Science.gov

Sample records for metalloprotease invadolysin localizes

  1. Invadolysin acts genetically via the SAGA complex to modulate chromosome structure

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shubha Gururaja; Janiszewski, Michal M.; Duca, Edward; Nelson, Bryce; Abhinav, Kanishk; Panagakou, Ioanna; Vass, Sharron; Heck, Margarete M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of components essential to chromosome structure and behaviour remains a vibrant area of study. We have previously shown that invadolysin is essential in Drosophila, with roles in cell division and cell migration. Mitotic chromosomes are hypercondensed in length, but display an aberrant fuzzy appearance. We additionally demonstrated that in human cells, invadolysin is localized on the surface of lipid droplets, organelles that store not only triglycerides and sterols but also free histones H2A, H2Av and H2B. Is there a link between the storage of histones in lipid droplets and the aberrantly structured chromosomes of invadolysin mutants? We have identified a genetic interaction between invadolysin and nonstop, the de-ubiquitinating protease component of the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) chromatin-remodelling complex. invadolysin and nonstop mutants exhibit phenotypic similarities in terms of chromosome structure in both diploid and polyploid cells. Furthermore, IX-141/not1 transheterozygous animals accumulate mono-ubiquitinated histone H2B (ubH2B) and histone H3 tri-methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). Whole mount immunostaining of IX-141/not1 transheterozygous salivary glands revealed that ubH2B accumulates surprisingly in the cytoplasm, rather than the nucleus. Over-expression of the Bre1 ubiquitin ligase phenocopies the effects of mutating either the invadolysin or nonstop genes. Intriguingly, nonstop and mutants of other SAGA subunits (gcn5, ada2b and sgf11) all suppress an invadolysin-induced rough eye phenotype. We conclude that the abnormal chromosome phenotype of invadolysin mutants is likely the result of disrupting the histone modification cycle, as accumulation of ubH2B and H3K4me3 is observed. We further suggest that the mislocalization of ubH2B to the cytoplasm has additional consequences on downstream components essential for chromosome behaviour. We therefore propose that invadolysin plays a crucial role in chromosome organization

  2. rbCLCA1 is a putative metalloprotease family member: localization and catalytic domain identification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ra Mi; Han, Kyu Ho; Han, Jin Soo

    2016-03-01

    Here, we identify the rat brain (rb) CLCA1 metalloprotease motif and its role in rbCLCA1 processing. GFP tagging or c-myc tagging adjacent to the rbCLCA1 signal sequence was used to detect rbCLCA1 expression and localization patterns if they matched those of other CLCA family members. Immunoblot analysis revealed that massive deletion of the metalloprotease motif affects the protein cleavage process by restricting two cleavage products to only one product. rbCLCA1 as well as the mutant proteins H155A, E156Q, H159A, D166A, E167A, E170A, and D171A overexpressed in HEK293T cells showed plasma membrane localization; and intracellular localizations of H159A and E167A were observed in permeabilized and non-permeabilized conditions. C-terminally GFP-tagged rbCLCA1 showed either ER localization or overall signal within the cells rather than on the cell surface. Cell surface biotinylation analysis was used to show that rbCLCA1, H155A, E156Q, D166A, E170A, and D171A reach the cell surface while little H159A and E167A reach the cell surface. Taken together, our findings indicate that the amino acids H159 and E167 in the rbCLCA1 metalloprotease motif are important in rbCLCA1 processing for localization to the cell surface. Our data demonstrate that rbCLCA1 localization is dependent on the H159 and E167, suggesting either the metalloprotease motif including H159 and E167 may be the key site for rbCLCA1 cellular processing or that a novel rbCLCA1 regulation mechanism exists with a metalloprotease activity. PMID:26510883

  3. Meprin Metalloproteases Inactivate Interleukin 6*

    PubMed Central

    Keiffer, Timothy R.; Bond, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Meprins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, in which the cytokine IL-6 is a prominent effector molecule. Because IL-6 levels are elevated markedly in meprin α and α/β knockout mice in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease, the interaction between meprins and IL-6 was studied. The results demonstrate that rodent and human meprin A and B cleave IL-6 to a smaller product and, subsequently, are capable of extensive degradation of the cytokine. Analysis of the limited degradation product formed by meprin A indicated that three to five amino acids are removed from the C terminus of the cytokine. Meprin A and meprin B cleaved IL-6 with micromolar affinities (Km of 4.7 and 12.0 μm, respectively) and with high efficiencies (kcat/Km of 0.2 and 2.5 (m−1/s−1) × 106, respectively). These efficiency constants are among the highest for known meprin substrates. Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transiently transfected with meprin α or meprin β constructs also cleave exogenous IL-6. Both human and murine IL-6 cleaved by meprin A or B are inactivated, as demonstrated by their decreased capability to stimulate proliferation of B9 cells. These results are consistent with the proposition that one function of meprin metalloproteases is to modulate inflammation by inactivating IL-6. PMID:24474695

  4. Bacterial extracellular zinc-containing metalloproteases.

    PubMed Central

    Häse, C C; Finkelstein, R A

    1993-01-01

    Extracellular zinc-containing metalloproteases are widely distributed in the bacterial world. The most extensively studied are those which are associated with pathogenic bacteria or bacteria which have industrial significance. They are found practically wherever they are sought in both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms, be they aerobic or anaerobic. This ubiquity in itself implies that these enzymes serve important functions for the organisms which produce them. Because of the importance of zinc to enzymatic activity, it is not surprising that there is a pervasive amino acid sequence homology in the primary structure of this family of enzymes regardless of their source. The evidence suggests that both convergent and divergent evolutionary forces are at work. Within the large family of bacterial zinc-containing metalloendopeptidases, smaller family units are observed, such as thermolysin-like, elastase-like, and Serratia protease-like metalloproteases from various bacterial species. While this review was in the process of construction, a new function for zinc-containing metalloproteases was discovered: the neurotoxins of Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum type B have been shown to be zinc metalloproteases with specificity for synaptobrevin, an integral membrane protein of small synaptic vesicles which is involved in neurotransmission. Additional understanding of the mode of action of proteases which contribute to pathogenicity could lead to the development of inhibitors, such as chelators, surrogate substrates, or antibodies, which could prevent or interrupt the disease process. Further studies of this broad family of metalloproteases will provide important additional insights into the pathogenesis and structure-function relationships of enzymes and will lead to the development of products, including "designer proteins," which might be industrially and/or therapeutically useful. PMID:8302217

  5. Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteases without Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, M; Sasaki, J I; Yamaguchi, S; Kawai, K; Kawakami, H; Iwasaki, Y; Imazato, S

    2015-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently the focus of considerable attention for dental applications; however, their biological effects have not been fully elucidated. The long-term, slow release of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) digests collagen fibrils within resin-dentin bonds. Therefore, MMP inhibitors can prolong the durability of resin-dentin bonds. However, there have been few reports evaluating the combined effect of MMP inhibition and the cytotoxic effects of NPs for dentin bonding. The aim of this study was to evaluate MMP inhibition and cytotoxic responses to gold (AuNPs) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in cultured murine macrophages (RAW264) by using MMP inhibition assays, measuring cell viability and inflammatory responses (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-qPCR]), and conducting a micromorphological analysis by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Cultured RAW264 cells were exposed to metal NPs at various concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 400 µg/mL). AuNPs and PtNPs markedly inhibited MMP-8 and MMP-9 activity. Although PtNPs were cytotoxic at high concentrations (100 and 400 µg/mL), no cytotoxic effects were observed for AuNPs at any concentration. Transmission electron microscopy images showed a significant nonrandom intercellular distribution for AuNPs and PtNPs, which were mostly observed to be localized in lysosomes but not in the nucleus. RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated inflammatory responses were not induced in RAW264 cells by AuNPs or PtNPs. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles might depend on the core metal composition and arise from a "Trojan horse" effect; thus, MMP inhibition could be attributed to the surface charge of PVP, which forms the outer coating of NPs. The negative charge of the surface coating of PVP binds to Zn(2+) from the active center of MMPs by chelate binding and results in MMP inhibition. In summary, AuNPs are attractive NPs that effectively

  6. Secreted Metalloprotease Gene Family of Microsporum canis

    PubMed Central

    Brouta, Frédéric; Descamps, Frédéric; Monod, Michel; Vermout, Sandy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Keratinolytic proteases secreted by dermatophytes are likely to be virulence-related factors. Microsporum canis, the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats, causes a zoonosis that is frequently reported. Using Aspergillus fumigatus metalloprotease genomic sequence (MEP) as a probe, three genes (MEP1, MEP2, and MEP3) were isolated from an M. canis genomic library. They presented a quite-high percentage of identity with both A. fumigatus MEP and Aspergillus oryzae neutral protease I genes. At the amino acid level, they all contained an HEXXH consensus sequence, confirming that these M. canis genes (MEP genes) encode a zinc-containing metalloprotease gene family. Furthermore, MEP3 was found to be the gene encoding a previously isolated M. canis 43.5-kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease, and was successfully expressed as an active recombinant enzyme in Pichia pastoris. Reverse transcriptase nested PCR performed on total RNA extracted from the hair of M. canis-infected guinea pigs showed that at least MEP2 and MEP3 are produced during the infection process. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. PMID:12228297

  7. Ursolic acid reduces the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhe; He, Zhiyi; Deng, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    Background Activators of PPARs, particularly PPARγ, may be effective neuroprotective drugs against inflammatory responses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ursolic acid (UA) may act as a PPARγ agonist and serve as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model to examine how UA acts as a neuroprotective agent to modulate the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance. Methods The middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model (occlusion for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 48 hours) was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats. UA was administered intragastrically 0.5, 24, and 47 hours after reperfusion. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (a PPARγ antagonist) was intraperitoneally administered 1, 24.5, and 47.5 hours after reperfusion. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits and infarct volume were estimated. The PPARγ level and the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The activation of MAPK signaling pathways was also assessed. Results UA-treated (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) rats showed significant improvement in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, and the number of intact neurons compared with control rats (P<0.01). Both the PPARγ protein level and the percentage of PPARγ-positive cells were increased in the UA-treated groups (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the UA-treated groups exhibited reduced protein levels of MMP2, MMP9, and activated MAPKs (P<0.01) but an increased level of TIMP1 (P<0.01). UA exerted its protective effects in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with UA and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether completely abolished the UA-induced changes in PPARγ expression; however UA continued to exert a significant but partial neuroprotective effect. Conclusion UA can act as a PPARγ agonist to improve the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance, possibly by inhibiting the

  8. Novel apigenin based small molecule that targets snake venom metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Venkatachalaiah; Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Anusha, Sebastian; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Chandra Nayaka, Siddaiah; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Basappa; Girish, Kesturu S; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S

    2014-01-01

    The classical antivenom therapy has appreciably reduced snakebite mortality rate and thus is the only savior drug available. Unfortunately, it considerably fails to shield the viper bite complications like hemorrhage, local tissue degradation and necrosis responsible for severe morbidity. Moreover, the therapy is also tagged with limitations including anaphylaxis, serum sickness and poor availability. Over the last decade, snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are reported to be the primary component responsible for hemorrhage and tissue degradation at bitten site. Thus, antivenom inability to offset viper venom-induced local toxicity has been a basis for an insistent search for SVMP inhibitors. Here we report the inhibitory effect of compound 5d, an apigenin based molecule against SVMPs both in silico and in vivo. Several apigenin analogues are synthesized using multicomponent Ugi reactions. Among them, compound 5d effectively abrogated Echis carinatus (EC) venom-induced local hemorrhage, tissue necrosis and myotoxicity in a dose dependant fashion. The histopathological study further conferred effective inhibition of basement membrane degradation, and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the site of EC venom inoculation. The compound also protected EC venom-induced fibrin and fibrinogen degradation. The molecular docking of compound 5d and bothropasin demonstrated the direct interaction of hydroxyl group of compound with Glu146 present in hydrophobic pocket of active site and does not chelate Zn2+. Hence, it is concluded that compound 5d could be a potent agent in viper bite management. PMID:25184206

  9. Novel Apigenin Based Small Molecule that Targets Snake Venom Metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Anusha, Sebastian; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Chandra Nayaka, Siddaiah; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Basappa; Girish, Kesturu S.; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2014-01-01

    The classical antivenom therapy has appreciably reduced snakebite mortality rate and thus is the only savior drug available. Unfortunately, it considerably fails to shield the viper bite complications like hemorrhage, local tissue degradation and necrosis responsible for severe morbidity. Moreover, the therapy is also tagged with limitations including anaphylaxis, serum sickness and poor availability. Over the last decade, snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are reported to be the primary component responsible for hemorrhage and tissue degradation at bitten site. Thus, antivenom inability to offset viper venom-induced local toxicity has been a basis for an insistent search for SVMP inhibitors. Here we report the inhibitory effect of compound 5d, an apigenin based molecule against SVMPs both in silico and in vivo. Several apigenin analogues are synthesized using multicomponent Ugi reactions. Among them, compound 5d effectively abrogated Echis carinatus (EC) venom-induced local hemorrhage, tissue necrosis and myotoxicity in a dose dependant fashion. The histopathological study further conferred effective inhibition of basement membrane degradation, and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the site of EC venom inoculation. The compound also protected EC venom-induced fibrin and fibrinogen degradation. The molecular docking of compound 5d and bothropasin demonstrated the direct interaction of hydroxyl group of compound with Glu146 present in hydrophobic pocket of active site and does not chelate Zn2+. Hence, it is concluded that compound 5d could be a potent agent in viper bite management. PMID:25184206

  10. Matrix metalloproteases: Underutilized targets for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Deepali G.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiological molecules in the extracellular environment offer excellent targets that can be exploited for designing drug targeting systems. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteolytic enzymes that are characterized by their overexpression or overactivity in several pathologies. Over the last two decades, the MMP literature reveals heightened interest in the research involving MMP biology, pathology, and targeting. This review describes various strategies that have been designed to utilize MMPs for targeting therapeutic entities. Key factors that need to be considered in the successful design of such systems have been identified based on the analyses of these strategies. Development of targeted drug delivery using MMPs has been steadily pursued; however, drug delivery efforts using these targets need to be intensified and focused to realize the clinical application of the fast developing fundamental MMP research. PMID:17365270

  11. MATRIX METALLOPROTEASES IN HEAD AND NECK CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Eben L.; Matrisian, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a collection of enzymes capable of cleaving extracellular matrix components, growth factors, and cell-surface receptors. MMPs modulate most aspects of tumorigenesis and are highly expressed in cancer compared with normal tissues. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) express high levels of MMPs in vivo and that inhibition of these enzymes in vitro and in mouse models decreases invasion and metastasis. However, the clinical trials for MMP inhibitors have failed to demonstrate a significant survival advantage in most cancers. The disparity between preclinical and clinical studies has led to the reevaluation of how MMP functions in cancer and the design of clinical trials for molecularly targeted agents. Mouse model data and analysis of HNSCC tumor specimens suggests that membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP) may be a critical enzyme in tumor cell invasion and survival in vivo. This accumulated data provide evidence for development of selective MT1-MMP inhibitors as therapy in HNSCC. PMID:16470875

  12. Glycosylation of matrix metalloproteases and tissue inhibitors: present state, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Boon, Lise; Ugarte-Berzal, Estefania; Vandooren, Jennifer; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2016-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are crucial components of a complex and dynamic network of proteases. With a wide range of potential substrates, their production and activity are tightly controlled by a combination of signalling events, zymogen activation, post-translational modifications and extracellular inhibition. Slight imbalances may result in the initiation or progression of specific disease states, such as cancer and pathological inflammation. As glycosylation modifies the structures and functions of glycoproteins and many MMPs contain N- or O-linked oligosaccharides, we examine, compare and evaluate the evidence for whether glycosylation affects MMP catalytic activity and other functions. It is interesting that the catalytic sites of MMPs do not contain O-linked glycans, but instead possess a conserved N-linked glycosylation site. Both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides, attached to specific protein domains, endow these domains with novel functions such as the binding to lectins, cell-surface receptors and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). Validated glycobiological data on N- and O-linked oligosaccharides of gelatinase B/MMP-9 and on O-linked structures of membrane-type 1 MMP/MMP-14 indicate that in-depth research of other MMPs may yield important insights, e.g. about subcellular localizations and functions within macromolecular complexes. PMID:27234584

  13. Glycosylation of matrix metalloproteases and tissue inhibitors: present state, challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Lise; Ugarte-Berzal, Estefania; Vandooren, Jennifer; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are crucial components of a complex and dynamic network of proteases. With a wide range of potential substrates, their production and activity are tightly controlled by a combination of signalling events, zymogen activation, post-translational modifications and extracellular inhibition. Slight imbalances may result in the initiation or progression of specific disease states, such as cancer and pathological inflammation. As glycosylation modifies the structures and functions of glycoproteins and many MMPs contain N- or O-linked oligosaccharides, we examine, compare and evaluate the evidence for whether glycosylation affects MMP catalytic activity and other functions. It is interesting that the catalytic sites of MMPs do not contain O-linked glycans, but instead possess a conserved N-linked glycosylation site. Both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides, attached to specific protein domains, endow these domains with novel functions such as the binding to lectins, cell-surface receptors and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). Validated glycobiological data on N- and O-linked oligosaccharides of gelatinase B/MMP-9 and on O-linked structures of membrane-type 1 MMP/MMP-14 indicate that in-depth research of other MMPs may yield important insights, e.g. about subcellular localizations and functions within macromolecular complexes. PMID:27234584

  14. [The role of metalloprotease in pathogenesis of nervous system diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirowska, D; Członkowska, A

    2001-01-01

    Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs) comprise a big family of proteolytic enzymes secreted into extracellular matrix and involved in remodelling of many tissues. The MMPs' activity is regulated on many levels. It is also determined by specific inhibitors known as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). Several studies revealed that MMPs have a role not only in physiological processes but also in pathophysiology of nervous system diseases, such as multiplex sclerosis, Guillan-Barré syndrome and strokes. Concerning demyelination MMPs are responsible for degradation of myelin components and facilitation of immune cells migration into inflammatory sites by degrading vascular basement membrane. We still investigate substances with positive clinical effect on the nervous system diseases due to MMPs inactivation. PMID:11464705

  15. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM): Historical Overview of Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Giebeler, Nives; Zigrino, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first disintegrin protein from snake venom and the following identification of a mammalian membrane-anchored metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in fertilization, almost three decades of studies have identified additional members of these families and several biochemical mechanisms regulating their expression and activity in the cell. Most importantly, new in vivo functions have been recognized for these proteins including cell partitioning during development, modulation of inflammatory reactions, and development of cancers. In this review, we will overview the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteases highlighting some of the major research achievements in the analysis of ADAMs’ function that have underscored the importance of these proteins in physiological and pathological processes over the years. PMID:27120619

  16. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM): Historical Overview of Their Functions.

    PubMed

    Giebeler, Nives; Zigrino, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of the first disintegrin protein from snake venom and the following identification of a mammalian membrane-anchored metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in fertilization, almost three decades of studies have identified additional members of these families and several biochemical mechanisms regulating their expression and activity in the cell. Most importantly, new in vivo functions have been recognized for these proteins including cell partitioning during development, modulation of inflammatory reactions, and development of cancers. In this review, we will overview the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteases highlighting some of the major research achievements in the analysis of ADAMs' function that have underscored the importance of these proteins in physiological and pathological processes over the years. PMID:27120619

  17. The many faces of metalloproteases: cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chieh; Werb, Zena

    2009-01-01

    Metalloproteases are important in many aspects of biology, ranging from cell proliferation, differentiation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to vascularization and cell migration. These events occur several times during organogenesis in both normal development and during tumor progression. Mechanisms of metalloprotease action underlying these events include the proteolytic cleavage of growth factors so that they can become available to cells not in direct physical contact, degradation of the ECM so that founder cells can move across tissues into nearby stroma, and regulated receptor cleavage to terminate migratory signaling. Most of these processes require a delicate balance between the functions of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) or metalloprotease-disintegrins (ADAMs) and natural tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). In this review, we discuss recent progress in identifying an essential role for metalloproteases in axon outgrowth, as an example of a focal invasive event. We also discuss the evolving concept of how MMPs might regulate stem cell fate during tumor development. PMID:11684441

  18. The enterotoxin of Bacteroides fragilis is a metalloprotease.

    PubMed Central

    Moncrief, J S; Obiso, R; Barroso, L A; Kling, J J; Wright, R L; Van Tassell, R L; Lyerly, D M; Wilkins, T D

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, strains of Bacteroides fragilis that produce an enterotoxin have been implicated in diarrheal disease in animals and humans. The extracellular enterotoxin has been purified and characterized as a single polypeptide (M(r), approximately 20,000). Single specific primer-PCR was used to clone a portion of the B. fragilis enterotoxin gene. The recombinant protein expressed by the cloned gene fragment reacted with monospecific antibodies to B. fragilis enterotoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a signature zinc-binding consensus motif (HEXXHXXGXXH/Met-turn) characteristic of metalloproteases termed metzincins. Sequence comparisons showed close identity to matrix metalloproteases (e.g., human fibroblast collagenase) within the zinc-binding and Met-turn region. Purified enterotoxin contained 1 g-atom of Zn2+ per molecule and hydrolyzed gelatin, azocoll, actin, tropomyosin, and fibrinogen. The enterotoxin also underwent autodigestion. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of two autodigestion products were identical to the deduced amino acid sequence of the recombinant enterotoxin and revealed cleavage at Cys-Leu and Ser-Leu peptide bonds. Gelatinase (type IV collagenase) activity comigrated with the toxin when analyzed by gel fractionation and zymography, indicating that protease activity is due to the enterotoxin and not to a contaminating protease(s). Optimal proteolytic activity occurred at 37 degrees C and pH 6.5. Primary proteolytic cleavage sites in actin were identified, revealing cleavage at Gly-Met and Thr-Leu peptide bonds. Enzymatic activity was inhibited by metal chelators but not by inhibitors of other classes of proteases. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of the enterotoxin on human carcinoma HT-29 cells was inhibited by acetoxymethyl ester EDTA. The metalloprotease activity of the enterotoxin suggests a possible mechanism for enterotoxicity and may have additional

  19. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  20. A novel synthetic quinolinone inhibitor presents proteolytic and hemorrhagic inhibitory activities against snake venom metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, Patrícia T; Magro, Angelo J; Matioli, Fábio F; Marcussi, Silvana; Lemke, Ney; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M; Correa, Arlene G; Fontes, Marcos R M

    2016-02-01

    Metalloproteases play a fundamental role in snake venom envenomation inducing hemorrhagic, fibrigen(ogen)olytic and myotoxic effects in their victims. Several snake venoms, such as those from the Bothrops genus, present important local effects which are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy. Consequently, these accidents may result in permanent sequelae and disability, creating economic and social problems, especially in developing countries, leading the attention of the World Health Organization that considered ophidic envenomations a neglected tropical disease. Aiming to produce an efficient inhibitor against bothropic venoms, we synthesized different molecules classified as quinolinones - a group of low-toxic chemical compounds widely used as antibacterial and antimycobacterial drugs - and tested their inhibitory properties against hemorrhage caused by bothropic venoms. The results from this initial screening indicated the molecule 2-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxy-1,4-dihydro-4-quinolinone (Q8) was the most effective antihemorrhagic compound among all of the assayed synthetic quinolinones. Other in vitro and in vivo experiments showed this novel compound was able to inhibit significantly the hemorrhagic and/or proteolytic activities of bothropic crude venoms and isolated snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) even at lower concentrations. Docking and molecular dynamic simulations were also performed to get insights into the structural basis of Q8 inhibitory mechanism against proteolytic and hemorrhagic SVMPs. These structural studies demonstrated that Q8 may form a stable complex with SVMPs, impairing the access of substrates to the active sites of these toxins. Therefore, both experimental and structural data indicate that Q8 compound is an interesting candidate for antiophidic therapy, particularly for the treatment of the hemorrhagic and necrotic effects induced by bothropic venoms. PMID:26700145

  1. Structure of gentlyase, the neutral metalloprotease of Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Armin; Stihle, Martine; Benz, Jörg; Schmidt, Manfred; Sobek, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Gentlyase is a bacterial extracellular metalloprotease that is widely applied in cell culture and for tissue dissociation and that belongs to the family of thermolysin-like proteases. The structure of thermolysin has been known since 1972 and that of Bacillus cereus neutral protease since 1992. However, the structure determination of other Bacillus neutral proteases has been hindered by their tendency to cannibalistic autolysis. High calcium conditions that allow the concentration and crystallization of the active Gentlyase metalloprotease without autoproteolysis were identified using thermal fluorescent shift assays. X-ray structures of the protease were solved in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitor phosphoramidon at 1.59 and 1.76 Å resolution, respectively. No domain movement was observed upon inhibitor binding, although such movement is thought to be a general feature of the thermolysin-like protease family. Further analysis of the structure shows that the observed calcium dependency of Gentlyase stability may arise from a partly degenerated calcium site Ca1-2 and a deletion near site Ca3. PMID:23275160

  2. [Hepatic fibrosis: role of matrix metalloproteases and TGFbeta].

    PubMed

    Sentíes-Gómez, María Daniela; Gálvez-Gastélum, Francisco Javier; Meza-García, Eduardo; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis involve multiple cellular and molecular events that lead to deposition of an excess of extracellular matrix proteins and increase the distortion of normal liver architecture. Etiologies include chronic viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse and drug toxicity. Degradation of these matrix proteins occurs predominantly as a result of a family of enzymes called metalloproteases (MMPs) that specifically degrade collagenous and non-collagenous substrates. Matrix degradation in the liver is due to the action of at least four of these enzymes: MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9. In the fibrinolytic system, MMPs can be activated through proteolytic cleavage by the action of urokinase plasminogen activator; a second mechanism includes the same metalloproteases. This activity is regulated at many levels in the fibrinolytic system. The main regulator is the PAI-1. This molecule blocks the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin, and the MMP cannot be activated. At a second level, the inhibition is possible by binding to inhibitors called TIMP that can inhibit the proteolitic activity even when the MMPs had been previously activated by plasmin. During abnormal conditions, overexpression of these inhibitors is directed by the transforming growth factor-beta that in a fibrotic disease acts as an extremely important adverse factor. PMID:16164129

  3. Do Matrix Metalloproteases and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteases in Tenocytes of the Rotator Cuff Differ with Varying Donor Characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    Klatte-Schulz, Franka; Aleyt, Thomas; Pauly, Stephan; Geißler, Sven; Gerhardt, Christian; Scheibel, Markus; Wildemann, Britt

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) may have a negative impact on the healing of rotator cuff tears. The aim of the project was to assess a possible relationship between clinical and radiographic characteristics of patients such as the age, sex, as well as the degenerative status of the tendon and the MMPs and TIMPs in their tenocyte-like cells (TLCs). TLCs were isolated from ruptured supraspinatus tendons and quantitative Real-Time PCR and ELISA was performed to analyze the expression and secretion of MMPs and TIMPs. In the present study, MMPs, mostly gelatinases and collagenases such as MMP-2, -9 and -13 showed an increased expression and protein secretion in TLCs of donors with higher age or degenerative status of the tendon. Furthermore, the expression and secretion of TIMP-1, -2 and -3 was enhanced with age, muscle fatty infiltration and tear size. The interaction between MMPs and TIMPs is a complex process, since TIMPs are not only inhibitors, but also activators of MMPs. This study shows that MMPs and TIMPs might play an important role in degenerative tendon pathologies. PMID:26068238

  4. Crystal Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc-dependent Metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1), a Metalloprotease Involved in Pathogenicity*

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Davide M.; Sbardella, Diego; Petrera, Agnese; Marini, Stefano; Amstutz, Beat; Coletta, Massimo; Sander, Peter; Rizzi, Menico

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, parasitizes host macrophages. The resistance of the tubercle bacilli to the macrophage hostile environment relates to their ability to impair phagosome maturation and its fusion with the lysosome, thus preventing the formation of the phago-lysosome and eventually arresting the process of phagocytosis. The M. tuberculosis zinc-dependent metalloprotease Zmp1 has been proposed to play a key role in the process of phagosome maturation inhibition and emerged as an important player in pathogenesis. Here, we report the crystal structure of wild-type Zmp1 at 2.6 Å resolution in complex with the generic zinc metalloprotease inhibitor phosphoramidon, which we demonstrated to inhibit the enzyme potently. Our data represent the first structural characterization of a bacterial member of the zinc-dependent M13 endopeptidase family and revealed a significant degree of conservation with eukaryotic enzymes. However, structural comparison of the Zmp1-phosphoramidon complex with homologous human proteins neprilysin and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 revealed unique features of the Zmp1 active site to be exploited for the rational design of specific inhibitors that may prove useful as a pharmacological tool for better understanding Zmp1 biological function. PMID:21813647

  5. Biochemistry and physiological functions of ADAMTS7 metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Hanby, Hayley A.; Zheng, X. Long

    2013-01-01

    Here, we provide a comprehensive review of current findings concerning the biochemistry and physiological functions of ADAMTS7, a metalloprotease that is known to interact with cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, progranulin, and alpha2-macroglobulin. Such broad substrate specificity and potentially diverse physiological functions make ADAMTS7 an interesting enzyme to study. ADAMTS7 has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritis and disc disorders. More recently, the ADAMTS7 locus is identified to have a strong association with coronary atherosclerotic disease. However, the role of ADAMTS7 in the development of atherosclerosis is yet to be determined. The development of an easy and high throughput assay for ADAMTS7 activity and appropriate animal models will allow us to uncover the novel mechanisms of coronary arterial disease. PMID:24222922

  6. Activation and Proteolytic Activity of the Treponema pallidum Metalloprotease, Pallilysin

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Simon; Hof, Rebecca; Honeyman, Lisa; Hassler, Julia; Cameron, Caroline E.

    2012-01-01

    Treponema pallidum is a highly invasive pathogen that undergoes rapid dissemination to establish widespread infection. Previous investigations identified the T. pallidum adhesin, pallilysin, as an HEXXH-containing metalloprotease that undergoes autocatalytic cleavage and degrades laminin and fibrinogen. In the current study we characterized pallilysin's active site, activation requirements, cellular location, and fibrin clot degradation capacity through both in vitro assays and heterologous treponemal expression and degradation studies. Site-directed mutagenesis showed the pallilysin HEXXH motif comprises at least part of the active site, as introduction of three independent mutations (AEXXH [H198A], HAXXH [E199A], and HEXXA [H202A]) abolished pallilysin-mediated fibrinogenolysis but did not adversely affect host component binding. Attainment of full pallilysin proteolytic activity was dependent upon autocatalytic cleavage of an N-terminal pro-domain, a process which could not occur in the HEXXH mutants. Pallilysin was shown to possess a thrombin cleavage site within its N-terminal pro-domain, and in vitro studies confirmed cleavage of pallilysin with thrombin generates a truncated pallilysin fragment that has enhanced proteolytic activity, suggesting pallilysin can also exploit the host coagulation process to facilitate protease activation. Opsonophagocytosis assays performed with viable T. pallidum demonstrated pallilysin is a target of opsonic antibodies, consistent with a host component-interacting, surface-exposed cellular location. Wild-type pallilysin, but not the HEXXA mutant, degraded fibrin clots, and similarly heterologous expression of pallilysin in the non-invasive spirochete Treponema phagedenis facilitated fibrin clot degradation. Collectively these results identify pallilysin as a surface-exposed metalloprotease within T. pallidum that possesses an HEXXH active site motif and requires autocatalytic or host-mediated cleavage of a pro-domain to attain

  7. Differential Evolution and Neofunctionalization of Snake Venom Metalloprotease Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Andreas; Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A.B.; Vetter, Irina; Yang, Daryl C.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Koludarov, Ivan; Alewood, Paul F.; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Lewis, Richard J.; King, Glenn F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Hendrikx, Iwan; Fry, Bryan G.

    2013-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMP) are composed of five domains: signal peptide, propeptide, metalloprotease, disintegrin, and cysteine-rich. Secreted toxins are typically combinatorial variations of the latter three domains. The SVMP-encoding genes of Psammophis mossambicus venom are unique in containing only the signal and propeptide domains. We show that the Psammophis SVMP propeptide evolves rapidly and is subject to a high degree of positive selection. Unlike Psammophis, some species of Echis express both the typical multidomain and the unusual monodomain (propeptide only) SVMP, with the result that a lower level of variation is exerted upon the latter. We showed that most mutations in the multidomain Echis SVMP occurred in the protease domain responsible for proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities. The cysteine-rich and disintegrin-like domains, which are putatively responsible for making the P-III SVMPs more potent than the P-I and P-II forms, accumulate the remaining variation. Thus, the binding sites on the molecule's surface are evolving rapidly whereas the core remains relatively conserved. Bioassays conducted on two post-translationally cleaved novel proline-rich peptides from the P. mossambicus propeptide domain showed them to have been neofunctionalized for specific inhibition of mammalian a7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We show that the proline rich postsynaptic specific neurotoxic peptides from Azemiops feae are the result of convergent evolution within the precursor region of the C-type natriuretic peptide instead of the SVMP. The results of this study reinforce the value of studying obscure venoms for biodiscovery of novel investigational ligands. PMID:23242553

  8. ADM-1, a protein with metalloprotease- and disintegrin-like domains, is expressed in syncytial organs, sperm, and sheath cells of sensory organs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Podbilewicz, B

    1996-01-01

    A search was carried out for homologues of possible fusogenic proteins to study their function in a genetically tractable animal. The isolation, molecular, and cellular characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans adm-1 gene (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) are described. A glycoprotein analogous to viral fusion proteins has been identified on the surface of guinea pig sperm (PH-30/fertilin) and is implicated in sperm-egg fusion. adm-1 is the first reported invertebrate gene related to PH-30 and a family of proteins containing snake venom disintegrin- and metalloprotease-like domains. ADM-1 shows a domain organization identical to PH-30. It contains prepro, metalloprotease, disintegrin, cysteine rich with putative fusion peptide, epidermal growth factor-like repeat, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains. Antibodies which recognize ADM-1 protein in immunoblots were generated. Using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, the products of adm-1 have been detected in specific cells during different stages of development. The localization of ADM-1 to the plasma membrane of embryonic cells and to the sheath cells of sensory organs suggests a function in cell adhesion. ADM-1 expression in the hypodermis, pharynx, vulva, and mature sperm is consistent with a putative role in somatic and gamete cell fusions. Images PMID:8970152

  9. A role for a TIMP-3-sensitive, Zn(2+)-dependent metalloprotease in mammalian gamete membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Correa, L M; Cho, C; Myles, D G; Primakoff, P

    2000-09-01

    During fertilization, sperm and egg plasma membranes adhere and then fuse by a mechanism that is not well understood. Zinc metalloproteases are necessary for some intercellular fusion events, for instance, cell-cell fusion in yeast. In this study we tested the effects of class-specific and family-specific protease inhibitors on mouse gamete fusion. Capacitated, acrosome-reacted sperm and zona-free eggs were used in assays designed to define the effects of inhibitors on sperm-egg plasma membrane binding or fusion. Inhibitors of the aspartic, cysteine, and serine protease classes had no effect on sperm-egg binding or fusion. Both a synthetic metalloprotease substrate (succinyl-Ala-Ala-Phe-amidomethylcoumarin) and the zinc chelator 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited sperm-egg fusion but did not decrease sperm-egg binding. The fusion-inhibition effect of phenanthroline was reversible and activity of the inhibitable zinc metalloprotease was shown to be required during a short time window, the first 15 min after insemination. Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-3 and Ro 31-9790, specific inhibitors of zinc metalloproteases in the matrixin and adamalysin families, also inhibited sperm-egg fusion but not sperm-egg binding. These data indicate a role in gamete fusion for one or more zinc metalloproteases of the matrixin and/or adamalysin families that act after plasma membrane binding and before sperm-egg membrane fusion. PMID:10964469

  10. Cloning and characterization of the Bacteroides fragilis metalloprotease toxin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A A; Mundy, L M; Trucksis, M; Wu, S; Kaper, J B; Sears, C L

    1997-01-01

    Strains of Bacteroides fragilis that produce a ca. 20-kDa heat-labile protein toxin (termed B. fragilis toxin [BFT]) have been associated with diarrheal disease of animals and humans. BFT alters the morphology of intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo and stimulates secretion in ligated intestinal segments of rats, rabbits, and lambs. Previous genetic and biochemical data indicated that BFT was a metalloprotease which hydrolyzed G (monomeric) actin, gelatin, and azocoll in vitro. In this paper, the cloning and sequencing of the entire B. fragilis toxin gene (bft) from enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) 86-5443-2-2 is reported. The bft gene from this ETBF strain consists of one open reading frame of 1,191 nucleotides encoding a predicted 397-residue holotoxin with a calculated molecular weight of 44,493. Comparison of the predicted BFT protein sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified BFT indicates that BFT is most probably synthesized by ETBF strains as a preproprotein. These data predict that BFT is processed to yield a biologically active toxin of 186 residues with a molecular mass of 20.7 kDa which is secreted into the culture supernatant. Analysis of the holotoxin sequence predicts a 20-residue amphipathic region at the carboxy terminus of BFT. Thus, in addition to the metalloprotease activity of BFT, the prediction of an amphipathic domain suggests that oligomerization of BFT may permit membrane insertion of the toxin with creation of a transmembrane pore. Comparison of the sequences available for the bft genes from ETBF 86-5443-2-2 and VPI 13784 revealed two regions of reduced homology. Hybridization of oligonucleotide probes specific for each bft to toxigenic B.fragilis strains revealed that 51 and 49% of toxigenic strains contained the 86-5433-2-2 and VPI 13784 bft genes, respectively. No toxigenic strain hybridized with both probes. We propose that these two subtypes of bft be termed bft-1 (VPI 13784) and bft-2 (86

  11. Tetraspanin 8 is an interactor of the metalloprotease meprin β within tetraspanin-enriched microdomains.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Frederike; Müller, Miryam; Prox, Johannes; Arnold, Philipp; Schönherr, Caroline; Tredup, Claudia; Minder, Petra; Ebsen, Henriette; Janssen, Ottmar; Annaert, Wim; Pietrzik, Claus; Schmidt-Arras, Dirk; Sterchi, Erwin E; Becker-Pauly, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Meprin β is a dimeric type I transmembrane protein and acts as an ectodomain sheddase at the cell surface. It has been shown that meprin β cleaves the amyloid precursor protein (APP), thereby releasing neurotoxic amyloid β peptides and implicating a role of meprin β in Alzheimer's disease. In order to identify non-proteolytic regulators of meprin β, we performed a split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen using a small intestinal cDNA library. In this screen we identified tetraspanin 8 (TSPAN8) as interaction partner for meprin β. As several members of the tetraspanin family were described to interact with metalloproteases thereby affecting their localization and/or activity, we hypothesized similar functions of TSPAN8 in the regulation of meprin β. We employed cell biological methods to confirm direct binding of TSPAN8 to meprin β. Surprisingly, we did not observe an effect of TSPAN8 on the catalytic activity of meprin β nor on the specific cleavage of its substrate APP. However, both proteins were identified as present in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. Therefore we hypothesize that TSPAN8 might be important for the orchestration of meprin β at the cell surface with impact on certain proteolytic processes that have to be further identified. PMID:27180358

  12. Immunoprotective potential of a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus metalloprotease.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abid; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Guizzo, Melina Garcia; Tirloni, Lucas; Seixas, Adriana; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Termignoni, Carlos

    2015-01-15

    Ticks have serious impacts on animal and human health, causing significant economic losses in cattle breeding. Besides damage due to the hematophagous behavior, they transmit several pathogens. Low cost and environmental safety have made vaccines a promising alternative control method against tick infestation. Metalloproteases (MPs) have been shown to be essential for diverse biological functions in hematophagous organisms, inhibiting blood clotting, degrading extracellular matrix proteins, and inhibiting host tissue repair via anti-angiogenic activity. In this study, we analyzed the immunoprotective potential of a recombinant MP against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation. First, a cDNA encoding R. microplus amino acids sequence with highly conserved regions of the metzincin (reprolysin) group of MP was identified (BrRm-MP4). After expression and purification, recombinant BrRm-MP4 was used as a vaccinal antigen against R. microplus infestation in cattle (Bos taurus taurus). All vaccinated bovines developed immune response to the antigen, resulting in increased antibody level throughout the immunization protocol. Immunization with rBrRm-MP4 reduced tick feeding success, decreasing the number of engorged females and their reproduction potential, representing a 60% overall protection. These results show that rBrRm-MP4 provides protection against tick infestation, placing it is a potential candidate for an anti-tick vaccine. PMID:25480468

  13. Time-dependent botulinum neurotoxin serotype A metalloprotease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Steven C.; Butler, Michelle M.; Pai, Ramdas; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Peet, Norton P.; Bavari, Sina; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most lethal of biological substances, and are categorized as class A biothreat agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. There are currently no drugs to treat the deadly flaccid paralysis resulting from BoNT intoxication. Among the seven BoNT serotypes, the development of therapeutics to counter BoNT/A is a priority (due to its long half-life in the neuronal cytosol and its ease of production). In this regard, the BoNT/A enzyme light chain (LC) component, a zinc metalloprotease responsible for the intracellular cleavage of synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa, is a desirable target for developing post-BoNT/A intoxication rescue therapeutics. In an earlier study, we reported the high throughput screening of a library containing 70,000 compounds, and uncovered a novel class of benzimidazole acrylonitrile-based BoNT/A LC inhibitors. Herein, we present both structure-activity relationships and a proposed mechanism of action for this novel inhibitor chemotype. PMID:22082667

  14. The Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 modulates ADAM13 metalloprotease activity

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Kaufmann, Lilian T.; Cousin, Hélène; Kleino, Iivari; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are a transient population of stem cells that originate at the border of the neural plate and the epidermis, and migrate ventrally to contribute to most of the facial structures including bones, cartilage, muscles and ganglia. ADAM13 is a cell surface metalloprotease that is essential for CNC cell migration. Here, we show in Xenopus laevis embryos that the Wnt receptor Fz4 binds to the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 and negatively regulates its proteolytic activity in vivo. Gain of Fz4 function inhibits CNC cell migration and can be rescued by gain of ADAM13 function. Loss of Fz4 function also inhibits CNC cell migration and induces a reduction of mature ADAM13, together with an increase in the ADAM13 cytoplasmic fragment that is known to translocate into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that Fz4 associates with ADAM13 during its transport to the plasma membrane to regulate its proteolytic activity. PMID:25616895

  15. Differential Matrix Metalloprotease (MMP) Expression Profiles Found in Aged Gingiva

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suhee; Ahn, Sun Hee; Lee, Jin-Sil; Song, Ji-Eun; Cho, Sung-Hyun; Jung, Seunggon; Kim, Seon-Kyu; Kim, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium undergoes age-related cellular and clinical changes, but the involved genes are not yet known. Here, we investigated age-related genetic changes in gingiva at the transcriptomic level. Genes that were differentially expressed between young and old human gingiva were identified by RNA sequencing and verified by real-time PCR. A total of 1939 mRNA transcripts showed significantly differential expression between young and old gingival tissues. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP) regulation was the top pathway involved in gingival aging. MMP3, MMP9, MMP12, and MMP13 were upregulated in old gingival tissues, concomitantly with interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) expression. In vitro experiments using human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) showed that MMP12 was upregulated in old hGFs compared to young hGFs. Moreover, the MMP3, MMP9 and IL1B levels were more highly stimulated by infection with the oral bacterium, Fusobacterium nucleatum, in old hGFs compared to young hGFs. Collectively, these findings suggest that, in gingiva, the upregulation of MMP12 may be a molecular hallmark of natural aging, while the upregulations of MMP3, MMM9, and IL1B may indicate externally (e.g., infection)-induced aging. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular targets involved in gingival aging. PMID:27391467

  16. The plastid metalloprotease FtsH6 and small heat shock protein HSP21 jointly regulate thermomemory in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghatmehr, Mastoureh; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Acquired tolerance to heat stress is an increased resistance to elevated temperature following a prior exposure to heat. The maintenance of acquired thermotolerance in the absence of intervening stress is called ‘thermomemory' but the mechanistic basis for this memory is not well defined. Here we show that Arabidopsis HSP21, a plastidial small heat shock protein that rapidly accumulates after heat stress and remains abundant during the thermomemory phase, is a crucial component of thermomemory. Sustained memory requires that HSP21 levels remain high. Through pharmacological interrogation and transcriptome profiling, we show that the plastid-localized metalloprotease FtsH6 regulates HSP21 abundance. Lack of a functional FtsH6 protein promotes HSP21 accumulation during the later stages of thermomemory and increases thermomemory capacity. Our results thus reveal the presence of a plastidial FtsH6–HSP21 control module for thermomemory in plants. PMID:27561243

  17. The plastid metalloprotease FtsH6 and small heat shock protein HSP21 jointly regulate thermomemory in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sedaghatmehr, Mastoureh; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Acquired tolerance to heat stress is an increased resistance to elevated temperature following a prior exposure to heat. The maintenance of acquired thermotolerance in the absence of intervening stress is called 'thermomemory' but the mechanistic basis for this memory is not well defined. Here we show that Arabidopsis HSP21, a plastidial small heat shock protein that rapidly accumulates after heat stress and remains abundant during the thermomemory phase, is a crucial component of thermomemory. Sustained memory requires that HSP21 levels remain high. Through pharmacological interrogation and transcriptome profiling, we show that the plastid-localized metalloprotease FtsH6 regulates HSP21 abundance. Lack of a functional FtsH6 protein promotes HSP21 accumulation during the later stages of thermomemory and increases thermomemory capacity. Our results thus reveal the presence of a plastidial FtsH6-HSP21 control module for thermomemory in plants. PMID:27561243

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Assists Mycobacterial Dissemination in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Mani H; Medisetti, Raghavender; Ganji, Rakesh; Jakkala, Kiran; Sankati, Swetha; Chatti, Kiranam; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the tuberculosis (TB) causing bacillus, is a virulence factor involved in inflammasome inactivation and phagosome maturation arrest. We earlier reported that Zmp1 was secreted under granuloma-like stress conditions, induced Th2 cytokine microenvironment and was highly immunogenic in TB patients as evident from high anti-Zmp1 antibody titers in their sera. In this study, we deciphered a new physiological role of Zmp1 in mycobacterial dissemination. Exogenous treatment of THP-1 cells with 500 nM and 1 μM of recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1) resulted in necrotic cell death. Apart from inducing secretion of necrotic cytokines, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β, it also induced the release of chemotactic chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and IL-8, suggesting its likely function in cell migration and mycobacterial dissemination. This was confirmed by Gap closure and Boyden chamber assays, where Zmp1 treated CHO or THP-1 cells showed ∼2 fold increased cell migration compared to the untreated cells. Additionally, Zebrafish-M. marinum based host-pathogen model was used to study mycobacterial dissemination in vivo. Td-Tomato labeled M. marinum (TdM. marinum) when injected with rZmp1 showed increased dissemination to tail region from the site of injection as compared to the untreated control fish in a dose-dependent manner. Summing up these observations along with the earlier reports, we propose that Zmp1, a multi-faceted protein, when released by mycobacteria in granuloma, may lead to necrotic cell damage and release of chemotactic chemokines by surrounding infected macrophages, attracting new immune cells, which in turn may lead to fresh cellular infections, thus assisting mycobacterial dissemination. PMID:27621726

  19. Purification and Characterization of a Serratia marcescens Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Lyerly, David; Kreger, Arnold

    1979-01-01

    An extracellular, nonelastolytic, neutral metalloprotease of Serratia marcescens was purified by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydroxyapatite adsorption chromatography, flat-bed isoelectric focusing, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The protease preparation had a 280/260 nm absorbance ratio of 1.8, was free of detectable amounts of endotoxin, carbohydrate, phosphorus, and other known extracellular enzymes of S. marcescens, and was homogeneous by Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion and Grabar-Williams immunoelectrophoresis. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis, thin-layer electrofocusing in polyacrylamide gel, and polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis showed three to four closely migrating, Coomassie blue-staining components in the protease preparation. However, zymogram analyses of the patterns showed that protease activity was associated with each component and that the protease was, therefore, microheterogeneous. The isoelectric point and sedimentation coefficient of the protease were approximately 5.3 to 5.4 and 4.2S, respectively, and the molecular weight estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by gel filtration was approximately 52,500 and 44,000, respectively. The pH optimum range, with azocasein as the substrate, was 5.5 to 7.5. The enzyme contained a high percentage of acidic amino acids, no cysteine, and 1 g-atom of Zn2+ and 7 g-atoms of Ca2+ per mol. Various heavy metal ions and chelating agents and heating at 60°C for 15 min inactivated the enzyme. Intracorneal, intratracheal, and intradermal administration of the protease into rabbits elicited rapid and extensive tissue damage. The minimum lethal intravenous dose for mice was approximately 17 mg/kg of body weight. Images PMID:37166

  20. Identification and characterization of five intramembrane metalloproteases in Anabaena variabilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kangming; Gu, Liping; Xiang, Xianling; Lynch, Michael; Zhou, Ruanbao

    2012-11-01

    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) involves cleavage of a transmembrane segment of a protein, releasing the active form of a membrane-anchored transcription factor (MTF) or a membrane-tethered signaling protein in response to an extracellular or intracellular signal. RIP is conserved from bacteria to humans and governs many important signaling pathways in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Proteases that carry out these cleavages are named intramembrane cleaving proteases (I-CLips). To date, little is known about I-CLips in cyanobacteria. In this study, five putative site-2 type I-Clips (Ava_1070, Ava_1730, Ava_1797, Ava_3438, and Ava_4785) were identified through a genome-wide survey in Anabaena variabilis. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that these five putative A. variabilis site-2 proteases (S2Ps(Av)) have authentic protease activities toward an artificial substrate pro-σ(K), a Bacillus subtilis MTF, in our reconstituted Escherichia coli system. The enzymatic activities of processing pro-σ(K) differ among these five S2Ps(Av). Substitution of glutamic acid (E) by glutamine (Q) in the conserved HEXXH zinc-coordinated motif caused the loss of protease activities in these five S2Ps(Av), suggesting that they belonged to the metalloprotease family. Further mapping of the cleaved peptides of pro-σ(K) by Ava_4785 and Ava_1797 revealed that Ava_4785 and Ava_1797 recognized the same cleavage site in pro-σ(K) as SpoIVFB, a cognate S2P of pro-σ(K) from B. subtilis. Taking these results together, we report here for the first time the identification of five metallo-intramembrane cleaving proteases in Anabaena variabilis. The experimental system described herein should be applicable to studies of other RIP events and amenable to developing in vitro assays for I-CLips. PMID:22961855

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Assists Mycobacterial Dissemination in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Mani H.; Medisetti, Raghavender; Ganji, Rakesh; Jakkala, Kiran; Sankati, Swetha; Chatti, Kiranam; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the tuberculosis (TB) causing bacillus, is a virulence factor involved in inflammasome inactivation and phagosome maturation arrest. We earlier reported that Zmp1 was secreted under granuloma-like stress conditions, induced Th2 cytokine microenvironment and was highly immunogenic in TB patients as evident from high anti-Zmp1 antibody titers in their sera. In this study, we deciphered a new physiological role of Zmp1 in mycobacterial dissemination. Exogenous treatment of THP-1 cells with 500 nM and 1 μM of recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1) resulted in necrotic cell death. Apart from inducing secretion of necrotic cytokines, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β, it also induced the release of chemotactic chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and IL-8, suggesting its likely function in cell migration and mycobacterial dissemination. This was confirmed by Gap closure and Boyden chamber assays, where Zmp1 treated CHO or THP-1 cells showed ∼2 fold increased cell migration compared to the untreated cells. Additionally, Zebrafish-M. marinum based host–pathogen model was used to study mycobacterial dissemination in vivo. Td-Tomato labeled M. marinum (TdM. marinum) when injected with rZmp1 showed increased dissemination to tail region from the site of injection as compared to the untreated control fish in a dose-dependent manner. Summing up these observations along with the earlier reports, we propose that Zmp1, a multi-faceted protein, when released by mycobacteria in granuloma, may lead to necrotic cell damage and release of chemotactic chemokines by surrounding infected macrophages, attracting new immune cells, which in turn may lead to fresh cellular infections, thus assisting mycobacterial dissemination. PMID:27621726

  2. A Putative Chloroplast Thylakoid Metalloprotease VIRESCENT3 Regulates Chloroplast Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yafei; Liu, Xiayan; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Rui; Li, Yuanfeng; Zhao, Jun; Shao, Jingxia; An, Lijun; Yu, Fei

    2016-02-12

    The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis and many other essential plant metabolic processes, and chloroplast development is an integral part of plant growth and development. Mutants defective in chloroplast development can display various color phenotypes including the intriguing virescence phenotype, which shows yellow/white coloration at the leaf base and greening toward the leaf tip. Through large scale genetic screens, we identified a series of new virescent mutants including virescent3-1 (vir3-1), vir4-1, and vir5-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. We showed that VIR3 encodes a putative chloroplast metalloprotease by map-based cloning. Through site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that the conserved histidine 235 residue in the zinc binding motif HEAGH of VIR3 is indispensable for VIR3 accumulation in the chloroplast. The chloroplast localization of VIR3 was confirmed by the transient expression of VIR3-GFP in leaf protoplasts. Furthermore, taking advantage of transgenic lines expressing VIR3-FLAG, we demonstrated that VIR3 is an intrinsic thylakoid membrane protein that mainly resides in the stromal lamellae. Moreover, topology analysis using transgenic lines expressing a dual epitope-tagged VIR3 indicated that both the N and C termini of VIR3 are located in the stroma, and the catalytic domain of VIR3 is probably facing the stroma. Blue native gel analysis indicated that VIR3 is likely present as a monomer or part of a small complex in the thylakoid membrane. This work not only implicates VIR3 as a new factor involved in early chloroplast development but also provides more insight into the roles of chloroplast proteases in chloroplast biogenesis. PMID:26702056

  3. Substrate recognition by the zinc metalloprotease effector NleC from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Giogha, Cristina; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Mühlen, Sabrina; Pearson, Jaclyn S; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2015-12-01

