Science.gov

Sample records for meter type pdr4

  1. Inherent limitations of nondestructive chlorophyll meters: a comparison of two types of meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O. A.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nondestructive chlorophyll meters were compared with a standard, destructive chlorophyll measurement technique. The nondestructive chlorophyll meters were 1) a custom built, single-wavelength meter, and 2) the recently introduced, dual-wavelengh, chlorophyll meter from Minolta (model SPAD-502). Data from both meters were closely correlated with destructive measurements of chlorophyll (r2 = 0.90 and 0.93; respectively) for leaves with chlorophyll concentrations ranging from 100 to 600 mg m-2, but both meters consistently overestimated chlorophyll outside this range. Although the dual-wavelength meter was slightly more accurate than the single-wavelength meter (higher r2), the light-scattering properties of leaf cells and the nonhomogeneous distribution of chlorophyll in leaves appear to limit the ability of all meters to estimate in vivo chlorophyll concentration.

  2. Inherent limitations of nondestructive chlorophyll meters: a comparison of two types of meters.

    PubMed

    Monje, O A; Bugbee, B

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nondestructive chlorophyll meters were compared with a standard, destructive chlorophyll measurement technique. The nondestructive chlorophyll meters were 1) a custom built, single-wavelength meter, and 2) the recently introduced, dual-wavelengh, chlorophyll meter from Minolta (model SPAD-502). Data from both meters were closely correlated with destructive measurements of chlorophyll (r2 = 0.90 and 0.93; respectively) for leaves with chlorophyll concentrations ranging from 100 to 600 mg m-2, but both meters consistently overestimated chlorophyll outside this range. Although the dual-wavelength meter was slightly more accurate than the single-wavelength meter (higher r2), the light-scattering properties of leaf cells and the nonhomogeneous distribution of chlorophyll in leaves appear to limit the ability of all meters to estimate in vivo chlorophyll concentration. PMID:11537728

  3. Calibration and maintenance of vertical-axis type current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, George F.; Novak, Charles E.

    1968-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the procedures used in the manufacture and calibration of current meters and to present in detail information pertinent to their proper maintenance and repair. Recent intensive studies on the calibration of current meters and the effects of wear of the component parts on the performance of the meters have led to the adoption of new procedures for the manufacture, calibration, maintenance, and repair of meters. This chapter, therefore, updates the provisional manual 'Care and Rating of Current Meters' (1957) by including these new procedures.

  4. Reflection-Type Oil-Film Skin-Friction Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-film skin-friction meter for both flight and wind-tunnel applications uses internal reflection and is self-contained, compact unit. Contained in palm-sized housing, in which source of light, mirrors, and sensor mounted rigidly in alignment. Entire unit mounted rigidly under skin of aircraft or wind tunnel, eliminating any relative vibration between optical elements and skin of aircraft or wind tunnel. Meter primarily applicable to flight and wind-tunnel tests, also used in chemical-processing plants.

  5. Effects of simulated ice on the performance of price type-AA current meter rotors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    Slush ice readily adheres to the standard metal rotor of the winter Price type-AA current meter and affects the ability of the meter to measure the flow velocity accurately. Tests conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydraulics Laboratory at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, attempt to quantify the effects of slush ice on the performance of standard Price type-AA meter metal rotors. Test data obtained for rotors filled with simulated slush are compared with data for solid-cup polymer and standard hollow-cup metal rotors. Partial filling of the cups only marginally affects rotor performance at velocities greater than 15.24 centimeters per second. However, when cups are filled or over-filled with simulated slush, rotor performance is noticeably affected. Errors associated with slush over-filling and filling of cups are also significant when flows are angled vertically.

  6. Improving the accuracy of electronic moisture meters for runner-type peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Runner-type peanut kernel moisture content (MC) is measured periodically during curing and post harvest processing with electronic moisture meters for marketing and quality control. MC is predicted for 250 g samples of kernels with a mathematical function from measurements of various physical prope...

  7. Calibration and use of continuous heat-type automated seepage meters for submarine groundwater discharge measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mwashote, B.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chanton, J.; Santos, I.R.; Dimova, N.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) assessments were conducted both in the laboratory and at a field site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, using a continuous heat-type automated seepage meter (seepmeter). The functioning of the seepmeter is based on measurements of a temperature gradient in the water between downstream and upstream positions in its flow pipe. The device has the potential of providing long-term, high-resolution measurements of SGD. Using a simple inexpensive laboratory set-up, we have shown that connecting an extension cable to the seepmeter has a negligible effect on its measuring capability. Similarly, the observed influence of very low temperature (???3 ??C) on seepmeter measurements can be accounted for by conducting calibrations at such temperatures prior to field deployments. Compared to manual volumetric measurements, calibration experiments showed that at higher water flow rates (>28 cm day-1 or cm3 cm-2 day-1) an analog flowmeter overestimated flow rates by ???7%. This was apparently due to flow resistance, turbulence and formation of air bubbles in the seepmeter water flow tubes. Salinity had no significant effect on the performance of the seepmeter. Calibration results from fresh water and sea water showed close agreement at a 95% confidence level significance between the data sets from the two media (R2 = 0.98). Comparatively, the seepmeter SGD measurements provided data that are comparable to manually-operated seepage meters, the radon geochemical tracer approach, and an electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Calibration and use of continuous heat-type automated seepage meters for submarine groundwater discharge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwashote, B. M.; Burnett, W. C.; Chanton, J.; Santos, I. R.; Dimova, N.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2010-03-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) assessments were conducted both in the laboratory and at a field site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, using a continuous heat-type automated seepage meter (seepmeter). The functioning of the seepmeter is based on measurements of a temperature gradient in the water between downstream and upstream positions in its flow pipe. The device has the potential of providing long-term, high-resolution measurements of SGD. Using a simple inexpensive laboratory set-up, we have shown that connecting an extension cable to the seepmeter has a negligible effect on its measuring capability. Similarly, the observed influence of very low temperature (≤3 °C) on seepmeter measurements can be accounted for by conducting calibrations at such temperatures prior to field deployments. Compared to manual volumetric measurements, calibration experiments showed that at higher water flow rates (>28 cm day -1 or cm 3 cm -2 day -1) an analog flowmeter overestimated flow rates by ≥7%. This was apparently due to flow resistance, turbulence and formation of air bubbles in the seepmeter water flow tubes. Salinity had no significant effect on the performance of the seepmeter. Calibration results from fresh water and sea water showed close agreement at a 95% confidence level significance between the data sets from the two media ( R2 = 0.98). Comparatively, the seepmeter SGD measurements provided data that are comparable to manually-operated seepage meters, the radon geochemical tracer approach, and an electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter.

  9. Heat exchange model in absorption chamber of water-direct-absorption-typed laser energy meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng Wei, Ji; Qun Sun, Li; Zhang, Kai; Hu, XiaoYang; Zhou, Shan

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between laser and water flow is very complicated in the absorption chamber of a high energy laser (HEL) energy meter which directly uses water as an absorbing medium. Therefore, the heat exchange model cannot be studied through traditional methods, but it is the most important factor to improve heat exchange efficiency in the absorption chamber. After the exchanges of heat and mass were deeply analyzed, experimental study and numerical fitting were brought out. The original testing data of laser power and water flow temperature at one moment were utilized to calculate those at the next moment, and then the calculated temperature curve was compared with the measured one. If the two curves matched well, the corresponding coefficient was obtained. Meanwhile, numerous experiments were performed to study the effects of laser power, duration, focal spot scale, and water flow rate on heat exchange coefficient. In addition, the relationship between water phase change and heat exchange was analyzed. The heat exchange coefficient was increased by optimizing the construction of the absorption chamber or increasing water flow rate. The results provide the reference for design of water-direct-absorption-typed HEL energy meters, as well as for analysis of the interaction between other similar lasers and water flow.

  10. Solar Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The instrument pictured is an inexpensive solar meter which is finding wide acceptance among architects, engineers and others engaged in construction of solar energy facilities. It detects the amount of solar energy available at a building site, information necessary to design the most efficient type of solar system for a particular location. Incorporating technology developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center, the device is based upon the solar cell, which provides power for spacecraft by converting the sun's energy to electricity. The meter is produced by Dodge Products, Inc., Houston, Texas, a company formed to bring the technology to the commercial marketplace.

  11. Dynamic tests during cow milking with different types of milk meters.

    PubMed

    Amirante, P; Bianchi, P; Montel, G L

    2005-01-01

    This study is related to the POM - Measure 2 - Project B15 'Veterinary services computerization and technical support to livestock farms', in which innovative plants solutions has been introduced to recognize the single animal to measure the quantity of produced milk, to centralize and automate the management, in different cow and sheep and goats breedings in Puglia and Basilicata regions. The experimentation has foreseen dynamic tests, during the real milking of the cows, in an apulian plant in which different measurers of the quantity of milk have been installed: weigh jar, electronic weighing 'bascule' milk-meter, electronic proportional milk-meter. In a mechanical point of view, the vacuum level and the vacuum fluctuations in three different milk pipe sections have been valued: at short milk tube, downstream from the claw, prior to the milk meter. Comparing the results, authors deduced that the electronic milkmeters, like the electronic proportional milk meter, allows inferior vacuum degree variations and less mechanical solicitations in cow udder; such situation is particularly evident with higher milk flow. The study also underlines that the vacuum drops during milking can be very critical if not immediately compensate with a suitable planning and periodic revision of the plants. PMID:20437372

  12. A reflection-type oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1991-09-01

    Unlike many conventional methods of measuring skin-friction, the oil-film method is absolute in nature, requires no calibration, and, in principle, can be universally applied. In all existing forms of the meter, however, interferometry is used to make measurements of the oil film. Here, the technique has been simplified by completely eliminating interferometry. This has been achieved by making direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope by directing a reflected beam of light off the top of the oil film to a small position sensing photodiode. The reflection method has been verified in incompressible flat plate turbulent boundary-layers. The standard of deviation of the measurements is about 10 percent of the mean. The present version of the meter is compact and simple.

  13. A reflection-type oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike many conventional methods of measuring skin-friction, the oil-film method is absolute in nature, requires no calibration, and, in principle, can be universally applied. In all existing forms of the meter, however, interferometry is used to make measurements of the oil film. Here, the technique has been simplified by completely eliminating interferometry. This has been achieved by making direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope by directing a reflected beam of light off the top of the oil film to a small position sensing photodiode. The reflection method has been verified in incompressible flat plate turbulent boundary-layers. The standard of deviation of the measurements is about 10 percent of the mean. The present version of the meter is compact and simple.

  14. Sagnac interferometer as a speed-meter-type, quantum-nondemolition gravitational-wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanbei

    2003-06-01

    According to quantum measurement theory, “speed meters”—devices that measure the momentum, or speed, of free test masses—are immune to the standard quantum limit (SQL). It is shown that a Sagnac-interferometer gravitational-wave detector is a speed meter and therefore in principle it can beat the SQL by large amounts over a wide band of frequencies. It is shown, further, that, when one ignores optical losses, a signal-recycled Sagnac interferometer with Fabry-Perot arm cavities has precisely the same performance, for the same circulating light power, as the Michelson speed-meter interferometer recently invented and studied by Purdue and the author. The influence of optical losses is not studied, but it is plausible that they be fairly unimportant for the Sagnac interferometer, as for other speed meters. With squeezed vacuum (squeeze factor e-2R=0.1) injected into its dark port, the recycled Sagnac interferometer can beat the SQL by a factor (10)≃3 over the frequency band 10 Hz≲f≲150 Hz using the same circulating power Ic˜820 kW as is to be used by the (quantum limited) second-generation Advanced LIGO interferometers—if other noise sources are made sufficiently small. It is concluded that the Sagnac optical configuration, with signal recycling and squeezed-vacuum injection, is an attractive candidate for third-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (LIGO-III and EURO).

  15. Plugging meter

    DOEpatents

    Nagai, Akinori

    1979-01-01

    A plugging meter for automatically measuring the impurity concentration in a liquid metal is designed to have parallel passages including a cooling passage provided with a plugging orifice and with a flow meter, and a by-pass passage connected in series to a main passage having another flow meter, so that the plugging points may be obtained from the outputs of both flow meters. The plugging meter has a program signal generator, a flow-rate ratio setter and a comparator, and is adapted to change the temperature of the plugging orifice in accordance with a predetermined pattern or gradient, by means of a signal representative of the temperature of plugging orifice and a flow-rate ratio signal obtained from the outputs of both flow meters. This plugging meter affords an automatic and accurate measurement of a multi-plugging phenomenon taking place at the plugging orifice.

  16. Comparison of broad band time series recorded parallel by FGI type interferometric water level and Lippmann type pendulum tilt meters at Conrad observatory, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Papp, Gabor; Leonhardt, Roman; Ban, Dora; Szücs, Eszter; Benedek, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) the progenitor of Finnish Geospatial Research Institute of NLS designed and built a 5.5m long prototype of interferometric water level tiltmeter (iWT) in early 2014. Geodetic and Geophysical Institute (GGI), Sopron, Hungary bought the instrument and started tilt measurement in August 2014 at the Conrad observatory (COBS), Austria to monitor geodynamical phenomena like microseisms, free oscillations of the Earth, earth tides, mass loading effects and crustal deformations in cooperation with Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the FGI. On the July 16 2015 a Lippmann-type 2D tilt sensor (LTS) was also installed by GGI on the 6 m long pier where iWT was set up previously. This situation opens a possibility to do broad band (from secular to seismic variations up to 15 Hz) geophysical signal analysis comparing the responses of long (several meters) and short (a few decimeters) base instruments implementing different physical principles (relative height change of a level surface and inclination change of the plumb line). The characteristics of the sensors are studied by the evaluation of the spectra of recorded signals dominated by microseisms. The iWT has internal interferometric calibration and it can be compared to Lippmanns tilt meter one. Both instruments show good long term ( > 1 day) stability when earth tides and ocean and air mass loading tilts are modelled.

