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Sample records for methacrylate butyl methacrylate

  1. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  6. Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shanju; Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; He, Lihong; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Allen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  7. Crosslinked superhydrophobic films fabricated by simply casting poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiufang; Ye, Chao; Cai, Zhiqi; Xu, Shouping; Pi, Pihui; Cheng, Jiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Qian, Yu

    2015-06-01

    This study focuses on the preparation of superhydrophobic films by crosslinkable polymer material-Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-Poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) (P (MMA-BA-HEMA)-b-PFMA) with a simple one-step casting process. Nanoscale micelle particles with core-shell structure was obtained by dissolving the polymer and curing agent in the mixture of acetone and 1H, 1H, 5H octafluoropentyl-1,1,2,2 tetrafluoroethyl ether (FHT). Superhydrophobic films were fabricated by casting the micelle solution on the glass slides. By controlling the polymer concentration and acetone/FHT volume ratio, superhydrophobic polymer film with water contact angle of 153.2 ± 2.1° and sliding angle of 4° was obtained. By introducing a curing agent into the micelle solution, mechanical properties of the films can be improved. The adhension grade and hardness of the crosslinked superhydrophobic films reached 2 grade and 3H, respectively. The hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness by nanoscale micelle particles and low surface energy of fluoropolymer. This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  8. ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION OF N-BUTYL METHACRYLATE IN AQUEOUS DISPERSED SYSTEMS: A MINIEMULSION APPROACH. (R826735)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrasonication was applied in combination with a hydrophobe for the copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate in an aqueous dispersed system. A controlled polymerization was successfully achieved, as demonstrated by a linear correlation between...

  9. Studies on acrylated epoxydised triglyceride resin-co-butyl methacrylate towards the development of biodegradable pressure sensitive adhesives.

    PubMed

    David, S Begila; Sathiyalekshmi, K; Gnana Raj, G Allen

    2009-12-01

    The potential chemical utility of Soya bean oil for the preparation of novel biodegradable polymeric pressure sensitive adhesive has been investigated. Epoxy resin was prepared through in situ epoxidation of Soya bean oil under controlled reaction conditions. Acrylated epoxidised triglyceride resin (AET resin) and copolymer of AET resin with butyl methacrylate were prepared and evaluated. Higher the concentration of butyl methacrylate higher is the degree of copolymerization of AET resin with butyl methacrylate. An optimum concentration of AET resin with butyl methacrylate (100 : 0.40) yields favourable shear holding time and peel strength to qualify as pressure sensitive adhesive. The candidate PSA formulation is biodegradable with antimicrobial activity against gram positive S. aureus ATCC 25923. PMID:18584126

  10. Ammonium methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium methacrylate ; CASRN 16325 - 47 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  11. Methyl methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl methacrylate ; CASRN 80 - 62 - 6 ( 03 / 02 / 98 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  12. CEC column behaviour of butyl and lauryl methacrylate monoliths prepared in non-aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Cantó-Mirapeix, Amparo; Herrero-Martínez, José M; Mongay-Fernández, Carlos; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F

    2009-02-01

    Polymeric monolithic stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography were prepared using two bulk monomers, butyl methacrylate (BMA) and lauryl methacrylate (LMA), by in situ polymerization in non-aqueous media. The effect of 1,4-butanediol/1-propanol ratio on porous properties was investigated separately for each monomer, keeping the proportion of monomers to pore-forming solvents fixed at 40:60 wt:wt. Also, mixtures of BMA and LMA at different 1,4-butanediol/1-propanol ratios were studied for tailoring the morphological features of the monolithic columns. The chromatographic performance of the different columns was evaluated by means of van Deemter plots of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Mercury-intrusion porosimetry, SEM, and nitrogen-adsorption measurements were also performed in order to understand their retention behaviour and porous properties. A comparison of these features was also performed for monoliths made with one bulk monomer (BMA or LMA) and with mixtures of both. These mixed monoliths showed satisfactory efficiencies and analysis times compared with those made with one bulk monomer; thus, the BMA-LMA monoliths constitute an attractive alternative to manipulate the electrochromatographic properties of methacrylate beds in CEC. PMID:19170053

  13. Determination of methacrylic acid in food simulants by pyrolytic butylation-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongping; Qiu, Ruofeng; Liu, Tingfei; Huang, Yilei; Zhu, Zuoyi; Wang, Lili

    2016-07-01

    An on-line pyrolytic butylation approach was proposed to determine methacrylic acid (MA) in food simulants by gas chromatography (GC) without an expensive pyrolyzer. MA in food simulants was converted into butyl methacrylate in the presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) without any pretreatment at 330°C in the injection-port, contributing to high GC signal response. The derivatizing conditions for the proposed method were optimized, namely the injection-port temperature, type and amount of the organic alkaline used for derivatization. A series of standard solutions of MA in the range of 1.0-50mg/kg were analyzed with correlation coefficient r≥0.9975. The limits of detection (LODs) were less than 0.15mg/kg for MA in four matrix simulants (distilled water, 3%w/v acetic acid, 10%v/v ethanol, and isooctane). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for retention time, peak height and peak area were all less than 3.88%. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of MA migrating from plastic cup samples, with recoveries of added MA in the range of 96.5-123.0%. Direct injection of the simulants into the GC system after migration tests, without any pretreatment step, makes the developed method of great value for rapid screening analysis of samples in bulks. PMID:27262371

  14. Contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kassis, V; Vedel, P; Darre, E

    1984-07-01

    2 cases of contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate monomer are presented. The patients are nurses who mixed bone cement at orthopedic operations. During the procedure, they used 2 pairs of gloves (latex). Butyl rubber gloves are recommended for methyl methacrylate monomer to avoid sensitization and/or cumulative irritant contact dermatitis on the hands. PMID:6204812

  15. Specialty polymeric membranes. 8: Separation of benzene from benzene/cyclohexane mixtures with nylon 6-graft-poly(butyl methacrylate) membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Masakazu; Tsubouchi, Keisuke; Kitao, Toshio

    1999-02-01

    A novel pervaporation membrane was prepared by radical graft polymerization of butyl methacrylate onto nylon 6. The permselectivity toward benzene was increased by the introduction of poly(butyl methacrylate) onto a nylon 6 membrane. From pervaporation and sorption experiments, it was shown that the introduction of poly(butyl methacrylate) onto a nylon 6 membrane leads to the enhancement of permselectivity toward benzene. The solubility data for benzene were described by a combination of simple sorption and specific sorption, while cyclohexane solubility was described by simple sorption.

  16. Characterization of the epithelial permeation enhancing effect of basic butylated methacrylate copolymer--in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Grube, Stefan; Wolfrum, Uwe; Langguth, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Membrane destabilizing properties and increased efflux of doxorubicin from liposomes caused by basic butylated methacrylate copolymer (BBMC), better known under its commercial trade name EUDRAGIT E, have been described in the scientific literature. Here, we investigated the effect of BBMC on suspended and filter-grown Caco2 cells with respect to apical-to-basal transport and membrane permeabilization using transport assays, trypan blue exclusion assay, measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) by okadaic acid was investigated by measuring TEER, but a link between PP2A and the observed effects could not be established. Overall, membrane permeabilization of Caco2 cells by BBMC was demonstrated, which went along with increased apical-to-basal transport of the model compounds mannitol, talinolol, and trospium. The effect was concentration- and time-dependent, and reversible. Enhancement occurred at polymer concentrations as low as 20 microg/mL. PMID:18407686

  17. Microscopy of thin polymer blend films of polystyrene and poly-n-butyl-methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, T.; Guttmann, P.; Schmidt, O.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Stamm, M.; Schönhense, G.; Schmahl, G.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of thin polymer blend films of polystyrene (PS) and poly-n-butyl-methacrylate (PnBMA) was examined with Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM), Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM), X-Ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy (X-PEEM) and Optical Microscopy (OM). Thin films were prepared by spin casting of a toluene solution of the polymer mixture onto silicon wafers retaining the native oxide. Depending on blend composition and annealing conditions smooth films with and without holes or films with well pronounced surface features (ribbons or islands) were produced. By TXM measurements a high lateral resolution study of the as cast and the annealed polymer blend samples was performed. The contrast in TXM is due to different absorption of x-radiation of the used polymers and due to variation in thickness. With X-PEEM the lateral distribution of the two polymers near the surface was mapped by employing the characteristic Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra of the polymers. The TXM technique is a microscopic method integrating over the total film thickness, whereas the X-PEEM technique is a highly surface sensitive method. TXM and X-PEEM are therefore complementary methods which provide important information on the structure of thin polymer blend films additional to the standard techniques SFM and OM.