    Upon infection of epithelial cells, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli suppresses host cell inflammatory signalling in a type III secretion system (T3SS) dependent manner. Two key T3SS effector proteins involved in this response are NleE and NleC. NleC is a zinc metalloprotease effector that degrades the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Although the site of p65 cleavage by NleC is now well described, other areas of interaction have not been precisely defined. Here we constructed overlapping truncations of p65 to identify regions required for NleC cleavage. We determined that NleC cleaved both p65 and p50 within the Rel homology domain (RHD) and that two motifs, E22IIE25 and P177VLS180 , within the RHD of p65 were important for recognition and binding by NleC. Alanine substitution of one or both of these motifs protected p65 from binding and degradation by NleC. The E22IIE25 and P177VLS180 motifs were located within the structurally distinct N-terminal subdomain of the RHD involved in DNA binding by p65 on adjacent, parallel strands. Although these motifs have not been recognized previously, both were needed for the correct localization and function of p65. In summary, this work has identified two regions of p65 within the RHD needed for binding and cleavage by NleC and provides further insight into the molecular basis of substrate recognition by a T3SS effector. PMID:26096513

  4. Activation of the human keratinocyte B1 bradykinin receptor induces expression and secretion of metalloproteases 2 and 9 by transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Matus, Carola E; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Pavicic, Francisca; González, Carlos B; Concha, Miguel; Bhoola, Kanti D; Burgos, Rafael A; Figueroa, Carlos D

    2016-09-01

    The B1 bradykinin receptor (BDKRB1) is a component of the kinin cascade localized in the human skin. Some of the effects produced by stimulation of BDKRB1 depend on transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but the mechanisms involved in this process have not been clarified yet. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a BDKRB1 agonist on wound healing in a mouse model and the migration and secretion of metalloproteases 2 and 9 from human HaCaT keratinocytes and delineate the signalling pathways that triggered their secretion. Although stimulation of BDKRB1 induces weak chemotactic migration of keratinocytes and wound closure in an in vitro scratch-wound assay, the BDKRB1 agonist improved wound closure in a mouse model. BDKRB1 stimulation triggers synthesis and secretion of both metalloproteases, effects that depend on the activity of EGFR and subsequent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and PI3K/Akt. In the mouse model, immunoreactivity for both gelatinases was concentrated around wound borders. EGFR transactivation by BDKRB1 agonist involves Src kinases family and ADAM17. In addition to extracellular matrix degradation, metalloproteases 2 and 9 regulate cell migration and differentiation, cell functions that are associated with the role of BDKRB1 in keratinocyte differentiation. Considering that BDKRB1 is up-regulated by inflammation and/or by cytokines that are abundant in the inflammatory milieu, more stable BDKRB1 agonists may be of therapeutic value to modulate wound healing. PMID:27093919

  5. Metalloprotease Peptide Inhibitors: A Semester-Long Organic Synthetic Research Project for the Introductory Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    A semester-long research project to synthesize unique compounds designed after published metalloprotease peptide inhibitors is presented. The research project encompasses a set of nine organic chemistry reactions traditionally taught in the second semester lab course, and the procedures are derived from scientific literature. The two principle…

  6. Mutation of the Zinc-Binding Metalloprotease Motif Affects Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Activity but Does Not Affect Propeptide Processing

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Augusto A.; Buckwold, Simy L.; Shin, Jai W.; Ascon, Miguel; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the zinc-binding metalloprotease in Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) processing and activity, the zinc-binding consensus sequences (H348, E349, H352, G355, H358, and M366) were mutated by site-directed-mutagenesis. Our results indicated that single point mutations in the zinc-binding metalloprotease motif do not affect BFT processing but do reduce or eliminate BFT biologic activity in vitro. PMID:16041055

  7. Identification and activity of inhibitors of the essential nematode-specific metalloprotease DPY-31.

    PubMed

    France, David J; Stepek, Gillian; Houston, Douglas R; Williams, Lewis; McCormack, Gillian; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D; Page, Antony P

    2015-12-15

    Infection by parasitic nematodes is widespread in the developing world causing extensive morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, infection of animals is a global problem, with a substantial impact on food production. Here we identify small molecule inhibitors of a nematode-specific metalloprotease, DPY-31, using both known metalloprotease inhibitors and virtual screening. This strategy successfully identified several μM inhibitors of DPY-31 from both the human filarial nematode Brugia malayi, and the parasitic gastrointestinal nematode of sheep Teladorsagia circumcincta. Further studies using both free living and parasitic nematodes show that these inhibitors elicit the severe body morphology defect 'Dumpy' (Dpy; shorter and fatter), a predominantly non-viable phenotype consistent with mutants lacking the DPY-31 gene. Taken together, these results represent a start point in developing DPY-31 inhibition as a totally novel mechanism for treating infection by parasitic nematodes in humans and animals. PMID:26546217

  8. Comparison of the Internal Dynamics of Metalloproteases Provides New Insights on Their Function and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Henrique F.; Roque, Ana C. A.; Iranzo, Olga; Branco, Ricardo J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Metalloproteases have evolved in a vast number of biological systems, being one of the most diverse types of proteases and presenting a wide range of folds and catalytic metal ions. Given the increasing understanding of protein internal dynamics and its role in enzyme function, we are interested in assessing how the structural heterogeneity of metalloproteases translates into their dynamics. Therefore, the dynamical profile of the clan MA type protein thermolysin, derived from an Elastic Network Model of protein structure, was evaluated against those obtained from a set of experimental structures and molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. A close correspondence was obtained between modes derived from the coarse-grained model and the subspace of functionally-relevant motions observed experimentally, the later being shown to be encoded in the internal dynamics of the protein. This prompted the use of dynamics-based comparison methods that employ such coarse-grained models in a representative set of clan members, allowing for its quantitative description in terms of structural and dynamical variability. Although members show structural similarity, they nonetheless present distinct dynamical profiles, with no apparent correlation between structural and dynamical relatedness. However, previously unnoticed dynamical similarity was found between the relevant members Carboxypeptidase Pfu, Leishmanolysin, and Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A, despite sharing no structural similarity. Inspection of the respective alignments shows that dynamical similarity has a functional basis, namely the need for maintaining proper intermolecular interactions with the respective substrates. These results suggest that distinct selective pressure mechanisms act on metalloproteases at structural and dynamical levels through the course of their evolution. This work shows how new insights on metalloprotease function and evolution can be assessed with comparison schemes that incorporate

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of metalloserrulases, new metalloproteases from the Tityus serrulatus venom gland.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A O; Oliveira-Mendes, B B R; Horta, C C R; Magalhães, B F; Dantas, A E; Chaves, L M; Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Kalapothakis, E

    2014-11-01

    Tityus serrulatus is a Brazilian scorpion species with great medical significance. While the effects of neurotoxins have been extensively studied, little is known about the proteases expressed in the venom gland of this arthropod. In this study, clones from a T. serrulatus (Ts) venom gland cDNA library were selected according to homology to proteases. The sequences were aligned in the database and classified by homology. Similarity and identity analyses of the sequences were carried out, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed with the sequences of other proteases. These cDNA sequences correspond to ten different metalloproteases, named metalloserrulases (TsMS). TsMS 1-9 belong to the metzincin family, which has three domains: signal peptide, propeptide, and metalloprotease domain; while TsMS 10 belongs to the gluzincin family. The proteolytic activity of the venom was inferred from the cleavage of fibrinogen, and the residues recognized by the proteases were determined by cleavage of a tripeptide library using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. The Ts venom showed proteolytic activity on fibrinogen and preferential cleavage close to the basic residues K and R. Its activity could be inhibited by EDTA, indicating that the venom from this scorpion predominantly consists of metalloproteases. PMID:25091350

  10. Towards a metalloprotease-DNA vaccine against piscine cryptobiosis caused by Cryptobia salmositica.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chung-Wei; Jesudhasan, Palmy; Woo, Patrick T K

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine protease is a metabolic enzyme, whereas metalloprotease is the virulent factor in cryptobiosis caused by Cryptobia salmositica. Recombinant DNA vaccines were produced with the insertion of either the metalloprotease or cysteine protease gene of C. salmositica into plasmid vectors (pEGFP-N). As expected, fishes (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar) injected intramuscularly with the metalloprotease-DNA (MP-DNA) vaccine (50 microg/fish) were consistently more anemic (lower packed cell volume, PCV) than controls (injected only with the plasmid) at 3-5 weeks post-inoculation. Also, there were no difference in PCV between fish injected with the cysteine-DNA plasmids and the controls. In addition, agglutinating antibodies against Cryptobia were detected only in the blood of MP-DNA-vaccinated fish at 5-7 weeks post-vaccination and not in cysteine-DNA plasmids and the control groups. MP-DNA-vaccinated fish when challenged with the pathogen had consistently lower parasitemia, delayed peak parasitemia, and faster recovery compared with the controls. All fish vaccinated with attenuated strain were protected when challenged with the pathogen; this positive control group confirmed that the two vaccines operate through different mechanisms. PMID:17932691

  11. Modulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by bacterial metalloproteases and protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Michael B; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xiaoning; Shanks, Robert M; Thibodeau, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    The serralysin family of metalloproteases is associated with the virulence of multiple gram-negative human pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The serralysin proteases share highly conserved catalytic domains and show evolutionary similarity to the mammalian matrix metalloproteases. Our previous studies demonstrated that alkaline protease (AP) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), leading to an increase in sodium absorption in airway epithelia. The serralysin proteases are often co-expressed with endogenous, intracellular or periplasmic inhibitors, which putatively protect the bacterium from unwanted or unregulated protease activities. To evaluate the potential use of these small protein inhibitors in regulating the serralysin induced activation of ENaC, proteases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens were purified for characterization along with a high affinity inhibitor from Pseudomonas. Both proteases showed activity against in vitro substrates and could be blocked by near stoichiometric concentrations of the inhibitor. In addition, both proteases were capable of activating ENaC when added to the apical surfaces of multiple epithelial cells with similar slow activation kinetics. The high-affinity periplasmic inhibitor from Pseudomonas effectively blocked this activation. These data suggest that multiple metalloproteases are capable of activating ENaC. Further, the endogenous, periplasmic bacterial inhibitors may be useful for modulating the downstream effects of the serralysin virulence factors under physiological conditions. PMID:24963801

  12. Mitochondrial impairment induced by 3-nitropropionic acid is enhanced by endogenous metalloprotease activity inhibition in cultured rat striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    de Oca Balderas, Pavel Montes; Ospina, Gabriel Gutiérrez; Del Ángel, Abel Santamaría

    2013-06-24

    Metalloproteases from the metzincin family mediate molecule processing at the cell membrane termed ectodomain shedding (ES). This mechanism enables the generation of intracellular and extracellular fragments from cell membrane molecules that exert additional functions involved in cell processes including cell death, beyond those of full length molecules. Micotoxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induces striatal neuronal degeneration in vivo and in vitro through mitochondrial complex II inhibition. In this study, we hypothesized that metalloproteases regulate mitochondrial activity in cultured rat striatal neurons undergoing degeneration. To test this idea, striatal neuronal cultures characterized by NeuN and GAD-67 expression were treated with 3-NP together with the metalloprotease inhibitor GM6001 and their mitochondrial activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Our results showed that metalloprotease inhibition potentiated mitochondrial activity impairment induced by 3-NP whereas the inhibitor alone had no effect. These results indicate that metalloproteases regulate and promote mitochondrial functionality in striatal neurons undergoing degeneration induced by 3-NP. Since NMDA receptor is involved in the excitotoxic neuronal death triggered by 3-NP and is known to undergo ES, we analyzed NMDAR subunit NR1 phenotypic distribution by immunofluorescence. 3-NP and GM6001 induced abnormal perinuclear NR1 accumulation that was not observed with 3-NP or GM6001 alone. This observation suggests that metalloproteases are involved in NR1 cellular reorganization induced by 3-NP, and that their inhibition results in abnormal NR1 distribution. Together results indicate that endogenous metalloproteases are activated during striatal neurodegeneration induced by 3-NP eliciting an adaptative or compensatory response that protects mitochondrial functionality. PMID:23643981

  13. The ADAMTS13 metalloprotease domain: roles of subsites in enzyme activity and specificity.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Rens; Lane, David A; Crawley, James T B

    2010-10-21

    ADAMTS13 modulates von Willebrand factor (VWF) platelet-tethering function by proteolysis of the Tyr1605-Met1606 bond in the VWF A2 domain. To examine the role of the metalloprotease domain of ADAMTS13 in scissile bond specificity, we identified 3 variable regions (VR1, -2, and -3) in the ADAMTS family metalloprotease domain that flank the active site, which might be important for specificity. Eight composite sequence swaps (to residues in ADAMTS1 or ADAMTS2) and 18 single-point mutants were generated in these VRs and expressed. Swapping VR1 (E184-R193) of ADAMTS13 with that of ADAMTS1 or ADAMTS2 abolished/severely impaired ADAMTS13 function. Kinetic analysis of VR1 point mutants using VWF115 as a short substrate revealed reduced proteolytic function (k(cat)/K(m) reduced by 2- to 10-fold) as a result of D187A, R190A, and R193A substitutions. Analysis of VR2 (F216-V220) revealed a minor importance of this region. Mutants of VR3 (G236-A261) proteolysed wild-type VWF115 normally. However, using either short or full-length VWF substrates containing the P1' M1606A mutation, we identified residues within VR3 (D252-P256) that influence P1' amino acid specificity, we hypothesize, by shaping the S1' pocket. It is concluded that 2 subsites, D187-R193 and D252-P256, in the metalloprotease domain play an important role in cleavage efficiency and site specificity. PMID:20647566

  14. An archaeal protein evolutionarily conserved in prokaryotes is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yongmei; Peng, Nan; Han, Wenyuan; Mei, Yuxia; Chen, Zhengjun; Feng, Xu; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2012-01-01

    A putative protease gene (tldD) was previously identified from studying tolerance of letD encoding the CcdB toxin of a toxin–antidote system of the F plasmid in Escherichia coli. While this gene is evolutionarily conserved in archaea and bacteria, the proteolytic activity of encoded proteins remained to be demonstrated experimentally. Here we studied Sso0660, an archaeal TldD homologue encoded in Sulfolobus solfataricus by overexpression of the recombinant protein and characterization of the purified enzyme. We found that the enzyme is active in degrading azocasein and FITC–BSA substrates. Protease inhibitor studies showed that EDTA and o-phenanthroline, two well-known metalloprotease inhibitors, either abolished completely or strongly inhibited the enzyme activity, and flame spectrometric analysis showed that a zinc ion is a cofactor of the protease. Furthermore, the protein forms disulfide bond via the Cys416 residue, yielding protein dimer that is the active form of the enzyme. These results establish for the first time that tidD genes encode zinc-containing proteases, classifying them as a family in the metalloprotease class. PMID:22950735

  15. Wss1 metalloprotease partners with Cdc48/Doa1 in processing genotoxic SUMO conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Balakirev, Maxim Y; Mullally, James E; Favier, Adrien; Assard, Nicole; Sulpice, Eric; Lindsey, David F; Rulina, Anastasia V; Gidrol, Xavier; Wilkinson, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Sumoylation during genotoxic stress regulates the composition of DNA repair complexes. The yeast metalloprotease Wss1 clears chromatin-bound sumoylated proteins. Wss1 and its mammalian analog, DVC1/Spartan, belong to minigluzincins family of proteases. Wss1 proteolytic activity is regulated by a cysteine switch mechanism activated by chemical stress and/or DNA binding. Wss1 is required for cell survival following UV irradiation, the smt3-331 mutation and Camptothecin-induced formation of covalent topoisomerase 1 complexes (Top1cc). Wss1 forms a SUMO-specific ternary complex with the AAA ATPase Cdc48 and an adaptor, Doa1. Upon DNA damage Wss1/Cdc48/Doa1 is recruited to sumoylated targets and catalyzes SUMO chain extension through a newly recognized SUMO ligase activity. Activation of Wss1 results in metalloprotease self-cleavage and proteolysis of associated proteins. In cells lacking Tdp1, clearance of topoisomerase covalent complexes becomes SUMO and Wss1-dependent. Upon genotoxic stress, Wss1 is vacuolar, suggesting a link between genotoxic stress and autophagy involving the Doa1 adapter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06763.001 PMID:26349035

  16. Biochemical and genetic characterization of arazyme, an extracellular metalloprotease produced from Serratia proteamaculans HY-3.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jangyul; Lee, Kieun; Shin, Dong-Ha; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Park, Doo-Sang; Oh, Hyun Woo; Son, Kwang-Hee; Bae, Kyung-Sook; Park, Ho-Yong

    2007-05-01

    Serratia proteamaculans HY-3 isolated from the digestive tract of a spider produces an extracellular protease named arazyme, with an estimated molecular mass of 51.5 kDa. The purified enzyme was characterized as having high activities at wide pH and temperature ranges. We further characterized biochemical features of the enzymatic reactions under various reaction conditions. The protease efficiently hydrolyzed a broad range of protein substrates including albumin, keratin, and collagen. The dependence of enzymatic activities on the presence of metal ions such as calcium and zinc indicated that the enzyme is a metalloprotease, together with the previous observation that the proteolytic activity of the enzyme was not inhibited by aspartate, cysteine, or serine protease inhibitors, but strongly inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA. The araA gene encoding the exoprotease was isolated as a 5.6 kb BamHl fragment after PCR amplification using degenerate primers and subsequent Southern hybridization. The nucleotide sequence revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences shared extensive similarity with those of the serralysin family of metalloproteases from other enteric bacteria. A gene (inh) encoding a putative protease inhibitor was also identified immediately adjacent to the araA structural gene. PMID:18051297

  17. TLR4-mediated immunomodulatory properties of the bacterial metalloprotease arazyme in preclinical tumor models.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe V; Melo, Amanda C L; de Melo, Filipe M; Mourão-Sá, Diego; Silva, Priscila; Berzaghi, Rodrigo; Herbozo, Carolina C A; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana; Scutti, Jorge A; Origassa, Clarice S T; Pereira, Rosana M; Juliano, Luis; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Carmona, Adriana K; Câmara, Niels O S; Tsuji, Moriya; Travassos, Luiz R; Rodrigues, Elaine G

    2016-07-01

    Despite the recent approval of new agents for metastatic melanoma, its treatment remains challenging. Moreover, few available immunotherapies induce a strong cellular immune response, and selection of the correct immunoadjuvant is crucial for overcoming this obstacle. Here, we studied the immunomodulatory properties of arazyme, a bacterial metalloprotease, which was previously shown to control metastasis in a murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 model. The antitumor activity of arazyme was independent of its proteolytic activity, since heat-inactivated protease showed comparable properties to the active enzyme; however, the effect was dependent on an intact immune system, as antitumor properties were lost in immunodeficient mice. The protective response was IFNγ-dependent, and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were the main effector antitumor population, although B and CD4(+) T lymphocytes were also induced. Macrophages and dendritic cells were involved in the induction of the antitumor response, as arazyme activation of these cells increased both the expression of surface activation markers and proinflammatory cytokine secretion through TLR4-MyD88-TRIF-dependent, but also MAPK-dependent pathways. Arazyme was also effective in the murine breast adenocarcinoma 4T1 model, reducing primary and metastatic tumor development, and prolonging survival. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterial metalloprotease interaction with TLR4 and subsequent receptor activation that promotes a proinflammatory and tumor protective response. Our results show that arazyme has immunomodulatory properties, and could be a promising novel alternative for metastatic melanoma treatment. PMID:27622031

  18. Matrix Metalloprotease 2-Responsive Multifunctional Liposomal Nanocarrier for Enhanced Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Kate, Pooja; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    A novel “smart” multifunctional drug delivery system was successfully developed to respond to the up-regulated matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) in the tumor microenvironment and improve cancer cell-specific delivery of loaded drugs. The system represents a surface-functionalized liposomal nanocarrier, for which two functional polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipid conjugates were synthesized and characterized. The functionalized liposome was further modified with the tumor cell-specific anti-nucleosome monoclonal antibody (mAb 2C5). In the resulting system, several drug delivery strategies were combined in the same nanocarrier in a simple way and coordinated in an optimal fashion. The functions of the nanocarrier include: i) the hydrophilic and flexible long PEG chains to prevent nanocarrier non-specific interactions and prolong its circulation time; ii) a nanoscale size of the system that allows for its passive tumor targeting via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect; iii) a mAb 2C5 to allow for the specific targeting of tumor cells; iv) a matrix metalloprotease 2-sensitive bond between PEG and lipid that undergoes cleavage in the tumor by the highly expressed extracellular MMP2 for the removal of PEG chains; v) The cell-penetrating peptide (TATp) triggering of the enhanced intracellular delivery of the system after long-chain PEG removal and exposure of the previously hidden surface-attached TATp. It is shown that such a design can enhance the targetability and internalization of nanocarriers in cancer cells. PMID:22409425

  19. Affinity purification of metalloprotease from marine bacterium using immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Yang, Juan; Bao, Jing; Liu, Junzhong; Lin, Shengxiang; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an efficient affinity purification protocol for an alkaline metalloprotease from marine bacterium was developed using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After screening and optimization of the affinity ligands and spacer arm lengths, Cu-iminmodiacetic acid was chosen as the optimal affinity ligand, which was coupled to Sepharose 6B via a 14-atom spacer arm. The absorption analysis of this medium revealed a desorption constant Kd of 21.5 μg/mL and a theoretical maximum absorption Qmax of 24.9 mg/g. Thanks to this affinity medium, the enzyme could be purified by only one affinity purification step with a purity of approximately 95% pure when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The recovery of the protease activity reached 74.6%, which is much higher than the value obtained by traditional protocols (8.9%). These results contribute to the industrial purifications and contribute a significant reference for the purification of other metalloproteases. PMID:27058973

  20. Purification and characterization of acidolysin, an acidic metalloprotease produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

    PubMed Central

    Croux, C; Paquet, V; Goma, G; Soucaille, P

    1990-01-01

    Acidolysin an extracellular protease produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography with a recovery of 91%. The enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 44,000 as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and an acidic isoelectric point of 3.3. Acidolysin was very sensitive to metal-chelating agents and phosphoramidon and was unaffected by sulfhydryl reagents. It was shown to be a calcium- and zinc-containing protease. It exhibited optimal activity against Azocoll at pH 5 and 45 degrees C. It was stable at low pH and heat labile above 50 degrees C. It exhibited specificity toward peptide bonds formed by the amino group of hydrophobic amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine) and its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity with that of Bacillus subtilis neutral metalloprotease A. Acidolysin is the first phosphoramidon-sensitive, acidic zinc metalloprotease reported. Images PMID:2082818

  1. Matrix metalloprotease 2-responsive multifunctional liposomal nanocarrier for enhanced tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Kate, Pooja; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-04-24

    A novel "smart" multifunctional drug delivery system was successfully developed to respond to the up-regulated matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) in the tumor microenvironment and improve cancer cell-specific delivery of loaded drugs. The system represents a surface-functionalized liposomal nanocarrier, for which two functional polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipid conjugates were synthesized and characterized. The functionalized liposome was further modified with the tumor cell-specific antinucleosome monoclonal antibody (mAb 2C5). In the resulting system, several drug delivery strategies were combined in the same nanocarrier in a simple way and coordinated in an optimal fashion. The functions of the nanocarrier include (i) the hydrophilic and flexible long PEG chains to prevent nanocarrier nonspecific interactions and prolong its circulation time; (ii) a nanoscale size of the system that allows for its passive tumor targeting via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect; (iii) a mAb 2C5 to allow for the specific targeting of tumor cells; (iv) a matrix metalloprotease 2-sensitive bond between PEG and lipid that undergoes cleavage in the tumor by the highly expressed extracellular MMP2 for the removal of PEG chains; (v) cell-penetrating peptide (TATp) triggering of the enhanced intracellular delivery of the system after long-chain PEG removal and exposure of the previously hidden surface-attached TATp. It is shown that such a design can enhance the targetability and internalization of nanocarriers in cancer cells. PMID:22409425

  2. Assay of matrix metalloproteases types 8 and 9 by ELISA in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, M. J.; Blaser, J.; Duggan, C.; McDermott, E.; O'Higgins, N.; Fennelly, J. J.; Tschesche, H.

    1995-01-01

    Results from model tumour systems suggest that either increased levels of certain metalloproteases (MMPs) or decreased levels of their inhibitors correlate with metastatic potential. In this study, levels of two MMPs, i.e. MMP-8 and -9, and their inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease type 1 (TIMP-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in human breast tumours. Levels of MMP-8 and -9 correlated significantly with each other, but neither MMP correlated with urokinase plasminogen activator. Levels of both MMP-8 and -9 were also significantly related to levels of TIMP-1. In contrast, neither MMP correlated with plasminogen activator inhibitor. No relationship was found between MMP-8, MMP-9 or TIMP-1 and either tumour size or metastasis to axillary nodes. MMP-8 and -9 levels were inversely related to levels of oestrogen receptors. MMP-8 but not MMP-9 levels were also inversely correlated with progesterone receptor levels. It is concluded that the assay for MMP-8 and -9 described here will permit the evaluation of these proteases as prognostic markers in cancer. PMID:7734294

  3. The metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline affects Schistosoma mansoni motor activity, egg laying and viability.

    PubMed

    Day, T A; Chen, G Z

    1998-04-01

    The Zn(2+)-chelating metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline (phenanthroline, 5-150 microM) elicited dose-dependent contraction of the longitudinal and circular (transverse) musculature of adult male schistosomes. At the same concentrations, phenanthroline did not cause contraction of dispersed individual muscle fibres. The phenanthroline-induced contractions were reduced by the inclusion of 100 or 300 microM Zn2+ in the extracellular medium. Phenanthroline (0.5-150 microM) also inhibited the egg production of adult worm pairs in vitro, with a 98% reduction at 50 microM. When worm pairs were exposed to phenanthroline, the males detached from the dish and released the females, resulting in unpaired worms. At the higher concentrations (50 and 150 microM), the worms were killed in vitro. Worm burdens were reduced by over 50% in infected mice injected with phenanthroline (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days), but twice the dose resulted in only a 25% reduction. Phenanthroline injections also induced an hepatic shift and an unpairing of adult worms in infected mice, and the female worms appeared degenerate and lacked gut pigmentation. Mice fed a diet containing 0.3% phenanthroline received significant protection from infection when challenged with schistosome cercaria, where phenanthroline-fed mice had 94% fewer adult worms than control mice. The broad range of phenanthroline effects on schistosomes suggests broad and important functions for metalloproteases in these worms. PMID:9585934

  4. Evidence for an interaction of the metalloprotease-disintegrin tumour necrosis factor alpha convertase (TACE) with mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), and of the metalloprotease-disintegrin MDC9 with a novel MAD2-related protein, MAD2beta.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K K; Schlöndorff, J; Blobel, C P

    1999-01-01

    Metalloprotease-disintegrins are a family of transmembrane glycoproteins that have a role in fertilization, sperm migration, myoblast fusion, neural development and ectodomain shedding. In the present study we used the yeast two-hybrid system to search for proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of two metalloprotease-disintegrins, tumour necrosis factor alpha convertase (TACE; ADAM17) and MDC9 (ADAM9; meltrin gamma). We have identified mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) as a binding partner of the TACE cytoplasmic domain, and a novel MAD2-related protein, MAD2beta, as a binding partner of the MDC9 cytoplasmic domain. MAD2beta has 23% sequence identity with MAD2, which is a component of the spindle assembly (or mitotic) checkpoint mechanism. Northern blot analysis of human tissues indicates that MAD2beta mRNA is expressed ubiquitously. The interaction of the TACE and MDC9 cytoplasmic domains with their binding partners has been confirmed biochemically. The independent identification of MAD2 and MAD2beta as potential interacting partners of distinct metalloprotease-disintegrins raises the possibility of a link between metalloprotease-disintegrins and the cell cycle, or of functions for MAD2 and MAD2beta that are not related to cell cycle control. PMID:10527948

  5. Correlated structural kinetics and retarded solvent dynamics at the metalloprotease active site

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Moran; Born, Benjamin; Heyden, Matthias; Tworowski, Dmitry; Fields, Gregg B; Sagi, Irit; Havenith, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Solvent dynamics can play a major role in enzyme activity, but obtaining an accurate, quantitative picture of solvent activity during catalysis is quite challenging. Here, we combine terahertz spectroscopy and X-ray absorption analyses to measure changes in the coupled water-protein motions during peptide hydrolysis by a zinc-dependent human metalloprotease. These changes were tightly correlated with rearrangements at the active site during the formation of productive enzyme-substrate intermediates and were different from those in an enzyme–inhibitor complex. Molecular dynamics simulations showed a steep gradient of fast-to-slow coupled protein-water motions around the protein, active site and substrate. Our results show that water retardation occurs before formation of the functional Michaelis complex. We propose that the observed gradient of coupled protein-water motions may assist enzyme-substrate interactions through water-polarizing mechanisms that are remotely mediated by the catalytic metal ion and the enzyme active site. PMID:21926991

  6. Correlated structural kinetics and retarded solvent dynamics at the metalloprotease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Moran; Born, Benjamin; Heyden, Matthias; Tworowski, Dmitry; Fields, Gregg B.; Sagi, Irit; Havenith, Martina

    2011-09-18

    Solvent dynamics can play a major role in enzyme activity, but obtaining an accurate, quantitative picture of solvent activity during catalysis is quite challenging. Here, we combine terahertz spectroscopy and X-ray absorption analyses to measure changes in the coupled water-protein motions during peptide hydrolysis by a zinc-dependent human metalloprotease. These changes were tightly correlated with rearrangements at the active site during the formation of productive enzyme-substrate intermediates and were different from those in an enzyme–inhibitor complex. Molecular dynamics simulations showed a steep gradient of fast-to-slow coupled protein-water motions around the protein, active site and substrate. Our results show that water retardation occurs before formation of the functional Michaelis complex. We propose that the observed gradient of coupled protein-water motions may assist enzyme-substrate interactions through water-polarizing mechanisms that are remotely mediated by the catalytic metal ion and the enzyme active site.

  7. Microbial biodegradation of proteinaceous tannery solid waste and production of a novel value added product - Metalloprotease.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Balasubramani; Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Thirunavukarasu, Kathirvel; Sekaran, Ganesan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, animal fleshing (ANFL) was utilized as a substrate for the production of extracellular protease by Clostridium limosum through central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Optimum protease production of 433U/ml was achieved and the purified enzyme was identified as acidic metalloprotease, a monomeric protein. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 71kDa, whose activity was enhanced by bivalent metals such as Zn(2+) and Mg(2+). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination also revealed the hydrolysis/microbial degradation of ANFL through protease activity in the anaerobic fermentation process. Simultaneous hydrolysis of ANFL and production of an enzyme with the potential for different industrial applications provide an attractive methodology for the disposal of tannery solid waste. PMID:27005792

  8. Leucine-enkephalin promotes wound repair through the regulation of hemidesmosome dynamics and matrix metalloprotease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong Joo; Lee, Kyung Suk; Ko, Chang Mann; Moh, Sang Hyun; Song, Jihyeok; Hur, Lucia C; Cheon, Young Woo; Yang, Seung Ho; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-02-01

    The skin responds to environmental stressors by coordinated actions of neuropeptides and their receptors. An endogenous peptide for δ-opioid receptor (DOPr), Leu-enkephalin (L-ENK), is expressed in the skin and its expression is altered in pathological conditions. Although the importance of DOPr is rapidly gaining recognition, the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects on wound healing are largely undefined. We show here that L-ENK induced activation of Erk, P90(RSK), and Elk-1 and promoted the disruption of hemidesmosomes and the expression of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, important processes for wound healing. Treatment with Erk inhibitor blocked activation of P90(RSK) and Elk-1 and significantly blunted wound repair. Therefore, our results suggest that activation of Erk and its downstream effectors, P90(RSK) and Elk-1, are critical for DOPr-mediated skin homeostasis. PMID:26763532

  9. MMP-25 Metalloprotease Regulates Innate Immune Response through NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Soria-Valles, Clara; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Osorio, Fernando G; Carrero, Dido; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Colado, Enrique; Fernández-García, M Soledad; Bonzon-Kulichenko, Elena; Vázquez, Jesús; Fueyo, Antonio; López-Otín, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) regulate innate immunity acting over proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other immune-related proteins. MMP-25 (membrane-type 6-MMP) is a membrane-bound enzyme predominantly expressed in leukocytes whose biological function has remained largely unknown. We have generated Mmp25-deficient mice to elucidate the in vivo function of this protease. These mutant mice are viable and fertile and do not show any spontaneous phenotype. However, Mmp25-null mice exhibit a defective innate immune response characterized by low sensitivity to bacterial LPS, hypergammaglobulinemia, and reduced secretion of proinflammatory molecules. Moreover, these immune defects can be tracked to a defective NF-κB activation observed in Mmp25-deficient leukocytes. Globally, our findings provide new mechanistic insights into innate immunity through the activity of MMP-25, suggesting that this proteinase could be a potential therapeutic target for immune-related diseases. PMID:27259858

  10. Inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of Aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eizo; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2011-01-01

    The present authors have previously shown that the serine protease activity of Aeromonas sobria is markedly decreased when A. sobria is cultured in medium containing 3.0% sodium chloride (NaCl, concentration almost equivalent to sea water salinity), and that this occurs because, although the synthesis of ASP is not disturbed by the salt in the medium, the maturation pathway of serine protease of A. sobria (ASP) does not proceed successfully in such a medium. In this study, the effect of salt in the medium on the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria (AMP) was examined. A. sobria produced AMP in the milieu when the bacteria were cultured in medium containing (NaCl) at a concentration of 0.5%. However, AMP was not produced when the bacteria were cultured in salty medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. To examine how NaCl reduces the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria, the amount of amp mRNA in the cell was measured and it was found that this decreased in proportion to the concentration of NaCl in the medium. The mRNA of amp was not detected in cells cultured in medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. This means that the transcription of amp is inhibited in salty condition. As described, NaCl in the medium disturbs the maturation pathway of ASP. The mode of action whereby NaCl suppresses AMP activity in A. sobria differs from the mechanism for suppressing ASP activity. PMID:21175775

  11. Regulation of Metalloprotease Gene Expression in Vibrio vulnificus by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR Homologue

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chung-Ping; Hor, Lien-I

    2001-01-01

    Expression of the Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease gene, vvp, was turned up rapidly when bacterial growth reached the late log phase. A similar pattern of expression has been found in the metalloprotease gene of Vibrio cholerae, and this has been shown to be regulated by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional activator. To find out whether a LuxR homologue exists in V. vulnificus, a gene library of this organism was screened by colony hybridization using a probe derived from a sequence that is conserved in various luxR-like genes of vibrios. A gene containing a 618-bp open reading frame was identified and found to be identical to the smcR gene of V. vulnificus reported previously. An isogenic SmcR-deficient (RD) mutant was further constructed by an in vivo allelic exchange technique. This mutant exhibited an extremely low level of vvp transcription compared with that of the parent strain. On the other hand, the cytolysin gene, vvhA, was expressed at a higher level in the RD mutant than in the parent strain during the log phase of growth. These data suggested that SmcR might not only be a positive regulator of the protease gene but might also be involved in negative regulation of the cytolysin gene. Virulence of the RD mutant in either normal or iron-overloaded mice challenged by intraperitoneal injection was comparable to that of the parent strain, indicating that SmcR is not required for V. vulnificus virulence in mice. PMID:11157950

  12. The Metalloprotease Mpl Supports Listeria monocytogenes Dissemination through Resolution of Membrane Protrusions into Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Diego E; Agaisse, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that disseminates within the intestinal epithelium through acquisition of actin-based motility and formation of plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. The resolution of membrane protrusions into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes results in bacterial spread from cell to cell. This dissemination process relies on the mlp-actA-plcB operon, which encodes ActA, a bacterial nucleation-promoting factor that mediates actin-based motility, and PlcB, a phospholipase that mediates vacuole escape. Here we investigated the role of the metalloprotease Mpl in the dissemination process. In agreement with previous findings showing that Mpl is required for PlcB activation, infection of epithelial cells with the ΔplcB or Δmpl strains resulted in the formation of small infection foci. As expected, the ΔplcB strain displayed a strong defect in vacuole escape. However, the Δmpl strain showed an unexpected defect in the resolution of protrusions into vacuoles, in addition to the expected but mild defect in vacuole escape. The Δmpl strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. We mapped an Mpl-dependent processing site in ActA between amino acid residues 207 to 238. Similar to the Δmpl strain, the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. Although the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed wild-type actin-based motility, it formed small infection foci and failed to resolve protrusions into vacuoles. We propose that, in addition to its role in PlcB processing and vacuole escape, the metalloprotease Mpl is required for ActA processing and protrusion resolution. PMID:27068088

  13. Features of Pro-σK Important for Cleavage by SpoIVFB, an Intramembrane Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kangming; Xiang, Xianling; Gu, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases regulate diverse processes by cleaving substrates within a transmembrane segment or near the membrane surface. Bacillus subtilis SpoIVFB is an intramembrane metalloprotease that cleaves Pro-σK during sporulation. To elucidate features of Pro-σK important for cleavage by SpoIVFB, coexpression of the two proteins in Escherichia coli was used along with cell fractionation. In the absence of SpoIVFB, a portion of the Pro-σK was peripherally membrane associated. This portion was not observed in the presence of SpoIVFB, suggesting that it serves as the substrate. Deletion of Pro-σK residues 2 to 8, addition of residues at its N terminus, or certain single-residue substitutions near the cleavage site impaired cleavage. Certain multiresidue substitutions near the cleavage site changed the position of cleavage, revealing preferences for a small residue preceding the cleavage site N-terminally (i.e., at the P1 position) and a hydrophobic residue at the second position following the cleavage site C-terminally (i.e., P2′). These features appear to be conserved among Pro-σK orthologs. SpoIVFB did not tolerate an aromatic residue at P1 or P2′ of Pro-σK. A Lys residue at P3′ of Pro-σK could not be replaced with Ala unless a Lys was provided farther C-terminally (e.g., at P9′). α-Helix-destabilizing residues near the cleavage site were not crucial for SpoIVFB to cleave Pro-σK. The preferences and tolerances of SpoIVFB are somewhat different from those of other intramembrane metalloproteases, perhaps reflecting differences in the interaction of the substrate with the membrane and the enzyme. PMID:23585539

  14. Structural modeling and biochemical characterization of recombinant KPN_02809, a zinc-dependent metalloprotease from Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mun Teng; Choi, Sy Bing; Kuan, Chee Sian; Chua, Siang Ling; Chang, Chiat Han; Normi, Yahaya Mohd; Too, Wei Cun See; Wahab, Habibah A; Few, Ling Ling

    2012-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, cylindrical rod shaped opportunistic pathogen that is found in the environment as well as existing as a normal flora in mammalian mucosal surfaces such as the mouth, skin, and intestines. Clinically it is the most important member of the family of Enterobacteriaceae that causes neonatal sepsis and nosocomial infections. In this work, a combination of protein sequence analysis, structural modeling and molecular docking simulation approaches were employed to provide an understanding of the possible functions and characteristics of a hypothetical protein (KPN_02809) from K. pneumoniae MGH 78578. The computational analyses showed that this protein was a metalloprotease with zinc binding motif, HEXXH. To verify this result, a ypfJ gene which encodes for this hypothetical protein was cloned from K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The purified protein was about 32 kDa and showed maximum protease activity at 30 °C and pH 8.0. The enzyme activity was inhibited by metalloprotease inhibitors such as EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline and reducing agent, 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT). Each molecule of KPN_02809 protein was also shown to bind one zinc ion. Hence, for the first time, we experimentally confirmed that KPN_02809 is an active enzyme with zinc metalloprotease activity. PMID:22312293

  15. Programmed packaging of mesoporous silica nanocarriers for matrix metalloprotease 2-triggered tumor targeting and release.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhen; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Dinggeng; Wang, Kemin; Qing, Zhihe; Yang, Xue; Wen, Li; Xiong, Jun; Li, Liling; Cai, Linli

    2015-07-01

    The development of multifunctional nanocarrier with each unit functioning at the correct time and location is a challenge for clinical applications. With this in mind, a type of intelligent mesoporous silica nanocarrier (PGFMSN) is proposed for matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP 2)-triggered tumor targeting and release by integrating programmed packing and MMP 2-degradable gelatin. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are first functionalized with folic acid (FA) as a target ligand to improve cell uptake. Then gelatin is introduced onto FA-MSN via temperature-induced gelation, where gelatin layer blocks drugs inside the mesopores and protects the targeting ligand. To prolong blood-circulation lifetime, PEG is further decorated to obtain PGFMSN. All units are programmatically incorporated in a simple way and coordinated in an optimal fashion. Cells, multicellular spheroids and in vivo results demonstrate that PGFMSN is shielded against nonspecific uptake. After circulating to tumor tissue, the up-regulated MMP-2 hydrolyzes gelatin layer to deshield PEG and switch on the function of FA, which facilitate the selective uptake by tumor cells through folate-receptor-mediated endocytosis. Meanwhile, the packaged drug is released due to the shedding of gelatin layer. It is shown that doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded exhibits superior tumor targeting, drug internalization, cytotoxicity, and antitumor efficacy over free DOX, non-PEGylated and non-targeted nanoparticles, which provides potential applications for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25941780

  16. Filamentous actin is a substrate for protealysin, a metalloprotease of invasive Serratia proteamaculans.

    PubMed

    Tsaplina, Olga; Efremova, Tatiana; Demidyuk, Ilya; Khaitlina, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Homologous bacterial metalloproteases ECP32/grimelysin from Serratia grimesii and protealysin from Serratia proteamaculans are involved in the invasion of the nonpathogenic bacteria in eukaryotic cells and are suggested to translocate into the cytoplasm [Bozhokina ES et al. (2011) Cell Biol Int35, 111-118]. The proteases have been characterized as actin-hydrolyzing enzymes with a narrow specificity toward intact cell proteins. However, cleavage of filamentous actin (F-actin) (i.e. the main actin species in the cell) and the properties of the cleaved F-actin have not been investigated previously. In the present study, we revealed the presence of protealysin in the cytoplasm of 3T3-SV40 cells infected with S. proteamaculans or recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the protealysin gene. We also show for the first time that purified protealysin and the lysates of the recombinant E. coli producing protealysin cleave 20-40% of F-actin. Cleavage limited predominantly to the bond Gly42-Val43 efficiently increases the steady-state ATPase activity (dynamics) of F-actin. abolishes this effect and promotes the nucleation of protealysin-cleaved Mg-globular-actin even in the absence of 0.1 m KCl, most likely as a result of the stabilization of lateral intermonomer contacts of actin subunits. The results obtained in the present study suggest that F-actin can be a target for protealysin upon its translocation into the host cell. PMID:22077798

  17. Particulate matter (PM₁₀) induces metalloprotease activity and invasion in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-17

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) is a risk factor for the development of lung diseases and cancer. The aim of this work was to identify alterations in airway epithelial (A549) cells induced by PM10 that could explain how subtoxic exposure (10 μg/cm(2)) promotes a more aggressive in vitro phenotype. Our results showed that cells exposed to PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and an urban commercial zone (CZ) induced an increase in protease activity and invasiveness; however, the cell mechanism is different, as only PM10 from CZ up-regulated the activity of metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and disrupted E-cadherin/β-catenin expression after 48 h of exposure. These in vitro findings are relevant in terms of the mechanism action of PM10 in lung epithelial cells, which could be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of some human illness associated with highly polluted cities. PMID:26047787

  18. Metalloprotease Meprin β Generates Nontoxic N-terminal Amyloid Precursor Protein Fragments in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Tamara; Čaušević, Mirsada; auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Schilling, Oliver; Isbert, Simone; Geyer, Rebecca; Maier, Wladislaw; Tschickardt, Sabrina; Jumpertz, Thorsten; Weggen, Sascha; Bond, Judith S.; Overall, Christopher M.; Pietrzik, Claus U.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Identification of physiologically relevant substrates is still the most challenging part in protease research for understanding the biological activity of these enzymes. The zinc-dependent metalloprotease meprin β is known to be expressed in many tissues with functions in health and disease. Here, we demonstrate unique interactions between meprin β and the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Although APP is intensively studied as a ubiquitously expressed cell surface protein, which is involved in Alzheimer disease, its precise physiological role and relevance remain elusive. Based on a novel proteomics technique termed terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS), APP was identified as a substrate for meprin β. Processing of APP by meprin β was subsequently validated using in vitro and in vivo approaches. N-terminal APP fragments of about 11 and 20 kDa were found in human and mouse brain lysates but not in meprin β−/− mouse brain lysates. Although these APP fragments were in the range of those responsible for caspase-induced neurodegeneration, we did not detect cytotoxicity to primary neurons treated by these fragments. Our data demonstrate that meprin β is a physiologically relevant enzyme in APP processing. PMID:21646356

  19. Collagenolytic activity related to metalloproteases (and serine proteases) in the fish parasite Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Malagón, David; Adroher, Francisco Javier; Díaz-López, Manuel; Benítez, Rocío

    2010-06-11

    Proteases play a vital role in both the life cycle of parasites and the parasite-host relationship and are considered important virulence factors. In the present study, the presence of proteases with collagenolytic activity was investigated in the fish nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum during in vitro development. Collagenolytic activity was found in all studied developmental stages of the nematode (third [L3] and fourth [L4] larval stages and adults). In L3, the activity was maximum at pH 6.5 and, in the other stages, at 7.0. Pepsin is known to favour in vitro development of the worm, but, in this study, collagenolytic activity was shown to be significantly greater when no pepsin was added to the culture medium (at pH 6.5, p = 0.011). At pH 7.0, most activity was observed in the immature adult, after the final moult, suggesting that the collagenolytic activity may be involved in remodelling of the cuticle and in sexual maturity. On the other hand, at pH 6.5, activity may be related to tissue migration by L3 within the host. Using specific inhibitors, it was demonstrated that most of the collagenolytic activity detected in all the developmental stages was due to metalloproteases (40 to 100%), although serine proteases were also detected in L4 and adults (10 to 30%). PMID:20662369

  20. Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin(HA)/protease: An extracellular metalloprotease with multiple pathogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Jorge A; Silva, Anisia J

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae of serogroup O1 and O139, the etiological agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, expresses the extracellular Zn-dependent metalloprotease hemagglutinin (HA)/protease also reported as vibriolysin. This enzyme is also produced by non-O1/O139 (non-cholera) strains that cause mild, sporadic illness (i.e. gastroenteritis, wound or ear infections). Orthologs of HA/protease are present in other members of the Vibrionaceae family pathogenic to humans and fish. HA/protease belongs to the M4 neutral peptidase family and displays significant amino acid sequence homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (LasB) and Bacillus thermoproteolyticus thermolysin. It exhibits a broad range of potentially pathogenic activities in cell culture and animal models. These activities range from the covalent modification of other toxins, the degradation of the protective mucus barrier and disruption of intestinal tight junctions. Here we review (i) the structure and regulation of HA/protease expression, (ii) its interaction with other toxins and the intestinal mucosa and (iii) discuss the possible role(s) of HA/protease in the pathogenesis of cholera. PMID:26952544

  1. Human NOTCH2 Is Resistant to Ligand-independent Activation by Metalloprotease Adam17*

    PubMed Central

    Habets, Roger A. J.; Groot, Arjan J.; Yahyanejad, Sanaz; Tiyanont, Kittichoat; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Vooijs, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface receptors of the NOTCH family of proteins are activated by ligand induced intramembrane proteolysis. Unfolding of the extracellular negative regulatory region (NRR), enabling successive proteolysis by the enzymes Adam10 and γ-secretase, is rate-limiting in NOTCH activation. Mutations in the NOTCH1 NRR are associated with ligand-independent activation and frequently found in human T-cell malignancies. In mammals four NOTCH receptors and five Delta/Jagged ligands exist, but mutations in the NRR are only rarely reported for receptors other than NOTCH1. Using biochemical and functional assays, we compared the molecular mechanisms of ligand-independent signaling in NOTCH1 and the highly related NOTCH2 receptor. Both murine Notch1 and Notch2 require the metalloprotease protease Adam17, but not Adam10 during ligand-independent activation. Interestingly, the human NOTCH2 receptor is resistant to ligand-independent activation compared with its human homologs or murine orthologs. Taken together, our data reveal subtle but functionally important differences for the NRR among NOTCH paralogs and homologs. PMID:25918160

  2. Critical role of the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM17 for intestinal inflammation and regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chalaris, Athena; Adam, Nina; Sina, Christian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Lehmann-Koch, Judith; Schirmacher, Peter; Hartmann, Dieter; Cichy, Joanna; Gavrilova, Olga; Schreiber, Stefan; Jostock, Thomas; Matthews, Vance; Häsler, Robert; Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F.; Reiß, Karina; Saftig, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The protease a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 cleaves tumor necrosis factor (TNF), L-selectin, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) ligands from the plasma membrane. ADAM17 is expressed in most tissues and is up-regulated during inflammation and cancer. ADAM17-deficient mice are not viable. Conditional ADAM17 knockout models demonstrated proinflammatory activities of ADAM17 in septic shock via shedding of TNF. We used a novel gene targeting strategy to generate mice with dramatically reduced ADAM17 levels in all tissues. The resulting mice called ADAM17ex/ex were viable, showed compromised shedding of ADAM17 substrates from the cell surface, and developed eye, heart, and skin defects as a consequence of impaired EGF-R signaling caused by failure of shedding of EGF-R ligands. Unexpectedly, although the intestine of unchallenged homozygous ADAM17ex/ex mice was normal, ADAM17ex/ex mice showed substantially increased susceptibility to inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis. This was a result of impaired shedding of EGF-R ligands resulting in failure to phosphorylate STAT3 via the EGF-R and, consequently, in defective regeneration of epithelial cells and breakdown of the intestinal barrier. Besides regulating the systemic availability of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF, our results demonstrate that ADAM17 is needed for vital regenerative activities during the immune response. Thus, our mouse model will help investigate ADAM17 as a potential drug target. PMID:20603312

  3. A non-catalytic histidine residue influences the function of the metalloprotease of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Forster, Brian M; Bitar, Alan Pavinski; Marquis, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Mpl, a thermolysin-like metalloprotease, and PC-PLC, a phospholipase C, are synthesized as proenzymes by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. During intracellular growth, L. monocytogenes is temporarily confined in a membrane-bound vacuole whose acidification leads to Mpl autolysis and Mpl-mediated cleavage of the PC-PLC N-terminal propeptide. Mpl maturation also leads to the secretion of both Mpl and PC-PLC across the bacterial cell wall. Previously, we identified negatively charged and uncharged amino acid residues within the N terminus of the PC-PLC propeptide that influence the ability of Mpl to mediate the maturation of PC-PLC, suggesting that these residues promote the interaction of the PC-PLC propeptide with Mpl. In the present study, we identified a non-catalytic histidine residue (H226) that influences Mpl secretion across the cell wall and its ability to process PC-PLC. Our results suggest that a positive charge at position 226 is required for Mpl functions other than autolysis. Based on the charge requirement at this position, we hypothesize that this residue contributes to the interaction of Mpl with the PC-PLC propeptide. PMID:24140648

  4. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a central regulator of murine liver tissue homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Köhn-Gaone, Julia; Chalupsky, Karel; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Barikbin, Roja; Bergmann, Juri; Wöhner, Birte; Zbodakova, Olga; Leuschner, Ivo; Martin, Gregor; Tiegs, Gisa; Rose-John, Stefan; Sedlacek, Radislav; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E.E.; Saftig, Paul; Schmidt-Arras, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 exerts essential roles during organ development and tissue integrity in different organs, mainly through activation of the Notch pathway. However, only little is known about its implication in liver tissue physiology. Here we show that in contrast to its role in other tissues, ADAM10 is dispensable for the Notch2-dependent biliary tree formation. However, we demonstrate that expression of bile acid transporters is dependent on ADAM10. Consequently, mice deficient for Adam10 in hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and liver progenitor cells develop spontaneous hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. We furthermore observed a strongly augmented ductular reaction in 15-week old ADAM10Δhep/Δch mice and demonstrate that c-Met dependent liver progenitor cell activation is enhanced. Additionally, liver progenitor cells are primed to hepatocyte differentiation in the absence of ADAM10. These findings show that ADAM10 is a novel central node controlling liver tissue homeostasis. Highlights: Loss of ADAM10 in murine liver results in hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. ADAM10 directly regulates expression of bile acid transporters but is dispensable for Notch2-dependent formation of the biliary system. Activation of liver progenitor cells is enhanced through increased c-Met signalling, in the absence of ADAM10. Differentiation of liver progenitor cells to hepatocytes is augmented in the absence of ADAM10. PMID:26942887

  5. Association of Nitric Oxide Synthase and Matrix Metalloprotease Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Preeclampsia and Its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo, Daniela P.; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M.; Lanaro, Carolina; Baptista, Letícia C.; Cecatti, José G.; Surita, Fernanda G.; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Costa, Fernando F.; Franco-Penteado, Carla F.; Fertrin, Kleber Y.; Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in the world, but its appearance is still unpredictable and its pathophysiology has not been entirely elucidated. Genetic studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteases with preeclampsia, but the results are largely inconclusive across different populations. Objectives To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NOS3 (G894T, T-786C, and a variable number of tandem repetitions VNTR in intron 4), MMP2 (C-1306T), and MMP9 (C-1562T) genes with preeclampsia in patients from Southeastern Brazil. Methods This prospective case-control study enrolled 77 women with preeclampsia and 266 control pregnant women. Clinical data were collected to assess risk factors and the presence of severe complications, such as eclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome. Results We found a significant association between the single nucleotide polymorphism NOS3 T-786C and preeclampsia, independently from age, height, weight, or the other SNPs studied, and no association was found with the other polymorphisms. Age and history of preeclampsia were also identified as risk factors. The presence of at least one polymorphic allele for NOS3 T-786C was also associated with the occurrence of eclampsia or HELLP syndrome among preeclamptic women. Conclusions Our data support that the NOS3 T-786C SNP is associated with preeclampsia and the severity of its complications. PMID:26317342

  6. Massively parallel enzyme kinetics reveals the substrate recognition landscape of the metalloprotease ADAMTS13

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Colin A.; Dai, Manhong; Soylemez, Onuralp; Yee, Andrew; Desch, Karl C.; Siemieniak, David; Tomberg, Kärt; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.; Meng, Fan; Ginsburg, David

    2015-01-01

    Proteases play important roles in many biologic processes and are key mediators of cancer, inflammation, and thrombosis. However, comprehensive and quantitative techniques to define the substrate specificity profile of proteases are lacking. The metalloprotease ADAMTS13 regulates blood coagulation by cleaving von Willebrand factor (VWF), reducing its procoagulant activity. A mutagenized substrate phage display library based on a 73-amino acid fragment of VWF was constructed, and the ADAMTS13-dependent change in library complexity was evaluated over reaction time points, using high-throughput sequencing. Reaction rate constants (kcat/KM) were calculated for nearly every possible single amino acid substitution within this fragment. This massively parallel enzyme kinetics analysis detailed the specificity of ADAMTS13 and demonstrated the critical importance of the P1-P1′ substrate residues while defining exosite binding domains. These data provided empirical evidence for the propensity for epistasis within VWF and showed strong correlation to conservation across orthologs, highlighting evolutionary selective pressures for VWF. PMID:26170332