  17. Introduction of water chemistry regimes with ethanolamine metering at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER-type reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutikov, A. V.; Ivanov, V. N.; Tyapkov, V. F.; Yerpylyova, S. F.; Bykova, V. V.

    2008-05-01

    The results of introduction of water chemistry with ethanolamine metering in the feedwater at unit No. 2 of the Balakovo NPP are presented. Along with the data obtained in the course of operational monitoring of the working medium of the secondary coolant circuit, the results of studying of contamination of the tube system of steam generators are presented and analyzed.

  18. Saturation meter

    DOEpatents

    Gregurech, S.

    1984-08-01

    A saturation meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of saturation prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.

  19. Capacitance Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Anders Precision Instrument Co.'s original meter could not measure dissipation leakage in capacitors. Seeking to add that capability, the company planned an advanced model. Before starting work, company president, Thomas Anderson, sought technical assistance from NASA's NERAC (New England Research Application Center). Anderson wanted a survey of the status and capabilities of NASA's electronic measuring devices. NERAC performed a search of six databases, including NASA's and provided a comprehensive report on state of the art worldwide.

  20. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  1. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  2. Your Glucose Meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  3. Portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J P

    1997-02-01

    There are several portable peak flow meters available. These instruments vary in construction and performance. Guidelines are recommended for minimum performance and testing of portable peak flow meters, with the aim of establishing a procedure for standardizing all peak flow meters. Future studies to clarify the usefulness of mechanical test apparatus and clinical trials of peak flow meters are also recommended. PMID:9098706

  4. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  5. A novel flattop current regulated energy discharge type pulsed power supply and magnet yielding 4. 4 kGauss-meter for 6 milliseconds

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.T.

    1989-07-01

    Most energy discharge power supplies obtain their bursts of power from the energy stored in charged capacitors when it is suddenly released into a load. This note describes the design of a similar small 800 Joules energy discharge type power supply and magnet. The magnet gap is 2 in.{times}2 in.{times}25-1/2 in. long and produces about 4.4 kGauss-meters at a rate of 12 pulses per minute. Each pulse is current regulated at the top for a duration of 6 msec. and varies less than 0.6% of set value. Current regulation at flattop is obtained by switching a resistor in and out of the discharge circuit with an IGBT at a rate of about 5 kHz. Most energy discharge systems produce half sine wave pulses, and current regulation is obtained by controlling the charge voltage at the energy storage capacitor, resulting only in a controlled peak current value of the half sine wave pulse. The current value at the top changes substantially during 6 msec. depending on the operating frequency.

  6. A Matter of Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Writing verse is a learning experience. Arranging words, sounds and syllables can turn everyday language into metered language (language that can be measured), and metered language is the definition of verse. This article discusses the use of meter in helping students establish sets of syllables and lines that can be counted, enabling them to…

  7. Direct-reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

  8. Real life experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters

    SciTech Connect

    Sakariassen, R.

    1996-12-31

    Multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters are to be considered as newcomers among flow meters for large, high pressure gas flows. Although the advantages of this type of meters are many and obvious, the metering community is still hesitating to go for it mainly because of lack of experience. The objective of this paper is to present the experience of Statoil after more than six years experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters. Their experience includes laboratory testing and operation in the field for a variety of designs and dimensions. This paper presents the accuracy achieved by such meters including comparison between ultrasonic meters and orifice metering systems in operation, the unique possibilities that this type of meter offers for on-line verification of performance and installation effects. Of particular interest should be noted that in the vicinity of low-noise control valves, such meters could stop functioning completely if no precautions are taken.

  9. Radiation dose rate meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-07-28

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts.

  10. Net metering programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y H

    1996-12-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest from the renewable energy industry and environmental groups in net metering. The reason for this interest is that net metering is a simple, low-cost, and easily administered method to encourage direct customer investment in renewable energy technologies. The renewable energy industry supports net metering because it removes an economic disincentive for potential customers by increasing the value of the electricity generated by renewable energy technologies. Environmental groups support net metering because it promotes clean energy production. The concept of net metering programs is to allow the electric meters of customers with generating facilities to turn backwards when their generators are producing more energy than the customers` demand. Net metering allows customers to use their generation to offset their consumption over the entire billing period, not just instantaneously. This offset would enable customers with generating facilities to receive retail prices for more of the electricity they generate. Without a net metering program, utilities usually install a second meter to measure any electricity that flows back to the utility grid and purchase it at a rate that is much lower than the retail prices. There are various net metering programs in the country. Most are available to customer-owned small generating facilities only, some further restrict the eligibility to renewable energy technologies. This Topical Issues Brief discusses how these net metering programs have been implemented by different utilities an states, what the rationales are behind may net metering programs, and what the potential impact of net metering may be on the deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  11. The effects of meter orientation downstream of a short radius elbow on electromagnetic flow meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justensen, Jared C.

    Electromagnetic flowmeters (known as magnetic flow meters) are a widely used type of flowmeter. The accuracy of magnetic flow meters are a function of several factors, not the least of which is the flow condition inside the pipe. It has been shown that disturbances in the velocity profile affects the accuracy of a magnetic flow meter (Luntta, 1998). Accordingly, manufacturers of magnetic flow meters give installation guidelines. These guidelines help prevent the user from installing the meter in a pipe configuration that is likely to cause the meter to produce inaccurate results. Although most manufacturers provide recommendations about the amount of straight pipe that is necessary upstream of the meter, little is said about the orientation of the meter in relation to upstream disturbances. This study examines the performance of magnetic flow meters when positioned at two different orientations: EIP (electrodes in plane with an upstream 90-degree short radius elbow) and EOP (electrodes out of plane). Four different meters were included in the study in which a baseline straight pipe test was first performed using over fifty diameters of straight pipe upstream of each meter. The straight pipe test was used to determine the baseline accuracy of each of the meters over a velocity range that is typical for the size and function of the meters. Meters were then installed at five different locations downstream from a 90-degree short-radius elbow. At each location the meters were tested in two orientations at five different flow rates. The intent of the research is to show that the orientation of a magnetic flow meter affects the meter's ability to produce accurate flow readings when it is installed downstream of a flow disturbance. The results from this research showed a significant shift in measurement accuracy when the meter was in EIP and EOP orientations. All of the meters in the study produced accuracy readings at one point of another that were outside the specified

  12. Groundwater-Seepage Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Harry G.; Reay, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Instrument measures seepage of groundwater into inland or coastal body of water. Positioned at depth as great as 40 meters, and measures flow at low rate and low pressure differential. Auxiliary pressure meter provides data for correlation of flow of groundwater with tides and sea states. Seepage meter operates independently for several weeks. Its sampling rate adjusted to suit hydrologic conditions; to measure more frequently when conditions changing rapidly. Used in water-quality management and for biological and geological research. Potential industrial uses include measurement of seepage of caustic and corrosive liquids.

  13. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  14. Performance of ice meter and weight assemblies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, V.R.; Futrell, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of three ice meters and weight assemblies used by the U.S. Geological Survey and Environment Canada were compared in a towing tank. Each meter was rated individually on a rod suspension and then rerated on a cable suspension, with the appropriate weight assembly. Vertical and veer cable angles were measured along with meter yaw angle. The effect of the weight assembly on the rod-suspension rating for each meter was illustrated by computing a correction coefficient which ranged between 0.88 and 1.10 depending on the weight system used and the fluid velocity. A sluch-n-all type weight assembly least affected the meter rating and was the most stable in all flow conditions. (USGS)

  15. Space Age Meter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julie

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the history and evolution of measurement standards from 3000 BC to the modern metric system. Traces measurement techniques from comparisons with the human body to use of atomic clocks and lasers to establish the length of a meter. (JM)

  16. Peak flow meter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  17. DIGITAL Q METER

    DOEpatents

    Briscoe, W.L.

    1962-02-13

    A digital Q meter is described for measuring the Q of mechanical or electrical devices. The meter comprises in combination a transducer coupled to an input amplifier, and an upper and lower level discriminator coupled to the amplifier and having their outputs coupled to an anticoincidence gate. The output of the gate is connected to a scaler. The lower level discriminator is adjusted to a threshold level of 36.8 percent of the operating threshold level of the upper level discriminator. (AEC)

  18. Ride-Quality Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Single- and combined-Axis discomfort are corrected by effects of noise and vibration to yield measure of total discomfort experienced by rider. Three modules transform mathematically-weighted rms accelerations, which represent physical vibration characteristics, into subjective discomfort units. Portable "ride-quality" meter measures passenger discomfort and acceptability of vehicle interior noise and vibration. Meter especially suited for determining vehicle comfort and design tradeoffs and for comparing ride quality of vehicles.

  19. 26. CURRENT METERS WITH FOLDING SCALE (MEASURED IN INCHES) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CURRENT METERS WITH FOLDING SCALE (MEASURED IN INCHES) IN FOREGROUND: GURLEY MODEL NO. 665 AT CENTER, GURLEY MODEL NO. 625 'PYGMY' CURRENT METER AT LEFT, AND WES MINIATURE PRICE-TYPE CURRENT METER AT RIGHT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  20. 25. CURRENT METERS: GURLEY MODEL NO. 665 AT CENTER, GURLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CURRENT METERS: GURLEY MODEL NO. 665 AT CENTER, GURLEY MODEL NO. 625 'PYGMY' CURRENT METER AT LEFT, AND WES MINIATURE PRICE-TYPE CURRENT METER AT RIGHT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  1. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  2. Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides an overview of the development of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Metering has historically served as the cash register for the utility industry. It measured the amount of energy used and supported the billing of customers for that usage. However, utilities are starting to look at meters in a whole different way, viewing them as the point of contact with customers in supporting a number of operational imperatives. The combination of smart meters and advanced communications has opened up a variety of methods for utilities to reduce operating costs while offering new services to customers. A concise look is given at what's driving interest in AMI, the components of AMI, and the creation of a business case for AMI. Topics covered include: an overview of AMI including the history of metering and development of smart meters; a description of the key technologies involved in AMI; a description of key government initiatives to support AMI; an evaluation of the current market position of AMI; an analysis of business case development for AMI; and, profiles of 21 key AMI vendors.

  3. Effect of vertical motion on current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallio, Nicholas A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of vertical motion on the performance of current meters at various stream velocities was evaluated to determine whether accurate discharge measurements can be made from a bobbing boat. Three types of current meters--Ott, Price, and vane types--were tested under conditions simulating a bobbing boat. A known frequency and amplitude of vertical motion were imparted to the current meter, and the related effect on the measured stream velocity was determined. One test of the Price meter was made under actual conditions, using a boat and standard measuring gear. The results of the test under actual conditions verified those obtained by simulating the vertical movements of a boat. The tests show that for stream velocities below 2.5 feet per second the accuracy of all three meters is significantly affected when the meters are subjected to certain conditions of vertical motion that can occur during actual field operations. Both the rate of vertical motion and the frequency of vertical oscillation affect the registration of the meter. The results of these tests, presented in the form of graphs and tables, can be used as a guide to determine whether wind and stream flow are within an acceptable range for a reliable discharge measurement from a boat.

  4. Calibration of water-velocity meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaehrle, William R.; Bowie, James E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, as part of its responsibility to appraise the quantity of water resources in the United States, maintains facilities for the calibration of water-velocity meters at the Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center's Hydraulic Laboratory Facility, NSTL, Mississippi. These meters are used in hydrologic studies by the Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Department of Energy, state agencies, universities, and others in the public and private sector. This paper describes calibration facilities, types of water-velocity meters calibrated, and calibration standards, methods and results.

  5. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  6. Rhythmic Meter Munchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity which allows students to construct various rhythm patterns in 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 meter by using M&Ms and pretzels as an extrinsic motivation. Rhythmic notation is a foundation for learning music concepts. Engaging students in representative modules helps them to learn and recognize note values and…

  7. Intelligent utility meter system

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, L.H.; Fuller, M.L.

    1989-02-07

    An intelligent utility meter system installation is described for measuring A.C. electric energy having repetitive A.C. cycles, comprising: (1) an ''outside'' principal meter unit including: (a) means for sampling current and voltage and for calculating power consumption at least 300 times per second; the sampling occurring asynchronously and not in any fixed time relationship with respect to the A.C. electricity cycles; (b) the outside unit further including means for determining the total kilowatt hours used, and the present billing status; and (c) alphanumeric display means for displaying power being used, total kilowatt hours and present billing status; (2) a remote ''inside'' unit including: (a) alphanumeric means for displaying the information displayed by the ''outside'' unit; (b) means for selectively retaining a desired continuously updated display; and (c) means for reading a credit card and automatically changing the billing status information within the intelligent utility meter as credit card information is read; and (3) the system including means for determining both the magnitude and direction of the electric power passing through the meter system.