  18. Analysis of stochastic effects in chemically amplified poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate) resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of stochastic phenomena is essential to the development of a highly sensitive resist for nanofabrication. In this study, we investigated the stochastic effects in a chemically amplified resist consisting of poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate), triphenylsulfonium nonafluorobutanesulfonate (acid generator), and tri-n-octylamine (quencher). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of resist patterns were analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. It was estimated that a ±0.82σ fluctuation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule led to line edge roughness formation. Here, σ is the standard deviation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule after postexposure baking (PEB). The threshold for the elimination of stochastic bridge generation was 4.38σ (the difference between the average number of protected units after PEB and the dissolution point). The threshold for the elimination of stochastic pinching was 2.16σ.

  19. Polymer electrolyte based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Beatrice Wong Chui; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2015-09-01

    Polymer electrolytes based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) as polymer host and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) as incorporated salt were prepared by in-situ photopolymerization technique. The complexes with different mass ratio of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer to BmimTFSI were investigated. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was increased and reach the highest value of 7.50 × 10-4 S cm-1 at the ratio of 3:7 (GMA: BmimTFSI). The interaction between the polymer host and ionic liquid was proved by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformation Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction analysis shows the amorphousity of the polymer electrolyte film increase with the ionic liquid ratio.

  20. Polymer electrolyte based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Beatrice Wong Chui; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2015-09-25

    Polymer electrolytes based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) as polymer host and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) as incorporated salt were prepared by in-situ photopolymerization technique. The complexes with different mass ratio of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer to BmimTFSI were investigated. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was increased and reach the highest value of 7.50 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at the ratio of 3:7 (GMA: BmimTFSI). The interaction between the polymer host and ionic liquid was proved by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformation Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction analysis shows the amorphousity of the polymer electrolyte film increase with the ionic liquid ratio.

  1. The thickening additives for mineral and synthetic oils based on the copolymers of alkyl acrylates or methacrylates and butyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskina, Evgeniya V.; Moikin, Alexey A.; Semenycheva, Ludmila L.

    2014-05-01

    A new method for synthesizing of the copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters with butyl vinyl ether in an excess of low-boiling monomer, which has proven effective for a number of alkyl methacrylates was proposed. Tests of thickening efficiency of the obtained copolymers were carried out. The resistance to mechanical degradation of the mineral, semi synthetic and synthetic base oils doped with the copolymers was evaluated.

  2. Thermomechanical behavior of amorphous tactic methacrylate polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiran, E.; Gillham, J. K.; Gipstein, E.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical spectra of amorphous stereoregular poly(methyl methacrylate)s and poly(t-butyl methacrylate)s with assigned microtacticities are presented and discussed. An intermolecular argument is invoked to account for the higher glass transition temperature of syndiotactic vis a vis isotactic PMMA, in spite of the higher density of the latter at 30 C. An argument is presented to show that the ratio of glassy-region relaxation temperature to glass transition temperature is not only a measure of the degree of coupling of the beta and glass transition processes, but also of the degree to which intermolecular factors influence these processes. The greater extent of the low-temperature irreversibilities observed in the thermomechanical spectra of poly(t-butyl methacrylate)s is attributed to the brittle character induced by the bulky side groups which presumably weaken cohesive forces.

  3. Construction of wettability gradient surface on copper substrate by controlled hydrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuo-ru

    2014-10-01

    We report a gradient wettability surface on copper slide prepared by a simple controlled ester group hydrolysis procedure of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) [P (MMA-BA)] films coated on the copper substrate. In the method, sodium hydroxide solutions are selected to prepare surface gradient wettability on P (MMA-BA) films. The P (MMA-BA) copolymers with different MMA contents are first synthesized by a conventional free atom radical solution polymerization method. The transfer of surface chemical composition from the ester group to acid salt is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The effects of different concentrations of NaOH solution and reaction times on the physicochemical properties of the resulting surfaces are studied. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the varying concentration along the substrate length is only attributed to the hydrolysis reaction of ester groups. The hydrolysis causes insignificant change on the morphology of the original film on the copper substrate. In addition, it is found that the MMA copolymer content has a significant influence on the concentration of ester groups on the outermost surface and thus important for forming the slope gradients.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate)/nano-titanium oxide composite particles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gang; Yu, Jie; Luo, Zhu; Zhou, LiangXue; Liang, Hang; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

    2011-06-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) [P(MMA-BA)]/nanosized titanium oxide (nano-TiO2) composite particles were prepared via insitu emulsion polymerization of MMA and BA in presence of nano-TiO2 particles. Before polymerization, the nano-TiO2 particles were modified by coupling agent. The structure and thermal properties of the obtained P(MMA-BA)/nano-TiO2 composite particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that there are covalent bond bindings between P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles, meaning that P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles were not simply blended or mixed up and that there is a strong interaction between P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles. TGA and DSC measurements indicated an enhancement of thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that P(MMA-BA) enhanced the dispersibility of nano-TiO2 particles. The dispersion stabilization of modified nano-TiO2 particles in aqueous system was significantly improved due to the introduction of grafted polymer on the surface of nano-particles. PMID:21770123

  5. Oil-in-water emulsion lotion providing controlled release using 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine n-butyl methacrylate copolymer as emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akiko; Fujii, Makiko; Morimoto, Kumi; Yamada, Tomomi; Koizumi, Naoya; Kondoh, Masuo; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2012-01-01

    Lotion is a useful vehicle for active ingredients used to treat skin disease because it can be applied to the scalp, can cover large areas of skin, and it is easy to spread due to low viscosity. An emulsion lotion (EL) containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine n-butyl methacrylate copolymer (PMB) as an emulsifier that provides controlled-release was developed. Diphenhydramine (DPH) was used as a model drug. Formulation with 5% DPH, 5% soybean oil, and 4% PMB in water was emulsified using a high-pressure homogenizer. Polysorbate 80 (TO) was used instead of PMB for comparison. They were applied in vitro to Yucatan micropig intact or stripped skin at a practical dose (2 μL/cm(2)). For stripped skin, penetration of DPH from 4% PMB EL was slower than that from 1% TO EL; results for intact skin were similar. The same phenomenon was observed with application to rabbit skin in vivo. When 4% PMB EL dried on the skin, it made a thin film matrix incorporating the oil phase, which controlled the release of DPH. The release rate could be controlled by the ratio of oil phase to PMB. The EL with PMB shows promise as a vehicle for long-acting treatment of skin diseases. PMID:25755990

  6. Effect of lithium chloride on the living polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate and polymer microstructure using monofunctional initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Varshney, S.K. ); Gao, Z. . Research Dept.); Zhong, Xing Fu; Eisenberg, A. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-02-28

    The effect of LiCl on the anionic polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBuMA) initiated with monofunctional alkali metal-based carbanionic species was investigated at [minus]78 C in THF. The propagation rate of the polymerization process was determined by gas chromatography and by gravimetry. It was found that, in the presence of LiCl in a molar ratio of 5 with respect to the initiator, the rate constant, k[sub p], is 20 times lower than that in the absence of LiCl. The polymers and oligomers were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and [sup 13]C NMR spectroscopy. The polymers obtained in the absence of LiCl had broad molecular weight distributions and contained significant amounts of oligomers, while those obtained in the presence of LiCl were monodisperse, without any noticeable oligomers. [sup 13]C NMR showed that the isotactic content of the polymers increased significantly when the molar ratio of LiCl to the initiator was higher than 2. The effect of LiCl on the rate constant and on the microstructure of the polymers was attributed to complex formation between LiCl and the living polymer chains.