  7. Sequential Amyloid-β Degradation by the Matrix Metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9*

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Guillamon, Mar; Mawhirt, Stephanie; Blais, Steven; Montaner, Joan; Neubert, Thomas A.; Rostagno, Agueda; Ghiso, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been implicated in the physiological catabolism of Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ). Conversely, their association with vascular amyloid deposits, blood-brain barrier disruption, and hemorrhagic transformations after ischemic stroke also highlights their involvement in pathological processes. To better understand this dichotomy, recombinant human (rh) MMP-2 and MMP-9 were incubated with Aβ40 and Aβ42, and the resulting proteolytic fragments were assessed via immunoprecipitation and quantitative mass spectrometry. Both MMPs generated Aβ fragments truncated only at the C terminus, ending at positions 34, 30, and 16. Using deuterated homologues as internal standards, we observed limited and relatively slow degradation of Aβ42 by rhMMP-2, although the enzyme cleaved >80% of Aβ40 during the 1st h of incubation. rhMMP-9 was significantly less effective, particularly in degrading Aβ(1–42), although the targeted peptide bonds were identical. Using Aβ(1–34) and Aβ(1–30), we demonstrated that these peptides are also substrates for both MMPs, cleaving Aβ(1–34) to produce Aβ(1–30) first and Aβ(1–16) subsequently. Consistent with the kinetics observed with full-length Aβ, rhMMP-9 degraded only a minute fraction of Aβ(1–34) and was even less effective in producing Aβ(1–16). Further degradation of Aβ(1–16) by either MMP-2 or MMP-9 was not observed even after prolonged incubation times. Notably, all MMP-generated C-terminally truncated Aβ fragments were highly soluble and did not exhibit fibrillogenic properties or induce cytotoxicity in human cerebral microvascular endothelial or neuronal cells supporting the notion that these truncated Aβ species are associated with clearance mechanisms rather than being key elements in the fibrillogenesis process. PMID:25897080

  8. Heterotrimeric G Proteins Directly Regulate MMP14/Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Overland, Aaron C.; Insel, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Agonist stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can transactivate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), but the precise mechanisms for this transactivation have not been defined. Key to this process is the protease-mediated “shedding” of membrane-tethered ligands, which then activate EGFRs. The specific proteases and the events involved in GPCR-EGFR transactivation are not fully understood. We have tested the hypothesis that transactivation can occur by a membrane-delimited process: direct increase in the activity of membrane type-1 matrix metalloprotease (MMP14, MT1-MMP) by heterotrimeric G proteins, and in turn, the generation of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) and activation of EGFR. Using membranes prepared from adult rat cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, we found that MMP14 activity is increased by angiotensin II, phenylephrine, GTP, and guanosine 5′-O-[γ-thio]triphosphate (GTPγS). MMP14 activation by GTPγS occurs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, does not occur in response to GMP or adenosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate (ATPγS), and is not blunted by inhibitors of Src, PKC, phospholipase C (PLC), PI3K, or soluble MMPs. This activation is specific to MMP14 as it is inhibited by a specific MMP14 peptide inhibitor and siRNA knockdown. MMP14 activation by GTPγS is pertussis toxin-sensitive. A role for heterotrimeric G protein βγ subunits was shown by using the Gβγ inhibitor gallein and the direct activation of recombinant MMP14 by purified βγ subunits. GTPγS-stimulated activation of MMP14 also results in membrane release of HB-EGF and the activation of EGFR. These results define a previously unrecognized, membrane-delimited mechanism for EGFR transactivation via direct G protein activation of MMP14 and identify MMP14 as a heterotrimeric G protein-regulated effector. PMID:25759388

  9. Purification and characterization of a new neutral metalloprotease from marine Exiguobacterium sp. SWJS2.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fenfen; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Haifeng; Tang, Xuelu; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-03-01

    Among the protease-producing bacterial strains isolated from deep-sea sediments, SWJS2 was finally selected and identified as genus Exiguobacterium. Plackett-Burman and orthogonal array designs were applied to optimize the fermentation conditions, and the results are as follows: Glucose 5g, yeast extract 15g, glycerin 2g and CaCl2 ⋅2H2 O 0.5 g dissolved in 1 L artificial seawater; temperature 25 °C, original pH 7, inoculum rate 2%, seed age 12 H, loading volume 25 mL (250-mL Erlenmeyer flask), shaking speed 150 rpm, and fermentation time 44 H. The protease activity production was improved from about 80 to 660 U/mL under the optimized parameters. The protease was purified fourfold with specificity activity of 30,654.1 U/mg protein and a total yield of 16.2%. The protease exhibited the maximum activity at 40-45 °C and pH 7. Moreover, the enzyme activity was found to be inhibited by Cu(2+) , Ba(2+) , Cd(2+) , Hg(2+) , and Al(3+) at 5 mM, whereas it can be increased by Mg(2+) , Mn(2+) , and Ca(2+) at 0.5-5 mM. The enzyme was totally inactivated by 1 or 5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid but not by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, tyrpsin inhibitor from Glycine max (STI), benzamidine, 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitro benzoic acid), or pepstatin A, suggesting that it belonged to metalloprotease. PMID:25643906

  10. Complex Formed between Intramembrane Metalloprotease SpoIVFB and Its Substrate, Pro-σK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Halder, Sabyasachi; Kerr, Richard A; Parrell, Daniel; Ruotolo, Brandon; Kroos, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Intramembrane metalloproteases (IMMPs) are conserved from bacteria to humans and control many important signaling pathways, but little is known about how IMMPs interact with their substrates. SpoIVFB is an IMMP that cleaves Pro-σ(K) during Bacillus subtilis endospore formation. When catalytically inactive SpoIVFB was coexpressed with C-terminally truncated Pro-σ(K)(1-126) (which can be cleaved by active SpoIVFB) in Escherichia coli, the substrate dramatically improved solubilization of the enzyme from membranes with mild detergents. Both the Pro(1-20) and σ(K)(21-126) parts contributed to improving SpoIVFB solubilization from membranes, but only the σ(K) part was needed to form a stable complex with SpoIVFB in a pulldown assay. The last 10 residues of SpoIVFB were required for improved solubilization from membranes by Pro-σ(K)(1-126) and for normal interaction with the substrate. The inactive SpoIVFB·Pro-σ(K)(1-126)-His6 complex was stable during affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. Disulfide cross-linking of the purified complex indicated that it resembled the complex formed in vivo Ion mobility-mass spectrometry analysis resulted in an observed mass consistent with a 4:2 SpoIVFB·Pro-σ(K)(1-126)-His6 complex. Stepwise photobleaching of SpoIVFB fused to a fluorescent protein supported the notion that the enzyme is tetrameric during B. subtilis sporulation. The results provide the first evidence that an IMMP acts as a tetramer, give new insights into how SpoIVFB interacts with its substrate, and lay the foundation for further biochemical analysis of the enzyme·substrate complex and future structural studies. PMID:26953342

  11. Association of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 gene polymorphisms with asthma

    PubMed Central

    YILIHAMU, NIGELA; WUSHOUER, QIMANGUL; ARKIN, KADIRYA; XIN, HU; YADAV, UMESH

    2014-01-01

    Various studies reported a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) as an important susceptibility gene for asthma, which is frequently detected among certain populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADAM33 gene and asthma. Our case-control study included 183 patients (73 male and 110 female, mean age 42.93±13.48 years) who were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between February, 2012 and May, 2013 and 155 healthy controls (66 male and 89 female, mean age 41.14±14.10 years). Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technology and DNA testing training methods were applied to detect the T2 and ST+5 polymorphisms of the ADAM33 gene. The data were statistically analyzed to determine whether there exists an association between these genotypes and asthma-related morbidity. The genotypes and allele frequencies of the T2 and ST+5 SNPs of ADAM33 were not found to be significantly associated with asthma risk when compared between asthmatic patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). In addition, there was no association of the investigated SNPs with the severity of asthma. There was no significant difference in the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume between patients with the ADAM33 T2 and ST+5 genotype. In conclusion, our results suggested that the T2 and ST+5 ADAM33 gene polymorphisms do not confer a significant risk of asthma or affect its severity in the population investigated. PMID:25279200

  12. Reprolysin metalloproteases from Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abid; Tirloni, Lucas; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Seixas, Adriana; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; da Silva Vaz Junior, Itabajara; Termignoni, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Metalloproteases (MPs) have been considered essential for blood feeding and other physiological functions in several hematophagous animals, including ticks. We report the characterization of MP sequences of three important ticks from Asia, Africa and America: Ixodes persulcatus (Ip-MPs), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Rs-MPs) and R. microplus (BrRm-MPs). Amino acid sequence identity between R. microplus and R. sanguineus MPs ranged from 76 to 100 %, and identities among I. persulcatus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis MP sequences ranged from 88 to 97 %. This high sequence identity and typical functional motifs show that all sequences are MPs. The presence of a zinc binding site, a Met-turn and cysteine rich domain at the C-terminal region indicates that these proteins belong to the reproplysin family of MPs. Differences in amino acid sequences of BrRm-MP1, BrRm-MP2, BrRm-MP4 and BrRm-MP5 (from Porto Alegre strain ticks) were 6, 2, 7 and 5 %, respectively, when compared with sequences deposited in GenBank for the same genes from other R. microplus isolates. Analyses of MPs predicted that they have various highly antigenic regions. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of transcripts in salivary glands of partially and fully fed female ticks. None of these transcripts were observed in males (except BrRm-MP4) and eggs. These enzymes may be functional components required during tick feeding to manipulate host defenses and support tick hematophagy. PMID:24687173

  13. Activation of a 66-kilodalton human endothelial cell matrix metalloprotease by Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Burns, E H; Marciel, A M; Musser, J M

    1996-11-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to gain insight into the molecular mechanism whereby the major extracellular protease from group A streptococci damages host tissue. HUVECs exposed to streptococcal cysteine protease (SCP) for various times exhibited cytopathic effect and cell detachment from the culture vessel. Gelatin substrate zymography showed that a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the level of activity of an approximately 66-kDa gelatinase occurred in culture medium taken from cells exposed to enzymatically active SCP. This gelatinase comigrated in gelatin zymograms with the activated form of purified recombinant matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and had type IV collagenase activity. In contrast, medium taken from cells exposed to inactivated (boiled) SCP and cells exposed to SCP inhibited by treatment with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-valyl-glycine diazomethyl ketone lacked the 66-kDa gelatinase. Appearance of the 66-kDa gelatinase activity was also prevented by 1,10-phenanthroline, a zinc chelator and MMP inhibitor. Inasmuch as proteolytically active SCP is required for the emergence of this gelatinase and MMP activation occurs by proteolytic processing, the 66-kDa gelatinase may be a proteolytic cleavage product of a latent MMP expressed extracellularly by HUVECs. Direct SCP treatment of culture supernatant taken from HUVECs not exposed to SCP also produced the 66-kDa gelatinase. The data show that SCP activates an MMP produced by human endothelial cells, a process that may contribute to endothelial cell damage, tissue destruction, and hemodynamic derangement observed in some patients with severe, invasive group A streptococcal infection. PMID:8890235

  14. Activation of a 66-kilodalton human endothelial cell matrix metalloprotease by Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, E H; Marciel, A M; Musser, J M

    1996-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to gain insight into the molecular mechanism whereby the major extracellular protease from group A streptococci damages host tissue. HUVECs exposed to streptococcal cysteine protease (SCP) for various times exhibited cytopathic effect and cell detachment from the culture vessel. Gelatin substrate zymography showed that a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the level of activity of an approximately 66-kDa gelatinase occurred in culture medium taken from cells exposed to enzymatically active SCP. This gelatinase comigrated in gelatin zymograms with the activated form of purified recombinant matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and had type IV collagenase activity. In contrast, medium taken from cells exposed to inactivated (boiled) SCP and cells exposed to SCP inhibited by treatment with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-valyl-glycine diazomethyl ketone lacked the 66-kDa gelatinase. Appearance of the 66-kDa gelatinase activity was also prevented by 1,10-phenanthroline, a zinc chelator and MMP inhibitor. Inasmuch as proteolytically active SCP is required for the emergence of this gelatinase and MMP activation occurs by proteolytic processing, the 66-kDa gelatinase may be a proteolytic cleavage product of a latent MMP expressed extracellularly by HUVECs. Direct SCP treatment of culture supernatant taken from HUVECs not exposed to SCP also produced the 66-kDa gelatinase. The data show that SCP activates an MMP produced by human endothelial cells, a process that may contribute to endothelial cell damage, tissue destruction, and hemodynamic derangement observed in some patients with severe, invasive group A streptococcal infection. PMID:8890235

  15. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Gosman, Margot M E; Boezen, H Marike; van Diemen, Cleo C; Snoeck‐Stroband, Jiska B; Lapperre, Thérèse S; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Hacken, Nick H T ten; Stolk, Jan; Postma, Dirkje S

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disorder with increasing prevalence and mortality. It is associated with airway obstruction, increased airway hyper‐responsiveness (AHR), and ongoing airway and lung inflammation dominated by CD8 lymphocytes and neutrophils. Single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) gene have been associated with AHR and COPD. Objective To assess whether SNPs in ADAM33 are associated with the severity of AHR and airway inflammation in COPD. Methods Eight SNPs in ADAM33 (F+1, Q‐1, S_1, S_2, ST+5, T_1, T_2, V_4) were genotyped in 111 patients with COPD (96 males, 69 current smokers, mean (standard deviation (SD)), aged 62 (8) years, median pack‐years 42 (IQR 31–55), mean postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)% predicted 63 (9). Provocative concentration of methacholine causing a decrease in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 methacholine), sputum and bronchial biopsies were collected. Results Patients with the ST+5 AA genotype had more severe AHR, higher numbers of sputum inflammatory cells and CD8 cells in bronchial biopsies than patients with the GG genotype (p = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). CD8 cell numbers were lower in patients carrying the minor allele of SNP T_1 and T_2, and homozygotic minor variants of SNP S_2 compared with the wild type (p = 0.02, 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions This is the first study revealing that SNPs in a gene that confers susceptibility to COPD in the general population—that is, ADAM33—are associated with AHR and airway inflammation in COPD. These findings constitute an important step forward in linking gene polymorphisms with COPD pathophysiology, thereby possibly contributing to better treatments for this progressive and disabling disease in the future. PMID:17090574

  16. Neprilysins: An Evolutionarily Conserved Family of Metalloproteases That Play Important Roles in Reproduction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sitnik, Jessica L.; Francis, Carmen; Hens, Korneel; Huybrechts, Roger; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Callaerts, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Members of the M13 class of metalloproteases have been implicated in diseases and in reproductive fitness. Nevertheless, their physiological role remains poorly understood. To obtain a tractable model with which to analyze this protein family’s function, we characterized the gene family in Drosophila melanogaster and focused on reproductive phenotypes. The D. melanogaster genome contains 24 M13 class protease homologs, some of which are orthologs of human proteases, including neprilysin. Many are expressed in the reproductive tracts of either sex. Using RNAi we individually targeted the five Nep genes most closely related to vertebrate neprilysin, Nep1-5, to investigate their roles in reproduction. A reduction in Nep1, Nep2, or Nep4 expression in females reduced egg laying. Nep1 and Nep2 are required in the CNS and the spermathecae for wild-type fecundity. Females that are null for Nep2 also show defects as hosts of sperm competition as well as an increased rate of depletion for stored sperm. Furthermore, eggs laid by Nep2 mutant females are fertilized normally, but arrest early in embryonic development. In the male, only Nep1 was required to induce normal patterns of female egg laying. Reduction in the expression of Nep2-5 in the male did not cause any dramatic effects on reproductive fitness, which suggests that these genes are either nonessential for male fertility or perform redundant functions. Our results suggest that, consistent with the functions of neprilysins in mammals, these proteins are also required for reproduction in Drosophila, opening up this model system for further functional analysis of this protein class and their substrates. PMID:24395329

  17. Invasion of the Central Nervous System by Cryptococcus neoformans Requires a Secreted Fungal Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Kiem; Tham, Rick; Uhrig, John P.; Thompson, George R.; Na Pombejra, Sarisa; Jamklang, Mantana; Bautos, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus spp. cause life-threatening fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS), predominantly in patients with a compromised immune system. Why Cryptococcus neoformans has this remarkable tropism for the CNS is not clear. Recent research on cerebral pathogenesis of C. neoformans revealed a predominantly transcellular migration of cryptococci across the brain endothelium; however, the identities of key fungal virulence factors that function specifically to invade the CNS remain unresolved. Here we found that a novel, secreted metalloprotease (Mpr1) that we identified in the extracellular proteome of C. neoformans (CnMpr1) is required for establishing fungal disease in the CNS. Mpr1 belongs to a poorly characterized M36 class of fungalysins that are expressed in only some fungal species. A strain of C. neoformans lacking the gene encoding Mpr1 (mpr1Δ) failed to breach the endothelium in an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). A mammalian host infected with the mpr1Δ null strain demonstrated significant improvement in survival due to a reduced brain fungal burden and lacked the brain pathology commonly associated with cryptococcal disease. The in vivo studies further indicate that Mpr1 is not required for fungal dissemination and Mpr1 likely targets the brain endothelium specifically. Remarkably, the sole expression of CnMPR1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in a robust migration of yeast cells across the brain endothelium, demonstrating Mpr1’s specific activity in breaching the BBB and suggesting that Mpr1 may function independently of the hyaluronic acid-CD44 pathway. This distinct role for Mpr1 may develop into innovative treatment options and facilitate a brain-specific drug delivery platform. PMID:24895304

  18. Association of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 gene polymorphisms with asthma.

    PubMed

    Yilihamu, Nigela; Wushouer, Qimangul; Arkin, Kadirya; Xin, Hu; Yadav, Umesh

    2014-11-01

    Various studies reported a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) as an important susceptibility gene for asthma, which is frequently detected among certain populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADAM33 gene and asthma. Our case-control study included 183 patients (73 male and 110 female, mean age 42.93±13.48 years) who were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between February, 2012 and May, 2013 and 155 healthy controls (66 male and 89 female, mean age 41.14±14.10 years). Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technology and DNA testing training methods were applied to detect the T2 and ST+5 polymorphisms of the ADAM33 gene. The data were statistically analyzed to determine whether there exists an association between these genotypes and asthma-related morbidity. The genotypes and allele frequencies of the T2 and ST+5 SNPs of ADAM33 were not found to be significantly associated with asthma risk when compared between asthmatic patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). In addition, there was no association of the investigated SNPs with the severity of asthma. There was no significant difference in the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume between patients with the ADAM33 T2 and ST+5 genotype. In conclusion, our results suggested that the T2 and ST+5 ADAM33 gene polymorphisms do not confer a significant risk of asthma or affect its severity in the population investigated. PMID:25279200

  19. Modulation of CD163 Expression by Metalloprotease ADAM17 Regulates Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Longjun; Niu, Junwei; Yu, Haidong; Gu, Weihong; Li, Ren; Luo, Xiaolei; Huang, Mingming; Tian, Zhijun; Feng, Li

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a consequence of their effects on ectodomain shedding, members of the A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family have been implicated in the control of various cellular processes. Although ADAM family members are also involved in cancer, inflammation, and other pathologies, it is unclear whether they affect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of ADAM17 enhances PRRSV entry in Marc-145 and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). We also demonstrate that the inhibition of ADAM17 upregulates membrane CD163 expression, a putative PRRSV receptor that is exogenously expressed in BHK-21 and endogenously expressed in Marc-145 and PAMs. Furthermore, overexpression of ADAM17 induced downregulation of CD163 expression and a reduction in PRRSV infection, whereas ablation of ADAM17 expression using specific small interfering RNA resulted in upregulation of CD163 expression with a corresponding increase in PRRSV infection. These ADAM17-mediated effects were confirmed with PRRSV nonpermissive BHK-21 cells transfected with CD163 cDNA. Overall, these findings indicate that ADAM17 downregulates CD163 expression and hinders PRRSV entry. Hence, downregulation of ADAM17 particular substrates may be an additional component of the anti-infection defenses. IMPORTANCE ADAM17 is one of the important membrane-associated metalloproteases that mediate various cellular events, as well as inflammation, cancer, and other pathologies. Here, we investigate for the first time the role of the metalloprotease ADAM17 in PRRSV infection. By using inhibitor and genetic modification methods, we demonstrate that ADAM17 negatively regulate PRRSV entry by regulating its substrate(s). More specifically, ADAM 17 mediates the downregulation of the PRRSV cellular receptor CD163. The reduction in CD163 expression represents another component of the anti-infection response initiated by ADAM17. PMID:24965453

  20. Factors other than metalloprotease are required for full virulence of French Vibrio tubiashii isolates in oyster larvae.

    PubMed

    Mersni-Achour, Rachida; Ben Cheikh, Yosra; Pichereau, Vianney; Doghri, Ibtissem; Etien, Cédric; Dégremont, Lionel; Saulnier, Denis; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Travers, Marie-Agnès

    2015-05-01

    Vibrio tubiashii is a marine pathogen isolated from larval and juvenile bivalve molluscs that causes bacillary necrosis. Recent studies demonstrated the isolation of this species in a French experimental hatchery/nursery affecting Crassostrea gigas spat in 2007. Here, using larvae of C. gigas as an interaction model, we showed that the French V. tubiashii is virulent to larvae and can cause bacillary necrosis symptoms with an LD50 of about 2.3 × 10(3) c.f.u. ml(-1) after 24 h. Moreover, complete or gel permeation HPLC fractionated extracellular products (ECPs) of this strain appeared toxic to larvae. MS-MS analysis of the different ECP fractions revealed the existence of an extracellular metalloprotease and other suspected virulence factors. This observation is also supported by the expression level of some potential virulence factors. The overall results suggest that the pathology caused by the French V. tubiashii in C. gigas oysters is caused by a group of toxic factors and not only the metalloprotease. PMID:25701736

  1. Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein (VAMP) Cleavage by a New Metalloprotease from the Brazilian Scorpion Tityus serrulatus*

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Paul L.; Fletcher, Maryann D.; Weninger, Keith; Anderson, Trevor E.; Martin, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence that venom from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus and a purified fraction selectively cleave essential SNARE proteins within exocrine pancreatic tissue. Western blotting for vesicle-associated membrane protein type v-SNARE proteins (or synaptobrevins) reveals characteristic alterations to venom-treated excised pancreatic lobules in vitro. Immunocytochemistry by electron microscopy confirms both the SNARE identity as VAMP2 and the proteolysis of VAMP2 as a marked decrease in secondary antibody-conjugated colloidal gold particles that are predominantly associated with mature zymogen granules. Studies with recombinant SNARE proteins were used to determine the specific cleavage site in VAMP2 and the susceptibility of VAMP8 (endobrevin). The VAMP2 cleavage site is between the transmembrane anchor and the SNARE motif that assembles into the ternary SNARE complex. Inclusion of divalent chelating agents (EDTA) with fraction ν, an otherwise active purified component from venom, eliminates SNARE proteolysis, suggesting the active protein is a metalloprotease. The unique cleavages of VAMP2 and VAMP8 may be linked to pancreatitis that develops following scorpion envenomation as both of these v-SNARE proteins are associated with zymogen granule membranes in pancreatic acinar cells. We have isolated antarease, a metalloprotease from fraction ν that cleaves VAMP2, and report its amino acid sequence. PMID:20026600

  2. Production, Purification, and Biochemical Characterization of Thermostable Metallo-Protease from Novel Bacillus alkalitelluris TWI3 Isolated from Tannery Waste.

    PubMed

    Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Sivasankari, Balayogan; Siddharthan, Nagarajan; Rani, Rizwana Parveen; Sivakumar, Subramaniyan

    2016-04-01

    Protease enzymes in tannery industries have enormous applications. Seeking a potential candidate for efficient protease production has emerged in recent years. In our study, we sought to isolate proteolytic bacteria from tannery waste dumping site in Tamilnadu, India. Novel proteolytic Bacillus alkalitelluris TWI3 was isolated and tested for protease production. Maximum protease production was achieved using lactose and skim milk as a carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, and optimum growth temperature was found to be 40 °C at pH 8. Protease enzyme was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation method and anion exchange chromatography. Diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) column chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography yielded an overall 4.92-fold and 7.19-fold purification, respectively. The 42.6-kDa TWI3 protease was characterized as alkaline metallo-protease and stable up to 60 °C and pH 10. Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+) ions activated the protease, while Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+) greatly inhibited it. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited TWI3 protease and was activated by Ca(2+), which confirmed that TWI3 protease is a metallo-protease. Moreover, this protease is capable of dehairing goat skin and also removed several cloth stains, which makes it more suitable for various biotechnological applications. PMID:26749296

  3. Systematic substrate identification indicates a central role for the metalloprotease ADAM10 in axon targeting and synapse function

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Colombo, Alessio Vittorio; Schusser, Benjamin; Dreymueller, Daniela; Wetzel, Sebastian; Schepers, Ute; Herber, Julia; Ludwig, Andreas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Montag, Dirk; Müller, Ulrike; Schweizer, Michaela; Saftig, Paul; Bräse, Stefan; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F

    2016-01-01

    Metzincin metalloproteases have major roles in intercellular communication by modulating the function of membrane proteins. One of the proteases is the a-disintegrin-and-metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) which acts as alpha-secretase of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein. ADAM10 is also required for neuronal network functions in murine brain, but neuronal ADAM10 substrates are only partly known. With a proteomic analysis of Adam10-deficient neurons we identified 91, mostly novel ADAM10 substrate candidates, making ADAM10 a major protease for membrane proteins in the nervous system. Several novel substrates, including the neuronal cell adhesion protein NrCAM, are involved in brain development. Indeed, we detected mistargeted axons in the olfactory bulb of conditional ADAM10-/- mice, which correlate with reduced cleavage of NrCAM, NCAM and other ADAM10 substrates. In summary, the novel ADAM10 substrates provide a molecular basis for neuronal network dysfunctions in conditional ADAM10-/- mice and demonstrate a fundamental function of ADAM10 in the brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12748.001 PMID:26802628

  4. Solution structure and dynamics of C-terminal regulatory domain of Vibrio vulnificus extracellular metalloprotease

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Heeyoun; Park, Jung Eun; Lee, Jung Sup; Lee, Weontae

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have determined solution structures of vEP C-terminal regulatory domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 has a compact {beta}-barrel structure with eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution structure of vEP C-ter100 shares its molecular topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residues in the {beta}3 region of vEP C-ter100 might be important in putative ligand/receptor binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron ion. -- Abstract: An extracellular metalloprotease (vEP) secreted by Vibrio vulnificus ATCC29307 is a 45-kDa proteolytic enzyme that has prothrombin activation and fibrinolytic activities during bacterial infection. The action of vEP could result in clotting that could serve to protect the bacteria from the host defense machinery. Very recently, we showed that the C-terminal propeptide (C-ter100), which is unique to vEP, is involved in regulation of vEP activity. To understand the structural basis of this function of vEP C-ter100, we have determined the solution structure and backbone dynamics using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solution structure shows that vEP C-ter100 is composed of eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands with a unique fold that has a compact {beta}-barrel formation which stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding networks. Protein dynamics shows that the overall structure, including loops, is very rigid and stabilized. By structural database analysis, we found that vEP C-ter100 shares its topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase, despite low sequence homology between the two domains. Fluorescence assay reveals that vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron (Fe{sup 3+}). These findings suggest that vEP protease might recruit substrate molecules, such as collagen, by binding at C-ter100 and that vEP participates

  5. A gene from Renibacterium salmoninarum encoding a product which shows homology to bacterial zinc-metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Grayson, T H; Evenden, A J; Gilpin, M L; Martin, K L; Munn, C B

    1995-06-01

    A genomic library constructed from Renibacterium salmoninarum isolate MT444 DNA in the plasmid vector pBR328 was screened using Escherichia coli host strain DH1 for the expression of genes encoding putative virulence factors. A single haemolytic clone was isolated at 22 degrees C and found to contain a 3.1 kb HindIII fragment of inserted DNA. This fragment was present in seven isolates of R. salmoninarum which were examined. Western blots of extracts from clones exhibiting haemolytic activity were performed with antisera raised against either cellular or extracellular components of R. salmoninarum and failed to identify any additional proteins compared to control E. coli containing pBR328. However, minicell analysis revealed that a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 65 kDa was associated with a haemolytic activity distinct from that previously described for R. salmoninarum. The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this product was determined and the amino acid sequence deduced. The product was 548 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 66757 Da and a pl of 5.57. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene possessed strong similarities to those of a range of secreted bacterial zinc-metalloproteases and was tentatively designed hly. Neither protease nor lecithinase activities were detectable in E. coli recombinants expressing gene hly. Haemolytic activity was observed from 6 degrees C to 37 degrees C for erythrocytes from a number of mammalian species and also from fish. Gene hly was expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein consisting of maltose-binding protein at the N-terminus linked to all but the first 24 amino acids, largely constituting the putative signal peptide, of the N-terminus of Hly. The soluble fusion protein was produced and purified by affinity chromatography. Antiserum raised against the purified fusion protein was used to probe Western blots of cell lysates and extracellular products from seven isolates of R. salmoninarum

  6. Isoform-specific interactions between meprin metalloproteases and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A: significance in acute and chronic kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Niyitegeka, Jean-Marie V.; Bastidas, Adam C.; Newman, Robert H.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Meprin metalloproteases are abundantly expressed in the brush-border membranes of kidney proximal tubules. Meprins are implicated in ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced renal injury and diabetic nephropathy. The protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway modulates extracellular matrix metabolism in diabetic kidneys. The present study evaluated isoform-specific interactions between the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKA C) and meprins. To this end, cytosolic-enriched kidney proteins from meprin αβ double knockout mice, and purified forms of recombinant mouse PKA Cα, Cβ1, and Cβ2, were incubated with activated forms of either homomeric meprin A or meprin B. The cleaved protein products were subjected to SDS-PAGE and analyzed by Coomassie staining and Western blot analysis. While meprin A only cleaved PKA Cβ1, meprin B cleaved all three PKA C isoforms. Analysis of the proteolytic fragments by mass spectrometry revealed that meprin A and B cleave the PKA C isoforms at defined sites, resulting in unique cleavage products. Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics demonstrated that meprin B-mediated cleavage of PKA Cα occurs at a rate consistent with that of other physiologically relevant meprin substrates. Meprin cleavage decreased the kinase activity of PKA Cα, Cβ1, and Cβ2. PKA C levels were higher in diabetic kidneys, with evidence of in vivo fragmentation in wild-type diabetic kidneys. Confocal microscopy showed localization of meprin A in the glomeruli of diabetic kidneys. At 3 h post-IR, PKA C levels in proximal tubules decreased compared with distal tubules, which lack meprins. These data suggest that meprins may impact kidney injury, in part, via modulation of PKA signaling pathways. PMID:25354939

  7. Metalloprotease inhibitors GM6001 and TAPI-0 inhibit the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis by targeting peptide deformylase of the bacterium.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Amit; Patel, Bhairavi; Sieber, Stephan A; Chen, Ding; Pachikara, Niseema; Zhong, Guangming; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Fan, Huizhou

    2006-06-16

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for a number of human diseases. The mechanism underlying the intracellular parasitology of Chlamydiae remains poorly understood. In searching for host factors required for chlamydial infection, we discovered that C. trachomatis growth was effectively inhibited with GM6001 and TAPI-0, two compounds known as specific inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases. The inhibition was independent of chlamydial entry of the cell, suggesting that the loss of extracellular metalloprotease activities of the host cell is unlikely to be the mechanism for the growth suppression. Nucleotide sequences of candidate metalloprotease genes remained unchanged in a chlamydial variant designated GR10, which had been selected for resistance to the inhibitors. Nevertheless, GR10 displayed a single base mutation in the presumable promoter region of the gene for peptide deformylase (PDF), a metal-dependent enzyme that removes the N-formyl group from newly synthesized bacterial proteins. The mutation correlated with an increased PDF expression level and resistance to actinonin, a known PDF inhibitor with antibacterial activity, as compared with the parental strain. Recombinant chlamydial PDF was covalently labeled with a hydroxamate-based molecular probe designated AspR1, which was developed for the detection of metalloproteases. The AspR1 labeling of the chlamydial PDF became significantly less efficient in the presence of excessive amounts of GM6001 and TAPI-0. Finally, the PDF enzyme activity was efficiently inhibited with GM6001 and TAPI-0. Taken together, our results suggest that the metalloprotease inhibitors suppress chlamydial growth by targeting the bacterial PDF. These findings have important biochemical and medical implications. PMID:16565079

  8. Human brain contains a metalloprotease that converts big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1 and is inhibited by phosphoramidon and EDTA.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, T. D.; Schmidt, H. H.; Kuk, J.; Mitchell, J. A.; Murad, F.

    1992-01-01

    Incubation of big endothelin-1 (bET-1) with protein derived from the detergent-extracted 100,000 g pellet prepared from human brain tissue resulted in the formation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) at a rate of 90 fmol mg-1 protein min-1. This formation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by either phosphoramidon or EDTA, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 2 and 20 microM, respectively. No conversion of big endothelin-3 (bET-3) to endothelin-3 (ET-3) was detected under the same conditions. These results show the presence in the human brain of a metalloprotease-like enzymatic activity which selectively converts bET-1 and ET-1. Together with earlier reports of mRNA for ET-1 this suggests the presence of the entire synthetic pathway for ET-1 in human brain. PMID:1504735

  9. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli secretes a highly conserved mucin-degrading metalloprotease to effectively engage intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingwei; Kumar, Pardeep; Vickers, Tim J; Sheikh, Alaullah; Lewis, Warren G; Rasko, David A; Sistrunk, Jeticia; Fleckenstein, James M

    2014-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of death due to diarrheal illness among young children in developing countries, and there is currently no effective vaccine. Many elements of ETEC pathogenesis are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that YghJ, a secreted ETEC antigen identified in immunoproteomic studies using convalescent patient sera, is required for efficient access to small intestinal enterocytes and for the optimal delivery of heat-labile toxin (LT). Furthermore, YghJ is a highly conserved metalloprotease that influences intestinal colonization of ETEC by degrading the major mucins in the small intestine, MUC2 and MUC3. Genes encoding YghJ and its cognate type II secretion system (T2SS), which also secretes LT, are highly conserved in ETEC and exist in other enteric pathogens, including other diarrheagenic E. coli and Vibrio cholerae bacteria, suggesting that this mucin-degrading enzyme may represent a shared virulence feature of these important pathogens. PMID:24478067

  10. Cleavage of Chordin by Xolloid Metalloprotease Suggests a Role for Proteolytic Processing in the Regulation of Spemann Organizer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Stefano; Agius, Eric; Lu, Bin; Goodman, Shelley; Dale, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Xolloid secreted metalloprotease, a tolloid-related protein, was found to cleave Chordin and Chordin/BMP-4 complexes at two specific sites in biochemical experiments. Xolloid mRNA blocks secondary axes caused by chordin, but not by noggin, follistatin, or dominant-negative BMP receptor, mRNA injection. Xolloid-treated Chordin protein was unable to antagonize BMP activity. Furthermore, Xolloid digestion released biologically active BMPs from Chordin/BMP inactive complexes. Injection of dominant-negative Xolloid mRNA indicated that the in vivo function of Xolloid is to limit the extent of Spemann’s organizer field. We propose that Xolloid regulates organizer function by a novel proteolytic mechanism involving a double inhibition pathway required to pattern the dorsoventral axis: XOLL⊣CHD⊣BMPs→BMPR PMID:9363949

  11. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Secretes a Highly Conserved Mucin-Degrading Metalloprotease To Effectively Engage Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingwei; Kumar, Pardeep; Vickers, Tim J.; Sheikh, Alaullah; Lewis, Warren G.; Rasko, David A.; Sistrunk, Jeticia

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of death due to diarrheal illness among young children in developing countries, and there is currently no effective vaccine. Many elements of ETEC pathogenesis are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that YghJ, a secreted ETEC antigen identified in immunoproteomic studies using convalescent patient sera, is required for efficient access to small intestinal enterocytes and for the optimal delivery of heat-labile toxin (LT). Furthermore, YghJ is a highly conserved metalloprotease that influences intestinal colonization of ETEC by degrading the major mucins in the small intestine, MUC2 and MUC3. Genes encoding YghJ and its cognate type II secretion system (T2SS), which also secretes LT, are highly conserved in ETEC and exist in other enteric pathogens, including other diarrheagenic E. coli and Vibrio cholerae bacteria, suggesting that this mucin-degrading enzyme may represent a shared virulence feature of these important pathogens. PMID:24478067

  12. Elucidation of procoagulant mechanism and pathophysiological significance of a new prothrombin activating metalloprotease purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Ghosh, Siddharth S; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2015-06-15

    The procoagulant proteases present in Russell's Viper venom (RVV) are responsible for promoting consumption coagulopathy in victims. In this study, a procoagulant metalloprotease (Rusviprotease) possessing prothrombin activating and α-fibrinogenase properties has been purified and characterized from RVV. Rusviprotease is a 26.8 kDa glycoprotein which also exists in other multimeric forms. The peptide mass fingerprinting and secondary structure analyses of Rusviprotease revealed its similarity with snake venom prothrombin activators and metalloproteases. Similar to group A prothrombin activators, Rusviprotease cleaved prothrombin independent of any co-factor requirement generating meizothrombin which is further cleaved to form thrombin. The Km and Vmax values of Rusviprotease towards prothrombin were determined to be 1.73 μM, and 153.5 nM thrombin generated/min/μmoles of Rusviprotease, respectively. The Km and Vmax values of Rusviprotease towards fibrinogen were calculated to be 3.14 μM and 78.7 nmol/min, respectively. Spectrofluorometric study provided the evidence of interaction between Rusviprotease and factor Xa with a Kd value of 6.64 nM. This interaction augmented the prothrombin activating property of the factor Xa-prothrombinase-Rusviprotease complex by 2.5 fold. Intravenous injection of Rusviprotease to BALB/c mice (0.1 mg/kg) resulted in in vivo defibrinogenation rendering the blood incoagulable. In conclusion, Rusviprotease is the first example of a prothrombin activator with fibrinogenolytic property purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. PMID:25817001

  13. TspanC8 Tetraspanins and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) Interact via Their Extracellular Regions

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Peter J.; Yang, Jing; Reyat, Jasmeet S.; Matthews, Alexandra L.; Charlton, Alice E.; Furmston, Joanna; Rogers, David A.; Rainger, G. Ed; Tomlinson, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane metalloprotease that cleaves the extracellular regions from its transmembrane substrates. ADAM10 is essential for embryonic development and is implicated in cancer, Alzheimer, and inflammatory diseases. The tetraspanins are a superfamily of 33 four-transmembrane proteins in mammals, of which the TspanC8 subgroup (Tspan5, 10, 14, 15, 17, and 33) promote ADAM10 intracellular trafficking and enzymatic maturation. However, the interaction between TspanC8s and ADAM10 has only been demonstrated in overexpression systems and the interaction mechanism remains undefined. To address these issues, an antibody was developed to Tspan14, which was used to show co-immunoprecipitation of Tspan14 with ADAM10 in primary human cells. Chimeric Tspan14 constructs demonstrated that the large extracellular loop of Tspan14 mediated its co-immunoprecipitation with ADAM10, and promoted ADAM10 maturation and trafficking to the cell surface. Chimeric ADAM10 constructs showed that membrane-proximal stalk, cysteine-rich, and disintegrin domains of ADAM10 mediated its co-immunoprecipitation with Tspan14 and other TspanC8s. This TspanC8-interacting region was required for ADAM10 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Truncated ADAM10 constructs revealed differential TspanC8 binding requirements for the stalk, cysteine-rich, and disintegrin domains. Moreover, Tspan15was the only TspanC8 to promote cleavage of the ADAM10 substrate N-cadherin, whereas Tspan14 was unique in reducing cleavage of the platelet collagen receptor GPVI. These findings suggest that ADAM10 may adopt distinct conformations in complex with different TspanC8s, which could impact on substrate selectivity. Furthermore, this study identifies regions of TspanC8s and ADAM10 for potential interaction-disrupting therapeutic targeting. PMID:26668317

  14. PKC/ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Attenuated by Leishmania Zinc-Metalloprotease during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jee Yong; Chang, Kwang-Poo; Olivier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Parasites of the Leishmania genus infect and survive within macrophages by inhibiting several microbicidal molecules, such as nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this context, various species of Leishmania have been reported to inhibit or reduce the production of IL-1β both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism whereby Leishmania parasites are able to affect IL-1β production and secretion by macrophages is still not fully understood. Dependent on the stimulus at hand, the maturation of IL-1β is facilitated by different inflammasome complexes. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to be of pivotal importance in the detection of danger molecules such as inorganic crystals like asbestos, silica and malarial hemozoin, (HZ) as well as infectious agents. In the present work, we investigated whether Leishmania parasites modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Using PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells, we demonstrate that Leishmania infection effectively inhibits macrophage IL-1β production upon stimulation. In this context, the expression and activity of the metalloprotease GP63 - a critical virulence factor expressed by all infectious Leishmania species - is a prerequisite for a Leishmania-mediated reduction of IL-1β secretion. Accordingly, L. mexicana, purified GP63 and GP63-containing exosomes, caused the inhibition of macrophage IL-1β production. Leishmania-dependent suppression of IL-1β secretion is accompanied by an inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that has previously been shown to be associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The observed loss of ROS production was due to an impaired PKC-mediated protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, ROS-independent inflammasome activation was inhibited, possibly due to an observed GP63-dependent cleavage of inflammasome and inflammasome-related proteins. Collectively for the first time, we herein provide evidence that the protozoan parasite Leishmania, through its surface

  15. Calcium binding by the PKD1 domain regulates interdomain flexibility in Vibrio cholerae metalloprotease PrtV☆

    PubMed Central

    Edwin, Aaron; Rompikuntal, Pramod; Björn, Erik; Stier, Gunter; Wai, Sun N.; Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, releases several virulence factors including secreted proteases when it infects its host. These factors attack host cell proteins and break down tissue barriers and cellular matrix components such as collagen, laminin, fibronectin, keratin, elastin, and they induce necrotic tissue damage. The secreted protease PrtV constitutes one virulence factors of V. cholerae. It is a metalloprotease belonging to the M6 peptidase family. The protein is expressed as an inactive, multidomain, 102 kDa pre-pro-protein that undergoes several N- and C-terminal modifications after which it is secreted as an intermediate variant of 81 kDa. After secretion from the bacteria, additional proteolytic steps occur to produce the 55 kDa active M6 metalloprotease. The domain arrangement of PrtV is likely to play an important role in these maturation steps, which are known to be regulated by calcium. However, the molecular mechanism by which calcium controls proteolysis is unknown. In this study, we report the atomic resolution crystal structure of the PKD1 domain from V. cholera PrtV (residues 755–838) determined at 1.1 Å. The structure reveals a previously uncharacterized Ca2+-binding site located near linker regions between domains. Conformational changes in the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bound forms suggest that Ca2+-binding at the PKD1 domain controls domain linker flexibility, and plays an important structural role, providing stability to the PrtV protein. PMID:23905008

  16. Heightened cleavage of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase by ADAM metalloproteases may contribute to disease pathogenesis in SLE.

    PubMed

    Orme, Jacob J; Du, Yong; Vanarsa, Kamala; Mayeux, Jessica; Li, Li; Mutwally, Azza; Arriens, Cristina; Min, Soyoun; Hutcheson, Jack; Davis, Laurie S; Chong, Benjamin F; Satterthwaite, Anne B; Wu, Tianfu; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by antibody-mediated chronic inflammation in the kidney, lung, skin, and other organs to cause inflammation and damage. Several inflammatory pathways are dysregulated in SLE, and understanding these pathways may improve diagnosis and treatment. In one such pathway, Axl tyrosine kinase receptor responds to Gas6 ligand to block inflammation in leukocytes. A soluble form of the Axl receptor ectodomain (sAxl) is elevated in serum from patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice. We hypothesized that sAxl in SLE serum originates from the surface of leukocytes and that the loss of leukocyte Axl contributes to the disease. We determined that macrophages and B cells are a source of sAxl in SLE and in lupus-prone mice. Shedding of the Axl ectodomain from the leukocytes of lupus-prone mice is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases ADAM10 and TACE (ADAM17). Loss of Axl from lupus-prone macrophages renders them unresponsive to Gas6-induced anti-inflammatory signaling in vitro. This phenotype is rescued by combined ADAM10/TACE inhibition. Mice with Axl-deficient macrophages develop worse disease than controls when challenged with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) sera in an induced model of nephritis. ADAM10 and TACE also mediate human SLE PBMC Axl cleavage. Collectively, these studies indicate that increased metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of leukocyte Axl may contribute to end organ disease in lupus. They further suggest dual ADAM10/TACE inhibition as a potential therapeutic modality in SLE. PMID:27237127

  17. IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase-13 is activated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease-28-regulated proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kinoshita, Katsue; Hase, Naoko; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Ayami; Mogi, Makio; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-15

    We reported previously that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 accelerates bone remodeling in oral periradicular lesions, and indicated a potentially unique role for MMP-13 in wound healing and regeneration of alveolar bone. The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family is a set of multifunctional cell surface and secreted glycoproteins, of which ADAM-28 has been localized in bone and bone-like tissues. In this study, we show that interleukin (IL)-1β induces the expression of MMP-13 and ADAM-28 in homogeneous α7 integrin-positive human skeletal muscle stem cell (α7{sup +}hSMSC)-derived osteoblast-like (α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB) cells, and promotes proliferation while inhibiting apoptosis in these cells. At higher concentrations, however, IL-1β failed to induce the expression of these genes and caused an increase in apoptosis. We further employed ADAM-28 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate whether IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression is linked to this IL-1β-mediated changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Silencing ADAM-28 expression potently suppressed IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and activity, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells. In contrast, MMP-13 siRNA had no effect on ADAM-28 expression, suggesting ADAM-28 regulates MMP-13. Exogenous MMP-13 induced α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cell proliferation and could rescue ADAM-28 siRNA-induced apoptosis, and we found that proMMP-13 is partially cleaved into its active form by ADAM-28 in vitro. Overall, our results suggest that IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells are regulated by ADAM-28. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces the MMP-13 and ADAM-28 expression in human osteoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression increases proliferation and decreased apoptosis. • MMP-13 expression induced by IL-1β is regulated by ADAM-28. • proMMP-13 appears to be cleaved into its active form via

  18. Altered microRNA expression after infection with human cytomegalovirus leads to TIMP3 downregulation and increased shedding of metalloprotease substrates, including MICA.

    PubMed

    Esteso, Gloria; Luzón, Elisa; Sarmiento, Elisabeth; Gómez-Caro, Ruth; Steinle, Alexander; Murphy, Gillian; Carbone, Javier; Valés-Gómez, Mar; Reyburn, Hugh T

    2014-08-01

    Proteolytic shedding of ligands for the NK group 2D (NKG2D) receptor is a strategy used by tumors to modulate immune recognition by NK cells and cytotoxic T cells. A number of metalloproteases, especially those of the A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family, can mediate NKG2D ligand cleavage and this process can be modulated by expression of the thiol isomerase ERp5. In this article, we describe that an increased shedding of the NKG2D ligand MICA is observed postinfection with several strains of human CMV due to an enhanced activity of ADAM17 (TNF-α converting enzyme) and matrix metalloprotease 14 caused by a reduction in the expression of the endogenous inhibitor of metalloproteases tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3). This decrease in TIMP3 expression correlates with increased expression of a cellular miRNA known to target TIMP3, and we also identify a human CMV-encoded microRNA able to modulate TIMP3 expression. These observations characterize a novel viral strategy to influence the shedding of cell-surface molecules involved in immune response modulation. They also provide an explanation for previous reports of increased levels of various ADAM17 substrates in the serum from patients with CMV disease. Consistent with this hypothesis, we detected soluble MICA in serum of transplant recipients with CMV disease. Finally, these data suggest that it might be worthwhile to prospectively study ADAM17 activity in a larger group of patients to assay whether this might be a useful biomarker to identify patients at risk for development of CMV disease. PMID:24973455

  19. The InhA2 metalloprotease of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 407 is required for pathogenicity in insects infected via the oral route.

    PubMed

    Fedhila, Sinda; Nel, Patricia; Lereclus, Didier

    2002-06-01

    The entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is known to secrete a zinc metalloprotease (InhA) that specifically cleaves antibacterial peptides produced by insect hosts. We identified a second copy of the inhA gene, named inhA2, in B. thuringiensis strain 407 Cry(-). The inhA2 gene encodes a putative polypeptide showing 66.2% overall identity with the InhA protein and harboring the zinc-binding domain (HEXXH), which is characteristic of the zinc-requiring metalloproteases. We used a transcriptional inhA2'-lacZ fusion to show that inhA2 expression is induced at the onset of the stationary phase and is overexpressed in a Spo0A minus background. The presence of a reverse Spo0A box in the promoter region of inhA2 suggests that Spo0A directly regulates the transcription of inhA2. To determine the role of the InhA and InhA2 metalloproteases in pathogenesis, we used allelic exchange to isolate single and double mutant strains for the two genes. Spores and vegetative cells of the mutant strains were as virulent as those of the parental strain in immunized Bombyx mori larvae infected by the intrahemocoelic route. Exponential phase cells of all the strains displayed the same in vitro potential for colonizing the vaccinated hemocoel. We investigated the synergistic effect of the mutant strain spores on the toxicity of Cry1C proteins against Galleria mellonella larvae infected via the oral pathway. The spores of DeltainhA2 mutant strain were ineffective in providing synergism whereas those of the DeltainhA mutant strain were not. These results indicate that the B. thuringiensis InhA2 zinc metalloprotease has a vital role in virulence when the host is infected via the oral route. PMID:12029046

  20. Ubiquitin-Like Protein SAMP1 and JAMM/MPN+ Metalloprotease HvJAMM1 Constitute a System for Reversible Regulation of Metabolic Enzyme Activity in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shiyun; Hepowit, Nathaniel; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like (Ub/Ubl) proteins are involved in diverse cellular processes by their covalent linkage to protein substrates. Here, we provide evidence for a post-translational modification system that regulates enzyme activity which is composed of an archaeal Ubl protein (SAMP1) and a JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease (HvJAMM1). Molybdopterin (MPT) synthase activity was found to be inhibited by covalent linkage of SAMP1 to the large subunit (MoaE) of MPT synthase. HvJAMM1 was shown to cleave the covalently linked inactive form of SAMP1-MoaE to the free functional individual SAMP1 and MoaE subunits of MPT synthase, suggesting reactivation of MPT synthase by this metalloprotease. Overall, this study provides new insight into the broad idea that Ub/Ubl modification is a post-translational process that can directly and reversibly regulate the activity of metabolic enzymes. In particular, we show that Ub/Ubl linkages on the active site residues of an enzyme (MPT synthase) can inhibit its catalytic activity and that the enzyme can be reactivated through cleavage by a JAMM/MPN+ metalloprotease. PMID:26010867

  1. Targeting a Metalloprotease-PAR1 Signaling System with Cell-Penetrating Pepducins Inhibits Angiogenesis, Ascites, and Progression of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anika; Covic, Lidija; Sevigny, Leila M; Kaneider, Nicole C; Lazarides, Katherine; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Sharifi, Sheida; Kuliopulos, Athan

    2009-01-01

    Gene chip and proteomic analyses of tumors and stromal tissue has led to the identification of dozens of candidate tumor and host components potentially involved in tumor-stromal interactions, angiogenesis, and progression of invasive disease. In particular, matrix metalloproteases have emerged as important biomarkers and prognostic factors for invasive and metastatic cancers. From an initial screen of benign versus malignant patient fluids, we delineated a metalloprotease cascade comprising MMP-14, MMP-9 and MMP-1 that culminates in activation of PAR1—a G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor upregulated in diverse cancers. In xenograft models of advanced peritoneal ovarian cancer, PAR1-dependent angiogenesis, ascites formation and metastasis was effectively inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of cell-penetrating pepducins based on the intracellular loops of PAR1. These data provide an in vivo proof-of-concept that targeting the metalloprotease-PAR1 signaling system may be a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:18790755

  2. Targeting a metalloprotease-PAR1 signaling system with cell-penetrating pepducins inhibits angiogenesis, ascites, and progression of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anika; Covic, Lidija; Sevigny, Leila M; Kaneider, Nicole C; Lazarides, Katherine; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Sharifi, Sheida; Kuliopulos, Athan

    2008-09-01

    Gene chip and proteomic analyses of tumors and stromal tissue has led to the identification of dozens of candidate tumor and host components potentially involved in tumor-stromal interactions, angiogenesis, and progression of invasive disease. In particular, matrix metalloproteases (MMP) have emerged as important biomarkers and prognostic factors for invasive and metastatic cancers. From an initial screen of benign versus malignant patient fluids, we delineated a metalloprotease cascade comprising MMP-14, MMP-9, and MMP-1 that culminates in activation of PAR1, a G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor up-regulated in diverse cancers. In xenograft models of advanced peritoneal ovarian cancer, PAR1-dependent angiogenesis, ascites formation, and metastasis were effectively inhibited by i.p. administration of cell-penetrating pepducins based on the intracellular loops of PAR1. These data provide an in vivo proof-of-concept that targeting the metalloprotease-PAR1 signaling system may be a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:18790755

  3. Metalloprotease cleavage of the N terminus of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR37L1 reduces its constitutive activity.