  8. Transformer and Meter Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  9. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density <5 microcycle/(Hz)1/2 and to be capable of determining the power spectral density of the phase difference over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz. Such a phase meter could also be used on Earth to perform similar measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  10. Flow metering valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for metering fluids at high pressures of about 20,000 to 60,000 psi is disclosed. The apparatus includes first and second plates which are positioned adjacent each other to form a valve chamber. The plates are made of materials which have substantially equal elastic properties. One plate has a planar surface area, and the other a recessed surface area defined by periphery and central lips. When the two plates are positioned in adjacent contacting relationship, a valve chamber is formed between the planar surface area and the recessed surface area. Fluid is introduced into the chamber and exits therefrom when a deformation occurs at positions where they no longer form a valve seat. This permits the metering of fluids at high pressures and at slow variable rates. Fluid then exits from the chamber until an applied external force becomes large enough to bring the valve seats back into contact.

  11. Flow metering valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1983-11-03

    An apparatus for metering fluids at high pressures of about 20,000 to 60,000 psi is disclosed. The apparatus includes first and second plates which are positioned adjacent each other to form a valve chamber. The plates are made of materials which have substantially equal elastic properties. One plate has a planar surface area, and the other a recessed surface area defined by periphery and central lips. When the two plates are positioned in adjacent contacting relationship, a valve chamber is formed between the planar surface area and the recessed surface area. Fluid is introduced into the chamber and exits therefrom when a deformation occurs at positions where they no longer form a valve seat. This permits the metering of fluids at high pressures and at slow variable rates. Fluid then exits from the chamber until an applied external force becomes large enough to bring the valve seats back into contact.

  12. Simple Schlieren Light Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    Simple light-meter circuit used to position knife edge of schlieren optical system to block exactly half light. Enables operator to check quickly position of knife edge between tunnel runs to ascertain whether or not in alignment. Permanent measuring system made part of each schlieren system. If placed in unused area of image plane, or in monitoring beam from mirror knife edge, provides real-time assessment of alignment of schlieren system.

  13. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework; Request for Comments AGENCY: National... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework (Draft NISTIR 7823). This draft document... process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Smart Meters. The target audience for Draft...

  14. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  15. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  16. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  17. Direct reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  18. Turbine meters for liquid measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wass, D.J.; Allen, C.R.

    1995-12-01

    Liquid turbine meters operate in response to fundamental engineering principles, Operation with a single moving part produces excellent longevity and reliability. Liquid turbine meters display wide rangeability, high accuracy, excellent repeatability, low pressure drop and moderate cost. Liquid turbine meters may be applied to many different fluids with different physical properties and corrosive tendencies. The marriage of liquid turbine meters to electronic instruments allows instantaneous flow calculations and produces the flexibility to display data, store data, transmit data in the most convenient form. Liquid turbine meters should be the first flow measurement instrument considered for liquid measurement applications.

  19. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  20. Advanced metering techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools and procedures used to identify and evaluate efficiency improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy-use efficiency. To assist in implementing energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies with identifying efficiency opportunities and in implementing energy-efficiency and demand-side management programs at federal sites. As the lead laboratory for FEMP, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides technical assistance to federal agencies to better understand and characterize energy systems. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked PNL to provide technical assistance to characterize and modernize energy systems at FORSCOM installations. As part of that technical assistance, PNL performed an in-depth examination of automatic meter-reading system technologies currently available. The operating characteristics and relative merits of all the major systems were reviewed in the context of applicability to federal installations. That review is documented in this report.

  1. Field intercomparisons of electromagnetic current meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guza, R. T.; Clifton, M. C.; Rezvani, F.

    1988-08-01

    In order to assess the performance of current meters within and near the surf zone, data from biaxial electromagnetic current meters with spherical and open frame probe geometries were intercompared. One bottom-mounted flow meter of each type was deployed in a mean depth of 7.0 m for 17 days, and two sensors of each type were deployed in a mean depth of 2.0 m for 5 days. Sensors in the shallow deployment were frequently in the surf zone. Hourly averaged mean flows measured by different sensor types are highly correlated, averaging above 0.98. The largest difference between measured mean flows is a constant bias, typically about 3.0 cm/s, which is roughly equal to the estimated accuracy of the sensor offset calibrations. Root-mean-square deviations from this constant bias are less than 2.0 cm/s, and are contributed to by errors in both gain calibration and sensor orientation. Comparisons of measured (surface gravity wave) oscillatory currents were made both between current meter types and with velocities inferred from the application of linear theory to pressure sensor data. Correlations between time series of UTrms (the rms total oscillatory velocity for a 1-hour record) were all above 0.99 in 7.0-m depth and averaged 0.95 for the shallow deployment. The average UTrms ratio (over all hour-long records) was within 1.0 ±0.07 for all current meter pairs in both deployments, which is consistent with the estimated 5% uncertainties in the flow meter gain calibration. Typical fluctuations of the UTrms ratio of any spherical and open frame sensor pair about its mean ratio, indicative of flow meter gain distortions probably associated with variations in the hydrodynamic environment, were less than 0.04 for any one deployment. Ratios of UTrms from both deployments taken together suggest that the open frame sensor overresponds, relative to the spherical probe, by about 5% at low (about 10.0 cm/s) total (mean + UTrms) speeds, and underresponds by about 5% at higher total

  2. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  3. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  4. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40-180 km h-1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology.

  5. Effects of pulsating flow on current meter performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Summarized are laboratory tests for current meter response to pulsating flows. Included are results for mechanical and electromagnetic water-current meters that are commonly used for stream gaging. Most of the vertical-axis and horizontal-axis types of mechanical meters that were tested significantly underregistered the mean flow velocity when the magnitude of the pulsating portion of the flow velocity was greater than half the mean velocity but less than the mean velocity. Errors for all meters tested were largest at the lowest mean flow velocity, 0.076 m/s.

  6. 28. LEUPOLD AND STEVENS MIDGET CURRENT METER, WITH FOLDING SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LEUPOLD AND STEVENS MIDGET CURRENT METER, WITH FOLDING SCALE AT TOP, AND THREE VARIATIONS OF WES MINIATURE PRICE-TYPE CURRENT METERS BELOW. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  7. How to use your peak flow meter

    MedlinePlus

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can check ...

  8. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.

    1992-12-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.

  9. The Metering Guide for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammed H.

    This volume provides a guide to management of utilities metering in educational facilities, especially colleges and universities. Chapter 1 gives an overview of why utility measurement, specifically the metering of energy consumption, is important in facilities management. Chapter 2 defines the basic units of measurement for both electric and…

  10. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.

  11. Calibration of GPS based high accuracy speed meter for vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    GPS based high accuracy speed meter for vehicles is a special type of GPS speed meter which uses Doppler Demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the speed of a moving target. It is increasingly used as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed measurement, but acknowledged standard calibration methods are still lacking. To solve this problem, this paper presents the set-ups of simulated calibration, field test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical sensor based non-contact speed meter. All the experiments were carried out on particular speed values in the range of (40-180) km/h with the same GPS speed meter. The speed measurement errors of simulated calibration fall in the range of +/-0.1 km/h or +/-0.1%, with uncertainties smaller than 0.02% (k=2). The errors of replay calibration fall in the range of +/-0.1% with uncertainties smaller than 0.10% (k=2). The calibration results justify the effectiveness of the two methods. The relative deviations of the GPS speed meter from the optical sensor based noncontact speed meter fall in the range of +/-0.3%, which validates the use of GPS speed meter as reference instruments. The results of this research can provide technical basis for the establishment of internationally standard calibration methods of GPS speed meters, and thus ensures the legal status of GPS speed meters as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed metrology.

  12. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  13. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  14. Angular velocity and acceleration meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melamed, L.

    1972-01-01

    Meter uses a liquid crystalline film which changes coloration due to shear-stresses produced by a rotating disk. Device is advantageous in that it is not subject to bearing failure or electrical burnouts as are conventional devices.

  15. What's a Peak Flow Meter?

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... the meter reads (this is known as a reading). Repeat three times and note the highest recorded ...

  16. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  17. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  18. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  19. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  20. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  1. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  2. Mass meters for liquid measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, C.

    1995-12-01

    Flowmeters that are capable of providing a direct mass flow measurement include: Coriolis, thermal, gyroscopic and angular momentum. However, Coriolis meters are the only commercially viable device that can cover the breadth of measurements required by the petroleum industry. In addition to providing a direct mass flow measurement, Coriolis meters are extremely accurate, typically {+-}0.1 % to {+-}0.2 %. The advantage of measuring mass is that the mass of a fluid is unaffected by changes in process temperature and pressure. Whereas, volume measurements must be corrected to standard conditions of temperature and pressure for accounting purposes. Although measuring a product on a mass basis would be the simplest approach, most petroleum products are accounted for on a volume basis. This is primarily because only volumetric flowmeters were available prior to the introduction of industrial quality Coriolis meter in the early 1980`s. Due to the lack of means to perform a mass measurement, the petroleum industry has standardized on volume measurement. Systems and procedures are currently in place for performing and verifying volume measurements. Therefore, the petroleum industry will be slow in moving to mass measurement. Coriolis meters are currently gaining acceptance in the petroleum industry for the metering of light hydrocarbons, which are difficult to properly account for on a volume basis. However, due to the many advantages that Coriolis meters provide, they will become a preferred flow measurement device for all areas of petroleum measurement.

  3. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  4. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  5. Secure Metering Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundo, Carlo; Cimato, Stelvio; Masucci, Barbara

    The current trend on the Internet suggests that the majority of revenues of web sites come from the advertising potential of the World Wide Web. Advertising is arguably the type of commercial information exchange of the greatest economic importance in the real world. Indeed, advertising is what funds most other forms of information exchange, including radio stations, television stations, cable networks, magazines, and newspapers. According to the figures provided by the Internet Advertising Bureau [24] and Price Waterhouse Coopers [43], advertising revenue results for the first 9 months of 2004 totaled slightly over 7.0 billion dollars.

  6. The performance of demand meters under varying load conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Arseneau, R. . Inst. for National Measurement Standards)

    1993-10-01

    The influence of load variations on the performance of four different types of demand meters was studied using a computer controlled test system capable of reproducing load profile data recorded in the field. Results of the tested meters are compared with computer calculated demand values based on readings of a fast responding reference multimeter. Differences in readings in the range of [minus]9.3% to +5.3% were observed during the tests of the four demand meters. For the load profiles considered, demand calculations based on cone minute sub-intervals resulted in values closer to the true peak demand than calculations with five minute sub-intervals.

  7. Detection of smoldering combustion of coal with an odor meter

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A commercially available odor meter was evaluated as a detector of smoldering coal combustion, and compared with incipient carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) detection and a commercially available ionization-type smoke detector. Ten smoldering coal combustion experiments were conducted. For eight of the experiments, Pittsburgh seam coal with an average particle diameter of approximately 5 cm was heated by embedded electrical strip heaters. For two of the experiments mine size Pittsburgh seam coal was heated. Heating rates of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.1. kw were selected to provide experimental conditions characteristic of very slow and moderately fast heating for coal sample mass between 3 and 10 kg. It was found that the odor meter and smoke detector alarm had a good correlation, with the odor meter alarm occurring prior to the smoke alarm in four of the ten experiments. The odor meter gave an increase in its output signal above ambient equivalent to detecting 1 ppm of H{sub 2}S (ten times the odor threshold of H{sub 2}S) as an alarm value. This observed odor meter response occurred prior to the electrochemical detection of H{sub 2}S for five of the six experiments for which it was evaluated. In all six experiments for which the smoke optical density was evaluated, it was less than 0.023 m{sup -1} prior to the odor meter reaching alarm. In each of the eight experiments with 5 cm diameter coal particles the CO exceeded 5 ppm at odor meter alarm, while for the two experiments with mine size coal the CO was less than 3 ppm at odor meter alarm. The odor meter, as tested, is not a significant improvement over smoke and CO detectors. Because the odor meter responds to a variety of chemical compounds, with suitable modification and increased sensitivity it may be useful for detection of mine fires and thereby enhance mine safety.

  8. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  9. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  10. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W. Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device. PMID:27110459

  11. Seepage meters and Bernoulli's revenge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, E.A.; Reich, C.D.; Hickey, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of seepage data from a network of 50 permanently deployed submarine seepage meters, specially constructed from fiberglass, indicates that the devices artificially advect (Bernoulli effect) shallow ground water. Reverse flow into the rock was not observed even when adjacent piezometers installed 2-m to 20-m below the rock-water interface indicated negative groundwater heads. Quantitative testing of five different designs, including conventional end-of-oil-drum designs, indicates that meters presenting positive relief on the sea floor are subject to the Bernoulli effect when placed in areas where there are waves and/or currents. Advection does not appear to be caused by flexing of the collection bags.

  12. Note: Ultrasonic liquid flow meter for small pipes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zong, Guanghua

    2012-02-01

    An ultrasonic flow meter for small pipes is presented. For metal pipe diameter smaller than 10 mm, clamp-on ultrasonic contrapropagation flow meters may encounter difficulties if cross talk or the short acoustic path contributes to large uncertainty in transit time measurement. Axial inline flow meters can avoid these problems, but they may introduce other problems if the transducer port is not properly positioned. Three types of pipe connecting tees are compared using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. CFD shows the 45° tee has more uniform velocity distribution over the measuring section. A prototype flow meter using the 45° tee was designed and tested. The zero flow experiment shows the flow meter has a maximum of 0.002 m∕s shift over 24 h. The flow meter is calibrated by only 1 meter factor. After calibration, inaccuracy lower than 0.1% of reading was achieved in the laboratory, for a measuring range from 15 to 150 g∕s (0.29 to 2.99 m∕s; Re = 2688 to 26,876). PMID:22380141

  13. Note: Ultrasonic liquid flow meter for small pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Zong, Guanghua

    2012-02-01

    An ultrasonic flow meter for small pipes is presented. For metal pipe diameter smaller than 10 mm, clamp-on ultrasonic contrapropagation flow meters may encounter difficulties if cross talk or the short acoustic path contributes to large uncertainty in transit time measurement. Axial inline flow meters can avoid these problems, but they may introduce other problems if the transducer port is not properly positioned. Three types of pipe connecting tees are compared using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. CFD shows the 45° tee has more uniform velocity distribution over the measuring section. A prototype flow meter using the 45° tee was designed and tested. The zero flow experiment shows the flow meter has a maximum of 0.002 m/s shift over 24 h. The flow meter is calibrated by only 1 meter factor. After calibration, inaccuracy lower than 0.1% of reading was achieved in the laboratory, for a measuring range from 15 to 150 g/s (0.29 to 2.99 m/s; Re = 2688 to 26 876).

