe QDs. The enhancement seen with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs are investigated and explained by the fact that the enhanced light absorption and reduced charge recombination by the formation of Mnsbnd CdSe passivation layer covering the QDs.

  9. Gold nanoparticles doped conducting polymer nanorod electrodes: ferrocene catalyzed aptamer-based thrombin immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Aminur; Son, Jung Ik; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2009-08-15

    Au nanoparticles-doped conducting polymer nanorods electrodes (AuNPs/CPNEs) were prepared by coating Au nanorods (AuNRs) with a conducting polymer layer. The AuNRs were prepared through an electroless deposition method using the polycarbonate membrane (pore diameter, 50 nm, pore density, 6 x 10(8) pores/cm(2)) as a template. The AuNPs/CPNEs combining catalytic activity of ferrocene to ascorbic acid were used for the fabrication of an ultrasensitive aptamer sensor for thrombin detection. The AuNPs/3D-CPNEs were characterized employing cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Sandwiched immunoassay for alpha-human thrombin with NH(2)-functionalized-thrombin binding aptamer (Apt) immobilized on AuNPs/3D-CPNEs was studied through the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid by the ferrocene moiety that was bound with an antithrombin antibody and attached with the Apt/3D-CPNEs probe through target binding. Various experimental parameters affecting thrombin detection were optimized, and the performance of the thrombin aptamer sensor was examined. The Apt/AuNPs/3D-CPNEs based thrombin sensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 5-2000 ng L(-1) and a low detection limit of 5 ng L(-1) (0.14 pM). The selectivity and the stability of the proposed thrombin aptamer sensor were excellent, and it was tested in a real human serum sample for the detection of spiked concentrations of thrombin. PMID:20337374

  10. Structural and optical properties of highly crystalline Ce, Eu and co-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugadoss, G.; Jayavel, R.; Rajesh Kumar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Different concentrations of europium (Eu), cerium (Ce) doped and co-doped ZnO:Eu (1%), Ce (1%) nanorods were successfully synthesized by chemical method using Polyvinylpyrrolidone as a surfactant. Crystalline phase, morphology, functional groups, optical absorption, emission and thermal properties of prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), UV-visible, Photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer and thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) analysis. The XRD study showed high crystalline nature of the products with nanoscale regime. Optical study showed shifting the absorption and emission spectra toward higher wavelength side when increasing the doping concentrations. Mainly, this is first time observed a red emission peak at 660 nm for Ce (3%) doped ZnO. Additionally, co-doped ZnO:Eu (1%), Ce (1%) nanorods were synthesized and studied their optical properties. This work demonstrates that simply modified their optical absorption and emission of ZnO by introducing rare earth ions can be used as an effective electrode material in solar cell applications, optoelectronic devices and photocatalysis analysis.

  11. Metal-doped organic gels and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2007-10-23

    Disclosed herein is a sol-gel polymerization process for synthesizing metal-doped organic gels. The process polymerizes metal salts of hydroxylated benzenes or hydroxylated benzene derivatives with alkyl or aryl aldehydes to form metal-doped, wet, organic gels. The gels can then be dried by supercritical solvent extraction to form metal-doped aerogels or by evaporation to form metal-doped xerogels. The aerogels and xerogels can then be pyrolyzed.

  12. Metal-doped organic gels and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2003-09-02

    Disclosed herein is a sol-gel polymerization process for synthesizing metal-doped organic gels. The process polymerizes metal salts of hydroxylated benzenes or hydroxylated benzene derivatives with alkyl or aryl aldehydes to form metal-doped, wet, organic gels. The gels can then be dried by supercritical solvent extraction to form metal-doped aerogels or by evaporation to form metal-doped xerogels. The aerogels and xerogels can then be pyrolyzed.

  13. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Arjunan, M.S.; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M. E-mail: paras.shirage@gmail.com; J, Aneesh; Adarsh, K. V.

    2015-12-07

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration. We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.

  14. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Amit Kumar; J, Aneesh; Kumar, Yogendra; M. S, Arjunan; Adarsh, K. V.; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-12-01

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration. We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.

  15. Optimal metal domain size for photocatalysis with hybrid semiconductor-metal nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Scotognella, Francesco; Kriegel, Ilka; Moretti, Luca; Cerullo, Giulio; Rabani, Eran; Banin, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures offer a highly controllable platform for light-induced charge separation, with direct relevance for their implementation in photocatalysis. Advances in the synthesis allow for control over the size, shape and morphology, providing tunability of the optical and electronic properties. A critical determining factor of the photocatalytic cycle is the metal domain characteristics and in particular its size, a subject that lacks deep understanding. Here, using a well-defined model system of cadmium sulfide-gold nanorods, we address the effect of the gold tip size on the photocatalytic function, including the charge transfer dynamics and hydrogen production efficiency. A combination of transient absorption, hydrogen evolution kinetics and theoretical modelling reveal a non-monotonic behaviour with size of the gold tip, leading to an optimal metal domain size for the most efficient photocatalysis. We show that this results from the size-dependent interplay of the metal domain charging, the relative band-alignments, and the resulting kinetics. PMID:26783194

  16. Optimal metal domain size for photocatalysis with hybrid semiconductor-metal nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Scotognella, Francesco; Kriegel, Ilka; Moretti, Luca; Cerullo, Giulio; Rabani, Eran; Banin, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures offer a highly controllable platform for light-induced charge separation, with direct relevance for their implementation in photocatalysis. Advances in the synthesis allow for control over the size, shape and morphology, providing tunability of the optical and electronic properties. A critical determining factor of the photocatalytic cycle is the metal domain characteristics and in particular its size, a subject that lacks deep understanding. Here, using a well-defined model system of cadmium sulfide-gold nanorods, we address the effect of the gold tip size on the photocatalytic function, including the charge transfer dynamics and hydrogen production efficiency. A combination of transient absorption, hydrogen evolution kinetics and theoretical modelling reveal a non-monotonic behaviour with size of the gold tip, leading to an optimal metal domain size for the most efficient photocatalysis. We show that this results from the size-dependent interplay of the metal domain charging, the relative band-alignments, and the resulting kinetics. PMID:26783194

  17. Optimal metal domain size for photocatalysis with hybrid semiconductor-metal nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Scotognella, Francesco; Kriegel, Ilka; Moretti, Luca; Cerullo, Giulio; Rabani, Eran; Banin, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures offer a highly controllable platform for light-induced charge separation, with direct relevance for their implementation in photocatalysis. Advances in the synthesis allow for control over the size, shape and morphology, providing tunability of the optical and electronic properties. A critical determining factor of the photocatalytic cycle is the metal domain characteristics and in particular its size, a subject that lacks deep understanding. Here, using a well-defined model system of cadmium sulfide-gold nanorods, we address the effect of the gold tip size on the photocatalytic function, including the charge transfer dynamics and hydrogen production efficiency. A combination of transient absorption, hydrogen evolution kinetics and theoretical modelling reveal a non-monotonic behaviour with size of the gold tip, leading to an optimal metal domain size for the most efficient photocatalysis. We show that this results from the size-dependent interplay of the metal domain charging, the relative band-alignments, and the resulting kinetics.

  18. Fabrication of carbon nanorods and graphene nanoribbons from a metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Pachfule, Pradip; Shinde, Dhanraj; Majumder, Mainak; Xu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    One- and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials are attracting considerable attention because of their extraordinary electrical, mechanical and thermal properties, which could lead to a range of important potential applications. Synthetic processes associated with making these materials can be quite complex and also consume large amounts of energy, so a major challenge is to develop simple and efficient methods to produce them. Here, we present a self-templated, catalyst-free strategy for the synthesis of one-dimensional carbon nanorods by morphology-preserved thermal transformation of rod-shaped metal-organic frameworks. The as-synthesized non-hollow (solid) carbon nanorods can be transformed into two- to six-layered graphene nanoribbons through sonochemical treatment followed by chemical activation. The performance of these metal-organic framework-derived carbon nanorods and graphene nanoribbons in supercapacitor electrodes demonstrates that this synthetic approach can produce functionally useful materials. Moreover, this approach is readily scalable and could be used to produce carbon nanorods and graphene nanoribbons on industrial levels. PMID:27325100

  19. Self-Catalyzed Growth of Vertically Aligned InN Nanorods by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tessarek, C; Fladischer, S; Dieker, C; Sarau, G; Hoffmann, B; Bashouti, M; Göbelt, M; Heilmann, M; Latzel, M; Butzen, E; Figge, S; Gust, A; Höflich, K; Feichtner, T; Büchele, M; Schwarzburg, K; Spiecker, E; Christiansen, S

    2016-06-01

    Vertically aligned hexagonal InN nanorods were grown mask-free by conventional metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy without any foreign catalyst. The In droplets on top of the nanorods indicate a self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth mode. A systematic study on important growth parameters has been carried out for the optimization of nanorod morphology. The nanorod N-polarity, induced by high temperature nitridation of the sapphire substrate, is necessary to achieve vertical growth. Hydrogen, usually inapplicable during InN growth due to formation of metallic indium, and silane are needed to enhance the aspect ratio and to reduce parasitic deposition beside the nanorods on the sapphire surface. The results reveal many similarities between InN and GaN nanorod growth showing that the process despite the large difference in growth temperature is similar. Transmission electron microscopy, spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been performed to analyze the structural properties. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence investigations are carried out to verify the optical activity of the InN nanorods. The InN nanorods are expected to be the material of choice for high-efficiency hot carrier solar cells. PMID:27187840

  20. Air- and water-resistant noble metal coated ferromagnetic cobalt nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Tan, Reasmey P; Garcia-Marcelot, Cécile; Altantzis, Thomas; Fazzini, Pier-Francesco; Hungria, Teresa; Cormary, Benoit; Gallagher, James R; Miller, Jeffrey T; Martinez, Herve; Schrittwieser, Stefan; Schotter, Joerg; Respaud, Marc; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gatel, Christophe; Soulantica, Katerina

    2015-03-24

    Cobalt nanorods possess ideal magnetic properties for applications requiring magnetically hard nanoparticles. However, their exploitation is undermined by their sensitivity toward oxygen and water, which deteriorates their magnetic properties. The development of a continuous metal shell inert to oxidation could render them stable, opening perspectives not only for already identified applications but also for uses in which contact with air and/or aqueous media is inevitable. However, the direct growth of a conformal noble metal shell on magnetic metals is a challenge. Here, we show that prior treatment of Co nanorods with a tin coordination compound is the crucial step that enables the subsequent growth of a continuous noble metal shell on their surface, rendering them air- and water-resistant, while conserving the monocrystallity, metallicity and the magnetic properties of the Co core. Thus, the as-synthesized core-shell ferromagnetic nanorods combine high magnetization and strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, even after exposure to air and water, and hold promise for successful implementation in in vitro biodiagnostics requiring probes of high magnetization and anisotropic shape. PMID:25734760

  1. Field Emissions from Organic Nanorods Armored with Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshiya; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2013-12-01

    We report the fabrication of organic nanorods with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and a height of 106.8 nm (a high aspect ratio of 10.5) armored by Pt nanoparticles. Our results demonstrate that Pt particles deposited by metalorganic supercritical chemical fluid deposition (MOCFD) covering the entire deposition area play important roles in not only etch resistance, especially in protecting the sidewalls, but also the formation of electroconductive Pt/C composites, which were found to have field emission properties.

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Eu²⁺- and Eu³⁺-Doped SrAIF₅ Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hua, Ruinian; Zhao, Jun; Tang, Dongxin; Zhao, Xin; Na, Liyan; Zhang, Jinsu; Chen, Baojiu

    2016-01-01

    Eu²⁺- and Eu³⁺-doped SrAIF₅ nanorods were synthesized via a hydrothermal process. The crystal structure and morphology of the final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The prepared nanorods' diameters range from 40 to 50 nm, and lengths range from 400 nm to 2 µm along with the doped concentration of rare earth. The f-f transitions of Eu²⁺ can be observed in the SrAlF₅:Eu²⁺ nanorods at room temperature, and the photo-luminescent (PL) properties of SrAlF₅:Eu³⁺ nanorods are also described. PMID:27398485

  3. Al-doped ZnO aligned nanorod arrays for opto-electronic and sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Mundle, R.; Dondapati, H.; Konda, R. B.; Bahoura, M.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the growth of vertically aligned Al:ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized by the hydrothermal technique at considerably low temperature on a sputtered Al:ZnO seed layer. The morphology demonstrates that the nanorod arrays maintain remarkable alignment along the c-axis over a large area. The optoelectronic properties of nanorod arrays on Al:ZnO/p-Si seed layer with SiO2 have been illustrated. The photocurrent is significantly reduced in nanorod arrays on AZO/SiO2/p-Si heterojunction due to multiple scattering phenomena associated with the nanorod arrays. The optical properties of the AZO film with and without the AZO nanorod arrays were investigated. Also the effects of an intermediate layer in the AZO/P-Si heterojunction structure with and without the AZO nanorod array present were explored. All the various intermediate layers displayed photovoltaic effect behavior, especially with the AZO/SiO2/P-Si heterojunction structure, which exhibited ideal diode behavior. The optoelectronic properties of nanorod arrays on AZO/P-Si seed layer with SiO2 have been illustrated. The photocurrent is significantly reduced in nanorod arrays on AZO/SiO2/P-Si heterojunction due to multiple scattering phenomena associated with the nanorod arrays. The results have tremendous impact for sensor fabrication, including glucose sensor.

  4. Hydrothermal growth and conductivity enhancement of (Al, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanorods thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Mahapatra, Preetilata; Thangavel, R.

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of Al, Cu co-doping in ZnO host lattice plays an important role in modification of structural, optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present work, we were grown one dimensional ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different concentration of Al (0%~5%) and Cu was kept 20 M% on ITO glass substrates using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the codoping on the surface morphology and the electrical and optical performances of the doped ZnO NRs as photo anodes for solar water splitting applications. The crystallite size of NRs shows tuning in the band gap between 3.194 (Zn0.79Al0.01Cu0.2O) to 3.212 eV (Zn0.75Al0.05Cu0.2O) with Aluminium doping concentration and a remarkable improvement in current density (J) from 0.05 mA/cm2 to 4.98 mA/cm2 was achieved by incorporating Al and Cu has a critical effect of ZnO nanorods.

  5. Preparation and XRD analyses of Na-doped ZnO nanorod arrays based on experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. P.; Lu, J. G.; Zhang, H. H.; Chen, Y.; Kan, B. T.; Zhang, J.; Huang, J.; Lu, B.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Ye, Z. Z.

    2012-03-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) with different Na contents were prepared by thermal evaporation. Sodium pyrophosphate was adopted as the Na source. The Na contents in NRAs were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectra to be 0, 6.1, and 9.4 at.%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of Na-doped ZnO NRAs were performed in experiment and by first-principle calculation with the assumption of Na substitutions. A couple of typical changes were found in XRD patterns of Na-doped ZnO. The simulation results well agreed with the experimental data, which revealed that Na mainly located at the substitutional sites in Na-doped ZnO NRAs.

  6. Temperature threshold for nanorod structuring of metal and oxide films grown by glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Deniz, Derya; Lad, Robert J.

    2011-01-15

    Thin films of tin (Sn), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W), ruthenium dioxide (RuO{sub 2}), tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}), and tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) were grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) to determine the nanostructuring temperature threshold, {Theta}{sub T}, above which adatom surface diffusion becomes large enough such that nanorod morphology is no longer formed during growth. The threshold was found to be lower in metals compared to oxides. Films were grown using both dc and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with continuous substrate rotation over the temperature range from 291 to 866 K. Film morphologies, structures, and compositions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Films were also grown in a conventional configuration for comparison. For elemental metals, nanorod structuring occurs for films with melting points higher than that of Al (933 K) when grown at room temperature with a rotation rate of {approx}5 rpm, corresponding to a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.33{+-}0.01. For the oxide films, a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.5 was found, above which GLAD nanorod structuring does not occur. The existence of a nanostructuring temperature threshold in both metal and oxide GLAD films can be attributed to greater adatom mobilities as temperature is increased resulting in nonkinetically limited film nucleation and growth processes.

  7. Pressure-induced metallization and amorphization in V O2(A ) nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Benyuan; Li, Quanjun; Zhang, Huafang; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Yao, Zhen; Cui, Tian; Liu, Jing; Liu, Zhenxian; Sundqvist, Bertil; Liu, Bingbing

    2016-05-01

    A metallic state enabled by the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in single crystal V O2(A ) nanorods is demonstrated, which provides important physical foundation in experimental understanding of MIT in V O2 . The observed tetragonal metallic state at ˜28 GPa should be interpreted as a distinct metastable state, while increasing pressure to ˜32 GPa, it transforms into a metallic amorphous state completely. The metallization is due to V 3 d orbital electrons delocalization, and the amorphization is attributed to the unique variation of V-O-V bond angle. A metallic amorphous V O2 state is found under pressure, which is beneficial to explore the phase diagram of V O2 . Furthermore, this work proves the occurrence of both the metallization and amorphization in octahedrally coordinated materials.