    PubMed

    Coleman, James L J; Ngo, Tony; Schmidt, Johannes; Mrad, Nadine; Liew, Chu Kong; Jones, Nicole M; Graham, Robert M; Smith, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the pharmacology or physiology of GPR37L1, a G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor that is abundant in the cerebellum. Mice deficient in this receptor exhibit precocious cerebellar development and hypertension. We showed that GPR37L1 coupled to the G protein Gαswhen heterologously expressed in cultured cells in the absence of any added ligand, whereas a mutant receptor that lacked the amino terminus was inactive. Conversely, inhibition of ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) enhanced receptor activity, indicating that the presence of the amino terminus is necessary for GPR37L1 signaling. Metalloprotease-dependent processing of GPR37L1 was evident in rodent cerebellum, where we detected predominantly the cleaved, inactive form. However, comparison of the accumulation of cAMP (adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) in response to phosphodiesterase inhibition in cerebellar slice preparations from wild-type and GPR37L1-null mice showed that some constitutive signaling remained in the wild-type mice. In reporter assays of Gαsor Gαisignaling, the synthetic, prosaposin-derived peptide prosaptide (TX14A) did not increase GPR37L1 activity. Our data indicate that GPR37L1 may be a constitutively active receptor, or perhaps its ligand is present under the conditions that we used for analysis, and that the activity of this receptor is instead controlled by signals that regulate metalloprotease activity in the tissue. PMID:27072655

  4. Metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM 12 binds to the SH3 domain of Src and activates Src tyrosine kinase in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Q; Cao, Y; Zolkiewska, A

    2000-01-01

    ADAM 12, a member of the ADAM (protein containing a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of metalloprotease-disintegrins, has been implicated in the differentiation and fusion of skeletal myoblasts, and its expression is dramatically up-regulated in many cancer cells. While the extracellular portion of ADAM 12 contains an active metalloprotease and a cell-adhesion domain, the function of the cytoplasmic portion is much less clear. In this paper, we show that the cytoplasmic tail of ADAM 12 mediates interactions with the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase Src. The interaction is direct, specific, and involves the N-terminal proline-rich region in the cytoplasmic tail of ADAM 12 and the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of Src. ADAM 12 and Src co-immunoprecipitate from transfected C2C12 cells, suggesting that the two proteins form a complex in vivo. Co-expression of Src and ADAM 12, but not ADAM 9, in C2C12 cells results in activation of the recombinant Src. Moreover, endogenous ADAM 12 associates with and activates endogenous Src in differentiating C2C12 cells. These results indicate that ADAM 12 may mediate adhesion-induced signalling during myoblast differentiation. PMID:11104699

  5. Roles of the signal peptide and mature domains in the secretion and maturation of the neutral metalloprotease from Streptomyces cacaoi.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S C; Su, M H; Lee, Y H

    1997-01-01

    The neutral metalloprotease (Npr) of Streptomyces cacaoi is synthesized as a prepro-Npr precursor form consisting of a secretory signal peptide, a propeptide and the mature metalloprotease. The maturation of Npr occurs extracellularly via an autoproteolytic processing of the secreted pro-Npr. The integrity of the propeptide is essential for the formation of mature active Npr but not for its secretion [Chang, Chang and Lee (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 3548-3554]. In this study we investigated whether the secretion and maturation of Npr require the integrity of its signal peptide region and mature protease domain. Five signal peptide mutants were generated, including the substitution mutations at the positively charged region (mutant IR6LE), the central hydrophobic region (mutants GI19EL and G19N), the boundary of the hydrophobic core-cleavage region (mutant P30L) and at the residues adjacent to the signal peptidase cleavage site (mutant YA33SM). All these lesions delayed the export of Npr to the growth medium and also resulted in a 2-10-fold decrease in Npr export. The most severe effect was noted in mutants GI19EL and P30L. When these signal peptide mutations were fused separately with the propeptide lacking the Npr mature domain, the secretory defect on the propeptide was also observed, and this impairment was again more severely expressed in mutants GI19EL and P30L. Thus the Npr signal peptide seems to have more constraints on the hydrophobic core region and at the proline residue within the boundary of the hydrophobic core-cleavage site. Deletion mutations within the C-terminal mature protease domain that left its active site intact still blocked the proteolytic processing of mutant precursor forms of pro-Npr, although their secretions were unaffected. These results, together with our previous findings, strongly suggest that the signal peptide of Npr plays a pivotal role in the secretion of both Npr and the propeptide, but not in the maturation of Npr. On the

  6. A highly conserved, inhibitable astacin metalloprotease from Teladorsagia circumcincta is required for cuticle formation and nematode development☆

    PubMed Central

    Stepek, Gillian; McCormack, Gillian; Winter, Alan D.; Page, Antony P.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause chronic, debilitating infections in both livestock and humans worldwide, and many have developed multiple resistance to the currently available anthelmintics. The protective collagenous cuticle of these parasites is required for nematode survival and its synthesis has been studied extensively in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. The collagen synthesis pathway is a complex, multi-step process involving numerous key enzymes, including the astacin metalloproteases. Nematode astacinsare crucial for C. elegans development, having specific roles in hatching, moulting and cuticle synthesis. NAS-35 (also called DPY-31) is a homologue of a vertebrate procollagen C-proteinase and performs a central role in cuticle formation of C. elegans as its mutation causes temperature-sensitive lethality and cuticle defects. The characterisation of DPY-31 from the ovine gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta and its ability to rescue the C. elegans mutant is described. Compounds with a hydroxamate functional group have previously been shown to be potent inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinases and were therefore examined for inhibitory activity against the T. circumcincta enzyme. Phenotypic screening against T. circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and C. elegans larval stages identified compounds that caused body morphology phenotypes consistent with the inhibition of proteases involved in cuticle collagen synthesis. These compounds correspondingly inhibited the activity of recombinant T. circumcincta DPY-31, supporting the hypothesis that this enzyme may represent a potentially novel anthelmintic drug target. PMID:25736599

  7. The Metalloprotease Encoded by ATP23 Has a Dual Function in Processing and Assembly of Subunit 6 of Mitochondrial ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaomei; Neupert, Walter

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we have identified a new metalloprotease encoded by the nuclear ATP23 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is essential for expression of mitochondrial ATPase (F1-FO complex). Mutations in ATP23 cause the accumulation of the precursor form of subunit 6 and prevent assembly of FO. Atp23p is associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane and is conserved from yeast to humans. A mutant harboring proteolytically inactive Atp23p accumulates the subunit 6 precursor but is nonetheless able to assemble a functional ATPase complex. These results indicate that removal of the subunit 6 presequence is not an essential event for ATPase biogenesis and that Atp23p, in addition to its processing activity, must provide another important function in FO assembly. The product of the yeast ATP10 gene was previously shown to interact with subunit 6 and to be required for its association with the subunit 9 ring. In this study one extra copy of ATP23 was found to be an effective suppressor of an atp10 null mutant, suggesting an overlap in the functions of Atp23p and Atp10p. Atp23p may, therefore, also be a chaperone, which in conjunction with Atp10p mediates the association of subunit 6 with the subunit 9 ring. PMID:17135290

  8. Expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM and ADAMTS) enzymes in human non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Rocks, N; Paulissen, G; Quesada Calvo, F; Polette, M; Gueders, M; Munaut, C; Foidart, J-M; Noel, A; Birembaut, P; Cataldo, D

    2006-01-01

    A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM) are transmembrane proteases displaying multiple functions. ADAM with ThromboSpondin-like motifs (ADAMTS) are secreted proteases characterised by thrombospondin (TS) motifs in their C-terminal domain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression pattern of ADAMs and ADAMTS in non small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and to investigate the possible correlation between their expression and cancer progression. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on NSCLC samples and corresponding nondiseased tissue fragments. Among the ADAMs evaluated (ADAM-8, -9, -10, -12, -15, -17, ADAMTS-1, TS-2 and TS-12), a modulation of ADAM-12 and ADAMTS-1 mRNA expression was observed. Amounts of ADAM-12 mRNA transcripts were increased in tumour tissues as compared to the corresponding controls. In sharp contrast, ADAMTS-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumour tissues when compared to corresponding nondiseased lung. These results were corroborated at the protein level by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. A positive correlation was observed between the mRNA levels of ADAM-12 and those of two vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A isoforms (VEGF-A165 and VEGF-A121). Taken together, these results providing evidence for an overexpression of ADAM-12 and a lower expression of ADAMTS-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer suggest that these proteases play different functions in cancer progression. PMID:16495931

  9. Intracellular Cleavage of the Cx43 C-Terminal Domain by Matrix-Metalloproteases: A Novel Contributor to Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    De Bock, Marijke; Wang, Nan; Decrock, Elke; Bultynck, Geert; Leybaert, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs) that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexin (Cx) proteins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms nonjunctional hemichannels (HCs) in the plasma membrane that mediate the release of paracrine signaling molecules in the extracellular environment. Both HC and GJ channel function are regulated by protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications that predominantly take place in the C-terminal domain of Cx43. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a major group of zinc-dependent proteases, known to regulate not only extracellular matrix remodeling, but also processing of intracellular proteins. Together with Cx43 channels, both GJs and HCs, MMPs contribute to acute inflammation and a small number of studies reports on an MMP-Cx43 link. Here, we build further on these reports and present a novel hypothesis that describes proteolytic cleavage of the Cx43 C-terminal domain by MMPs and explores possibilities of how such cleavage events may affect Cx43 channel function. Finally, we set out how aberrant channel function resulting from cleavage can contribute to the acute inflammatory response during tissue injury. PMID:26424967

  10. Structural characterization of zinc-bound Zmp1, a zinc-dependent metalloprotease secreted by Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Jeffrey T; Martinelli, Manuele; Cantini, Francesca; Castagnetti, Andrea; Leuzzi, Rosanna; Banci, Lucia; Scarselli, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Proteases are commonly secreted by microorganisms. In some pathogens, they can play a series of functional roles during infection, including maturation of cell surface or extracellular virulence factors, interference with host cell signaling, massive host tissue destruction, and dissolution of infection-limiting clots through degradation of the host proteins devoted to the coagulation cascade. We previously reported the identification and characterization of Zmp1, a zinc-dependent metalloprotease secreted by Clostridium difficile, demonstrated that Zmp1 is able to degrade fibrinogen in vitro, and identified two residues necessary to the catalytic activity. In the present work, we solved the solution structure of Zmp1 by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and compared it with the recently solved X-ray structures of substrate-bound and substrate-free Zmp1, highlighting similarities and differences. We also combined the structural characterization to biochemical assays and site-directed mutagenesis, to provide new insights into the catalytic site and on the residues responsible for substrate specificity. The Zmp1 structure showed similarity to the catalytic domain of Anthrax Lethal Factor of Bacillus anthracis. Analogies and differences in the catalytic and in the substrate-binding sites of the two proteins are discussed. PMID:26711661

  11. Functional Characterization of Anopheles Matrix Metalloprotease 1 Reveals Its Agonistic Role during Sporogonic Development of Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Sidén-Kiamos, I.; Loukeris, Thanasis G.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to invade tissues is a unique characteristic of the malaria stages that develop/differentiate within the mosquitoes (ookinetes and sporozoites). On the other hand, tissue invasion by many pathogens has often been associated with increased matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity in the invaded tissues. By employing cell biology and reverse genetics, we studied the expression and explored putative functions of one of the three MMPs encoded in the genome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, namely, the Anopheles gambiae MMP1 (AgMMP1) gene, during the processes of blood digestion, midgut epithelium invasion by Plasmodium ookinetes, and oocyst development. We show that AgMMP1 exists in two alternative isoforms resulting from alternative splicing; one secreted (S-MMP1) and associated with hemocytes, and one membrane type (MT-MMP1) enriched in the cell attachment sites of the midgut epithelium. MT-MMP1 showed a remarkable response to ookinete midgut invasion manifested by increased expression, enhanced zymogen maturation, and subcellular redistribution, all indicative of an implication in the midgut epithelial healing that accompanies ookinete invasion. Importantly, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of the AgMMP1 gene revealed a postinvasion protective function of AgMMP1 during oocyst development. The combined results link for the first time an MMP with vector competence and mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. PMID:25183733

  12. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Imaging and Biodistribution of Aptamers Targeting the Human Matrix MetalloProtease-9 in Melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Kryza, David; Debordeaux, Frédéric; Azéma, Laurent; Hassan, Aref; Paurelle, Olivier; Schulz, Jürgen; Savona-Baron, Catherine; Charignon, Elsa; Bonazza, Pauline; Taleb, Jacqueline; Fernandez, Philippe; Janier, Marc; Toulmé, Jean Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The human Matrix MetalloProtease-9 (hMMP-9) is overexpressed in tumors where it promotes the release of cancer cells thus contributing to tumor metastasis. We raised aptamers against hMMP-9, which constitutes a validated marker of malignant tumors, in order to design probes for imaging tumors in human beings. A chemically modified RNA aptamer (F3B), fully resistant to nucleases was previously described. This compound was subsequently used for the preparation of F3B-Cy5, F3B-S-acetylmercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG) and F3B-DOTA. The binding properties of these derivatives were determined by surface plasmon resonance and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Optical fluorescence imaging confirmed the binding to hMMP-9 in A375 melanoma bearing mice. Quantitative biodistribution studies were performed at 30 min, 1h and 2 h post injection of 99mTc-MAG-aptamer and 111In-DOTA-F3B. 99mTc radiolabeled aptamer specifically detected hMMP-9 in A375 melanoma tumors but accumulation in digestive tract was very high. Following i.v. injection of 111In-DOTA-F3B, high level of radioactivity was observed in kidneys and bladder but digestive tract uptake was very limited. Tumor uptake was significantly (student t test, p<0.05) higher for 111In-DOTA-F3B with 2.0%ID/g than for the 111In-DOTA-control oligonucleotide (0.7%ID/g) with tumor to muscle ratio of 4.0. Such difference in tumor accumulation has been confirmed by ex vivo scintigraphic images performed at 1h post injection and by autoradiography, which revealed the overexpression of hMMP-9 in sections of human melanomas. These results demonstrate that F3B aptamer is of interest for detecting hMMP-9 in melanoma tumor. PMID:26901393

  13. Decreased metalloprotease 9 induction, cardiac fibrosis, and higher autophagy after pressure overload in mice lacking the transcriptional regulator p8

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Serban P.; Aronovitz, Mark J.; Iovanna, Juan L.; Patten, Richard D.; Kyriakis, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Left ventricular remodeling, including the deposition of excess extracellular matrix, is key to the pathogenesis of heart failure. The stress-inducible transcriptional regulator p8 is increased in failing human hearts and is required both for agonist-stimulated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and for cardiac fibroblasts matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP9) induction. In the heart, upregulation of autophagy is an adaptive response to stress and plays a causative role in cardiomyopathies. We have recently shown that p8 ablation in cardiac cells upregulates autophagy and that, in vivo, loss of p8 results in a decrease of cardiac function. Here we investigated the effects of p8 genetic deletion in mediating adverse myocardial remodeling. Unstressed p8−/− mouse hearts manifested complex alterations in the expression of fibrosis markers. In addition, these mice displayed elevated autophagy and apoptosis compared with p8+/+ mice. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced left ventricular p8 expression in p8+/+ mice. Pressure overload caused left ventricular remodeling in both genotypes, however, p8−/− mice showed less cardiac fibrosis induction. Consistent with this, although MMP9 induction was attenuated in the p8−/− mice, induction of MMP2 and MMP3 were strikingly upregulated while TIMP2 was downregulated. Left ventricular autophagy increased after TAC and was significantly higher in the p8−/− mice. Thus p8-deletion results in reduced collagen fibrosis after TAC, but in turn, is associated with a detrimental higher increase in autophagy. These findings suggest a role for p8 in regulating in vivo key signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure. PMID:21775709

  14. Quorum sensing-dependent metalloprotease VvpE is important in the virulence of Vibrio vulnificus to invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ha, Changwan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Lee, Mi-Nan; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a Gram-negative bacterium, is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for fatal septicemia caused by contaminated sea foods in eastern Asia. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent gene regulation mechanism that controls the expression of many virulence genes in various bacteria and V. vulnificus has been also suggested to express their virulence genes through the QS system. In this study, we investigated the role of QS system and QS-regulated exoproteases in the virulence of V. vulnificus using several invertebrate host models, Tenebrio molitor, an insect, Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode, and brine shrimp (Artemia), an aquatic crustacean. When the culture supernatant of smcR (major QS regulator of V. vulnificus) mutant was injected to T. molitor larvae, it failed to induce the melanization of T. molitor larvae, while the culture supernatant of luxO (upstream negative regulator of smcR) mutant more strongly induced the melanization than wild type. These results demonstrated that QS system of V. vulnificus is crucial for virulence to T. molitor larvae. Among several QS-dependently expressed exoproteases of V. vulnificus, vvpE encoding a metalloprotease was mainly responsible for the melanization of T. molitor larvae, in that the culture supernatant of vvpE mutant failed to induce the melanization. This result was confirmed using the C. elegans and Artemia salina model systems, in which the vvpE mutant strains were attenuated in killing C. elegans and A. salina, compared with wild type, indicating that VvpE is important in the infection of V. vulnificus. In conclusion, we suggest that QS system and a QS-dependent exoprotease, VvpE are crucial for the V. vulnificus virulence to invertebrates. PMID:24769338

  15. Canonical Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Regulates Disintegrin Metalloprotease Expression in Experimental Renal Fibrosis via miR-29

    PubMed Central

    Ramdas, Vasudev; McBride, Martin; Denby, Laura; Baker, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis pathophysiology is critically regulated by Smad 2– and Smad 3–mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Disintegrin metalloproteases (Adam) can manipulate the signaling environment, however, the role and regulation of ADAMs in renal fibrosis remain unclear. TGF-β stimulation of renal cells results in a significant up-regulation of Adams 10, 17, 12, and 19. The selective Smad2/3 inhibitor SB 525334 reversed these TGF-β–induced changes. In vivo, using ureteral obstruction to model renal fibrosis, we observed increased Adams gene expression that was blocked by oral administration of SB 525334. Similar increases in Adam gene expression also occurred in preclinical models of hypertension-induced renal damage and glomerulonephritis. miRNAs are a recently discovered second level of regulation of gene expression. Analysis of 3′ untranslated regions of Adam12 and Adam19 mRNAs showed multiple binding sites for miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c. We show that miR-29 family expression is decreased after unilateral ureter obstruction and this significant decrease in miR-29 family expression was observed consistently in preclinical models of renal dysfunction and correlated with an increase in Adam12 and Adam19 expression. Exogenous overexpression of the miR-29 family blocked TGF-β–mediated up-regulation of Adam12 and Adam19 gene expression. This study shows that Adams are involved in renal fibrosis and are regulated by canonical TGF-β signaling and miR-29. Therefore, both Adams and the miR-29 family represent therapeutic targets for renal fibrosis. PMID:24103556

  16. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Imaging and Biodistribution of Aptamers Targeting the Human Matrix MetalloProtease-9 in Melanomas.

    PubMed

    Kryza, David; Debordeaux, Frédéric; Azéma, Laurent; Hassan, Aref; Paurelle, Olivier; Schulz, Jürgen; Savona-Baron, Catherine; Charignon, Elsa; Bonazza, Pauline; Taleb, Jacqueline; Fernandez, Philippe; Janier, Marc; Toulmé, Jean Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The human Matrix MetalloProtease-9 (hMMP-9) is overexpressed in tumors where it promotes the release of cancer cells thus contributing to tumor metastasis. We raised aptamers against hMMP-9, which constitutes a validated marker of malignant tumors, in order to design probes for imaging tumors in human beings. A chemically modified RNA aptamer (F3B), fully resistant to nucleases was previously described. This compound was subsequently used for the preparation of F3B-Cy5, F3B-S-acetylmercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG) and F3B-DOTA. The binding properties of these derivatives were determined by surface plasmon resonance and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Optical fluorescence imaging confirmed the binding to hMMP-9 in A375 melanoma bearing mice. Quantitative biodistribution studies were performed at 30 min, 1h and 2 h post injection of 99mTc-MAG-aptamer and 111In-DOTA-F3B. 99mTc radiolabeled aptamer specifically detected hMMP-9 in A375 melanoma tumors but accumulation in digestive tract was very high. Following i.v. injection of 111In-DOTA-F3B, high level of radioactivity was observed in kidneys and bladder but digestive tract uptake was very limited. Tumor uptake was significantly (student t test, p<0.05) higher for 111In-DOTA-F3B with 2.0%ID/g than for the 111In-DOTA-control oligonucleotide (0.7%ID/g) with tumor to muscle ratio of 4.0. Such difference in tumor accumulation has been confirmed by ex vivo scintigraphic images performed at 1h post injection and by autoradiography, which revealed the overexpression of hMMP-9 in sections of human melanomas. These results demonstrate that F3B aptamer is of interest for detecting hMMP-9 in melanoma tumor. PMID:26901393

  17. Apigenin attenuates acute myocardial infarction of rats via the inhibitions of matrix metalloprotease-9 and inflammatory reactions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong; Hao, Jie; Liu, Fan; Lu, Jingchao; Yang, Xiuchun

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the myocardial necrosis caused by coronary artery acute and persistent ischemia and hypoxia. Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in a series of process of occurrence and development of AMI. Inflammatory reaction plays the key role in all kinds of damage factors in AMI. Apigenin (API) has effectively restrained the activity of MMP-9, anti-inflammatory and hepatic fat oxidizing properties. API significantly improved AMI of rats through inhibiting MMP-9 and inflammatory reactions in a few recent studies. Our investigation detected the infarct size of AMI rats, casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) activities in AMI rats were also analyzed with commercial kits. Additionally, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels of whole bloods of AMI rats were also detected using commercial kits. Next, MMP-9 protein of cardiac in AMI rats was measured with gelatin zymography assays. Finally, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in AMI rats were analyzed with commercial kits. In the present study, our work indicated API might significantly reduce the infarction size of AMI rat. It was shown that the treatment of API could decrease the expression of MMP-9 level and reduce the activities of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in AMI rats. Next, API treatment could reduce caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities and decrease cellular apoptosis of AMI rats. Our findings concluded that API ameliorates acute myocardial infarction of rats via inhibiting MMP-9 and inflammatory reactions. PMID:26309539

  18. Novel 19F Activatable Probe for the Detection of Matrix Metalloprotease-2 Activity by MRI/MRS

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have been found to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumor tissues. Noninvasive visualization of MMP activity may play an important role in the diagnosis of MMP associated diseases. Here we report the design and synthesis of a set of fluorine-19 dendron-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes for real-time imaging of MMP-2 activity. The probes have the following features: (a) symmetrical fluorine atoms; (b) the number of fluorine atoms can be increased through facile chemical modification; (c) readily accessible peptide sequence as the MMP-2 substrate; (d) activatable 19F signal (off/on mode) via paramagnetic metal ion incorporation. Following optimization for water solubility, one of the probes was selected to evaluate MMP-2 activity by 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Our results showed that the fluorine signal increased by 8.5-fold in the presence of MMP-2. The specific cleavage site was verified by mass spectrometry. The selected probe was further applied to detect secreted MMP-2 activity of living SCC7 squamous cell carcinoma cells. The fluorine signal was increased by 4.8-fold by MRS analysis after 24 h incubation with SCC7 cells. This type of fluorine probe can be applied to evaluate other enzyme activities by simply tuning the substrate structures. This symmetrical fluorine dendron-based probe design extends the scope of the existing 19F MRI agents and provides a simple but robust method for real-time 19F MRI application. PMID:25271556

  19. Human and Murine Interleukin 23 Receptors Are Novel Substrates for A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases ADAM10 and ADAM17.

    PubMed

    Franke, Manuel; Schröder, Jutta; Monhasery, Niloufar; Ackfeld, Theresa; Hummel, Thorben M; Rabe, Björn; Garbers, Christoph; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Floss, Doreen M; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-05-13

    IL-23 (interleukin 23) regulates immune responses against pathogens and plays a major role in the differentiation and maintenance of TH17 cells and the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) complex consists of the unique IL-23R and the common IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1). Differential splicing generates antagonistic soluble IL-23R (sIL-23R) variants, which might limit IL-23-mediated immune responses. Here, ectodomain shedding of human and murine IL-23R was identified as an alternative pathway for the generation of sIL-23R. Importantly, proteolytically released sIL-23R has IL-23 binding activity. Shedding of IL-23R was induced by stimulation with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not by ionomycin. PMA-induced shedding was abrogated by an ADAM (A disintegrin and metalloprotease) 10 and 17 selective inhibitor, but not by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. ADAM17-deficient but not ADAM10-deficient HEK293 cells failed to shed IL-23R after PMA stimulation, demonstrating that ADAM17 but not ADAM10 cleaves the IL-23R. Constitutive shedding was, however, inhibited by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. Using deletions and specific amino acid residue exchanges, we identified critical determinants of ectodomain shedding within the stalk region of the IL-23R. Finally, interaction studies identified domains 1 and 3 of the IL-23R as the main ADAM17 binding sites. In summary, we describe human and murine IL-23R as novel targets for protein ectodomain shedding by ADAM10 and ADAM17. PMID:26961870

  20. Cross-talk between macrophages and smooth muscle cells impairs collagen and metalloprotease synthesis and promotes angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Butoi, E; Gan, A M; Tucureanu, M M; Stan, D; Macarie, R D; Constantinescu, C; Calin, M; Simionescu, M; Manduteanu, I

    2016-07-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis complicated by plaque disruption and thrombosis is a critical event in myocardial infarction and stroke, the major causes of cardiovascular death. In atherogenesis, macrophages (MAC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) are key actors; they synthesize matrix components and numerous factors involved in the process. Here, we design experiments to investigate whether SMC-MAC communication induces changes in ECM protein composition and/or neo-angiogenesis. Cell to cell communication was achieved using trans-well chambers, where SMCs were grown in the upper chamber and differentiated MAC in the bottom chamber for 24 or 72h. We found that cross-talk between MAC and SMC during co-culture: (i) significantly decreased the expression of ECM proteins (collagen I, III, elastin) in SMC; (ii) increased the expression and activity of metalloprotease MMP-9 and expression of collagenase MMP-1, in both MAC and SMC; (iii) augmented the secretion of soluble VEGF in the conditioned media of cell co-culture and VEGF gene expression in both cell types, compared with control cells. Moreover, the conditioned media collected from MAC-SMC co-culture promoted endothelial cell tube formation in Matrigel, signifying an increased angiogenic effect. In addition, the MAC-SMC communication led to an increase in inflammatory IL-1β and TLR-2, which could be responsible for cellular signaling. In conclusion, MAC-SMC communication affects factors and molecules that could alter ECM composition and neo-angiogenesis, features that could directly dictate the progression of atheroma towards the vulnerable plaque. Targeting the MAC-SMC cross-talk may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to slow-down or retard the plaque progression. PMID:27060293

  1. Rare Variants in MME, Encoding Metalloprotease Neprilysin, Are Linked to Late-Onset Autosomal-Dominant Axonal Polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Toegel, Stefan; Schabhüttl, Maria; Weinmann, Daniela; Chiari, Catharina; Bennett, David L H; Beetz, Christian; Klein, Dennis; Andersen, Peter M; Böhme, Ilka; Fink-Puches, Regina; Gonzalez, Michael; Harms, Matthew B; Motley, William; Reilly, Mary M; Renner, Wilfried; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Schlotter-Weigel, Beate; Themistocleous, Andreas C; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Ludolph, Albert C; Wieland, Thomas; Tao, Feifei; Abreu, Lisa; Windhager, Reinhard; Zitzelsberger, Manuela; Strom, Tim M; Walther, Thomas; Scherer, Steven S; Züchner, Stephan; Martini, Rudolf; Senderek, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Axonal polyneuropathies are a frequent cause of progressive disability in the elderly. Common etiologies comprise diabetes mellitus, paraproteinaemia, and inflammatory disorders, but often the underlying causes remain elusive. Late-onset axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT2) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited condition that manifests in the second half of life and is genetically largely unexplained. We assumed age-dependent penetrance of mutations in a so far unknown gene causing late-onset CMT2. We screened 51 index case subjects with late-onset CMT2 for mutations by whole-exome (WES) and Sanger sequencing and subsequently queried WES repositories for further case subjects carrying mutations in the identified candidate gene. We studied nerve pathology and tissue levels and function of the abnormal protein in order to explore consequences of the mutations. Altogether, we observed heterozygous rare loss-of-function and missense mutations in MME encoding the metalloprotease neprilysin in 19 index case subjects diagnosed with axonal polyneuropathies or neurodegenerative conditions involving the peripheral nervous system. MME mutations segregated in an autosomal-dominant fashion with age-related incomplete penetrance and some affected individuals were isolated case subjects. We also found that MME mutations resulted in strongly decreased tissue availability of neprilysin and impaired enzymatic activity. Although neprilysin is known to degrade β-amyloid, we observed no increased amyloid deposition or increased incidence of dementia in individuals with MME mutations. Detection of MME mutations is expected to increase the diagnostic yield in late-onset polyneuropathies, and it will be tempting to explore whether substances that can elevate neprilysin activity could be a rational option for treatment. PMID:27588448

  2. Purification and Characterization of a Psychrophilic, Calcium-Induced, Growth-Phase-Dependent Metalloprotease from the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    PubMed Central

    Secades, P.; Alvarez, B.; Guijarro, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a fish pathogen that commonly affects salmonids. This bacterium produced an extracellular protease with an estimated molecular mass of 55 kDa. This enzyme, designated Fpp1 (F. psychrophilum protease 1), was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the culture supernatant by using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, and size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of its biochemical characteristics, Fpp1 can be included in the group of metalloproteases that have an optimum pH for activity of 6.5 and are inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, or EGTA but not by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. Fpp1 activity was dependent on calcium ions not only for its activity but also for its thermal stability. In addition to calcium, strontium and barium can activate the protein. The enzyme showed typical psychrophilic behavior; it had an activation energy of 5.58 kcal/mol and was more active at temperatures between 25 and 40°C, and its activity decreased rapidly at 45°C. Fpp1 cleaved gelatin, laminin, fibronectin, fibrinogen, collagen type IV, and, to a lesser extent, collagen types I and II. Fpp1 also degraded actin and myosin, basic elements of the fish muscular system. The presence of this enzyme in culture media was specifically dependent on the calcium concentration. Fpp1 production started early in the exponential growth phase and reached a maximum during this period. Addition of calcium during the stationary phase did not induce Fpp1 production at all. Besides calcium and the growth phase, temperature also seems to play a role in production of Fpp1. In this study we found that production of Fpp1 depends on factors such as calcium concentration, growth phase of the culture, and temperature. The combination of these parameters corresponds to the combination in the natural host during outbreaks of disease caused by F. psychrophilum. Consequently, we suggest that environmental host

  3. Molecular cloning and characterisation of in vitro immune response against astacin-like metalloprotease Ace-MTP-2 from Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Bąska, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Krzyżowska, Małgorzata; Długosz, Ewa; Zygner, Wojciech; Górski, Paweł; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-04-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs to the group of parasites commonly known as hookworms, blood-sucking nematodes which infect around 576 million people and hundreds of millions of animals. The interactions between these parasites and host immune systems are complicated and yet to be determined. Hookworm infections are usually long lasting and recurrent, due in part to their ability to synthesize macromolecules capable of modulating the host immune response. The interaction of parasite proteins with host immune systems has been proven, but so far there is no data describing the influence of astacin-like metalloproteases (expressed among different parasitic nematodes) on the human immune system. The cDNA encoding A. ceylanicum metalloprotease 2 (Ace-mtp-2) was cloned using RACE-PCR. Computational analysis was used to examine the immunogenicity and recombinant Ace-MTP-2 was used to investigate its influence on human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages. The Ace-mtp-2 gene encodes an astascin-like metalloprotease, with a theoretical molecular mass of 26.7 kDa. The protease has a putative signal peptide, 11 potential phosphorylation sites, and two disulfide bridges revealed by computational analysis. Maximal expression of Ace-mtp-2 by A. ceylanicum occurs in the adult stage of the parasite, and Western blot indicates the secretory nature of the protease. This suggests the protease is working at the host-parasite interface and would likely be exposed to the hosts immune response. Recombinant protein were expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. Recombinant Ace-MTP-2 amplified the in vitro release of TNFα and induced release of IFNγ by lipopolysaccharide activated THP-1 macrophages. The presence of Ace-MTP-2 in secretory products of the adult parasite and the induction of IFNγ release may suggest an important role for Ace-MTP-2 in host-parasite interactions since IFNγ is suggested to be responsible for the protective immune response against adult hookworms. PMID

  4. Structural and spectroscopic study of reactions between chelating zinc-binding groups and mimics of the matrix metalloproteinase and disintegrin metalloprotease catalytic sites: the coordination chemistry of metalloprotease inhibition.

    PubMed

    He, Hongshan; Puerta, David T; Cohen, Seth M; Rodgers, Kenton R

    2005-10-17

    To understand the coordination chemistry of zinc-binding groups (ZBGs) with catalytic zinc centers in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and disintegrin metalloproteases (ADAMs), we have undertaken a model compound study centered around tris(3,5-methylphenypyrazolyl)hydroboratozinc(II) hydroxide and aqua complexes ([Tp(Ph,Me)ZnOH] and [Tp(Ph,Me)Zn(OH2)]+, respectively, wherein (Tp(Ph,Me))- = hydrotris(3,5-methylphenylpyrazolyl)borate) and the products of their reactions with a class of chelating Schiff's base ligands. The results show that the protic ligands, HL (HL = N-propyl-1-(5-methyl-2-imidazolyl)methanimine (5-Me-4-ImHPr), N-propyl-1-(4-imidazolyl)methanimine (4-ImHPr), and N-propyl-1-(2-imidazolyl)methanimine (2-ImHPr)), react with [Tp(Ph,Me)ZnOH] and give products with the general formula [Tp(Ph,Me)ZnL], whereas reactions with neutral aprotic ligands, L' (L' = N-propyl-1-(1-methyl-2-imidazolyl)methanimine (1-Me-2-ImPr) and N-propyl-1-(2-thiazolyl)methanimine (2-TaPr)), yield the corresponding [Tp(Ph,Me)ZnL]+ complexes. Although the phenol group of N-propyl-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methanimine (2-HOPhPr) is protic, this ligand forms a cationic four-coordinate complex containing an intraligand hydrogen bond. The solid-state structures of these complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and the results showed that the protic ligands form five-membered chelates of the Zn2+ ion. All ligands displace the aqua ligand in [Tp(Ph,Me)Zn(OH2)]+ to yield complexes having 1H NMR spectra consistent with the formation of five membered chelates. The 1H resonance frequencies of the chelating ligands typically shift upfield upon coordination to the zinc center, due to ring current effects from the pendant phenyl groups of the (Tp(Ph,Me))- ligand. Thus, the 1H NMR spectra provide a convenient and sensitive means of tracking the solution reactions by titration. The resulting series of spectra showed that the stabilities of the chelates in solution depend on the

  5. H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable of degrading basement membrane collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, I.E.; Wilhelm, S.M.; Eisen, A.Z.; Marmer, B.L.; Grant, G.A.; Seltzer, J.L.; Kronberger, A.; He, C.; Bauer, E.A.; Goldberg, G.I.

    1988-05-15

    H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. The substrates in their order of preference are: gelatin, type IV collagen, type V collagen, fibronectin, and type VII collagen; but the enzyme does not cleave the interstitial collagens or laminin. This protease is identical to gelatinase isolated from normal human skin explants, normal human skin fibroblasts, and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts. Based on this ability to initiate the degradation of type IV collagen in a pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule, it will be referred to as type IV collagenase. This enzyme is most likely the human analog of type IV collagenase detected in several rodent tumors. Type IV collagenase consists of three domains. Type IV collagenase represents the third member of a newly recognized gene family coding for secreted extracellular matrix metalloproteases, which includes interstitial fibroblast collagenase and stromelysin.

  6. A Natural Bacterial-Derived Product, the Metalloprotease Arazyme, Inhibits Metastatic Murine Melanoma by Inducing MMP-8 Cross-Reactive Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Felipe V.; Ferreira-Guimarães, Carla A.; Paschoalin, Thaysa; Scutti, Jorge A. B.; Melo, Filipe M.; Silva, Luis S.; Melo, Amanda C. L.; Silva, Priscila; Tiago, Manoela; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Juliano, Luiz; Juliano, Maria A.; Carmona, Adriana K.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Rodrigues, Elaine G.

    2014-01-01

    The increased incidence, high rates of mortality and few effective means of treatment of malignant melanoma, stimulate the search for new anti-tumor agents and therapeutic targets to control this deadly metastatic disease. In the present work the antitumor effect of arazyme, a natural bacterial-derived metalloprotease secreted by Serratia proteomaculans, was investigated. Arazyme significantly reduced the number of pulmonary metastatic nodules after intravenous inoculation of B16F10 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. In vitro, the enzyme showed a dose-dependent cytostatic effect in human and murine tumor cells, and this effect was associated to the proteolytic activity of arazyme, reducing the CD44 expression at the cell surface, and also reducing in vitro adhesion and in vitro/in vivo invasion of these cells. Arazyme treatment or immunization induced the production of protease-specific IgG that cross-reacted with melanoma MMP-8. In vitro, this antibody was cytotoxic to tumor cells, an effect increased by complement. In vivo, arazyme-specific IgG inhibited melanoma lung metastasis. We suggest that the antitumor activity of arazyme in a preclinical model may be due to a direct cytostatic activity of the protease in combination with the elicited anti-protease antibody, which cross-reacts with MMP-8 produced by tumor cells. Our results show that the bacterial metalloprotease arazyme is a promising novel antitumor chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:24788523

  7. MALDI-TOF MS and CD Spectral Analysis for Identification and Structure Prediction of a Purified, Novel, Organic Solvent Stable, Fibrinolytic Metalloprotease from Bacillus cereus B80

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rajshree

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict protein function from structure is becoming increasingly important; hence, elucidation and determination of protein structure become the major steps in proteomics. The present study was undertaken for identification of metalloprotease produced by Bacillus cereus B80 and recognition of characteristics that can be industrially exploited. The enzyme was purified in three steps combining precipitation and chromatographic methods resulting in 33.5% recovery with 13.1-fold purification of enzyme which was detected as a single band with a molecular mass of 26 kDa approximately in SDS-PAGE and zymogram. The MALDI-TOF MS showed that the enzyme exhibited 70–93% similarity with zinc metalloproteases from various strains Bacillus sp. specifically from Bacillus cereus group. The sequence alignment revealed the presence of zinc-binding region VVVHEMCHMV in the most conserved C terminus region. Secondary structure of the enzyme was obtained by CD spectra and I-TASSER. The enzyme kinetics revealed a Michaelis constant (Km) of 0.140 μmol/ml and Vmax of 2.11 μmol/min. The application studies showed that the enzyme was able to hydrolyze various proteins with highest affinity towards casein followed by BSA and gelatin. The enzyme exhibited strong fibrinolytic, collagenolytic, and gelatinolytic properties and stability in various organic solvents. PMID:25802851

  8. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and identification of a metalloprotease gene from Listeria monocytogenes that is species specific and physically linked to the listeriolysin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Domann, E; Leimeister-Wächter, M; Goebel, W; Chakraborty, T

    1991-01-01

    The entire nucleotide sequence of an open reading frame located immediately downstream of the listeriolysin gene from a virulent Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a strain was determined. The product of the open reading frame was 510 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 57,400. The deduced amino acid sequence of this open reading frame is highly similar to that of a family of secreted metalloproteases produced by various members of the genus Bacillus, of which thermolysin is the prototype. Immunoblots performed with specific antisera raised against thermolysin from Bacillus stearothermophilus allowed the detection of a 60-kDa polypeptide, corresponding to the pro-form of the protease, in culture supernatants of L. monocytogenes strains. In maxicell experiments, Escherichia coli recombinants harboring this open reading frame also specifically directed production of a 60-kDa protein. Protease activity was low to undetectable in both Listeria strains and E. coli recombinants. This is due to lack of processing of the inactive pro-form of the protease to its mature active form in both species. We have designated this gene mpl for metalloprotease of L. monocytogenes. The gene was present only in pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains, in which it was physically linked to the listeriolysin gene. Images PMID:1898903

  9. Aminopeptidase N1 (EtAPN1), an M1 Metalloprotease of the Apicomplexan Parasite Eimeria tenella, Participates in Parasite Development

    PubMed Central

    Gras, Simon; Byzia, Anna; Gilbert, Florence B.; McGowan, Sheena; Drag, Marcin; Niepceron, Alisson; Lecaille, Fabien; Lalmanach, Gilles; Brossier, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Aminopeptidases N are metalloproteases of the M1 family that have been reported in numerous apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Eimeria. While investigating the potency of aminopeptidases as therapeutic targets against coccidiosis, one of the most important avian diseases caused by the genus Eimeria, we identified and characterized Eimeria tenella aminopeptidase N1 (EtAPN1). Its inhibition by bestatin and amastatin, as well as its reactivation by divalent ions, is typical of zinc-dependent metalloproteases. EtAPN1 shared a similar sequence, three-dimensional structure, and substrate specificity and similar kinetic parameters with A-M1 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfA-M1), a validated target in the treatment of malaria. EtAPN1 is synthesized as a 120-kDa precursor and cleaved into 96-, 68-, and 38-kDa forms during sporulation. Further, immunolocalization assays revealed that, similar to PfA-M1, EtAPN1 is present during the intracellular life cycle stages in both the parasite cytoplasm and the parasite nucleus. The present results support the hypothesis of a conserved role between the two aminopeptidases, and we suggest that EtAPN1 might be a valuable target for anticoccidiosis drugs. PMID:24839124

  10. Growth Rate of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Genetic Polymorphisms of Matrix MetalloProteases-1, -3, and -9.

    PubMed

    Adovasio, Roberto; Calvagna, Cristiano; Sgorlon, Giada; Zamolo, Francesca; Mearelli, Filippo; Biolo, Gianni; Grassi, Gabriele; Fiotti, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Genetic variants of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs)-1, -3, and 9, together with clinical variables, might predict the growth rate (GR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Genotyping of MMP-1 (-1,607 G+/G-), MMP-3 (- 1,171 6A/5A), and MMP-9 microsatellite (13-26 cytosine-adenosine repeats around -90) from peripheral blood was performed in 137 AAA patients with two AAA diameter measurements (at least 3 months to 1 year apart). When the same technique (either ultrasound or computed tomography) was used for the two measurements, yearly GR was estimated and compared with MMP genotype and clinical features by linear and binary logistic regression. Collectively, 36 patients provided 94 observations, with a median GR of 3 mm/year (interquartile range, 0-5.8); GRs in carriers of MMP-1 polymorphism G-/G-, G-/G+, and G+/G+ genotype were 0.3, 3.5, and 4.7mm/year, respectively (p = 0.008). In linear logistic regression, the main determinant of GR was growth arrest (GA, i.e., GR = 0, occurring in 32 observations, 34%). In turn, GA occurred mainly in G-/G- MMP-1 genotype (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-9.7; p = 0.002), while variables accounting for GR > 0 were MMP-1 G + /G+ genotype, intake of any antihypertensive drug, and MMP-3 6A/6A genotype. Carriers of none, one, or two/three of these conditions accounted for a GR of 3, 4, and 9 mm/year, respectively (p = 0.001). MMP-1 (-1,607 G+/-) variant is associated to differential GR in AAA: homozygous G deletion variant shows higher GA prevalence and lower GR, while carriers of G + /G+ MMP-1 genotype, together with intake of antihypertensive drugs, and 6A/6A in MMP-3 present cumulative GR increase. PMID:27231424

  11. A smallest 6 kda metalloprotease, mini-matrilysin, in living world: a revolutionary conserved zinc-dependent proteolytic domain- helix-loop-helix catalytic zinc binding domain (ZBD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Aim of this study is to study the minimum zinc dependent metalloprotease catalytic folding motif, helix B Met loop-helix C, with proteolytic catalytic activities in metzincin super family. The metzincin super family share a catalytic domain consisting of a twisted five-stranded β sheet and three long α helices (A, B and C). The catalytic zinc is at the bottom of the cleft and is ligated by three His residues in the consensus sequence motif, HEXXHXXGXXH, which is located in helix B and part of the adjacent Met turn region. An interesting question is - what is the minimum portion of the enzyme that still possesses catalytic and inhibitor recognition?” Methods We have expressed a 60-residue truncated form of matrilysin which retains only the helix B-Met turn-helix C region and deletes helix A and the five-stranded β sheet which form the upper portion of the active cleft. This is only 1/4 of the full catalytic domain. The E. coli derived 6 kDa MMP-7 ZBD fragments were purified and refolded. The proteolytic activities were analyzed by Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay and CM-transferrin zymography analysis. SC44463, BB94 and Phosphoramidon were computationally docked into the 3day structure of the human MMP7 ZBD and TAD and thermolysin using the docking program GOLD. Results This minimal 6 kDa matrilysin has been refolded and shown to have proteolytic activity in the Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay. Triton X-100 and heparin are important factors in the refolding environment for this mini-enzyme matrilysin. This minienzyme has the proteolytic activity towards peptide substrate, but the hexamer and octamer of the mini MMP-7 complex demonstrates the CM-transferrin proteolytic activities in zymographic analysis. Peptide digestion is inhibited by SC44463, specific MMP7 inhibitors, but not phosphorimadon. Interestingly, the mini MMP-7 can be processed by autolysis and producing ~ 6 ~ 7 kDa fragments. Thus

  12. Moojenactivase, a novel pro-coagulant PIIId metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, activates coagulation factors II and X and induces tissue factor up-regulation in leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Sartim, Marco A; Costa, Tassia R; Laure, Helen J; Espíndola, Milena S; Frantz, Fabiani G; Sorgi, Carlos A; Cintra, Adélia C O; Arantes, Eliane C; Faccioli, Lucia H; Rosa, José C; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-05-01

    Coagulopathies following snakebite are triggered by pro-coagulant venom toxins, in which metalloproteases play a major role in envenomation-induced coagulation disorders by acting on coagulation cascade, platelet function and fibrinolysis. Considering this relevance, here we describe the isolation and biochemical characterization of moojenactivase (MooA), a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, and investigate its involvement in hemostasis in vitro. MooA is a glycoprotein of 85,746.22 Da, member of the PIIId group of snake venom metalloproteases, composed of three linked disulfide-bonded chains: an N-glycosylated heavy chain, and two light chains. The venom protease induced human plasma clotting in vitro by activating on both blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and X, which in turn generated α-thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. Additionally, MooA induced expression of tissue factor (TF) on the membrane surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which led these cells to adopt pro-coagulant characteristics. MooA was also shown to be involved with production of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1, suggesting an association between MooA pro-inflammatory stimulation of PBMC and TF up-regulation. We also observed aggregation of washed platelets when in presence of MooA; however, the protease had no effect on fibrinolysis. Our findings show that MooA is a novel hemostatically active metalloprotease, which may lead to the development of coagulopathies during B. moojeni envenomation. Moreover, the metalloprotease may contribute to the development of new diagnostic tools and pharmacological approaches applied to hemostatic disorders. PMID:26026608

  13. A Novel Membrane-associated Metalloprotease, Ste24p, Is Required for the First Step of NH2-terminal Processing of the Yeast a-Factor Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura-Kamada, Konomi; Nouvet, Franklin J.; Michaelis, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Many secreted bioactive signaling molecules, including the yeast mating pheromones a-factor and α-factor, are initially synthesized as precursors requiring multiple intracellular processing enzymes to generate their mature forms. To identify new gene products involved in the biogenesis of a-factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we carried out a screen for MATa-specific, mating-defective mutants. We have identified a new mutant, ste24, in addition to previously known sterile mutants. During its biogenesis in a wild-type strain, the a-factor precursor undergoes a series of COOH-terminal CAAX modifications, two sequential NH2-terminal cleavage events, and export from the cell. Identification of the a-factor biosynthetic intermediate that accumulates in the ste24 mutant revealed that STE24 is required for the first NH2-terminal proteolytic processing event within the a-factor precursor, which takes place after COOH-terminal CAAX modification is complete. The STE24 gene product contains multiple predicted membrane spans, a zinc metalloprotease motif (HEXXH), and a COOH-terminal ER retrieval signal (KKXX). The HEXXH protease motif is critical for STE24 activity, since STE24 fails to function when conserved residues within this motif are mutated. The identification of Ste24p homologues in a diverse group of organisms, including Escherichia coli, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Haemophilus influenzae, and Homo sapiens, indicates that Ste24p has been highly conserved throughout evolution. Ste24p and the proteins related to it define a new subfamily of proteins that are likely to function as intracellular, membrane-associated zinc metalloproteases. PMID:9015299

  14. VanT, a Homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, Regulates Serine, Metalloprotease, Pigment, and Biofilm Production in Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Croxatto, Antony; Chalker, Victoria J.; Lauritz, Johan; Jass, Jana; Hardman, Andrea; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel; Milton, Debra L.

    2002-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum possesses at least two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing circuits, one of which is related to the luxMN system of Vibrio harveyi. In this study, we have cloned an additional gene of this circuit, vanT, encoding a V. harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional regulator. A V. anguillarum ΔvanT null mutation resulted in a significant decrease in total protease activity due to loss of expression of the metalloprotease EmpA, but no changes in either AHL production or virulence. Additional genes positively regulated by VanT were identified from a plasmid-based gene library fused to a promoterless lacZ. Three lacZ fusions (serA::lacZ, hpdA-hgdA::lacZ, and sat-vps73::lacZ) were identified which exhibited decreased expression in the ΔvanT strain. SerA is similar to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases and catalyzes the first step in the serine-glycine biosynthesis pathway. HgdA has identity with homogentisate dioxygenases, and HpdA is homologous to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenases (HPPDs) involved in pigment production. V. anguillarum strains require an active VanT to produce high levels of an l-tyrosine-induced brown color via HPPD, suggesting that VanT controls pigment production. Vps73 and Sat are related to Vibrio cholerae proteins encoded within a DNA locus required for biofilm formation. A V. anguillarum ΔvanT mutant and a mutant carrying a polar mutation in the sat-vps73 DNA locus were shown to produce defective biofilms. Hence, a new member of the V. harveyi LuxR transcriptional activator family has been characterized in V. anguillarum that positively regulates serine, metalloprotease, pigment, and biofilm production. PMID:11872713

  15. RNA-Seq-Based Metatranscriptomic and Microscopic Investigation Reveals Novel Metalloproteases of Neobodo sp. as Potential Virulence Factors for Soft Tunic Syndrome in Halocynthia roretzi

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ho Bin; Kim, Young Kyu; del Castillo, Carmelo S.; Nho, Seong Won; Cha, In Seok; Park, Seong Bin; Ha, Mi Ae; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Hong, Sung Jong; Aoki, Takashi; Jung, Tae Sung

    2012-01-01

    Bodonids and trypanosomatids are derived from a common ancestor with the bodonids being a more primitive lineage. The Neobodonida, one of the three clades of bodonids, can be free-living, commensal or parasitic. Despite the ecological and evolutionary significance of these organisms, however, many of their biological and pathological features are currently unknown. Here, we employed metatranscriptomics using RNA-seq technology combined with field-emission microscopy to reveal the virulence factors of a recently described genus of Neobodonida that is considered to be responsible for ascidian soft tunic syndrome (AsSTS), but whose pathogenesis is unclear. Our microscopic observation of infected tunic tissues suggested putative virulence factors, enabling us to extract novel candidate transcripts; these included cysteine proteases of the families C1 and C2, serine proteases of S51 and S9 families, and metalloproteases grouped into families M1, M3, M8, M14, M16, M17, M24, M41, and M49. Protease activity/inhibition assays and the estimation of expression levels within gene clusters allowed us to identify metalloprotease-like enzymes as potential virulence attributes for AsSTS. Furthermore, a multimarker-based phylogenetic analysis using 1,184 concatenated amino acid sequences clarified the order Neobodo sp. In sum, we herein used metatranscriptomics to elucidate the in situ expression profiles of uncharacterized putative transcripts of Neobodo sp., combined these results with microscopic observation to select candidate genes relevant to pathogenesis, and used empirical screening to define important virulence factors. PMID:23300657

  16. Interaction between TNF and BmooMP-Alpha-I, a Zinc Metalloprotease Derived from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom, Promotes Direct Proteolysis of This Cytokine: Molecular Modeling and Docking at a Glance.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maraisa Cristina; Lopes Silva, Tamires; Silva, Murilo Vieira; Mota, Caroline Martins; Santiago, Fernanda Maria; Fonseca, Kelly Cortes; Oliveira, Fábio; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Mineo, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major cytokine in inflammatory processes and its deregulation plays a pivotal role in several diseases. Here, we report that a zinc metalloprotease extracted from Bothrops moojeni venom (BmooMP-alpha-I) inhibits TNF directly by promoting its degradation. This inhibition was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo assays, using known TLR ligands. These findings are supported by molecular docking results, which reveal interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF. The major cluster of interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF was confirmed by the structural alignment presenting Ligand Root Mean Square Deviation LRMS = 1.05 Å and Interactive Root Mean Square Deviation IRMS = 1.01 Å, this result being compatible with an accurate complex. Additionally, we demonstrated that the effect of this metalloprotease on TNF is independent of cell cytotoxicity and it does not affect other TLR-triggered cytokines, such as IL-12. Together, these results indicate that this zinc metalloprotease is a potential tool to be further investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders involving TNF deregulation. PMID:27447669

  17. Interaction between TNF and BmooMP-Alpha-I, a Zinc Metalloprotease Derived from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom, Promotes Direct Proteolysis of This Cytokine: Molecular Modeling and Docking at a Glance

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maraisa Cristina; Lopes Silva, Tamires; Silva, Murilo Vieira; Mota, Caroline Martins; Santiago, Fernanda Maria; Fonseca, Kelly Cortes; Oliveira, Fábio; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Mineo, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major cytokine in inflammatory processes and its deregulation plays a pivotal role in several diseases. Here, we report that a zinc metalloprotease extracted from Bothrops moojeni venom (BmooMP-alpha-I) inhibits TNF directly by promoting its degradation. This inhibition was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo assays, using known TLR ligands. These findings are supported by molecular docking results, which reveal interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF. The major cluster of interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF was confirmed by the structural alignment presenting Ligand Root Mean Square Deviation LRMS = 1.05 Å and Interactive Root Mean Square Deviation IRMS = 1.01 Å, this result being compatible with an accurate complex. Additionally, we demonstrated that the effect of this metalloprotease on TNF is independent of cell cytotoxicity and it does not affect other TLR-triggered cytokines, such as IL-12. Together, these results indicate that this zinc metalloprotease is a potential tool to be further investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders involving TNF deregulation. PMID:27447669

  18. A phage display selected 7-mer peptide inhibitor of the Tannerella forsythia metalloprotease-like enzyme Karilysin can be truncated to Ser-Trp-Phe-Pro.