  7. Vibrio fischeri and Escherichia coli adhesion tendencies towards photolithographically modified nanosmooth poly (tert-butyl methacrylate) polymer surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena P; Mitik-Dineva, Natasa; Mocanasu, Radu C; Murphy, Sarah; Wang, James; van Riessen, Grant; Crawford, Russell J

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the adhesion behavior of two bacterial species, Vibrio fischeri and Escherichia coli, to the photoresistant poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (P(tBMA)) polymer surface. The data has demonstrated that ultraviolet irradiation of P(tBMA) was able to provide control over bacterial adhesion tendencies. Following photolithography, several of the surface characteristics of P(tBMA) were found to be altered. Atomic force microscopy analysis indicated that photolithographically modified P(tBMA) (henceforth termed ‘modified polymer’) appeared as a ‘nanosmooth’ surface with an average surface roughness of 1.6 nm. Although confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis clearly demonstrated that V. fischeri and E. coli presented largely different patterns of attachment in order to adhere to the same surfaces, both species exhibited a greater adhesion propensity towards the ‘nanosmooth’ surface. The adhesion of both species to the modified polymer surface appeared to be facilitated by an elevated production of extracellular polymeric substances when in contact with the substrate. PMID:24198459

  8. 76 FR 69659 - Methacrylic Acid-Methyl Methacrylate-Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Methacrylate Graft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate- polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether methacrylate graft copolymer when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation. Akzo Noel Surface Chemistry LLC submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting an......

  9. Identification, Composition, and Asymmetric Formation Mechanism of Glycidyl Methacrylate/Butyl Methacrylate Copolymers up to 7000 Da from Electrospray Ionization Ultrahigh-Resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, S D; Hendrickson, C L; Marshall, A G; Simonsick, W J; Aaserud, D J

    1998-08-01

    Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) have the same nominal mass (142 Da) but differ in exact mass by 0.036 Da (CH(4) vs O). Therefore, copolymers formed from the two isobaric monomers exhibit a characteristic isobaric distribution due to different monomer compositions. Here, we show that electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry at 9.4 T resolves the isobaric components of copolymers as large as 7000 Da with a resolving power (m/Δm(50%)) of ∼500 000 in a gel permeation chromatography fractionated polymer sample. That resolution provides for complete and unequivocal component analysis of such copolymers of the size used for high solid content automobile coatings. All five possible copolymer products predicted by the polymerization mechanism are resolved and identified in the mass spectrum. Two of those polymer series (each with saturated end group) were previously unresolved by mass spectrometry because they differ in mass from the two other unsaturated products by only 0.0089 Da. Finally, analysis of the asymmetrical isobaric distribution for the copolymer n-mers, (GMA)(m)(BMA)(n)(-)(m), 0≤ m ≤ n, in which species with adjacent values of m differ from each other in mass by 36 mDa (i.e., the mass difference, CH(4) vs O, between GMA and BMA) proves that GMA is less reactive than BMA in the polymerization process. PMID:21644659

  10. Study on stochastic phenomena induced in chemically amplified poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate) resist (high performance model resist for extreme ultraviolet lithography)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius J.; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    Understanding of stochastic phenomena is essential to the development of highly sensitive resist for nanofabrication. In this study, we investigated the stochastic effects in a chemically amplified resist consisting of poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate), triphenylsulfonium nonafluorobutanesulfonate (an acid generator), and tri-n-octylamine (a quencher). The SEM images of resist patterns were analyzed, using Monte Carlo simulation on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. It was estimated that +/-0.82σ fluctuation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule led to line edge roughness formation. Here, σ is the standard deviation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule after postexposure baking.

  11. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... methacrylate and substituted methacrylate. 721.9492 Section 721.9492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34638, June 18, 2014....

  12. Grafting densely-packed poly( n-butyl methacrylate) chains from an iron substrate by aryl diazonium surface-initiated ATRP: XPS monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrab, Tarik; Save, Maud; Charleux, Bernadette; Pinson, Jean; Cabet-deliry, Eva; Adenier, Alain; Chehimi, Mohamed M.; Delamar, Michel

    2007-06-01

    Poly( n-butyl methacrylate), PBMA, chains were grafted by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from the surface of iron plates using electrochemically attached initiators based on diazonium salts providing an iron/polyphenylene/PBMA structure. This surface-initiated ATRP procedure was controlled by the addition of a small proportion of Cu ++ deactivator, but in the absence of any sacrificial initiator. Combined XPS, IR and AFM experiments provide a powerful means for the characterization of the obtained complex iron/polyphenylene/PBMA layered structure. It is possible to measure the thickness of the brominated aryl structure covalently attached to iron. Concerning the PBMA brushes, their presence on the surface was confirmed by IRRAS. The brominated chain end could be traced by XPS testifying for the ATRP character of the polymerization and the thickness of the polymer brushes was determined. The controlled living ATRP character of the polymerization is confirmed through a linear correlation between the thickness of the layer and the degree of polymerization. Measurement of the grafting density of PBMA chains indicates that they are compactly packed and that, approximately, one brominated aryl chain out of two efficiently initiates ATRP.

  13. Determination of Sudan dyes in chili pepper powder by online solid-phase extraction with a butyl methacrylate monolithic column coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Wang, Man-Man; Ai, Lian-Feng; Zhang, Chang-Kun; Li, Xin; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was fabricated and used as a novel sorbent for online solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder. The prepared columns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and pressure drop measurements. Online solid-phase extraction was performed on the synthesized monolithic column using 10 mM ammonium acetate solution as the loading solution with the aid of an online cleanup chromatography system. The desorption of Sudan I-IV was achieved with acetonitrile as the eluting solution at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The extracted analytes were subsequently eluted into a C18 analytical column for chromatographic separation using a mixture of 10% acetonitrile/90% formic acid (0.5%) solution as the mobile phase. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method had linear range of 1.0-50 μg/kg, a detection limit of 0.3 μg/kg, and a quantification limit of 1.0 μg/kg for each analyte. The intraday and interday recoveries of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder samples ranged from 94.8 to 100.9% and 94.9 to 99.4%, respectively. The intraday and interday precision were between 3.37-7.01% and 5.01-7.68%, respectively. PMID:24723310

  14. Self-stratified films obtained from poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) colloidal dispersions containing poly(vinyl alcohol): a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Kevin L; Su, Shengpei; Howell, Hunter R; Urban, Marek W

    2008-03-01

    These studies focus on the role of poly(vinyl alcohol) (pVOH) during colloidal synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) (pMMA/nBA) and its effect on particle coalescence. Using 2D photoacoustic FT-IR spectroscopy and internal reflection IR imaging, we showed that the presence of pVOH creates competing environments between the copolymer particle surfaces, aqueous phases, and dispersing agents which results in migration and self-induced stratification occurring during coalescence. pMMA/nBA/pVOH films stratify to form sodium dodecyl sulfate rich film-air interfaces, and the -SO3- moieties exhibit preferential parallel orientation with respect to the surface. At the same time, the bulk of the film is dominated by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the pVOH phase and the copolymer matrix. This behavior is attributed to significant interactions between pVOH and pMMA/nBA, resulting in limited mobility of pVOH. PMID:18193907

  15. Radiation graft copolymerization of butyl methacrylate and acrylamide onto low density polyethylene and polypropylene films, and its application in wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.; El-Arnaouty, M. B.; Aboulfotouh, Maysara E.; Taher, N. H.; Taha, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Butyl methacrylate and acrylamide (BMA/AAm) comonomers were grafted onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) films using the mutual gamma radiation grafting technique. The influences of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, monomer composition, and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were determined. It was found that using dimethyl formamide as a solvent enhanced the copolymerization process. The grafting yield increases as the comonomer concentration increases up to 60%. Also it was found that the degree of grafting of BMA/AAm onto both LDPE and PP films increases as the AAm content increases till an optimum value at 50:50 wt%. The grafting yield of the comonomers was found to increase with increase in the radiation dose. It was observed that the degree of grafting of polyethylene films is higher than that of polypropylene (PP) films at the same conditions. Some selected properties of the graft copolymers, such as water uptake and thermal properties, were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology and structure of the grafted films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, infra-red, and X-ray diffraction. Improvement in such properties of the prepared copolymers was observed which offers possible uses in some practical applications such as the removal of some heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that the maximum metal uptake by the copolymer followed the order Cu2+>Co2+>Ni2+ ions.