  8. Well-aligned Nd-doped SnO2 nanorod layered arrays: preparation, characterization and enhanced alcohol-gas sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohui; Gao, Fan; Jiang, Qiuping; Li, Yuehua; Liu, Yongjun; Luo, Li; Zhao, Kang; Zhao, Heyun

    2016-02-21

    Well-oriented neodymium doped SnO2 layered nanorod arrays were synthesized by a substrate-free hydrothermal route using sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide at 210 °C. The morphology and phase structure of the Nd-doped SnO2 nanoarrays were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the BET method. The results demonstrated that the Nd-doped SnO2 layered nanorod arrays showed a unique nanostructure combined together with double layered arrays of nanorods with a diameter of 12 nm and a length of several hundred nanometers. The Nd-doped layered SnO2 nanoarrays kept the crystal structure of the bulk SnO2 and possessed more surface defects caused by the Nd ions doped into the SnO2 lattice. The Nd dopant acts as a crystallite growth inhibitor to prevent the growth of SnO2 nanorods. An investigation into the gas-sensing properties indicated that the optimized doping level of 3.0 at% Nd-doped SnO2 layered nanorod arrays exhibited an excellent sensing response toward alcohol at a lower temperature of 260 °C. The enhanced sensor performance was attributed to the higher specific surface area, multi-defect surface structure and the excellent catalytic properties of Nd dopant that is able to increase the amount of active sites on the surface of semiconducting oxides. The Nd-doped SnO2 nanoarray sensors were considered to be a promising candidate for trace alcohol detections in environmental gas monitoring. PMID:26863493

  9. Strong metal-support interactions between gold nanoparticles and ZnO nanorods in CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming-Han; Luo, Yi-Chia; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lin, Shawn D; Cheng, Hongkui; Chen, Jin-Ming; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Lin, Tien-Sung

    2012-06-20

    The catalytic performances of supported gold nanoparticles depend critically on the nature of support. Here, we report the first evidence of strong metal-support interactions (SMSI) between gold nanoparticles and ZnO nanorods based on results of structural and spectroscopic characterization. The catalyst shows encapsulation of gold nanoparticles by ZnO and the electron transfer between gold and the support. Detailed characterizations of the interaction between Au nanoparticles and ZnO were done with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and FTIR study of adsorbed CO. The significance of the SMSI effect is further investigated by probing the efficiency of CO oxidation over the Au/ZnO-nanorod. In contrast to the classical reductive SMSI in the TiO(2) supported group VIII metals which appears after high temperature reduction in H(2) with electron transfer from the support to metals, the oxidative SMSI in Au/ZnO-nanorod system gives oxygen-induced burial and electron transfer from gold to support. In CO oxidation, we found that the oxidative SMSI state is associated with positively charged gold nanoparticles with strong effect on its catalytic activity before and after encapsulation. The oxidative SMSI can be reversed by hydrogen treatment to induce AuZn alloy formation, de-encapsulation, and electron transfer from support to Au. Our discovery of the SMSI effects in Au/ZnO nanorods gives new understandings of the interaction between gold and support and provides new way to control the interaction between gold and the support as well as catalytic activity. PMID:22612449

  10. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO and Ni doped ZnO nanorods by thermal decomposition method for spintronics application

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, R.; Santhi, Kalavathy; Sivakumar, N.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2012-05-15

    Zinc oxide nanorods and diluted magnetic semiconducting Ni doped ZnO nanorods were prepared by thermal decomposition method. This method is simple and cost effective. The decomposition temperature of acetate and formation of oxide were determined by TGA before the actual synthesis process. The X-ray diffraction result indicates the single phase hexagonal structure of zinc oxide. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images show rod like structure of ZnO and Ni doped ZnO samples with the diameter {approx} 35 nm and the length in few micrometers. The surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. The Ni doped ZnO exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism. This diluted magnetic semiconducting Ni doped ZnO nanorods finds its application in spintronics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method used is very simple and cost effective compared to all other methods for the preparation DMS materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO and Ni doped ZnO nanorods Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferromagnetism at room temperature.

  11. Bending effects of ZnO nanorod metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors on flexible polyimide substrate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the fabrication and I-V characteristics of ZnO nanorod metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors on flexible polyimide substrate. From field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectrum, ZnO nanorods had a (0002) crystal orientation and a wurtzite hexagonal structure. During the I-V and response measurement, the flexible substrates were measured with (i.e., the radius of curvatures was 0.2 cm) and without bending. From I-V results, the dark current decreased, and the UV-to-visible rejection ratio increased slightly in bending situation. The decreasing tendency of the dark current under bending condition may be attributed to the increase of the Schottky barrier height. PMID:22494967

  12. Mica sheets with embedded metal nanorods: Chemical imaging in a topographically smooth structure

    SciTech Connect

    Graca, Malgorzata; Turner, Jeff; Marshall, Michael; Granick, Steve

    2007-09-15

    We demonstrate the concept to combine topographical smoothness and plasmonic properties to produce flat substrates with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy activity--properties that may find use in nanotribology and other thin film applications. Preliminary findings to this end are described. A dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) system is used to drill large arrays of small pores in single crystals of mica, 2-6 {mu}m thick, yielding controlled cross sections (squares, triangles, and circles), sizes (100 nm to many microns), and arrangements (square, hexagonal, and random). When filled with metals, arrays result to embedded nanorods with their long axis oriented normal to the surface. As an extension of this method, arrays of nanorods standing perpendicular to a supporting surface can also be produced.

  13. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance.

    PubMed

    Fan, H S; Wang, H; Zhao, N; Xu, J; Pan, F

    2014-01-01

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors. PMID:25519206

  14. Growth and optical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays on Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive film

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films have been grown by a solution-free, catalyst-free, vapor-phase synthesis method at 600°C. TCO films, Al-doped ZnO films, were deposited on quartz substrates by magnetron sputtering. In order to study the effect of the growth duration on the morphological and optical properties of NRAs, the growth duration was changed from 3 to 12 min. The results show that the electrical performance of the TCO films does not degrade after the growth of NRAs and the nanorods are highly crystalline. As the growth duration increases from 3 to 8 min, the diffuse transmittance of the samples decreases, while the total transmittance and UV emission enhance. Two possible nanorod self-attraction models were proposed to interpret the phenomena in the sample with 9-min growth duration. The sample with 8-min growth duration has the highest total transmittance of 87.0%, proper density about 75 μm−2, diameter about 26 nm, and length about 500 nm, indicating that it can be used in hybrid solar cells. PMID:23566567

  15. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H. S.; Wang, H.; Zhao, N.; Xu, J.; Pan, F.

    2014-12-01

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors.

  16. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H. S.; Wang, H.; Zhao, N.; Xu, J.; Pan, F.

    2014-01-01

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors. PMID:25519206

  17. Nucleation and growth of GaN nanorods on Si (111) surfaces by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy - The influence of Si- and Mg-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Furtmayr, Florian; Vielemeyer, Martin; Stutzmann, Martin; Eickhoff, Martin; Arbiol, Jordi

    2008-08-01

    The self-assembled growth of GaN nanorods on Si (111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions is investigated. An amorphous silicon nitride layer is formed in the initial stage of growth that prevents the formation of a GaN wetting layer. The nucleation time was found to be strongly influenced by the substrate temperature and was more than 30 min for the applied growth conditions. The observed tapering and reduced length of silicon-doped nanorods is explained by enhanced nucleation on nonpolar facets and proves Ga-adatom diffusion on nanorod sidewalls as one contribution to the axial growth. The presence of Mg leads to an increased radial growth rate with a simultaneous decrease of the nanorod length and reduces the nucleation time for high Mg concentrations.

  18. Gas-phase synthesis of nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods by microwave plasma torch at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Kim, Jong Hun; Bang, Chan Uk; Uhm, Han Sup

    2005-11-15

    Nitrogen (N)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanorods were directly synthesized via decomposition of gas-phase titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) by an atmospheric microwave plasma torch. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, field-emission transmission electron microscope, and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) have been employed to investigate fraction of the anatase and rutile phases, diameter and length, and chemical composition of the nanorods, respectively. The diameters of the nanorods are approximately 30-80 nm and the length is several micrometers. EELS data show that incorporation of N into the O site of TiO{sub 2} nanorods was enhanced in N{sub 2} gas by the microwave plasma torch. Also, a growth model of the rods was proposed on the basis of vapor-liquid-solid mechanism.

  19. Facile preparation and bifunctional imaging of Eu-doped GdPO4 nanorods with MRI and cellular luminescence.

    PubMed

    Du, Qijun; Huang, Zhongbing; Wu, Zhi; Meng, Xianwei; Yin, Guangfu; Gao, Fabao; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    The biocompatibility of multifunctional nanomaterials is very important for their clinical applications. Herein, the hexagonal crystal Eu-doped GdPO4 nanorods (NRs) in the template of silk fibroin (SF) peptides are successfully synthesized via a mineralization process. The sizes of the Eu-doped GdPO4 NRs with SF peptides (SF-NRs) are ∼150 nm in length and ∼10 nm in diameter. The Eu-doped SF-NRs have strong pink luminescence and a mass magnetic susceptibility value of 1.27 emu g(-1) in 20,000 G of magnetic field due to Eu ion doping. The cell test indicates that the Eu-doped SF-NRs obviously promote the viability of cells at an NR concentration of 25-200 μg mL(-1). A growth mechanism of Eu-doped GdPO4 SF-NRs is proposed to explain their strong cellular luminescence, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and good cyto-compatibility. Compared to NRs without SF, the Eu-doped SF-NRs not only exhibit a higher effective positive signal-enhancement ability (the longitudinal relaxivity r1 value is 1.38 (Gd mM s)(-1)) and in vivo T1 weighted MR imaging enhancement under a 7.0 T MRI system, but also show the better luminescence imaging of living cells under the fluorescence microscope. This indicates that the Eu-doped SF-NRs have potential as T1 MRI contrast agents and optical imaging probes. PMID:25630852

  20. Simple fabrication of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by a modified and facile sol–gel approach without any templates. Ammonium nitrate was used as a raw source of N dopants, which could produce a lot of gasses such as N2, NO2, and H2O in the process of heating samples. These gasses were proved to be vitally important to form the special mesoporous structure. The samples were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The average length and the cross section diameter of the as-prepared samples were ca. 1.5 μm and ca. 80 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods showed an excellent photocatalytic activity, which may be attributed to the enlarged surface area (106.4 m2 g-1) and the narrowed band gap (2.05 eV). Besides, the rod-like photocatalyst was found to be easy to recycle. PMID:24428848

  1. Simple fabrication of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiufeng; Lu, Juan; Jiang, Jingjing; Li, Xiaobin; Lu, Mengna; Yuan, Guotao; Wang, Zuoshan; Zheng, Min; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2014-01-01

    N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by a modified and facile sol-gel approach without any templates. Ammonium nitrate was used as a raw source of N dopants, which could produce a lot of gasses such as N2, NO2, and H2O in the process of heating samples. These gasses were proved to be vitally important to form the special mesoporous structure. The samples were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The average length and the cross section diameter of the as-prepared samples were ca. 1.5 μm and ca. 80 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods showed an excellent photocatalytic activity, which may be attributed to the enlarged surface area (106.4 m2 g-1) and the narrowed band gap (2.05 eV). Besides, the rod-like photocatalyst was found to be easy to recycle. PMID:24428848

  2. Dielectric properties of Rhodamine-B and metal doped hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okutan, M.; Coşkun, R.; Öztürk, M.; Yalçın, O.

    2015-01-01

    The electric and dielectric properties of Rhodamine-B (RB) and metal ions (Ag+, Co2+, Cr3+, Mn2+ and Ni2+) doped hydrogels have been analyzed in an extended frequency range by impedance spectroscopy. The RB doped hydrogels has been found to be sensitive to ionic conduction and electrode polarization according to the metal doped hydrogels. We have shown that the ionic conductive of RB doped hydrogels is originated from the free ions motion within the doped hydrogels at high frequency. We have also taken into account the Cl- and N+ ions in the structure of RB provide additional ionic contribution to RB doped hydrogels.

  3. High-order harmonics in a quantum dot and metallic nanorod complex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Xing

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and metallic nanorod (MNR) complex driven by a moderate intensity (<10(12)  W/cm(2)) frequency-chirped Gaussian few-cycle pulse. Our numerical results indicate that the cutoff energy of the HHG can be controlled by optimizing the shape of the MNR and surface-to-surface distance between the SQD and the MNR. We also show that the extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum harmonics (25 eV maximal photon energy) and isolated ultrashort pulses (2.67-4.36 fs FWHM) are achievable. PMID:26512479

  4. Microfluidic-based metal enhanced fluorescence for capillary electrophoresis by Ag nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chenyu; Cao, Zhen; Deng, Junhong; Huang, Zhifeng; Xu, Zheng; Fu, Junxue; Yobas, Levent

    2014-06-01

    As metal nanorods show much higher metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) than metal nanospheres, microfluidic-based MEF is first explored with Ag nanorod (ND) arrays made by oblique angle deposition. By measuring the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) solution sandwiched between the Ag NDs and a piece of cover slip, the enhancement factors (EFs) are found as 3.7 ± 0.64 and 6.74 ± 2.04, for a solution thickness at 20.8 μm and 10 μm, respectively. Because of the strong plasmonic coupling between the adjacent Ag NDs, only the emission of the fluorophores present in the three-dimensional NDs array gets enhanced. Thus, the corresponding effective enhancement factors (EEFs) are revealed to be relatively close, 259 ± 92 and 340 ± 102, respectively. To demonstrate the application of MEF in microfluidic systems, a multilayer of SiO2 NDs/Ag NDs is integrated with a capillary electrophoresis device. At a microchannel depth of 10 μm, an enhancement of 6.5 fold is obtained for amino acids separation detection. These results are very encouraging and open the possibility of MEF applications for the Ag ND arrays decorated microchannels. With the miniaturization of microfluidic devices, microfluidic-based MEF by Ag ND arrays will likely find more applications with further enhancement.

  5. Growth and characterization of rutile TiO2 nanorods on various substrates with fabricated fast-response metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector based on Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, Abbas M.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-07-01

    Rutile-phase titanium dioxide nanorods (NRs) were synthesized successfully on p-type silicon (Si) (1 1 1), c-plane sapphire (Al2O3), glass coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), glass, and quartz substrates via chemical bath deposition method. All substrates were seeded with a TiO2 seed layer synthesized with a radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering system prior to NRs growth. The effect of substrate type on structural, morphological, and optical properties of rutile TiO2 NRs was studied. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy analyses showed the tetragonal rutile structure of the synthesized TiO2 NRs. Optical properties were examined with photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of the grown rutile NRs on all substrates, with the spectra exhibiting one strong ultraviolet emission peak intensity compared with broad visible peak. The optimal sample of rutile NRs was grown on Si substrate. Thus, a fast-response metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet (UV) detector was fabricated. Upon exposure to 365 nm light (2.3 mW/cm2) at 5 V bias, the device displays 2.62 × 10-5 A photocurrent, and the response and recovery times are calculated as 18.5 and 19.1 ms, respectively. These results demonstrate that the fabricated high-quality photodiode is a promising candidate as a low-cost UV photodetector for commercially integrated photoelectronic applications.

  6. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  7. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  8. Hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods: Large-scale synthesis and high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Hua; Zheng Zhi; Zhang Lizhi Zhang Hailu; Deng Feng

    2008-09-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis of hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods photocatalyst on a large scale via a soft interface approach. This catalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activity than the famous commercial titania (Degussa P25) under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm). The resulting sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, {sup 1}H solid magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. On the basis of characterization results, we found that the doping of chlorine resulted in red shift of absorption and higher surface acidity as well as crystal defects in the photocatalyst, which were the reasons for high photocatalytic activity of chlorine-doped TiO{sub 2} under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm). These hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods are very attractive in the fields of environmental pollutants removal and solar cell because of their easy separation and high activity. - Graphical abstract: Hierarchical chlorine-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} spherical clusters of nanorods photocatalyst were synthesized on a large scale via a soft interface approach. This catalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activity than the famous commercial titania (Degussa P25) under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm)

  9. Cathodoluminescence study of Mg activation in non-polar and semi-polar faces of undoped/Mg-doped GaN core-shell nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortelano, V.; Martínez, O.; Cuscó, R.; Artús, L.; Jiménez, J.

    2016-03-01

    Spectrally and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements were carried out at 80 K on undoped/Mg-doped GaN core-shell nanorods grown by selective area growth metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy in order to investigate locally the optical activity of the Mg dopants. A study of the luminescence emission distribution over the different regions of the nanorods is presented. We have investigated the CL fingerprints of the Mg incorporation into the non-polar lateral prismatic facets and the semi-polar facets of the pyramidal tips. The amount of Mg incorporation/activation was varied by using several Mg/Ga flow ratios and post-growth annealing treatment. For lower Mg/Ga flow ratios, the annealed nanorods clearly display a donor-acceptor pair band emission peaking at 3.26-3.27 eV and up to 4 LO phonon replicas, which can be considered as a reliable indicator of effective p-type Mg doping in the nanorod shell. For higher Mg/Ga flow ratios, a substantial enhancement of the yellow luminescence emission as well as several emission subbands are observed, which suggests an increase of disorder and the presence of defects as a consequence of the excess Mg doping.

  10. Effect of Nb-doped TiO2 on nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2:Nb for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurdi, I.; Shafura, A. K.; Azhar, N. E. A.; Ishak, A.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, A. H. Salman; Khan, Haseeb A.; Mamat, M. H.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Nb-doped TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrate at different Nb concentrations of 0 at.%, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, 5 at.% and 7 at.%, respectively and their electrical and structural properties were investigated. Subsequently, the Nb-doped TiO2 films were deposited on top of aligned ZnO Nanorod on ITO glass substrates using spin coating technique. The nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/Nb-doped TiO2 (TiO2:Nb) were coated with different Nb concentrations of 0 at.%, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, 5 at.% and 7 at.%, respectively. The Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from the nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2:Nb photoanodes and their effects on the performance of the DSSCs were investigated. From the solar simulator measurement of DSSC the solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 5.376% under AM 1.5 was obtained for the ZnO nanorod/TiO2:Nb-5at.%.

  11. Photoelectrochemical characteristics of TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates by the facile seeding layer assisted hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Mei-rong; Han, Cui-ping; Gu, Xiu-quan; Wang, Yong; Tang, Lu; Tang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were prepared on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a facile two-step hydrothermal method. The nanorods were selectively grown on the FTO regions which were covered with TiO2 seeding layer. It took 5 h to obtain the compact arrays with the nanorod length of ~2 μm and diameter of ~50 nm. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of TiO2 NRAs are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the TiO2 NRAs indicate the good photoelectric conversion ability with an efficiency of 0.22% at a full-wavelength irradiation. A photocurrent density of 0.21 mA/cm2 is observed at 0.7 V versus the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). More evidences suggest that the charge transferring resistance is lowered at an irradiation, while the flat-band potential ( V fb) is shifted towards the positive side.

  12. Resistive switching characteristics of a compact ZnO nanorod array grown directly on an Al-doped ZnO substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, E. J.; Shin, J. Y.; Yoon, T. S.; Kang, C. J.; Choi, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    ZnO’s resistive switching properties have drawn much attention because ZnO has a simple chemical composition and is easy to manipulate. The propulsion mechanism for resistive switching in ZnO is based on a conducting filament that consists of oxygen vacancies. In the case of film structure, the random formation of the conducting filaments occasionally leads to unstable switching characteristics. Limiting the direction in which the conducting filaments are formed is one way to solve this problem. In this study, we demonstrate reliable resistive switching behavior in a device with an Au/compact ZnO nanorod array/Al-doped ZnO structure with stable resistive switching over 105 cycles and a long retention time of 104 s by confining conducting filaments along the boundaries between ZnO nanorods. The restrictive formation of conducting filaments along the boundaries between ZnO nanorods is observed directly using conductive atomic force microscopy.

  13. Synthesis and nanorod growth of n-type phthalocyanine on ultrathin metal films by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiba, Yasuko; Nishimoto, Mihoko; Misawa, Asuka; Misaki, Masahiro; Ishida, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    The thermal behavior of 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene (TCNB), the synthesis of metal-2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octacyanophthalocyanine-metal [MPc(CN)8-M] (M = Cu, Fe, Ni) complexes by the tetramerization of TCNB, and the growth of MPc(CN)8-M nanorods were investigated. By chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in vacuum, MPc(CN)8 molecules were synthesized and MPc(CN)8-M nanorods were formed on all substrates. Among them, CuPc(CN)8 molecules were synthesized in high yield, and CuPc(CN)8-Cu nanorods were deposited uniformly and in high density, with diameters and lengths of 70-110 and 200-700 nm, respectively. The differences in the growth of MPc(CN)8-M nanorods were mainly attributed to the stability of the MPc(CN)8-M complex, the oxidation of ultrathin metal films, and the diffusion of metal atoms. Additionally, the tetramerization of TCNB by CVD at atmospheric pressure was performed on ultrathin Cu films, and the synthesis of CuPc(CN)8 molecules was observed by in situ UV-vis spectroscopy. CVD under atmospheric pressure is also useful for the synthesis of CuPc(CN)8 molecules.