  14. Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e(x) is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage. In terms of e(x), a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements.

  15. Metering technology enters new phase

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    1995-08-01

    Automated metering technology (AMT) is emerging from the limited function of automatic meter-reading to collect useful information that can be used to improve customer service and increase profitability. Specifically, AMT: eliminates monthly usage estimating for customers in hard-to-read areas; eliminates meter reading direct labor costs; provides 24-hour-a-day access to residential, industrial and commercial customers, eliminating intrusion on private property; provides the utility with a load (usage) profile for each customer; provides real-time pricing; provides real-time alarms for outages and meter-tampering. In the competitive environment of deregulation, linking utilities and their customers through two-way communications will be one of the keys to offering the kinds of services and products that will differentiate utilities and satisfy customers. Data collected using AMT can be used to develop customer profiles, enabling the utility to offer customized service packages to individual customers. AMT tends to reduce complaints about bills and increase customer satisfaction.

  16. A Redesigned DFA Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DFA moisture meter has been internationally recognized as the standard for determining moisture content of dried fruit in general and is AOAC Official Method 972.2 for measuring moisture in prunes and raisins since 1972. The device has remained virtually unchanged since its inception, with its o...

  17. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Government Program Briefing: Smart Metering

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Peterson, K.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted and updated from a memo delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in March 2008. This briefing piece provides an overview of the benefits, costs, and challenges of smart metering.

  19. A color sensor wavelength meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin; Jackson, Jarom; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Archibald, James

    2016-05-01

    We will discuss a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip consisting of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined with picometer-level precision and with picometer-scale calibration drift over a period longer than a month. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  20. Laboratory and bedside evaluation of portable glucose meters.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J H; Howard, C; Loman, K; Miller, C; Nyberg, D; Chan, D W

    1995-02-01

    A two-phase, laboratory and bedside, evaluation of blood glucose meters was conducted in this study. Four meters, the AccuData Easy (Boehringer-Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN), HemoCue Glucose (HemoCue, Mission Viejo, CA), LifeScan One Touch II (LifeScan, Milpitas, CA), and Miles Encore QA (Miles, Elkhart, IN) systems, were compared to the Nova Stat Profile 5 (Nova, Waltham, MA) as the laboratory reference. Precision, linearity, correlation to the laboratory method, interference from hematocrit, data management, and operator preference were examined. None of the meters were found to satisfy all of the study's evaluation criteria. Therefore, institutions must weigh which criteria are most important to their individual settings. Although the HemoCue Glucose was found to be technically superior, this meter had no data management capabilities. The Encore QA had greater variance and low bias, whereas the AccuData Easy had bias affected by hematocrit and glucose concentration, and the One Touch II had a negative hematocrit bias and limited linear range when compared to the Nova. Only meters meeting both minimal analytical performance and computerization requirements, the One Touch II and AccuData Easy, were selected for further evaluation. At the bedside, the One Touch II demonstrated performance consistent with the lab evaluation, whereas the AccuData Easy showed greater imprecision in the low glucose range and a correlation that varied with sample type: capillary, venous, or arterial blood. This evaluation indicates that the clinician must interpret near-patient glucose results with respect to meter limitations. FDA approval and marketing statistics, alone, are insufficient to judge the performance of the meters in routine institutional use. Independent method validation, under actual operating conditions, is a better means of predicting future performance of the meters. PMID:7856571

  1. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  2. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music. PMID:22367155

  3. Embedded solution for a microwave moisture meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter is based on the free-space transmission measurement technique and uses low-intensity microwaves to measure the attenuation and p...

  4. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  5. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  6. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  7. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  8. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  9. 78 FR 20628 - Wireless Metering Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wireless Metering Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... (EERE) requests comments on the draft version of the Wireless Power Meter Challenge Specification. This... development of new technologies in the wireless electric metering space. DATES: Comments on the Wireless...

  10. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, C.; Wolf, H.; Vámossy, C.; Lorefice, S.; Lenard, E.; Spohr, I.; Mares, G.; Perkin, M.; Parlic-Risovic, T.; Grue, L.-L.; Tammik, K.; van Andel, I.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determinations of liquids as reference material are mainly performed by National Metrology Institutes to provide means for calibrating or checking liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. These density meters are used by most of the metrology institutes for their calibration and scientific work. The aim of this project was to compare the results of the liquid density determination by oscillating density meters of the participating laboratories. The results were linked to CCM.D.K-2 partly via Project EURAMET.M.D.K-2 (1019) "Comparison of liquid density standards" by hydrostatic weighing piloted by BEV in 2008. In this comparison pentadecane, water and of oil with a high viscosity were measured at atmospheric pressure using oscillation type density meter. The temperature range was from 15 °C to 40 °C. The measurement results were in some cases discrepant. Further studies, comparisons are essential to explore the capability and uncertainty of the density meters Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. How Coriolis meter design affects field performance

    SciTech Connect

    Levien, A.; Dudiak, A.

    1995-12-31

    Although many possibilities exist for the design of Coriolis flowmeters, a common set of fundamental physical principles affect practical meter design. Design criteria such as tube geometry, alloy section, operating frequencies, stress levels, and tubing wall thickness have varying impacts on meter performance. Additionally, field conditions such as changing temperature, pressure, pipeline stress and vibration affect measurement performance. The challenge created in Coriolis flow meter design is to maximize the sensitivity of the meter Coriolis forces, while minimizing the impact of outside environmental influences. Data are presented on the physical principles that affect Coriolis flowmeters, and how the various aspects of meter design influence field performance.

  12. N.A.C.A. Recording Air Speed Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H

    1921-01-01

    A new type of air speed meter is described which was designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists essentially of a tight metal diaphragm of high natural period which is acted upon by the pressure difference of a pitot-static head. The resulting deflection of this diaphragm is recorded optically on a moving film.

  13. COMPARISON OF RECORDING CURRENT METERS USED FOR MEASURING VELOCITIES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Oltmann, Richard N.

    1985-01-01

    The authors determine the feasibility of collecting reliable current-meter data in shallow water under natural conditions. The study involved field testing four types of recording current meters (different speed sensors) and comparing data recorded by the meters under different field conditions. Speeds recorded by the current meters at slack water and during maximum flows were compared during calm and windy conditions at various tide levels.

  14. 15 meter multiple mirror telescope design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Woolf, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    Taking as a starting point the existing Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), a concept for a larger and more advanced instrument has been developed. It makes use of four 7.5-m diameter paraboloidal glass primaries of the honeycomb sandwich type being developed by the University of Arizona. These are mounted quite close together in a square configuration, with their axes coaligned. Separate optical configurations are provided, for optical and infrared applications. To minimze telescope emissivity in the thermal infrared at the combined focus, all the beam combining and streering optics that follow the tertiary mirrors are enclosed in a large central dewar and cooled with liquid nitrogen. The diffraction-limited resolution at the combined focus of 0.11 arcsec at 10 micrometers wavelength is equivalent to that of a 20.5 meter filled aperture. Diffraction-limited resolution should be routinely achievable at 10 and 20 micrometers, if active correction of large-scale wavefront errors is implemented.

  15. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: metering

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    Time-differentiated metering of electricity consumption and demand is required in both rate-structure experimentation and the implementation of most time-of-use rate designs. Time-differentiated metering takes three major forms: multi-register watthour meters, magnetic-tape recording meters, and remote automatic meter-reading systems. The majority of projects selected magnetic-tape meters for their flexibility with respect to rate structure, load-survey capabilities, and ready availability. The small-scale, experimental nature of the projects reduced the significance of the large difference in per-unit cost and operational/maintenance complexity between this form of metering and the multi-register form. Magnetic-tape meters are not likely candidates for system-wide implementation of time-differentiated metering. Automatic remote-meter-reading systems were not adequately available during the project years; those projects attempting to use these were unable to bring them to full operational status before project termination, due to the many problems of design, quality control, and equipment acquisition encountered. Delays in acquisition and problems of quality control also followed the selection of magnetic-tape meters and multi-register meters by a number of the projects. Though less complex than automatic remote-reading systems, these technologies are still new and more complex than standard watthour metering. Thus, both equipment vendors and utilities encountered numerous problems in getting properly functioning meters to the service entrances on time. A variety of factors contributed to installation delays, including unforeseen space limitations, incompatible wiring, problems of task organization, and customer reluctance.

  16. Comparison Test and its Evaluation of Flowmeters for Heat Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hae-Man; Choi, Yong-Moon; Yoon, Byung-Ro

    2010-06-01

    This study selected a total of 24 heat flowmeters consisting of three types: impeller, electromagnetic and ultrasonic, 8 meters each. The diameter was 0.05 m (9 meters), 0.08 m (9 meters), and 0.15 m (6 meters). In accordance with the OIML R 75 testing method accuracy, installation position, external environment, and durability were tested, and the flowmeter property field test was conducted in the field where of heat supply from winter to summer in order to select the type of heat flowmeter best suited for the circumstances in Korea. According to the test result, all 3 types of flowmeters met the OIML Recommendation, but the result of the field test showed that the electromagnetic flowmeters displayed a deviation at the low flow rate during summer. The impeller flowmeters showed accuracy suggested by the OIML Recommendation, but the ultrasonic flowmeter, a next-generation flowmeter, which is strong against contamination, low in maintenance-rate, and high in accuracy as it has no moving part, was found to be the best choice.

  17. Environmental projects, volume 10. Environmental assessment: New 34-meter antenna at Apollo site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. A detailed description of the GDSCC is presented. At present the Venus Station has an unused 9-meter antenna and a 26-meter (85 ft) antenna known as DSS-13. Construction of a new 34-meter (111.5 ft) antenna at the Venus site is under way to replace the present DSS-13 26-meter antenna. The proposed construction at the Apollo Site of a new, high efficiency, 34-meter, multifrequency beam waveguide-type antenna to replace the aging, 20-year old, DSS-12 34-meter antenna located at the Echo Site is analyzed. This new 34-meter antenna, to be constructed at the Apollo Site and to be known as DSS-18, will be of a design similar to the new DSS-13 34-meter antenna now being constructed at the Venus Site. When the new 34-meter antenna is completed and operational at the Apollo Site (planned for 1993), the old DSS-12 34-meter antenna at the Echo Site will be decommissioned, dismantled, and removed.

  18. Price current-meter standard rating development by the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, E.F.; Schwarz, G.E.; Thibodeaux, K.G.; Turcios, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed new standard rating tables for use with Price type AA and pygmy current meters, which are employed to measure streamflow velocity. Current-meter calibration data, consisting of the rates of rotation of meters at several different constant water velocities, have shown that the original rating tables are no longer representative of the average responsiveness of newly purchased meters or meters in the field. The new rating tables are based on linear regression equations that are weighted to reflect the population mix of current meters in the field and weighted inversely to the variability of the data at each calibration velocity. For calibration velocities of 0.3 m/s and faster, at which most streamflow measurements are made, the new AA-rating predicts the true velocities within 1.5% and the new pygmy-meter rating within 2.0% for more than 95% of the meters. At calibration velocities, the new AA-meter rating is up to 1.4% different from the original rating, and the new pygmy-meter rating is up to 1.6% different.

  19. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  20. Off-level corrections for gravity meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebauer, T. M.; Blitz, Thomas; Constantino, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Gravity meters must be aligned with the local gravity at any location on the surface of the earth in order to measure the full amplitude of the gravity vector. The gravitational force on the sensitive component of the gravity meter decreases by the cosine of the angle between the measurement axis and the local gravity vector. Most gravity meters incorporate two horizontal orthogonal levels to orient the gravity meter for a maximum gravity reading. In order to calculate a gravity correction it is often necessary to estimate the overall angular deviation between the gravity meter and the local gravity vector using two measured horizontal tilt meters. Typically this is done assuming that the two horizontal angles are independent and that the product of the cosines of the horizontal tilts is equivalent to the cosine of the overall deviation. These approximations, however, break down at large angles. This paper derives analytic formulae to transform angles measured by two orthogonal tilt meters into the vertical deviation of the third orthogonal axis. The equations can be used to calibrate the tilt sensors attached to the gravity meter or provide a correction for a gravity meter used in an off-of-level condition.

  1. Evaluating Metal Probe Meters for Soil Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Inexpensive metal probe meters that are sold by garden stores can be evaluated by students for their accuracy in measuring soil pH, moisture, fertility, and salinity. The author concludes that the meters are inaccurate and cannot be calibrated in standard units. However, the student evaluations are useful in learning the methods of soil analysis…

  2. Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance.