  16. Continuous process of preparation of n-butyl(meth)acrylate by esterification of (meth)acrylic acid by butanol on thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznaya, L.L.; Karakhanov, R.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Magadov, R.S.; Meshcheryakov, S.V.; Mkrtychan, V.R.; Fomin, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    The authors propose an effective thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger based on polymers with a system of conjugated bonds, sulfopolyphenylene ketone (SPP) differing from the known cation exchangers by the high thermostability (up to 250/sup 0/C), and also having the effect of the stabilization of the double bond in unsaturated monomers. The combination of inhibiting and cation exchange properties makes it also possible to use these sulfo-cation exchangers in the processes of esterification of (meth)acrylic acids by alcohols without addition of special inhibitors. The SPP catalyst was tested in esterification processes of acrylic an methacrylic acid by butanol at a pilot plant.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10153 Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified methyl methacrylate,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10153 Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified methyl methacrylate,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10153 Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified methyl methacrylate,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. Intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel solubilized with poly(2-methacryloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co n-butyl methacrylate) for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Soma, Daisuke; Kitayama, Joji; Konno, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Jun; Kamei, Takao; Ishigami, Hironori; Kaisaki, Shoichi; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2009-10-01

    Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of paclitaxel (PTX) is a hopeful therapeutic strategy for peritoneal malignancy. Intravenously (i.v.) injected nanoparticle anticancer drugs are known to be retained in the blood stream for a long time and favorably extravasated from vessels into the interstitium of tumor tissue. In this study, we evaluated the effect of i.p. injection of PTX (PTX-30W), which was prepared by solubulization with water-soluble amphiphilic polymer composed of PMB-30W, a co-polymer of 2-methacryloxyethyl phosphorylcholine and n-butyl methacrylate, for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. In a peritoneal metastasis model with transfer of MKN45P in nude mice, the effect of i.p. administration of PTX-30W was compared with conventional PTX dissolved in Cremophor EL (PTX-Cre). The drug accumulation in peritoneal nodules was evaluated with intratumor PTX concentration and fluorescence microscopic observation. PTX-30W reduced the number of metastatic nodules and tumor volume significantly more than did conventional PTX dissolved in Cremophor EL (PTX-Cre), and prolonged the survival time (P < 0.05). PTX concentration in disseminated tumors measured by HPLC was higher in the PTX-30W than in the PTX-Cre group up to 24 h after i.p. injection. Oregon green-conjugated PTX-30W, i.p. administered, preferentially accumulated in relatively hypovascular areas in the peripheral part of disseminated nodules, which was significantly greater than the accumulation of PTX-Cre. I.p. administration of PTX-30W may be a promising strategy for peritoneal dissemination, due to its superior characteristics to accumulate in peritoneal lesions. PMID:19604244

  3. The acute aquatic toxicity of a series of acrylate and methacrylate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, C.A.; McLaughlin, J.E.; Hamilton, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Acute aquatic toxicity data for several acrylate and methacrylate esters were reviewed. Acrylates included acrylic acid, ethyl-, and butyl-acrylate. Methacrylates included methacrylic acid, methyl-, and butyl-methacrylate. Tests were 48 hr or 96 hr standard flow through (invertebrates and fish) assays (measured exposure concentrations). These data are currently used in a risk assessment of acrylate/methacrylate environmental safety. Algal growth (Selanastrum capricomutum) 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.17 mg/L (NOEC < 0.13 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 11.0 mg/L (NOEC < 6.5 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC < 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Invertebrate (Daphnia magna) 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were 95.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 7.9 mg/L (NOEC 3.4 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 8.2 mg/L (NOEC 2.4 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 27.0 mg/L (NOEC 6.3 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 4.6 mg/L (NOEC 0.78 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Algae 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.59 mg/L (NOEC 0.38 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 170.0 mg/L (NOEC 100.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 130.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate. Daphnia magna 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were > 130.0 mg/L (NOEC 130.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 69.0 mg/L (NOEC 48.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 32.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for butyl methacrylate. Trout 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 85.0 mg/L (NOEC 12.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid and > 79.0 mg/L (NOEC 40.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 96 hr LC{sub 50} was 11.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate.

  4. Dielectric relaxation study of mixtures of alkyl methacrylates and 1-alcohols using time-domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivagurunathan, P.; Dharmalingam, K.; Ramachandran, K.; Prabhakar Undre, B.; Khirade, P. W.; Mehrotra, S. C.

    2006-05-01

    Dielectric relaxation measurements on alkyl methacrylates (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate) with 1-alcohols (1-propanol, 1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 1-decanol) have been carried out using time-domain reflectometry (TDR) over the frequency range 10 MHz to 20 GHz at 303 K for different concentrations of alcohols. The dielectric parameters, namely the static dielectric constant (ɛ0), the dielectric constant at microwave frequencies (ɛ∞) and the relaxation time (τ) were determined. The Kirkwood correlation factor, which contains information regarding solute-solvent interaction and corresponding structural information, the excess permittivity and the excess inverse relaxation time were also determined. The values of the static dielectric constant and the relaxation time increase with the percentage of alkyl methacrylates in the alcohol, whereas the static dielectric constant decreases and the relaxation time increases with an increase in the alkyl chain length of both the methacrylates and the alcohols.

  5. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may... produced by the polymerization of methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene. The divinylbenzene functions as...

  6. Photolithography with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbaugh, Daniel J.; Wright, Jason T.; Parthiban, Rajan; Rahman, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used as an electron beam resist but is not used as a photoresist because of its insensitivity to electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than about 300 nm. In this paper we describe a technique for performing conventional photolithography with high molecular weight PMMA at the widely used 365 nm i-line wavelength. The technique involves photosensitizing PMMA with Irgacure 651—a commercially available photo-initiator that can cause PMMA strands to cross-link. Optimum amount of Irgacure can produce a negative tone photoresist with adequate photosensitivity and plasma etch resistance. We describe this technique in detail with complete processing conditions and discuss the effects of varying Irgacure 651 concentration in PMMA as well as changes in UV exposure dose. We also show example structures patterned with commonly available materials and equipment. Finally, we show that it is possible to carry out gradient lithography with this approach, in order to produce structures in relief in photosensitive PMMA.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  11. Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes

    PubMed Central

    Dollendorf, Christian; Kreth, Susanne Katharina; Choi, Soo Whan

    2013-01-01

    Summary A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethyl)phenylamino)-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2), blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyl)oxy)phenylamino)anthraquinone (6) and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)amino)anthraquinone (12), as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)amino)anthraquinone (15) were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants. PMID:23503994

  12. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  17. (Methacrylates to form insulation). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.

    1980-05-20

    The use of methacrylates to form the interior foam of a transport insulation was studied. Problems encountered with the methacrylates include its low surface tension, and its slow rate of polymerization. An additional problem was an incompatability between the fluorinated surfactant molecules and the fluorocarbon gas used to blow the foam. Other experimentation involved acrylamide foams using glycerol-ethylene glycol combinations and sodium linolenate. Also investigated was the use of tin oxide coatings which are transported to visible light but reflect infrared light. (BCS)

  18. Anionic polymerization of azo substituted methacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Dimov, D.K.; Dalton, L.R.; Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1993-12-31

    The anionic polymerization of 4-phenylazophenyl methacrylate (PAM) and 6-(4-phenylazophenoxy)-hexyl methacrylate (PAHM) initiated by {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} PMMA with lithium counterion was studied in THF at {minus}78{degrees}C. The polymerization of PAM was prevented by a side termination reaction. The polymerization of PAHM proceeded smoothly to furnish PMMA/azopolymer block copolymers. The process showed features typical of {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} anionic polymerization. No phase transitions could be detected by DSC to prove liquid crystalline mesophase formation by the block copolymers.

  19. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  20. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2007-01-09

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  1. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  2. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  3. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  4. Immobilization of enzymes on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate copolymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tanchen; Mao, Zhengwei; Moya, Sergio Enrique; Gao, Changyou

    2014-08-01

    The immobilization of enzymes is of paramount importance to maintain their activity and stability. In this study, surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization was applied to prepare poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) brushes on glass slides. The polymerization kinetics was followed by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and ellipsometry in terms of mass and thickness growth, respectively. The surface chemical compositions of the obtained polymer brushes were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their mass, thickness, and enzyme-immobilization ability could be easily tuned by the initiator reaction time, monomer ratio, and polymerization time. The antibacterial activity and stability of the immobilized lysozymes were studied by fluorescent staining and bacteria lysis assay, which revealed that the lysozymes on the copolymer brushes had good stability during storage at 4 °C for up to 30 days. PMID:24962678

  5. Second-harmonic generation from Z-type Langmuir-Blodgett films of a transparent dye and a comparison of the properties when the layers are interleaved with poly(t-butyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwell, Geoffrey J.; Ranjan, Rakesh

    1998-10-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film structure of E-4-[(N- octadecyl-6,7,8-trihydro-5-isoquinolylidene)methyl]-N,N- dibutylaniline octadecylsulfate is non-centrosymmetric when the dye is deposited on the up-stroke (Z-type) and when the layers are interleaved with poly(t-butyl methacrylate). The second-harmonic intensity increases as I(N)2(omega ) equals I(1)2(omega )N2, where N is the number of active layers, and the intensity is further enhanced when the dye is mixed in a 1 to 1 ratio with octadecanoic acid. The second-order susceptibility and repeat lattice spacing of the mixed LB films are as follows: (chi) zzz(2) equals 76 pm V-1 at 1.064 micrometers and l equals 3.15 nm layer-1 when Z-type; (chi) zzz(2) equals 52 pm V-1 and l equals 4.13 nm bilayer-1 when interleaved. The films are transparent at the fundamental wavelength and have a slight absorbance of ca. 5 X 10-4 per dye layer at 532 nm. The second-harmonic intensity is the strongest to date from such a weakly absorbing LB film and this is attributed to the close proximity of the charge-transfer band and to an optimized packing arrangement.