  14. Highly selective electrodeposition of sub-10 nm crystalline noble metallic nanorods inside vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuyang; Wang, Ranran; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yang, Zhaohui; Guo, Jun; Chen, Muzi; Tang, Minghua; Cheng, Yajun; Chu, Haibin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper crystalline noble metallic nanorods including Au and Ag with sub-10 nm diameter, are encapsulated within prealigned and open-ended multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through an electrodeposition method. As the external surface of CNTs has been insulated by the epoxy the CNT channel becomes the only path for the mass transport as well as the nanoreactor for the metal deposition. Highly crystallized Au and Ag2O nanorods parallel to the radial direction of CNTs are confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffraction spectroscopy. The Ag2O nanorods are formed by air oxidation on the Ag metals and show a single crystalline structure with (111) planes. The Au nanorods exhibit a complex crystalline structure including twin-crystal and lattice dislocation with (111) and (200) planes. These crystalline noble metallic nanostructures may have important applications for nanocatalysts for fuel cells as well as nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. This method is deemed to benefit the precise deposition of other crystalline nanostructures inside CNTs with a small diameter. PMID:27240546

  15. Highly selective electrodeposition of sub-10 nm crystalline noble metallic nanorods inside vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuyang; Wang, Ranran; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yang, Zhaohui; Guo, Jun; Chen, Muzi; Tang, Minghua; Cheng, Yajun; Chu, Haibin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper crystalline noble metallic nanorods including Au and Ag with sub-10 nm diameter, are encapsulated within prealigned and open-ended multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through an electrodeposition method. As the external surface of CNTs has been insulated by the epoxy the CNT channel becomes the only path for the mass transport as well as the nanoreactor for the metal deposition. Highly crystallized Au and Ag2O nanorods parallel to the radial direction of CNTs are confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffraction spectroscopy. The Ag2O nanorods are formed by air oxidation on the Ag metals and show a single crystalline structure with (111) planes. The Au nanorods exhibit a complex crystalline structure including twin-crystal and lattice dislocation with (111) and (200) planes. These crystalline noble metallic nanostructures may have important applications for nanocatalysts for fuel cells as well as nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. This method is deemed to benefit the precise deposition of other crystalline nanostructures inside CNTs with a small diameter.

  16. Preparation of Metal Oxide/Au Coaxial Nano-rod Membrane for Photo-energy Conversion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Katsumi; Kimura, Gyosuke; Shirataki, Tatsuya; Fukai, Kaoru

    Coaxial nano-rod membranes of metal oxides such as TiO2 and ZnO were prepared by low temperature electrochemical deposition from aqueous solution on Au nano-rod membrane electrode. Photogalvanic measurements showed the photocurrent at +0.4 V of a TiO2 coaxial nano-rod cell (+23.7 μA cm-2) was approximately 4.3 times larger than that of a TiO2 film on a planar Au electrode (+5.5 μA cm-2). The difference in photocurrent is not only due to the difference in the active electrode surface area, but rather from the improvements of light harvesting and/or carrier generation.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of silicon wire solar cells having ZnO nanorod antireflection coating on Al-doped ZnO seed layer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated and characterized the silicon [Si] wire solar cells with conformal ZnO nanorod antireflection coating [ARC] grown on a Al-doped ZnO [AZO] seed layer. Vertically aligned Si wire arrays were fabricated by electrochemical etching and, the p-n junction was prepared by spin-on dopant diffusion method. Hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorods was followed by AZO film deposition on high aspect ratio Si microwire arrays by atomic layer deposition [ALD]. The introduction of an ALD-deposited AZO film on Si wire arrays not only helps to create the ZnO nanorod arrays, but also has a strong impact on the reduction of surface recombination. The reflectance spectra show that ZnO nanorods were used as an efficient ARC to enhance light absorption by multiple scattering. Also, from the current-voltage results, we found that the combination of the AZO film and ZnO nanorods on Si wire solar cells leads to an increased power conversion efficiency by more than 27% compared to the cells without it. PMID:22222067

  18. Properties of Transition Metal Doped Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykwest, Erik; Limmer, Krista; Brennan, Ray; Blair, Victoria; Ramprasad, Rampi

    Crystallographic texture can have profound effects on the properties of a material. One method of texturing is through the application of an external magnetic field during processing. While this method works with highly magnetic systems, doping is required to couple non-magnetic systems with the external field. Experiments have shown that low concentrations of rare earth (RE) dopants in alumina powders have enabled this kind of texturing. The magnetic properties of RE elements are directly related to their f orbital, which can have as many as 7 unpaired electrons. Since d-block elements can have as many as 5 unpaired electrons the effects of substitutional doping of 3d transition metals (TM) for Al in alpha (stable) and theta (metastable) alumina on the local structure and magnetic properties, in addition to the energetic cost, have been calculated by performing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. This study has led to the development of general guidelines for the magnetic moment distribution at and around the dopant atom, and the dependence of this distribution on the dopant atom type and its coordination environment. It is anticipated that these findings can aid in the selection of suitable dopants help to guide parallel experimental efforts. This project was supported in part by an internship at the Army Research Laboratory, administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, along with a grant of computer time from the DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program.

  19. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of aligned Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} coated ZnO nanorods and Ge doped ZnO nanocombs

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yong; Meng Xia Chen Yiqing; Li Sen; Zhou Qingtao; Liang Xuemei; Feng Yi

    2008-07-01

    Aligned Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} coated ZnO nanorods and Ge doped ZnO nanocombs were synthesized on a silicon substrate by a simple thermal evaporation method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized nanostructure were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The growth of aligned Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} coated ZnO nanorods and Ge doped ZnO nanocombs follows a vapor-solid (VS) process. Photoluminescence properties were also investigated at room temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals the nanostructures have a sharp ultraviolet luminescence peak centered at 382 nm and a broad green luminescence peak centered at about 494 nm.

  20. Shape and surface chemistry effects on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of metallic nanorods and nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Favi, Pelagie Marlene; Valencia, Mariana Morales; Elliott, Paul Robert; Restrepo, Alejandro; Gao, Ming; Huang, Hanchen; Pavon, Juan Jose; Webster, Thomas Jay

    2015-12-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (such as gold and silver) have been intensely studied for wound healing applications due to their ability to be easily functionalized, possess antibacterial properties, and their strong potential for targeted drug release. In this study, rod-shaped silver nanorods (AgNRs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) were fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD), and their cytotoxicity toward human skin fibroblasts were assessed and compared to sphere-shaped silver nanospheres (AgNSs) and gold nanospheres (AuNSs). Results showed that the 39.94 nm AgNSs showed the greatest toxicity with fibroblast cells followed by the 61.06 nm AuNSs, ∼556 nm × 47 nm (11.8:1 aspect ratio) AgNRs, and the ∼534 nm × 65 nm (8.2:1 aspect ratio) AuNRs demonstrated the least amount of toxicity. The calculated IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value for the AgNRs exposed to fibroblasts was greater after 4 days of exposure (387.3 μg mL(-1)) compared to the AgNSs and AuNSs (4.3 and 23.4 μg mL(-1), respectively), indicating that these spherical metallic nanoparticles displayed a greater toxicity to fibroblast cells. The IC50 value could not be measured for the AuNRs due to an incomplete dose response curve. The reduced cell toxicity with the presently developed rod-shaped nanoparticles suggests that they may be promising materials for use in numerous biomedical applications. PMID:26053238

  1. The Zeta Potential of Surface-Functionalized Metallic Nanorod Particles in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, G M; Rose, K A; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Chuang, F S; Sha, M Y; Chakarova, G; Penn, S G

    2007-05-07

    Metallic nanoparticles suspended in aqueous solutions, and functionalized with chemical and biological surface coatings, are important elements in basic and applied nanoscience research. Many applications require an understanding of the electrokinetic or colloidal properties of such particles. In this paper we describe the results of experiments to measure the zeta potential of metallic nanorod particles in aqueous saline solutions, including the effects of pH, ionic strength, metallic composition, and surface functionalization state. Particle substrates tested include gold, silver, and palladium monometallic particles as well as gold/silver bimetallic particles. Surface functionalization conditions included 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), mercaptoethanol (ME), and mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), as well as MUA layers subsequently derivatized with proteins. Zeta potential data for typical charge-stabilized polystyrene particles are also presented for comparison. Experimental data are compared with theory. The results of these studies are useful in predicting and controlling the aggregation, adhesion, and transport of functionalized metallic nanoparticles within microfluidic devices and other systems.

  2. Voids, nanochannels and formation of nanotubes with mobile Sn fillings in Sn doped ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Y; Dieker, Ch; Jäger, W; Piqueras, J; Fernández, P

    2010-06-01

    ZnO nanorods containing different hollow structures have been grown by a thermal evaporation-deposition method with a mixture of ZnS and SnO(2) powders as precursor. Transmission electron microscopy shows rods with rows of voids as well as rods with empty channels along the growth axis. The presence of Sn nanoprecipitates associated with the empty regions indicates, in addition, that these are generated by diffusion processes during growth, probably due to an inhomogeneous distribution of Sn. The mechanism of forming voids and precipitates appears to be based on diffusion processes similar to the Kirkendall effect, which can lead to void formation at interfaces of bulk materials or in core-shell nanostructures. In some cases the nanorods are ZnO tubes partially filled with Sn that has been found to melt and expand by heating the nanotubes under the microscope electron beam. Such metal-semiconductor nanostructures have potential applications as thermal nanosensors or as electrical nanocomponents. PMID:20453289

  3. Voids, nanochannels and formation of nanotubes with mobile Sn fillings in Sn doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Y.; Dieker, Ch; Jäger, W.; Piqueras, J.; Fernández, P.

    2010-06-01

    ZnO nanorods containing different hollow structures have been grown by a thermal evaporation-deposition method with a mixture of ZnS and SnO2 powders as precursor. Transmission electron microscopy shows rods with rows of voids as well as rods with empty channels along the growth axis. The presence of Sn nanoprecipitates associated with the empty regions indicates, in addition, that these are generated by diffusion processes during growth, probably due to an inhomogeneous distribution of Sn. The mechanism of forming voids and precipitates appears to be based on diffusion processes similar to the Kirkendall effect, which can lead to void formation at interfaces of bulk materials or in core-shell nanostructures. In some cases the nanorods are ZnO tubes partially filled with Sn that has been found to melt and expand by heating the nanotubes under the microscope electron beam. Such metal-semiconductor nanostructures have potential applications as thermal nanosensors or as electrical nanocomponents.

  4. Gas-phase generation of noble metal-tipped NiO nanorods by rapid thermal oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kenji; Hirasawa, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    The thermal oxidation of alloy nanoparticles (NPs) composed of nickel and a noble metal was investigated by high-resolution electron microscopic observations of the NPs oxidized in a gas phase under different oxidation conditions. When Ni0.8Au0.2 NPs were heated with oxygen from room temperature, oxidation progressed to form Au-NiO core-shell structures, however, the Au core spilled out by breaking the NiO shell at high temperatures. In contrast, when the alloy NPs were subjected to rapid thermal oxidation, which was enabled by heating the NPs at high temperatures (≥500 °C) and then abruptly exposed to oxygen, oxidation advanced anisotropically such that a NiO island protruded and built up to form a NiO nanorod. This resulted in the formation of Au-tipped NiO nanorods in which a hemispherical Au tip bonded to a NiO nanorod via a Au {111}/NiO{100} interface. We found that the relative sizes of Au and NiO in Au-tipped NiO nanorods were easily and widely controlled by changing the Au mole fraction (0.05-0.8) of the alloy NPs. Similarly, rapid thermal oxidation of Ni-Pt NPs generated Pt-tipped NiO nanorods in which a spherical Pt tip was half-embedded in a NiO nanorod. The present gas-phase approach has great potential for fabricating functional asymmetric hybrid nanostructures in clean conditions.

  5. P3HT:PCBM:pentacene inverted polymer solar cells with roughened Al-doped ZnO nanorod array and photoelectrochemical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsin-Ying; Huang, Hung-Lin

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the P3HT:PCBM:pentacene (1:0.8:0.065 by weight) inverted polymer solar cells with roughened Aldoped ZnO (AZO) nanorod array were fabricated. The pentacene doping could modulate the hole mobility and the electron mobility in the active layer. The optimal hole-electron mobility balance ( µh/ µe=1.000) was achieved as the pentacene doping ratio of 0.065. The 100-nm-long AZO nanorod array were formed as the carrier collection layer and the carrier transportation layer of the inverted polymer solar cells using the combination techniques of the laser interference photolithography method and the wet etching process. Because the AZO nanorod array was prepared using the wet etching process, more defects were formed on the sidewall surface of the AZO nanorods. In this work, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) method was used to grow Zn(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 thin layer on the sidewall surface of the AZO nanorods, which could reduce the carrier recombination path in the inverted polymer solar cells. Compared with the P3HT:PCBM:pentacene (1:0.8:0.065) inverted polymer solar cells without PEC treatment, the short circuit current density and the power conversion efficiency of the inverted polymer solar cells with PEC treatment were increased from 14.56 mA/cm2 to 15.85 mA/cm2 and from 5.45% to 6.13%, respectively. The enhancement in the performance of the inverted polymer solar cells with PEC treatment could be attributed to that the PEC treatment could effectively passivate the defects on the surface of the AZO nonorods.

  6. Origin of p-type conductivity of Sb-doped ZnO nanorods and the local structure around Sb ions

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J. K.; Su, H. L. E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn Wu, Y. C. E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn; Chuang, P. Y.; Kuo, C. L.; Huang, S. Y.; Chan, T. S.; Huang, J. C. A. E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn

    2015-05-25

    To probe the origin of p-type conductivity in Sb-doped ZnO, a careful and detailed synchrotron radiation study was performed. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations provided the evidence for the formation of the complex defects comprising substitution Sb ions at Zn sites (Sb{sub Zn}) and Zn vacancies within the Sb-doped ZnO lattice. Such complex defects result in the increases of Sb-O coordination number and the Sb valence and thereby lead to the p-type conductivity of Sb-doped ZnO. The back-gate field-effect-transistors based on single nanorod of Sb-doped ZnO were constructed, and the stable p-type conduction behavior was confirmed.

  7. A study of the optical properties of metal-doped polyoxotitanium cages and the relationship to metal-doped titania.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yaokang; Cheng, Jun; Matthews, Peter D; Holgado, Juan Pedro; Willkomm, Janina; Leskes, Michal; Steiner, Alexander; Fenske, Dieter; King, Timothy C; Wood, Paul T; Gan, Lihua; Lambert, Richard M; Wright, Dominic S

    2014-06-21

    To what extent the presence of transition metal ions can affect the optical properties of structurally well-defined, metal-doped polyoxotitanium (POT) cages is a key question in respect to how closely these species model technologically important metal-doped TiO2. This also has direct implications to the potential applications of these organically-soluble inorganic cages as photocatalytic redox systems in chemical transformations. Measurement of the band gaps of the series of closely related polyoxotitanium cages [MnTi14(OEt)28O14(OH)2] (1), [FeTi14(OEt)28O14(OH)2] (2) and [GaTi14(OEt)28O15(OH)] (3), containing interstitial Mn(II), Fe(II) and Ga(III) dopant ions, shows that transition metal doping alone does not lower the band gaps below that of TiO2 or the corresponding metal-doped TiO2. Instead, the band gaps of these cages are within the range of values found previously for transition metal-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The low band gaps previously reported for 1 and for a recently reported related Mn-doped POT cage appear to be the result of low band gap impurities (most likely amorphous Mn-doped TiO2). PMID:24763670

  8. Trade-off between Zr Passivation and Sn Doping on Hematite Nanorod Photoanodes for Efficient Solar Water Oxidation: Effects of a ZrO2 Underlayer and FTO Deformation.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Arunprabaharan; Annamalai, Alagappan; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Choi, Sun Hee; Ryu, Jungho; Park, Jung Hee; Jang, Jum Suk

    2016-08-01

    Herein we report the influence of a ZrO2 underlayer on the PEC (photoelectrochemical) behavior of hematite nanorod photoanodes for efficient solar water splitting. Particular attention was given to the cathodic shift in onset potential and photocurrent enhancement. Akaganite (β-FeOOH) nanorods were grown on ZrO2-coated FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates. Sintering at 800 °C transformed akaganite to the hematite (α-Fe2O3) phase and induced Sn diffusion into the crystal structure of hematite nanorods from the FTO substrates and surface migration, shallow doping of Zr atoms from the ZrO2 underlayer. The ZrO2 underlayer-treated photoanode showed better water oxidation performance compared to the pristine (α-Fe2O3) photoanode. A cathodic shift in the onset potential and photocurrent enhancement was achieved by surface passivation and shallow doping of Zr from the ZrO2 underlayer, along with Sn doping from the FTO substrate to the crystal lattice of hematite nanorods. The Zr based hematite nanorod photoanode achieved 1 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE with a low turn-on voltage of 0.80 VRHE. Sn doping and Zr passivation, as well as shallow doping, were confirmed by XPS, Iph, and M-S plot analyses. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the presence of a ZrO2 underlayer decreased the deformation of FTO substrate, improved electron transfer at the hematite/FTO interface and increased charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/hematite interface. This is the first systematic investigation of the effects of Zr passivation, shallow doping, and Sn doping on hematite nanorod photoanodes through application of a ZrO2 underlayer on the FTO substrate. PMID:27420603

  9. Method of synthesizing metal doped diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Mayumi (Inventor); Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of synthesizing metal doped carbon films by placing a substrate in a chamber with a selected amount of a metalorganic compound. An electron cyclotron resonance is applied to the chamber in order to vaporize the metalorganic compound. The resonance is applied to the chamber until a metal doped carbon film is formed. The metalorganic compound is preferably selected from the group consisting of an organic salt of ruthenium, palladium, gold or platinum.