    PubMed

    Deason, J; Powers, S K; Lawler, J; Ayers, D; Stuart, M K

    1991-12-01

    Much of the previous research efforts aimed at determining those physiological characteristics that contribute to distance running success have centered around distances greater than 1500 meters with little attention to events such as the 800 meter run. Therefore, this investigation examined the relationship between selected physiological and body composition, characteristics and performance in an 800 meter run. Measurements of body composition, VO2max, running economy, and performance times for 100 and 300 meter dashes were obtained on 11 male track athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using 800 meter race time as the dependent variable. Although the combination of 300 and 100 meter run times, percent body fat, running economy and VO2 max as independent variables accounted for the greatest amount of total variance (r2 = .89), the additional variance explained by the model did not increase significantly (p greater than 0.05), when VO2max, percent body fat, and running economy were added to a model which contained 300 and 100 meter run time (r2 = .85) as the explanatory variables. These data offer additional support for the notion that much of the intramuscular ATP produce and utilized during an 800 meter run comes from anaerobic metabolic pathway. PMID:1806725

  3. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Seagraves, David T.

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  4. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Downs, Janelle L.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Henderson, Jordan W.; Montgomery, Sadie A.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Parker, Steven A.

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  5. 20 Meter Solar Sail Analysis and Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B.; Lively, P.; Banik, J.; Murphy, D.; Trautt, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses studies conducted to determine the element type and size that best represents a 20-meter solar sail under ground-test load conditions, the performance of test/Analysis correlation by using Static Shape Optimization Method for Q4 sail, and system dynamic. TRIA3 elements better represent wrinkle patterns than do QUAD3 elements Baseline, ten-inch elements are small enough to accurately represent sail shape, and baseline TRIA3 mesh requires a reasonable computation time of 8 min. 21 sec. In the test/analysis correlation by using Static shape optimization method for Q4 sail, ten parameters were chosen and varied during optimization. 300 sail models were created with random parameters. A response surfaces for each targets which were created based on the varied parameters. Parameters were optimized based on response surface. Deflection shape comparison for 0 and 22.5 degrees yielded a 4.3% and 2.1% error respectively. For the system dynamic study testing was done on the booms without the sails attached. The nominal boom properties produced a good correlation to test data the frequencies were within 10%. Boom dominated analysis frequencies and modes compared well with the test results.

  6. Commercial building end-use energy metering inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Reilly, R.W.

    1985-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive inventory of end-use metered data. The inventory did not discover many sources of metered end-use data; however, research into existing data bases and extensive discussions with professionals associated with building energy conservation have enabled a clear characterization to be developed of the types of metered data that are required to further energy conservation in commercial buildings. Based on the results of the inventory and this clarification of data requirements, the adequacy of existing data bases has been assessed, and recommendations have been developed for future federal data collection efforts. A summary of sources of existing metered end-use data is provided in Section 2.1 and its adequacy has been summarized. Collection of further end-use metered data is both desirable and valuable for many areas of building energy conservation research. Empirical data are needed to address many issues which to date have been addressed using only simulation techniques. The adequacy of using simulation techniques for various purposes needs to be assessed through comparison with measured data. While these data are expensive to acquire, it is cost-effective to do so in the long run, and the need is not being served by the private market. The preceding conclusion based on results from the inventory of existing data highlights two important facts: First, although the data are widely desired in the private sector, they are not widely available. Second, where suitable data are publicly available and contain the desired supporting information, their collection has generally been funded by government-sponsored research.

  7. Flow measurement of liquid hydrocarbons with positive displacement meters: the correction for slippage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berrocal, Agustín; Montalvo, Cristina; Blázquez, Juan; Balbás, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    In the oil industry, the economical and fiscal impact of the measurements accuracy on the custody transfer operations implies fulfilling strict requirements of legal metrology. In this work, we focus on the positive displacement meters (PD meters) for refined liquid hydrocarbons. The state of the art of the lack of accuracy due to slippage flow in these meters is revised. The slippage flow due to the pressure drop across the device has been calculated analytically by applying the Navier-Stokes equation. No friction with any wall of the slippage channel has been neglected and a more accurate formula than the one found in the literature has been obtained. PD meters are calibrated against a bidirectional prover in order to obtain their meter factor which allows correction of their indications. Instead of the analytical model, an empirical one is proposed to explain the variation of the meter factor of the PD meters with flow rate and temperature for a certain hydrocarbon. The empirical model is based on the historical calibration data, of 9 years on average, of 25 m with four types of refined hydrocarbon. This model has been statistically validated by linear least-squares fitting. By using the model parameters, we can obtain the meter factor corresponding to different conditions of temperature and flow rate from the conditions in which the devices were calibrated. The flow parameter is such that a 10% flow rate variation implies a meter factor variation lower than 0.01%. A rule of thumb value for the temperature parameter is 0.005% per degree Celsius. The model residuals allow surveillance of the device drift and quantifying its contribution to the meter factor uncertainty. The observed drift is 0.09% at 95% confidence level in the analyzed population of meters.

  8. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  9. Continuous flow measurements using fixed ultrasonic meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Rick

    1993-01-01

    USGS has or soon will be installing four continuous flow-monitoring stations in the delta that will use ultrasonic velocity meters (DVM). Funding for the stations has been provided by USGS, DWR, USBR, and Contra Costa Water District.

  10. Advanced metering techniques in the federal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.; Halverson, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The lack of utility metering in the federal sector has hampered introduction of direct billing of individual activities at most military installations. Direct billing will produce accountability for the amount of energy used and is a positive step toward self-directed energy conservation. For many installations, automatic meter reading (AMR) is a cost-effective way to increase the number of meters while reducing labor requirements and providing energy conservation analysis capabilities. The communications technology used by some of the AMR systems provides other demand-side management (DSM) capabilities. This paper summarizes the characteristics and relative merits of several AMR/DSM technologies that may be appropriate for the federal sector. A case study of an AMR system being installed at Fort Irwin, California, describes a cost-effective two-way radio communication system used for meter reading and load control.

  11. Advanced smoke meter development survey and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, R. W.; Penney, C. M.; Stanforth, C. M.; Shaffernocker, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    Ideal smoke meter characteristics are determined to provide a basis for evaluation of candidate systems. Five promising techniques are analyzed in detail to evaluate compilance with the practical smoke meter requirements. Four of the smoke measurement concepts are optical methods: Modulated Transmission (MODTRAN), Cross Beam Absorption Counter (CBAC), Laser Induced Incandescence (LIN), and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS). A rapid response filter instrument called a Taper Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) is also evaluated. For each technique, the theoretical principles are described, the expected performance is determined, and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed The expected performance is evaluated against each of the smoke meter specifications, and the key questions for further study are given. The most promising smoke meter technique analyzed was MODTRAN, which is a variation on a direct transmission measurement. The soot-laden gas is passed through a transmission cell, and the gas pressure is modulated by a speaker.

  12. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters. PMID:22163551

  13. Ampere-Hour Meter For Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Schott, Timothy D.; Tcheng, Ping

    1993-01-01

    Low-power analog/digital electronic circuit meters discharge of storage battery in ampere-hours. By metering discharge, one obtains indication of state of charge of battery and avoids unnecessary recharging, maintaining capacity of battery and prolonging life. Because of its small size and low power consumption, useful in such applications as portable video cameras, communication equipment on boats, portable audio equipment, and portable medical equipment.

  14. Perception of strong-meter and weak-meter rhythms in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    HOPYAN, TALAR; SCHELLENBERG, E. GLENN; DENNIS, MAUREEN

    2011-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) are often associated with dysrhythmic movement. We studied rhythm discrimination in 21 children with SBM and in 21 age-matched controls, with the research question being whether both groups showed a strong-meter advantage whereby rhythm discrimination is better for rhythms with a strong-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred on the beat, than those with a weak-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred off the beat. Compared to controls, the SBM group was less able to discriminate strong-meter rhythms, although they performed comparably in discriminating weak-meter rhythms. The attenuated strong-meter advantage in children with SBM shows that their rhythm deficits occur at the level of both perception and action, and may represent a central processing disruption of the brain mechanisms for rhythm. PMID:19573270

  15. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow generated by a computer driven, servo controlled pump and their response was compared with that of a pneumotachograph. RESULTS: For each device tested the readings were highly repeatable to within the limits of accuracy with which the pointer position can be assessed by eye. The between instrument variation in reading for six identical devices expressed as a 95% confidence limit was, on average across the range of flows, +/- 8.5 l/min for the Mini-Wright, +/- 7.9 l/min for the Vitalograph, and +/- 6.4 l/min for the Ferraris. PEF meters based on the Wright meter all had similar error profiles with overreading of up to 80 l/min in the mid flow range from 300 to 500 l/min. This overreading was greatest for the Mini-Wright and Ferraris devices, and less so for the original Wright and Vitalograph meters. A Micro-Medical Turbine meter was accurate up to 400 l/min and then began to underread by up to 60 l/min at 720 l/min. For the low range devices the Vitalograph device was accurate to within 10 l/min up to 200 l/min, with the Mini-Wright overreading by up to 30 l/min above 150 l/min. CONCLUSION: Although the Mini-Wright, Ferraris, and Vitalograph meters gave remarkably repeatable results their error profiles for the full range meters will lead to important errors in recording PEF variability. This may lead to incorrect diagnosis and bias in implementing strategies of asthma treatment based on PEF measurement. PMID:1465746

  16. 20 Meter Solar Sail Analysis and Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B. K.; Lively, P. S.; Banik, J.; Murphy, D. M.; Trautt, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes finite element analyses and correlation studies to predict deformations and vibration modes/frequencies of a 20-meter solar sail system developed by ATK Space Systems. Under the programmatic leadership of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's In-Space Propulsion activity, the 20-meter solar sail program objectives were to verify the design, to assess structural responses of the sail system, to implement lessons learned from a previous 10-meter quadrant system analysis and test program, and to mature solar sail technology to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. For this 20 meter sail system, static and ground vibration tests were conducted in NASA Glenn Research Center's 100 meter diameter vacuum chamber at Plum Brook station. Prior to testing, a preliminary analysis was performed to evaluate test conditions and to determine sensor and actuator locations. After testing was completed, an analysis of each test configuration was performed. Post-test model refinements included updated properties to account for the mass of sensors, wiring, and other components used for testing. This paper describes the development of finite element models (FEM) for sail membranes and masts in each of four quadrants at both the component and system levels, as well as an optimization procedure for the static test/analyses correlation.

  17. The 4-meter lunar engineering telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Keith; Giannini, Judith A.; Kilgus, Charles C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; May, B. Scott; Cooper, Shannon A.; Schlimm, Gerard H.; Sounder, Charles; Ormond, Karen; Cheek, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The 16-meter diffraction limited lunar telescope incorporates a primary mirror with 312 one-meter segments; 3 nanometer active optics surface control with laser metrology and hexapod positioners; a space frame structure with one-millimeter stability; and a hexapod mount for pointing. The design data needed to limit risk in this development can be obtained by building a smaller engineering telescope on the moon with all of the features of the 16-meter design. This paper presents a 4.33-meter engineering telescope concept developed by the Summer 1990 Student Program of the NASA/JHU Space Grant Consortium Lunar Telescope Project. The primary mirror, made up of 18 one-meter hexagonal segments, is sized to provide interesting science as well as engineering data. The optics are configured as a Ritchey-Chretien with a coude relay to the focal plane beneath the surface. The optical path is continuously monitored with 3-nanometer precision interferometrically. An active optics processor and piezoelectric actuators operate to maintain the end-to-end optical configuration established by wave front sensing using a guide star. The mirror segments, consisting of a one-centimeter thick faceplate on 30-cm deep ribs, maintain the surface figure to a few nanometers under lunar gravity and thermal environment.

  18. Use of Coriolis meters in gas applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, T.; Pawlas, G.

    1995-12-31

    Coriolis mass flowmeters provide a solution for measuring the mass flow rate of gases directly. Recent calibration data on compressed air shows that the factory water calibration is also valid on air. In addition, a Coriolis meter is fundamentally linear resulting in an accurate measurement over a wide flow range. Data are presented based on testing performed on Micro Motion 25 mm, 50 mm, and 75 mm Coriolis mass flowmeters on compressed air. Test pressures ranging between 1.7 bar (25 psia) and 100 bar (1450 psia) and mass flow rates ranging between 100:1 to 10:1, depending on the meter size. All calibration points fell with {plus_minus}2%, with a significant portion of the data within {plus_minus}5%. Data are also presented for a 6 mm meter on natural gas at 100 bar; all data are within {plus_minus}0.5%. Repeatability data are presented for a 9 mm meter calibrated on 100 bar air for calibration run times between 10 and 60 seconds. Meter repeatability improved approximately 10 times to {plus_minus}0.15% when the calibration time was 60 seconds.

  19. An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

  20. Oxygen-hydrogen meter assembly for use in remote sodium sampling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.B.; Bohringer, A.P.; Yount, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    An assembly of an electrolytic oxygen meter and a diffusion type hydrogen meter was designed to fit into the Multipurpose Sampler hardware already installed and operating on the four FFTF sodium systems. One of the key elements in this assembly is a ceramic-metal sealed oxygen sensor which allows use of a metal tube to extend the 51 cm (20 in.) between the sampler top and the flowing sodium region.