  6. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  7. On permeability of methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate through protective gloves in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Harriet; Boman, Anders; Johnsson, Stina; Karlsson, Stig; Barregård, Lars

    2003-12-01

    Continuous glove use is more common in dentistry than in most other occupations, and the glove should offer protection against blood-borne infections, skin irritants and contact allergens. Methacrylate monomers are potent contact allergens, and it is known that these substances may penetrate the glove materials commonly used. The aim of this study was to assess the permeability of various types of gloves to methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with special reference to combinations with ethanol or acetone. The permeation rate and time lag breakthrough (lag-BT) for MMA (neat, or diluted to 30% in ethanol or acetone), HEMA (30% in water, ethanol, or acetone) and TEGDMA (30% in ethanol or acetone) were investigated for different protective gloves. Nine different types of gloves were tested for one or several of these methacrylates. The lag-BT for neat MMA was

  8. Zwitterionic poly(amino acid methacrylate) brushes.

    PubMed

    Alswieleh, Abdullah M; Cheng, Nan; Canton, Irene; Ustbas, Burcin; Xue, Xuan; Ladmiral, Vincent; Xia, Sijing; Ducker, Robert E; El Zubir, Osama; Cartron, Michael L; Hunter, C Neil; Leggett, Graham J; Armes, Steven P

    2014-07-01

    A new cysteine-based methacrylic monomer (CysMA) was conveniently synthesized via selective thia-Michael addition of a commercially available methacrylate-acrylate precursor in aqueous solution without recourse to protecting group chemistry. Poly(cysteine methacrylate) (PCysMA) brushes were grown from the surface of silicon wafers by atom-transfer radical polymerization. Brush thicknesses of ca. 27 nm were achieved within 270 min at 20 °C. Each CysMA residue comprises a primary amine and a carboxylic acid. Surface zeta potential and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the pH-responsive PCysMA brushes confirm that they are highly extended either below pH 2 or above pH 9.5, since they possess either cationic or anionic character, respectively. At intermediate pH, PCysMA brushes are zwitterionic. At physiological pH, they exhibit excellent resistance to biofouling and negligible cytotoxicity. PCysMA brushes undergo photodegradation: AFM topographical imaging indicates significant mass loss from the brush layer, while XPS studies confirm that exposure to UV radiation produces surface aldehyde sites that can be subsequently derivatized with amines. UV exposure using a photomask yielded sharp, well-defined micropatterned PCysMA brushes functionalized with aldehyde groups that enable conjugation to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Nanopatterned PCysMA brushes were obtained using interference lithography, and confocal microscopy again confirmed the selective conjugation of GFP. Finally, PCysMA undergoes complex base-catalyzed degradation in alkaline solution, leading to the elimination of several small molecules. However, good long-term chemical stability was observed when PCysMA brushes were immersed in aqueous solution at physiological pH. PMID:24884533

  9. Zwitterionic Poly(amino acid methacrylate) Brushes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A new cysteine-based methacrylic monomer (CysMA) was conveniently synthesized via selective thia-Michael addition of a commercially available methacrylate-acrylate precursor in aqueous solution without recourse to protecting group chemistry. Poly(cysteine methacrylate) (PCysMA) brushes were grown from the surface of silicon wafers by atom-transfer radical polymerization. Brush thicknesses of ca. 27 nm were achieved within 270 min at 20 °C. Each CysMA residue comprises a primary amine and a carboxylic acid. Surface zeta potential and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the pH-responsive PCysMA brushes confirm that they are highly extended either below pH 2 or above pH 9.5, since they possess either cationic or anionic character, respectively. At intermediate pH, PCysMA brushes are zwitterionic. At physiological pH, they exhibit excellent resistance to biofouling and negligible cytotoxicity. PCysMA brushes undergo photodegradation: AFM topographical imaging indicates significant mass loss from the brush layer, while XPS studies confirm that exposure to UV radiation produces surface aldehyde sites that can be subsequently derivatized with amines. UV exposure using a photomask yielded sharp, well-defined micropatterned PCysMA brushes functionalized with aldehyde groups that enable conjugation to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Nanopatterned PCysMA brushes were obtained using interference lithography, and confocal microscopy again confirmed the selective conjugation of GFP. Finally, PCysMA undergoes complex base-catalyzed degradation in alkaline solution, leading to the elimination of several small molecules. However, good long-term chemical stability was observed when PCysMA brushes were immersed in aqueous solution at physiological pH. PMID:24884533

  10. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  11. Methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Kamada, K.; Nakai, Y.

    1981-10-20

    A methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property wherein an organic compound (A) containing cupric ion and a compound (B) having at least one p-o-h bond in a molecule are contained into the methacrylic resin selected from poly(Methyl methacrylate) or methacrylic polymers containing at least 50% by weight of a methyl methacrylate unit. A process for producing said methacrylic resin is also disclosed.

  12. INTERPRETATION OF COMPLEX MOLECULAR MOTIONS IN SOLUTION. A VARIABLE FREQUENCY CARBON-13 RELAXATION STUDY OF CHAIN SEGMENTAL MOTIONS IN POLY(N-ALKYL METHACRYLATES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive variable temperature study of poly(n-butyl methacrylate) and poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) at two widely separated frequencies (67.9 and 22.6 MHz) has revealed that a model requiring a nonexponential autocorrelation function, or, its mathematical equivalent, a distribut...

  13. Superhydrophobic terpolymer nanofibers containing perfluoroethyl alkyl methacrylate by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Ugur; Avci, Merih Z.; Erbil, H. Yildirim; Sarac, A. Sezai

    2012-05-01

    A new statistical terpolymer containing perfluoroethyl alkyl methacrylate (Zonyl-TM), methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate, poly(Zonyl-TM-ran-MMA-ran-BA) was synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide at 200 bar and 80 °C using AIBN as an initiator by heterogeneous free radical copolymerization. Nanofibers of this terpolymer were produced by electrospinning from its DMF solution. The structural and thermal properties of terpolymers and electrospun poly(Zonyl-TM-MMA-BA) nanofibers were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nanofiber morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun nanofiber layer was found to be superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 172 ± 1° and highly oleophobic with hexadecane, glycerol and ethylene glycol contact angles of 70 ± 1°, 167 ± 1° and 163 ± 1° respectively. The change of the contact angle results on the electrospun fiber layer and flat terpolymer surfaces by varying feed monomer composition were compared and discussed in the text.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  19. Regioselective ester cleavage during the preparation of bisphosphonate methacrylate monomers

    PubMed Central

    Chougrani, Kamel; Niel, Gilles; Boutevin, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Summary New functional monomers bearing a methacrylate, a bisphosphonate function and, for most, an internal carboxylate group, were prepared for incorporation into copolymers with adhesive or anticorrosive properties. Methanolysis of some trimethylsilyl bisphosphonate esters not only deprotects the desired bisphosphonate function but also regioselectively cleaves the alkyl ester function without affecting the methacrylate ester. PMID:21512600

  20. DEGRADATION OF POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) IN SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rate of degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to methyl methacrylate (MMA) was investigated in the liquid phase with toluene as the solvent. The degradation experiments were carried out in a tubular flow reactor at 1000 psig (6.8 MPa) and at four different temperat...