  10. N Doping to ZnO Nanorods for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting under Visible Light: Engineered Impurity Distribution and Terraced Band Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Ren, Feng; Zhou, Jigang; Cai, Guangxu; Cai, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Dongniu; Liu, Yichao; Guo, Liejin; Shen, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Solution-based ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) were modified with controlled N doping by an advanced ion implantation method, and were subsequently utilized as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light irradiation. A gradient distribution of N dopants along the vertical direction of ZnO nanorods was realized. N doped ZnO NRAs displayed a markedly enhanced visible-light-driven PEC photocurrent density of ~160 μA/cm2 at 1.1 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than pristine ZnO NRAs. The gradiently distributed N dopants not only extended the optical absorption edges to visible light region, but also introduced terraced band structure. As a consequence, N gradient-doped ZnO NRAs can not only utilize the visible light irradiation but also efficiently drive photo-induced electron and hole transfer via the terraced band structure. The superior potential of ion implantation technique for creating gradient dopants distribution in host semiconductors will provide novel insights into doped photoelectrode materials for solar water splitting. PMID:26262752

  11. N Doping to ZnO Nanorods for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting under Visible Light: Engineered Impurity Distribution and Terraced Band Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Ren, Feng; Zhou, Jigang; Cai, Guangxu; Cai, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Dongniu; Liu, Yichao; Guo, Liejin; Shen, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Solution-based ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) were modified with controlled N doping by an advanced ion implantation method, and were subsequently utilized as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light irradiation. A gradient distribution of N dopants along the vertical direction of ZnO nanorods was realized. N doped ZnO NRAs displayed a markedly enhanced visible-light-driven PEC photocurrent density of ~160 μA/cm(2) at 1.1 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than pristine ZnO NRAs. The gradiently distributed N dopants not only extended the optical absorption edges to visible light region, but also introduced terraced band structure. As a consequence, N gradient-doped ZnO NRAs can not only utilize the visible light irradiation but also efficiently drive photo-induced electron and hole transfer via the terraced band structure. The superior potential of ion implantation technique for creating gradient dopants distribution in host semiconductors will provide novel insights into doped photoelectrode materials for solar water splitting. PMID:26262752

  12. Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene frameworks anchored with bamboo-like tungsten oxide nanorods as high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xinyuan; Wu, Feilong; Lei, Bingbing; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ziliang; Xie, Kai; Song, Yun; Sun, Dalin; Sun, Lixian; Zhou, Huaiying; Fang, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Bamboo-like WO3 nanorods were anchored on three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene frameworks (r-WO3/3DNGF) by a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis plus heating processes. There is a strong dependence of the obtained r-WO3/3DNGF nanostructures on the content of 3DNGF. The composite with 20 wt% 3DNGF content shows the most favorable structure where bamboo-like WO3 nanorods lie flat on the surface of fungus-like 3DNGF, and exhibits a high discharge capacity of 828 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles at 80 mA g-1 with the largest capacity retention of 73.9% for WO3 and excellent rate capacities of 719, 665, 573, 453 and 313 mAh g-1 at 80, 160, 400, 800 and 1600 mA g-1, respectively. The electrochemical performance is better than most of reported WO3-based carbonaceous composites, which can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the following actions: i) WO3 nanorods effectively shorten the diffusion path of Li+; ii) mechanically strong 3DNGF alleviates the huge volume change of WO3 upon Li+ intercalation/extraction; and iii) nitrogen-doping in 3D graphene frameworks improves electronic conductivity and provides large numbers of lithium ion diffusion channels.

  13. Colorimetric Detection of Escherichia coli Based on the Enzyme-Induced Metallization of Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juhong; Jackson, Angelyca A; Rotello, Vincent M; Nugen, Sam R

    2016-05-01

    A novel enzyme-induced metallization colorimetric assay is developed to monitor and measure beta-galactosidase (β-gal) activity, and is further employed for colorimetric bacteriophage (phage)-enabled detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). This assay relies on enzymatic reaction-induced silver deposition on the surface of gold nanorods (AuNRs). In the presence of β-gal, the substrate p-aminophenyl β-d-galactopyranoside is hydrolyzed to produce p-aminophenol (PAP). Reduction of silver ions by PAP generates a silver shell on the surface of AuNRs, resulting in the blue shift of the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance peak and multicolor changes of the detection solution from light green to orange-red. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit for β-gal is 128 pM, which is lower than the conventional colorimetric assay. Additionally, the assay has a broader dynamic range for β-gal detection. The specificity of this assay for the detection of β-gal is demonstrated against several protein competitors. Additionally, this technique is successfully applied to detect E. coli bacteria cells in combination with bacteriophage infection. Due to the simplicity and short incubation time of this enzyme-induced metallization colorimetric method, the assay is well suited for the detection of bacteria in low-resource settings. PMID:26997252

  14. Bacterial Killing by Light-Triggered Release of Silver from Biomimetic Metal Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji; Zhang, Ran; Rivera, José G.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2014-01-01

    Illumination of noble metal nanoparticles at the plasmon resonance causes substantial heat generation, and the transient and highly localized temperature increases that result from this energy conversion can be exploited for photothermal therapy by plasmonically heating gold nanorods (NRs) bound to cell surfaces. Here, we report the first use of plasmonic heating to locally release silver from gold core/silver shell (Au@Ag) NRs targeted to bacterial cell walls. A novel biomimetic method of preparing Au@Ag core-shell NRs was employed, involving deposition of a thin organic polydopamine (PD) primer onto Au NR surfaces, followed by spontaneous electroless silver metallization, and conjugation of antibacterial antibodies and passivating polymers for targeting to gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Dramatic cytotoxicity of S. epidermidis and E. coli cells targeted with Au@Ag NRs was observed upon exposure to light as a result of the combined antibacterial effects of plasmonic heating and silver release. The antibacterial effect was much greater than with either plasmonic heating or silver alone, implying a strong therapeutic synergy between cell-targeted plasmonic heating and the associated silver release upon irradiation. Our findings suggest a potential antibacterial use of Au@Ag NRs when coupled with light irradiation, which was not previously described. PMID:23847147

  15. Metal enhanced fluorescence improved protein and DNA detection by zigzag Ag nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaofan; Xiao, Chenyu; Lau, Wai-Fung; Li, Jianping; Fu, Junxue

    2016-08-15

    As metal nano-arrays show great potential on metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) than random nanostructures, MEF of Ag zigzag nanorod (ZNR) arrays made by oblique angle deposition has been studied for biomolecule-protein interaction and DNA hybridization. By changing the folding number and the deposition substrate temperature, a 14-fold enhancement factor (EF) is obtained for biotin-neutravidin detection. The optimal folding number is decided as Z=7, owing to the high scattering intensity of Ag ZNRs. The substrate temperature T=25°C and 0°C slightly alters the morphology of Ag ZNRs but has no big difference in EF. Further, Ag ZNRs deposited on a layer of Ag film have been introduced to the DNA hybridization and a significant signal enhancement has been observed through the fluorescence microscope. Through a detailed quantitative EF analysis, which excludes the enhancing effect from the increased surface area of ZNRs and only considers the contribution of MEF, an EF of 28 is achieved for the hybridization of two single-stranded oligonucleotides with 33 bases. Furthermore, a limit of detection is determined as 0.01pM. We believe that the Ag ZNR arrays can serve as a universal and sensitive bio-detection platform. PMID:27088369

  16. Precise doping of metals by small gas flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1968-01-01

    Simple method was developed for doping refractory metals with oxygen. The metal specimens are heated in a dynamic high-vacuum system. The system can be used for other oxygen absorption processes /such as low-pressure oxidation measurements/ and for gases other than oxygen.

  17. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Poudel, Bed (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Wang, Wenzhong (Inventor); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  18. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang; Poudel, Bed; Kumar, Shankar; Wang, Wenzhong; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2009-09-08

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  19. Manganese Oxide Nanorod-Decorated Mesoporous ZSM-5 Composite as a Precious-Metal-Free Electrode Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiangzhi; Hua, Zile; Chen, Lisong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-10

    A precious-metal-free cathode catalyst, MnO2 nanorod-decorated mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite nanocomposite (MnO2 / m-ZSM-5), has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal and electrostatic interaction approach for efficient electrochemical catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The active MnOOH species, that is, Mn(4+) /Mn(3+) redox couple and Brønsted acid sites on the mesoporous ZSM-5 matrix facilitate an approximately 4 e(-) process for the catalysis of the ORR comparable to commercial 20 wt % Pt/C. Stable electrocatalytic activity with 90 % current retention after 5000 cycles, and more importantly, excellent methanol tolerance is observed. Synergetic catalytic effects between the MnO2 nanorods and the mesoporous ZSM-5 matrix are proposed to account for the high electrochemical catalytic performance. PMID:27038172

  20. Studies on the structural and optical properties of zinc oxide nanobushes and Co-doped ZnO self-aggregated nanorods synthesized by simple thermal decomposition route

    SciTech Connect

    Freedsman, Joseph J.; Kennedy, L. John; Kumar, R. Thinesh; Sekaran, G.; Vijaya, J. Judith

    2010-10-15

    Pure and Co-doped zinc oxide nanomaterials were prepared by a simple low temperature synthesis and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. The results showed the formation of nanobushes that consists of several nanowires for pure ZnO and the nanorods formed by self-aggregation for Co-doped ZnO. The presence of Co{sup 2+} ions replacing some of the Zn{sup 2+} in the ZnO lattice was confirmed by EPR and DRS studies. The mechanism for the formation of self-aggregated and self-aligned ZnO rods after the incorporation of cobalt in the lattice by the building block units is discussed in this study. Morphological studies were carried out using SEM and HR-TEM, which supports the validity of the proposed mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanobushes and Co-doped ZnO nanorods. The synthesized nanomaterials were found to have good optoelectronic properties.

  1. Raman fingerprint of doping due to metal adsorbates on graphene.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M W; Singh, Arun Kumar; Iqbal, M Z; Eom, Jonghwa

    2012-08-22

    The properties of single-layer graphene are strongly affected by metal adsorbates and clusters on graphene. Here, we study the effect of a thin layer of chromium (Cr) and titanium (Ti) metals on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene by using Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements. The Raman spectra and transport measurements show that both Cr and Ti metals affect the structure as well as the electronic properties of the CVD-grown graphene. The shift of peak frequencies, intensities and widths of the Raman bands are analyzed after the deposition of metal films of different thickness on CVD-grown graphene. The shifts in G and 2D peak positions indicate the doping effect of graphene by Cr and Ti metals. While p-type doping was observed for Cr-coated graphene, n-type doping was observed for Ti-coated graphene. The doping effect is also confirmed by measuring the gate voltage dependent resistivity of graphene. We have also found that annealing in Ar atmosphere induces a p-type doping effect on Cr- or Ti-coated CVD-grown graphene. PMID:22814217

  2. Raman fingerprint of doping due to metal adsorbates on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. W.; Singh, Arun Kumar; Iqbal, M. Z.; Eom, Jonghwa

    2012-08-01

    The properties of single-layer graphene are strongly affected by metal adsorbates and clusters on graphene. Here, we study the effect of a thin layer of chromium (Cr) and titanium (Ti) metals on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene by using Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements. The Raman spectra and transport measurements show that both Cr and Ti metals affect the structure as well as the electronic properties of the CVD-grown graphene. The shift of peak frequencies, intensities and widths of the Raman bands are analyzed after the deposition of metal films of different thickness on CVD-grown graphene. The shifts in G and 2D peak positions indicate the doping effect of graphene by Cr and Ti metals. While p-type doping was observed for Cr-coated graphene, n-type doping was observed for Ti-coated graphene. The doping effect is also confirmed by measuring the gate voltage dependent resistivity of graphene. We have also found that annealing in Ar atmosphere induces a p-type doping effect on Cr- or Ti-coated CVD-grown graphene.

  3. Method of making metal-doped organic foam products

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1981-01-01

    Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for roducing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

  4. The fabrication and characterization of novel carbon doped TiO2 nanotubes, nanowires and nanorods with high visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongbiao; Dong, Fan; Zhao, Weirong; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yue; Guan, Baohong

    2009-06-10

    Novel carbon doped TiO(2) nanotubes, nanowires and nanorods were fabricated by utilizing the nanoconfinement of hollow titanate nanotubes (TNTs). The fabrication process included adsorption of ethanol molecules in the inner space of TNTs and thermal treatment of the complex in inert N(2) atmosphere. The structural morphology of carbon doped TiO(2) nanostructures can be tuned using the calcination temperature. X-ray diffraction, Raman and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller studies proved that the doped carbon promoted the crystallization and phase transition by acting as nucleation seeds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that O-Ti-C and Ti-O-C bonds were formed in the nanostructures. Additional electronic states from the XPS valence band due to carbon doping were observed. This evidence indicated the electronic origin of the band gap narrowing and visible light absorption. The differences in chemical and electronic states between the surface and bulk of as-prepared samples confirmed that carbon was doped into the lattice of TiO(2) nanostructure through an inner doping process. The as-prepared catalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of toluene in gas phase under both visible and simulated solar light irradiation compared with that of commercial Degussa P25. This novel fabrication approach can valuably contribute to designing nanostructured photocatalytic materials and modifying various nanotube materials. PMID:19451679

  5. Growth of metal-semiconductor core-multishell nanorods with optimized field confinement and nonlinear enhancement.

    PubMed

    Nan, Fan; Xie, Fang-Ming; Liang, Shan; Ma, Liang; Yang, Da-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Yu, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Qu-Quan; Zeng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a facile method for the synthesis of Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods with double trapping layers. The synthesis, in sequence, involved deposition of Ag shells onto the surfaces of Au nanorod seeds, formation of AuAg shells by a galvanic replacement reaction, and overgrowth of the Ag2S shells and PbS shells. The resulting core-multishell nanorod possesses an air gap between the Au core and the AuAg shell. Together with the Ag2S shell, the air gap can efficiently trap light, causing strong field confinement and nonlinear enhancement. The as-prepared Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods display distinct localized surface plasmon resonance and nonlinear optical properties, demonstrating an effective pathway for maneuvering the optical properties of nanocavities. PMID:27241031

  6. Growth of metal-semiconductor core-multishell nanorods with optimized field confinement and nonlinear enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Fan; Xie, Fang-Ming; Liang, Shan; Ma, Liang; Yang, Da-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Yu, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Qu-Quan; Zeng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a facile method for the synthesis of Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods with double trapping layers. The synthesis, in sequence, involved deposition of Ag shells onto the surfaces of Au nanorod seeds, formation of AuAg shells by a galvanic replacement reaction, and overgrowth of the Ag2S shells and PbS shells. The resulting core-multishell nanorod possesses an air gap between the Au core and the AuAg shell. Together with the Ag2S shell, the air gap can efficiently trap light, causing strong field confinement and nonlinear enhancement. The as-prepared Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods display distinct localized surface plasmon resonance and nonlinear optical properties, demonstrating an effective pathway for maneuvering the optical properties of nanocavities.This paper describes a facile method for the synthesis of Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods with double trapping layers. The synthesis, in sequence, involved deposition of Ag shells onto the surfaces of Au nanorod seeds, formation of AuAg shells by a galvanic replacement reaction, and overgrowth of the Ag2S shells and PbS shells. The resulting core-multishell nanorod possesses an air gap between the Au core and the AuAg shell. Together with the Ag2S shell, the air gap can efficiently trap light, causing strong field confinement and nonlinear enhancement. The as-prepared Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods display distinct localized surface plasmon resonance and nonlinear optical properties, demonstrating an effective pathway for maneuvering the optical properties of nanocavities. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09151a

  7. Superconductivity above 30 K in alkali-metal-doped hydrocarbon

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Wang, Duming; Wu, Yue; Yang, Huaixin; Dong, Xiaoli; He, Junbao; Li, Fengwang; Chen, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of superconductivity with a transition temperature (Tc) at 18 K in Kxpicene has extended the possibility of high-Tc superconductors in organic materials. Previous experience based on similar hydrocarbons, like alkali-metal doped phenanthrene, suggested that even higher transition temperatures might be achieved in alkali-metals or alkali-earth-metals doped such polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs), a large family of molecules composed of fused benzene rings. Here we report the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity at 33 K in K-doped 1,2:8,9-dibenzopentacene (C30H18). To our best knowledge, it is higher than any Tc reported previously for an organic superconductor under ambient pressure. This finding provides an indication that superconductivity at much higher temperature may be possible in such PAHs system and is worthy of further exploration. PMID:22548129

  8. Effect of Metallic Au Seed Layer Annealing on the Properties of Electrodeposited ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngbin; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Byunggu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the effect of annealing the Au seed layer (ASL) on the structural and optical properties of electrodeposited ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods were fabricated in a three-step approach. In the first step, ASLs were deposited using an ion sputter technique. In the second step, layers were annealed in air at various temperatures ranging from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C. Finally, ZnO nanorods were grown using an electrodeposition method. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that better aligned ZnO nanorods are fabricated on the annealed ASL compared with non-annealed ASL The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a notable improvement in directional growth along the (002) crystallographic plane when ZnO nanorods were grown on the annealed ASL. The photoluminescence analysis showed that the UV emission peak of ZnO nanorods on the annealed ASL at 400 degrees C was blue-shifted and increased. PMID:26726551

  9. Metal-Metal and π-π Interactions Directed End-to-End Assembly of Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Leung, Frankie Chi-Ming; Leung, Sammual Yu-Lut; Chung, Clive Yik-Sham; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2016-03-01

    The end-to-end aggregation of gold nanorods (GNRs) has been demonstrated to be directed by a thioacetate-containing alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine complex. The in situ deprotected complex is preferentially attached at the ends of the gold nanorods (GNRs) and induce the aggregation of GNRs in an "end-to-end" manner by Pt···Pt and π-π interactions, which have been characterized by electron microscopy, energy dispersed X-ray (EDX) analysis, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The assembly of the nanorods into chain-like nanostructures can be controlled by the concentration of the Pt(II) complexes. PMID:26914346

  10. One-pot synthesis and Nb4N5 surface modification of Nb(4+) self-doped KNbO3 nanorods for enhanced visible-light-driven hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqiang; Wang, Xia; Cui, Zhentao; Liu, Bing; Cao, Minhua

    2015-06-01

    Herein, rhombohedral self-doped KNbO3 (S-KN) nanorods were fabricated via a one pot, solvothermal method without using any surfactant. The presence of Nb(4+) in S-KN greatly narrows its band gap and thus extends its photoresponse from UV to the visible light region. Moreover, S-KN/Nb4N5 nanorod heterostructures were obtained by nitriding S-KN nanorods for different times, which exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production under visible light irradiation. The junction formed between S-KN and Nb4N5 and the Nb(4+) self-doping of KN are supposed to be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of S-KN/Nb4N5. This study also paves the way for the synthesis of other similar photocatalysts. PMID:25960360

  11. From Impurity Doping to Metallic Growth in Diffusion Doping: Properties and Structure of Silver-Doped InAs Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Amit, Yorai; Li, Yuanyuan; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Banin, Uri

    2015-11-24

    Tuning of the electronic properties of presynthesized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) by doping plays a key role in the prospect of implementing them in printed electronics devices such as transistors and photodetectors. While such impurity doping reactions have already been introduced, the understanding of the doping process, the nature of interaction between the impurity and host atoms, and the conditions affecting the solubility limit of impurities in nanocrystals are still unclear. Here, we used a postsynthesis diffusion-based doping reaction to introduce Ag impurities into InAs NCs. Optical absorption spectroscopy and analytical inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to present a two-stage doping model consisting of a "doping region" and a "growth region", depending on the impurity to NC ratio in the reaction vessel. X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy was employed to determine the impurity location and correlate between the structural and electronic properties for different sizes of InAs NCs and dopant concentrations. The resulting structural model describes a heterogeneous system where the impurities initially dope the NC, by substituting for In atoms near the surface of the NC, until the "solubility limit" is reached, after which the rapid growth and formation of metallic structures are identified. PMID:26390173

  12. Incorporation of N-doped TiO2 nanorods in regenerated cellulose thin films fabricated from recycled newspaper as a green portable photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Salleh, W N W; Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, A F; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Jamil, Siti Munira

    2015-11-20

    In this work, an environmental friendly RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film was designed as a green portable photocatalyst by utilizing recycled newspaper as sustainable cellulose resource. Investigations on the influence of N-doped TiO2 nanorods incorporation on the structural and morphological properties of RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film are presented. The resulting nanocomposite thin film was characterized by FESEM, AFM, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, and XPS analysis. The results suggested that there was a remarkable compatibility between cellulose and N-doped TiO2 nanorods anchored onto the surface of the RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film. Under UV and visible irradiation, the RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film showed remarkable photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution with degradation percentage of 96% and 78.8%, respectively. It is crucial to note that the resulting portable photocatalyst produced via an environmental and green technique in its fabrication process has good potential in the field of water and wastewater treatment application. PMID:26344299

  13. Metal Atom Endohedrally Doped C20 CAGE Structure:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkoç, Şakir

    The C20 cage structure (X@C20; X =Fe, Co, Ni) endohedrally doped with a metal atom has been investigated theoretically by performing molecular-mechanics optimizations, and semi-empirical PM3 level and density functional theory B3LYP/6-31G* level calculations within UHF formalism. Calculations have been performed with different spin configurations for the neutral systems.