  1. Portable peak flow meters: physical characteristics, influence of temperature, altitude, and humidity.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, O F; Miller, M R; Sigsgaard, T; Tidley, M; Harding, R M

    1994-05-01

    Little is known about the linearity of portable peak flow meters, or about physical gas factors affecting peak expiratory flow (PEF) readings. We therefore tested five portable peak flow meters of three types in an altitude chamber (sea level to 5,500 m) and in a climate chamber at sea level (7-37 degrees C) to determine the influence of the physical conditions of the gas on the reading of the meters. The nonlinear response of the variable orifice meters was confirmed and, when this was corrected for, the readings of these meters were found to be significantly reduced by higher altitude and lower temperature. The readings from a turbine type of peak flow meter were not affected by altitude but were reduced at low temperature. A mathematical model for the variable orifice meters could correct for both their nonlinear behaviour and the effect of gas density (altitude, temperature and humidity). The model showed that correction is not necessary for the differences in gas conditions between calibration and taking of measurements under normal laboratory conditions. All the meters tested had impedances higher than recommended (0.05 kPa.l-1.s) and this may influence PEF at high flows. The mean uncorrected PEF of six healthy subjects when measured with a Mini Wright peak flow meter at sea level and at 3,000 m fell by 5%, but the mean corrected PEF increased by 12%. This increase in PEF was about 60% of that predicted for fully density-dependent flow and agreed with the findings of other similar studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8050558

  2. Miniature, high efficiency transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Meghna

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a new type of miniature, high efficiency transducer for use in ultrasonic flow meters. The proposed transducer consists of a thin plate of a suitable piezoelectric material on which an inter-digital transducer is fabricated for the generation and detection of plate acoustic waves. When immersed in a fluid medium, this device can convert energy from plate acoustic waves (PAWs) into bulk acoustic waves (BAWs) and vice versa. It is shown that this mode coupling principle can be used to realize efficient transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters. This transducer can be mounted flush with the walls of the pipe through which fluid is flowing, resulting in minimal disturbance of fluid flow. A prototype flow cell using these transducers has been designed and fabricated. The characteristics of this device have been measured over water flow rates varying from 0 to 7.5 liters per minute and found to be in good agreement with theory. Another attractive property of the new transducers is that they can be used to realize remotely read, passive, wireless flow meters. Details of methods that can be used to develop this wireless capability are described. The research carried out in this thesis has applications in several other areas such as ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE), noncontact or air coupled ultrasonics, and for developing wireless capability in a variety of other acoustic wave sensors.

  3. Testing meter, rhythm, and tempo discriminations in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2010-10-01

    Rhythmic grouping and discrimination is fundamental to music. When compared to the perception of pitch, rhythmic abilities in animals have received scant attention until recently. In this experiment, four pigeons were tested with three types of auditory rhythmic discriminations to investigate their processing of this aspect of sound and music. Two experiments examined a meter discrimination in which successively presented idiophonic sounds were repeated in meters of different lengths in a go/no-go discrimination task. With difficulty, the birds eventually learned to discriminate between 8/4 and 3/4 meters constructed from cymbal and tom drum sounds at 180 beats per minute. This discrimination subsequently transferred to faster tempos, but not to different drum sounds or their combination. Experiment 3 tested rhythmic and arrhythmic patterns of sounds. After 40 sessions of training, these same pigeons showed no discrimination. Experiment 4 tested repetitions of a piano sound at fast and slow tempos. This discrimination was readily learned and showed transfer to novel tempos. The pattern of results suggests that pigeons can time periodic auditory events, but their capacity to understand generalized rhythmic groupings appears limited. PMID:20600695

  4. Place Postage on Metered Reply Mail Using Postage Meter. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostian, Nancy

    Supporting performance objective 64 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on placing postage on metered reply mail using a postage meter are included in this packet. (The packet is the sixth in a set of eight on performing mail…

  5. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A. J. H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M. A. G.; den Toonder, J. M. J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes place. A proof-of-principle device of the digital flow meter was designed, fabricated, and tested. The device was built on foil-based technology. In the proof-of-principle experiments, good agreement was found between set flow rates and the evaporation rates estimated from reading the number of wetted pore structures. The measurement range of the digital flow meter can be tuned and extended in a straightforward manner by changing the pore structure of the device.

  6. Development of a pressure based vortex-shedding meter: measuring unsteady mass-flow in variable density gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, C. L.; Winroth, M.; Alfredsson, P. H.

    2016-08-01

    An entirely pressure-based vortex-shedding meter has been designed for use in practical time-dependent flows. The meter is capable of measuring mass-flow rate in variable density gases in spite of the fact that fluid temperature is not directly measured. Unlike other vortex meters, a pressure based meter is incredibly robust and may be used in industrial type flows; an environment wholly unsuitable for hot-wires for example. The meter has been tested in a number of static and dynamic flow cases, across a range of mass-flow rates and pressures. The accuracy of the meter is typically better than about 3% in a static flow and resolves the fluctuating mass-flow with an accuracy that is better than or equivalent to a hot-wire method.

  7. 8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes using the unprecedented capability of the planned Ares V launch vehicle, to place a 8 meter monolithic space telescope at the Earth-Sun L2 point. This new capability enables a new design pardigm -- simplicity. The six to eight meter class telescope with a massive high Technical Readiness Level ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror has been determined feasible. The proposed design, structural analysis, spacecraft design and shroud integration, thermal analysis, propulsion system, guidance navigation and pointing control assumptions about the avionics, and power systems, operational lifetime, and the idea of in-space servicing are reviewed.

  8. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  9. Feeling music: integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in "feeling" musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, 'duple' (march-like rhythms) and 'triple' (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%-85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%-90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23119038

  10. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  11. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters....

  12. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  13. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  14. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters....

  15. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  16. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  17. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  18. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  19. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  20. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  1. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  2. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  3. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters....

  4. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  5. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  6. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  7. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  8. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters....

  9. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  10. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  11. WENDI: an improved neutron rem meter.

    PubMed

    Olsher, R H; Hsu, H H; Beverding, A; Kleck, J H; Casson, W H; Vasilik, D G; Devine, R T

    2000-08-01

    Neutron rem meters are routinely used for real-time field measurements of neutron dose equivalent where neutron spectra are unknown or poorly characterized. These meters are designed so that their response per unit fluence approximates an appropriate fluence-to-dose conversion function. Typically, a polyethylene moderator assembly surrounds a thermal neutron detector, such as a BF3 counter tube. Internal absorbers may also be used to further fine-tune the detector response to the shape of the desired fluence conversion function. Historical designs suffer from a number of limitations. Accuracy for some designs is poor at intermediate energies (50 keV-250 keV) critical for nuclear power plant dosimetry. The well-known Andersson-Braun design suffers from angular dependence because of its lack of spherical symmetry. Furthermore, all models using a pure polyethylene moderator have no useful high-energy response, which makes them inaccurate around high-energy accelerator facilities. This paper describes two new neutron rem meter designs with improved accuracy over the energy range from thermal to 5 GeV. The Wide Energy Neutron Detection Instrument (WENDI) makes use of both neutron generation and absorption to contour the detector response function. Tungsten or tungsten carbide (WC) powder is added to a polyethylene moderator with the expressed purpose of generating spallation neutrons in tungsten nuclei and thus enhance the high-energy response of the meter beyond 8 MeV. Tungsten's absorption resonance structure below several keV was also found to be useful in contouring the meter's response function. The WENDI rem meters were designed and optimized using the Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes MCNP, MCNPX, and LAHET. A first generation prototype (WENDI-I) was built in 1995 and its testing was completed in 1996. This design placed a BF3 counter in the center of a spherical moderator assembly, whose outer shell consisted of 30% by weight WC in a matrix of polyethylene. A borated

  12. Repeatability and oblique flow response characteristics of current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory investigation into the precision and accuracy of various mechanical-current meters are presented. Horizontal-axis and vertical-axis meters that are used for the measurement of point velocities in streams and rivers were tested. Meters were tested for repeatability and response to oblique flows. Both horizontal- and vertical-axis meters were found to under- and over-register oblique flows with errors generally increasing as the velocity and angle of flow increased. For the oblique flow tests, magnitude of errors were smallest for horizontal-axis meters. Repeatability of all meters tested was good, with the horizontal- and vertical-axis meters performing similarly.

  13. Comparison of current meters used for stream gaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is field and laboratory testing the performance of several current meters used throughout the world for stream gaging. Meters tested include horizontal-axis current meters from Germany, the United Kingdom, and the People's Republic of China, and vertical-axis and electromagnetic current meters from the United States. Summarized are laboratory test results for meter repeatability, linearity, and response to oblique flow angles and preliminary field testing results. All current meters tested were found to under- and over-register velocities; errors usually increased as the velocity and angle of the flow increased. Repeatability and linearity of all meters tested were good. In the field tests, horizontal-axis meters, except for the two meters from the People's Republic of China, registered higher velocity than did the vertical-axis meters.

  14. Moisture transport into chlorofluorocarbon-free metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Williams, G

    1999-12-01

    Moisture is known to affect the stability of some metered dose inhalers (MDIs). Hydrofluoroalkanes such as tetrafluoroethane (134a) and heptafluoropropane (227) are known to have higher affinity for moisture than the currently used chlorofluorocarbon propellents. An initial study was conducted to determine the water vapor transmission rates of various elastomers that may be used as gaskets in MDIs. A further study was conducted to measure the moisture ingress rates of various chlorofluorocarbon-free MDIs. The data indicate that moisture transport into chlorofluorocarbon-free MDIs is influenced by the elastomeric nature of the gaskets used and the type of hydrofluoroalkane formulation and storage conditions used. PMID:10588979

  15. Measurement error analysis of taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Hang; Zhang, Da-Jian; Hou, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shi-pu

    2011-12-01

    The error test of the taximeter is divided into two aspects: (1) the test about time error of the taximeter (2) distance test about the usage error of the machine. The paper first gives the working principle of the meter and the principle of error verification device. Based on JJG517 - 2009 "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", the paper focuses on analyzing the machine error and test error of taxi meter. And the detect methods of time error and distance error are discussed as well. In the same conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class A) are evaluated, while in different conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class B) are also evaluated and measured repeatedly. By the comparison and analysis of the results, the meter accords with JJG517-2009, "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", thereby it improves the accuracy and efficiency largely. In actual situation, the meter not only makes up the lack of accuracy, but also makes sure the deal between drivers and passengers fair. Absolutely it enriches the value of the taxi as a way of transportation.

  16. Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.

    1992-05-01

    The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.

  17. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  18. Combustion products generating and metering device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, R. E.; Klisch, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Device simulates incipient fire conditions in closely-controlled adjustable manner, to give predetermined degree of intensity at selected locations throughout area, and to verify that detection system will respond. Device can be used with and for cross calibration and experimentation in conjunction with commercially available products of combustion analyzing meters.

  19. Performance of planter meters for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Components and technology offerings to improve planter performance continue to increase. In particular, new row-meter parts allow units to improve what is called singulation (e.g. reducing skips and doubles) assuming the vacuum pressure is properly set. To help understand the value of all this new t...

  20. Modernization of the DFA Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dried Fruit Association (DFA) Dried Fruit Moisture Tester has been the standard technique for determining moisture in dried fruit for more than 50 years. This method of testing moisture is recognized world wide and is AOAC approved. The meter applies the results of conductivity measurements and ...

  1. Measuring and metering of unsteady flows

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabhan, M.; Dodge, F.T.; Heidrick, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on unsteady flow. Topics considered at the conference included the identification of pulsation induced orifice metering errors including gage line shift, electromagnetic flowmeters, mass flow measurements on the flue of a woodburning stove, fluid excitation forces acting on a tube array, and a numerical analysis of pulsating laminar flow through a pipe orifice.

  2. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  3. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, D.; Morris, J.W.; White, V.P. )

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model {number sign}90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique.

  4. Low Flow Vortex Shedding Flow Meter for Hypergolics/all Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thinh, Ngo Dinh

    1991-01-01

    A family of vortex shedding flow meters, for measurement of hypergol flows, was designed and fabricated. The test loops to evaluate the flow meters for water flow, as well as Freon -113 flow which simulates the hypergolic fluids, were modified and constructed to utilize a pump system which has an output capacity of 200 gpm. Test runs were conducted on the small 1/2 inch model with Freon 113 and on the larger models with water. Results showed that the linearity between the frequency of the vortices and the flow rate of the fluids was very close to that of the turbine flow meter. It is suggested that the vortex shedding flow meter is a possible replacement for the existing turbine type.

  5. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  6. Comparison of a few recording current meters in San Francisco Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    A team of research scientists in the U.S. Geological Survey uses San Francisco Bay, California, as an outdoor laboratory to study complicated interactions of physical, chemical, and biological processes which take place in an estuarine environment. A current meter comparison study was conceived because of the need to select a suitable current meter to meet field requirements for current measurements in the Bay. The study took place in south San Francisco Bay, California, in the spring of 1977. An instrument tower which was designed to support instruments free from the conventional mooring line motions was constructed and emplaced in south San Francisco Bay. During a period of two months, four types of recording current meters have been used in the tests. The four types were: (1) Aanderaa, (2) tethered shroud-impeller, (3) drag-inclinometer, and (4) electromagnetic current meters. With the exception of the electromagnetic current meter, one of each type was mounted on the instrument tower, and one of each type was deployed on moorings near the instrument tower. In addition, a wind anemometer and a recording tide gauge were also installed on the tower. This paper discusses the characteristics of each instrument and the accuracy that each instrument can provide when used in an estuarine environment. We pay special attention to our experiences in the field operation with respect to handling of the instruments and to our experiences working up the raw data in the post-deployment data analysis.