    PubMed

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Sørensen, Grete; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Potempa, Jan; Riise, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative bacteria, which is strongly associated with the development of periodontal disease. Karilysin is a newly identified metalloprotease-like enzyme, that is secreted from T. forsythia. Karilysin modulates the host immune response and is therefore considered a likely drug target. In this study peptides were selected towards the catalytic domain from Karilysin (Kly18) by phage display. The peptides were linear with low micromolar binding affinities. The two best binders (peptide14 and peptide15), shared the consensus sequence XWFPXXXGGG. A peptide15 fusion with Maltose Binding protein (MBP) was produced with peptide15 fused to the N-terminus of MBP. The peptide15-MBP was expressed in E. coli and the purified fusion-protein was used to verify Kly18 specific binding. Chemically synthesised peptide15 (SWFPLRSGGG) could inhibit the enzymatic activity of both Kly18 and intact Karilysin (Kly48). Furthermore, peptide15 could slow down the autoprocessing of intact Kly48 to Kly18. The WFP motif was important for inhibition and a truncation study further demonstrated that the N-terminal serine was also essential for Kly18 inhibition. The SWFP peptide had a Ki value in the low micromolar range, which was similar to the intact peptide15. In conclusion SWFP is the first reported inhibitor of Karilysin and can be used as a valuable tool in structure-function studies of Karilysin. PMID:23119051

  19. 2-Photon Characterization of Optical Proteolytic Beacons for Imaging Changes in Matrix-Metalloprotease Activity in a Mouse Model of Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Haskett, Darren G.; Maestas, David; Howerton, Stephen J.; Smith, Tyler; Ardila, D. Catalina; Doetschman, Tom; Utzinger, Urs; McGrath, Dominic; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a multifactorial disease that is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Matrix-metalloproteases (MMPs) are part of the disease process, however, assessing their role in disease initiation and progression has been difficult and animal models have become essential. Combining Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) proteolytic beacons activated in the presence of MMPs with 2-photon microscopy allows for a novel method of evaluating MMP activity within the extracellular matrix (ECM). Single and 2-photon spectra for proteolytic beacons were determined in vitro. Ex vivo experiments using the apolipoprotein E knockout angiotensin II-infused mouse model of aneurysm imaged ECM architecture simultaneously with the MMP-activated FRET beacons. 2-photon spectra of the two-color proteolytic beacons showed peaks for the individual fluorophores that enable imaging of MMP activity through proteolytic cleavage. Ex vivo imaging of the beacons within the ECM revealed both microstructure and MMP activity. 2-photon imaging of the beacons in aneurysmal tissue showed an increase in proteolytic cleavage within the ECM (p < 0.001), thus indicating an increase in MMP activity. Our data suggest that FRET-based proteolytic beacons show promise in assessing MMP activity within the ECM and will therefore allow future studies to identify the heterogeneous distribution of simultaneous ECM remodeling and protease activity in aneurysmal disease. PMID:26903264

  20. Angiotensin II induces secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and a tissue metalloprotease inhibitor-related protein from rat brain astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.A. Jr.; Shiverick, K.T.; Ogilvie, S.; Buhi, W.C.; Raizada, M.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The present study investigates angiotensin (Ang) II effects on secretory protein synthesis in brain astrocytes cultured from neonatal and 21-day-old rats. Ang II-induced changes in the de novo synthesis of (35S)methionine-labeled secretory proteins were visualized using two-dimensional NaDodSO4/PAGE. Astrocytes from 21-day-old rat brain possess specific high-affinity receptors for Ang II. These cells express two Ang II-induced secretory proteins with Mr 55,000 (AISP-55K) and Mr 30,000 (AISP-30K), which were time- and dose-dependent (EC50, 1 nM). (Sar1, Ile8)Ang II (where Sar is sarcosine) inhibited Ang II-induced secretion of AISP-55K but not AISP-30K. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicates that AISP-55K is identical to rat plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, whereas AISP-30K exhibits 72-81% identity to three closely related proteins: human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases, a rat phorbol ester-induced protein, and the murine growth-responsive protein 16C8. Immunofluorescent staining with rat plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 antibody was induced in the majority of cells in culture after Ang II treatment of astrocytes from 21-day-old rat brains. Absence of this response to Ang II in astrocytes from neonatal rat brain provides evidence that this action of Ang II on astrocytes is developmentally regulated.

  1. A Phage Display Selected 7-mer Peptide Inhibitor of the Tannerella forsythia Metalloprotease-Like Enzyme Karilysin can be Truncated to Ser-Trp-Phe-Pro

    PubMed Central

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Sørensen, Grete; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Potempa, Jan; Riise, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative bacteria, which is strongly associated with the development of periodontal disease. Karilysin is a newly identified metalloprotease-like enzyme, that is secreted from T. forsythia. Karilysin modulates the host immune response and is therefore considered a likely drug target. In this study peptides were selected towards the catalytic domain from Karilysin (Kly18) by phage display. The peptides were linear with low micromolar binding affinities. The two best binders (peptide14 and peptide15), shared the consensus sequence XWFPXXXGGG. A peptide15 fusion with Maltose Binding protein (MBP) was produced with peptide15 fused to the N-terminus of MBP. The peptide15-MBP was expressed in E. coli and the purified fusion-protein was used to verify Kly18 specific binding. Chemically synthesised peptide15 (SWFPLRSGGG) could inhibit the enzymatic activity of both Kly18 and intact Karilysin (Kly48). Furthermore, peptide15 could slow down the autoprocessing of intact Kly48 to Kly18. The WFP motif was important for inhibition and a truncation study further demonstrated that the N-terminal serine was also essential for Kly18 inhibition. The SWFP peptide had a Ki value in the low micromolar range, which was similar to the intact peptide15. In conclusion SWFP is the first reported inhibitor of Karilysin and can be used as a valuable tool in structure-function studies of Karilysin. PMID:23119051

  2. Expression of the Cydia pomonella granulovirus matrix metalloprotease enhances Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus virulence and can partially substitute for viral cathepsin

    PubMed Central

    Ishimwe, Egide; Hodgson, Jeffrey J.; Passarelli, A. Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The Cydia pomonella granulovirus open reading frame 46 (CpGV-ORF46) contains predicted domains found in matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. We showed that CpGV-MMP was active in vitro. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expressing CpGV-ORF46 replicated similarly to a control virus lacking CpGV-ORF46 in cultured cells. The effects of AcMNPV expressing CpGV-MMP on virus infection in cultured cells and Trichoplusia ni larvae in the presence or absence of other viral degradative enzymes, cathepsin and chitinase, were evaluated. In the absence of cathepsin and chitinase or cathepsin alone, larval time of death was significantly delayed. This delay was compensated by the expression of CpGV-MMP. CpGV-MMP was also able to promote larvae melanization in the absence of cathepsin and chitinase. In addition, CpGV-MMP partially substituted for cathepsin in larvae liquefaction when chitinase, which is usually retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, was engineered to be secreted. PMID:25795312

  3. Knock out of the BASIGIN/CD147 chaperone of lactate/H+ symporters disproves its pro-tumour action via extracellular matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) induction.

    PubMed

    Marchiq, Ibtissam; Albrengues, Jean; Granja, Sara; Gaggioli, Cédric; Pouysségur, Jacques; Simon, Marie-Pierre

    2015-09-22

    BASIGIN/CD147/EMMPRIN is a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein strongly expressed in tumours. BASIGIN controls tumour metabolism, particularly glycolysis by facilitating lactic acid export through the two monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and hypoxia-inducible MCT4. However, before being recognized as a co-carrier of MCTs, BASIGIN was described as an inducer of extracellular matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). Early on, a model emerged in which, tumour cells use the extracellular domain of BASIGIN to recognize and stimulate neighbouring fibroblasts to produce MMPs. However, this model has remained hypothetical since a direct link between BASIGIN and MMPs production has not yet been clearly established. To validate the BASIGIN/MMP hypothesis, we developed BASIGIN knockouts in three human tumour cell lines derived from glioma, colon, and lung adenocarcinoma. By using co-culture experiments of either human or mouse fibroblasts and tumour cell lines we showed, contrary to what has been abundantly published, that the disruption of BASIGIN in tumour cells and in MEFs has no action on the production of MMPs. Our findings do not support the notion that the pro-tumoural action of BASIGIN is mediated via induction of MMPs. Therefore, we propose that to date, the strongest pro-tumoural action of BASIGIN is mediated through the control of fermentative glycolysis. PMID:26284589

  4. Linking Temporal Changes in Bacterial Community Structures with the Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Neutral Metalloprotease Genes in the Sediments of a Hypereutrophic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Shun; Yamamura, Shigeki; Imai, Akio; Satou, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We investigated spatial and temporal variations in bacterial community structures as well as the presence of three functional proteolytic enzyme genes in the sediments of a hypereutrophic freshwater lake in order to acquire an insight into dynamic links between bacterial community structures and proteolytic functions. Bacterial communities determined from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries markedly changed bimonthly, rather than vertically in the sediment cores. The phylum Firmicutes dominated in the 4–6 cm deep sediment layer sample after August in 2007, and this correlated with increases in interstitial ammonium concentrations (p < 0.01). The Firmicutes clones were mostly composed of the genus Bacillus. npr genes encoding neutral metalloprotease, an extracellular protease gene, were detected after the phylum Firmicutes became dominant. The deduced Npr protein sequences from the retrieved npr genes also showed that most of the Npr sequences used in this study were closely related to those of the genus Bacillus, with similarities ranging from 61% to 100%. Synchronous temporal occurrences of the 16S rRNA gene and Npr sequences, both from the genus Bacillus, were positively associated with increases in interstitial ammonium concentrations, which may imply that proteolysis by Npr from the genus Bacillus may contribute to the marked increases observed in ammonium concentrations in the sediments. Our results suggest that sedimentary bacteria may play an important role in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle of freshwater lakes. PMID:25130992

  5. Self-cleavage of Human CLCA1 Protein by a Novel Internal Metalloprotease Domain Controls Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Activation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Randolph, David T.; Scheaffer, Suzanne M.; Roswit, William T.; Alevy, Yael G.; Patel, Anand C.; Heier, Richard F.; Romero, Arthur G.; Nichols, Colin G.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Tom J.

    2012-01-01

    The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. Despite relevance to homeostasis and disease, the mechanism of CLCA1 function remains largely undefined. We address this void by showing that CLCA proteins contain a consensus proteolytic cleavage site recognized by a novel zincin metalloprotease domain located within the N terminus of CLCA itself. CLCA1 mutations that inhibit self-cleavage prevent activation of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)-mediated chloride transport. CaCC activation requires cleavage to unmask the N-terminal fragment of CLCA1, which can independently gate CaCCs. Gating of CaCCs mediated by CLCA1 does not appear to involve proteolytic cleavage of the channel because a mutant N-terminal fragment deficient in proteolytic activity is able to induce currents comparable with that of the native fragment. These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface. PMID:23112050

  6. Changes in matrix metalloprotease activity and progranulin levels may contribute to the pathophysiological function of mutant leucine-rich repeat kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Caesar, Mareike; Felk, Sandra; Zach, Susanne; Brønstad, Gunnar; Aasly, Jan O; Gasser, Thomas; Gillardon, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD)-linked Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has a role in peripheral and brain-resident immune cells. Furthermore, dysregulation of the anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic protein progranulin (PGRN) has been demonstrated in several chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that PGRN levels are significantly reduced in conditioned medium of LRRK2(R1441G) mutant mouse fibroblasts, leukocytes, and microglia, whereas levels of proinflammatory factors, like interleukin-1β and keratinocyte-derived chemokine, were significantly increased. Decreased PGRN levels were also detected in supernatants of cultured human fibroblasts isolated from presymptomatic LRRK2(G2019S) mutation carriers, while mitochondrial function was unaffected. Furthermore, medium levels of matrix metalloprotease (MMP) 2 increased, whereas MMP 9 decreased in LRRK2(R1441G) mutant microglia. Increased proteolytic cleavage of the MMP substrates ICAM-5 and α-synuclein in synaptoneurosomes from LRRK2(R1441G) mutant mouse brain indicates increased net synaptic MMP activity. PGRN levels were decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of presymptomatic LRRK2 mutant mice, whereas PGRN levels were increased in aged symptomatic mutant mice. Notably, PGRN levels were also increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of PD patients carrying LRRK2 mutations, but not in idiopathic PD patients and in healthy control donors. Our data suggest that proinflammatory activity of peripheral and brain-resident immune cells may particularly contribute to the early stages of Parkinson's disease caused by LRRK2 mutations. PMID:24652679

  7. Repression of a matrix metalloprotease gene by E1A correlates with its ability to bind to cell type-specific transcription factor AP-2.

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, K; Jayaraman, G; Williams, T; Moran, E; Frisch, S; Thimmapaya, B

    1996-01-01

    Adenovirus E1A 243-amino acid protein can repress a variety of enhancer -linked viral and cellular promoters. This repression is presumed to be mediated by its interaction with and sequestration of p3OO, a transcriptional coactivator. Type IV 72-kDa collagenase is one of the matrix metalloproteases that has been implicated in differentiation, development, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis. We show here that the cell type-specific transcription factor AP-2 is an important transcription factor for the activation of the type IV 72-kDa collagenase promoter and that adenovirus E1A 243-amino acid protein represses this promoter by targeting AP-2. Glutathione S-transferase-affinity chromatography studies show that the E1A protein interacts with the DNA binding/dimerization region of AP-2 and that the N-terminal amino acids of E1A protein are required for this interaction. Further, E1A deletion mutants which do not bind to p3OO can repress this collagenase promoter as efficiently as the wildtype E1A protein. Because the AP-2 element is present in a variety of viral and cellular enhancers which are repressed by E1A, these studies suggest that E1A protein can repress cellular and viral promoter/enhancers by forming a complex with cellular transcription factors and that this repression mechanism may be independent of its interaction with p3OO. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8610173

  8. Stress-triggered Activation of the Metalloprotease Oma1 Involves Its C-terminal Region and Is Important for Mitochondrial Stress Protection in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Bohovych, Iryna; Donaldson, Garrett; Christianson, Sara; Zahayko, Nataliya; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2014-01-01

    Functional integrity of mitochondria is critical for optimal cellular physiology. A suite of conserved mitochondrial proteases known as intramitochondrial quality control represents one of the mechanisms assuring normal mitochondrial function. We previously demonstrated that ATP-independent metalloprotease Oma1 mediates degradation of hypohemylated Cox1 subunit of cytochrome c oxidase and is active in cytochrome c oxidase-deficient mitochondria. Here we show that Oma1 is important for adaptive responses to various homeostatic insults and preservation of normal mitochondrial function under damage-eliciting conditions. Changes in membrane potential, oxidative stress, or chronic hyperpolarization lead to increased Oma1-mediated proteolysis. The stress-triggered induction of Oma1 proteolytic activity appears to be associated with conformational changes within the Oma1 homo-oligomeric complex, and these alterations likely involve C-terminal residues of the protease. Substitutions in the conserved C-terminal region of Oma1 impair its ability to form a labile proteolytically active complex in response to stress stimuli. We demonstrate that Oma1 genetically interacts with other inner membrane-bound quality control proteases. These findings indicate that yeast Oma1 is an important player in IM protein homeostasis and integrity by acting in concert with other intramitochondrial quality control components. PMID:24648523

  9. 2-Photon Characterization of Optical Proteolytic Beacons for Imaging Changes in Matrix-Metalloprotease Activity in a Mouse Model of Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Haskett, Darren G; Maestas, David; Howerton, Stephen J; Smith, Tyler; Ardila, D Catalina; Doetschman, Tom; Utzinger, Urs; McGrath, Dominic; McIntyre, J Oliver; Vande Geest, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a multifactorial disease that is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Matrix-metalloproteases (MMPs) are part of the disease process, however, assessing their role in disease initiation and progression has been difficult and animal models have become essential. Combining Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) proteolytic beacons activated in the presence of MMPs with 2-photon microscopy allows for a novel method of evaluating MMP activity within the extracellular matrix (ECM). Single and 2-photon spectra for proteolytic beacons were determined in vitro. Ex vivo experiments using the apolipoprotein E knockout angiotensin II-infused mouse model of aneurysm imaged ECM architecture simultaneously with the MMP-activated FRET beacons. 2-photon spectra of the two-color proteolytic beacons showed peaks for the individual fluorophores that enable imaging of MMP activity through proteolytic cleavage. Ex vivo imaging of the beacons within the ECM revealed both microstructure and MMP activity. 2-photon imaging of the beacons in aneurysmal tissue showed an increase in proteolytic cleavage within the ECM (p<0.001), thus indicating an increase in MMP activity. Our data suggest that FRET-based proteolytic beacons show promise in assessing MMP activity within the ECM and will therefore allow future studies to identify the heterogeneous distribution of simultaneous ECM remodeling and protease activity in aneurysmal disease. PMID:26903264

  10. Isolation, characterization and molecular three-dimensional structural predictions of metalloprotease from a phytopathogenic fungus, Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mart.) Sor.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Chandrasekar, Raman; Chun, Se-Chul; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims at isolation, identification, characterization and prediction of three-dimensional molecular architecture of a proteolytic enzyme from the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani which are hypothesized to be a marker of phytopathogenicity. Maximum enzyme production by A. solani was observed in Czapex's Dox broth amended with 2% (w/v) casein than other inducer amendments. Results indicate that the enzyme remained highly active in a pH range of 7.0-10.0 and a temperature range of 45-50°C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by EDTA, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and monovalent cations (Na(+), K(+)) had little effect. Metal ions such as MgSO4, CaCl2, KCl at 10 mM concentration showed a stimulatory effect (>85%) on protease activity. Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight/mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified enzyme revealed the presence of protease belonging to a keratinolytic protein (metalloprotease) of exopeptidase nature. Putative A. solani keratinolytic enzyme (AsK) is made up of 216 amino acid residues with molecular weight (MW) 24.5 kDa, having a molecular formula of C1094H1704N290O342S4. Ramachandran plot analysis of the protein residues falling into the most favored secondary structures was observed at 84.2%. The major protein structural blocks, 2-β-sheets, and 9-α-helices have a greater tendency to be conserved during the evolutionary process than do mere sequences of amino acids. Besides, AsK, model prediction showed the presence of a Zinc atom at helix regions (Helix 3, 6, 7: His(57), His(130), His(169), and Cys(123)). Thus, it can be concluded that the major proteinases of AsK are divalent cation-requiring metalloproteinases and make them potential targets of protease inhibitors designing. PMID:26924427

  11. The Hookworm Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteases (Ac-TMP-1) Modifies Dendritic Cell Function and Induces Generation of CD4 and CD8 Suppressor T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cuéllar, Carmen; Wu, Wenhui; Mendez, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Hookworm infection is a major cause of disease burden for humans. Recent studies have described hookworm-related immunosuppression in endemic populations and animal models. A Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteases (Ac-TMP-1) has been identified as one of the most abundant proteins released by the adult parasite. We investigated the effect of recombinant Ac-TMP-1 on dendritic cell (DC) and T cell function. Splenic T cells from C57BL/6 mice injected with Ac-TMP-1 showed reduced proliferation to restimulation with anti CD3 or bystander antigens such as OVA. Incubation of bone marrow-derived DCs with Ac-TMP-1 decreased MHC Class I and, especially, Class II expression but increased CD86 and IL-10 expression. Co-incubation of splenic T cells with DCs pulsed with Ac-TMP-1 induced their differentiation into CD4+ and, particularly, CD8+ CD25+Foxp3+ T cells that expressed IL-10. These cells were able to suppress proliferation of naïve and activated CD4+ T cells by TGF-Β-dependent (CD4+ suppressors) or independent (CD8+ suppressors) mechanisms. Priming of DCs with non-hookworm antigens, such as OVA, did not result in the generation of suppressor T cells. These data indicate that Ac-TMP-1 initiates the development of a regulatory response through modifications in DC function and generation of suppressor T cells. This is the first report to propose a role of suppressor CD8+ T cells in gastrointestinal helminthic infections. PMID:19468296

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Elicits Tuberculosis-Specific Humoral Immune Response Independent of Mycobacterial Load in Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Mani H; Ganji, Rakesh; Sivangala, Ramya; Jakkala, Kiran; Gaddam, Sumanlatha; Penmetsa, Sitaramaraju; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the tuberculosis (TB) causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with CD4(+) T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches toward vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M. tuberculosis Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1), a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M. tuberculosis under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency, and nutrient deprivation) and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of peripheral blood mononulear cells PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1). This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n = 121) as against healthy control (n = 62), household contacts (n = 89) and non-specific infection controls (n = 23). A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL) to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins

  13. Synergistic inhibition with a dual epidermal growth factor receptor/HER-2/neu tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a disintegrin and metalloprotease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Witters, Lois; Scherle, Peggy; Friedman, Steven; Fridman, Jordan; Caulder, Eian; Newton, Robert; Lipton, Allan

    2008-09-01

    The ErbB family of receptors is overexpressed in numerous human tumors. Overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Use of ErbB-specific antibodies to the receptors (Herceptin or Erbitux) or ErbB-specific small-molecule inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity (Iressa or Tarceva) has shown clinical efficacy in several solid tumors. An alternative method of affecting ErbB-initiated tumor growth and survival is to block sheddase activity. Sheddase activity is responsible for cleavage of multiple ErbB ligands and receptors, a necessary step in availability of the soluble, active form of the ligand and a constitutively activated ligand-independent receptor. This sheddase activity is attributed to the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of proteins. ADAM 10 is the main sheddase of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and HER-2/neu cleavage, whereas ADAM17 is required for cleavage of additional EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands (transforming growth factor-alpha, amphiregulin, heregulin, heparin binding EGF-like ligand). This study has shown that addition of INCB3619, a potent inhibitor of ADAM10 and ADAM17, reduces in vitro HER-2/neu and amphiregulin shedding, confirming that it interferes with both HER-2/neu and EGFR ligand cleavage. Combining INCB3619 with a lapatinib-like dual inhibitor of EGFR and HER-2/neu kinases resulted in synergistic growth inhibition in MCF-7 and HER-2/neu-transfected MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Combining the INCB7839 second-generation sheddase inhibitor with lapatinib prevented the growth of HER-2/neu-positive BT474-SC1 human breast cancer xenografts in vivo. These results suggest that there may be an additional clinical benefit of combining agents that target the ErbB pathways at multiple points. PMID:18757423

  14. Cold Adaptation of Zinc Metalloproteases in the Thermolysin Family from Deep Sea and Arctic Sea Ice Bacteria Revealed by Catalytic and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Bian, Fei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; He, Hai-Lun; Guo, Jun; Gao, Xiang; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Increased conformational flexibility is the prevailing explanation for the high catalytic efficiency of cold-adapted enzymes at low temperatures. However, less is known about the structural determinants of flexibility. We reported two novel cold-adapted zinc metalloproteases in the thermolysin family, vibriolysin MCP-02 from a deep sea bacterium and vibriolysin E495 from an Arctic sea ice bacterium, and compared them with their mesophilic homolog, pseudolysin from a terrestrial bacterium. Their catalytic efficiencies, kcat/Km (10–40 °C), followed the order pseudolysin < MCP-02 < E495 with a ratio of ∼1:2:4. MCP-02 and E495 have the same optimal temperature (Topt, 57 °C, 5 °C lower than pseudolysin) and apparent melting temperature (Tm = 64 °C, ∼10 °C lower than pseudolysin). Structural analysis showed that the slightly lower stabilities resulted from a decrease in the number of salt bridges. Fluorescence quenching experiments and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the flexibilities of the proteins were pseudolysin < MCP-02 < E495, suggesting that optimization of flexibility is a strategy for cold adaptation. Molecular dynamics results showed that the ordinal increase in flexibility from pseudolysin to MCP-02 and E495, especially the increase from MCP-02 to E495, mainly resulted from the decrease of hydrogen-bond stability in the dynamic structure, which was due to the increase in asparagine, serine, and threonine residues. Finally, a model for the cold adaptation of MCP-02 and E495 was proposed. This is the first report of the optimization of hydrogen-bonding dynamics as a strategy for cold adaptation and provides new insights into the structural basis underlying conformational flexibility. PMID:19181663

  15. TH1/TH2 cytokine profile, metalloprotease-9 activity and hormonal status in pregnant rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ-VALLE, J F; VÁZQUEZ-DEL MERCADO, M; GARCÍA-IGLESIAS, T; OROZCO-BAROCIO, G; BERNARD-MEDINA, G; MARTÍNEZ-BONILLA, G; BASTIDAS-RAMÍREZ, B E; NAVARRO, A D; BUENO, M; MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ, E; BEST-AGUILERA, C R; KAMACHI, M; ARMENDÁRIZ-BORUNDA, J

    2003-01-01

    During the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), several immune and neuroendocrine changes associated with pregnancy may exert positive (amelioration) or negative (exacerbation) effects on the clinical outcome. In order to shed light on the mechanisms underlying these responses, we performed a prospective longitudinal study in RA and SLE pregnant women, including healthy pregnant women as a control group. Cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression assessed by quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), cytokine levels and lymphocyte proliferation responses (LPR) following phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of PBMC, plasma metalloprotease-9 activity (MMP-9) and hormonal status during pregnancy were determined. TNFa was the most abundant cytokine mRNA expressed in PBMC in all groups studied (healthy pregnant women, RA and SLE pregnant patients). However, a general TH2 response reflected by high IL-10 levels was found in RA, as well as SLE, patients. A significant change in IFN-γ was observed in RA patients but only during the first trimester of pregnancy. This compared with a major TH1 response in healthy pregnant women. Interestingly, our study showed a homogeneous hormonal pattern in RA and SLE patients. Although decreased cortisol levels were observed in all patients studied, this is possibly related to the remission of disease activity status brought about by steroid treatment before and during pregnancy. In summary, we suggest that complex immune and hormonal networks are involved in pregnancy and that rheumatic diseases are very dynamic immune processes that cannot be described with a clear-cut cytokine profile. Furthermore, the observations in this study may reflect treatment-related immune effects more than those associated with disease. PMID:12562402

  16. The type II secretion system of Legionella pneumophila elaborates two aminopeptidases, as well as a metalloprotease that contributes to differential infection among protozoan hosts.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Ombeline; Dao, Jenny; Cianciotto, Nicholas P

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease, is an intracellular parasite of aquatic amoebae and human macrophages. A key factor for L. pneumophila in intracellular infection is its type II protein secretion system (Lsp). In order to more completely define Lsp output, we recently performed a proteomic analysis of culture supernatants. Based upon the predictions of that analysis, we found that L. pneumophila secretes two distinct aminopeptidase activities encoded by the genes lapA and lapB. Whereas lapA conferred activity against leucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine aminopeptides, lapB was linked to the cleavage of lysine- and arginine-containing substrates. To assess the role of secreted aminopeptidases in intracellular infection, we examined the relative abilities of lapA and lapB mutants to infect human U937 cell macrophages as well as Hartmannella vermiformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii amoebae. Although these experiments identified a dispensable role for LapA and LapB, they uncovered a previously unrecognized role for the type II-dependent ProA (MspA) metalloprotease. Whereas proA mutants were not defective for macrophage or A. castellanii infection, they (but not their complemented derivatives) were impaired for growth upon coculture with H. vermiformis. Thus, ProA represents the first type II effector implicated in an intracellular infection event. Furthermore, proA represents an L. pneumophila gene that shows differential importance among protozoan infection models, suggesting that the legionellae might have evolved some of its factors to especially target certain of their protozoan hosts. PMID:18083880

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Elicits Tuberculosis-Specific Humoral Immune Response Independent of Mycobacterial Load in Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Mani H.; Ganji, Rakesh; Sivangala, Ramya; Jakkala, Kiran; Gaddam, Sumanlatha; Penmetsa, Sitaramaraju; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the tuberculosis (TB) causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with CD4+ T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches toward vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M. tuberculosis Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1), a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M. tuberculosis under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency, and nutrient deprivation) and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of peripheral blood mononulear cells PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1). This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n = 121) as against healthy control (n = 62), household contacts (n = 89) and non-specific infection controls (n = 23). A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL) to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins can

  18. The effect of gender and genetic polymorphisms on matrix metalloprotease (MMP) and tissue inhibitor (TIMP) plasma levels in different infectious and non-infectious conditions.

    PubMed

    Collazos, J; Asensi, V; Martin, G; Montes, A H; Suárez-Zarracina, T; Valle-Garay, E

    2015-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are increased in different infections due to their role in controlling immune responses and are regulated by tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Different MMP promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) induce changes in MMP genes, mRNA and protein expression. Gender might also modify MMP plasma levels. In order to determine the weight of these variables on MMP secretion we studied MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -10, -13 and TIMP-1, -2, -4 plasma levels in 90 patients with severe bacterial sepsis, 102 with anti-retroviral (ARV)-treated HIV monoinfection, 111 with ARV-treated HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection and 86 non-infected controls (45 stroke and 41 trauma patients). MMP-1(-1607 1G/2G), MMP-3(-1612 5A/6A), MMP-8(-799C/T), MMP-9(-1562 C/T) and MMP-13(-77A/G) SNPs were genotyped. MMP-3 plasma levels were significantly higher in men than in women in each diagnostic group, and MMP-3 SNP allele 6A carriers also had higher levels than allele 5A carriers, an effect that was magnified by sepsis. Independent predictors of higher MMP-3 levels were male gender (P = 0.0001), MMP-3(-1612 5A/6A) SNP (P = 0.001), higher levels of TIMP-4 (P = 0.004) and MMP-8 (P = 0.006) and lower levels of MMP-1 (P = 0.03) by multivariate analysis. No strong associations with gender or SNPs were observed for other MMPs or TIMPs. In conclusion, male gender and MMP-3(-1612 5A/6A) 6A allele carriage increased MMP-3 plasma levels significantly, especially in patients with severe bacterial sepsis. This confounding gender effect needs to be addressed when evaluating MMP-3 plasma levels in any infectious or non-infectious condition. PMID:26206176

  19. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 polymorphism association with COPD in long-term tobacco smokers of the ethnic Kashmiri population of India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonaullah; Rashid, Amir; Shah, Zaffar A; Jan, Rafi Ahmad; Khan, Umar Hafiz; Bhat, Imtiyaz A; Mantoo, Suhail; Shah, Tajamul H; Koul, Parvaiz A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an interaction of various environmental influences especially cigarette smoking and genetic determinants. The prevalence of this disease is ever increasing and characterization of the genetic determinants of the disease has been undertaken globally. The ‘A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33’ (ADAM 33) gene is one candidate gene that has been studied. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADAM33 gene are associated with COPD in long-term tobacco smokers in the ethnic Kashmiri population of northern India. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized case-control study, which included 78 stable COPD (GOLD stage11-IV) patients, who were compared with 77 age- and sex-matched long-term tobacco smokers (>20 pack years) without any evidence of COPD. Polymorphic analysis for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), (T1, T2, and Q1) of the ADAM33 gene was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) followed by sequencing. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and comparative evaluation was done by parametric/non-parametric tests. Results: The analysis of the T1, T2, and Q1 SNPs, revealed that the frequencies of the T2GG, T1GG, and the Q1AG genotypes were significantly higher in patients with COPD in comparison with the controls (P < 0.001). Similarly, the T1G and T2G allele frequency was higher in the patients than in the controls (p = 0.177 and 0.43, respectively). Conclusion: Three SNPs of the ADAM33 gene were significantly associated with COPD in the Kashmiri population of India. This study establishes the possible role of ADAM33 SNPS in the causation of COPD. Further studies across different geographical areas in the country will unravel the contribution of this gene in the causation of COPD in India. PMID:25983406

  20. Systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular cloning and analysis of recombinant monoclonal kappa light chain NGTA2-Me-pro-ChTr possessing two different activities-trypsin-like and metalloprotease.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Anna M; Ivanisenko, Nikita V; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-12-01

    Polyclonal antibodies hydrolyzing myelin basic protein (MBP) can play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An immunoglobulin light chain phagemid library derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with SLE was used. The small pools of phage particles displaying light chains with different affinity for MBP were isolated by affinity chromatography on MBP-Sepharose. The fraction eluted with 0.5M NaCl was used for preparation of individual monoclonal light chains (MLChs, 26-27kDa). The clones were expressed in Escherichia coli in a soluble form; MLChs were purified by metal-chelating chromatography followed by gel filtration. In mammalians, there are serine proteases and metalloproteases. These and many other enzymes usually have only one active site and catalyze only one chemical reaction. In contrast to canonical proteases, one MLCh (NGTA2-Me-pro-ChTr) efficiently hydrolyzed MBP (but not other proteins) and four different oligopeptides corresponding to four immunodominant sequences containing cleavage sites of MBP. The proteolytic activity of MLCh was efficiently inhibited only by specific inhibitors of serine-like (phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride, PMSF) and metalloproteases (EDTA). It was shown that MLCh possess independent serine-like and metal-dependent activities. The principal existence of monoclonal antibodies with two different proteolytic activities is unexpected but very important for the further understanding of at present unknown biological functions of human antibodies. PMID:26174315

  1. Analysis of transcripts encoding novel members of the mammalian metalloprotease-like, disintegrin-like, cysteine-rich (MDC) protein family and their expression in reproductive and non-reproductive monkey tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, A C; Jones, R; Hall, L

    1995-01-01

    A number of sequence-related, cysteine-rich proteins containing metalloprotease-like and disintegrin-like domains (the MDC protein family), at least one of which has been shown to play a role in egg recognition during fertilization, are abundantly expressed in the mammalian male reproductive tract. In this paper we report the cloning and sequence analysis of three closely related isoforms of a novel member of this family which are expressed not only in the testis, but also in the liver, albeit at a lower level. Using a PCR-based approach we also demonstrate the presence of transcripts encoding additional, novel, disintegrin-containing proteins, in the liver and epididymis. We conclude that while some members of the MDC family are specific to the reproductive tract, suggesting functions peculiar to those tissues, others have a broader tissue distribution and may therefore play a more general role in integrin-mediated cell-cell recognition, adhesion or signalling. PMID:7492319

  2. Natural anti-proteases in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss and brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis and the in vitro neutralization of fish alpha 2-macroglobulin by the metalloprotease from the pathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica.

    PubMed

    Zuo, X; Woo, P T

    1997-04-01

    Natural anti-proteases (alpha 1-protease inhibitor (alpha 1-PI; alpha 1-antitrypsin) and alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M)) were found in the blood of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss and brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis. The alpha 2-M inhibited Cryptobia salmositica proteases and was significantly higher in brook charr than in rainbow trout. Under in vitro conditions it took longer for the same number of parasites to neutralize the alpha 2-M in charr than in trout blood. The haemolysis which occurred when C. salmositica was incubated in the blood of rainbow trout was due to neutralization of alpha 2-M. This in vitro study also showed that it was the metalloprotease of C. salmositica that lysed red blood cells and the plasma of the two species of fishes initially prevented haemolysis by inhibiting the proteolytic activity. We suggest that the natural plasma alpha 2-M plays an important role in defence against cryptobiosis in fishes. PMID:9107024

  3. Occurrence and Evolution of the Paralogous Zinc Metalloproteases IgA1 Protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Related Commensal Species

    PubMed Central

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution, genome location, and evolution of the four paralogous zinc metalloproteases, IgA1 protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD, in Streptococcus pneumoniae and related commensal species were studied by in silico analysis of whole genomes and by activity screening of 154 representatives of 20 species. ZmpB was ubiquitous in the Mitis and Salivarius groups of the genus Streptococcus and in the genera Gemella and Granulicatella, with the exception of a fragmented gene in Streptococcus thermophilus, the only species with a nonhuman habitat. IgA1 protease activity was observed in all members of S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis, S. sanguinis, and Gemella haemolysans, was variably present in S. mitis and S. infantis, and absent in S. gordonii, S. parasanguinis, S. cristatus, S. oligofermentans, S. australis, S. peroris, and S. suis. Phylogenetic analysis of 297 zmp sequences and representative housekeeping genes provided evidence for an unprecedented selection for genetic diversification of the iga, zmpB, and zmpD genes in S. pneumoniae and evidence of very frequent intraspecies transfer of entire genes and combination of genes. Presumably due to their adaptation to a commensal lifestyle, largely unaffected by adaptive mucosal immune factors, the corresponding genes in commensal streptococci have remained conserved. The widespread distribution and significant sequence diversity indicate an ancient origin of the zinc metalloproteases predating the emergence of the humanoid species. zmpB, which appears to be the ancestral gene, subsequently duplicated and successfully diversified into distinct functions, is likely to serve an important but yet unknown housekeeping function associated with the human host. PMID:23033471

  4. Stromal matrix metalloprotease-13 knockout alters Collagen I structure at the tumor-host interface and increases lung metastasis of C57BL/6 syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteases and collagen are key participants in breast cancer, but their precise roles in cancer etiology and progression remain unclear. MMP13 helps regulate collagen structure and has been ascribed largely harmful roles in cancer, but some studies demonstrate that MMP13 may also protect against tumor pathology. Other studies indicate that collagen’s organizational patterns at the breast tumor-host interface influence metastatic potential. Therefore we investigated how MMP13 modulates collagen I, a principal collagen subtype in breast tissue, and affects tumor pathology and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer. Methods Tumors were implanted into murine mammary tissues, and their growth analyzed in Wildtype and MMP13 KO mice. Following extraction, tumors were analyzed for collagen I levels and collagen I macro- and micro-structural properties at the tumor-host boundary using immunocytochemistry and two-photon and second harmonic generation microscopy. Lungs were analyzed for metastases counts, to correlate collagen I changes with a clinically significant functional parameter. Statistical analyses were performed by t-test, analysis of variance, or Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests as appropriate. Results We found that genetic ablation of host stromal MMP13 led to: 1. Increased mammary tumor collagen I content, 2. Marked changes in collagen I spatial organization, and 3. Altered collagen I microstructure at the tumor-host boundary, as well as 4. Increased metastasis from the primary mammary tumor to lungs. Conclusions These results implicate host MMP13 as a key regulator of collagen I structure and metastasis in mammary tumors, thus making it an attractive potential therapeutic target by which we might alter metastatic potential, one of the chief determinants of clinical outcome in breast cancer. In addition to identifying stromal MMP13 is an important regulator of the tumor microenvironment and metastasis, these results also suggest

  5. Local Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-31

    The LOCAL Toolkit contains tools and libraries developed under the LLNL LOCAL LDRD project for managing and processing large unstructured data sets primrily from parallel numerical simulations, such as triangular, tetrahedral, and hexahedral meshes, point sets, and graphs. The tools have three main functionalities: cache-coherent, linear ordering of multidimensional data; lossy and lossless data compression optimized for different data types; and an out-of-core streaming I/O library with simple processing modules for unstructed data.

  6. Local Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uehling, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    As critics complain about higher education's shortcomings, trustees may need to communicate their institution's economic, cultural, and intellectual contributions to the local community. The most obvious and easily understood benefit is purchasing power, but it also contributes to small business growth, individual quality of life, the social,…

  7. Localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (also called morphea) is a term encompassing a spectrum of sclerotic autoimmune diseases that primarily affect the skin, but also might involve underlying structures such as the fat, fascia, muscle, and bones. Its exact pathogenesis is still unknown, but several trigger factors in genetically predisposed individuals might initially lead to an immunologically triggered release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in a profound dysregulation of the connective tissue metabolism and ultimately to induction of fibrosis. To date, there are no specific serological markers available for localized scleroderma. Within the last years, several validated clinical scores have been introduced as potential outcome measures for the disease. Given the rarity of localized scleroderma, only few evidence-based therapeutical treatment options exist. So far, the most robust data is available for ultraviolet A1 phototherapy in disease that is restricted to the skin, and methotrexate alone or in combination with systemic corticosteroids in more severe disease that additionally affects extracutaneous structures. This practical review summarizes relevant information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical subtypes and classifications, differential diagnoses, clinical scores and outcome measures, and current treatment strategies of localized scleroderma. PMID:22741933

  8. Local Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the value of setting-specific research for action research in social psychology. Discusses the following concepts: (1) local variation; (2) seeing the general in the specific; (3) connectedness as the fundamental law of ecology; and (4) the value of field stations for community research. (JS)

  9. Local hyperdynamics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Perez, Danny; Voter, Arthur F

    2013-10-14

    We present a new formulation of the hyperdynamics method in which the biasing effect is local, making it suitable for large systems. In standard hyperdynamics, the requirement that the bias potential be zero everywhere on the dividing surface bounding the state has the consequence that as the system size increases the boost factor decays to unity, regardless of the form of the bias potential. In the new method, the bias force on each atom is obtained by differentiating a local bias energy that depends only on the coordinates of atoms within a finite range of this atom. This bias force is thus independent of the bias force in distant parts of the system, providing a method that gives a constant boost factor, independent of the system size. We demonstrate for some realistic atomistic systems that the method gives escape rates in excellent agreement with direct molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:24116606

  10. Cold adaptation of zinc metalloproteases in the thermolysin family from deep sea and arctic sea ice bacteria revealed by catalytic and structural properties and molecular dynamics: new insights into relationship between conformational flexibility and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Bian, Fei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; He, Hai-Lun; Guo, Jun; Gao, Xiang; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2009-04-01

    Increased conformational flexibility is the prevailing explanation for the high catalytic efficiency of cold-adapted enzymes at low temperatures. However, less is known about the structural determinants of flexibility. We reported two novel cold-adapted zinc metalloproteases in the thermolysin family, vibriolysin MCP-02 from a deep sea bacterium and vibriolysin E495 from an Arctic sea ice bacterium, and compared them with their mesophilic homolog, pseudolysin from a terrestrial bacterium. Their catalytic efficiencies, k(cat)/K(m) (10-40 degrees C), followed the order pseudolysin < MCP-02 < E495 with a ratio of approximately 1:2:4. MCP-02 and E495 have the same optimal temperature (T(opt), 57 degrees C, 5 degrees C lower than pseudolysin) and apparent melting temperature (T(m) = 64 degrees C, approximately 10 degrees C lower than pseudolysin). Structural analysis showed that the slightly lower stabilities resulted from a decrease in the number of salt bridges. Fluorescence quenching experiments and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the flexibilities of the proteins were pseudolysin < MCP-02 < E495, suggesting that optimization of flexibility is a strategy for cold adaptation. Molecular dynamics results showed that the ordinal increase in flexibility from pseudolysin to MCP-02 and E495, especially the increase from MCP-02 to E495, mainly resulted from the decrease of hydrogen-bond stability in the dynamic structure, which was due to the increase in asparagine, serine, and threonine residues. Finally, a model for the cold adaptation of MCP-02 and E495 was proposed. This is the first report of the optimization of hydrogen-bonding dynamics as a strategy for cold adaptation and provides new insights into the structural basis underlying conformational flexibility. PMID:19181663

  11. TNF-α and IL-1β Promote a Disintegrin-like and Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin Type I Motif-5-mediated Aggrecan Degradation through Syndecan-4 in Intervertebral Disc*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianru; Markova, Dessislava; Anderson, D. Greg; Zheng, Zhaomin; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and a resultant increase in ADAMTS (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motifs) expression is seen during disc degeneration. However, if these pro-inflammatory cytokines control ADAMTS activity is not definitively known. The goal of the investigation was to study if TNF-α and IL-1β regulate syndecan-4 (SDC4) expression, and if SDC4 was responsible for promoting aggrecan degradation through controlling ADAMTS activity in nucleus pulposus cells of the intervertebral disc. Cytokine treatment increased SDC4 expression and promoter activity. Use of inhibitor, SM7368 and co-transfections with IκBα, RelA/p50 showed that NF-κΒ regulated both basal and cytokine-dependent SDC4 transcription. SDC4 promoter harboring RelA binding site mutation was unresponsive to the cytokines. Moreover, cytokines failed to increase SDC4 promoter activity in RelA-null cells. Cytokines increased ADAMTS-4/5 expression and aggrecan degradation and promoted SDC4 interaction with ADAMTS-5. Treatment with heparinase-III and p-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside (PNPX), an inhibitor of heparan sulfate synthesis and transfection with SDC4-shRNA partially blocked cytokine mediated aggrecan degradation. Analysis of human tissues showed increased aggrecan degradation with a concomitant increase in SDC4 and ADAMTS-5 protein expression with severity of disc disease. Likewise, SDC4, TNF-α, IL-1β, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5 mRNA expression increased in degenerate tissues. We conclude that in nucleus pulposus, TNF-α and IL-1β regulate SDC4 expression, which plays a key role in pathogenesis of degenerative disc disease by promoting aggrecan degradation by ADAMTS-5. PMID:21949132

  12. Comparative analysis of local effects caused by Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni snake venoms: enzymatic contributions and inflammatory modulations.

    PubMed

    Mamede, Carla Cristine Neves; de Sousa, Bruna Barbosa; Pereira, Déborah Fernanda da Cunha; Matias, Mariana Santos; de Queiroz, Mayara Ribeiro; de Morais, Nadia Cristina Gomes; Vieira, Sâmela Alves Pereira Batista; Stanziola, Leonilda; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2016-07-01

    Bothropic envenomation is characterised by severe local damage caused by the toxic action of venom components and aggravated by induced inflammation. In this comparative study, the local inflammatory effects caused by the venoms of Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni, two snakes of epidemiological importance in Brazil, were investigated. The toxic action of venom components induced by bothropic venom was also characterised. Herein, the oedema, hyperalgesia and myotoxicity induced by bothropic venom were monitored for various lengths of time after venom injection in experimental animals. The intensity of the local effects caused by B. moojeni venom is considerably more potent than B. alternatus venom. Our results also indicate that metalloproteases and phospholipases A2 have a central role in the local damage induced by bothropic venoms, but serine proteases also contribute to the effects of these venoms. Furthermore, we observed that specific anti-inflammatory drugs were able to considerably reduce the oedema, the pain and the muscle damage caused by both venoms. The inflammatory reaction induced by B. moojeni venom is mediated by eicosanoid action, histamine and nitric oxide, with significant participation of bradykinin on the hyperalgesic and myotoxic effects of this venom. These mediators also participate to inflammation caused by B. alternatus venom. However, the inefficient anti-inflammatory effects of some local modulation suggest that histamine, leukotrienes and nitric oxide have little role in the oedema or myotoxicity caused by B. alternatus venom. PMID:26975252

  13. Quantum Locality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    , in response to Griffiths' challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has described is flawed.

  14. Quantum Locality?

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

  15. Arabidopsis ALIX is required for the endosomal localization of the deubiquitinating enzyme AMSH3

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Goodman, Kaija; Cuyas, Laura; Anzenberger, Franziska; Alkofer, Angela; Paz-Ares, Javier; Braun, Pascal; Rubio, Vicente; Otegui, Marisa S.; Isono, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a signal for various cellular processes, including for endocytic degradation of plasma membrane cargos. Ubiquitinating as well as deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) can regulate these processes by modifying the ubiquitination status of target protein. Although accumulating evidence points to the important regulatory role of DUBs, the molecular basis of their regulation is still not well understood. Associated molecule with the SH3 domain of signal transduction adaptor molecule (STAM) (AMSH) is a conserved metalloprotease DUB in eukaryotes. AMSH proteins interact with components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) and are implicated in intracellular trafficking. To investigate how the function of AMSH is regulated at the cellular level, we carried out an interaction screen for the Arabidopsis AMSH proteins and identified the Arabidopsis homolog of apoptosis-linked gene-2 interacting protein X (ALIX) as a protein interacting with AMSH3 in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of alix knockout mutants in Arabidopsis showed that ALIX is essential for plant growth and development and that ALIX is important for the biogenesis of the vacuole and multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Cell biological analysis revealed that ALIX and AMSH3 colocalize on late endosomes. Although ALIX did not stimulate AMSH3 activity in vitro, in the absence of ALIX, AMSH3 localization on endosomes was abolished. Taken together, our data indicate that ALIX could function as an important regulator for AMSH3 function at the late endosomes. PMID:26324913

  16. Arabidopsis ALIX is required for the endosomal localization of the deubiquitinating enzyme AMSH3.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Goodman, Kaija; Cuyas, Laura; Anzenberger, Franziska; Alkofer, Angela; Paz-Ares, Javier; Braun, Pascal; Rubio, Vicente; Otegui, Marisa S; Isono, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Ubiquitination is a signal for various cellular processes, including for endocytic degradation of plasma membrane cargos. Ubiquitinating as well as deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) can regulate these processes by modifying the ubiquitination status of target protein. Although accumulating evidence points to the important regulatory role of DUBs, the molecular basis of their regulation is still not well understood. Associated molecule with the SH3 domain of signal transduction adaptor molecule (STAM) (AMSH) is a conserved metalloprotease DUB in eukaryotes. AMSH proteins interact with components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) and are implicated in intracellular trafficking. To investigate how the function of AMSH is regulated at the cellular level, we carried out an interaction screen for the Arabidopsis AMSH proteins and identified the Arabidopsis homolog of apoptosis-linked gene-2 interacting protein X (ALIX) as a protein interacting with AMSH3 in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of alix knockout mutants in Arabidopsis showed that ALIX is essential for plant growth and development and that ALIX is important for the biogenesis of the vacuole and multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Cell biological analysis revealed that ALIX and AMSH3 colocalize on late endosomes. Although ALIX did not stimulate AMSH3 activity in vitro, in the absence of ALIX, AMSH3 localization on endosomes was abolished. Taken together, our data indicate that ALIX could function as an important regulator for AMSH3 function at the late endosomes. PMID:26324913

  17. The p75 neurotrophin receptor localization in blood-CSF barrier: expression in choroid plexus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of neurotrophins and their receptors Trk family has been reported in the choroid plexus. High levels of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and TrkB receptor were detected, while nothing was know about p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the choroid plexus epithelial cells. In neurons, p75NTR receptor has a dual function: promoting survival together with TrkA in response to NGF, and inducing apoptotic signaling through p75NTR. We postulated that p75NTR may also affect the survival pathways in the choroid plexus and also undergoes regulated proteolysis with metalloproteases. Results Here, we demonstrated the presence of p75NTR receptor in the choroid plexus epithelial cells. The p75NTR receptor would be involved in cell death mechanisms and in the damaged induced by amyloid beta (Aβ) in the choroid plexus and finally, we propose an essential role of p75NTR in the Aβ transcytosis through out choroid plexus barrier. Conclusions The presence analysis reveals the new localization of p75NTR in the choroid plexus and, the distribution mainly in the cytoplasm and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) side of the epithelial cells. We propose that p75NTR receptor plays a role in the survival pathways and Aβ-induced cell death. These data suggest that p75NTR dysfunction play an important role in the pathogenesis of brain diseases. The importance and novelty of this expression expands a new role of p75NTR. PMID:21569322

  18. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially–locally

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, W. Schütz, M.

    2015-06-15

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, “local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate].” This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835–871 (2012)], relying on the “spectral flow technique” or “quasi-adiabatic continuation” [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique “bulk ground state” or “topological quantum order.” We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  19. RKIP Inhibits Local Breast Cancer Invasion by Antagonizing the Transcriptional Activation of MMP13

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiaoliang; Lewandowski, John; Yeung, Miranda; Ren, Gang; Aras, Shweta; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Cui, Hongjuan; Trumbly, Robert; Arudra, Sri Krishna Chaitanya; De Las Casas, Luis E.; de la Serna, Ivana; Bitar, Milad S.; Yeung, Kam C.

    2015-01-01

    Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein or RKIP was initially identified as a Raf-1 binding protein using the yeast 2-hybrid screen. RKIP inhibits the activation phosphorylation of MEK by Raf-1 by competitively inhibiting the binding of MEK to Raf-1 and thus exerting an inhibitory effect on the Raf-MEK-Erk pathway. RKIP has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene. Expression of RKIP is low in cancer metastases. Although primary tumor growth remains unaffected, re- expression of RKIP inhibits cancer metastasis. Mechanistically, RKIP constrains metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis, local invasion, intravasation, and colonization. The molecular mechanism of how RKIP inhibits these individual steps remains undefined. In our present study, using an unbiased PCR based screening and by analyzing DNA microarray expression datasets we observe that the expression of multiple metalloproteases (MMPs) including MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP13 are negatively correlated with RKIP expression in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Since expression of MMPs by cancer cells is important for cancer metastasis, we hypothesize that RKIP may mediate suppression of breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting multiple MMPs. We show that the expression signature of RKIP and MMPs is better at predicting high metastatic risk than the individual gene. Using a combination of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we find that MMP13 is the cause of RKIP-mediated inhibition of local cancer invasion. Interestingly expression of MMP13 alone is not sufficient to reverse the inhibition of breast cancer cell metastasis to the lung due to the expression of RKIP. We find that RKIP negatively regulates MMP13 through the Erk2 signaling pathway and the repression of MMP13 by RKIP is transcription factor AP-1 independent. Together, our findings indicate that RKIP inhibits cancer cell invasion, in part, via MMP13 inhibition. These data also implicate RKIP in the regulation of MMP transcription, suggesting a

  20. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  1. Temporal Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  2. Time to Go Local!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Time to Go Local! Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... MedlinePlus.gov health topic pages, you will find "Go Local" links that take you to information about ...

  3. Local network assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  4. Learning from Software Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, She-Sen

    2003-01-01

    Localization is the process of adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target environment or market. This article describes ways in which software localization impacts upon curriculum, and discusses what students will learn from software localization. (AEF)

  5. Our Local Superbubble and Local Bubble Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, Carl

    2009-08-01

    We briefly describe the local superbubbles and supershells that lie near the Sun. These include, of course, the famous ones-the Orion/Eridanus superbubble and the North Polar Spur shell. It also includes less famous, less prominent, older, but equally important ones: we stress the elliptical Lindblad Ring, which surrounds the Sun and has a maximum diameter 364 pc, and GSH 238+00+09, which is a huge old shell. Both appear to be responsible for shock-induced star formation; GSR 238+0+09, in particular, may be responsible for the Orion and Gum associations. We then turn to the Local Bubble and describe some of its little-known and remarkable occupants: interstellar scattering centers, which are ionized blobs having sizes of a few Earth diameters, and one of the coldest HI clouds known, which produces prominent X-ray shadow and allows us to estimate the local X-ray production rate within a few dozen parsec from the Sun.

  6. Localization of magnetic pills

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  7. Local Power: Tribe & Township.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlala, Padi; Moloi, Dudley

    1995-01-01

    Examines the service infrastructure of a rural township in South Africa and the struggle to acquire services like water and electricity. Discusses the interaction of a system of transitional local councils and tribal authorities in the face of local government elections. (LZ)

  8. Local available quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundarain, Douglas F.; de Guevara, María L. Ladrón

    2015-12-01

    In this work, local available quantum correlations are studied. They are defined in terms of mutual information of bipartite local measurements done over an optimal local basis complementary to the local basis which defines the respective classical correlations. For two qubits, it is always possible to choose the basis of classical correlations as the set of eigenvectors of σ _z (the third Pauli matrix) and complementary bases become the sets of eigenvectors of the observables orthogonal to σ _z. It is shown that all states with zero local available quantum correlations are separable but not necessarily strictly classical; this fact puts this kind of correlations in the middle between discord and entanglement. Since in many cases it may suffice to know whether a given state has quantum correlations, the structure of the states with zero local available quantum correlations is presented. It is also shown that there is a close connection between local available quantum correlations and the protocol of entanglement activation developed by Piani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 106:220403, 2011). If a state satisfies the sufficient condition for the entanglement swapping associated with this protocol, this state has nonzero local available quantum correlations.