  14. Metal oxide charge transport material doped with organic molecules

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.

    2016-08-30

    Doping metal oxide charge transport material with an organic molecule lowers electrical resistance while maintaining transparency and thus is optimal for use as charge transport materials in various organic optoelectronic devices such as organic photovoltaic devices and organic light emitting devices.

  15. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  16. Ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO nanorods-seed layer effect and metal oxide modifying layer effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai; Fang, Guojia; Liu, Nishuang; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2011-12-01

    Pt/ZnO nanorod (NR) and Pt/modified ZnO NR Schottky barrier ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) were prepared with different seed layers and metal oxide modifying layer materials. In this paper, we discussed the effect of metal oxide modifying layer on the performance of UV PDs pre- and post-deposition annealing at 300°C, respectively. For Schottky barrier UV PDs with different seed layers, the MgZnO seed layer-PDs without metal oxide coating showed bigger responsivity and larger detectivity ( D λ*) than those of PDs with ZnO seed layer, and the reason was illustrated through energy band theory and the electron transport mechanism. Also the ratio of D 254* to D 546* was calculated above 8 × 102 for all PDs, which demonstrated that our PDs showed high selectivity for detecting UV light with less influence of light with long wavelength.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal doped semiconducting nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszpurenko, Jason Michael

    The abundance of semiconductors in everyday life has exploded because of their cheapness, ability to do massive calculations, harvest energy and more. For all their utility semiconductors used in calculations suffer because they need an auxiliary way to store the data they've calculated. Magnetic storage has traditionally been the answer to this problem but suffers from slower speeds. Since the 1960's a class of materials known as dilute magnetic semiconductors has tried to combine the advantages of semiconductors with the non-volatile storage properties found in magnets. Often the easiest way to make these materials is by doping semiconductors with transition metal ions. In this study I worked with PbS and ZnSe to create transition metal doped semiconducting nanostructures. The initial studies focus on the synthesis and characterization of PbS nanowires doped with Mn. The wires revealed high quality nanowires with uniform doping concentrations, both axially and radially, with atomic concentrations of 0.18 and 0.01 atomic %. The Mn didn't create any secondary phases and was substitutionally introduced. Zn1-xMn xSe nanostructures were grown with the hopes of achieving a higher Mn doping concentration where we succeeded in achieving dopant levels of x~0.3. To increase carrier concentrations, estimated to be~1016cm -3 for pure ZnSe samples, Al was doped with ZnSe and co-doped with Mn. ZnAlSe nanowires showed carrier concentration ~1019cm -3. Optical studies revealed hole traps with a characteristic time on the order of 1ms in ZnAlSe nanowire samples

  18. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  19. Metal-insulator transition in films of doped semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Reich, K V; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Shklovskii, B I

    2016-03-01

    To fully deploy the potential of semiconductor nanocrystal films as low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of the amount of dopants required to make their conductivity metallic is needed. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the Mott criterion. Here, we theoretically derive the critical concentration nc for films of heavily doped nanocrystals devoid of ligands at their surface and in direct contact with each other. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition. PMID:26618885

  20. Electronic structure, conductivity and superconductivity of metal doped C60

    SciTech Connect

    Haddon, R.C.

    1993-12-31

    The curvature and topology required for fullerene formation strongly enhances the electronegativity of the carbon clusters and as a result C60 readily accepts electrons. Solid C60 undergoes doping with a variety of metals to produce intercalation compounds which are conductors. In the case of the alkali metals the predominant phases present are: C60, A3C60, and A6C60. The A3C60 compounds are formed from C60 by occupancy of the interstitial sites of the fcc lattice. These phases constitute the first 3-dimensional organic conductors and for A=K, Rb the A3C60 compounds are superconductors with transition temperatures of Tc=19 and 28K, respectively. There is evidence to suggest that the superconductivity in these systems is driven by the intramolecular vibrations of the reduced C60 molecule. Recent experiments on a variety of metal doped C60 thin films will be presented.

  1. Metal-insulator transition in films of doped semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Reich, K. V.; Kramer, Nicolaas J.; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2016-03-01

    To fully deploy the potential of semiconductor nanocrystal films as low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of the amount of dopants required to make their conductivity metallic is needed. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the Mott criterion. Here, we theoretically derive the critical concentration nc for films of heavily doped nanocrystals devoid of ligands at their surface and in direct contact with each other. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition.

  2. Zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chik, Hope Wuming

    Non-lithographic, bottom-up techniques have been developed to advance the state of the art and contribute to the development of new material structures, fabrication methods, devices, and applications using the Zinc Oxide material system as a demonstration vehicle. The novel low temperature catalytic vapour-liquid-solid growth process developed is technologically simple, inexpensive, and a robust fabrication technique offering complete control over the physical dimensions of the nanorod such as its diameter and length, and over the positioning of the nanorods for site-selective growth. By controlling the distribution of the Au catalysts with the use of a self-organized anodized aluminum oxide nanopore membrane as a template, we have been able to synthesize highly ordered, hexagonally packed, array of ZnO nanorods spanning a large area. These nanorods are single crystal, hexagonally shaped, indicative of the wurtzite structure, and are vertically aligned to the substrate. By pre-patterning the template, arbitrary nanorod patterns can be formed. We have also demonstrated the assembly of the nanorods into functional devices using controlled methods that are less resource intensive, easily scalable, and adaptable to other material systems, without resorting to the manipulation of each individual nanostructures. Examples of these devices include the random network device that exploits the common attributes of the nanorods, and those formed using an external field to control the nanorod orientation. Two and three terminal device measurements show that the as-grown nanorods are n-type doped, and that by controlling the external optical excitation and its test environment, the photoconductivity can be altered dramatically. Self assemble techniques such as the spontaneous formation of nanodendrites into complex networks of interconnects were studied. Controlled formation of interconnects achieved by controlling the placement of the catalyst is demonstrated by growing the

  3. Photochemical synthesis of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Franklin; Song, Jae Hee; Yang, Peidong

    2002-12-01

    Gold nanorods have been synthesized by photochemically reducing gold ions within a micellar solution. The aspect ratio of the rods can be controlled with the addition of silver ions. This process reported here is highly promising for producing uniform nanorods, and more importantly it will be useful in resolving the growth mechanism of anisotropic metal nanoparticles due to its simplicity and the relatively slow growth rate of the nanorods. PMID:12452700

  4. CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm−2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption. PMID:23098050

  5. Spin tuning of electron-doped metal-phthalocyanine layers.

    PubMed

    Stepanow, Sebastian; Lodi Rizzini, Alberto; Krull, Cornelius; Kavich, Jerald; Cezar, Julio C; Yakhou-Harris, Flora; Sheverdyaeva, Polina M; Moras, Paolo; Carbone, Carlo; Ceballos, Gustavo; Mugarza, Aitor; Gambardella, Pietro

    2014-04-01

    The spin state of organic-based magnets at interfaces is to a great extent determined by the organic environment and the nature of the spin-carrying metal center, which is further subject to modifications by the adsorbate-substrate coupling. Direct chemical doping offers an additional route for tailoring the electronic and magnetic characteristics of molecular magnets. Here we present a systematic investigation of the effects of alkali metal doping on the charge state and crystal field of 3d metal ions in Cu, Ni, Fe, and Mn phthalocyanine (Pc) monolayers adsorbed on Ag. Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ligand field multiplet calculations show that Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) ions reduce to Cu(I), Ni(I), and Fe(I) upon alkali metal adsorption, whereas Mn maintains its formal oxidation state. The strength of the crystal field at the Ni, Fe, and Mn sites is strongly reduced upon doping. The combined effect of these changes is that the magnetic moment of high- and low-spin ions such as Cu and Ni can be entirely turned off or on, respectively, whereas the magnetic configuration of MnPc can be changed from intermediate (3/2) to high (5/2) spin. In the case of FePc a 10-fold increase of the orbital magnetic moment accompanies charge transfer and a transition to a high-spin state. PMID:24635343

  6. Electronic doping of transition metal oxide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammarata, Antonio; Rondinelli, James M.

    2016-05-01

    CaFeO3 is a prototypical negative charge transfer oxide that undergoes electronic metal-insulator transition concomitant with a dilation and contraction of nearly rigid octahedra. Altering the charge neutrality of the bulk system destroys the electronic transition, while the structure is significantly modified at high charge content. Using density functional theory simulations, we predict an alternative avenue to modulate the structure and the electronic transition in CaFeO3. Charge distribution can be modulated using strain-rotation coupling and thin film engineering strategies, proposing themselves as a promising avenue for fine tuning electronic features in transition metal-oxide perovskites.

  7. Spinodal nanodecomposition in semiconductors doped with transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, T.; Sato, K.; Fukushima, T.; Bonanni, A.; Jamet, M.; Barski, A.; Kuroda, S.; Tanaka, M.; Hai, Pham Nam; Katayama-Yoshida, H.

    2015-10-01

    This review presents the recent progress in computational materials design, experimental realization, and control methods of spinodal nanodecomposition under three- and two-dimensional crystal-growth conditions in spintronic materials, such as magnetically doped semiconductors. The computational description of nanodecomposition, performed by combining first-principles calculations with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, is discussed together with extensive electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation, scanning probe, and ion beam methods that have been employed to visualize binodal and spinodal nanodecomposition (chemical phase separation) as well as nanoprecipitation (crystallographic phase separation) in a range of semiconductor compounds with a concentration of transition metal (TM) impurities beyond the solubility limit. The role of growth conditions, codoping by shallow impurities, kinetic barriers, and surface reactions in controlling the aggregation of magnetic cations is highlighted. According to theoretical simulations and experimental results the TM-rich regions appear in the form of either nanodots (the dairiseki phase) or nanocolumns (the konbu phase) buried in the host semiconductor. Particular attention is paid to Mn-doped group III arsenides and antimonides, TM-doped group III nitrides, Mn- and Fe-doped Ge, and Cr-doped group II chalcogenides, in which ferromagnetic features persisting up to above room temperature correlate with the presence of nanodecomposition and account for the application-relevant magneto-optical and magnetotransport properties of these compounds. Finally, it is pointed out that spinodal nanodecomposition can be viewed as a new class of bottom-up approach to nanofabrication.

  8. Low temperature synthesis and luminescence properties of re-dispersible Eu 3+ doped LaPO 4 nanorods by ethylene glycol route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaomei, Ganngam; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Singh, W. Rameshwor; Singh, Naorem Shanta; Luwang, M. Niraj; Tewari, R.; Vatsa, R. K.

    2010-03-01

    Eu 3+ doped LaPO 4 nanorods with monoclinic system have been prepared at relatively low temperature (150 °C) in ethylene glycol medium. Unit cell volume of LaPO 4 is found to decrease linearly with increasing Eu 3+ concentration indicating the homogeneous substitution of La 3+ ions in LaPO 4 by Eu 3+ ions. Transmission electron microscopic images show that the particles are present in the form of nanorods having a length of 100 nm and diameter of about 20 nm. The photoluminescence study shows that the intensity of magnetic dipole transition ( 5D 0 → 7F 1) at 590 nm dominates over that of electric dipole transition ( 5D 0 → 7F 2) at 617 nm. The optimum concentration of Eu 3+ for the highest luminescence is found to be 7 at.%. Emission from the 5D 0 level of Eu 3+ follows monoexponential decay which can be attributed to homogeneous substitution of La 3+ sites in LaPO 4 by Eu 3+ ions. As-prepared samples are found to be dispersible in methanol and water. This could be a potential candidate for various applications, i.e. incorporation of luminescent materials in polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol and in biological activity such as tracer.

  9. Doping dependent plasmon dispersion in 2 H -transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Eric; Büchner, Bernd; Habenicht, Carsten; König, Andreas; Knupfer, Martin; Berger, Helmuth; Huotari, Simo

    2016-07-01

    We report the behavior of the charge carrier plasmon of 2 H -transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) as a function of intercalation with alkali metals. Intercalation and concurrent doping of the TMD layers have a substantial impact on plasmon energy and dispersion. While the plasmon energy shifts are related to the intercalation level as expected within a simple homogeneous electron gas picture, the plasmon dispersion changes in a peculiar manner independent of the intercalant and the TMD materials. Starting from a negative dispersion, the slope of the plasmon dispersion changes sign and grows monotonously upon doping. Quantitatively, the increase of this slope depends on the orbital character (4 d or 5 d ) of the conduction bands, which indicates a decisive role of band structure effects on the plasmon behavior.

  10. Strongly coupled metal oxide nanorod arrays with graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets enable novel solid-state hybrid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu; Xi, Jiangbo; Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Shihe; Jin, Yunxia; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical capacitors and rechargeable batteries are still limited in applications by the low energy and power densities they can deliver, respectively, holding back their deployment in electric vehicles. Here we develop a type of solid-state hybrid cells (SHCs) composed of graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets-coated metal oxide nanorod arrays ((MOx/GNR)@GNS). GNR and GNS are deposited on the surface of MOx nanorod arrays to improve the electron transport characteristic, and thus enhance the energy storage performance. The (MOx/GNR)@GNS-based SHCs can achieve a maximum volumetric energy density of 0.9 mWh cm-3, and still retain 0.4 mWh cm-3 even at 0.1 W cm-3. The energy storage performance is much better than the electrochemical capacitors reported previously, and can even rival the commercial Li thin-film battery but with a significantly higher power density, lower cost and higher safety. Also demonstrated is the good long-term cycle life with only ∼17% loss after 2500 cycles. These salient features make the (MOx/GNR)@GNS composites-based SHCs a strong contender for electrochemical energy storage.

  11. Magnetic and transport studies of core-shell nanorods based on metallic oxide ferromagnet SrRuO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, M.; Li, X. Y.; Zhu, Q. X.; Li, H. R.; Shi, L.; Li, X. M.; Zheng, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the synthesis of perovskite metal-semiconductor core-shell heterostructures by sputtering SrRuO3 (SRO) shell layer on vertically aligned hydrothermally produced ZnO nanorods. Compared to the two-dimensional SRO films, the magnetic behaviors of the SRO shells on ZnO nanorods are morphology and thickness dependent, as reflected by the magnetic isotropy effects and the appearance of double-step magnetic hysteresis loops caused by nanograin-induced disorder and uncompensated spin at the surface and interface. The appearance of low-temperature resistance minimum and the good fitting of the low-temperature resistance data to a theoretical model establish the emergence of weak localization effect in the SRO shells, whose strength can be reinforced by a magnetic field. In addition, an apparent low-resistance Ohmic contact was realized in the ZnO/SRO heterojunctions due to the lower work function of the SRO. This, together with the absence of the Schottky barrier at the interface, demonstrates that the ZnO/SRO nanostructures could hold great promise for applications in advanced electron field emitters.

  12. Schottky diodes between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2015-07-07

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells.

  13. Schottky diodes between Bi2S3 nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2015-07-01

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi2S3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi2S3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis, structural analysis and room-temperature ferromagnetism of Y2O3:Co2+ nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhak, Prasanta; Patel, Sandeep K. S.; Kim, Min-Kwan; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2016-06-01

    Co2+-doped Y2O3 nanorods of 70-100 nm diameters and 0.3-2 μm lengths with different compositions (x=0.00, 0.04, 0.08) in Y2-xCoxO3 were synthesized by an easy hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated the formation of a pure cubic phase structure of Y2O3 doped with Co2+ ions without any secondary phase formation. The TEM analysis indicated that the nanorods were grown along the [100] axis. The pure Y2O3 nanorods showed diamagnetism whereas the Co2+-doped ones exhibited room-temperature ferromagnetism. The existence of such room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior in Co2+-doped Y2O3 nanorods is due mainly to the existence of oxygen vacancies originating after the doping of transition metal ions in the Y2O3 host lattice. Oxygen vacancies act as defect centers in the bound magnetic polaron model to account for this dilute magnetic oxide of medium band gap with low transition-metal-ion concentration. The presence of defect-related oxygen vacancies was further confirmed by photoluminescence spectra analysis of our studied materials.

  15. Unexpected band structure and half-metal in non-metal-doped arsenene sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Chang-wen; Ji, Wei-xiao; Wang, Pei-ji

    2015-06-01

    We performed a first-principles study on two-dimensional (2D) arsenene doped with non-magnetic elements. It was found that dopants (groups III, V, and VII) with odd numbers of valence electrons maintained the semiconducting character of the pristine system, while those (groups IV and VI) with even numbers of valence electrons caused the metallic character to change. Remarkably, the C- and O-doped systems were spin-polarized and could be modulated into half-metals by the external electric field. Our findings reveal a potential method of engineering buckled arsenene for applications in nanoelectronics.