  7. Orbital and Physical Characteristics of Meter-sized Earth Impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Wiegert, Paul; Clark, David; Tagliaferri, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We have analysed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of more than 60 earth-impacting meteoroids of one meter in diameter or larger. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we find that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in the apparent strength of the population of meter-sized impactors at the Earth. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. We find ~10-15% of our objects have a probable cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, show evidence for the expected weaker than average structure compared to asteroidal bodies. Almost all impactors show peak brightness between 20-40 km altitude. Several events have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though all were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several NEOs in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex. No other major meteoroid streams show linkages with the pre-atmospheric orbits of our meter-class impactors. Our events cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but no trend in height of peak brightness is evident, suggesting no strong trend in strength with size for small NEOs, a finding consistent with the results of Popova et al (2011).

  8. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  9. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  10. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  12. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  13. Optimized profiles for incompressible flow metering nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, R.; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Lou, D. Y. S.; Spindler, M.

    1988-04-01

    The Euler-Lagrange equation was used to minimize shear stress in designing a flow-metering nozzle. The flow field in the nozzle was computed by solving the momentum equation in integral form. The profile of the nozzle was obtained by minimizing the shear losses in the converging section of the nozzle. Following computation of the profile, a metering nozzle was designed, constructed, and subsequently tested to evaluate the validity of the analysis. The nozzle was designed for a pipe diameter of 15.24 cm (6 in.) and a throat diameter of 9.266 cm (3.648 in.). The test results indicated a marked increase in the value of the discharge coefficient when it is compared with that for the ASME standard nozzle. The computed pressure distribution is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  15. 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Xu, J.

    In order to observe the fine structure of solar dynamical field and magnetic field, a 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope was developed by Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope is located by the Fuxian Lake in southwest China. In this paper, we will introduce some details of the telescope such as scientific goals, structures, instruments and the parameters of the site. First light observation of high resolution photosphere is introduced too.

  16. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  17. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  18. Fabrication of 4-meter class astronomical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, M. J.; Kim, D. W.; Oh, C. J.; Novak, M. J.; Burge, J. H.

    2010-07-01

    The 8-meter mirror production capacity at the University of Arizona is well known. As the Arizona Stadium facility is occupied with giant mirrors, we have developed capability for grinding, polishing, and testing 4-m mirrors in the large optics shop in the College of Optical Sciences. Several outstanding capabilities for optics up to 4.3 meters in diameter are in place: A 4.3-m computer controlled grinding and polishing machine allows efficient figuring of steeply aspheric and nonaxisymmetric surfaces. Interferometry (IR and visible wavelengths) and surface profilometry making novel use of a laser tracker allows quick, accurate in-process measurements from a movable platform on a 30-m vertical tower. A 2-meter class flat measured with a 1-m vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer and scanning pentaprism system; stitching of 1-m sub-apertures provides complete surface data with the technology ready for extension to the 4 m level. These methods were proven successful by completion of several optics including the 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope primary mirror. The 10 cm thick ULE substrate was ground and polished to 16 nm rms accuracy, corresponding to 80% encircled energy in 0.073 arc-second, after removing low order bending modes. The successful completion of the DCT mirror demonstrates the engineering and performance of the support system, ability to finish large aspheric surfaces using computer controlled polishing, and accuracy verification of surface measurements. In addition to the DCT mirror, a 2-meter class flat was produced to an unprecedented accuracy of <10 nm-rms, demonstrating the combined 1-m Fizeau interferometer and scanning pentaprism measurement techniques.

  19. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  20. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%). PMID:27131714

  1. SERO sites use prioritization tool to meet metering requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Sullivan, Gregory P.

    2006-09-01

    This article describes PNNL's effort to develop and implement a standardized methodology to meet the EPAct 2005 metering requirements at federal sites and to assist Southeast Regional Office sites in selecting and then prioritizing buildings to be metered.

  2. CD-ROM and Metering--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shear, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the need for security and metering features for CD-ROM products. Topics covered include user productivity issues, pricing problems, integrated information resources, advantages of CD-ROM distribution systems, unauthorized use, content encryption, and multiple simultaneous meters. (MES)

  3. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    three types of retail rates (a flat rate, a time-of-use rate, and real-time pricing) from these wholesale price profiles, I examine bill savings from PV generation for the ten wholesale market scenarios under net metering and an alternative to net metering where hourly excess PV generation is compensated at the wholesale price. Most generally, I challenge the common assertion that PV compensation is likely to stay constant (or rise) due to constant (or rising) retail rates, and find that future electricity market scenarios can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, in concert with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  4. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  5. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  6. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780 Section 868.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.220 - Fuel flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel flow meter. 1065.220 Section 1065... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.220 Fuel flow meter... described in § 1065.667. (2) In the following cases, you may use a fuel flow meter signal that does not...

  9. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  10. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  11. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  12. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  15. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  16. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  17. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating...

  18. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation....

  19. Plume temperature emitted from metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Church, T; Lewis, D; Meakin, B

    2011-02-28

    The temperature of the drug cloud emitted from a pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) may result in patient discomfort and inconsistent or non-existent dose delivery to the lungs. The effects of variations in formulation (drug, propellant, co-solvent content) and device hardware (metering volume, actuator orifice diameter, add-on devices) upon the temperature of pMDI plumes, expressed as replicate mean minimum values (MMPT), collected into a pharmacopoeial dose unit sampling apparatus (DUSA), have been investigated. Ten commercially available and two development products, including chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) suspensions and hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) solutions or suspensions, were examined together with a number of drug products in late stage development and a variety of HFA 134a placebo pMDIs. Plume temperatures were observed to be lowest in the proximity of the product's actuator mouthpiece where rapid flashing and evaporation of the formulation's propellant and volatile excipients cause cooling. The ability to control plume temperature by judicious choice of formulation co-solvent content, metering volume and the actuator orifice diameter is identified. An ethanol based HFA 134a formulation delivered through a fine orifice is inherently warmer than one with 100% HFA 134a vehicle delivered through a coarse actuator orifice. Of the 10 commercial products evaluated, MMPTs ranged from -54 to +4°C and followed the formulation class rank order, HFA suspensions

  20. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art; José, Jordi

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  1. The 34-meter antenna drive control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Detailed definitions of the baseline antenna drive and control/instrumentation equipment for 34 meter antennas included in Network Consolidation Program of the Deep Space Network are presented. The overall antenna control and monitor system and its interfaces with other higher level control and monitor equipment is described. Explicit descriptions of the antenna axis drive motors and motor controllers, the axis angle encoding systems, and miscellaneous antenna located components are presented, and related to system functional and performance requirements. Some potential alternates to the baseline system configuration are described and discussed.

  2. PRESCILA: a new, lightweight neutron rem meter.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Richard H; Seagraves, David T; Eisele, Shawna L; Bjork, Christopher W; Martinez, William A; Romero, Leonard L; Mallett, Michael W; Duran, Michael A; Hurlbut, Charles R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional neutron rem meters currently in use are based on 1960's technology that relies on a large neutron moderator assembly surrounding a thermal detector to achieve a rem-like response function over a limited energy range. Such rem meters present an ergonomic challenge, being heavy and bulky, and have caused injuries during radiation protection surveys. Another defect of traditional rem meters is a poor high-energy response above 10 MeV, which makes them unsuitable for applications at high-energy accelerator facilities. Proton Recoil Scintillator-Los Alamos (PRESCILA) was developed as a low-weight (2 kg) alternative capable of extended energy response, high sensitivity, and moderate gamma rejection. An array of ZnS(Ag) based scintillators is located inside and around a Lucite light guide, which couples the scintillation light to a sideview bialkali photomultiplier tube. The use of both fast and thermal scintillators allows the energy response function to be optimized for a wide range of operational spectra. The light guide and the borated polyethylene frame provide moderation for the thermal scintillator element. The scintillators represent greatly improved versions of the Hornyak and Stedman designs from the 1950's, and were developed in collaboration with Eljen Technology. The inherent pulse height advantage of proton recoils over electron tracks in the phosphor grains eliminates the need for pulse shape discrimination and makes it possible to use the PRESCILA probe with standard pulse height discrimination provided by off-the-shelf health physics counters. PRESCILA prototype probes have been extensively tested at both Los Alamos and the German Bureau of Standards, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Test results are presented for energy response, directional dependence, linearity, sensitivity, and gamma rejection. Initial field tests have been conducted at Los Alamos and these results are also given. It is concluded that PRESCILA offers a viable

  3. Temperature Stability of the Sky Quality Meter

    PubMed Central

    Schnitt, Sabrina; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz; Kyba, Christopher C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of radiance measurements taken by the Sky Quality Meter (SQM) was tested under rapidly changing temperature conditions during exposure to a stable light field in the laboratory. The reported radiance was found to be negatively correlated with temperature, but remained within 7% of the initial reported radiance over a temperature range of −15°C to 35°C, and during temperature changes of −33°C/h and +70°C/h. This is smaller than the manufacturer's quoted unit-to-unit systematic uncertainty of 10%, indicating that the temperature compensation of the SQM is adequate under expected outdoor operating conditions. PMID:24030682

  4. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.; Ross, Harley H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to insure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit.

  5. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.

    2010-01-01

    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  6. Numerical modeling of flow through orifice meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholesiami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.

    1988-03-01

    Numerical modeling is performed for turbulent flow through orifice meters using Creare's computer program FLUENT. FLUENT solves the time averaged Navier-Stokes equations in 2-D and 3-D Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. Turbulence is simulated using a two equation k-epsilon or algebraic stress turbulence model. It is shown that an 80 x 60 grid distribution is sufficient to resolve the flow field around the orifice. The variations in discharge coefficient are studied as a result of variation in beta ratio, Reynolds number, upstream and downstream boundary conditions, pipe surface roughness, and upstream swirl. The effects of beta ratio and Reynolds number on the discharge coefficient are shown to be similar to the experimental data. It is also shown that the surface roughness can increase the discharge coefficient by about 0.7 percent for the range of roughness heights encountered in practice. The numerical modeling approach would be most effective if it is combined with a systematic experimental program that can supply the necessary boundary conditions. It is recommended that numerical modeling be used for the study of other flow meters.

  7. Metering Gas Strut for Separating Rocket Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A proposed gas strut system would separate a liquid-fueled second rocket stage from a solid-fueled first stage using an array of pre-charged struts. The strut would be a piston-and-cylinder mechanism containing a compressed gas. Adiabatic expansion of the gas would drive the extension of the strut. The strut is designed to produce a force-versus-time profile, chosen to prevent agitation of the liquid fuel, in which the force would increase from an initial low value to a peak value, then decay toward the end of the stroke. The strut would include a piston chamber and a storage chamber. The piston chamber would initially contain gas at a low pressure to provide the initial low separation force. The storage chamber would contain gas at a higher pressure. The piston would include a longitudinal metering rod containing an array of small holes, sized to restrict the flow gas between the chambers, that would initially not be exposed to the interior of the piston chamber. During subsequent expansion, the piston motion would open more of the metering holes between the storage and piston chambers, thereby increasing the flow of gas into the piston chamber to produce the desired buildup of force.

  8. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-03-30

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software over the air (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate without the cost guarantee at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also the one who achieved the

  9. Feeling Music: Integration of Auditory and Tactile Inputs in Musical Meter Perception

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also “feel” music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in “feeling” musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, ‘duple’ (march-like rhythms) and ‘triple’ (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%–85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%–90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23716252

  10. Feeling Music: Integration of Auditory and Tactile Inputs in Musical Meter Perception

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also “feel” music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in “feeling” musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, ‘duple’ (march-like rhythms) and ‘triple’ (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%–85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%–90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23119038

  11. Peak expiratory flow at increased barometric pressure: comparison of peak flow meters and volumetric spirometer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P S; Ng, C; Bennett, M

    2000-01-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an intensive care treatment, some of whom have pre-existing airway obstruction. Spirometers are the ideal instruments for measuring airway obstruction, but peak flow meters are useful and versatile devices. The behaviour of both types of device was therefore studied in a hyperbaric unit under conditions of increased pressure. It is important to have a non-electrical indicator of airway obstruction, to minimize the fire risk in the hyperoxic environment. The hypothesis was tested that, assuming that dynamic resistance is unchanged, both the Wright's standard and mini-peak flow meters would over-read peak expiratory flow (PEF) under increased pressure when compared with a volumetric spirometer, as the latter is unaffected by air density. It was postulated that a correction factor could be derived so that PEF meters could be used in this setting. Seven normal subjects performed volume-dependent spirometry to derive PEF, and manoeuvres using both standard and mini PEF meters at sea level, under hyperbaric conditions at 303, 253 and 152 kPa (3, 2.5 and 1.5 atmospheres respectively; 1 atmosphere absolute=101.08 kPa), and again at sea level. There was a progressive and significant decline in PEF with increasing pressure as measured by the spirometer (69.46+/-0.8% baseline at 303 kPa compared with 101 kPa), while the PEF meters showed a progressive increase in their readings (an increase of 7.86+/-1.69% at 303 kPa with the mini PEF meter). Using these data points, a correction factor was derived which allows appropriate values to be calculated from the Wright's meter readings under these conditions. PMID:10600666

  12. Coriolis Force Mass-Flow Meter Composed of a Straight Pipe and an Additional Resonance-Vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Hirohide; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    1993-05-01

    This paper deals with a new construction for a mass-flow meter using Coriolis force, and its basic experimental results. Some Coriolis force mass-flow meters, proposed up to now, are of a twin construction of, for example, a U-type pipe or a straight-type pipe, where the mass-flow is determined by measuring the relative displacement between the pipes. Therefore, their structure is too complex. To improve this situation, the authors propose a new mass-flow meter using one straight pipe, together with an additional flexural resonance-vibrator. The experimental results prove that a mass-flow meter can be realized by such a simple construction as dealt with here.