  1. Cell-laden microengineered gelatin methacrylate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Jason W; Koshy, Sandeep T; Bae, Hojae; Hwang, Chang M; Yamanlar, Seda; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-07-01

    The cellular microenvironment plays an integral role in improving the function of microengineered tissues. Control of the microarchitecture in engineered tissues can be achieved through photopatterning of cell-laden hydrogels. However, despite high pattern fidelity of photopolymerizable hydrogels, many such materials are not cell-responsive and have limited biodegradability. Here, we demonstrate gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) as an inexpensive, cell-responsive hydrogel platform for creating cell-laden microtissues and microfluidic devices. Cells readily bound to, proliferated, elongated, and migrated both when seeded on micropatterned GelMA substrates as well as when encapsulated in microfabricated GelMA hydrogels. The hydration and mechanical properties of GelMA were demonstrated to be tunable for various applications through modification of the methacrylation degree and gel concentration. The pattern fidelity and resolution of GelMA were high and it could be patterned to create perfusable microfluidic channels. Furthermore, GelMA micropatterns could be used to create cellular micropatterns for in vitro cell studies or 3D microtissue fabrication. These data suggest that GelMA hydrogels could be useful for creating complex, cell-responsive microtissues, such as endothelialized microvasculature, or for other applications that require cell-responsive microengineered hydrogels. PMID:20417964

  2. Effects of Surfactants on the Properties of Mortar Containing Styrene/Methacrylate Superplasticizer

    PubMed Central

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of mortar containing synthetic cosurfactants as air entraining agent are investigated. The cosurfactants consist of a combination of 2% dodecyl benzene sodium sulfonate (DBSS) and either 1.5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or 1.5% polyoxyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (POE). Also these cosurfactants were used to prepare copolymers latex: styrene/butyl methacrylate (St/BuMA), styrene/methyl methacrylate (St/MMA), and styrene/glycidyl methacrylate (St/GMA), in order to study their effects on the properties of mortar. The properties of mortar examined included flow table, W/C ratio, setting time, water absorption, compressive strength, and combined water. The results indicate that the latex causes improvement in mortar properties compared with cosurfactants. Also polymer latex containing DBSS/POE is more effective than that containing DBSS/PVA. PMID:24955426

  3. Toward pH-responsive coating materials--high-throughput study of (meth)acrylic copolymers.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Andreas; Arici, Elif; Windhab, Norbert; Schattka, Jan Hendrik; Schubert, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2014-08-11

    The release behavior of a model compound (β-naphthol orange) encapsulated in (meth)acrylate-based statistical copolymers under different environmental conditions was investigated. From monomers of varying polarity (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, tert-butyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate) in combination with methacrylic acid, five polymer series were synthesized by free radical polymerization. The pH-dependent release kinetics were investigated via UV-vis spectroscopy at pH 1.2 and 6.8, simulating physiological conditions in the stomach and intestines. Furthermore, the influence of different ethanol contents (0 and 40 vol %) in the acidic medium was investigated. The whole approach was designed to meet the requirements of a high-throughput experimentation workflow. PMID:24964068

  4. Improvement of holographic thermal stability in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Hongpeng; Wang, Heng; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Yongyuan; Sun, Xiudong

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies of holographic thermal stability in phenanthrenequinone (PQ)-doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) [P(MMA-co-MAA)] photopolymers are presented. A possibility to improve the thermal stability of holograms is demonstrated by doping methacrylic acid (MAA) into the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer matrix. MAA as a copolymerization monomer can form a more stable polymer matrix with methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and increase average molecular weight of photoproducts, which finally depress the diffusion of photoproduct. The optimized MAA concentration copolymerized into P(MMA-co-MAA) polymer matrix can bring nearly a month's lifetime of gratings, which is obviously an improvement over the usual PQ-PMMA material under thermal treatment.

  5. Predicting the chromatographic retention of polymers: poly(methyl methacrylate)s and polyacryate blends.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mubasher A; Radke, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    The suitability of a retention model especially designed for polymers is investigated to describe and predict the chromatographic retention behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate)s as a function of mobile phase composition and gradient steepness. It is found that three simple yet rationally chosen chromatographic experiments suffice to extract the analyte specific model parameters necessary to calculate the retention volumes. This allows predicting accurate retention volumes based on a minimum number of initial experiments. Therefore, methods for polymer separations can be developed in relatively short time. The suitability of the virtual chromatography approach to predict the separation of polymer blend is demonstrated for the first time using a blend of different polyacrylates. PMID:17586517

  6. Preparation of ultrafine poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Saade, Hened; Diaz de León-Gómez, Ramón; Enríquez-Medrano, Francisco Javier; López, Raúl Guillermo

    2016-08-01

    Ibuprofen-loaded polymeric particles with around 9.2 nm in mean diameter, as determined by electron microscopy, dispersed in an aqueous media containing up to 12.8% solids were prepared by semicontinuous heterophase polymerization. The polymeric material is a (2/1 mol/mol) methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid copolymer similar to Eudragit S100, deemed safe for human consumption and used in the manufacturing of drug-loaded pills as well as micro- and nanoparticles. The loading efficiency was 100%, attaining around 10-12% in drug content. Release studies showed that the drug is released from the nanoparticles at a slower rate than that in the case of free IB. Given their size as well as the pH values required for their dissolution, it is believed that this type of particles could be used as a basis for preparing nanosystems loaded with a variety of drugs. PMID:27126476

  7. Fate of methyl methacrylate in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bratt, H.; Hathway, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 88% of a single dose of methyl[14C]methacrylate in rats is expired as 14CO2 in 10 days (65% in 2 h), irrespective of the route of administration and of the specific labelling of the propylene residue of the molecule. The implications of this observation, and of the excretion of small amounts of [14C]methylmalonate, [14C]-succinate and probably of [14C]beta-hydroxyisobutyrate and 2-formylpropionate, and of the formation of [14C] normal, physiological metabolites that may be accounted for by anabolism both from 14CO2 and from [14C]acetate emergent from the citric acid cycle, are that the metabolic pathway concerned involves intermediary metabolism and relates to mitochondrial function. Present findings are discussed in relation to the imputations of a report of carcinogenic risk. PMID:889678

  8. Biocompatible Bacterial Cellulose-Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Andrea G. P. R.; Figueiredo, Ana R. P.; Alonso-Varona, Ana; Fernandes, Susana C. M.; Palomares, Teodoro; Rubio-Azpeitia, Eva; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Pascoal Neto, Carlos; Freire, Carmen S. R.

    2013-01-01

    A series of bacterial cellulose-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films was prepared by in situ radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), using variable amounts of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker. Thin films were obtained, and their physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties were evaluated. The films showed improved translucency compared to BC and enhanced thermal stability and mechanical performance when compared to poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). Finally, BC/PHEMA nanocomposites proved to be nontoxic to human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and thus are pointed as potential dry dressings for biomedical applications. PMID:24093101

  9. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .../methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers (CAS... methacrylate polymers consist of basic polymers produced by the copolymerization of vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate such that the basic polymers or the finished food-contact articles meet...

  10. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR METHYL METHACRYLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for methyl methacrylate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardo...

  11. Semi-micro reversed-phase liquid chromatography for the separation of alkyl benzenes and proteins exploiting methacrylate- and polystyrene-based monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2016-05-01

    Monolithic columns were synthesized inside 1.02 mm internal diameter fused-silica lined stainless-steel tubing. Styrene and butyl, hexyl, lauryl, and glycidyl methacrylates were the functional monomers. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and divinylbenzene were the crosslinkers. The glycidyl methacrylate polymer was modified with gold nanoparticles and dodecanethiol (C12 ). The separation of alkylbenzenes was investigated by isocratic elution in 60:40 v/v acetonitrile/water. The columns based on polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene and poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified with dodecanethiol did not provide any separation of alkyl benzenes. The poly(hexyl methacrylate)-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and poly(lauryl methacrylate)-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate columns separated the alkyl benzenes with plate heights between 30 and 60 μm (50 μL min(-1) and 60°C). Similar efficiency was achieved in the poly(butyl methacrylate)-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate column, but only at 10 μL min(-1) (0.22 mm s(-1) ). Backpressures varied from 0.38 MPa in the hexyl methacrylate to 13.4 MPa in lauryl methacrylate columns (50 μL min(-1) and 60°C). Separation of proteins was achieved in all columns with different efficiencies. At 100 μL min(-1) and 60°C, the lauryl methacrylate columns provided the best separation, but their low permeability prevented high flow rates. Flow rates up to 500 μL min(-1) were possible in the styrene, butyl and hexyl methacrylate columns. PMID:26960001