  16. Synthesis rare earth doped TiO2 nanorods and their application in the photocatalytic degradation of lignin

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, Liang; Zhao, Xueyuan; Cao, Lixin; Moon, Ji Won; Gu, Baohua; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the degradation of macromolecular lignin in aqueous environments catalyzed by rare earth doped titania nonorods (RE-TiO2 NRs) under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this work, we developed a two-step process to synthesize the RE-TiO2 NRs. Protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structure and negative surface charges were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, then rare earth metal ions were hemogeneously bound onto the titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The RE-TiO2 NRs with average diameter of ~10 nm were obtained through calcination treatment . Enhanced photocatalytic activities of the RE-TiO2 NRs were observed in comparison with undoped TiO2 NRs and commercialmore » TiO2 photocatalysts. Photooxidation of methyl orange, as probe reaction, was chosen to evaluate the efficiency of the photocatalysts, and Eu-TiO2 NRs showed the fastest apparent reaction rate constant, which was evaluated as 42*10-4 s-1 in this catalytic system. La3+, Sm3+, Eu3+ and Er3+ doped TiO2 NRs showed higher photocatalytic efficiency on the photo-oxidation of azo groups. We have demonstrated that natural macromolecule lignin could be photodegraded effectively and rapidly at room temperature under simulated sunlight irradiation with a light intensity of 36.8 0.2 mW cm-2. Catalyzed by RE-TiO2 NRs, the reaction mechanism of photocatalytic depolymerization of lignin was based on two reaction routes, which were revealed by spectroscopic analysis of intermediate products.« less

  17. Inclined angle-controlled growth of GaN nanorods on m-sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition without a catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyuseung; Chae, Sooryong; Jang, Jongjin; Min, Daehong; Kim, Jaehwan; Eom, Daeyong; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have intentionally grown novel types of (11-22)- and (1-10-3)-oriented3 and self-assembled inclined GaN nanorods (NRs) on (10-10) m-sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition without catalysts and ex situ patterning. Nitridation of the m-sapphire surface was observed to be crucial to the inclined angle as well as the growth direction of the GaN NRs. Polarity-selective KOH etching confirmed that both (11-22) and (1-10-3) GaN NRs are nitrogen-polar. Using pole figure measurements and selective area electron diffraction patterns, the epitaxial relationship between the inclined (11-22) and (1-10-3) GaN NRs and m-sapphire substrates was systematically demonstrated. Furthermore, it was verified that the GaN NRs were single-crystalline wurtzite structures. We observed that stacking fault-related defects were generated during the initial growth stage using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The blue-shift of the near band edge (NBE) peak in the inclined angle-controlled GaN NRs can be explained by a band filling effect through carrier saturation of the conduction band, resulting from a high Si-doping concentration; in addition, the decay time of NBE emission in (11-22)- and (1-10-3)-oriented NRs was much shorter than that of stacking fault-related emission. These results suggest that defect-free inclined GaN NRs can be grown on m-sapphire without ex situ treatment.

  18. Inclined angle-controlled growth of GaN nanorods on m-sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition without a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyuseung; Chae, Sooryong; Jang, Jongjin; Min, Daehong; Kim, Jaehwan; Eom, Daeyong; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-08-21

    In this study, we have intentionally grown novel types of (11-22)- and (1-10-3)-oriented(3) and self-assembled inclined GaN nanorods (NRs) on (10-10) m-sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition without catalysts and ex situ patterning. Nitridation of the m-sapphire surface was observed to be crucial to the inclined angle as well as the growth direction of the GaN NRs. Polarity-selective KOH etching confirmed that both (11-22) and (1-10-3) GaN NRs are nitrogen-polar. Using pole figure measurements and selective area electron diffraction patterns, the epitaxial relationship between the inclined (11-22) and (1-10-3) GaN NRs and m-sapphire substrates was systematically demonstrated. Furthermore, it was verified that the GaN NRs were single-crystalline wurtzite structures. We observed that stacking fault-related defects were generated during the initial growth stage using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The blue-shift of the near band edge (NBE) peak in the inclined angle-controlled GaN NRs can be explained by a band filling effect through carrier saturation of the conduction band, resulting from a high Si-doping concentration; in addition, the decay time of NBE emission in (11-22)- and (1-10-3)-oriented NRs was much shorter than that of stacking fault-related emission. These results suggest that defect-free inclined GaN NRs can be grown on m-sapphire without ex situ treatment. PMID:26222432

  19. Growth of metal-catalyst-free nitrogen-doped metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Cheng; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2014-10-21

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using SiOx nanoparticles as a catalyst and ethylenediamine as the source of both carbon and nitrogen. The N-doped SWCNTs have a mean diameter of 1.1 nm and a narrow diameter range, with 92% of them having diameters from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Multi-wavelength laser Raman spectra and temperature-dependent electrical resistance indicate that the SWCNT sample is enriched with metallic nanotubes. These N-doped SWCNTs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction and highly selective and sensitive sensing ability for dopamine detection. PMID:25189467

  20. Rapid, sensitive, and selective fluorescent DNA detection using iron-based metal-organic framework nanorods: Synergies of the metal center and organic linker.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jingqi; Liu, Qian; Shi, Jinle; Hu, Jianming; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping; He, Yuquan

    2015-09-15

    Considerable recent attention has been paid to homogeneous fluorescent DNA detection with the use of nanostructures as a universal "quencher", but it still remains a great challenge to develop such nanosensor with the benefits of low cost, high speed, sensitivity, and selectivity. In this work, we report the use of iron-based metal-organic framework nanorods as a high-efficient sensing platform for fluorescent DNA detection. It only takes about 4 min to complete the whole "mix-and-detect" process with a low detection limit of 10 pM and a strong discrimination of single point mutation. Control experiments reveal the remarkable sensing behavior is a consequence of the synergies of the metal center and organic linker. This work elucidates how composition control of nanostructures can significantly impact their sensing properties, enabling new opportunities for the rational design of functional materials for analytical applications. PMID:25879891

  1. Facile fabrication of visible light induced Bi2O3 nanorod using conventional heat treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Waseem; Khan, Azam; Alam, Umair; Muneer, M.; Bahnemann, D.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a new Bi2O3 based photocatalyst doped with varying concentration of Nb and Mn metal ion was fabricated by conventional heat treatment method and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) techniques. The XRD analysis of synthesized photocatalyst was found to exhibit characteristic peaks of well crystallized monoclinic α-Bi2O3. The XRD pattern of pure and metal doped Bi2O3 were found to more or less similar. The crystallite size of doped materials were smaller than pure Bi2O3 and size decreases with increasing dopant concentration from 0.5 to 2.0% for Nb & 1.0-3.0% for Mn and remains almost constant at higher dopant concentration. The SEM analysis clearly indicate the formation of nanorod like morphologies. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of synthesized nanorods revealed that the absorption edge shift towards longer wavelength on doping with Nb and Mn metal ions which is beneficial for absorbing more visible light in the solar spectrum. The prepared doped Bi2O3 nanorod showed the excellent photocatalytic activity for degradation of selected organic pollutants, such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Rodaamime B (RhB) under visible light source. The higher activity of doped Bi2O3 nanorod may be attributed to absorption of more visible light leading to generation of higher photogenerated electron hole pairs and efficient separation of photoinduced charge carrier to inhibit the recombination rate.

  2. Prediction of spin-dependent electronic structure in 3d-transition-metal doped antimonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. F.; Song, Y.; Mi, W. B.; Wang, X. C.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the geometric structure and electronic and magnetic properties of 3d-transition-metal atom doped antimonene using spin-polarized first-principles calculations. Strong orbital hybridization exhibits between 3d-transition-metal and Sb atoms, where covalent bonds form in antimonene. A spin-polarized semiconducting state appears in Cr-doped antimonene, while half-metallic states appear by doping Ti, V, and Mn. These findings indicate that once combined with doping states, the bands of antimonene systems offer a variety of features. Specific dopants lead to half-metallic characters with high spin polarization that has potential application in spintronics.

  3. Controlled growth, intense upconversion emissions and concentration induced luminescence switching of bifunctional Tm(3+) doped hexagonal NaYb0.55Gd0.45F4 nanorods.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xilong; Li, Yongchang; Yu, Suixi; Yang, Liwen

    2013-11-01

    Bifunctional hexagonal Tm(3+) doped NaYb0.55Gd0.45F4 nanorods with tunable size are prepared via in situ cation-exchange reaction using hydrothermal method. The measured field dependence of magnetization of the NaYb0.55Gd0.45F4 nanorods shows typical paramagnetic characteristics that can be ascribed to the non-interacting localized nature of the magnetic moment of rare-earth ions. When excited by a 980nm laser, these nanorods exhibit intense multi-color up-conversion (UC) emissions in infrared, red, blue and especially ultraviolet. In addition, luminescent switching between different UC emission wavelengths of 480nm and 450nm is observed by adjusting Tm(3+) doping concentration. Based on power-dependent spectral analyses, it is found that with the increase of Tm(3+) doping concentration, due to the suppressed saturation effect, the dominative UC process redistribute the populations at (1)G4 and (1)D2(Tm(3+)) states of Tm(3+) ion resulting in the above luminescent switching. Our results indicate that bifunctional hexagonal NaYb1-xGdxF4 nanocrystals have potential applications in miniaturized solid-state light sources, optical processing sensors and fluorescent biolabels. PMID:23871979

  4. Appearance of universal metallic dispersion in a doped Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahrakorpi, S.; Markiewicz, R. S.; Lin, Hsin; Lindroos, M.; Zhou, X. J.; Yoshida, T.; Yang, W. L.; Kakeshita, T.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Komiya, Seiki; Ando, Yoichi; Zhou, F.; Zhao, Z. X.; Sasagawa, T.; Fujimori, A.; Hussain, Z.; Shen, Z.-X.; Bansil, A.

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the dispersion renormalization Zdisp in La2-xSrxCuO4 over the wide doping range of x=0.03-0.30 , for binding energies extending to several hundred meV’s. Strong correlation effects conspire in such a way that the system exhibits a local-density-approximation-like dispersion which essentially “undresses” (Zdisp→1) as the Mott insulator is approached. Our finding that the Mott insulator contains “nascent” or “preformed” metallic states with a vanishing spectral weight offers a challenge to existing theoretical scenarios for cuprates.

  5. Density functional theory calculations for the oxygen dissociation on nitrogen and transition metal doped graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongping; Xiao, Wei; Cho, Maenghyo; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2013-10-01

    Oxygen adsorption and dissociation on a pristine graphene, nitrogen doped graphene (N-graphene), and transition metal doped graphene (M-graphene) are studied with density functional theory calculations coupled with nudged elastic band (NEB) method. Four 3d transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) are selected as the doping atoms. The O binding energies on the Co-graphene and Ni-graphene have intermediate strength. The O2 dissociation barriers for these two types of doped graphenes are also lower than that on the pristine graphene and N-graphene. The Co and Ni doped graphenes are predicted to be promising ORR catalysts.

  6. Growth of PbTe nanorods controlled by polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides via composite-hydroxide-mediated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Buyong; Hu Chenguo; Liu Hong; Xiong Yufeng; Li Feiyun; Xi Yi; He Xiaoshan

    2009-09-15

    The pure face-centered-cubic PbTe nanorods have been synthesized by the composite-hydroxide-mediated approach using hydrazine as a reducing agent. The method is based on reaction among reactants in the melts of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide eutectic at 170-220 deg. C and normal atmosphere without using any organic dispersant or surface-capping agent. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the samples. The diameters of nanorods are almost fixed, while the lengths can be tunable under different growth time and temperatures. The growth mechanism of PbTe nanorods is investigated via UV-vis absorption, demonstrating that polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides in the hydrazine hydroxide melts could control the crystallization and growth process of PbTe nanostructures. The band gap of as-synthesized PbTe nanorods has been calculated based on UV-vis-NIR optical diffuse reflectance spectra data.

  7. Low-temperature growth and characterization of single crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays using a catalyst-free inductively coupled plasma-metal organic chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang-Hun; Lee, Chang-Bae; Moon, Won-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun

    2008-10-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays have been synthesized on c-plane sapphires at a low temperature of 400 degrees C using catalyst-free inductively coupled plasma (ICP) metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique by varying the ICP powers. Diameters of the ZnO nanorods changed from 200 nm to 400 nm as the ICP power increased from 200 to 400 Watt. TEM and XRD investigations indicated that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown at ICP powers above 200 Watt had a homogeneous in-plane alignment and single crystalline nature. PL study at room temperature (RT) and 6 K confirmed that the ZnO nanorod arrays in the present study are of high optical quality as well as good crystalline quality, showing only exciton-related emission peaks without any trace of defect-related deep level emissions in visible range. The blueshift of exciton emission peak in RTPL spectra was also found as rod diameter decreased and it is deduced that this shift in emission energy may be due to the surface resonance effect resulted from the increased surface-to-volume ratio, based on the observation and behavior of the surface exciton (SX) emission in the high-resolution 6 K PL spectra. PMID:19198399

  8. Thioxanthone functionalized silver nanorods as smart photoinitiating assemblies to generate photopolymer/metal nano-objects.

    PubMed

    Niu, Songlin; Schneider, Raphaël; Vidal, Loïc; Balan, Lavinia

    2013-07-21

    Silver nanorods (AgNRs) with lengths in the 50-60 nm range were synthesized and functionalized with 2-(2-mercaptoethyl)thioxanthone (C2TX) to generate AgNR@C2TX nanoassemblies. When irradiated at 377 nm in the presence of a diacrylate monomer, these dispersed nanoassemblies initiate radical photopolymerization, indicating that the excited singlet to triplet intersystem crossing process of C2TX in the vicinity of AgNRs was favored while the fluorescence of C2TX was completely quenched at the surface of NRs. SEM and TEM images confirmed the formation of a AgNR-polymer nanocomposite and the homogeneous dispersion of AgNRs in the polymer film. Moreover, under specific experimental conditions allowing the spatial extent of the polymerization to be limited, polymer-capped AgNRs were obtained (polymer diameter of ca. 1 nm). PMID:23760523

  9. Quantum Symmetry Breaking of Exciton/Polaritons in a Metal-Nanorod Plasmonic Array.

    PubMed

    Zaster, Svitlana; Bittner, Eric R; Piryatinski, Andrei

    2016-05-19

    We study the collective, superradiant behavior in the system of emitter-dressed Ag nanorods. Starting from the Drude model for the plasmon oscillations, we arrive at a semiempirical Hamiltonian describing the coupling between quantized surface plasmon modes and the quantum emitters that can be controlled by manipulating their geometry, spacing, and orientation. Further, identifying the lowest polariton mode as SP-states dressed by excitons in the vicinity of k = 0, we examine conditions allowing for the polariton quantum-phase transition. Though the system is formally a 1D array, we show that the polariton states of interest can undergo a quantum-phase transition to form a Bose condensate at finite temperatures for physically accessible parameter ranges. PMID:26905014

  10. Metallic ferromagnetism-insulating charge order transition in doped manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Van-Nham; Ninh, Quoc-Huy; Tran, Minh-Tien

    2016-04-01

    We show that an interplay of double exchange and impurity randomness can explain the competition between metal-ferromagnetic and insulating charge ordered states in doped manganites. The double exchange is simplified in the Ising type, whereas the randomness is modeled by the Falicov-Kimball binary distribution. The combined model is considered in a framework of dynamical mean-field theory. Using the Kubo-Greenwood formalism, the transport coefficients are explicitly expressed in terms of single-particle spectral functions. Dividing the system into two sublattices we have pointed out a direct calculation to the checkerboard charge order parameter and the magnetizations. Numerical results show us that the checkerboard charge order can settle inside the ferromagnetic state at low temperature. An insulator-metal transition is also found at the point of the checkerboard charge order-ferromagnetic transition.

  11. Dirac cones in transition metal doped boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Min; Cao, Xuewei; Shao, Bin; Zuo, Xu

    2015-05-07

    The transition metal (TM) doped zinc blende boron nitride (c-BN) is studied by using the first principle calculation. TM atoms fill in the interstitials in c-BN and form two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. The generalized gradient approximation and projector augmented wave method are used. The calculated density of states and band structures show that d electrons of TM atoms form impurity bands in the gap of c-BN. When the TM-BN system is in ferromagnetic or non-magnetic state, Dirac cones emerge at the K point in Brillouin zone. When TM is Ti and Co, the Dirac cones are spin polarized and very close to the Fermi level, which makes them promising candidates of Dirac half-metal [H. Ishizuka and Y. Motome, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 237207 (2012)]. While TM is Ni and Cu, the system is non-magnetic and Dirac cones located above the Fermi level.

  12. Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Dillon, Anne C.; Heben, Michael J.; Gennett, Thomas; Parilla, Philip A.

    2007-01-09

    Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof. The metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes may be produced according to one embodiment of the invention by combining single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material and metal in a solution, and mixing the solution to incorporate at least a portion of the metal with the single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material. Other embodiments may comprise sputter deposition, evaporation, and other mixing techniques.

  13. Growth of TiO2 nanorods on a Ta substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Suk; Hyun, Jae-Sung; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2010-05-01

    TiO2 nanorods were successfully grown on Tantalum (Ta) substrates using titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) as a single precursor without any carriers or bubbling gases. For characterization of the TiO2 structures, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed. For substrate temperatures below 800 degrees C, a rough film structure without nanorods could be found. However, at a sample temperature of 800 degrees C, nanorod structures with a respective diameter and length of 0.1 approximately 0.2 microm and 0.7 approximately 1.5 microm, respectively, could be synthesized. The nanorods exhibited a rutile phase with a 2:1 stoichiometry of O:Ti, identified using XRD and XPS. When the growth temperature exceeded 800 degrees C, agglomeration of the nanorods was identified. PMID:20358953

  14. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Metal-Doped BN Sheet: A First-Principles Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yungang; Xiao-Dong, J.; Wang, Zhiguo; Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.

    2010-07-21

    Electronic and magnetic properties of BN sheet doped with 3d transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) have been investigated using ab initio calculations. Our calculations show many interesting physical properties in metal-doped BN sheet. Fe-doped BN sheet is a half-metal with the magnetic moment of 2.0 μB, and Co-doped BN sheet becomes a narrow-gap semiconductor with the magnetic moment of 1.0 μB. However, no magnetic moment is induced on Ni-doped BN sheet, which has the same band gap as pristine BN sheet. Furthermore, Fe atom is easy to form isolated particle on BN sheet, while Ni and Co atoms are likely to form sheet-supported metal nanotemplate. These results are useful for spintronics application and could help in the development of magnetic nanotructures and metallic nanotemplate at room temperature.