  13. Performance of a New Meter Designed for Assisted Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Point-of-Care Testing

    PubMed Central

    MacRury, Sandra; Srinivasan, Aparna; Mahoney, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood glucose (BG) meters used for assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG) require different attributes compared with meters designed for home use. These include safety considerations (i.e., minimized risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission), capability for testing multiple blood sample types, and enhanced performance specifications. The OneTouch® Verio™Pro+ BG meter is designed to incorporate all of these attributes. Methods Meter accuracy was assessed in clinical studies with arterial, venous, and capillary blood samples with a hematocrit range of 22.9–59.8%. The effect of interferents, including anticoagulants, on accuracy was evaluated. The meter disinfection protocol was validated, and instructions for use and user acceptance of the system were assessed. Results A total of 97% (549/566) of BG measures from all blood sample types and 95.5% (191/200) of arterial blood samples were within ±12 mg/dl or 12.5% of reference measurements. The system was unaffected by 4 anticoagulants and 57 of 59 endogenous and exogenous compounds; it was affected by 2 compounds: pralidoxime iodide and xylose. Bleach wipes were sufficient to disinfect the meter. Users felt that the meter's quality control (QC) prompts would help them to comply with regulatory requirements. Conclusions The meter provided accurate measurements of different blood samples over a wide hematocrit range and was not affected by 57 physiologic and therapeutic compounds. The QC prompts and specific infection-mitigating design further aid to make this meter system practical for AMBG in care facilities. PMID:23566997

  14. Educational electrical appliance power meter and logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2013-09-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power device such as an electric kettle. Typical power-versus-time profiles are shown for a kettle, a dishwasher and a fridge-freezer. The components are cheap and the cost may be recouped many times over from the resultant energy saving. Custom software will be made available free of charge to anyone who requests it. It is hoped that students attending poorly resourced schools will be able to make power loggers for educational use.

  15. Software determines multiphase flow without meters

    SciTech Connect

    Saether, G.

    1998-12-01

    A software package devised by Loke Inc., a member of Norway`s CorrOcean Group, is routinely calculating multiphase flows from North Sea wells by monitoring only static measurements-pressures, temperatures and other available measurement quantities. A collection of three modeling programs, the software can also control the production mix and set choke values from individual wells for optimum reservoir production. Calculated flows have proven so accurate that operators now have no need for conventional flow meters or dedicated test lines. In a tuning step taken during initial well testing, Loke establishes parameters for the mathematical models in the software. Thereafter, static measurements of pressure and temperature in the producing well or manifold are converted by the software to flow. These predictions are then used to command choke valves to regulate flow. A representation of the measurement and control scheme is shown.

  16. Engineered coating systems protect meters, station piping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes how the Gas Division of the Colorado Springs, Colorado Department of Public Utilities has cut the frequency of painting exposed pipe, valves and associated equipment at the five gate metering stations, as well as distribution stations within the city and manifold stations where natural gas is distributed to nearby Ft. Carson and the U.S. Air Force Academy. Because of tourism in these areas, the city is very conscious of the appearance it presents. The Gas Division selected New Color Horizons coatings made by the Rust-Oleum Corp. They have cut down on maintenance costs and their facilities still have an excellent appearance. Greater coating durability was obtained through a system consisting of shop-applied enamel finish and a color-matched fast-drying aerosol spray coating to resist corrosion and the elements.

  17. Five meter diameter conical furlable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, J. W.; Freeland, R. E.; Moore, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made to demonstrate that a 5-meter-diameter, furlable, conical reflector antenna utilizing a line source feed can be fabricated utilizing composite materials and to prove that the antenna can function mechanically and electrically as prototype flight hardware. The design, analysis, and testing of the antenna are described. An RF efficiency of 55% at 8.5 GHz and a surface error of 0.64 mm rms were chosen as basic design requirements. Actual test measurements yielded an efficiency of 53% (49.77 dB gain) and a surface error of 0.61 mm rms. Atmospherically induced corrosion of the reflector mesh resulted in the RF performance degradation. An assessment of the antenna as compared to the current state of the art technology was made. This assessment included cost, surface accuracy and RF performance, structural and mechanical characteristics, and possible applications.

  18. Mobility at the scale of meters.

    PubMed

    Surovell, Todd A; O'Brien, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    When archeologists discuss mobility, we are most often referring to a phenomenon that operates on the scale of kilometers, but much of human mobility, at least if measured in terms of frequency of movement, occurs at much smaller scales, ranging from centimeters to tens of meters. Here we refer to the movements we make within the confines of our homes or places of employment. With respect to nomadic peoples, movements at this scale would include movements within campsites. Understanding mobility at small scales is important to archeology because small-scale mobility decisions are a critical factor affecting spatial patterning observed in archeological sites. In this paper, we examine the factors affecting small-scale mobility decisions in a Mongolian reindeer herder summer camp and the implications of those decisions with regard to archeological spatial patterning. PMID:27312186

  19. Logic elements for reactor period meter

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.

    1976-01-01

    Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.

  20. Portable fluorescence meter for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Grishanov, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there are great deals of skin fluorescence studies for diagnostic purposes in medicine. Measurement of the intensity of autofluorescence (AF) is suitable method for diagnostic, because it does not require traumatic procedures. Skin AF is widely used by doctors in order to assess the concentration of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE). There are no in vivo fluorescence meters made in Russia, which are affordable, portable, easy-to-use and easily replicable. This paper is devoted to study of the fluorimeter and its mathematical model of spectral characteristics that were developed by authors. Fluorimeter and its software are fully operational and they were given to doctors for testing in the real clinic conditions in order to get a set of AF statistics for patients.

  1. The dynamic response of Coriolis mass flow meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheesewright, R.; Clark, C.; Belhadj, A.; Hou, Y. Y.

    2003-09-01

    The speed of response of commercial Coriolis meters to a step change in mass flow rate corresponds to a time constant which may range from 0.1s to several seconds. This response is a result both of the dynamic response of the physical components of the meter and of the electronics and the computational algorithms used to convert that dynamic response into an estimate of the mass flow rate. A comprehensive investigation of the dynamic response is presented with a view to establishing the ultimate limits of the overall meter response. Attention is initially concentrated on a simple straight tube meter and analytical solutions are presented for the response to a step change in flow rate both for an undamped meter and for a meter with internal damping. These results are compared with results from a finite element model of the same meter and then the finite element modelling is extended to geometries typical of commercial meters. Finally, representative results are presented from an experimental study of the response of commercial meters to step changes in flow rate. A study of the essential components of the algorithm used in a meter leads to the conclusion that the time constant cannot be less than the period of one cycle of the meter drive. The analytical, finite element and experimental results all combine to show that the meters all respond in the period of one drive cycle but that the flow step induces fluctuations in the meter output which decay under the influence of the flow tube damping. It is the additional damping introduced in the signal processing to overcome these fluctuations which is responsible for the large observed time constants. Possible alternative approaches are discussed.

  2. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (< 1%). Limited measurements identified pulses from the meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits. PMID

  3. Automated semi-spherical irradiance meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Cabello-Ruiz, R.; Varona, J.

    2011-09-01

    In this semi-spherical meter, a single detector is used to realize all measurements, which is located on the extreme of a rectangular ring (assumed as joined two mobile branches in order to compensate the weights), describing half-meridians from 0° up to 170°. The illumination source under test is located at the center of the mobile support, which can rotate 360° horizontally. The two combined movements allow us to obtain a semi-spherical geometry. The number of measurement points is determined by the two step-motors located under the mobile support of the luminary and on one of the two fixed arms, which support the mobile rectangular ring, respectively. The mechanical arrangement has the enough rigidity to support the precision required for the acquisition stage, based on a dsPIC. The main advantages of this arrange are: Its low costs (using recyclable materials only such as "electronic waste"), a reliable detection based on a single photo-detector, with an integrated amplification stage, and the mechanical design. The received power by the detector is useful to obtain the irradiance profile of the lighting sources under test. The semi-spherical geometry of the meter makes it useful for the analysis of directive and non directive sources, in accordance with the angle described by the mobile ring. In this work, special attention is given to LED lamps due to its impact in several sceneries of the daily life. A comparison between the irradiance patterns of two LED lamps is also given.

  4. Scattering Meters For Light In The Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Willard H.

    1984-09-01

    To solve radiative transfer problems in seawater, we need two inherent properties, the volume scattering function (VSF) and the absorption. The traditional direct way to obtain these quantities uses a transmissometer and a scattering meter. However, there are prob-lems with the small sample size and errors in obtaining absorption by integration of the VSF. An indirect method also shows promise. One measures the radiance field and then inverts the equations of radiative transfer to obtain the inherent properties from the apparent. The only serious shortcoming is that radiance must be a function of only one position coordinate (plus two angles). (This coordinate is depth in the case of sunlight, or distance from an isotropic lamp otherwise.) We discuss two practical implementations of this indirect approach. One would measure the radiance field with a set of fisheye cameras (following R. Smith's precedent). This very thorough method produces lots of data and requires extensive calibration and number crunching. A proposed alternate radiometer would measure certain spherical moments of the radiance field, the moments being selected to facilitate recovery of the inherent properties [Appl. Opt. 22, 2313 (Aug 83)]. This scheme would produce fewer data, but it permits recovery of absorption and moments of the VSF in (nearly) real time. Similar direct and indirect approaches apply to the measurement of very small-angle scattering, from a milliradian to a few degrees, the sort of angles that blur vision. The indirect method infers small-angle scattering from the loss of contrast in images of bar charts. In this case, the indirect method is clearly superior for the same reasons that bar charts and other test patterns are widely used (instead of point spread functions) to evaluate the performance of television and various optical systems. We built a seawater MTF meter on this principle before 1970, and its features are briefly reviewed.

  5. Measuring peak expiratory flow in general practice: comparison of mini Wright peak flow meter and turbine spirometer.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K P; Mullee, M A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate taken by the mini Wright peak flow meter and the turbine spirometer. DESIGN--Pragmatic study with randomised order of use of recording instruments. Phase 1 compared a peak expiratory flow type expiration recorded by the mini Wright peak flow meter with an expiration to forced vital capacity recorded by the turbine spirometer. Phase 2 compared peak expiratory flow type expirations recorded by both meters. Reproducibility was assessed separately. SETTING--Routine surgeries at Aldermoor Health Centre, Southampton. SUBJECTS--212 Patients aged 4 to 78 presenting with asthma or obstructive airways disease. Each patient contributed only once to each phase (105 in phase 1, 107 in phase 2), but some entered both phases on separate occasions. Reproducibility was tested on a further 31 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--95% Limits of agreement between measurements on the two meters. RESULTS--208 (98%) Of the readings taken by the mini Wright meter were higher than the corresponding readings taken by the turbine spirometer, but the 95% limits of agreement (mean difference (2 SD] were wide (1 to 173 l/min). Differences due to errors in reproducibility were not sufficient to predict this level of disagreement. Analysis by age, sex, order of use, and the type of expiration did not detect any significant differences. CONCLUSIONS--The two methods of measuring peak expiratory flow rate were not comparable. The mini Wright meter is likely to remain the preferred instrument in general practice. PMID:2142611

  6. Comparison of three methods of remote metering of electrical energy: Telephone line, fiber optic, and radio packet. Final report, June 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winterheimer, C.

    1998-07-01

    This report deals with the selection of a data communication system for a remote metering system. It covers the following three types of systems: fiber optic, telephone line, and radio packet. It provides a methodology for selecting a communication system for a given remote metering system and a method for comparing costs.

  7. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Jordan W.

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  8. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Trevor J.; Ferguson, Jeffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system to enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  9. Tapping to a Slow Tempo in the Presence of Simple and Complex Meters Reveals Experience-Specific Biases for Processing Music

    PubMed Central

    Ullal-Gupta, Sangeeta; Hannon, Erin E.; Snyder, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Musical meters vary considerably across cultures, yet relatively little is known about how culture-specific experience influences metrical processing. In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences. Inter-tone intervals contained silence or to-be-ignored rhythms that were designed to induce a simple meter (familiar to Americans and Indians) or a complex meter (familiar only to Indians). A subset of trials contained an abrupt switch from one rhythm to another to assess the disruptive effects of contradicting the initially implied meter. In the unfilled condition, both groups tapped earlier than the target and showed large tap-tone asynchronies (measured in relative phase). When inter-tone intervals were filled with simple-meter rhythms, American listeners tapped later than targets, but their asynchronies were smaller and declined more rapidly. Likewise, asynchronies rose sharply following a switch away from simple-meter but not from complex-meter rhythm. By contrast, Indian listeners performed similarly across all rhythm types, with asynchronies rapidly declining over the course of complex- and simple-meter trials. For these listeners, a switch from either simple or complex meter increased asynchronies. Experiment 2 tested American listeners but doubled the duration of the synchronization phase prior to (and after) the switch. Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions. Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters. PMID:25075514

  10. Development of the 15-meter hoop-column antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, T. G.; Butler, D. H.; Belvin, K.; Allen, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the 15-meter hoop/column antenna system is presented. The 15-meter deployable structure is discussed along with the mulitple-beam feed system development and the structures and RF testing planned in 1985. The topics presented are: overview of antenna development activities; development of 15-meter reflector and kinematic deployment tests; preliminary modal survey test results and future structural dynamics tests; and radio frequency subsystems and near field testing.