  12. Furfuryl methacrylate plasma polymers for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Hanieh Safizadeh; Rogers, Nicholas; Michelmore, Andrew; Whittle, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Furfuryl methacrylate (FMA) is a promising precursor for producing polymers for biomedical and cell therapy applications. Herein, FMA plasma polymer coatings were prepared with different powers, deposition times, and flow rates. The plasma polymer coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The results from AFM and SEM show the early growth of the coatings and the existence of particle aggregates on the surfaces. XPS results indicated no measureable chemical differences between the deposited films produced under different power and flow rate conditions. ToF-SIMS analysis demonstrated differing amounts of C5H5O (81 m/z) and C10H9O2 (161 m/z) species in the coatings which are related to the furan ring structure. Through judicious choice of plasma polymerization parameters, the quantity of the particle aggregates was reduced, and the fabricated plasma polymer coatings were chemically uniform and smooth. Primary human fibroblasts were cultured on FMA plasma polymer surfaces to determine the effect of surface chemical composition and the presence of particle aggregates on cell culture. Particle aggregates were shown to inhibit fibroblast attachment and proliferation. PMID:27609095

  13. GENOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC ACID, METHYL ACRYLATE, ETHYL ACRYLATE, METHYL METHACRYLATE, AND ETHYL METHACRYLATE IN L5178Y MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of monomeric acrylate/methacrylate esters (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and ethyl methacrylate) as well as acrylic acid were examined for genotoxic activity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells without exogenous activation. All five compounds induced c...

  14. Synthesis, Thermal Properties, and Thermoresponsive Behaviors of Cyclic Poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl Methacrylate)s.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaonan; Tang, Qingquan; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Ke; Zhao, Youliang

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at physicochemical properties of thermo- and pH/CO2 -responsive cyclic homopolymers. Three examples of cyclic poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)s (PDMAs) are synthesized by combining the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer process and the Diels-Alder ring-closure reaction. After cyclization, the glass transition temperature significantly increases (ΔTg = 51.8-59.7 °C) due to the different configurational entropy and end groups, and the maximum decomposition temperature to lose the pendent groups is drastically decreased from 309 to 278 °C. Effects of polymerization degree, polymer concentration, additive of NaCl, and pH/CO2 on lower critical solution temperature behaviors of PDMA aqueous solutions are investigated. The cloud points (Tc ) of ring PDMAs are usually higher than their linear precursors, and the ΔTc values obtained under a fixed condition can reach up to 20.7 °C, revealing the crucial role of the topology effect. This study paves the way for unique properties and applications of smart cyclic polymers and their derivatives. PMID:27126247

  15. Complex microparticulate systems based on glycidyl methacrylate and xanthan.

    PubMed

    Lungan, Maria-Andreea; Popa, Marcel; Desbrieres, Jacques; Racovita, Stefania; Vasiliu, Silvia

    2014-04-15

    Porous microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate, dimethacrylic monomers [ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate] and xanthan gum were synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization method in the presence of toluene as diluent using two types of initiators: benzoyl peroxide and ammonium persulfate. The G microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate and dimethacrylic monomers and X microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate, xanthan and dimethacrylic monomers were characterized by various techniques including FT-IR spectroscopy, TG analysis, SEM analysis and DVS method. The specific surface areas were determined by DVS method, while the copolymer porosities and pore volume were obtained from the apparent and skeletal densities. The results have indicated that xanthan was included in the crosslinked matrix by means of covalent bonds. X microparticles have a porous structure with higher specific surface area (129-44 m(2)/g) and higher sorption capacities compared with G microparticles (69-31 m(2)/g). PMID:24607180

  16. Protonation of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate by acids in various solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, I.L.; Bune, E.V.; Bogachev, Yu.S.; Sheinker, A.P.; Teleshov, E.N.

    1988-04-10

    It was established by /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR that diethylaminoethyl methacrylate exists in the unprotonated form in solvents which are not acids. In the presence of an equimolar amount of hydrochloric or trifluoroacetic acids the amino ester is fully protonated, irrespective of the solvent. The diethylaminoethyl methacrylate-acetic acid system exists in the form of a molecular complex with a hydrogen bond and in the protonated form; the proportions of the protonated form were estimated in various solvents. The change in the reactivity of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and its salts in polymerization was explained by a change in the electronic state of CH/sub 2/ = group of the monomer as a result of its protonation and of the formation of a hydrogen bond between the C = O group of the monomer and the solvent.

  17. Rapid preparation and characterization of methacrylate-based monoliths for chromatographic and electrophoretic separation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li-Qun; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Gong, Wen-Jun; Qu, Ling-Bo; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2010-01-01

    Butyl-methacrylate-based porous monoliths were rapidly prepared in the fused-silica capillary with a 10-cm stripe of polyimide removed from its exterior. The photopolymerization could be carried out in 150 s using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linking agent; 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water as tri-porogenic solvents; and Irgacure 1800 as a photo-initiator. The effect of different morphologies on the efficiency and retention properties was investigated using pressure-assisted CEC (p-CEC), CEC, and low pressure-assisted liquid chromatography modes (LPLC). Baseline separation of the model analytes was respectively achieved including thiourea, toluene, naphthalene, and biphenyl with the lowest theoretical height up to 8.0 microm for thiourea in the mode of p-CEC. Furthermore, the influence of the tri-porogenic solvents on the morphology of methacrylate-based monoliths was systematically studied with mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:20515536

  18. 40 CFR 721.10523 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (generic). 721... methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (PMN P... Substances § 721.10523 Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10523 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (generic). 721... methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (PMN P... Substances § 721.10523 Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide,...

  20. Well-defined inorganic/organic nanocomposite by nano silica core-poly(methyl methacrylate/butylacrylate/trifluoroethyl methacrylate) shell.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gang; He, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Pan, Aizhao; Liu, Jing; Li, Yingjun; Cao, Ruijun

    2013-04-15

    The novel inorganic/organic core-shell SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) nanocomposite for coating application is synthesized in this paper by seed emulsion polymerization, in which the inorganic phase is composed of nano-SiO2 modified by vinyl-trimethoxysilane (VMS) or γ-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxylsilane (MPMS), and the organic phase is made of terpolymer by 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (3FMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and n-butyl acrylate (BA). The chemical structure of SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) is characterized by FTIR. The effect of surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/octyl phenyl polyoxyethylene ether (TX-10), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)/TX-10 and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) on the grafting ratio (GR) of VMS and MPMS, the dispersion of nano-SiO2 particles and the film properties of SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) are investigated by TGA, DLS, TEM, SEM, and XPS. The morphology variation and the particle size distributions of SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) with the content of surfactant and P(MMA/BA/3FMA) are characterized. It is found that MPMS is more effective than VMS in improving GR and the dispersion of nano-SiO2 particles. The surfactants are favor of gaining the higher GR in the multilayer grafted nano-SiO2, especially SDS/TX-10 for 17.6% GR. The morphology of SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) is controlled by the amount of SDS/TX-10 and P(MMA/BA/3FMA) as the core-shell particles, the stacked pomegranate seed with multicore and the multicore-single shell structure when w(MMA)/w(BA)/w(3FMA)=1.3/1/1. Among the different surfactants, SDBS/TX-10 and PVP could give the monodispersing nano-SiO2 in the terpolymer matrix of the films, but SDS/TX-10 and SDBS/TX-10 could perform the fluorine-rich surface. PMID:23403111

  1. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  2. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  3. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  4. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers (CAS Reg. No. 34364-83-5) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be.../methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers consist of basic polymers produced by the...

  6. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers (CAS Reg. No. 34364-83-5) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be.../methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers consist of basic polymers produced by the...

  7. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  8. 21 CFR 73.3121 - Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. 73...(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting one or more of the reactive dyes listed in this paragraph with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), so that...

  9. 21 CFR 73.3121 - Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. 73...(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting one or more of the reactive dyes listed in this paragraph with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), so that...

  10. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775 Section 172.775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10619 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer (PMN P-11-653) is subject to reporting under this.... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(p)(any amount after September 30, 2014). (b) Specific requirements. The...) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as specified in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (h), and (i)...

  12. Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Jang, B.W.L.