  9. Mechanisms Regulating Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Doetsch, Paul W; Corbett, Anita H

    2015-10-01

    Cellular functions are dictated by protein content and activity. There are numerous strategies to regulate proteins varying from modulating gene expression to post-translational modifications. One commonly used mode of regulation in eukaryotes is targeted localization. By specifically redirecting the localization of a pool of existing protein, cells can achieve rapid changes in local protein function. Eukaryotic cells have evolved elegant targeting pathways to direct proteins to the appropriate cellular location or locations. Here, we provide a general overview of these localization pathways, with a focus on nuclear and mitochondrial transport, and present a survey of the evolutionarily conserved regulatory strategies identified thus far. We end with a description of several specific examples of proteins that exploit localization as an important mode of regulation. PMID:26172624

  10. Local likelihood estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Tibshirani, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    In this work, we extend the idea of local averaging to likelihood-based regression models. One application is in the class of generalized linear models (Nelder and Wedderburn (1972). We enlarge this class by replacing the covariate form chi..beta.. with an unspecified smooth function s(chi). This function is estimated from the data by a technique we call Local Likelihood Estimation - a type of local averaging. Multiple covariates are incorporated through a forward stepwise algorithm. In a number of real data examples, the local likelihood technique proves to be effective in uncovering non-linear dependencies. Finally, we give some asymptotic results for local likelihood estimates and provide some methods for inference.

  11. Localization by entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, J.; Flach, S.; Fleurov, V.; Schulman, L. S.; Tolkunov, D.

    2008-08-01

    We study the localization of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice, which interact in a spatially confined region. The classical theory predicts that there is no localization below a threshold value for the strength of interaction that is inversely proportional to the number of participating atoms. In a full quantum treatment, however, we find that localized states exist for arbitrarily weak attractive or repulsive interactions for any number (>1) of atoms. We further show, using an explicit solution of the two-particle bound state and an appropriate measure of entanglement, that the entanglement tends to a finite value in the limit of weak interactions. Coupled with the non-existence of localization in an optimized quantum product state, we conclude that the localization exists by virtue of entanglement.

  12. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  13. Ergodicity breaking and localization.

    PubMed

    Geneston, Elvis; Tuladhar, Rohisha; Beig, M T; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    We study the joint action of the non-Poisson renewal events (NPR) yielding Continuous-time random walk (CTRW) with index α<1 and two different generators of Hurst coefficient H≠0.5, one generating fractional Brownian motion (FBM) and another scaled Brownian motion (SBM). We discuss the ergodicity breaking emerging from these joint actions and we find that in both cases the adoption of time averages leads to localization. In the case of the joint action of NPR and SBM, localization occurs when SBM would produce subdiffusion. The joint action of NPR and FBM, on the contrary, may lead to localization when FBM is a source of superdiffusion. The joint action of NPR and FBM is equivalent to extending the CTRW to the case where the jumps of the runner are correlated and we argue that the the memory-induced localization requires a refinement of the theoretical perspective about determinism and randomness. PMID:27575105

  14. Focus on Local Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the student newspaper "The Lance" (at Westside High School in Omaha, Nebraska) covered the shootings at Columbine High School. Notes that the staff localized the event and brought the student body into the story. (RS)

  15. Ergodicity breaking and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geneston, Elvis; Tuladhar, Rohisha; Beig, M. T.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    We study the joint action of the non-Poisson renewal events (NPR) yielding Continuous-time random walk (CTRW) with index α <1 and two different generators of Hurst coefficient H ≠0.5 , one generating fractional Brownian motion (FBM) and another scaled Brownian motion (SBM). We discuss the ergodicity breaking emerging from these joint actions and we find that in both cases the adoption of time averages leads to localization. In the case of the joint action of NPR and SBM, localization occurs when SBM would produce subdiffusion. The joint action of NPR and FBM, on the contrary, may lead to localization when FBM is a source of superdiffusion. The joint action of NPR and FBM is equivalent to extending the CTRW to the case where the jumps of the runner are correlated and we argue that the the memory-induced localization requires a refinement of the theoretical perspective about determinism and randomness.

  16. Local entropy generation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1991-02-01

    Second law analysis techniques have been widely used to evaluate the sources of irreversibility in components and systems of components but the evaluation of local sources of irreversibility in thermal processes has received little attention. While analytical procedures for evaluating local entropy generation have been developed, applications have been limited to fluid flows with analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature fields. The analysis of local entropy generation can be used to evaluate more complicated flows by including entropy generation calculations in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The research documented in this report consists of incorporating local entropy generation calculations in an existing CFD code and then using the code to evaluate the distribution of thermodynamic losses in two applications: an impinging jet and a magnetic heat pump. 22 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Anderson Localization of Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Müller, Cord A.; Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2009-11-01

    At low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with an attractive interaction forms a bright soliton. When exposed to a weak and smooth external potential, the shape of the soliton is hardly modified, but its center-of-mass motion is affected. We show that in a spatially correlated disordered potential, the quantum motion of a bright soliton displays Anderson localization. The localization length can be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  18. Localized pityriasis rosea.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Charles-Holmes, R

    2000-11-01

    Pityriasis rosea is a relatively common skin disorder. In its typical form it is easily recognizable; however, atypical forms can pose diagnostic problems. We report a 44-year-old woman with an acute onset of a localized eruption on her left breast. The morphology of the rash and the time course were typical of pityriasis rosea. Localized pityriasis rosea is an unusual variant, which has been described previously. PMID:11167977

  19. Anderson Localization of Solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Mueller, Cord A.; Delande, Dominique

    2009-11-20

    At low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with an attractive interaction forms a bright soliton. When exposed to a weak and smooth external potential, the shape of the soliton is hardly modified, but its center-of-mass motion is affected. We show that in a spatially correlated disordered potential, the quantum motion of a bright soliton displays Anderson localization. The localization length can be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  20. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  1. LOCAL TADPOLE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Putko, Joseph; Dewberry, Janosz; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Sanchez Almeida, Jorge; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2012-05-10

    Tadpole galaxies have a giant star-forming region at the end of an elongated intensity distribution. Here we use Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to determine the ages, masses, and surface densities of the heads and tails in 14 local tadpoles selected from the Kiso and Michigan surveys of UV-bright galaxies, and we compare them to tadpoles previously studied in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The young stellar mass in the head scales linearly with rest-frame galaxy luminosity, ranging from {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} at galaxy absolute magnitude U = -13 mag to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} at U = -20 mag. The corresponding head surface density increases from several M {sub Sun} pc{sup -2} locally to 10-100 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2} at high redshift, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit area in the head increases from {approx}0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} locally to {approx}1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} at high z. These local values are normal for star-forming regions, and the increases with redshift are consistent with other cosmological SFRs, most likely reflecting an increase in gas abundance. The tails in the local sample look like bulge-free galaxy disks. Their photometric ages decrease from several Gyr to several hundred Myr with increasing z, and their surface densities are more constant than the surface densities of the heads. The far-outer intensity profiles in the local sample are symmetric and exponential. We suggest that most local tadpoles are bulge-free galaxy disks with lopsided star formation, perhaps from environmental effects such as ram pressure or disk impacts, or from a Jeans length comparable to half the disk size.

  2. Monaural Sound Localization Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    1997-01-01

    Research reported during the past few decades has revealed the importance for human sound localization of the so-called 'monaural spectral cues.' These cues are the result of the direction-dependent filtering of incoming sound waves accomplished by the pinnae. One point of view about how these cues are extracted places great emphasis on the spectrum of the received sound at each ear individually. This leads to the suggestion that an effective way of studying the influence of these cues is to measure the ability of listeners to localize sounds when one of their ears is plugged. Numerous studies have appeared using this monaural localization paradigm. Three experiments are described here which are intended to clarify the results of the previous monaural localization studies and provide new data on how monaural spectral cues might be processed. Virtual sound sources are used in the experiments in order to manipulate and control the stimuli independently at the two ears. Two of the experiments deal with the consequences of the incomplete monauralization that may have contaminated previous work. The results suggest that even very low sound levels in the occluded ear provide access to interaural localization cues. The presence of these cues complicates the interpretation of the results of nominally monaural localization studies. The third experiment concerns the role of prior knowledge of the source spectrum, which is required if monaural cues are to be useful. The results of this last experiment demonstrate that extraction of monaural spectral cues can be severely disrupted by trial-to-trial fluctuations in the source spectrum. The general conclusion of the experiments is that, while monaural spectral cues are important, the monaural localization paradigm may not be the most appropriate way to study their role.

  3. Local relativistic exact decoupling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Daoling; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-28

    We present a systematic hierarchy of approximations for local exact decoupling of four-component quantum chemical Hamiltonians based on the Dirac equation. Our ansatz reaches beyond the trivial local approximation that is based on a unitary transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal part of the Hamiltonian. Systematically, off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix blocks can be subjected to a unitary transformation to yield relativistically corrected matrix elements. The full hierarchy is investigated with respect to the accuracy reached for the electronic energy and for selected molecular properties on a balanced test molecule set that comprises molecules with heavy elements in different bonding situations. Our atomic (local) assembly of the unitary exact-decoupling transformation--called local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU)--provides an excellent local approximation for any relativistic exact-decoupling approach. Its order-N(2) scaling can be further reduced to linear scaling by employing a neighboring-atomic-blocks approximation. Therefore, DLU is an efficient relativistic method well suited for relativistic calculations on large molecules. If a large molecule contains many light atoms (typically hydrogen atoms), the computational costs can be further reduced by employing a well-defined nonrelativistic approximation for these light atoms without significant loss of accuracy. We also demonstrate that the standard and straightforward transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal entries in the Hamiltonian--denoted diagonal local approximation to the Hamiltonian (DLH) in this paper--introduces an error that is on the order of the error of second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (i.e., DKH2) when compared with exact-decoupling results. Hence, the local DLH approximation would be pointless in an exact-decoupling framework, but can be efficiently employed in combination with the fast to evaluate DKH2 Hamiltonian in order to speed up calculations

  4. Lauding Local Legacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamolinara, Guy

    1999-01-01

    As part of its bicentennial celebration, the Library of Congress is sponsoring the Local Legacies project, an unprecedented effort in which Americans across the nation work with their members of Congress to document unique traditions for the collections of the American Folklife Center. Libraries will have a critical role in directing documentation…

  5. Theme: Local Program Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Professional Propagation" (Camp); "Managing Human Resources with Local Program Success (LPS)" (Daley); "Profit Sharing with LPS" (Moses); "Partners for Success" (Mecey- Smith); "Achieving LPS by Collaborating with Partners, Allies and Volunteers" (Oglesby); LPS...Just What Agricultural Education Needs, Another Acronym" (Rist); "The…

  6. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasatir, Marilyn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four papers discuss LANs (local area networks) and library applications: (1) "Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standards..." (Charles D. Brown); (2) "Facilities Planning for LANs..." (Gail Persky); (3) "Growing up with the Alumni Library: LAN..." (Russell Buchanan); and (4) "Implementing a LAN...at the Health Sciences Library"…

  7. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, David

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of word processors, micro- and minicomputer systems, and other digital office equipment is causing major design changes in existing networks. Local Area Networks (LANs) which have adequately served terminal users in the past must now be redesigned. Implementation at Clemson is described. (MLW)

  8. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  9. Social Studies: Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kressler, Joe, Comp.

    Elementary and secondary school teachers interested in developing a local history unit can adapt this fourth grade program created for three school districts in Cortland County, New York. Material is divided into 13 chapters. Chapter 1 charts the New York fourth grade curriculum by concept and content and outlines specific community study…

  10. Tackling a Local Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Students studying water as a class project were concerned by levels of pollution at a nearby river and the local beach. They identified three environmental problems for research including sewage discharge, beach litter, and quality of swimming water. Research consisted of field trips which allowed for opportunities to improve skills in collecting…

  11. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  12. Teaching Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond to 'Editing Is…

  13. Symbolic local information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that

  14. Localization and vector spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brecht, James H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes the following localization property for vector spherical harmonics: a wide class of non-local, vector-valued operators reduce to local, multiplication-type operations when applied to a vector spherical harmonic. As localization occurs in a very precise, quantifiable and explicitly computable fashion, the localization property provides a set of useful formulae for analyzing vector-valued fractional diffusion and non-local differential equations defined on S d - 1. As such analyses require a detailed understanding of operators for which localization occurs, we provide several applications of the result in the context of non-local differential equations.

  15. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Doxycycline Delivery Towards Localized Elastic Matrix Stabilization and Regenerative Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are abnormal expansions of the aortic wall, typically characterized by chronic upregulation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) -2 and -9. These MMPs degrade elastin and elastic matrix within the aortic wall, leading to a progressive loss of elasticity of the abdominal aorta as the condition progresses. Doxycycline (DOX) is tetracycline-based antibiotic which has shown significant promise in delaying and slowing the growth of AAAs in clinical studies and in animal models. However, it has been found to inhibit elastic matrix deposition by vascular cells at dosages in the µg/mL range which is typically observed in the circulation, in addition to systemic side effects, following oral dosage. In this paper, we describe the development of DOX-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for localized, controlled and sustained DOX delivery towards AAA therapy. Further, we demonstrate that surface-functionalization of these nanoparticles with cationic amphiphiles, not only impart them with a positive charge for potentially enhanced aortic uptake, but also enabled enhanced elastin binding via hydrophobic interactions, as well as upregulating activity of the elastin crosslinking enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX). In addition to the DOX released from the nanoparticles being effective in inhibiting MMP-2 production and activity, we also demonstrate that surface-functionalization of the nanoparticles cationic amphiphiles may also play a role in MMP-2 inhibition via (i) electrostatic interactions with negatively-charged residues in the active-site of MMP-2, or (ii) steric blockade of the active site on account of the presence of two dodecyl chains in the DMAB molecule. Thus, in addition to enhanced aortic uptake and retention illustrated in studies by other groups, we have demonstrated that cationic functionalization of PLGA nanoparticles enhances elastogenic outcomes, by targeted binding to elastin, as well as their potential to inhibit

  16. Multifunctional nanoparticles for doxycycline delivery towards localized elastic matrix stabilization and regenerative repair.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are abnormal expansions of the aortic wall, typically characterized by chronic up-regulation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs)-2 and -9. These MMPs degrade elastin and elastic matrix within the aortic wall, leading to a progressive loss of elasticity of the abdominal aorta as the condition progresses. Doxycycline (DOX) is a tetracycline-based antibiotic which has shown significant promise in delaying and slowing the growth of AAAs in both clinical studies and animal models. However, it has been found to inhibit elastic matrix deposition by vascular cells at dosages in the μg ml(-1) range, which is typically observed in the circulation, in addition to systemic side effects, following oral dosage. In this paper, we describe the development of DOX-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for localized, controlled and sustained DOX delivery towards AAA therapy. Further, we demonstrate that surface functionalization of these nanoparticles with cationic amphiphiles not only imparts them with a positive charge for potentially enhanced aortic uptake, but also enables enhanced elastin binding via hydrophobic interactions, as well as up-regulating activity of the elastin crosslinking enzyme lysyl oxidase. In addition to the DOX released from the nanoparticles being effective in inhibiting MMP-2 production and activity, we also demonstrate that surface functionalization of the nanoparticles cationic amphiphiles may also play a role in MMP-2 inhibition via (i) electrostatic interactions with negatively charged residues in the active-site of MMP-2 or (ii) steric blockade of the active site on account of the presence of two dodecyl chains in the DMAB molecule. Thus, in addition to enhanced aortic uptake and retention illustrated in studies by other groups, we have demonstrated that cationic functionalization of PLGA nanoparticles enhances elastogenic outcomes by targeted binding to elastin, as well as their potential to inhibit

  17. Local normal galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    In the near future, high energy (E greater than 20 MeV) gamma ray astronomy offers the promise of a new means of examining the closest galaxies. Two and possibly three local galaxies, the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds and M31, should be visible to the high energy gamma ray telescope on the Gamma Ray Observatory, and the first should be seen by GAMMA-1. With the assumptions of adequate cosmic ray production and reasonable magnetic field strengths, both of which should likely be satisfied, specific predictions of the gamma ray emission can be made separating the concepts of the galactic and universal nature of cosmic rays. A study of the synchrotron radiation from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) suggests that the cosmic ray density is similar to that in the local region of our galaxy, but not uniform. It is hoped the measurements will be able to verify this independent of assumptions about the magnetic fields in the LMC.

  18. Stable local oscillator module.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-11-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.

  19. Broadband local dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labardi, M.; Lucchesi, M.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A route to extend the measurement bandwidth of local dielectric spectroscopy up to the MHz range has been devised. The method is based on a slow amplitude modulation at a frequency Ω of the excitation field oscillating at a frequency ω and the coherent detection of the modulated average electric force or force gradient at Ω. The cantilever mechanical response does not affect the measurement if Ω is well below its resonant frequency; therefore, limitations on the excitation field frequency are strongly reduced. Demonstration on a thin poly(vinyl acetate) film is provided, showing its structural relaxation spectrum on the local scale up to 45 °C higher than glass temperature, and nanoscale resolution dielectric relaxation imaging near conductive nanowires embedded in the polymer matrix was obtained up to 5 MHz frequency, with no physical reason to hinder further bandwidth extension.

  20. Local quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, N.; Knorr, B.; Meibohm, J.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Reichert, M.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the ultraviolet behavior of quantum gravity within a functional renormalization group approach. The present setup includes the full ghost and graviton propagators and, for the first time, the dynamical graviton three-point function. The latter gives access to the coupling of dynamical gravitons and makes the system minimally self-consistent. The resulting phase diagram confirms the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity with a nontrivial UV fixed point. A well-defined Wilsonian block spinning requires locality of the flow in momentum space. This property is discussed in the context of functional renormalization group flows. We show that momentum locality of graviton correlation functions is nontrivially linked to diffeomorphism invariance, and is realized in the present setup.

  1. Classical dynamical localization.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, Italo; Casati, Giulio; Karle, Volker

    2014-10-24

    We consider classical models of the kicked rotor type, with piecewise linear kicking potentials designed so that momentum changes only by multiples of a given constant. Their dynamics display quasilocalization of momentum, or quadratic growth of energy, depending on the arithmetic nature of the constant. Such purely classical features mimic paradigmatic features of the quantum kicked rotor, notably dynamical localization in momentum, or quantum resonances. We present a heuristic explanation, based on a classical phase space generalization of a well-known argument, that maps the quantum kicked rotor on a tight-binding model with disorder. Such results suggest reconsideration of generally accepted views that dynamical localization and quantum resonances are a pure result of quantum coherence. PMID:25379918

  2. The Local Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Helfer, H.L.

    2005-10-21

    The observations of the extended rotation curves of some galaxies provide important constraints upon the nature of the local dark matter present in the halos of these galaxies. Using these constraints, one can show that the halo dark matter cannot be some population of conventional astronomical objects and (most probably) cannot be a population of exotic non-interacting particles. We suggest that the halos can be regarded as large spatial fluctuations in a classic scalar field.

  3. [Cardiotoxicity of local anesthetics].

    PubMed

    de La Coussaye, J E; Eledjam, J J; Brugada, J; Sassine, A

    1993-01-01

    The intravascular administration and the high blood resorption of local anesthetic agents are known to induce neurotoxic accidents. However, the use of potent local anesthetic drugs such as bupivacaine is responsible for serious cardiotoxic accidents with a mortality of about 50%. Indeed, bupivacaine induces both electrophysiologic and haemodynamic disturbances with the occurrence of conduction blocks, arrhythmias and cardiovascular collapse. Moreover, cardiotoxicity is worsened by: bupivacaine-induced sympathetic activation which facilitates tachycardia and arrhythmias, metabolic abnormalities such as hypoxia, acidosis, hyperkaliemia and hypothermia, pregnancy, diazepam pretreatment, and the antiarrhythmic drugs. In case of cardiac arrest, CPR must be made. In the other cases, the first treatment is to oxygenate, to intubate the trachea and to ventilate the lungs, and then to stop convulsions. Specific cardiac resuscitation remains controversial because it is based principally on experimental results. We demonstrated that the combination of clonidine and dobutamine is efficient to reverse both haemodynamic and electrophysiologic impairments induced by a large dose of bupivacaine in anesthetized dogs. Whatever the efficiency of specific resuscitation, it must be emphasized that prevention of toxic accident must always include: the best choice of local anesthetic drug (e.g.: lidocaine+alpha-2 agonist vs bupivacaine), test dose, aspiration and slow administration. Finally, the monitoring of regional anaesthesia must be similar to that in use for general anaesthesia and drugs and devices for resuscitation must be ready. PMID:8287299

  4. Acoustic source localization.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Tribikram

    2014-01-01

    In this article different techniques for localizing acoustic sources are described and the advantages/disadvantages of these techniques are discussed. Some source localization techniques are restricted to isotropic structures while other methods can be applied to anisotropic structures as well. Some techniques require precise knowledge of the direction dependent velocity profiles in the anisotropic body while other techniques do not require that knowledge. Some methods require accurate values of the time of arrival of the acoustic waves at the receivers while other techniques can function without that information. Published papers introducing various techniques emphasize the advantages of the introduced techniques while ignoring and often not mentioning the limitations and weaknesses of the new techniques. What is lacking in the literature is a comprehensive review and comparison of the available techniques; this article attempts to do that. After reviewing various techniques the paper concludes which source localization technique should be most effective for what type of structure and what the current research needs are. PMID:23870388

  5. Enhanced local tomography

    DOEpatents

    Katsevich, Alexander J.; Ramm, Alexander G.

    1996-01-01

    Local tomography is enhanced to determine the location and value of a discontinuity between a first internal density of an object and a second density of a region within the object. A beam of radiation is directed in a predetermined pattern through the region of the object containing the discontinuity. Relative attenuation data of the beam is determined within the predetermined pattern having a first data component that includes attenuation data through the region. In a first method for evaluating the value of the discontinuity, the relative attenuation data is inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA. to define the location S of the density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA. is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA.. In a second method for evaluating the value of the discontinuity, a gradient value for a mollified local tomography function .gradient..function..sub..LAMBDA..epsilon. (x.sub.ij) is determined along the discontinuity; and the value of the jump of the density across the discontinuity curve (or surface) S is estimated from the gradient values.

  6. Local Affinity Release.

    PubMed

    Delplace, Vianney; Obermeyer, Jaclyn; Shoichet, Molly S

    2016-07-26

    The use of hydrogels for therapeutic delivery is a burgeoning area of investigation. These water-swollen polymer matrices are ideal platforms for localized drug delivery that can be further combined with specific ligands or nanotechnologies to advance the controlled release of small-molecule drugs and proteins. Due to the advantage of hydrophobic, electrostatic, or specific extracellular matrix interactions, affinity-based strategies can overcome burst release and challenges associated with encapsulation. Future studies will provide innovative binding tools, truly stimuli-responsive systems, and original combinations of emerging technologies to control the release of therapeutics spatially and temporally. Local drug delivery can be achieved by directly injecting a therapeutic to its site of action and is advantageous because off-target effects associated with systemic delivery can be minimized. For prolonged benefit, a vehicle that provides sustained drug release is required. Hydrogels are versatile platforms for localized drug release, owing to the large library of biocompatible building blocks from which they can be formed. Injectable hydrogel formulations that gel quickly in situ and provide sustained release of therapeutics are particularly advantageous to minimize invasiveness. The incorporation of polymers, ligands or nanoparticles that have an affinity for the therapeutic of interest improve control over the release of small-molecule drugs and proteins from hydrogels, enabling spatial and temporal control over the delivery. Such affinity-based strategies can overcome drug burst release and challenges associated with protein instability, allowing more effective therapeutic molecule delivery for a range of applications from therapeutic contact lenses to ischemic tissue regeneration. PMID:27403513

  7. Localized acoustic surface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  8. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  9. Local Group Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Delgado, David

    2013-11-01

    List of contributors; List of participants; Preface; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1. The formation of the Milky Way in the CDM paradigm Ken Freeman; 2. Dark matter content and tidal effects in Local Group dwarf galaxies Steven R. Majewski; 3. Notes on the missing satellites problem James Bullock; 4. The Milky Way satellite galaxies Pavel Kroupa; 5. Stellar tidal streams Rodrigo Ibata; 6. Tutorial: the analysis of colour-magnitude diagrams David Valls-Gabaud; 7. Tutorial: modeling tidal streams using N-body simulations Jorge Peñarrubia.

  10. Research fuels local economies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosisio, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Research from US DOA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has resulted in a number of new products, alternative crops, and an increase in planted acreage of crops due to pest control by pheromones. Superslurper, produced from cornstarch, was found to absorb 1400 times its weight in moisture. This material is being used in fuel filters to remove water in fuel tanks and pumps. There is a growing market for these filters; superslurpers also are used in body powders, diapers, absorbent soft goods, batteries, soil additives, and in medical and recreational coldpacks. Local economies have benefited as a direct result of ARS efforts.

  11. The Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, S.

    2006-09-01

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere --- the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and climate. Since the LISM shares the same volume as practically all known extrasolar planets, the prototypical debris disks systems, and nearby low-mass star-formation sites, it will be important to understand the structures of the LISM and how they may influence planetary atmospheres.

  12. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  13. LOCALITY AND REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    1980-02-01

    Einstein's principle that no signal travels faster than suggests that observations in one spacetime region should not depend on whether or not a radioactive decay is detected in a spacelike separated region. This locality property is incompatible with the predictions of quantum theory, and this incompatibility holds independently of the questions of realism, objective reality, and hidden variables. It holds both in the pragmatic quantum theory of Bohr and in realistic frameworks. It is shown here to hold in a completed realistic quantum theory that reconciles Einstein's demand for a description of reality itself with Bohr's contention that quantum theory is complete. This completed realistic quantum theory has no hidden variables, and no objective reality in which observable attributes can become definite independently of observers. The, theory is described in some detail, with particular attention to those aspects related to the question of locality. This completed realistic quantum theory is in principle more comprehensive than Bohr.' s pragmatic quantum theory because it is not limited in principle by the requirement that the observed system be physically separated from the observing one. Applications are discussed.

  14. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Katsevich, Alexander J.

    1998-01-01

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  15. All Holdings Are Local: Archivists and Local Government Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell D.

    2004-01-01

    Archivists working in repositories that contain local government records play an integral role within the local community. Unlike their colleagues in state, regional, or national repositories, the local government archivist concentrates on a small geographic region and demonstrates knowledge of the politics, history, and socio-economics of the…

  16. THz Local Oscillator Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Siegel, Peter H.

    Most operational Submillimeter-wave radio telescopes, both space borne and ground based, employ local oscillator sources based on Gunn diodes followed by whisker contacted Schottky multipliers. Enough progress, however, has been made on a number of fronts to conclude that next generation of radio telescopes that become operational in the new Millennium will have a different local oscillator (LO) generation architecture. MMIC power amplifiers with impressive gain in the Ka- to-W band have enabled the use of microwave synthesizers which can then be actively multiplied to provide a frequency agile power source beyond 100 GHz. This medium power millimeter source can then be amplified to enable efficient pumping of follow-on balanced multiplier stages. Input power to the multipliers can be further enhanced by power combining to achieve close to half a Watt at W-band. An 800 GHz three-stage multiplier chain, implemented this way has demonstrated a peak output power of 1 mW. A second advance in LO generation lies in the Schottky diode varactor technology. Planar Schottky diode multipliers have now been demonstrated up to 1500 GHz and it can be assumed that most of the future multiplier chains will be based on these robust devices rather than the whisker contacted diode of the past. The ability to produce planar GaAs diode chips deep into the THz range, with submicron dimensions, has opened up a wide range of circuit design space which can be taken advantage of to improve efficiency, bandwidth, and power handling capability of the multipliers. A third breakthrough has been the demonstration of photonic based LO sources utilizing GaAs photomixers. These sources, though not yet implemented in robust space borne missions, offer a number of advantages over their electronic counterparts, including extremely broad tuning, fiber coupled components, and solid-state implementation. Another development, which holds some promise, is the use of micro-machining technology to implement

  17. Modeling the Local Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. P.

    Modeling the Local Bubble is one of those activities fraught with danger. It is very easy to be too naive, to fail to consider the dependence of the model on assumptions about the nearby ambient state, or the likelihood of such a structure. It is similarly easy to become so caught up in the details of the vicinity that it is unclear where to begin a necessarily idealized modeling effort. And finally, it is important to remember that the data we have may in some cases be lying to us, and that we have not yet learned to read their facial expressions quite carefully enough. That said, I've tried in this paper to be helpful to those who may wish to take the risks. I surveyed the very most basic stories that the data seem to tell, and pointed out the standard coincidences that may be telling us a lot about what is happening, but may turn out once again to have been just coincidences. I've described 5 distinct conceptions that in one flavor or another pretty well survey the collection of mental images that have so far been carried by those who've attempted models. One may be right, or something entirely different may be more appropriate. It's at least vital to realize that a conception comes first, followed by a simplified model of details. I've also included a long list of questions directed at observers. Some have partial answers, some one wouldn't know today quite how to approach. But it is a list that students of the soft x-ray background, interstellar absorption lines, possible instrumentation, and the heliosphere may wish to review from time to time, just to see whether they can figure out how to be more helpful. There is another list for modelers, things the models must address, however-so-flimsily if necessary, because there are strong observational constraints (and stronger ones coming) on what can and cannot be present in the local ISM. To that I've added a few remarks concerning x-ray emission coming from beyond the Local Bubble, and another few on how x

  18. Stable local oscillator microcircuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. The StaLO uses a comb generator followed by surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. The comb generator creates a set of harmonic components of the 100MHz input signal. The SAW filters are narrow bandpass filters that are used to select the desired component and reject all others. The resulting circuit has very low sideband power levels and low phase noise (both less than -40dBc) that is limited primarily by the phase noise level of the input signal.

  19. Headphone localization of speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with nonindividualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  20. The local minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moelbert, S.; De Los Rios, P.

    2002-01-01

    Ecologists and economists try to explain collective behavior in terms of competitive systems of selfish individuals with the ability to learn from the past. Statistical physicists have been investigating models which might contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these systems. During the last 3 yr one intuitive model, commonly referred to as the minority game (MG), has attracted considerable attention. Powerful yet simple, the minority game has produced encouraging results which can explain the temporal behavior of competitive systems. Here we switch the interest to the phenomena due to a distribution of the individuals in space. For analyzing these effects we modify the minority game and the local minority game (LMG) is introduced. We study the system both numerically and analytically, using the customary techniques already developed for the ordinary Minority Game.

  1. Sleep locally, act globally.

    PubMed

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

    2012-10-01

    In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

  2. Localized wave pulse experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

    1999-06-01

    The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

  3. Going Local to Find Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / ... the time. From the MedlinePlus page on Traumatic Brain Injury, you can use Go Local to find ...

  4. Meeting the Local Skills Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beccarelli, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    In Brittany, a project that integrates training and social development was designed to meet local labor market needs. Key features are innovative uses of training (pretraining, alternating training and work) and strong company involvement in local regeneration. (SK)

  5. Artinianness of local cohomology modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghapournahr, Moharram; Melkersson, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Some uniform theorems on the artinianness of certain local cohomology modules are proven in a general situation. They generalize and imply previous results about the artinianness of some special local cohomology modules in the graded case.

  6. Going Local to Find Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall ... local health and social services for survivors of TBI is as important as knowing about the medical ...

  7. Genomic analysis of RNA localization

    PubMed Central

    Taliaferro, J Matthew; Wang, Eric T; Burge, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    The localization of mRNAs to specific subcellular sites is widespread, allowing cells to spatially restrict and regulate protein production, and playing important roles in development and cellular physiology. This process has been studied in mechanistic detail for several RNAs. However, the generality or specificity of RNA localization systems and mechanisms that impact the many thousands of localized mRNAs has been difficult to assess. In this review, we discuss the current state of the field in determining which RNAs localize, which RNA sequences mediate localization, the protein factors involved, and the biological implications of localization. For each question, we examine prominent systems and techniques that are used to study individual messages, highlight recent genome-wide studies of RNA localization, and discuss the potential for adapting other high-throughput approaches to the study of localization. PMID:25483039

  8. Estimation of local spatial scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of local scale asserts that for a given class of psychophysical measurements, performance at any two visual field locations is equated by magnifying the targets by the local scale associated with each location. Local scale has been hypothesized to be equal to cortical magnification or alternatively to the linear density of receptors or ganglion cells. Here, it is shown that it is possible to estimate local scale without prior knowledge about the scale or its physiological basis.

  9. Local virial and tensor theorems.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Leon

    2011-11-17

    We show that for any wave function and potential the local virial theorem can always be satisfied 2K(r) = r·ΔV by choosing a particular expression for the local kinetic energy. In addition, we show that for each choice of local kinetic energy there are an infinite number of quasi-probability distributions which will generate the same expression. We also consider the local tensor virial theorem. PMID:21863837

  10. Local Molecular Orbitals from a Projection onto Localized Centers.

    PubMed

    Heßelmann, Andreas

    2016-06-14

    A localization method for molecular orbitals is presented which exploits the locality of the eigenfunctions associated with the largest eigenvalues of the matrix representation of spatially localized functions. Local molecular orbitals are obtained by a projection of the canonical orbitals onto the set of the eigenvectors which correspond to the largest eigenvalues of these matrices. Two different types of spatially localized functions were chosen in this work, a two-parameter smooth-step-type function and the weight functions determined by a Hirshfeld partitioning of the molecular volume. It is shown that the method can provide fairly local occupied molecular orbitals if the positions of the set of local functions are set to the molecular bond centers. The method can also yield reasonably well-localized virtual molecular orbitals, but here, a sensible choice of the positions of the functions are the atomic sites and the locality then depends more strongly on the shape of the set of local functions. The method is tested for a range of polypeptide molecules in two different conformations, namely, a helical and a β-sheet conformation. Futhermore, it is shown that an adequate locality of the occupied and virtual orbitals can also be obtained for highly delocalized systems. PMID:27164445

  11. Effects of Preoperative Local Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women With Prolapse: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Good, Meadow M.; Roshanravan, Shayzreen M.; Shi, Haolin; Schaffer, Joseph I.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Word, R. Ann

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) increases in prevalence with age; recurrence after surgical repair is common. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of local estrogen treatment on connective tissue synthesis and breakdown in the vaginal wall of postmenopausal women planning surgical repair of POP. Design: This was a randomized trial. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic tertiary medical center. Patients or Other Participants: Postmenopausal women with a uterus and symptomatic anterior and/or apical prolapse at stage 2 or greater participated in the study. Intervention: Estrogen (Premarin) or placebo cream for 6 weeks preoperatively was the intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Full-thickness anterior apical vaginal wall biopsies were obtained at the time of hysterectomy and analyzed for mucosa and muscularis thickness, connective tissue synthesis, and degradation. Serum levels of estrone and 17β-estradiol were analyzed at baseline and the day of surgery using highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Fifteen women per group (n = 30 total) were randomized; 13 per group underwent surgery. Among drug-adherent participants (n = 8 estrogen, n = 13 placebo), epithelial and muscularis thickness was increased 1.8- and 2.7-fold (P = .002 and P =.088, respectively) by estrogen. Collagen types 1α1 and 1α2 mRNA increased 6.0- and 1.8-fold in the vaginal muscularis (P < .05 for both); collagen type Ia protein increased 9-fold in the muscularis (P = .012), whereas collagen III was not changed significantly. MMP-12 (human macrophage elastase) mRNA was suppressed in the vaginal mucosa from estrogen-treated participants (P = .011), and matrix metalloprotease-9 activity was decreased 6-fold in the mucosa and 4-fold in the muscularis (P = .02). Consistent with menopausal norms, serum estrone and 17β-estradiol were low and did not differ among the two groups. Conclusions: Vaginal estrogen application for 6

  12. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin Type I Motif 7

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Liya; Jorgensen, Marda; Oh, Seh-Hoon; Protopapadakis, Yianni; Gjymishka, Altin; Brown, Alicia; Robinson, Paulette; Liu, Chuanju; Scott, Edward W.; Schultz, Gregory S.; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic progenitor/oval cell (OC) activation occurs when hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited and is tightly associated with the fibrogenic response during severe liver damage. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is important for OC activation and contributes to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. By using the Yeast Two-Hybrid approach, we identified a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin repeat 7 (ADAMTS7) as a CTGF binding protein. In vitro characterization demonstrated CTGF binding and processing by ADAMTS7. Moreover, Adamts7 mRNA was induced during OC activation, after the implantation of 2-acetylaminofluorene with partial hepatectomy in rats or on feeding a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet in mice. X-Gal staining showed Adamts7 expression in hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α+ hepatocytes and desmin+ myofibroblasts surrounding reactive ducts in DDC-treated Adamts7−/− mice carrying a knocked-in LacZ gene. Adamts7 deficiency was associated with higher transcriptional levels of Ctgf and OC markers and enhanced OC proliferation compared to Adamts7+/+ controls during DDC-induced liver injury. We also observed increased α-smooth muscle actin and procollagen type I mRNAs, large fibrotic areas in α-smooth muscle actin and Sirius red staining, and increased production of hepatic collagen by hydroxyproline measurement. These results suggest that ADAMTS7 is a new protease for CTGF protein and a novel regulator in the OC compartment, where its absence causes CTGF accumulation, leading to increased OC activation and biliary fibrosis. PMID:25843683

  13. Transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraensis is activated by an endogenous metalloprotease.

    PubMed

    Zotzel, J; Keller, P; Fuchsbauer, H-L

    2003-08-01

    Streptomyces mobaraensis secretes a Ca2+-independent transglutaminase (TGase) that is activated by removing an N-terminal peptide from a precursor protein during submerged culture in a complex medium [Pasternack, R., Dorsch, S., Otterbach, J. T., Robenek, I. R., Wolf, S. & Fuchsbauer, H.-L. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 257, 570-576]. However, an activating protease could not be identified, probably because of the presence of a 14-kDa protein (P14) belonging to the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor family. In contrast, if the microorganism was allowed to grow on a minimal medium, several soluble proteases were extracted, among them the TGase-activating protease (TAMEP). TAMEP was purified by sequential chromatography on DEAE- and Arg-Sepharose and used to determine the cleavage site of TGase. It was clearly shown that the peptide bond between Phe(-4) and Ser(-5) was hydrolyzed, indicating that at least one additional peptidase is necessary to complete TGase processing, even if TAMEP cleavage was sufficient to obtain total activity. Sequence analysis from the N-terminus of TAMEP revealed the close relationship to a zinc endo-protease from S. griseus. The S. griseus protease differs from other members of the M4 protease family, such as thermolysin, in that it may be inhibited by the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor. P14 likewise inhibits TAMEP in approximately equimolar concentrations, suggesting its important role in regulating TGase activity. PMID:12869197

  14. Inference for local autocorrelations in locally stationary models

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2014-01-01

    For non-stationary processes, the time-varying correlation structure provides useful insights into the underlying model dynamics. We study estimation and inferences for local autocorrelation process in locally stationary time series. Our constructed simultaneous confidence band can be used to address important hypothesis testing problems, such as whether the local autocorrelation process is indeed time-varying and whether the local autocorrelation is zero. In particular, our result provides an important generalization of the R function acf() to locally stationary Gaussian processes. Simulation studies and two empirical applications are developed. For the global temperature series, we find that the local autocorrelations are time-varying and have a “V” shape during 1910–1960. For the S&P 500 index, we conclude that the returns satisfy the efficient-market hypothesis whereas the magnitudes of returns show significant local autocorrelations. PMID:26097285

  15. Causal Learning with Local Computations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernbach, Philip M.; Sloman, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed and tested a psychological theory of causal structure learning based on local computations. Local computations simplify complex learning problems via cues available on individual trials to update a single causal structure hypothesis. Structural inferences from local computations make minimal demands on memory, require…

  16. Collecting and Using Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marcia Muth

    The local history collection should contain: county histories; city and village histories; state and regional histories; anniversary booklets; company histories; local newspapers; local magazines; genealogies; family albums; diaries; journals, and letters; account books; club yearbooks; school annuals; telephone books, city directories and local…

  17. Local Government: The Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Service-Learning Network" looks at the ways that service learning can transform local government into a learning laboratory for civic education. The first article, "Creating the Missing Link: Local Government, Service Learning, and Civic Education" (Todd Clark), introduces the issue. "Service Learning and Local Government" (Ann…

  18. Control of Cell Migration Through Mrna Localization and Local Translation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guoning; Mingle, Lisa; Van De Water, Livingston; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many normal and pathological functions such as development, wound healing, immune defense and tumor metastasis. Polarized migrating cells exhibit asymmetric distribution of many cytoskeletal proteins which is believed to be critical for establishing and maintaining cell polarity and directional cell migration. To target these proteins to the site of function, cells use a variety of mechanisms such as protein transport and mRNA localization-mediated local protein synthesis. In contrast to the former which is intensively investigated and relatively well understood, the latter has been under-studied and relatively poorly understood. However, recent advances in the study of mRNA localization and local translation have demonstrated that mRNA localization and local translation are specific and effective ways for protein localization and are crucial for embryo development, neuronal function and many other cellular processes. There are excellent reviews on mRNA localization, transport and translation during development and other cellular processes. This review will focus on mRNA localization-mediated local protein biogenesis and its impact on somatic cell migration. PMID:25264217

  19. Local positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  20. Local Universe Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is addressing the "small-scale crisis" and understanding structure formation at the smallest scales. Standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmological simulations of Milky Way-size DM halos predict many more DM sub-halos than the number of dwarf galaxies observed. This is the so-called Missing Satellites Problem. The most popular interpretation of the Missing Satellites Problem is that the smallest dark matter halos in the universe are extremely inefficient at forming stars. The virialized extent of the Milky Way's halo should contain ~500 satellites, while only ˜100 satellites and dwarfs are observed in the whole Local Group. Despite the large amount of theoretical work and new optical observations, the discrepancy, even if reduced, still persists between observations and hierarchical models, regardless of the model parameters. It may be possible to find those isolated ultra-faint missing dwarf galaxies via their neutral gas component, which is one of the goals we are pursuing with the SKA precursor KAT-7 in South Africa, and soon with the SKA pathfinder MeerKAT.

  1. Fooled by local robustness.

    PubMed

    Sniedovich, Moshe

    2012-10-01

    One would have expected the considerable public debate created by Nassim Taleb's two best selling books on uncertainty, Fooled by Randomness and The Black Swan, to inspire greater caution to the fundamental difficulties posed by severe uncertainty. Yet, methodologies exhibiting an incautious approach to uncertainty have been proposed recently in a range of publications. So, the objective of this short note is to call attention to a prime example of an incautious approach to severe uncertainty that is manifested in the proposition to use the concept radius of stability as a measure of robustness against severe uncertainty. The central proposition of this approach, which is exemplified in info-gap decision theory, is this: use a simple radius of stability model to analyze and manage a severe uncertainty that is characterized by a vast uncertainty space, a poor point estimate, and a likelihood-free quantification of uncertainty. This short discussion serves then as a reminder that the generic radius of stability model is a model of local robustness. It is, therefore, utterly unsuitable for the treatment of severe uncertainty when the latter is characterized by a poor estimate of the parameter of interest, a vast uncertainty space, and a likelihood-free quantification of uncertainty. PMID:22384828

  2. Local quantum ergodic conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Zapfe, W. P. Karel; Ozorio de Almeida, Alfredo M.

    2015-04-01

    The quantum ergodic conjecture equates the Wigner function for a typical eigenstate of a classically chaotic Hamiltonian with a δ function on the energy shell. This ensures the evaluation of classical ergodic expectations of simple observables, in agreement with Shnirelman's theorem, but this putative Wigner function violates several important requirements. Consequently, we transfer the conjecture to the Fourier transform of the Wigner function, that is, the chord function. We show that all the relevant consequences of the usual conjecture require only information contained within a small (Planck) volume around the origin of the phase space of chords: translations in ordinary phase space. Loci of complete orthogonality between a given eigenstate and its nearby translation are quite elusive for the Wigner function, but our local conjecture stipulates that their pattern should be universal for ergodic eigenstates of the same Hamiltonian lying within a classically narrow energy range. Our findings are supported by numerical evidence in a Hamiltonian exhibiting soft chaos. Heavily scarred eigenstates are remarkable counter-examples of the ergodic universal pattern.

  3. Impact of Local Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) use observations from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) wind tower network and the CCAFS (XMR) daily rawinsonde observations (RAOB) to issue and verify wind advisories and warnings for operations. These observations are also used by the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) in Houston, Texas and the NWS Melbourne, Florida (NWS MLB) to initialize their locally-run mesoscale models. In addition, SMG uses these observations to support shuttle landings at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Due to impending budget cuts, some or all of the KSC/CCAFS wind towers on the east-central Florida mainland and the XMR RAOBs may be eliminated. The locations of the mainland towers and XMR RAOB site are shown in Figure I. The loss of these data may impact the forecast capability of the 45 WS, SMG and NWS MLB. The AMU was tasked to conduct an objective independent modeling study to help determine how important these observations are to the accuracy of the model output used by the forecasters. To accomplish this, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) performed a sensitivity study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized with and without KSC/CCAFS wind tower and XMR RAOB data.

  4. Measurement dependent locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütz, Gilles; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration and use of Bell-nonlocality, a concept that is fundamentally striking and is at the core of applications in device independent quantum information processing, relies heavily on the assumption of measurement independence, also called the assumption of free choice. The latter cannot be verified or guaranteed. In this paper, we consider a relaxation of the measurement independence assumption. We briefly review the results of Pütz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 190402), which show that with our relaxation, the set of so-called measurement dependent local (MDL) correlations is a polytope, i.e. it can be fully described using a finite set of linear inequalities. Here we analyze this polytope, first in the simplest case of two parties with binary inputs and outputs, for which we give a full characterization. We show that partially entangled states are preferable to the maximally entangled state when dealing with measurement dependence in this scenario. We further present a method which transforms any Bell-inequality into an MDL inequality and give valid inequalities for the case of arbitrary number of parties as well as one for arbitrary number of inputs. We introduce the assumption of independent sources in the measurement dependence scenario and give a full analysis for the bipartite scenario with binary inputs and outputs. Finally, we establish a link between measurement dependence and another strong hindrance in certifying nonlocal correlations: nondetection events.

  5. All strategy is local.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Bruce; Kahn, Judd

    2005-09-01

    The aim of strategy is to master a market environment by understanding and anticipating the actions of other economic agents, especially competitors. A firm that has some sort of competitive advantage-privileged access to customers, for instance--will have relatively few competitors to contend with, since potential competitors without an advantage, if they have their wits about them, will stay away. Thus, competitive advantages are actually barriers to entry and vice versa. In markets that are exposed, by contrast, competition is intense. If the incumbents have even brief success in earning greater than normal returns on investments, new entrants will swarm in to grab a share of the profits. Sooner or later, the additional competition will push returns as far down as the firms' costs of capital. For firms operating in such markets, the only choice is to forget about strategy and run the business as efficiently as possible. Barriers to entry are easier to maintain in a competitive arena that is "local", either in the geographic sense or in the sense of being limited to one product or a handful of related ones. The two most powerful competitive advantages-customer captivity and economies of scale-are more achievable and sustainable in circumscribed markets of this kind. Their opposites are the open markets and host of rivals that are features of globalization. Compapies entering such markets risk frittering away the advantages they secured on smaller playing fields.., Ifa company wants to grow but still obtain superior returns, the authors argue, the best strategy is to dominate a series of discrete but preferably contiguous markets and then expand only at their edges. WalMart's diminishing margins over the past 15 years are strong evidence of the danger of proceeding otherwise. PMID:16171214

  6. Locally finite dimensional Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Johanna

    We prove that in a locally finite dimensional Lie algebra L, any maximal, locally solvable subalgebra is the stabilizer of a maximal, generalized flag in an integrable, faithful module over L. Then we prove two structure theorems for simple, locally finite dimensional Lie algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p which give sufficient conditions for the algebras to be of the form [K(R, *), K( R, *)] / (Z(R) ∩ [ K(R, *), K(R, *)]) for a simple, locally finite dimensional associative algebra R with involution *. Lastly, we explore the noncommutative geometry of locally simple representations of the diagonal locally finite Lie algebras sl(ninfinity), o( ninfinity), and sp(n infinity).

  7. Localized RNAs and their functions.

    PubMed

    Ding, D; Lipshitz, H D

    1993-10-01

    The eukaryotic cell is partitioned by membranes into spatially and functionally discrete subcellular organelles. In addition, the cytoplasm itself is partitioned into discrete subregions that carry out specific functions. Such compartmentation can be achieved by localizing proteins and RNAs to different subcellular regions. This review will focus on localized RNAs, with a particular emphasis on RNA localization mechanisms and on the possible biological functions of localization of these RNAs. In recent years, an increasing number of localized RNAs have been identified in a variety of cell types among many animal species. Emphasis here will be on localized RNAs in the most intensively studied systems-Drosophila and Xenopus eggs and early embryos. PMID:7506023

  8. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  9. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value of the counter, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  10. Localized structure of Euglena bioconvection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iima, Makoto; Shoji, Erika; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Hiroshima University Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Bioconvection of a suspension of Euglena gracilis, a photosensitive flagellate whose body length is approximately 50 micrometers, was experimentally studied. Under strong light intensity, Euglena has a negative phototaxis; they tend to go away from the light source. When the bright illumination is given from the bottom, a large scale spatio-temporal pattern is generated as a result of interaction between Euglena and surrounding flow. Recently, localized convection pattern had been reported, however, the generation process and interaction of the localized convection cells has not been analyzed. We performed experimental study to understand the localization mechanism, in particular, the onset of bioconvection and lateral localization behavior due to phototaxis. Experiments started from different initial condition suggests a bistability near the onset of the convection as binary fluid convection that also shows localized convection cells. Dynamics of localized convections cells, which is similar to the binary fluid convection case although the basic equations are not the same, is also reported.

  11. Global/Local Dynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, A; Das, S; Lawless, D; Ng, B

    2006-10-10

    Many dynamic systems involve a number of entities that are largely independent of each other but interact with each other via a subset of state variables. We present global/local dynamic models (GLDMs) to capture these kinds of systems. In a GLDM, the state of an entity is decomposed into a globally influenced state that depends on other entities, and a locally influenced state that depends only on the entity itself. We present an inference algorithm for GLDMs called global/local particle filtering, that introduces the principle of reasoning globally about global dynamics and locally about local dynamics. We have applied GLDMs to an asymmetric urban warfare environment, in which enemy units form teams to attack important targets, and the task is to detect such teams as they form. Experimental results for this application show that global/local particle filtering outperforms ordinary particle filtering and factored particle filtering.

  12. Localization algorithm for acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, V.; Vargas, Y.; Ruzzante, J.; Gaete, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an iterative algorithm for localization of acoustic emission (AE) source is presented. The main advantage of the system is that it is independent of the 'ability' in the determination of signal level to triggering the signal by the researcher. The system was tested in cylindrical samples with an AE localized in a known position; the precision in the source determination was of about 2 mm, better than the precision obtained with classic localization algorithms (˜1 cm).

  13. Statistical signatures of photon localization

    PubMed

    Chabanov; Stoytchev; Genack

    2000-04-20

    The realization that electron localization in disordered systems (Anderson localization) is ultimately a wave phenomenon has led to the suggestion that photons could be similarly localized by disorder. This conjecture attracted wide interest because the differences between photons and electrons--in their interactions, spin statistics, and methods of injection and detection--may open a new realm of optical and microwave phenomena, and allow a detailed study of the Anderson localization transition undisturbed by the Coulomb interaction. To date, claims of three-dimensional photon localization have been based on observations of the exponential decay of the electromagnetic wave as it propagates through the disordered medium. But these reports have come under close scrutiny because of the possibility that the decay observed may be due to residual absorption, and because absorption itself may suppress localization. Here we show that the extent of photon localization can be determined by a different approach--measurement of the relative size of fluctuations of certain transmission quantities. The variance of relative fluctuations accurately reflects the extent of localization, even in the presence of absorption. Using this approach, we demonstrate photon localization in both weakly and strongly scattering quasi-one-dimensional dielectric samples and in periodic metallic wire meshes containing metallic scatterers, while ruling it out in three-dimensional mixtures of aluminium spheres. PMID:10786786

  14. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-06-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  15. Local modes and localization in a multicomponent nonlinear lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Forinash, K.,; Cretegny, T.; Peyrard, M.,; Cretegny, T.,; Peyrard, M.,

    1997-04-01

    The existence, stability, and the conditions for the formation of nonlinear localized modes are investigated in a two-component one-dimensional lattice. In spite of their possible coupling with acoustic phonons, discrete breathers can exist as exact stable solutions or show a very slow decay. Nonlinear energy localization through energy exchange between localized excitations, exhibited previously for a one-component lattice [T. Dauxois and M. Peyrard, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 70}, 3935 (1993)] is more general and also valid in a multicomponent lattice. A self-localization of thermal fluctuations is also observed in such a system. The model is used to investigate the effect of bending proteins on DNA. It shows that a bend can collect the energy of moving localized modes or insulate one part of the molecule from transfers of energy from large amplitude excitations in other parts. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-04-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  17. How Just is Local Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultze, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of criminal law practices suggest that variations in treatment from locality to locality depend on the judicial culture of the particular city, socioeconomic status of the accused, and the attitudes and actions of the police. This journal is available from the Law in American Society Foundation, 33 North LaSalle Street, Suite 1700; Chicago…

  18. Student Papers in Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Johnson County Center for Local History.

    Thirteen papers on Kansas and Johnson County, Kansas history are presented. The papers were written by students in a course at the Johnson County Center for Local History or for independent study in local history. The papers are: "Conditions and Construction of Gardner Lake"; "The History of St. Joseph's Church, Shawnee, Kansas"; "Patrons of…

  19. Hendrix College Local Food Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    By purchasing locally grown foods, Hendrix College (Arkansas) has found it can offer better nutrition, cut environmental damage, and spur economic development. The Local Food Project has reduced the amount of food purchased out of state from 90-70 percent, and is aiming for 50 percent in three years. Student participation is integral. (Author/MSE)

  20. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

  1. Local Oscillatory Rheology from Echography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Michel, Brice; Gibaud, Thomas; Leocmach, Mathieu; Manneville, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Local oscillatory rheology from echography consists of a traditional rheology experiment synchronized with high-frequency ultrasonic imaging which gives access to the local material response to oscillatory shear. Besides classical global rheological quantities, this method provides quantitative time-resolved information on the local displacement across the entire gap of the rheometer. From the local displacement response, we compute and decompose the local strain in its Fourier components and measure the spatially resolved viscoelastic moduli. After benchmarking our method on homogeneous Newtonian fluids and soft solids, we demonstrate that this technique is well suited to characterize spatially heterogeneous samples, wall slip, and the emergence of nonlinearity under large-amplitude oscillatory stress in soft materials.