  15. Ultra-low Doping on Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides using DNA Nanostructure Doped by a Combination of Lanthanide and Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Hyung-Youl; Shim, Jaewoo; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Sungjoo; Roh, Yonghan; Park, Sung Ha; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Here, we propose a novel DNA-based doping method on MoS2 and WSe2 films, which enables ultra-low n- and p-doping control and allows for proper adjustments in device performance. This is achieved by selecting and/or combining different types of divalent metal and trivalent lanthanide (Ln) ions on DNA nanostructures, using the newly proposed concept of Co-DNA (DNA functionalized by both divalent metal and trivalent Ln ions). The available n-doping range on the MoS2 by Ln-DNA is between 6 × 109 and 2.6 × 1010 cm−2. The p-doping change on WSe2 by Ln-DNA is adjusted between −1.0 × 1010 and −2.4 × 1010 cm−2. In Eu3+ or Gd3+-Co-DNA doping, a light p-doping is observed on MoS2 and WSe2 (~1010 cm−2). However, in the devices doped by Tb3+ or Er3+-Co-DNA, a light n-doping (~1010 cm−2) occurs. A significant increase in on-current is also observed on the MoS2 and WSe2 devices, which are, respectively, doped by Tb3+- and Gd3+-Co-DNA, due to the reduction of effective barrier heights by the doping. In terms of optoelectronic device performance, the Tb3+ or Er3+-Co-DNA (n-doping) and the Eu3+ or Gd3+-Co-DNA (p-doping) improve the MoS2 and WSe2 photodetectors, respectively. We also show an excellent absorbing property by Tb3+ ions on the TMD photodetectors. PMID:26838524

  16. Ultra-low Doping on Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides using DNA Nanostructure Doped by a Combination of Lanthanide and Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Hyung-Youl; Shim, Jaewoo; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Sungjoo; Roh, Yonghan; Park, Sung Ha; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Here, we propose a novel DNA-based doping method on MoS2 and WSe2 films, which enables ultra-low n- and p-doping control and allows for proper adjustments in device performance. This is achieved by selecting and/or combining different types of divalent metal and trivalent lanthanide (Ln) ions on DNA nanostructures, using the newly proposed concept of Co-DNA (DNA functionalized by both divalent metal and trivalent Ln ions). The available n-doping range on the MoS2 by Ln-DNA is between 6 × 10(9) and 2.6 × 10(10 ) cm(-2). The p-doping change on WSe2 by Ln-DNA is adjusted between -1.0 × 10(10) and -2.4 × 10(10 ) cm(-2). In Eu(3+) or Gd(3+)-Co-DNA doping, a light p-doping is observed on MoS2 and WSe2 (~10(10 ) cm(-2)). However, in the devices doped by Tb(3+) or Er(3+)-Co-DNA, a light n-doping (~10(10 ) cm(-2)) occurs. A significant increase in on-current is also observed on the MoS2 and WSe2 devices, which are, respectively, doped by Tb(3+)- and Gd(3+)-Co-DNA, due to the reduction of effective barrier heights by the doping. In terms of optoelectronic device performance, the Tb(3+) or Er(3+)-Co-DNA (n-doping) and the Eu(3+) or Gd(3+)-Co-DNA (p-doping) improve the MoS2 and WSe2 photodetectors, respectively. We also show an excellent absorbing property by Tb(3+) ions on the TMD photodetectors. PMID:26838524

  17. Ultra-low Doping on Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides using DNA Nanostructure Doped by a Combination of Lanthanide and Metal Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Hyung-Youl; Shim, Jaewoo; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Sungjoo; Roh, Yonghan; Park, Sung Ha; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we propose a novel DNA-based doping method on MoS2 and WSe2 films, which enables ultra-low n- and p-doping control and allows for proper adjustments in device performance. This is achieved by selecting and/or combining different types of divalent metal and trivalent lanthanide (Ln) ions on DNA nanostructures, using the newly proposed concept of Co-DNA (DNA functionalized by both divalent metal and trivalent Ln ions). The available n-doping range on the MoS2 by Ln-DNA is between 6 × 109 and 2.6 × 1010 cm-2. The p-doping change on WSe2 by Ln-DNA is adjusted between -1.0 × 1010 and -2.4 × 1010 cm-2. In Eu3+ or Gd3+-Co-DNA doping, a light p-doping is observed on MoS2 and WSe2 (~1010 cm-2). However, in the devices doped by Tb3+ or Er3+-Co-DNA, a light n-doping (~1010 cm-2) occurs. A significant increase in on-current is also observed on the MoS2 and WSe2 devices, which are, respectively, doped by Tb3+- and Gd3+-Co-DNA, due to the reduction of effective barrier heights by the doping. In terms of optoelectronic device performance, the Tb3+ or Er3+-Co-DNA (n-doping) and the Eu3+ or Gd3+-Co-DNA (p-doping) improve the MoS2 and WSe2 photodetectors, respectively. We also show an excellent absorbing property by Tb3+ ions on the TMD photodetectors.

  18. Morphology-dependent low macroscopic field emission properties of titania/titanate nanorods synthesized by alkali-controlled hydrothermal treatment of a metallic Ti surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitha, V. C.; Narayan Banerjee, Arghya; Joo, Sang Woo; Min, Bong Ki

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) titania/titanate nanostructures are fabricated directly on a self-source metallic titanium (Ti) surface via in situ surface re-construction of a Ti substrate using potassium hydroxide (KOH) under a hydrothermal (HT) condition. The effect of temperature and the concentration of KOH on the variations in morphology and titania-to-titanate phase changes are studied and explained in detail. A growth model is proposed for the formation process of the platelet-to-nanorod conversion mechanism. The field emission (FE) properties of titania/titanate nanostructures are studied, and the effects of the morphologies (such as 1D nanorods, 2D nanoplatelets, and a mixture of 1D nanorods and 2D platelets) on the FE properties of the samples are investigated. The samples depict a reasonable low turn-on field and emission stability. The FE mechanism is observed to follow standard Fowler-Nordheim (FN) electron tunneling. The geometrical field enhancement factor (β) is measured to be very high, and is compared with theoretical values calculated from various existing models to explore the feasibility of these models. The surface modification of metallic Ti by a simple non-lithographic bottom-up method and the low-macroscopic FE properties can provide a potential alternative to field emission displays for low-power panel technology.

  19. Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Nour, E. S. Echresh, A.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Liu, Xianjie; Broitman, E.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we have synthesized Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence of Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  20. Emission behavior of sudan red 7B on dogbone-shaped gold nanorods: Aspect ratio dependence of the metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Dewan S.; Sharma, Debdulal; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-stabilized 'dogbone-shaped' gold nanorods of aspect ratio varying from 1 to 6 have been synthesized by seed-mediated growth method in aqueous medium. Then, sudan red 7B, an alien molecular probe has been used as local probe to elucidate aspect ratio dependence of the nanorods on the photophysical properties of the dye molecules. It is seen that the relative intensity decreases exponentially with increasing aspect ratio and has been attributed to decrease in overall surface area for a particular concentration of the nanorods. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching has been ascribed to the electron and energy transfer processes in the gold-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures.

  1. Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers.

    PubMed

    Willander, M; Nur, O; Zhao, Q X; Yang, L L; Lorenz, M; Cao, B Q; Zúñiga Pérez, J; Czekalla, C; Zimmermann, G; Grundmann, M; Bakin, A; Behrends, A; Al-Suleiman, M; El-Shaer, A; Che Mofor, A; Postels, B; Waag, A; Boukos, N; Travlos, A; Kwack, H S; Guinard, J; Le Si Dang, D

    2009-08-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO), with its excellent luminescent properties and the ease of growth of its nanostructures, holds promise for the development of photonic devices. The recent advances in growth of ZnO nanorods are discussed. Results from both low temperature and high temperature growth approaches are presented. The techniques which are presented include metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), vapour phase epitaxy (VPE), pulse laser deposition (PLD), vapour-liquid-solid (VLS), aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and finally the electrodeposition technique as an example of a selective growth approach. Results from structural as well as optical properties of a variety of ZnO nanorods are shown and analysed using different techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL), for both room temperature and for low temperature performance. These results indicate that the grown ZnO nanorods possess reproducible and interesting optical properties. Results on obtaining p-type doping in ZnO micro- and nanorods are also demonstrated using PLD. Three independent indications were found for p-type conducting, phosphorus-doped ZnO nanorods: first, acceptor-related CL peaks, second, opposite transfer characteristics of back-gate field effect transistors using undoped and phosphorus doped wire channels, and finally, rectifying I-V characteristics of ZnO:P nanowire/ZnO:Ga p-n junctions. Then light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO nanorods combined with different technologies (hybrid technologies) are suggested and the recent electrical, as well as electro-optical, characteristics of these LEDs are shown and discussed. The hybrid LEDs reviewed and discussed here are mainly presented for two groups: those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type crystalline substrates, and those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type amorphous substrates. Promising electroluminescence

  2. Charge oscillations and structure for alkali-metal-doped polyacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, R. H.; Murthy, N. S.; Eckhardt, H.; Kertesz, M.

    1992-11-01

    predictions for oligomers, and good agreement is obtained between calculated and observed x-ray photoelectron spectra for sodium-doped polyacetylene. Emphasis is placed on the results of crystallographic studies of alkali-metal-doped polyacetylene and on the relationship between the experimentally derived symmetry breaking in interchain packing and the molecular symmetry breaking predicted by theory. Since presently available experimental data are insufficient for complete determination of structure, the present theoretical results can be useful for refinements in the interpretation of these data, as well as for refined crystal-packing calculations.

  3. Transition-Metal Doped Ceria Microspheres with Nanoporous Structures for CO Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiao; Yao, Ze; Chen, Zhuwen; Hong, Mei; Zhu, Rongshu; Liang, Yongye; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) is of great importance in many different fields of industry. Until now it still remains challenging to use non-noble metal based catalysts to oxidize CO at low temperature. Herein, we report a new class of nanoporous, uniform, and transition metal-doped cerium (IV) oxide (ceria, CeO2) microsphere for CO oxidation catalysis. The porous and uniform microsphere is generated by sacrificed polymer template. Transition-metals, like Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe, were doped into CeO2 microspheres. The combination of hierarchical structure and metal doping afford superior catalytic activities of the doped ceria microspheres, which could pave a new way to advanced non-precious metal based catalysts for CO oxidation. PMID:27030159

  4. Transition-Metal Doped Ceria Microspheres with Nanoporous Structures for CO Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiao; Yao, Ze; Chen, Zhuwen; Hong, Mei; Zhu, Rongshu; Liang, Yongye; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) is of great importance in many different fields of industry. Until now it still remains challenging to use non-noble metal based catalysts to oxidize CO at low temperature. Herein, we report a new class of nanoporous, uniform, and transition metal-doped cerium (IV) oxide (ceria, CeO2) microsphere for CO oxidation catalysis. The porous and uniform microsphere is generated by sacrificed polymer template. Transition-metals, like Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe, were doped into CeO2 microspheres. The combination of hierarchical structure and metal doping afford superior catalytic activities of the doped ceria microspheres, which could pave a new way to advanced non-precious metal based catalysts for CO oxidation. PMID:27030159

  5. Transition-Metal Doped Ceria Microspheres with Nanoporous Structures for CO Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiao; Yao, Ze; Chen, Zhuwen; Hong, Mei; Zhu, Rongshu; Liang, Yongye; Zhao, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) is of great importance in many different fields of industry. Until now it still remains challenging to use non-noble metal based catalysts to oxidize CO at low temperature. Herein, we report a new class of nanoporous, uniform, and transition metal-doped cerium (IV) oxide (ceria, CeO2) microsphere for CO oxidation catalysis. The porous and uniform microsphere is generated by sacrificed polymer template. Transition-metals, like Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe, were doped into CeO2 microspheres. The combination of hierarchical structure and metal doping afford superior catalytic activities of the doped ceria microspheres, which could pave a new way to advanced non-precious metal based catalysts for CO oxidation.

  6. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Near-Ultraviolet (~380 nm) Photodetectors by Selective Area Growth of ZnO Nanorods and SiO2 Passivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Sang Hun; Yu, Jae Su

    2016-12-01

    Metal-semiconductor-metal near-ultraviolet (NUV) photodetectors (PDs) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs), operating at λ ~ 380 nm, were fabricated using conventional photolithography and hydrothermal synthesis processes. The vertically aligned ZnO NRs were selectively grown in the channel area of PDs. The performance of ZnO NR-based NUV PDs was optimized by varying the solution concentration and active channel width (W ch). For the fabricated samples, their electrical and photoresponse properties were investigated under the dark state and the illumination at wavelength of ~380 nm, respectively. For the device (W ch = 30 μm) with ZnO NRs at 25 mM, the highest photocurrent of 0.63 mA was obtained with the on/off ratio of 1720 at the bias of 5 V. The silicon dioxide passivation was also carried out to improve the photoresponse properties of PDs. The passivated devices exhibited faster rise and reset times rather than those of the unpassivated devices. PMID:27422775

  7. Fabrication of novel gold nanorod/polymer nanocomposite fibers and their application in heavy metal ion sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenqiong

    Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), which exhibit fascinating optical, electronic and catalytic properties, have been recognized as essential building blocks for the development of advanced nanodevices. Production of MNP assemblies on a pre-designed substrate is a crucial step towards the exploration of their ensemble properties as well as their potential applications. Despite the diverse assembly strategies reported in the literature, the lack of a generic MNP immobilization strategy with applicability to MNPs and substrates with various shapes and chemical compositions remains an unsolved problem. To this end, we proposed an electrostatic attraction-driven assembly strategy and applied it to the fabrication of a novel nanocomposite material composed of gold nanorod (AuNR) assemblies supported on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers. In order to utilize electrostatic attraction as the driving force, opposite surface charges on the AuNRs and the PCL fibrous substrate were developed via polyelectrolyte decoration. UV-Vis studies on the AuNR immobilization process revealed that the AuNR density on the fiber surface can be effectively tuned by changing the immersion time. The as-fabricated AuNR/PCL nanocomposite fibers were further employed as substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements and they exhibited high activity as well as excellent reproducibility for both chemisorbed and physisorbed analyte molecules. In addition, a comparison experiment on the SERS performance of the 3D AuNR/PCL fibrous substrate and its 2D counterpart---a AuNR/PCL film, demonstrated that the former provided superior SERS activity due to the enhanced surface area. With the demonstration on the high SERS efficacy, we moved one step further towards the development of a SERS-based environmental sensor targeting the detection of highly toxic heavy metal ions of Hg2+ and Cu 2+. The SERS detection of Hg2+ and Cu2+ was achieved through the functionalization of Au

  8. Effects of variations in precursor concentration on the growth of rutile TiO2 nanorods on Si substrate with fabricated fast-response metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, Abbas M.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of variations in precursor concentration (TiCl3 solution) on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods and fabricated metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector depending on the optimal sample. The nanorods were prepared from an aqueous solution of titanium (III) chloride (TiCl3) on p-type, (1 1 1)-oriented Si substrates at different concentrations of TiCl3 solutions (2, 3, 4, and 5 mM). The experimental results showed that the TiO2 nanorods grown at 4 mM concentration exhibited optimal structural properties. A fast-response metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector was fabricated by depositing Pt contacts on the front of the optimal sample via RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Upon exposure to 365 nm light (2.3 mW/cm2) at 5 V bias voltage, the device showed 44.4 sensitivity. In addition, the internal gain was 1.45, and the photoresponse peak was 70 mA/W. The response and the recovery times were calculated to be 7.8 ms upon illumination to a pulse UV light (365 nm) at 5 V bias voltage.

  9. A DFT investigation of CO adsorption on VIIIB transition metal-doped graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanno, Banchob; Tabtimsai, Chanukorn

    2014-03-01

    Adsorptions of CO on pristine, Fe-, Ru-, Os-, Co-, Rh-, Ir-, Ni-, Pd-, and Pt-doped graphene were investigated, using density functional theory calculation at B3LYP/LanL2DZ theoretical level. This work revealed that the transition metal doped graphenes were more highly sensitive to CO adsorption than that of pristine graphene. The Os- and Fe-doped graphenes displayed the strongest interaction with C and O atoms of CO molecule, respectively.

  10. Site Selective Doping of Ultrathin Metal Dichalcogenides by Laser-Assisted Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunpa; Ko, Changhyun; Kim, Kyunghoon; Chen, Yabin; Suh, Joonki; Ryu, Sang-Gil; Wu, Kedi; Meng, Xiuqing; Suslu, Aslihan; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2016-01-13

    Laser-assisted phosphorus doping is demonstrated on ultrathin transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) including n-type MoS2 and p-type WSe2 . Temporal and spatial control of the doping is achieved by varying the laser irradiation power and time, demonstrating wide tunability and high site selectivity with high stability. The laser-assisted doping method may enable a new avenue for functionalizing TMDCs for customized nanodevice applications. PMID:26567761

  11. Tuning nucleation density of metal island with charge doping of graphene substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Wenmei; Liu, Feng

    2014-08-18

    We have demonstrated that the island nucleation in the initial stage of epitaxial thin film growth can be tuned by substrate surface charge doping. This charge effect was investigated using spin density functional theory calculation in Fe-deposition on graphene substrate as an example. It was found that hole-doping can noticeably increase both Fe-adatom diffusion barrier and Fe inter-adatom repulsion energy occurring at intermediate separation, whereas electron-doping can decrease Fe-adatom diffusion barrier but only slightly modify inter-adatom repulsion energy. Further kinetic Monte Carlo simulation showed that the nucleation island number density can be increased up to six times larger under hole-doping and can be decreased down to ten times smaller under electron doping than that without doping. Our findings indicate a route to tailor the growth morphology of magnetic metal nanostructure for spintronics and plasmonic applications via surface charge doping.

  12. Laser doping and metallization of wide bandgap materials: silicon carbide, gallium nitride, and aluminum nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Islam Abdel Haleem

    A laser direct write and doping (LDWD) system is designed and utilized for direct metallization and selective area doping in different SiC polytypes, GaN and in dielectrics including AlN. Laser direct metallization in 4H- and 6H-SiC generates metal-like conductive phases that are produced as both rectifying and ohmic contacts without metal deposition. Nd:YAG (lambda = 532, 1064 nm) nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation in SiC induces carbon-rich conductive phases by thermal decomposition of SiC while UV excimer (lambda = 193 nm) laser irradiation produces a silicon-rich phase due to selective carbon photoablation. Linear transmission line method (TLM) pattern is directly fabricated in single crystals SiC by pulsed laser irradiation allowing characterization of the laser fabricated metal-like contacts. Activation of a self focusing effect at the frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser irradiation (lambda = 532 nm) allows to fabricate buried metal like contacts in SiC wafers while maintaining their device-ready surface condition. Gas immersion laser doping (GILD) and laser doping from a molten precursor are utilized to dope both GaN and SiC. Trimethylaluminum (TMAl) and nitrogen are the precursors used to produce p-type and n-type doped SiC; respectively. Nd:YAG and excimer laser nitrogen doping in SiC epilayer and single crystal substrates increases the dopant concentration by two orders of magnitude and produces both deep (500--600 nm) and shallow (50 nm) junctions, respectively. Laser assisted effusion/diffusion is introduced and utilized to dope Al in SiC wafers. Using this technique, a150 nm p-type doped junction is fabricated in semi-insulating 6H- and n-type doped 4H-SiC wafers. Laser-induced p-type doping of Mg in single crystal GaN is conducted using Bis-magnesium dihydrate [Mg(TMHD)2]. Mg concentration and penetration depth up to 10 20--1021 cm-3 and 5mum, respectively are achieved using various laser doping techniques. Laser direct writing and doping (LDWD) is a

  13. Dual acceptor doping and aging effect of p-ZnO:(Na, N) nanorod thin films by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swapna, R.; Amiruddin, R.; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made to realize p-type ZnO by dual acceptor doping (Na-N) into ZnO thin films. Na and N doped ZnO thin films of different concentrations (0 to 8 at.%) have been grown by spray pyrolysis at 623 K. The grown films on glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall measurement, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Photoluminescence (PL) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to validate the p-type conduction. The surface morphology and roughness of the ZnO:(Na, N) films are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Hall measurement shows that all the films exhibit p-type conductivity except for 0 at.% Na-N doped ZnO film. The obtained resistivity (5.60×10-2 Ω cm) and hole concentration (3.15×1018 cm-3) for the best dual acceptor doped film is 6 at.%. It has been predicted that (NaZn-NO) acceptor complex is responsible for the p-type conduction. The p-type conductivity of the ZnO:(Na, N) films is stable even after 6 months. The crystallinity of the films has been studied by XRD. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of Na and N in 6 at.% ZnO:(Na, N) film. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO:(Na, N) films show NBE and deep level emissions in the UV and visible regions, respectively. The ZnO:(Na, N) films exhibit a high transmittance about 90% in the visible region.