  2. A local coastal adaptation pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, J.; Graham, S.; Mortreux, C.; Fincher, R.; Waters, E.; Hurlimann, A.

    2014-12-01

    Local governments are not adapting to sea-level rise because it is difficult to build consensus on the need for change and the best way to implement it. In theory, adaptation pathways can resolve this impasse. Adaptation pathways are a sequence of linked strategies that are triggered by a change in environmental conditions, and in which initial decisions can have low regrets and preserve options for future generations. We report on a project that sought to empirically test the relevance and feasibility of a local pathway for adapting to sea-level rise. We find that triggers of change that have social impacts are salient to local people, and developing a local adaptation pathway helps build consensus among diverse constituencies. Our results show that adaptation pathways are feasible at the local scale, offering a low-risk, low-cost way to begin the long process of adaptation to sea-level rise.

  3. Localization scheme for relativistic spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupka, J.; Hanrath, M.; Dolg, M.

    2011-12-01

    A new method to determine localized complex-valued one-electron functions in the occupied space is presented. The approach allows the calculation of localized orbitals regardless of their structure and of the entries in the spinor coefficient matrix, i.e., one-, two-, and four-component Kramers-restricted or unrestricted one-electron functions with real or complex expansion coefficients. The method is applicable to localization schemes that maximize (or minimize) a functional of the occupied spinors and that use a localization operator for which a matrix representation is available. The approach relies on the approximate joint diagonalization (AJD) of several Hermitian (symmetric) matrices which is utilized in electronic signal processing. The use of AJD in this approach has the advantage that it allows a reformulation of the localization criterion on an iterative 2 × 2 pair rotating basis in an analytical closed form which has not yet been described in the literature for multi-component (complex-valued) spinors. For the one-component case, the approach delivers the same Foster-Boys or Pipek-Mezey localized orbitals that one obtains from standard quantum chemical software, whereas in the multi-component case complex-valued spinors satisfying the selected localization criterion are obtained. These localized spinors allow the formulation of local correlation methods in a multi-component relativistic framework, which was not yet available. As an example, several heavy and super-heavy element systems are calculated using a Kramers-restricted self-consistent field and relativistic two-component pseudopotentials in order to investigate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on localization.

  4. An Open Localization and Local Communication Embodied Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Campo, Alexandre; Dorigo, Marco; Amor, Daniel; Magdalena, Luis; Félix, Monasterio-Huelin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a localization and local communication system which allows situated agents to communicate locally, obtaining at the same time both the range and the bearing of the emitter without the need of any centralized control or any external reference. The system relies on infrared communications with frequency modulation and is composed of two interconnected modules for data and power measurement. Thanks to the open hardware license under which it is released, the research community can easily replicate the system at a low cost and/or adapt it for applications in sensor networks and in robotics.

  5. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  6. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W; Stevens, Markus F; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  7. Local and Non-⁠local Mechanisms of Polar Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Jackson, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Polar amplification (PA) is a prominent feature of currently observed and predicted future climate change suggested by both observations and models. Surface albedo feedback (SAF) has been shown to contribute prominently to the currently observed PA along with other mechanisms, e.g. involving atmospheric heat transport. SAF is believed to be a strong positive local feedback, while the atmospheric heat transport makes the connection between the Arctic and the low latitudes non-local. We will discuss several PA mechanisms and feedbacks suggested by different researchers. We will also discuss a more general method of feedback analysis that results in feedback and gain matrices. These matrices generalize (both globally and locally) the classically defined numerical gains and feedback factors and are independent of the applied forcing. The gain matrix, in particular, is shown to reveal, under any forcing scenario, the global pattern by which a given feedback process amplifies or dampens fixed-feedback temperature anomalies. Moreover, in the case of a feedback process that is not purely a function of local temperature, these matrices will show the degree to which this "local feedback process" depends on non-local perturbations. We apply this method in the context of a simple box model as well as a one-dimensional energy balance climate model.

  8. Quantum localization of classical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  9. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  10. Stress Localization in Elastic Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, Sarah; Evans, Arthur; Bende, Nakul; Hayward, Ryan; Santangelo, Christian

    Upon indentation, thin shells react by localizing strain energy in polygonal structures as opposed to a uniform axisymmetric distribution. While the formation of these localized structures are well-characterized for perfect shells, a change in shell thickness or the introduction of a crease fundamentally changes the nature of the shell deformation. We perform finite element simulations, in tandem with experiments to explore the effect of different shell geometries on the energy landscape. We find that the crease induces a new symmetry-breaking localization that does not appear in perfect shells, and we explore the deformation characteristics of the creased shell over a wide range of crease radii, and crease orientations.

  11. Speeding up local correlation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We present two techniques that can substantially speed up the local correlation methods. The first one allows one to avoid the expensive transformation of the electron-repulsion integrals from atomic orbitals to virtual space. The second one introduces an algorithm for the residual equations in the local perturbative treatment that, in contrast to the standard scheme, does not require holding the amplitudes or residuals in memory. It is shown that even an interpreter-based implementation of the proposed algorithm in the context of local MP2 method is faster and requires less memory than the highly optimized variants of conventional algorithms.

  12. Speeding up local correlation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, Daniel

    2014-12-28

    We present two techniques that can substantially speed up the local correlation methods. The first one allows one to avoid the expensive transformation of the electron-repulsion integrals from atomic orbitals to virtual space. The second one introduces an algorithm for the residual equations in the local perturbative treatment that, in contrast to the standard scheme, does not require holding the amplitudes or residuals in memory. It is shown that even an interpreter-based implementation of the proposed algorithm in the context of local MP2 method is faster and requires less memory than the highly optimized variants of conventional algorithms.

  13. Advanced local area network concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Terry

    1985-01-01

    Development of a good model of the data traffic requirements for Local Area Networks (LANs) onboard the Space Station is the driving problem in this work. A parameterized workload model is under development. An analysis contract has been started specifically to capture the distributed processing requirements for the Space Station and then to develop a top level model to simulate how various processing scenarios can handle the workload and what data communication patterns result. A summary of the Local Area Network Extendsible Simulator 2 Requirements Specification and excerpts from a grant report on the topological design of fiber optic local area networks with application to Expressnet are given.

  14. Localized functionalization of single nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, J; Lee, J I; Ratto, T V; Letant, S E

    2005-09-12

    We demonstrate the localization of chemical functionality at the entrance of single nanopores for the first time by using the controlled growth of an oxide ring. Nanopores were fabricated by Focused Ion Beam machining on silicon platforms, locally derivatized by ion beam assisted oxide deposition, and further functionalized with DNA probes via silane chemistry. Ionic current recorded through single nanopores at various stages of the fabrication process demonstrated that the apertures can be locally functionalized with DNA probes. Future applications for this functional platform include the selective detection of biological organisms and molecules by ionic current blockade measurements.

  15. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  16. Local Area Networks (The Printout).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

  17. Local reaction kinetics by imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchorski, Yuri; Rupprechter, Günther

    2016-01-01

    In the present contribution we present an overview of our recent studies using the "kinetics by imaging" approach for CO oxidation on heterogeneous model systems. The method is based on the correlation of the PEEM image intensity with catalytic activity: scaled down to the μm-sized surface regions, such correlation allows simultaneous local kinetic measurements on differently oriented individual domains of a polycrystalline metal-foil, including the construction of local kinetic phase diagrams. This allows spatially- and component-resolved kinetic studies and, e.g., a direct comparison of inherent catalytic properties of Pt(hkl)- and Pd(hkl)-domains or supported μm-sized Pd-powder agglomerates, studies of the local catalytic ignition and the role of defects and grain boundaries in the local reaction kinetics.

  18. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  19. Local reaction kinetics by imaging☆

    PubMed Central

    Suchorski, Yuri; Rupprechter, Günther

    2016-01-01

    In the present contribution we present an overview of our recent studies using the “kinetics by imaging” approach for CO oxidation on heterogeneous model systems. The method is based on the correlation of the PEEM image intensity with catalytic activity: scaled down to the μm-sized surface regions, such correlation allows simultaneous local kinetic measurements on differently oriented individual domains of a polycrystalline metal-foil, including the construction of local kinetic phase diagrams. This allows spatially- and component-resolved kinetic studies and, e.g., a direct comparison of inherent catalytic properties of Pt(hkl)- and Pd(hkl)-domains or supported μm-sized Pd-powder agglomerates, studies of the local catalytic ignition and the role of defects and grain boundaries in the local reaction kinetics. PMID:26865736

  20. Local Authority and Town Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duder, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview and definition of local authority and town planning in New Zealand. Demonstrates the relevance of planning matters to the teaching of geography. Reviews objectives of geography and specific planning methods used in several districts. (BR)

  1. Composition of Local Galactic Medium

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animated view showing the neon to oxygen ratio in the neutral gas of the local cloud, as obtained with IBEX, in comparison with the ratio for the Sun and the Milky Way galaxy. There is much less ox...

  2. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyozato, Yuta; Higuchi, Masafumi; Nojiri, Shin'ichi

    2016-03-01

    Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25]), we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space-time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009) [23].

  3. Local Realism of Macroscopic Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, R.; Paterek, T.; Kay, A.; Kurzyński, P.; Kaszlikowski, D.

    2011-08-01

    We identify conditions under which correlations resulting from quantum measurements performed on macroscopic systems (systems composed of a number of particles of the order of the Avogadro number) can be described by local realism. We argue that the emergence of local realism at the macroscopic level is caused by an interplay between the monogamous nature of quantum correlations and the fact that macroscopic measurements do not reveal properties of individual particles.

  4. Promoting local management in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Steenbergen, Frank

    2006-03-01

    There is a strong case for making greater effort to promote local groundwater management—in addition to other measures that regulate groundwater use. Though scattered, there are several examples—from India, Pakistan, Yemen and Egypt—where groundwater users effectively self-imposed restrictions on the use of groundwater. There are a number of recurrent themes in such spontaneously-developed examples of local regulation: the importance of not excluding potential users; the importance of simple, low transaction cost rules; the power of correct and accessible hydrogeological information; the possibility of making more use of demand and supply management strategies; and the important supportive role of local governments. The case is made, using examples, for actively promoting local groundwater management as an important element in balancing groundwater uses. Two programmes for promoting local groundwater management in South India are described—one focussing on participatory hydrological monitoring, and one focussing on micro-resource planning and training. In both cases the response was very positive and the conclusion is that promoting local groundwater regulation is not difficult, costly or sensitive and can reach the necessary scale quickly.

  5. Local cloning of entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  6. Localization and Quantitative Co-localization of Enamelin with Amelogenin

    PubMed Central

    Gallon, Victoria; Chen, Lisha; Yang, Xiudong; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Enamelin and amelogenin are vital proteins in enamel formation. The cooperative function of these two proteins controls crystal nucleation and morphology in vitro. We quantitatively analyzed the co-localization between enamelin and amelogenin by confocal microscopy and using two antibodies, one raised against a sequence in the porcine 32 kDa enamelin region and the other raised against full-length recombinant mouse amelogenin. We further investigated the interaction of the porcine 32 kDa enamelin and recombinant amelogenin using immuno-gold labeling. This study reports the quantitative co-localization results for postnatal days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 mandibular mouse molars. We show that amelogenin and enamelin are secreted into the extracellular matrix on the cuspal slopes of the molars at day 1 and that secretion continues to at least day 8. Quantitative co-localization analysis (QCA) was performed in several different configurations using large (45 μm height, 33 μm width) and small (7 μm diameter) regions of interest to elucidate any patterns. Co-localization patterns in day 8 samples revealed that enamelin and amelogenin co-localize near the secretory face of the ameloblasts and appear to be secreted approximately in a 1:1 ratio. The degree of co-localization decreases as the enamel matures, both along the secretory face of ameloblasts and throughout the entire thickness of the enamel. Immuno-reactivity against enamelin is concentrated along the secretory face of ameloblasts, supporting the theory that this protein together with amelogenin is intimately involved in mineral induction at the beginning of enamel formation. PMID:23563189

  7. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition. PMID:26353319

  8. Sound localization in the alligator.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Hilary S; Carr, Catherine E

    2015-11-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:26048335

  9. Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jinwoo, Lee; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation. PMID:25592077

  10. Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Jinwoo, Lee; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation. PMID:25592077

  11. Locally-referenced ultrasonic--LPS for localization and navigation.

    PubMed

    Gualda, David; Ureña, Jesús; García, Juan C; Lindo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible deployment of ultrasonic position sensors and a novel positioning algorithm suitable for the navigation of mobile robots (MRs) in extensive indoor environments. Our proposal uses several independently-referenced local positioning systems (LPS), which means that each one of them operates within its own local reference system. In a typical layout, an indoor extensive area can be covered using just a reduced set of globally-referenced LPS (GRLPS), whose beacon positions are known to the global reference system, while the rest of the space can be covered using locally-referenced LPSs (LRLPS) that can be distributed arbitrarily. The number of LRLPS and their position can be also changed at any moment. The algorithm is composed of several Bayesian filters running in parallel, so that when an MR is under the GRLPS coverage area, its position is updated by a global filter, whereas when the MR is inside the LRLPS area, its position is updated using position increments within a local filter. The navigation algorithm has been tested by simulation and with actual data obtained using a real set of ultrasonic LPSs. PMID:25412215

  12. Locally-Referenced Ultrasonic – LPS for Localization and Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Gualda, David; Ureña, Jesús; García, Juan C.; Lindo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible deployment of ultrasonic position sensors and a novel positioning algorithm suitable for the navigation of mobile robots (MRs) in extensive indoor environments. Our proposal uses several independently-referenced local positioning systems (LPS), which means that each one of them operates within its own local reference system. In a typical layout, an indoor extensive area can be covered using just a reduced set of globally-referenced LPS (GRLPS), whose beacon positions are known to the global reference system, while the rest of the space can be covered using locally-referenced LPSs (LRLPS) that can be distributed arbitrarily. The number of LRLPS and their position can be also changed at any moment. The algorithm is composed of several Bayesian filters running in parallel, so that when an MR is under the GRLPS coverage area, its position is updated by a global filter, whereas when the MR is inside the LRLPS area, its position is updated using position increments within a local filter. The navigation algorithm has been tested by simulation and with actual data obtained using a real set of ultrasonic LPSs. PMID:25412215

  13. Foreign English Language Teachers' Local Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eusafzai, Hamid Ali Khan

    2015-01-01

    ELT methods have been criticized for being limited and inadequate. Postmethod pedagogy has been offered as an alternate to these methods. The postmethod pedagogy emphasises localization of pedagogy and celebrates local culture, teachers and knowledge. Localizing pedagogy is easy for local teachers as knowledge and understanding of the local comes…

  14. Pressure ulcers. Local wound care.

    PubMed

    Goode, P S; Thomas, D R

    1997-08-01

    Local care of pressure ulcers includes wound cleansing, débridement, and dressings. Wound cleansing should remove loose debris and exudate but should not damage viable tissue. Saline irrigation is the standard. Débridement is often necessary for Stage III and IV pressure ulcers and can be performed autolytically, mechanically, enzymatically, or sharply. Prompt débridement is essential for infected wounds. Dressings should keep the wound bed continuously moist, should not be toxic to granulation tissue, and should keep the surrounding intact skin dry. Randomized, controlled clinical trials are necessary to define optimal local wound care further. PMID:9227943

  15. Multigrid for locally refined meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Y.

    1999-12-01

    A multilevel method for the solution of finite element schemes on locally refined meshes is introduced. For isotropic diffusion problems, the condition number of the two-level method is bounded independently of the mesh size and the discontinuities in the diffusion coefficient. The curves of discontinuity need not be aligned with the coarse mesh. Indeed, numerical applications with 10 levels of local refinement yield a rapid convergence of the corresponding 10-level, multigrid V-cycle and other multigrid cycles which are more suitable for parallelism even when the discontinuities are invisible on most of the coarse meshes.

  16. The Louisiana Go Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Fahrmann, Melissa; Pesch, Wendy T.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, two health sciences librarians at Baton Rouge General Medical Center created and launched the Louisiana segment of the National Library of Medicine’s Go Local program, whose ultimate goal was to improve the health information-seeking experience of the general public. Louisiana Go Local was successfully launched in October 2009, but in spring 2010, the national umbrella project was cancelled by the National Library of Medicine. This article describes the three-year development of a statewide database of health services descriptions and contact information to assist non-expert health information seekers in finding those health care providers located geographically closest to them. PMID:22347810

  17. Operator Localization of Virtual Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of viewing conditions and scene content. Monocular, biocular or stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), subjects'age, and the position of physical surfaces are examined. Nearby physical surfaces are found to introduce localization errors that differ depending upon the other experimental factors. The apparent physical size and transparency of the virtual objects and physical surfaces respectively are also influenced by their relative position when superimposed. Design implications are discussed.

  18. A local adaptive image descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid Ishraque, S. M.; Shoyaib, Mohammad; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.; Monirul Hoque, Md; Chae, Oksam

    2013-12-01

    The local binary pattern (LBP) is a robust but computationally simple approach in texture analysis. However, LBP performs poorly in the presence of noise and large illumination variation. Thus, a local adaptive image descriptor termed as LAID is introduced in this proposal. It is a ternary pattern and is able to generate persistent codes to represent microtextures in a given image, especially in noisy conditions. It can also generate stable texture codes if the pixel intensities change abruptly due to the illumination changes. Experimental results also show the superiority of the proposed method over other state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Localized lesions in secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nasser Rashid; Raza, Naeem

    2008-05-01

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. PMID:18541087

  20. Superbubbles and Local Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, Robert E.; Jones, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibility that distinctive features of the local cosmic ray spectra and composition are influenced by the Solar system being embedded within the cavity of an ancient superbubble. Shifts in the measured cosmic ray composition between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 20) eV as well as the "knee" and "second knee" may be understood in this picture.

  1. Arthur Smith, Local Baptist Pastor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School this volume has three articles dealing with East Texas life. The first "Arthur Smith" (David Hancock and others) is an account of growing up in Marian County, Texas is described by the local Baptist minister. The pastor begins with the year of his birth and gives detailed information about…

  2. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  3. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

  4. Local Evaluation of Chemistry Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Joseph R.; Hansen, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of local usage statistics of a specific set of chemistry journals at the University of Denver in Colorado, USA. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that commercial publishers in chemistry charge considerably more for their journals than those from the non-commercial sector. There are three variables…

  5. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  6. Community Education and Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamm, Larry; Wager, Sandra

    1975-01-01

    Describes development and preliminary implementation of the Community Education Program on Home Rule, a statewide program to aid local communities in educating citizens about the possibility of modifying their municipal government under the provisions of Pennsylvania's Home Rule Charter and Optional Plans Law. (JG)

  7. Research for Locally Relevant Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program--where Canadian universities establish knowledge partnerships with Southern universities--projects with a well-developed research dimension have proven to be the strongest projects, with broader and deeper contributions to the local institutions and larger community.…

  8. Quantum Strategies and Local Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutoski, Gus

    2010-02-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I we introduce a new formalism for quantum strategies, which specify the actions of one party in any multi-party interaction involving the exchange of multiple quantum messages among the parties. This formalism associates with each strategy a single positive semidefinite operator acting only upon the tensor product of the input and output message spaces for the strategy. We establish three fundamental properties of this new representation for quantum strategies and we list several applications, including a quantum version of von Neumann's celebrated 1928 Min-Max Theorem for zero-sum games and an efficient algorithm for computing the value of such a game. In Part II we establish several properties of a class of quantum operations that can be implemented locally with shared quantum entanglement or classical randomness. In particular, we establish the existence of a ball of local operations with shared randomness lying within the space spanned by the no-signaling operations and centred at the completely noisy channel. The existence of this ball is employed to prove that the weak membership problem for local operations with shared entanglement is strongly NP-hard. We also provide characterizations of local operations in terms of linear functionals that are positive and "completely" positive on a certain cone of Hermitian operators, under a natural notion of complete positivity appropriate to that cone. We end the thesis with a discussion of the properties of no-signaling quantum operations.

  9. Philippine Programme Initiates Local Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Describes a public health program for mothers and children developed by UNICEF workers in the Philippines that incorporates literacy and environmental awareness along with the usual focus on immunizations, nutrition, and clean water. The program contained an organic gardening project intended to empower women at the local level. (LZ)

  10. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. PMID:23800269

  11. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…

  12. State and Local Revenue Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quindry, Kenneth E.

    This report contains the results of an extensive study into State and local tax revenue potentials for the 15 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) States. It identifies both the degree of current use and the potential for increased use of (1) general and selective sales and gross receipts taxes, (2) death and gift taxes, (3) property taxes,…

  13. Local shape of pictorial relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a “depth map,” but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup–flat, where “flat” denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic—Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  14. Think Globally and Act Locally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Chadwick F.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests ways teachers can involve themselves and their students in local action as a means of furthering effective and practical global education. Considers possible barriers related to the ideology of the state system, and current breakthroughs, e.g., the nuclear freeze movement, anti-apartheid activism, and the sanctuary movement for Salvadoran…

  15. Targeting p21 Degradation Locally

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Just as the activity of many multifunctional proteins is restricted by subcellular localization, so is their regulation. In this issue of Development Cell, Starostina et al. identify an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CRL2LRR1, for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 that specifically ubiquitylates cytoplasmic p21 to facilitate cell migration. PMID:21074711

  16. Local Decisions and Global Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.; Long, Cathryn J.

    1976-01-01

    Impact of economic and urban planning on the natural environment can be studied through local situations: California conservation students realized the detrimental effects of a seemingly beneficial dam project. Students were inspired to initiate community-state action to correct damage to wildlife, sanitation, and farming. (AV)

  17. Localization model for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Douglas A.; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-01

    Normal hearing persons are able to localize the direction of sounds better using both ears than when listening with only one ear. Localization ability is dependent on auditory system perception of interaural differences in time, intensity, and phase. Interaural timing differences (ITDs) provide information for locating direction of low and mid frequency sounds, while interaural level differences (ILDs), which occur because of the horizontal plane shadowing effect of the head, provide information for locating direction of higher frequency sounds. The head related transfer function (HRTF) contains characteristic information important for acoustic localization. Models based on HRTFs take into account head shadow, torso, and pinna effects, and their impact on interaural frequency, level, and timing differences. Cochlear implants (CIs) have proven a successful treatment for persons with bilateral severe to profound hearing loss. A problem is that only some ITD and ILD cues are maintained with CI sound processing, and the microphone position alters the acoustic cues. The relative impact of differences in physical cues received by the auditory system with bilateral CIs versus differences in the ability of the damaged auditory nervous system to process bilateral inputs is not yet clear. The model presented in this paper was constructed as a step toward answering this question, and is intended to serve as a tool for future development of more optimal signal processing algorithms that may provide better localization ability for persons with bilateral CIs.

  18. Collaboration with the Local Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michael L.; Cherrey, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Colleges and universities continually search for ways to enhance the safety and security of their educational programs and physical plant. This article examines how the University of Southern California and other institutions are using collaborative efforts with the local community to enhance their mutual safety and security through dynamic…

  19. Local Violence and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    High School and Beyond data were used to analyze how local violence affects high school graduation and college attendance. Moderate violence reduced the likelihood of graduation by 5.1 percentage points and college attendance by 6.9 points. More substantial violence raised the dropout rate by 27% and reduced college attendance by 15.9 points.…

  20. Sound localization by echolocating bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytekin, Murat

    Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic vocalizations and listen to echoes reflected back from objects in the path of the sound beam to build a spatial representation of their surroundings. Important to understanding the representation of space through echolocation are detailed studies of the cues used for localization, the sonar emission patterns and how this information is assembled. This thesis includes three studies, one on the directional properties of the sonar receiver, one on the directional properties of the sonar transmitter, and a model that demonstrates the role of action in building a representation of auditory space. The general importance of this work to a broader understanding of spatial localization is discussed. Investigations of the directional properties of the sonar receiver reveal that interaural level difference and monaural spectral notch cues are both dependent on sound source azimuth and elevation. This redundancy allows flexibility that an echolocating bat may need when coping with complex computational demands for sound localization. Using a novel method to measure bat sonar emission patterns from freely behaving bats, I show that the sonar beam shape varies between vocalizations. Consequently, the auditory system of a bat may need to adapt its computations to accurately localize objects using changing acoustic inputs. Extra-auditory signals that carry information about pinna position and beam shape are required for auditory localization of sound sources. The auditory system must learn associations between extra-auditory signals and acoustic spatial cues. Furthermore, the auditory system must adapt to changes in acoustic input that occur with changes in pinna position and vocalization parameters. These demands on the nervous system suggest that sound localization is achieved through the interaction of behavioral control and acoustic inputs. A sensorimotor model demonstrates how an organism can learn space through auditory-motor contingencies

  1. A Mathematical Foundation for Locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierhorst, Peter L.

    This work is motivated by two non-intuitive predictions of Quantum Mechanics:non-locality and contextuality . Non-locality is a phenomenon whereby interactions between spatially separated objects appear to be occurring faster than the speed of light. Contextuality is a phenomenon whereby the outcome of a measurement cannot be interpreted as the revelation of an intrinsic fixed property of the system being measured, but instead necessarily depends on the configuration of the measurement apparatus. Quantum Mechanics predicts non-local behavior in certain types of experiments collectively known as Bell tests. However, ruling out all possible alternative local theories is a subtle and demanding task. In this work, we lay out a mathematically-rigorous framework for analyzing Bell experiments. Using this framework, we derive the famous Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, an important constraint that is obeyed by all local theories and violated by Quantum Mechanics. We further demonstrate how to analyze the data of a CHSH experiment without assuming that successive experimental trials are independent and/or identically distributed. We also derive the Clauser-Horne (CH74) inequality, an inequality that is more well-suited for realistic Bell experiments using photons. We demonstrate a robust method for statistically analyzing the data of a CH74 experiment, and show how to calculate exact p-values for this analysis, improving on the previously-best-known (loose) upper bounds obtained from Hoeffding-style inequalities. The work concludes with an exploration of contextuality. The Kochen-Specker theorem -- a result demonstrating the contextual nature of Quantum Mechanics -- is applied to resolve a conjecture in Domain Theory regarding the spectral order on quantum states.

  2. Stacking attributes from local slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Gajewski, D.; Dell, S.; Nath, S. K.; Wave Inversion Technology (Wit) Consortium

    2010-12-01

    CMP stacking is controlled by the stacking velocity which is determined by a one-dimendional optimization procedure using semblance as a coherence criterion. New multi-parameter stacking formulas like the Common Reflection Surface (CRS) operator consider neighboring CMP locations in the stack. These methods stack considerably more traces than conventional CMP processing leading to stacked sections with an improved signal-to-nose ratio and better image quality. The corresponding stacking trajectories are controlled by three stacking attributes for the 2-D case and eight for the 3-D case. The determination of these attributes requires a multi-dimensional optimization procedure which is time consuming. If we know good starting values, we can limit the search intervals considerably and speed up the process. It was shown that the stacking attributes are linked to local slopes in seismic zero offset and constant offset sections. Therefore, the determination of local slopes can guide the choice of the search intervals in the optimization procedure. We use structural tensors for the determination of local slopes. Structural tensors represent a versatile tool to investigate coherent features in the data superior to other slop determination tools like slant stacking or plane wave destructors. The window size is adjustable and allows to optimize smoothing and smearing in the slope determination process where the smoothing can be performed along structural events (directional smoothing). This smart feature helps to consider complex geologies and acknowledges faults and conflicting dips without any significant change in computation time. Different variants of the algorithm are used to determine slopes in CMP gathers, stacked and time or depth migrated sections. The results of the local slope determinations are used to compute stacking attributes for the CRS method. We compare these to stacking attributes obtained from optimization. The attributes determined from local slopes

  3. Comments on localized and integral localized approximations in spherical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouesbet, Gérard; Lock, James A.

    2016-08-01

    Localized approximation procedures are efficient ways to evaluate beam shape coefficients of laser beams, and are particularly useful when other methods are ineffective or inefficient. Comments on these procedures are, however, required in order to help researchers make correct decisions concerning their use. This paper has the flavor of a short review and takes the opportunity to attract the attention of the readers to a required refinement of terminology.

  4. Sacroplasty for Local or Massive Localization of Multiple Myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Cavalli, Maide; Fiumara, Paolo; Raimondo, Francesco Di; Coppolino, Francesco; Coppolino, Carmelo; Mundo, Elena; Desiderio, Carla; Granata, Antonio; Patti, Maria Teresa

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of cementoplasty in the treatment of sacral multiple myelomas. We retrospectively reviewed the records of eight patients (four women and four men; age range 47-68 years; mean age 57.8) who underwent cementoplasty for painful osteolytic localization of multiple myeloma between April 2007 and May 2009. The patients had difficulty walking because of increasing pain. Six patients had persistent pain despite other cementoplasties for vertebral and femoral localization, whereas two patients referred at the time of diagnosis had only sacral lesions. The clinical indication for treatment was (1) a pain intensity score {>=}5 on visual analogue scale (VAS) and (2) pain totally or partially refractory to analgesic treatment in patients with a life expectancy >3 months. Technical planning was based on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Six patients had previously undergone radiotherapy or chemotherapy and were receiving varying doses of analgesics, whereas sacroplasty represented the first treatment for two patients. Five patients had monolateral local involvement, and the other patients had massive involvement of the sacrum; Technical success was achieved in all cases. We had only one small and asymptomatic foraminal leak. All patients experienced improvement in symptoms after the procedure, as demonstrated by improved VAS scores and performance status (PS) and decreased analgesic dose constant during follow-up. In our experience, percutaneous stabilization can be used effectively and safely in patients with focal or extensive involvement of the sacrum by multiple myeloma.

  5. Fractal superconductivity near localization threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Feigel'man, M.V.; Ioffe, L.B.; Kravtsov, V.E.; Cuevas, E.

    2010-07-15

    We develop a semi-quantitative theory of electron pairing and resulting superconductivity in bulk 'poor conductors' in which Fermi energy E{sub F} is located in the region of localized states not so far from the Anderson mobility edge E{sub c}. We assume attractive interaction between electrons near the Fermi surface. We review the existing theories and experimental data and argue that a large class of disordered films is described by this model. Our theoretical analysis is based on analytical treatment of pairing correlations, described in the basis of the exact single-particle eigenstates of the 3D Anderson model, which we combine with numerical data on eigenfunction correlations. Fractal nature of critical wavefunction's correlations is shown to be crucial for the physics of these systems. We identify three distinct phases: 'critical' superconductive state formed at E{sub F} = E{sub c}, superconducting state with a strong pseudo-gap, realized due to pairing of weakly localized electrons and insulating state realized at E{sub F} still deeper inside a localized band. The 'critical' superconducting phase is characterized by the enhancement of the transition temperature with respect to BCS result, by the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of superconductive order parameter and local density of states. The major new feature of the pseudo-gapped state is the presence of two independent energy scales: superconducting gap {Delta}, that is due to many-body correlations and a new 'pseudo-gap' energy scale {Delta}{sub P} which characterizes typical binding energy of localized electron pairs and leads to the insulating behavior of the resistivity as a function of temperature above superconductive T{sub c}. Two gap nature of the pseudo-gapped superconductor is shown to lead to specific features seen in scanning tunneling spectroscopy and point-contact Andreev spectroscopy. We predict that pseudo-gapped superconducting state demonstrates anomalous behavior of the optical

  6. Local optimization of neuron arbors.

    PubMed

    Cherniak, C

    1992-01-01

    How parsimoniously is brain wiring laid out, that is, how well does a neuron minimize costs of connections among its synapses? Neural optimization of dendritic and axonic arbors can be evaluated using a generalization of the Steiner tree concept from combinatorial network optimization theory. Local branch-junction geometry of neuronal connecting structures fits a volume minimization model well. In addition, volume of the arborizations at this neighborhood level is significantly more strongly minimized than their length, signal propagation speed, or surface area. The mechanism of this local volume optimization resembles those involved in formation of nonliving tree structures such as river junctions and electric-discharge patterns, and appears to govern initial nerve growth-cone behavior through vector-mechanical energy minimization. PMID:1586674

  7. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  8. Nanoparticles heat through light localization.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Nathaniel J; Urban, Alexander S; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-08-13

    Aqueous solutions containing light-absorbing nanoparticles have recently been shown to produce steam at high efficiencies upon solar illumination, even when the temperature of the bulk fluid volume remains far below its boiling point. Here we show that this phenomenon is due to a collective effect mediated by multiple light scattering from the dispersed nanoparticles. Randomly positioned nanoparticles that both scatter and absorb light are able to concentrate light energy into mesoscale volumes near the illuminated surface of the liquid. The resulting light absorption creates intense localized heating and efficient vaporization of the surrounding liquid. Light trapping-induced localized heating provides the mechanism for low-temperature light-induced steam generation and is consistent with classical heat transfer. PMID:24960442

  9. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. PMID:27368453

  10. Acoustic Localization with Infrasonic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threatt, Arnesha; Elbing, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Numerous geophysical and anthropogenic events emit infrasonic frequencies (<20 Hz), including volcanoes, hurricanes, wind turbines and tornadoes. These sounds, which cannot be heard by the human ear, can be detected from large distances (in excess of 100 miles) due to low frequency acoustic signals having a very low decay rate in the atmosphere. Thus infrasound could be used for long-range, passive monitoring and detection of these events. An array of microphones separated by known distances can be used to locate a given source, which is known as acoustic localization. However, acoustic localization with infrasound is particularly challenging due to contamination from other signals, sensitivity to wind noise and producing a trusted source for system development. The objective of the current work is to create an infrasonic source using a propane torch wand or a subwoofer and locate the source using multiple infrasonic microphones. This presentation will present preliminary results from various microphone configurations used to locate the source.

  11. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-07-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  12. Localized Pancreatic Cancer: Multidisciplinary Management.

    PubMed

    Coveler, Andrew L; Herman, Joseph M; Simeone, Diane M; Chiorean, E Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive cancer that continues to have single-digit 5-year mortality rates despite advancements in the field. Surgery remains the only curative treatment; however, most patients present with late-stage disease deemed unresectable, either due to extensive local vascular involvement or the presence of distant metastasis. Resection guidelines that include a borderline resectable group, as well as advancements in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation that improve resectability of locally advanced disease, may improve outcomes for patients with more invasive disease. Multi-agent chemotherapy regimens fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and nab-paclitaxel with gemcitabine improved response rates and survival in metastatic pancreatic cancer and are now being used in earlier stages for patients with localized potentially resectable and unresectable disease, with goals of downstaging tumors to allow margin-negative resection and reducing systemic recurrence. Chemoradiotherapy, although still controversial for both resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer, is being used in the context of contemporary chemotherapy backbone regimens, and novel radiation techniques such as stereotactic body frame radiation therapy (SBRT) are studied on the premise of maintaining or improving efficacy and reducing treatment duration. Patient selection for optimal treatment designation is currently provided by multidisciplinary tumor boards, but biomarker discovery, in blood, tumors, or through novel imaging, is an area of intense research. Results to date suggest that some patients with unresectable disease at the outset have survival rates as good as those with initially resectable disease if able to undergo surgical resection. Long-term follow-up and improved clinical trials options are needed to determine optimal treatment modalities for patients with localized pancreatic cancer. PMID:27249726

  13. Local cloning of entangled qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Sujit K.; Kunkri, Samir; Rahaman, Ramij; Roy, Anirban

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the exact cloning of orthogonal but entangled qubits under local operations and classical communication. The amount of entanglement necessary in a blank copy is obtained for various cases. Surprisingly, this amount is more than 1 ebit for certain sets of two nonmaximal but equally entangled states of two qubits. To clone any three Bell states, at least log{sub 2} 3 ebit is necessary.

  14. Localization in optics - Quasiperiodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohmoto, Mahito; Sutherland, Bill; Iguchi, K.

    1987-06-01

    An experiment to probe the (quasi)localization of the photon is proposed, in which optical layers are constructed following the Fibonacci sequence. The transmission coefficient has a rich structure as a function of the wavelength of light and, in fact, is multifractal. For particular wavelengths for which the resonance conditions is satisfied, the light propagation has scaling with respect to the number of layers, as well as an interesting fluctuation.

  15. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-01-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  16. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding. PMID:16553471

  17. Local public health system partnerships.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Interorganizational collaboration aimed at community health improvement is an expectation of local public health systems. This study assessed the extent to which such collaboration occurred within one state (Wisconsin), described the characteristics of existing partnerships, and identified factors associated with partnership effectiveness. METHODS: In Stage 1, local health department (LHD) directors in Wisconsin were surveyed (93% response rate). In Stage 2, LHDs completed self-administered mailed surveys for each partnership identified in Stage 1 (85% response rate). Two-level hierarchical logit regression methods were used to model relationships between partnership and LHD variables and partnership outcomes. Data from 924 partnerships associated with 74 LHDs were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Partnerships most frequently addressed tobacco prevention and control, maternal and child health, emergency planning, community assessment and planning, and immunizations. Partnering was most frequent with other government agencies, hospitals, medical practices or clinics, community-based organizations, and schools. Partnership effectiveness was predicted by having a budget, having more partners contributing financially, having a broader array of organizations involved, and having been in existence for a longer period of time. A government mandate to start the partnership was inversely related to successful outcomes. Characteristics of LHDs did not predict partnership effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Financial support, having a broader array of partners, and allowing sufficient time for partnerships to succeed contribute to partnership effectiveness. Further study-using objective outcome measures-is needed to examine the effects of organizational and community characteristics on the effectiveness of local public health system partnerships. PMID:15736335

  18. Visualization of localization microscopy data.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, David; Cannell, Mark B; Soeller, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Localization microscopy techniques based on localizing single fluorophore molecules now routinely achieve accuracies better than 30 nm. Unlike conventional optical microscopies, localization microscopy experiments do not generate an image but a list of discrete coordinates of estimated fluorophore positions. Data display and analysis therefore generally require visualization methods that translate the position data into conventional images. Here we investigate the properties of several widely used visualization techniques and show that a commonly used algorithm based on rendering Gaussians may lead to a 1.44-fold loss of resolution. Existing methods typically do not explicitly take sampling considerations into account and thus may produce spurious structures. We present two additional visualization algorithms, an adaptive histogram method based on quad-trees and a Delaunay triangulation based visualization of point data that address some of these deficiencies. The new visualization methods are designed to suppress erroneous detail in poorly sampled image areas but avoid loss of resolution in well-sampled regions. A number of criteria for scoring visualization methods are developed as a guide for choosing among visualization methods and are used to qualitatively compare various algorithms. PMID:20082730

  19. 22 CFR 228.40 - Local procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local procurement. 228.40 Section 228.40... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Local Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.40 Local procurement. Local procurement in the cooperating...

  20. Genetic Algorithms with Local Minimum Escaping Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Hiroki; Sakata, Kenichiro; Tang, Zheng; Ishii, Masahiro

    In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm(GA) with local minimum escaping technique. This proposed method uses the local minimum escaping techique. It can escape from the local minimum by correcting parameters when genetic algorithm falls into a local minimum. Simulations are performed to scheduling problem without buffer capacity using this proposed method, and its validity is shown.

  1. Computational methods for global/local analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Computational methods for global/local analysis of structures which include both uncoupled and coupled methods are described. In addition, global/local analysis methodology for automatic refinement of incompatible global and local finite element models is developed. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local analysis methods.

  2. Local-scale dynamics and local drivers of bushmeat trade.

    PubMed

    Nyaki, Angela; Gray, Steven A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Skibins, Jeffrey C; Rentsch, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Bushmeat management policies are often developed outside the communities in which they are to be implemented. These policies are also routinely designed to be applied uniformly across communities with little regard for variation in social or ecological conditions. We used fuzzy-logic cognitive mapping, a form of participatory modeling, to compare the assumptions driving externally generated bushmeat management policies with perceptions of bushmeat trade dynamics collected from local community members who admitted to being recently engaged in bushmeat trading (e.g., hunters, sellers, consumers). Data were collected during 9 workshops in 4 Tanzanian villages bordering Serengeti National Park. Specifically, we evaluated 9 community-generated models for the presence of the central factors that comprise and drive the bushmeat trade and whether or not models included the same core concepts, relationships, and logical chains of reasoning on which bushmeat conservation policies are commonly based. Across local communities, there was agreement about the most central factors important to understanding the bushmeat trade (e.g., animal recruitment, low income, and scarcity of food crops). These matched policy assumptions. However, the factors perceived to drive social-ecological bushmeat trade dynamics were more diverse and varied considerably across communities (e.g., presence or absence of collaborative law enforcement, increasing human population, market demand, cultural preference). Sensitive conservation issues, such as the bushmeat trade, that require cooperation between communities and outside conservation organizations can benefit from participatory modeling approaches that make local-scale dynamics and conservation policy assumptions explicit. Further, communities' and conservation organizations' perceptions need to be aligned. This can improve success by allowing context appropriate policies to be developed, monitored, and appropriately adapted as new evidence is

  3. Dynamical Localization in Molecular Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xidi

    In the first four chapters of this thesis we concentrate on the Davydov model which describes the vibrational energy quanta of Amide I bonds (C=O bonds on the alpha -helix) coupled to the acoustic phonon modes of the alpha-helix backbone in the form of a Frohlich Hamiltonian. Following a brief introduction in chapter one, in chapter two we formulate the dynamics of vibrational quanta at finite temperature by using coherent state products. The fluctuation-dissipation relation is derived. At zero temperature, in the continuum limit, we recover the original results of Davydov. We also achieve good agreement with numerical simulations. In chapter three, the net contraction of the lattice is calculated exactly at any temperature, and its relation to the so -call "topological stability" of the Davydov soliton is discussed. In the second section of the chapter three we calculate the overtone spectra of crystalline acetanilide (according to some opinions ACN provides experimental evidence for the existence of Davydov solitons). Good agreement with experimental data has been obtained. In chapter four we study the self-trapped vibrational excitations by the Quantum Monte Carlo technique. For a single excitation, the temperature dependence of different physical observables is calculated. The quasi-particle which resembles the Davydov soliton has been found to be fairly narrow using the most commonly used data for the alpha -helix; at temperatures above a few Kelvin, the quasi-particle reaches its smallest limit (extends over three sites), which implies diffusive motion of the small polaron-like quasi-particle at high temperatures. For the multi-excitation case, bound pairs and clusters of excitations are found at low temperatures; they gradually dissociate when the temperature of the system is increased as calculated from the density-density correlation function. In the last chapter of this thesis, we study a more general model of dynamical local modes in molecular systems

  4. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  5. Oregon Health Go Local: A Retrospective Look.

    PubMed

    Ford, Emily; Hannon, Todd

    2010-04-01

    MedlinePlus® Go Local is the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health's Internet resource that allows individuals to find health services in their local communities. Oregon Health Go Local recently joined the network of active Go Local projects. This paper describes the planning and development of Oregon Health Go Local, with a discussion of the success and challenges of initiating such a project. Funding, marketing, volunteer coordination, data acquisition, and taxonomy are discussed. PMID:20640231

  6. Oregon Health Go Local: A Retrospective Look

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Emily; Hannon, Todd

    2010-01-01

    MedlinePlus® Go Local is the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health's Internet resource that allows individuals to find health services in their local communities. Oregon Health Go Local recently joined the network of active Go Local projects. This paper describes the planning and development of Oregon Health Go Local, with a discussion of the success and challenges of initiating such a project. Funding, marketing, volunteer coordination, data acquisition, and taxonomy are discussed. PMID:20640231

  7. Constrained Local UniversE Simulations: a Local Group factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Sorce, Jenny G.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Libeskind, Noam I.; Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Knebe, Alexander; Courtois, Hélène; Tully, R. Brent; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Near-field cosmology is practised by studying the Local Group (LG) and its neighbourhood. This paper describes a framework for simulating the `near field' on the computer. Assuming the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model as a prior and applying the Bayesian tools of the Wiener filter and constrained realizations of Gaussian fields to the Cosmicflows-2 (CF2) survey of peculiar velocities, constrained simulations of our cosmic environment are performed. The aim of these simulations is to reproduce the LG and its local environment. Our main result is that the LG is likely a robust outcome of the ΛCDMscenario when subjected to the constraint derived from CF2 data, emerging in an environment akin to the observed one. Three levels of criteria are used to define the simulated LGs. At the base level, pairs of haloes must obey specific isolation, mass and separation criteria. At the second level, the orbital angular momentum and energy are constrained, and on the third one the phase of the orbit is constrained. Out of the 300 constrained simulations, 146 LGs obey the first set of criteria, 51 the second and 6 the third. The robustness of our LG `factory' enables the construction of a large ensemble of simulated LGs. Suitable candidates for high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the LG can be drawn from this ensemble, which can be used to perform comprehensive studies of the formation of the LG.

  8. [Symptoms. Localizations: knee, hip, hands, spine, other localizations].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of osteoarthritis vary widely from patient to patient, depending especially on the localization on the disease. There is a poor correlation between radiological involvement and pain. In general, symptom onset is gradual and symptoms increase slowly but progressively. The most commonly affected joints are the knees, hips, hands, and spine. The main signs and symptoms are pain, stiffness, joint deformity, and crepitus. Pain is mechanical and its causes are multifactorial; in the initial phases, pain usually manifests in self-limiting episodes but may subsequently be almost constant. The criteria of the American college of Rheumatology for the classification of osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hands are an aid to classification and standardization but are not useful for diagnosis. Hip osteoarthritis usually produces inguinal pain in the internal and anterior sections of the muscle extending to the knee and, with progression, tends to limit mobility. Knee osteoarthritis is more frequent in women and is usually associated with hand osteoarthritis and obesity. In hand osteoarthritis, the most commonly affected joints are the distal interphalangeal joints, followed by the proximal interphalangeal joints and the trapeziometacarpal joints; the development of Heberden and Bouchard nodes is common; involvement of the trapeziometacarpal joint is called rhizarthrosis and is one of the forms of osteoarthritis that produces the greatest limitation on hand function. Osteoarthritis of the spine affects the facet joints and the vertebral bodies. Other, less frequent, localizations are the foot, elbow and shoulder, which are generally secondary forms of osteoarthritis. PMID:24467955

  9. Localization of Peptidases in Lactococci

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Paris S. T.; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Pos, Klaas M.; Rousseau, Micheline; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Gripon, Jean-Claude; Konings, Wil N.

    1992-01-01

    The localization of two aminopeptidases, an X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, an endopeptidase, and a tripeptidase in Lactococcus lactis was studied. Polyclonal antibodies raised against each purified peptidase are specific and do not cross-react with other peptidases. Experiments were performed by immunoblotting after cell fractionation and by electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled peptidases. All peptidases were found to be intracellular. However, immunogold studies showed a peripheral labeling of the X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, the tripeptidase, and the endopeptidase. This peripheral location was further supported by the detection of these three enzymes in cell membrane fractions in which none of the two aminopeptidases was present. Images PMID:16348629

  10. A Localized Ensemble Kalman Smoother

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butala, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous geophysical inverse problems prove difficult because the available measurements are indirectly related to the underlying unknown dynamic state and the physics governing the system may involve imperfect models or unobserved parameters. Data assimilation addresses these difficulties by combining the measurements and physical knowledge. The main challenge in such problems usually involves their high dimensionality and the standard statistical methods prove computationally intractable. This paper develops and addresses the theoretical convergence of a new high-dimensional Monte-Carlo approach called the localized ensemble Kalman smoother.

  11. Local Observation in Eternal Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James; Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    We consider landscape models that admit several regions where the conditions for eternal inflation hold. It is shown that one can use the no-boundary wave function to calculate small departures from homogeneity within our past light cone despite the possibility of much larger fluctuations on super horizon scales. The dominant contribution comes from the history exiting eternal inflation at the lowest value of the potential. In a class of landscape models this predicts a tensor to scalar ratio of about 10%. In this way the no-boundary wave function defines a measure for the prediction of local cosmological observations.

  12. State and Local Government Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Alexander; Rinebold, Joel; Aresta, Paul

    2012-03-30

    The State and Local Government Partnership project has built relationships between the Department of Energy (DOE), regional states, and municipalities. CCAT implemented this project using a structure that included leadership by the DOE. Outreach was undertaken through collaborative meetings, workshops, and briefings; the development of technical models and local energy plans; support for state stakeholder groups; and implementation of strategies to facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The final guidance documents provided to stakeholders consisted of individual strategic state “Roadmaps” to serve as development plans. These “Roadmaps” confirm economic impacts, identify deployment targets, and compare policies and incentives for facility development in each of the regional states. The partnerships developed through this project have improved the exchange of knowledge between state and local government stakeholders and is expected to increase the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in early market applications, consistent with the DOE’s market transformation efforts. Technically accurate and objective information was, and continues to be, provided to improve public and stakeholder perceptions regarding the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Based on the “Roadmaps” and studies conducted for this project, there is the potential to generate approximately 10.75 million megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annually from hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the Northeast regional states, through the development of 1,364 to 1,818 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell electric generation capacity. Currently, the region has approximately 1,180 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the region. These companies are estimated to have over $1 billion in annual revenue and investment, contribute more than $51 million in annual state and local tax revenue

  13. [Diagnostic laparoscopy under local anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Grantcharov, Teodor P; Schulze, Svend

    2005-11-14

    Laparoscopy under local anaesthesia (LULA) is a safe, feasible and well-tolerated procedure. LULA has been successfully used for such outpatient gynaecological procedures as diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain and sterilisation. Single studies have indicated that LULA can be performed for diagnosis of possible intra-abdominal catastrophe in ICU patients, appendectomy and preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. LULA in abdominal surgery for diagnosis of conditions presenting with acute lower abdominal pain is being introduced at our institution. This paper describes the possible applications of LULA in current practice as well as the technical aspects of the procedure. PMID:16287520

  14. Anderson localization from classical trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Piet W.; Altland, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    We show that Anderson localization in quasi-one-dimensional conductors with ballistic electron dynamics, such as an array of ballistic chaotic cavities connected via ballistic contacts, can be understood in terms of classical electron trajectories only. At large length scales, an exponential proliferation of trajectories of nearly identical classical action generates an abundance of interference terms, which eventually leads to a suppression of transport coefficients. We quantitatively describe this mechanism in two different ways: the explicit description of transition probabilities in terms of interfering trajectories, and an hierarchical integration over fluctuations in the classical phase space of the array cavities.

  15. Hair transplant and local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-10-01

    Hair restoration is an art and a science that requires an experienced and dedicated surgeon and team to achieve consistently superior outcomes. In addition to discussion of local anesthetic in use for hair restoration, this article emphasizes the pearls and pitfalls that are involved at every phase of the procedure including judgment, hairline design, donor harvesting, recipient-site creation, graft preparation, and graft placement. Two recent advances in the field are highlighted: the use of regenerative medicine (platelet-rich plasma and ACell), and developments in follicular-unit extraction as an alternative to traditional linear donor harvesting. PMID:24093656

  16. Genetic Algorithms and Local Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Darrell

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this presentation is a tutorial level introduction to the principles of genetic search and models of simple genetic algorithms. The second half covers the combination of genetic algorithms with local search methods to produce hybrid genetic algorithms. Hybrid algorithms can be modeled within the existing theoretical framework developed for simple genetic algorithms. An application of a hybrid to geometric model matching is given. The hybrid algorithm yields results that improve on the current state-of-the-art for this problem.

  17. Nuclear scission and quantum localization.

    PubMed

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2011-09-23

    We examine nuclear scission within a fully quantum-mechanical microscopic framework, focusing on the nonlocal aspects of the theory. Using (240)Pu hot fission as an example, we discuss the identification of the fragments and the calculation of their kinetic, excitation, and interaction energies, through the localization of the orbital wave functions. We show that the disentanglement of the fragment wave functions is essential to the quantum-mechanical definition of scission and the calculation of physical observables. Finally, we discuss the fragments' prescission excitation mechanisms and give a nonadiabatic description of their evolution beyond scission. PMID:22026846

  18. A localization model to localize multiple sources using Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Joshua Rolv

    Accurate localization of a sound source in a room setting is important in both psychoacoustics and architectural acoustics. Binaural models have been proposed to explain how the brain processes and utilizes the interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) of sound waves arriving at the ears of a listener in determining source location. Recent work shows that applying Bayesian methods to this problem is proving fruitful. In this thesis, pink noise samples are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) and compared to combinations of one and two anechoic speech signals convolved with different HRTFs or binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) to simulate room positions. Through exhaustive calculation of Bayesian posterior probabilities and using a maximal likelihood approach, model selection will determine the number of sources present, and parameter estimation will result in azimuthal direction of the source(s).

  19. Localized Excitons in Carbon Nanotubes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamska, Lyudmyla; Doorn, Stephen K.; Tretiak, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    It has been historically known that unintentional defects in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may fully quench the fluorescence. However, some dopants may enhance the fluorescence by one order of magnitude thus turning the CNTs, which are excellent light absorbers, in good emitters. We have correlated the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra to the electronic structure simulations. Our experiment reveals multiple sharp asymmetric emission peaks at energies 50-300 meV red-shifted from that of the lowest bright exciton peak. Our simulations suggest an association of these peaks with deep trap states tied to different specific chemical adducts. While the wave functions of excitons in undoped CNTs are delocalized, those of the deep-trap states are strongly localized and pinned to the dopants. These findings are consistent with the experimental observation of asymmetric broadening of the deep trap emission peaks, which can result from scattering of acoustic phonons on localized excitons. Our work lays the foundation to utilize doping as a generalized route for wave function engineering and direct control of carrier dynamics in SWCNTs toward enhanced light emission properties for photonic applications.