  14. Dual acceptor doping and aging effect of p-ZnO:(Na, N) nanorod thin films by spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swapna, R. E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu; Amiruddin, R. E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu; Santhosh Kumar, M. C. E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu

    2014-01-28

    An attempt has been made to realize p-type ZnO by dual acceptor doping (Na-N) into ZnO thin films. Na and N doped ZnO thin films of different concentrations (0 to 8 at.%) have been grown by spray pyrolysis at 623 K. The grown films on glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall measurement, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Photoluminescence (PL) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to validate the p-type conduction. The surface morphology and roughness of the ZnO:(Na, N) films are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Hall measurement shows that all the films exhibit p-type conductivity except for 0 at.% Na-N doped ZnO film. The obtained resistivity (5.60×10{sup −2} Ω cm) and hole concentration (3.15×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}) for the best dual acceptor doped film is 6 at.%. It has been predicted that (Na{sub Zn}−N{sub O}) acceptor complex is responsible for the p-type conduction. The p-type conductivity of the ZnO:(Na, N) films is stable even after 6 months. The crystallinity of the films has been studied by XRD. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of Na and N in 6 at.% ZnO:(Na, N) film. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO:(Na, N) films show NBE and deep level emissions in the UV and visible regions, respectively. The ZnO:(Na, N) films exhibit a high transmittance about 90% in the visible region.

  15. Structural and Luminescence Features of Lithium-Doped p-Type Film-Like ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wonbae; Lee, Sanghyo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-11-01

    We report the structural and optical characteristics of p-type lithium (Li)-doped ZnO film-like nano-structures prepared by utilizing a simple hydro-thermal method in an aqueous solution at a low temperature (< 90 degrees C). The diameters and densities of the Li-doped ZnO nanostructures were controlled by adjusting the molar concentration. A relatively high molar concentration resulted in hexagonal and flat surface-shaped ZnO nanostructures. In addition, a post-annealing process in the range of 400 to 600 degrees C effectively leads to the incorporation of lithium dopant as an acceptor, resulting in optical p-type behavior. The p-type features of synthesized Li-doped ZnO nanostructures were analyzed using a photoluminescence measurement using a He-Cd laser as an excitation source at 10 K. Closer investigation of the fine donor- and acceptor-bound exciton emission peaks from the low temperature PL spectra revealed the occurrence of several peaks related to free excitons (FX), excitons bound to acceptor (A(0)X), free electron to the acceptor transition peak (FA), and its LO phonon replicas. PMID:26726574

  16. Metal-Doped Silver Oxide Films as a Mask Layer for the Super-RENS Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Takayuki; Buechel, Dorothea; Mihalcea, Christophe; Kim, Jooho; Atoda, Nobufumi; Tominaga, Junji

    Various kinds of metal (Co, Pd, Pt and Au) were doped into Ag2O and AgO sputtered films to study its effect on the thermal decomposition process. The oxygen composition ratio was evaluated by the X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy method after annealing up to 260,oC. The optical transmittance change was measured during heating of the film to 600,oC. Noble metal doping was found to modify the AgO decomposition process, and the oxygen content decreased gradually compared to the undoped case. Super-RENS disks with a metal-doped AgO mask were prepared, and the laser power necessary for super-resolutional readout was evaluated. It slightly shifted to the higher-power side when the noble metal was doped, and this agrees with the modification of the decomposition process.Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Domestic Research Fellow

  17. Theoretical study on the adsorption of carbon dioxide on individual and alkali-metal doped MOF-5s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Thu; Lefedova, O. V.; Ha, Nguyen Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) on metal-organic framework (MOF-5) and alkali-metal (Li, K, Na) doped MOF-5s. The adsorption energy calculation showed that metal atom adsorption is exothermic in MOF-5 system. Moreover, alkali-metal doping can significantly improve the adsorption ability of carbon dioxide on MOF-5. The best influence is observed for Li-doping.

  18. Noble metal (Pd, Ru, Rh, Pt, Au, Ag) doped graphene hybrids for electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanni, Marcella; Poh, Hwee Ling; Ambrosi, Adriano; Zhao, Guanjia; Sofer, Zdeněk; Šaněk, Filip; Khezri, Bahareh; Webster, Richard D.; Pumera, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Metal decorated graphene materials are highly important for catalysis. In this work, noble metal doped-graphene hybrids were prepared by a simple and scalable method. The thermal reductions of metal doped-graphite oxide precursors were carried out in nitrogen and hydrogen atmospheres and the effects of these atmospheres as well as the metal components on the characteristics and catalytic capabilities of the hybrid materials were studied. The hybrids exfoliated in nitrogen atmosphere contained a higher amount of oxygen-containing groups and lower density of defects on their surfaces than hybrids exfoliated in hydrogen atmosphere. The metals significantly affected the electrochemical behavior and catalysis of compounds that are important in energy production and storage and in electrochemical sensing. Research in the field of energy storage and production, electrochemical sensing and biosensing as well as biomedical devices can take advantage of the properties and catalytic capabilities of the metal doped graphene hybrids.

  19. Electrochemical Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods/Nanotubes/Nanopencils on Transparent Aluminium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Photocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Ngoc Tu; Pham, Tan Thi; Ngo, Quang Minh; Vu, Thi Hanh Thu

    2015-09-01

    We report an electrochemical synthesis of homogeneous and well-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) on transparent conducting aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films as electrodes. The selected ZnO NRs was then chemically corroded in HCl and KCl aqueous solutions to form nanopencils (NPs), and nanotubes (NTs), respectively. A DC magnetron sputtering was employed to fabricate AZO thin films at various thicknesses. The obtained AZO thin films have a c-direction orientation, transmittance above 80% in visible region, and sheet resistance approximately 40 Ω/sq. They are considered to be relevant as electrodes and seeding layers for electrochemical. The ZnO NRs are directly grown on the AZOs without a need of catalysts or additional seeding layers at temperature as low as 85 degrees C. Their shapes are strongly associated with the AZO thickness that provides a valuable way to control the diameter of ZnO NRs grown atop. With the addition of HCI and KCl aqueous solutions, ZnO NRs were modified their shape to NPs and NTs with the reaction time, respectively. All the ZnO NRs, NPs, and NTs are preferred to grow along c-direction that indicates a lattice matching between AZO thin films and ZnO nanostructrures. Photoluminescence spectra and XRD patterns show that they have good crystallinities. A great photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures promises potential application in environmental treatment and protection. The ZnO NTs exhibits a higher photocatalysis than others possibly due to the oxygen vacancies on the surface and the polarizability of Zn2+ and O2-. PMID:26716213

  20. Characterization of single transition metal oxide nanorods by combining atomic force microscopy and polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, Samar; Talaga, David; Coffinier, Yannick; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Servant, Laurent; Couzi, Michel; Bonhommeau, Sébastien

    2011-09-01

    Accurate chemical and structural characterization of free-standing zinc oxide (ZnO) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanorods has been carried out using an AFM/Raman correlative technique under polarized light. ZnO nanorods are found to be wurtzite-type single crystalline objects homogeneous in composition and grown along their principal axis of symmetry. Hematite specimens are rhombohedral corundum-type single crystals grown along a direction orthogonal to their principal axis of symmetry and exhibiting structural disorder. Certain hematite nanorods turn out to be very sensitive to laser heating. These studies reveal the high potential of the coupled AFM/Raman technique to examine the properties of these promising nanomaterials.

  1. Cobalt phosphate-modified barium-doped tantalum nitride nanorod photoanode with 1.5% solar energy conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbo; Zhang, Li; Torres-Pardo, Almudena; González-Calbet, Jose M; Ma, Yanhang; Oleynikov, Peter; Terasaki, Osamu; Asahina, Shunsuke; Shima, Masahide; Cha, Dongkyu; Zhao, Lan; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the decreased availability of fossil fuels and global warming, the idea of converting solar energy into clean fuels has been widely recognized. Hydrogen produced by photoelectrochemical water splitting using sunlight could provide a carbon dioxide lean fuel as an alternative to fossil fuels. A major challenge in photoelectrochemical water splitting is to develop an efficient photoanode that can stably oxidize water into oxygen. Here we report an efficient and stable photoanode that couples an active barium-doped tantalum nitride nanostructure with a stable cobalt phosphate co-catalyst. The effect of barium doping on the photoelectrochemical activity of the photoanode is investigated. The photoanode yields a maximum solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.5%, which is more than three times higher than that of state-of-the-art single-photon photoanodes. Further, stoichiometric oxygen and hydrogen are stably produced on the photoanode and the counter electrode with Faraday efficiency of almost unity for 100 min. PMID:24089138

  2. Band gap engineering of early transition-metal-doped anatase TiO₂: first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Zhao, Y F; Gong, Y Y; Wang, T; Sun, C Q

    2014-10-21

    The thermal stability and electronic structures of anatase TiO2 doped with early transition metals (TM) (group III-B = Sc, Y and La; group IV-B = Zr and Hf; group V-B = V, Nb and Ta) have been studied using first principles calculations. It was found that all doped systems are thermodynamically stable, and their band gaps were reduced by 1-1.3 eV compared to pure TiO2. Doping with transition metals affects the strength of the hybrid orbital of TM-O bonding, and the band gap increases approximately linearly with the MP value of TM-O bonding. PMID:25183457

  3. Synthesis and study of optical properties of transition metals doped ZnS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Praba, K; Murugadoss, G

    2012-10-01

    ZnS and transition metal (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag and Cd) doped ZnS were synthesized using chemical precipitation method in an air atmosphere. The structural and optical properties were studied using various techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis show that the particles are in cubic structure. The mean size of the nanoparticles calculated through Scherrer equation is in the range of 4-6.1 nm. Elemental dispersive (EDX) analysis of doped samples reveals the presence of doping ions. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies show that the synthesized particles are in spherical shape. Optical characterization of both undoped and doped samples was carried out by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of all the samples are blue shifted from the bulk ZnS. An optimum doping level of the transition metals for enhanced PL properties are found through optical study. PMID:22938741

  4. Insight into insulator-to-metal transition of sulfur-doped silicon by DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zong-Yan; Yang, Pei-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, the mechanism of insulator-to-metal transition of S-doped Si has been systematically investigated. The calculated crystal structure indicates that the gentle lattice distortion is caused by sulfur doping, and this doping effect is gradually weakened with the increase of sulfur concentration. Two distinct impurity energy levels in the band gap are induced by sulfur doping, and their position and width are linearly varying along with the increase of sulfur concentration. Owing to the overlap and dispersion of these impurity energy levels, the insulator-to-metal transition occurs at the sulfur concentration of 2.095 × 10(20) cm(-3), which is consistent with the experimental measurement. Moreover, the defect states related with sulfur doping show delocalization features and are more outstanding at the higher sulfur concentration. The calculated results suggest that S-hyperdoped Si is a suitable candidate for intermediate band solar cells. PMID:25019287

  5. Metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector based on Ga doped ZnO/graphene interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Noh, Youngwook; Polat, Kinyas; Kemal Okyay, Ali; Lee, Dongjin

    2015-12-01

    Fabrication and characterization of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) based on Ga doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga)/graphene is presented in this work. A low dark current of 8.68 nA was demonstrated at a bias of 1 V and a large photo to dark contrast ratio of more than four orders of magnitude was observed. MSM PD exhibited a room temperature responsivity of 48.37 A/W at wavelength of 350 nm and UV-to-visible rejection ratio of about three orders of magnitude. A large photo-to-dark contrast and UV-to-visible rejection ratio suggests the enhancement in the PD performance which is attributed to the existence of a surface plasmon effect at the interface of the ZnO:Ga and underlying graphene layer.

  6. Metallic conduction induced by direct anion site doping in layered SnSe2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Il; Hwang, Sungwoo; Kim, Se Yun; Lee, Woo-Jin; Jung, Doh Won; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Park, Hee Jung; Cho, Young-Jin; Cho, Yong-Hee; Kim, Jung-Hwa; Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Han, In-taek; Lee, Kimoon; Sohn, Yoonchul

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of metallic conduction in layered dichalcogenide semiconductor materials by chemical doping is one of key issues for two-dimensional (2D) materials engineering. At present, doping methods for layered dichalcogenide materials have been limited to an ion intercalation between layer units or electrostatic carrier doping by electrical bias owing to the absence of appropriate substitutional dopant for increasing the carrier concentration. Here, we report the occurrence of metallic conduction in the layered dichalcogenide of SnSe2 by the direct Se-site doping with Cl as a shallow electron donor. The total carrier concentration up to ~1020 cm−3 is achieved by Cl substitutional doping, resulting in the improved conductivity value of ~170 S·cm−1 from ~1.7 S·cm−1 for non-doped SnSe2. When the carrier concentration exceeds ~1019 cm−3, the conduction mechanism is changed from hopping to degenerate conduction, exhibiting metal-insulator transition behavior. Detailed band structure calculation reveals that the hybridized s-p orbital from Sn 5s and Se 4p states is responsible for the degenerate metallic conduction in electron-doped SnSe2. PMID:26792630

  7. Metallic conduction induced by direct anion site doping in layered SnSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Il; Hwang, Sungwoo; Kim, Se Yun; Lee, Woo-Jin; Jung, Doh Won; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Park, Hee Jung; Cho, Young-Jin; Cho, Yong-Hee; Kim, Jung-Hwa; Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Han, In-Taek; Lee, Kimoon; Sohn, Yoonchul

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of metallic conduction in layered dichalcogenide semiconductor materials by chemical doping is one of key issues for two-dimensional (2D) materials engineering. At present, doping methods for layered dichalcogenide materials have been limited to an ion intercalation between layer units or electrostatic carrier doping by electrical bias owing to the absence of appropriate substitutional dopant for increasing the carrier concentration. Here, we report the occurrence of metallic conduction in the layered dichalcogenide of SnSe2 by the direct Se-site doping with Cl as a shallow electron donor. The total carrier concentration up to ~1020 cm-3 is achieved by Cl substitutional doping, resulting in the improved conductivity value of ~170 S·cm-1 from ~1.7 S·cm-1 for non-doped SnSe2. When the carrier concentration exceeds ~1019 cm-3, the conduction mechanism is changed from hopping to degenerate conduction, exhibiting metal-insulator transition behavior. Detailed band structure calculation reveals that the hybridized s-p orbital from Sn 5s and Se 4p states is responsible for the degenerate metallic conduction in electron-doped SnSe2.

  8. Metallic conduction induced by direct anion site doping in layered SnSe2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Il; Hwang, Sungwoo; Kim, Se Yun; Lee, Woo-Jin; Jung, Doh Won; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Park, Hee Jung; Cho, Young-Jin; Cho, Yong-Hee; Kim, Jung-Hwa; Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Han, In-taek; Lee, Kimoon; Sohn, Yoonchul

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of metallic conduction in layered dichalcogenide semiconductor materials by chemical doping is one of key issues for two-dimensional (2D) materials engineering. At present, doping methods for layered dichalcogenide materials have been limited to an ion intercalation between layer units or electrostatic carrier doping by electrical bias owing to the absence of appropriate substitutional dopant for increasing the carrier concentration. Here, we report the occurrence of metallic conduction in the layered dichalcogenide of SnSe2 by the direct Se-site doping with Cl as a shallow electron donor. The total carrier concentration up to ~10(20) cm(-3) is achieved by Cl substitutional doping, resulting in the improved conductivity value of ~170 S · cm(-1) from ~1.7 S · cm(-1) for non-doped SnSe2. When the carrier concentration exceeds ~10(19) cm(-3), the conduction mechanism is changed from hopping to degenerate conduction, exhibiting metal-insulator transition behavior. Detailed band structure calculation reveals that the hybridized s-p orbital from Sn 5s and Se 4p states is responsible for the degenerate metallic conduction in electron-doped SnSe2. PMID:26792630

  9. Physical properties of metal-doped zinc oxide films for surface acoustic wave application

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metal-doped ZnO [MZO] thin films show changes of the following properties by a dopant. First, group III element (Al, In, Ga)-doped ZnO thin films have a high conductivity having an n-type semiconductor characteristic. Second, group I element (Li, Na, K)-doped ZnO thin films have high resistivity due to a dopant that accepts a carrier. The metal-doped ZnO (M = Li, Ag) films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrates with the MZO targets. We investigated on the optical and electrical properties of the as-sputtered MZO films as dependences on the doping contents in the targets. All the MZO films had shown a preferred orientation in the [002] direction. As the quantity and the variety of metal dopants were changed, the crystallinity and the transmittance, as well as optical band gap were changed. The electrical resistivity was also changed with changing metal doping amounts and kinds of dopants. An epitaxial Li-doped ZnO film has a high resistivity and very smooth surface; it will have the most optimum conditions which can be used for the piezoelectric devices. PMID:22221881

  10. Physical properties of metal-doped zinc oxide films for surface acoustic wave application.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sang-Hun; Cho, Sang-Jin; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Metal-doped ZnO [MZO] thin films show changes of the following properties by a dopant. First, group III element (Al, In, Ga)-doped ZnO thin films have a high conductivity having an n-type semiconductor characteristic. Second, group I element (Li, Na, K)-doped ZnO thin films have high resistivity due to a dopant that accepts a carrier. The metal-doped ZnO (M = Li, Ag) films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrates with the MZO targets. We investigated on the optical and electrical properties of the as-sputtered MZO films as dependences on the doping contents in the targets. All the MZO films had shown a preferred orientation in the [002] direction. As the quantity and the variety of metal dopants were changed, the crystallinity and the transmittance, as well as optical band gap were changed. The electrical resistivity was also changed with changing metal doping amounts and kinds of dopants. An epitaxial Li-doped ZnO film has a high resistivity and very smooth surface; it will have the most optimum conditions which can be used for the piezoelectric devices. PMID:22221881