  20. Localized control of oxidized RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Dhaliwal, James S; Adjibade, Pauline; Uniacke, James; Mazroui, Rachid; Zerges, William

    2015-11-15

    The oxidation of biological molecules by reactive oxygen species (ROS) can render them inactive or toxic. This includes the oxidation of RNA, which appears to underlie the detrimental effects of oxidative stress, aging and certain neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigate the management of oxidized RNA in the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our immunofluorescence microscopy results reveal that oxidized RNA (with 8-hydroxyguanine) is localized in the pyrenoid, a chloroplast microcompartment where CO2 is assimilated by the Calvin cycle enzyme Rubisco. Results of genetic analyses support a requirement for the Rubisco large subunit (RBCL), but not Rubisco, in the management of oxidized RNA. An RBCL pool that can carry out such a 'moonlighting' function is revealed by results of biochemical fractionation experiments. We also show that human (HeLa) cells localize oxidized RNA to cytoplasmic foci that are distinct from stress granules, processing bodies and mitochondria. Our results suggest that the compartmentalization of oxidized RNA management is a general phenomenon and therefore has some fundamental significance. PMID:26449969

  1. Building a local research consortium.

    PubMed

    Martin, P A

    1994-05-01

    Although state, regional, and national networking often are critical to the nurse researchers, local support that is broader than what is found in any single agency may be the foundation needed by clinicians who want "more" research than that prescribed by their current role. More formal consortiums have successfully implemented a variety of research projects and are another possibility to explore (Beaman & Strader, 1990; Bolton, 1991; Chenitz et al., 1990; Keefe et al., 1988; Thiele, 1989). Another option is some state nurses' associations that have formal research assemblies (eg., Ohio Nurses Association, Assembly of Nurse Researchers). However, forming a local, less formal group with a few expert advisors may supply the energy and momentum necessary for both using and conducting research at a grassroots level. The expert advisors should be research-trained nurses (almost always with a PhD or DNS) who are active group members. Although Fitzpatrick encouraged collaborative research and writing early in the history of Applied Nursing Research (Fitzpatrick, 1989), in 1993 approximately two thirds of the articles in Applied Nursing Research still were single authored. Nurses are not using collaboration to its fullest extent. An informal group in one community has been one way to release the scholarship that was latent in many nurses. PMID:8031105

  2. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food–rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout) between the two response alternatives in an experiment with three phases: In Phase 1, the delay on one alternative was 0 s, and the other was varied between 0 and 8 s; in Phase 2, both delays were equal and were varied from 0 to 4 s; in Phase 3, the two delays summed to 8 s, and each was varied from 1 to 7 s. The results showed that increasing delay affected local choice, measured by a pulse in preference, in the same way as decreasing magnitude, but we found also that increasing the delay at the other alternative increased local preference. This result casts doubt on the traditional view that a reinforcer strengthens a response depending only on the reinforcer's value discounted by any response–reinforcer delay. The results suggest that food guides, rather than strengthens, behavior. PMID:17465314

  3. Local area networks for radiology.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, S J; Mankovich, N J; Cox, G G; Bauman, R A

    1988-11-01

    This article is a tutorial on local area networks (LAN) for radiology applications. LANs are being implemented in radiology departments for the management of text and images, replacing the inflexible point-to-point wiring between two devices (computer-to-terminal). These networks enable the sharing of computers and computer devices, reduce equipment costs, and provide improved reliability. Any LAN must include items from the following four categories: transmission medium, topology, data transmission mode, and access protocol. Media for local area networks are twisted pair, coaxial, and optical fiber cables. The topology of these networks include the star, ring, bus, tree, and circuit-switching. Data transmission modes are either analog signals or digital signals. Access protocol methods include the broadcast bus system and the ring system. A performance measurement for a LAN is the throughput rate as a function of the number of active computer nodes. Standards for LANs help to ensure that products purchased from multiple manufacturers will operate successfully. PMID:3154655

  4. Developing Photo Activated Localization Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Photo Activated Localization Microscopy, PALM, acquires super-resolution images by activating a subset of activatable fluorescent labels and estimating the center of the each molecular label to sub-diffractive accuracy. When this process is repeated thousands of times for different subsets of molecules, then an image can be rendered from all the center coordinates of the molecules. I will describe the circuitous story of its development that began with another super-resolution technique, NSOM, developed by my colleague Eric Betzig, who imaged single molecules at room temperature, and later we spectrally resolved individual luminescent centers of quantum wells. These two observations inspired a generalized path to localization microscopy, but that path was abandoned because no really useful fluorescent labels were available. After a decade of nonacademic industrial pursuits and the subsequent freedom of unemployment, we came across a class of genetically expressible fluorescent proteins that were switchable or convertible that enabled the concept to be implemented and be biologically promising. The past ten years have been very active with many groups exploring applications and enhancements of this concept. Demonstrating significant biological relevance will be the metric if its success.

  5. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, D. F. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  6. Severe Local Storms Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Morgan, G. M.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    Local storms always had a deep impact on people communities, mainly because of the severe damage caused, because of their unpredictability and, up to a few years ago, even because of the lack of knowledge and awareness on their physical origin. Because of this large impact on real life and on imagination, people needed and wanted to describe and report the occurrence of these events, giving them suited names. Often, these nouns are related to the myth developed to explain the cause of the events. In this work, a short presentation and description of the popular nouns used to describe severe local storm events in different areas of the World is given. Countries taken into account span from Italy, moving toward Africa and reaching a few communities of Native Americans. The etymology of the names gives interesting information, useful even under the anthropological point of view, on the Culture and Believes of the peoples who adopted them. This research work is the result of an underground activity carried out in the last ten years by the authors, during their contacts with students and researchers coming from different Countries and mainly met at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste.

  7. ISS Local Environment Spectrometers (ISLES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the ISS and the ISS surface materials, we propose to use lowcost, high-TRL plasma sensors on the ISS robotic arm to probe the ISS space environment. During many years of ISS operation, we have been able to condut effective (but not perfect) extravehicular activities (both human and robotic) within the perturbed local ISS space environment. Because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the LEO space environment, there remain important questions, such as differential charging at solar panel junctions (the so-called "triple point" between conductor, dielectric, and space plasma), increased chemical contamination due to ISS surface charging and/or thruster activation, water dumps, etc, and "bootstrap" charging of insulating surfaces. Some compelling questions could synergistically draw upon a common sensor suite, which also leverages previous and current MSFC investments. Specific questions address ISS surface charging, plasma contactor plume expansion in a magnetized drifting plasma, and possible localized contamination effects across the ISS.

  8. Hardy's test for local realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynh; Dregli, Aurelio

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrated the violation of Bell inequality using entangled photons produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The experiment is based on a local realism test originally proposed by Lucien Hardy. Polarized entangled photons is produced in down-conversion through a pair of beta barium borate crystals. Polarization is adjusted by half wave plates and quartz plates. Single photons travel down two separate paths, each pass through a half-wave plate and a broad band polarizing beam splitter. Light from the beam splitter is collected by lens and focused into optic fibers that direct light into a single photon counting module. Coincidence counting is done using time-to-amplitude converter/single-channel-analyzer units. The probabilities in Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality is calculated by the ratio of the measured coincidence counts on the transmitted laser beams to the total number of coincidence. The counting is done by a LabVIEW program. We find the data to violate local realism by 30 standard deviation. The experiment is based on straight forward quantum mechanical calculations and experimental techniques more accessible to undergraduate students than other methods of testing Bell inequalities.

  9. Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Castrigiano, Domenico P. L. Leiseifer, Andreas D.

    2015-07-15

    Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac’s localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states.

  10. Relative Locality in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we construct the action describing dynamics of the particle moving in curved spacetime, with a nontrivial momentum space geometry. Curved momentum space is the core feature of theories where relative locality effects are present. So far aspects of nonlinearities in momentum space have been studied only for flat or constantly expanding (de Sitter) spacetimes, relying on their maximally symmetric nature. The extension of curved momentum space frameworks to arbitrary spacetime geometries could be relevant for the opportunities to test Planck-scale curvature/deformation of particles momentum space. As a first example of this construction we describe the particle with κ-Poincaré momentum space on a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime, where the contributes of momentum space curvature turn out to be negligible. The analysis of this problem relies crucially on the solution of the soccer ball problem.

  11. Headphone localization of speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, three dimensional acoustic display systems have been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the outer ears. Here, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgements toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgements; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results infer that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized RTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  12. Localized pustulosis induced by betalactams.

    PubMed

    Novalbos, A; Bombín, C; Figueredo, E; Lluch, M; Sastre, J

    2000-01-01

    Localized forms of pustular drug eruptions related to antibiotics are uncommon and their mechanism is still unknown. We describe herein a patient who developed numerous pin-head pustules without erythema in the peribuccal area after ingestion of ceftibuten and amoxicillin. The relationship with these drugs was confirmed by single-blind oral challenges. The following tests were performed: prick and intradermal tests with benzylpenicilloyl polylysine, minor determinant mixture, benzylpenicillin and amoxicillin; patch tests were also carried out with benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefazolin, ceftibuten and cefaclor. All cutaneous tests were negative. Controlled single-blind challenge tests were performed with amoxicillin, cefadroxil, ceftibuten, cefuroxime, cefaclor, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. All betalactam antibiotics tested gave a positive reaction, with good tolerance of other antibiotics; this would appear to indicate a specific mechanism of hypersensitivity and not an unspecific reaction to wide spectrum antibiotics. PMID:10923595

  13. Anticipation of Local Epidemics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivy, Ivan

    2008-10-01

    Local epidemics are systems where temporary elements (infected ones) are distributed over a hexagonal or rectangular network of permanent elements (humans). Their relation of being neighbors is considered to be constant. The systems of this type can occur in rest homes, institutes of social care, nursery schools, summer camps, prisons, etc. The process of the infection propagation depends on the neighborhood relation and on the actual distance of the neighbors. It is influenced by delays during the transitive affecting the people and by random effects, the size of which can be diminished by the intervention of health care service. The anticipation of the health care intervention effects was supported by simulation models implemented by means of the object-oriented programming.

  14. String fluid in local equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    We study the solutions of string fluid equations under the assumption of a local equilibrium which was previously obtained in the context of the kinetic theory. We show that the fluid can be foliated into noninteracting submanifolds whose equations of motion are exactly that of the wiggly strings considered previously by Vilenkin and Carter. In a special case of negligible statistical variance in either the left- or the right-moving directions of microscopic strings, the submanifolds are described by the action of a null-current-carrying chiral string. When both variances vanish the submanifolds are described by the Nambu-Goto action and the string fluid reduces to the string dust introduced by Stachel.

  15. Local hadron calibration with ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Paola; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2011-04-01

    The method of Local Hadron Calibration is used in ATLAS as one of the two major calibration schemes for the reconstruction of jets and missing transverse energy. The method starts from noise suppressed clusters and corrects them for non-compensation effects and for losses due to noise threshold and dead material. Jets are reconstructed using the calibrated clusters and are then corrected for out of cone effects. The performance of the corrections applied to the calorimeter clusters is tested with detailed GEANT4 information. Results obtained with this procedure are discussed both for single pion simulations and for di-jet simulations. The calibration scheme is validated on data, by comparing the calibrated cluster energy in data with Mote Carlo simulations. Preliminary results obtained with GeV collision data are presented. The agreement between data and Monte Carlo is within 5% for the final cluster scale.

  16. Exploring Mars using local resources

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, S.; McKay, C.; Kaplan, D.; Rapp, D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper takes the reader on a {ital second} human expedition to Mars. Following confirmation that life once existed on Mars during the first human mission launched in 2018, crew members of our subsequent mission, assisted by robotic devices, spend two years on Mars pursuing three goals: (1) continue the search for further evidence of ancient life and what may still exist, (2) safely endure their extended stay on Mars, and (3) lay the foundation for the eventual human settlement of the planet. A cornerstone in achieving these three goals, as discussed in the paper, will be the utilization of local resources as we further learn to {open_quote}{open_quote}live off the land{close_quote}{close_quote}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Local fat treatments: classification proposal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as "fat reduction methods." A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, "reversibility," "membrane disruption or inflammation," and "action selectivity," have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  18. Local intensity adaptive image coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of preprocessing for machine vision is to extract intrinsic target properties. The most important properties ordinarily are structure and reflectance. Illumination in space, however, is a significant problem as the extreme range of light intensity, stretching from deep shadow to highly reflective surfaces in direct sunlight, impairs the effectiveness of standard approaches to machine vision. To overcome this critical constraint, an image coding scheme is being investigated which combines local intensity adaptivity, image enhancement, and data compression. It is very effective under the highly variant illumination that can exist within a single frame or field of view, and it is very robust to noise at low illuminations. Some of the theory and salient features of the coding scheme are reviewed. Its performance is characterized in a simulated space application, the research and development activities are described.

  19. Multi-directional local search

    PubMed Central

    Tricoire, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces multi-directional local search, a metaheuristic for multi-objective optimization. We first motivate the method and present an algorithmic framework for it. We then apply it to several known multi-objective problems such as the multi-objective multi-dimensional knapsack problem, the bi-objective set packing problem and the bi-objective orienteering problem. Experimental results show that our method systematically provides solution sets of comparable quality with state-of-the-art methods applied to benchmark instances of these problems, within reasonable CPU effort. We conclude that the proposed algorithmic framework is a viable option when solving multi-objective optimization problems. PMID:25140071

  20. Local fat treatments: classification proposal

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as “fat reduction methods.” A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, “reversibility,” “membrane disruption or inflammation,” and “action selectivity,” have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  1. Localization of quantum Bernoulli noises

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Caishi; Zhang, Jihong

    2013-10-15

    The family (∂{sub k},∂{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} of annihilation and creation operators acting on square integrable functionals of a Bernoulli process Z= (Z{sub k}){sub k⩾0} can be interpreted as quantum Bernoulli noises. In this note we consider the operator family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0}, where ℓ{sub k}=∂{sub k}E{sub k} with E{sub k} being the conditional expectation (operator) given σ-field σ(Z{sub j}; 0 ⩽j⩽k). We show that ℓ{sub k} (resp. ℓ{sub k}{sup *}) is essentially a kind of localization of the annihilation operator ∂{sub k} (resp. creation operator ∂{sub k}{sup *}). We examine properties of the family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} and prove, among other things, that ℓ{sub k} and ℓ{sub k}{sup *} satisfy a local canonical anti-communication relation and (ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} forms a mutually orthogonal operator sequence although each ℓ{sub k} is not a projection operator. We find that the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} converges in the strong operator topology for each bounded operator X acting on square integrable functionals of Z. In particular we get an explicit sum of the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}ℓ{sub k}. A useful norm estimate on Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} is also obtained. Finally we show applications of our main results to quantum dynamical semigroups and quantum probability.

  2. Golgi Localization of Syne-1

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Lisa Lucio; Fan, Jun; Chu, Stephen; Winnick, Shawn; Beck, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously identified a Golgi-localized spectrin isoform by using an antibody to the β-subunit of erythrocyte spectrin. In this study, we show that a screen of a λgt11 expression library resulted in the isolation of an ∼5-kb partial cDNA from a Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line, which encoded a polypeptide of 1697 amino acids with low, but detectable, sequence homology to spectrin (37%). A blast search revealed that this clone overlaps with the 5′ end of a recently identified spectrin family member Syne-1B/Nesprin-1β, an alternately transcribed gene with muscle-specific forms that bind acetylcholine receptor and associate with the nuclear envelope. By comparing the sequence of the MDBK clone with sequence data from the human genome database, we have determined that this cDNA represents a central portion of a very large gene (∼500 kb), encoding an ∼25-kb transcript that we refer to as Syne-1. Syne-1 encodes a large polypeptide (8406 amino acids) with multiple spectrin repeats and a region at its amino terminus with high homology to the actin binding domains of conventional spectrins. Golgi localization for this spectrin-like protein was demonstrated by expression of epitope-tagged fragments in MDBK and COS cells, identifying two distinct Golgi binding sites, and by immunofluorescence microscopy by using several different antibody preparations. One of the Golgi binding domains on Syne-1 acts as a dominant negative inhibitor that alters the structure of the Golgi complex, which collapses into a condensed structure near the centrosome in transfected epithelial cells. We conclude that the Syne-1 gene is expressed in a variety of forms that are multifunctional and are capable of functioning at both the Golgi and the nuclear envelope, perhaps linking the two organelles during muscle differentiation. PMID:12808039

  3. Molecular insights into intracellular RNA localization

    PubMed Central

    Blower, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Localization of mRNAs to specific destinations within a cell or an embryo is important for local control of protein expression. mRNA localization is well-known to function in very large and polarized cells such as neurons, and to facilitate embryonic patterning during early development. However, recent genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA localization is more widely utilized than previously thought to control gene expression. Not only can transcripts be localized asymmetrically within the cytoplasm, they are often also localized to symmetrically-distributed organelles. Recent genetic, cytological, and biochemical studies have begun to provide molecular insight into how cells select RNAs for transport, move them to specific destinations, and control their translation. This review will summarize recent insights into the mechanisms and function of RNA localization with a specific emphasis on molecular insights into each step in the mRNA localization process. PMID:23351709

  4. Localized neurofibromas in the bilateral orbits.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Localized neurofibromas are rare in the orbit and, unlike the more common plexiform neurofibromas, are not typically associated with von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. We present a rare case of localized neurofibromas in the bilateral orbits. PMID:24426488

  5. The Local Group: Our Galactic Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the properties and largest spirals of the Local Group galaxies. Explains the three categories of galaxies, identifies the brightest members of the Local Group, and discusses recent discoveries within the group. (ML)

  6. Region effects influence local tree species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-01

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  7. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  8. Method for localizing heating in tumor tissue

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; McCabe, Charles W.

    1977-04-12

    A method for a localized tissue heating of tumors is disclosed. Localized radio frequency current fields are produced with specific electrode configurations. Several electrode configurations are disclosed, enabling variations in electrical and thermal properties of tissues to be exploited.

  9. 32 CFR 1657.2 - Local boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... President. The Director shall prescribe the geographic jurisdiction of each board, and designate or... PROCESSING § 1657.2 Local boards. The Director shall establish local boards with jurisdiction to...

  10. Climate adaptation: Cultural knowledge and local risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    A focus on African American communities on the Eastern Shore of Maryland highlights the ways that local cultural knowledge differs from place to place, developing understanding of local climate risks and resources for adaptation.

  11. Think Globally, Act Locally (Focus on Teaching).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesper, Joan F.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a project, carried out jointly between a business communication class and a local chamber of commerce, that brings students into partnership with international merchants in the local community. (SR)

  12. Cloning and characterization of ADAM28: evidence for autocatalytic pro-domain removal and for cell surface localization of mature ADAM28.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, L; Maciewicz, R A; Blobel, C P

    2000-01-01

    The metalloprotease disintegrins are a family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins with diverse functions in fertilization, myoblast fusion, neurogenesis and protein ectodomain shedding. Here we report a cDNA sequence, encoding a metalloprotease disintegrin, termed ADAM28 ('a disintegrin and metalloprotease 28'), which was cloned from mouse lung. From protein sequence comparisons, ADAM28 is more closely related to snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) than to other ADAMs, and hence may cleave similar substrates to SVMPs, perhaps including components of the extracellular matrix. Northern blot analysis of selected mouse tissues revealed that ADAM28 is expressed highly and in alternatively spliced forms in the epididymis, suggesting a possible role in sperm maturation, and at lower levels in lung. The intracellular maturation of ADAM28 expressed in COS-7 cells resembles that of other ADAMs, in that ADAM28 is made as a precursor and processed to a mature form in a late Golgi compartment of the secretory pathway. Most or all of the mature, and thus presumably catalytically active, form of ADAM28 in COS-7 cells is accessible to cell surface trypsinization, suggesting that ADAM28 functions mainly on the cell surface. A mutation converting the catalytic-site glutamate residue into alanine abolishes pro-domain removal, even though this mutant form of ADAM28 can be transported to the cell surface in a manner similar to the wild-type protein. This suggests that pro-domain removal and maturation of ADAM28 may be, at least in part, autocatalytic. This is in contrast with several other ADAMs, for which furin-like proprotein convertases are involved in pro-domain removal, and in which a glutamate-to-alanine mutation in the catalytic site does not alter pro-domain removal. PMID:10794709

  13. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  14. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  15. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  16. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  17. 34 CFR 200.30 - Local review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local review. 200.30 Section 200.30 Education... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Lea and School Improvement § 200.30 Local review. (a) Each... described in § 200.2 to review annually the progress of each school served under subpart A of this part...

  18. Closed locally minimal nets on tetrahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Strelkova, Nataliya P

    2011-01-31

    Closed locally minimal networks are in a sense a generalization of closed geodesics. A complete classification is known of closed locally minimal networks on regular (and generally any equihedral) tetrahedra. In the present paper certain necessary and certain sufficient conditions are given for at least one closed locally minimal network to exist on a given non-equihedral tetrahedron. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  19. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Local regulations. 216.86 Section 216.86 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.86 Local regulations. Local regulations will be published from...

  20. 46 CFR 172.205 - Local damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Local damage. 172.205 Section 172.205 Shipping COAST... Subchapter O of This Chapter § 172.205 Local damage. (a) Each tankship must be shown by design calculations... operation assuming that local damage extending 30 inches (76 cm) normal to the hull shell is applied at...

  1. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  2. Local Government Uses of Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    The local government cable access channel is essentially a television station completely controlled by the local government. It differs from a local broadcast television station by being able to reach only those places which are connected to the cable system, having much less programming distribution costs, and having the capacity to deliver…

  3. Gaussianity and localization of N -qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaeta, M.; Muñoz, C.; Klimov, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze collective properties of N -qubit states. In particular, we exhaustively discuss the localization aspect of distributions in the measurement space and introduce the concept of Gaussian states in the macroscopic limit. The effect of local shifts on the localization and Gaussianity is analyzed.

  4. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  5. Local Service Learning in Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2016-01-01

    The local knowledge is simply integrated in education and learning process. This study aims to promote local knowledge in school through service learning. The learning process is employed herbal plants to reinforce students learn how to sustain local knowledge with modern life and 21st century classroom. Participants consisted of 42 pre-service…

  6. Diverse Local Literacies and Standardizing Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomer, Randy; Maloch, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The authors challenge educators to speculate on how to address local issues in a world that is increasingly diverse and global. This Research and Policy section emphasizes the seemingly paradoxical importance of both local and global literacy, illuminating the tension between the preservation of local literacy and a global standardization of…

  7. Localization: A Career for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Hope J.

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 2000, the Localization Generalist Certificate Program at Austin Community College (ACC) was the recipient of the 2004 ClientSide Excellence Award in the category of Localization Educational Services. It is the only community college program of its kind and one of only a handful of programs worldwide. What is localization and why is it…

  8. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means...; (i) Special district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of...

  9. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means a: (a... district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of governments, whether or...

  10. 2 CFR 200.64 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 200.64 Section 200.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.64 Local government. Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a: (a) County; (b) Borough; (c) Municipality;...

  11. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means...; (i) Special district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of...

  12. Art and Place: The Local Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Stresses the importance of local arts, focusing on encouraging modern dance at the local level. Addresses issues such as audience participation, sense of ownership and community, and accessibility that accompanies local art. Considers the implications for K-12 modern dance education. (CMK)

  13. Colleges Chew on Local-Food Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Nationally, students have pushed hard for local-food programs, and the amount of local produce in the dining hall is sometimes used as a litmus test for a college's overall commitment to sustainability. Local food has been a hot topic in popular culture in recent years, thanks in part to books by Michael Pollan and Barbara Kingsolver, movies like…

  14. 10 CFR 440.13 - Local applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Local applications. 440.13 Section 440.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.13 Local applications. (a) The Support Office Director shall give written notice to all local applicants throughout...

  15. 10 CFR 440.13 - Local applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Local applications. 440.13 Section 440.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.13 Local applications. (a) The Support Office Director shall give written notice to all local applicants throughout...

  16. The local dark matter density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.

    2014-06-01

    I review current efforts to measure the mean density of dark matter near the Sun. This encodes valuable dynamical information about our Galaxy and is also of great importance for ‘direct detection’ dark matter experiments. I discuss theoretical expectations in our current cosmology; the theory behind mass modelling of the Galaxy; and I show how combining local and global measures probes the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo and the possible presence of a ‘dark disc’. I stress the strengths and weaknesses of different methodologies and highlight the continuing need for detailed tests on mock data—particularly in the light of recently discovered evidence for disequilibria in the Milky Way disc. I collate the latest measurements of ρdm and show that, once the baryonic surface density contribution Σb is normalized across different groups, there is remarkably good agreement. Compiling data from the literature, I estimate Σb = 54.2 ± 4.9 M⊙pc-2, where the dominant source of uncertainty is in the H i gas contribution. Assuming this contribution from the baryons, I highlight several recent measurements of ρdm in order of increasing data complexity and prior, and, correspondingly, decreasing formal error bars. Comparing these measurements with spherical extrapolations from the Milky Way’s rotation curve, I show that the Milky Way is consistent with having a spherical dark matter halo at R0 ˜ 8 kpc. The very latest measures of ρdm based on ˜10 000 stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey appear to favour little halo flattening at R0, suggesting that the Galaxy has a rather weak dark matter disc, with a correspondingly quiescent merger history. I caution, however, that this result hinges on there being no large systematics that remain to be uncovered in the SDSS data, and on the local baryonic surface density being Σb ˜ 55 M⊙pc-2. I conclude by discussing how the new Gaia satellite will be transformative. We will obtain much tighter

  17. Atom localization with double-cascade configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, Maksim Yu; Efremova, Ekaterina A.; Rozhdestvensky, Yuri V.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) atom localization of a four-level system in a double-cascade configuration. We demonstrate the possibility of 1D localization in the field of a standing wave, 2D localization in the field of two standing waves and 2D localization only in the field of running waves by using different configurations of driven waves on transitions. In addition, for each configuration we reached a high-precision atom localization in one of the states at scales much smaller than the wavelength of the incident optical radiation.

  18. Texture classification by local rank correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, D.; Subbarao, M.; Davis, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to texture classification based on local rank correlation is proposed here. Its performance is compared with Laws' method which uses local convolution with feature masks. In the experiments, texture samples are classified based on their distribution of local statistics, either rank correlations or convolutions. The new method achieves generally optimal classification rates. It appears to be more robust because local order statistics are unaffected by local sample differences due to monotonic shifts of texture gray values and are less sensitive to noise.

  19. Increased localization precision by interference fringe analysis.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Carl G; Meiri, Amihai; Martineau, Jason; Zalevsky, Zeev; Gerton, Jordan M; Menon, Rajesh

    2015-06-21

    We report a novel optical single-emitter-localization methodology that uses the phase induced by path length differences in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to improve localization precision. Using information theory, we demonstrate that the localization capability of a modified Fourier domain signal generated by photon interference enables a more precise localization compared to a standard Gaussian intensity distribution of the corresponding point-spread function. The calculations were verified by numerical simulations and an exemplary experiment, where the centers of metal nanoparticles were localized to a precision of 3 nm. PMID:25999093

  20. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Herkenham, M.; Lynn, A.B.; Little, M.D.; Johnson, M.R.; Melvin, L.S.; de Costa, B.R.; Rice, K.C. )

    1990-03-01

    (3H)CP 55,940, a radiolabeled synthetic cannabinoid, which is 10-100 times more potent in vivo than delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was used to characterize and localize a specific cannabinoid receptor in brain sections. The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of (3H)CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in our in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience. Autoradiography of cannabinoid receptors in brain sections from several mammalian species, including human, reveals a unique and conserved distribution; binding is most dense in outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia--the substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus--and in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Generally high densities in forebrain and cerebellum implicate roles for cannabinoids in cognition and movement. Sparse densities in lower brainstem areas controlling cardiovascular and respiratory functions may explain why high doses of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol are not lethal.

  1. Active localization of virtual sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Jack M.; Hebert, C.; Cicinelli, J. G.

    1991-06-01

    We describe a virtual sound display built around a 12 MHz 80286 microcomputer and special purpose analog hardware. The display implements most of the primary cues for sound localization in the ear-level plane. Static information about direction is conveyed by interaural time differences and, for frequencies above 1800 Hz, by head sound shadow (interaural intensity differences) and pinna sound shadow. Static information about distance is conveyed by variation in sound pressure (first power law) for all frequencies, by additional attenuation in the higher frequencies (simulating atmospheric absorption), and by the proportion of direct to reverberant sound. When the user actively locomotes, the changing angular position of the source occasioned by head rotations provides further information about direction and the changing angular velocity produced by head translations (motion parallax) provides further information about distance. Judging both from informal observations by users and from objective data obtained in an experiment on homing to virtual and real sounds, we conclude that simple displays such as this are effective in creating the perception of external sounds to which subjects can home with accuracy and ease.

  2. Localized structures in gaseous combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Edgar; Lo Jacono, David; Bergeon, Alain

    2015-11-01

    We consider a flame between a pair of porous walls at x = +/- 1 that allow fuel and oxidizer to diffuse into the burn region from opposite sides. The burn process is described by a binary one-step process of Arrhenius type. The heat released is redistributed via radiation. Convection is ignored. In 1D the low and high temperature states are connected by an S-shaped branch with a fold at low Damköhler number below which extinction takes place. Various instabilities occur on the upper (flame) branch leading to different time-dependent but 1D flames. In 2D the situation is dramatically modified: near the extinction region the burn front breaks up into structures that are localized in the direction along the front, with multiple branches of such states bifurcating from the fold. These correspond to states with n = 1 , 2 , ⋯ identical and equispaced hotspots. Further bifurcations generate states in which the hotspots are nonidentical and separated by unequal distances. All these states are present in the same parameter interval, implying great sensitivity of the system to initial conditions.

  3. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  4. Improved Measure of Local Chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Terrence Draper; Andrei Alexandru; Ying Chen; Shao-Jing Dong; Ivan Horvath; Frank Lee; Nilmani Mathur; Harry B. Thacker; Sonali Tamhankar; Jianbo Zhang

    2004-06-01

    It is popular to probe the structure of the QCD vacuum indirectly by studying individual fermion eigenmodes, because this provides a natural way to filter out UV fluctuations. The double-peaking in the distribution of the local chiral orientation parameter (X) has been offered as evidence, by some, in support of a particular model of the vacuum. Here we caution that the X-distribution peaking varies significantly with various versions of the definition of X. Furthermore, each distribution varies little from that resulting from a random reshuffling of the left-handed (and independently the right-handed) fields, which destroys any QCD-induced left-right correlation; that is, the double-peaking is mostly a phase-space effect. We propose a new universal definition of the X parameter whose distribution is uniform for randomly reshuffled fields. Any deviations from uniformity for actual data can then be directly attributable to QCD-induced dynamics. We find that the familiar double peak disappears.

  5. Study of PTEN subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Bononi, Angela; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a key regulator of a plethora of cellular processes that are crucial in cancer development. Through its lipid phosphatase activity PTEN suppresses the PI3K/AKT pathway to govern cell proliferation, growth, migration, energy metabolism and death. The repertoire of roles fulfilled by PTEN has recently been expanded to include crucial functions in the nucleus, where it favors genomic stability and restrains cell cycle progression, as well as protein phosphatase dependent activity at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), where PTEN interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and regulates Ca2+ release from the ER and sensitivity to apoptosis. Indeed, PTEN is present in definite subcellular locations where it performs distinct functions acting on specific effectors. In this review, we summarize recent advantages in methods to study PTEN subcellular localization and the distinct biological functions of PTEN in different cellular compartments. A deeper understanding of PTEN’s compartmentalized-functions will guide the rational design of novel therapies. PMID:25312582

  6. Macroecology of local insect communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Oliver; McGavin, George C.

    2000-01-01

    The inter-relationships between animal body weight, range size, species richness and abundance are currently the basis of macroecology. Using 41 099 insects sampled from 31 Acacia tree canopies in north-east Tanzania, we first documented the basic macroecological patterns. The relationship between body weight and both species richness and abundance was polygonal with the highest insect species richness and abundance occurring at intermediate body weights. Across individual tree communities, the most statistically robust relationships were found between range size, abundance and species richness and they were all linear. In a second part, we focused on the positive abundance-range size relationship and we could test predictions of six of the eight proposed hypotheses to explain this widely documented pattern of community structure. The relationship is most likely explained by the metapopulation hypothesis stating that with more patches being occupied, local abundance in a given patch increases due to a higher rate of immigration from nearby patches. In addition, we found high slopes for the species-area relationship, typical of island systems and thus it seems reasonable to characterise Acacia trees in the savannah as habitat islands for insects.

  7. Coordinating locally 'owned' treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Collier, J; Picton, C; Littlejohns, P

    1994-01-01

    South West Thames Regional Health Authority established and commissioned a regional guidelines unit to coordinate the introduction of a set of treatment guidelines on the management of common medical emergencies into all the acute intaking National Health Service (NHS) hospitals throughout the region. All hospitals were offered a set of template guidelines to be used at their discretion for producing their own customised equivalent. They were also offered full typing and production facilities, together with printing costs if publication was achieved by a target deadline (1 August 1993). In 11 of the 14 NHS hospitals guidelines were available to hospital staff by the target deadline, and one set was produced for a non-NHS hospital. In two hospitals the target date was not met, and one other declined to take part. As part of the project the unit assessed the extent to which the published guidelines were adapted to meet the requirements of each individual hospital. The template offered guidelines on 34 topic titles. No hospital used all core titles of the original template; titles were omitted or replaced in some, and added in others. Where the original guideline titles were used, there was almost always some customisation--changes in sentence structure, names or contact numbers, alterations in drugs and doses or the addition or omission of entire sections. By using an established resource, sets of customised, locally determined treatment guidelines were introduced with relative ease into most of the acute hospitals in a UK health region. PMID:7884707

  8. Global versus local adsorption selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzat, Françoise; Marloie, Gael; Markovits, Alexis; Ellinger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the enantiomeric excess found in the amino acids present in the organic matter of carbonaceous meteorites is still unclear. Selective adsorption of one of the two enantiomers existing after a racemic formation could be part of the answer. Hereafter we report a comparative study of the adsorption of the R and S enantiomers of α-alanine and lactic acid on the hydroxylated { } chiral surface of α-quartz using numerical simulation techniques. Structurally different adsorption sites were found with opposite R versus S selectivity for the same molecule-surface couple, raising the problem of whether to consider adsorption as a local property or as a global response characteristic of the whole surface. To deal with the second term of this alternative, a statistical approach was designed, based on the occurrence of each adsorption site whose energy was calculated using first principle periodic density functional theory. It was found that R-alanine and S-lactic acid are the enantiomers preferentially adsorbed, even if the adsorption process on the quartz { } surface stays with a disappointingly poor enantio-selectivity. Nevertheless, it highlighted the important point that considering adsorption as a global property changes perspectives in the search for more efficient enantio-selective supports and more generally changes the way to apprehend adsorption processes in astro-chemistry/biology.

  9. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  10. Active localization of virtual sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Jack M.; Hebert, C.; Cicinelli, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a virtual sound display built around a 12 MHz 80286 microcomputer and special purpose analog hardware. The display implements most of the primary cues for sound localization in the ear-level plane. Static information about direction is conveyed by interaural time differences and, for frequencies above 1800 Hz, by head sound shadow (interaural intensity differences) and pinna sound shadow. Static information about distance is conveyed by variation in sound pressure (first power law) for all frequencies, by additional attenuation in the higher frequencies (simulating atmospheric absorption), and by the proportion of direct to reverberant sound. When the user actively locomotes, the changing angular position of the source occasioned by head rotations provides further information about direction and the changing angular velocity produced by head translations (motion parallax) provides further information about distance. Judging both from informal observations by users and from objective data obtained in an experiment on homing to virtual and real sounds, we conclude that simple displays such as this are effective in creating the perception of external sounds to which subjects can home with accuracy and ease.

  11. Segmentation in local hospital markets.

    PubMed

    Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L

    1993-01-01

    This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice. PMID:8417270

  12. Local earthquake tomography of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Richard; Baptie, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Scotland is a relatively aseismic region for the use of local earthquake tomography, but 40 yr of earthquakes recorded by a good and growing network make it possible. A careful selection is made from the earthquakes located by the British Geological Survey (BGS) over the last four decades to provide a data set maximising arrival time accuracy and ray path coverage of Scotland. A large number of 1-D velocity models with different layer geometries are considered and differentiated by employing quarry blasts as ground-truth events. Then, SIMULPS14 is used to produce a robust 3-D tomographic P-wave velocity model for Scotland. In areas of high resolution the model shows good agreement with previously published interpretations of seismic refraction and reflection experiments. However, the model shows relatively little lateral variation in seismic velocity except at shallow depths, where sedimentary basins such as the Midland Valley are apparent. At greater depths, higher velocities in the northwest parts of the model suggest that the thickness of crust increases towards the south and east. This observation is also in agreement with previous studies. Quarry blasts used as ground truth events and relocated with the preferred 3-D model are shown to be markedly more accurate than when located with the existing BGS 1-D velocity model.

  13. Local excision for selected colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M A; Goldberg, S M

    1989-07-01

    In summary, local excision is a useful tool in the management of selected colorectal carcinomas. The advent of the fibreoptic colonoscope has revised the concept of local excision when dealing with carcinoma-containing polyps of the colon. The clinician now has the means of locally excising certain carcinomas which would have required laparotomy in the not so distant past. In dealing with carcinoma of the rectum, local excision is not advocated for all rectal carcinomas. In fact, when the previously discussed tumour related factors are considered, local excision should be the ultimate procedure in less than 5% of operations performed for rectal carcinomas. However, when appropriately used, local excision provides a less morbid alternative to more radical procedures without compromising patient survival rates or local recurrence rates. PMID:2692739

  14. When Gravity Fails: Local Search Topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Local search algorithms for combinatorial search problems frequently encounter a sequence of states in which it is impossible to improve the value of the objective function; moves through these regions, called {\\em plateau moves), dominate the time spent in local search. We analyze and characterize {\\em plateaus) for three different classes of randomly generated Boolean Satisfiability problems. We identify several interesting features of plateaus that impact the performance of local search algorithms. We show that local minima tend to be small but occasionally may be very large. We also show that local minima can be escaped without unsatisfying a large number of clauses, but that systematically searching for an escape route may be computationally expensive if the local minimum is large. We show that plateaus with exits, called benches, tend to be much larger than minima, and that some benches have very few exit states which local search can use to escape. We show that the solutions (i.e. global minima) of randomly generated problem instances form clusters, which behave similarly to local minima. We revisit several enhancements of local search algorithms and explain their performance in light of our results. Finally we discuss strategies for creating the next generation of local search algorithms.

  15. On the concept of Bell’s local causality in local classical and quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor; Vecsernyés, Péter

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to implement Bell’s notion of local causality into a framework, called local physical theory. This framework, based on the axioms of algebraic field theory, is broad enough to integrate both probabilistic and spatiotemporal concepts and also classical and quantum theories. Bell’s original idea of local causality will arise as the classical case of our definition. Classifying local physical theories by whether they obey local primitive causality, a property rendering the dynamics of the theory causal, we then investigate what is needed for a local physical theory to be locally causal. Finally, comparing local causality with the common cause principles and relating both to the Bell inequalities we find a nice parallelism: Bell inequalities cannot be derived neither from local causality nor from a common cause unless the local physical theory is classical or the common cause is commuting, respectively.

  16. NMR local coil with adjustable spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Dembinski, G.T.

    1988-03-22

    A local coil assembly for use in NMR imaging is described which comprises: a base; a first local coil module mounted to the base and extending upward therefrom; sockets disposed in the base, each at a different distance from the first local coil module; a second local coil module having a connector therein which mates with each of the sockets to enable the second local coil module to be connected to the base at any one of the sockets; and a set of reactive components. The values of the respective reactive components are selected such that the second local oil module may be connected to any of the sockets without any substantial change in the resonant frequency of the assembly.

  17. Mobile Sensor Network Localization in Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenji, Harsha; Stoleru, Radu

    The node localization problem in mobile sensor networks has recently received significant attention. Particle filters, adapted from robotics, have produced good localization accuracies in conventional settings, but suffer significantly when used in challenging indoor and mobile environments characterized by a high degree of radio irregularity. We propose FuzLoc, a fuzzy logic-based approach for mobile node localization in challenging environments and formulate the localization problem as a fuzzy multilateration problem, with a fuzzy grid-prediction scheme for sparse networks. We demonstrate the performance and feasibility of our localization scheme through extensive simulations and a proof-of-concept implementation on hardware, respectively. Simulation results augmented by data gathered from our 42 node indoor testbed demonstrate improvements in the localization accuracy from 20%-40% when the radio irregularity is high.

  18. How ambiguous is the local kinetic energy?

    PubMed

    Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W; Hernandez, Juan I Rodriguez

    2010-08-26

    The local kinetic energy and the closely related local electronic stress tensor are commonly used to elucidate chemical bonding patterns, especially for covalent bonds. We use three different approaches-transformation properties of the stress tensor, quasiprobability distributions, and the virial theorem from density-functional theory-to clarify the inherent ambiguity in these quantities, discussing the implications for analyses based on the local kinetic energy and stress tensor. An expansive-but not universal-family of local kinetic energy forms that includes the most common choices and is suitable for both chemical-bonding and atoms-in-molecule analysis is derived. A family of local electronic stress tensors is also derived. Several local kinetic energy functions that are mathematically justified, but unlikely to be conceptually useful, are derived. The implications of these forms for atoms-in-molecule analysis are discussed. PMID:20586467

  19. Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jianke

    2010-11-15

    We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.

  20. Methods and strategies of object localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Lejun; Volz, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An important property of an intelligent robot is to be able to determine the location of an object in 3-D space. A general object localization system structure is proposed, some important issues on localization discussed, and an overview given for current available object localization algorithms and systems. The algorithms reviewed are characterized by their feature extracting and matching strategies; the range finding methods; the types of locatable objects; and the mathematical formulating methods.

  1. A Local Approach to Hybrid Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, K.; Kleist, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    A hybrid system with the local formulation is developed where the prior probability density function (pdf) consists of both statistical and dynamic information of the uncertainty. The dynamic information is provided by the monte caro approach. The local formulation is solved at every grid as in the local ensemble transform Kalman filter. The formulation is flexible in that it allows not only Gaussian but other stable pdfs.

  2. Local quanta, unitary inequivalence, and vacuum entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Vázquez, Matías R. Rey, Marco del Westman, Hans León, Juan

    2014-12-15

    In this work we develop a formalism for describing localised quanta for a real-valued Klein–Gordon field in a one-dimensional box [0,R]. We quantise the field using non-stationary local modes which, at some arbitrarily chosen initial time, are completely localised within the left or the right side of the box. In this concrete set-up we directly face the problems inherent to a notion of local field excitations, usually thought of as elementary particles. Specifically, by computing the Bogoliubov coefficients relating local and standard (global) quantisations, we show that the local quantisation yields a Fock representation of the Canonical Commutation Relations (CCR) which is unitarily inequivalent to the standard one. In spite of this, we find that the local creators and annihilators remain well defined in the global Fock space F{sup G}, and so do the local number operators associated to the left and right partitions of the box. We end up with a useful mathematical toolbox to analyse and characterise local features of quantum states in F{sup G}. Specifically, an analysis of the global vacuum state |0{sub G}〉∈F{sup G} in terms of local number operators shows, as expected, the existence of entanglement between the left and right regions of the box. The local vacuum |0{sub L}〉∈F{sup L}, on the contrary, has a very different character. It is neither cyclic (with respect to any local algebra of operators) nor separating and displays no entanglement between left and right partitions. Further analysis shows that the global vacuum also exhibits a distribution of local excitations reminiscent, in some respects, of a thermal bath. We discuss how the mathematical tools developed herein may open new ways for the analysis of fundamental problems in local quantum field theory.

  3. THE LOCAL LIMIT OF GLOBAL GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    CANDY J; WALTZ RE; DORLAND W

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 Global gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence include physical effects that are not retained in local flux-tube simulations. nevertheless, in the limit of sufficiently small {rho}* (gyroradius compared to system size) it is expected that a local simulation should agree with a global one (at the local simulation radius) since all effects that are dropped in the local simulations are expected to vanish as {rho}* {yields} 0. In this note, global simulations of a well-established test case are indeed shown to recover the flux-tube limit at each radius.

  4. Angular momentum in the Local Group

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, A.; Laflamme, R.

    1994-04-01

    We briefly review models for the Local Group and the acquisition of its angular momentum. We describe early attempts to understand the origin of the spin of the galaxies discussing the hypothesis that the Local Group has little angular momentum. Finally we show that using Peebles` least action principle there should be a rather large amount of orbital angular momentum compared to the magnitude of the spin of its galaxies. Therefore the Local Group cannot be thought as tidally isolated. Using Peebles` trajectories we give a possible set of trajectories for Local Group galaxies which would predict their spin.

  5. Deconstructing spatiotemporal chaos using local symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pethel, Shawn D; Corron, Ned J; Bollt, Erik

    2007-11-23

    We find that the global symbolic dynamics of a diffusively coupled map lattice is well approximated by a very small local model for weak to moderate coupling strengths. A local symbolic model is a truncation of the full symbolic model to one that considers only a single element and a few neighbors. Using interval analysis, we give rigorous results for a range of coupling strengths and different local model widths. Examples are presented of extracting a local symbolic model from data and of controlling spatiotemporal chaos. PMID:18233220

  6. Origin of Dynamical Quantum Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachon, Cesar E.; Pachon, Leonardo A.

    2014-03-01

    Non-locality is one of the hallmarks of quantum mechanics and is responsible for paradigmatic features such as entanglement and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Non-locality comes in two ``flavours'': a kinematic non-locality- arising from the structure of the Hilbert space- and a dynamical non-locality- arising from the quantum equations of motion-. Kinematic non-locality is unable to induce any change in the probability distributions, so that the ``action-at-a-distance'' cannot manifest. Conversely, dynamical non-locality does create explicit changes in probability, though in a ``causality-preserving'' manner. The origin of non-locality of quantum measurements and its relations to the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, such as the uncertainty principle, have been only recently elucidated. Here we trace the origin of dynamical non-locality to the superposition principle. This relation allows us to establish and identify how the uncertainty and the superposition principles determine the non-local character of the outcome of a quantum measurement. Being based on group theoretical and path integral formulations, our formulation admits immediate generalizations and extensions to to, e.g., quantum field theory. This work was supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion -COLCIENCIAS- of Colombia under the grant number 111556934912.

  7. Functional Localization of Genetic Network Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Shinji; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu

    According to the knowledge of brain science, it is suggested that there exists cerebral functional localization, which means that a specific part of the cerebrum is activated depending on various kinds of information human receives. The aim of this paper is to build an artificial model to realize functional localization based on Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a new evolutionary computation method recently developed. GNP has a directed graph structure suitable for realizing functional localization. We studied the basic characteristics of the proposed system by making GNP work in a functionally localized way.

  8. Lipid Emulsion for Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ciechanowicz, Sarah; Patil, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    The accidental overdose of local anesthetics may prove fatal. The commonly used amide local anesthetics have varying adverse effects on the myocardium, and beyond a certain dose all are capable of causing death. Local anesthetics are the most frequently used drugs amongst anesthetists and although uncommon, local anaesthetic systemic toxicity accounts for a high proportion of mortality, with local anaesthetic-induced cardiac arrest particularly resistant to standard resuscitation methods. Over the last decade, there has been convincing evidence of intravenous lipid emulsions as a rescue in local anesthetic-cardiotoxicity, and anesthetic organisations, over the globe have developed guidelines on the use of this drug. Despite this, awareness amongst practitioners appears to be lacking. All who use local anesthetics in their practice should have an appreciation of patients at high risk of toxicity, early symptoms and signs of toxicity, preventative measures when using local anesthetics, and the initial management of systemic toxicity with intravenous lipid emulsion. In this paper we intend to discuss the pharmacology and pathophysiology of local anesthetics and toxicity, and the rationale for lipid emulsion therapy. PMID:21969824

  9. Updates of Topical and Local Anesthesia Agents.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Kirpalani, Tarun; Mohan, Naveen

    2016-04-01

    As described in this article, there are many advances in topical and local anesthesia. Topical and local anesthetics have played a great role in dentistry in alleviating the fears of patients, eliminating pain, and providing pain control. Many invasive procedures would not be performed without the use and advances of topical/local anesthetics. The modern-day dentist has the responsibility of knowing the variety of products on the market and should have at least references to access before, during, and after treatment. This practice ensures proper care with topical and local anesthetics for the masses of patients entering dental offices worldwide. PMID:27040295

  10. Local and normal modes: A classical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Charles; Brumer, Paul

    1980-12-01

    Normal and local mode behavior in molecular systems and the transition between them is explored using nonlinear mechanics techniques. Significant insight into this behavior and into the structure of phase space results from a generalized definition of local and normal modes and the associated identification of normal modes as a (1:1) resonance between local zeroth order oscillators. In addition to qualitative insight, this approach yields a simple formula [Eq. (28)] for the level of excitation at which local modes become possible. Applications to H2O and to the overtone spectroscopy of the dihalomethanes, benzene, and TMS are provided.

  11. When local isn't best

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain circumstances under which local may be or may not be best. Natural selection may lead to local adaptation (LA), or it may be constrained by gene flow, founder effects, small population size, genetic drift, and archetype. ‘Specialist’ species display greater LA than ‘generalist’ species. Local genotypes are to a certain extent transient, being a consequence of past historical genetic patterns. Two recent meta-analyses found that while local performance exceeded the performance of a randomly chosen nonlocal population in 71% of comparisons, general adaptation across environments was as frequent as LA. Genotypes for restoration are most likely to be effective if they are adapted to current site conditions. As environmental change accelerates, both globally and locally, exceptions to ‘local is best’ may increase. For these reasons, ‘local is best’ may be better thought of as a testable hypothesis rather than as a general assumption. While either local or nonlocal plant material may be most effective for restoration practice depending on individual circumstances, local material will continue to be the first choice for restoration practitioners whenever this option is feasible and effective. PMID:24187591

  12. Detection of edges using local geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, J. A.; Manohar, M.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers described a new representation, the local geometry, for early visual processing which is motivated by results from biological vision. This representation is richer than is often used in image processing. It extracts more of the local structure available at each pixel in the image by using receptive fields that can be continuously rotated and that go to third order spatial variation. Early visual processing algorithms such as edge detectors and ridge detectors can be written in terms of various local geometries and are computationally tractable. For example, Canny's edge detector has been implemented in terms of a local geometry of order two, and a ridge detector in terms of a local geometry of order three. The edge detector in local geometry was applied to synthetic and real images and it was shown using simple interpolation schemes that sufficient information is available to locate edges with sub-pixel accuracy (to a resolution increase of at least a factor of five). This is reasonable even for noisy images because the local geometry fits a smooth surface - the Taylor series - to the discrete image data. Only local processing was used in the implementation so it can readily be implemented on parallel mesh machines such as the MPP. Researchers expect that other early visual algorithms, such as region growing, inflection point detection, and segmentation can also be implemented in terms of the local geometry and will provide sufficiently rich and robust representations for subsequent visual processing.

  13. Target localization and real-time tracking using the Calypso 4D localization system in patients with localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A. . E-mail: patrick.kupelian@orhs.org; Pouliot, Jean; Shinohara, Katsuto; Aubin, Michelle; Roach, Mack; Skrumeda, Lisa L.; Balter, James M.; Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Wei, John T.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: The Calypso 4D Localization System is being developed to provide accurate, precise, objective, and continuous target localization during radiotherapy. This study involves the first human use of the system, to evaluate the localization accuracy of this technique compared with radiographic localization and to assess its ability to obtain real-time prostate-motion information. Methods and Materials: Three transponders were implanted in each of 20 patients. Eleven eligible patients of the 20 patients participated in a study arm that compared radiographic triangulated transponder locations to electromagnetically recorded transponder locations. Transponders were tracked for 8-min periods. Results: The implantations were all successful, with no major complications. Intertransponder distances were largely stable. Comparison of the patient localization on the basis of transponder locations as per the Calypso system with the radiographic transponder localization showed an average ({+-}SD) 3D difference of 1.5 {+-} 0.9 mm. Upon tracking during 8 min, 2 of the 11 patients showed significant organ motion (>1 cm), with some motion lasting longer that 1 min. Conclusion: Calypso transponders can be used as magnetic intraprostatic fiducials. Clinical evaluation of this novel 4D nonionizing electromagnetic localization system with transponders indicates a comparable localization accuracy to isocenter (within 2 mm) compared with X-ray localiza0010ti.

  14. Localization Algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Jinfang; Shu, Lei; Xu, Yongjun; Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization algorithms into three categories based on sensor nodes’ mobility: stationary localization algorithms, mobile localization algorithms and hybrid localization algorithms. Moreover, we compare the localization algorithms in detail and analyze future research directions of localization algorithms in UWSNs. PMID:22438752

  15. Local cooling despite global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girihagama, Lakshika Nilmini Kumari

    How much warmer is the ocean surface than the atmosphere directly above it? Part 1 of the present study offers a means to quantify this temperature difference using a nonlinear one-dimensional global energy balance coupled ocean--atmosphere model ("Aqua Planet"). The significance of our model, which is of intermediate complexity, is its ability to obtain an analytical solution for the global average temperatures. Preliminary results show that, for the present climate, global mean ocean temperature is 291.1 K whereas surface atmospheric temperature is 287.4 K. Thus, the surface ocean is 3.7 K warmer than the atmosphere above it. Temporal perturbation of the global mean solution obtained for "Aqua Planet" showed a stable system. Oscillation amplitude of the atmospheric temperature anomaly is greater in magnitude to those found in the ocean. There is a phase shift (a lag in the ocean), which is caused by oceanic thermal inertia. Climate feedbacks due to selected climate parameters such as incoming radiation, cloud cover, and CO2 are discussed. Warming obtained with our model compares with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) estimations. Application of our model to local regions illuminates the importance of evaporative cooling in determining derived air-sea temperature offsets, where an increase in the latter increases the systems overall sensitivity to evaporative cooling. In part 2, we wish to answer the fairly complicated question of whether global warming and an increased freshwater flux cause Northern Hemispheric warming or cooling. Starting from the assumption of the ocean as the primary source of variability in the Northern hemispheric ocean--atmosphere coupled system, we employed a simple non--linear one--dimensional coupled ocean--atmosphere model similar to the "Aqua Planet" model but with additional advective heat transports. The simplicity of this model allows us to analytically predict the evolution of many dynamical variables of interest

  16. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  17. Localized surface instabilities of stressed solids

    SciTech Connect

    Colin, J.; Grilhe, J.; Junqua, N.

    1998-12-31

    Localized instabilities formation on the free surface of solids has been studied when sources of non-homogeneous stress such as dislocations or precipitates are present in the bulk. This formalism of localized perturbations has been used to describe the butterfly transformation of cubic precipitates in superalloys and the contraction of rectangular specimens under stress.

  18. Content Locality in Distributed Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viles, Charles L.; French, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces content locality--the degree to which content-similar documents are colocated in a distributed collection--in distributed digital libraries. Proposes two metrics for measurement of content locality, one based on topic signatures and the other based on collection statistics. Provides derivations and analysis of both metrics and uses them…

  19. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  20. How State and Local Interagency Partnerships Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, Patricia, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue describes a state-local team partnership model for interagency transition efforts for young adults with deaf-blindness. Excepts from a presentation by Jane M. Everson identify key aspects and characteristics of effective state and local interagency partnerships. These include: (1) strategies for initiating and…