    1995-12-31

    Acrylates and methacrylates are among the most widely used chemical intermediates in the world. One of the key chemicals of this type is methyl methacrylate. Of the 4 billion pounds produced each year, roughly 85% is made using the acetone-cyanohydrin process, which requires handling of large quantities of hydrogen cyanide and produces ammonium sulfate wastes that pose an environmental disposal challenge. The U.S. Department of Energy and Eastman Chemical Company are sharing the cost of research to develop an alternative process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate from syngas. Research Triangle Institute is focusing on the synthesis and testing of active catalysts for the condensation reactions, and Bechtel is analyzing the costs to determine the competitiveness of several process alternatives. Results thus far show that the catalysts for the condensation of formaldehyde and the propionate are key to selectively producing the desired product, methacrylic acid, with a high yield. These condensation catalysts have both acid and base functions and the strength and distribution of these acid-base sites controls the product selectivity and yield.

  13. 21 CFR 177.1830 - Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers. 177.1830 Section 177.1830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and...

  14. Release of Water Soluble Drugs from Dynamically Swelling POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL Methacrylate - CO - Methacrylic Acid) Hydrogels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jim Hwai-Cher

    In this study, ionizable copolymers of HEMA and methacrylic acid (MA) are investigated for their potential use in developing pH dependent oral delivery systems. Because of the MA units, these gels swell extensively at high pH. Since solute diffusion in the hydrophilic polymers depends highly on the water content of the matrix, it is anticipated that the release rate will be modulated by this pH induced swelling. From a practical point of view, the advantage of the present system is that one can minimize drug loss in the stomach and achieve a programmed release in intestine. This approach is expected to improve delivery of acid labile drugs or drugs that cause severe gastrointestinal side effects. This work mainly focuses on the basic understanding of the mechanism involved in drug release from the poly(HEMA -co- MA) gels, especially under dynamic swelling conditions. Equilibrium swelling is first characterized since water content is the major determinant of transport properties in these gels. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is chosen as the model drug for the release study and its diffusion characteristics in the gel matrix determined. The data obtained show that the PPA diffusivity follows the free volume theory of Yasuda, which explains the accelerating effect of swelling on drug release. A mathematical model based on a diffusion mechanism has been developed to describe PPA release from the swelling gels. Based on this model, several significant conclusions can be drawn. First, the release rate can be modulated by the aspect ratio of the cylindrical geometry, and this has a practical implication in dosage form design. Second, the release rate can be lowered quite considerably if the dimensional increase due to swelling is significant. Consequently, it is the balance between the drug diffusivity increase and the gel dimensional growth that determines the release rate from the swelling matrix. Third, quasi-steady release kinetics, which are characteristic of swelling

  15. A novel crosslinker for UV copolymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone and methacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Yu-Chin

    1993-12-31

    Methacryloxyethyl vinyl carbonate, a novel crosslinker containing a vinyl carbonate and a methacrylate group which is capable of copolymerizing N-vinyl pyrrolidone and methacrylates, was prepared. With this crosslinker, N-vinyl pyrrolidone and methacrylates can copolymerize efficiently under strictly UV condition. Previously, polymeric systems containing N-vinyl pyrrolidone and methacrylates were prepared using thermal initiators, or a combination of thermal and UV initiators in the presence of crosslinkers such as allyl methacrylate or ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, These processes often led to polymers with inferior properties and less controllable quality. The use of this novel crosslinker represents a sharp improvement in polymerization conditions (UV vs heat) as well as product quality.

  16. Aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate)s for constructing efficient gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Dou, X B; Chai, M Y; Zhu, Y; Yang, W T; Xu, F J

    2013-04-24

    Aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) vectors could efficiently mediate gene delivery. Recently, we reported that ethanolamine (EA)-functionalized PGMA could provide high transfection efficiency, while exhibiting very low toxicity. Herein, different amine species, including 1-amino-2-propanol (AP1), 3-amino-2-propanol (AP2), EA, and N,N,-dimethylethylenediamine (DED), and its quaternized DED, were proposed to aminate PGMA. The DNA condensation abilities, pH buffering capacities, cytotoxicities, and gene transfection efficiencies of the resultant aminated PGMA vectors were systematically compared. Compared with EA, AP1 (or AP2) contains an additional methyl (or methylene) group. EA-, AP1-, and AP2-functionalized PGMA vectors exhibited similar condensation abilities. The methyl (from AP1) and methylene (from AP2) species could benefit the gene delivery. The transfection performance mediated by AP1-functionalized PGMA is best. DED possesses a tertiary amine group, which could be quaternized to further enhance the DNA condensation ability of aminated PGMA. No obvious increase in cytotoxicity of quaternized DED-aminated PGMA was observed. But both DED- and its quaternized counterpart-functionalized PGMA vectors exhibited very low pH buffering capacities, making them exhibit poor gene transfection performances. The current study would provide useful information for constructing better PGMA-based delivery systems with good biophysical properties. PMID:23514579

  17. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2013-11-01

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm-1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  18. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi; Samuel S. Tam

    1999-04-21

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (January-March/99), in-situ formaldehyde generation and condensation with methyl propionate were tested over various catalysts and reaction conditions. The patent application is in preparation and the results are retained for future reports.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF METHACRYLATES FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, B.W.L.; Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.

    1999-12-01

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel have developed a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the US Department of Energy/Fossil Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC). This project has resulted in five US patents (four already published and one pending publication). It has served as the basis for the technical and economic assessment of the production of this high-volume intermediate from coal-derived synthesis gas. The three-step process consists of the synthesis of a propionate from ethylene carbonylation using coal-derived CO, condensation of the propionate with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA); and esterification of MAA with methanol to yield MMA. The first two steps, propionate synthesis and condensation catalysis, are the key technical challenges and the focus of the research presented here.

  20. Investigation of Methacrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Marshall, William G; Urquhart, Andrew J; Oswald, Iain D H

    2015-09-10

    This article shows that pressure can be a low-intensity route to the synthesis of polymethacrylic acid. The exploration of perdeuterated methacrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction reveals that methacrylic acid exhibits two polymorphic phase transformations at relatively low pressures. The first is observed at 0.39 GPa, where both phases were observed simultaneously and confirm our previous observations. This transition is followed by a second transition at 1.2 GPa to a new polymorph that is characterized for the first time. On increasing pressure, the diffraction pattern of phase III deteriorates significantly. On decompression phase III persists to 0.54 GPa before transformation to the ambient pressure phase. There is significant loss of signal after decompression, signifying that there has been a loss of material through polymerization. The orientation of the molecules in phase III provides insight into the possible polymerization reaction. PMID:26289930

  1. Preparation and characterization of methacrylate hydrogels for zeta potential control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregonis, D. E.; Ma, S. M.; Vanwagenen, R.; Andrade, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic coatings on electroosmotic flow. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of glass capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming potential measurements is discussed. Various silane adhesion promoters exhibited only a slight decrease in streaming potential. A coating utilizing a glycidoxy silane base upon which methylcellulose is applied affords a six-fold decrease over uncoated tubes. Hydrophilic methacrylate gels show similar streaming potential behavior, independent of the water content of the gel. By introduction of positive or negative groups into the hydrophilic methacrylate gels, a range of streaming potential values are obtained having absolute positive or negative signs.

  2. Penile enlargement with methacrylate injection: is it safe?

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Andrade, Enrico Martins de; Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Claro, Joaquim Francisco Almeida; Cury, Jose; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Penis size is a great concern for men in many cultures. Despite the great variety of methods for penile augmentation, none has gained unanimous acceptance among experts in the field. However, in this era of minimally invasive procedure, injection therapy for penile augmentation has become more popular. Here we report a case of methacrylate injection in the penis that evolved with penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. This work also reviews the investigation and management of this pathological condition. CASE REPORT A 36-year-old male sought medical care with a complaint of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction after methacrylate injection. The treatment administered was surgical removal. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were reached after two months. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for better structured scientific research to evaluate the outcomes and complication rates from all penile augmentation procedures. PMID:23538596

  3. [Chest granuloma secondary to methyl methacrylate. Case report].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bistrain, Ricardo; Robles García, Verónica; Cornejo-Morales, Ivonne

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with a history of a massive left hemithorax crushing injury in 1985; the exact management of the lesion is unknown. Twenty years later he had a thoracic fistula with a culture that was reported as positive for Enteroccocus faecalis and Staphyloccocus epidermidis. The patient was referred by the chest surgery service with the diagnosis of rib osteomyelitis once complementary imaging tests were performed (plain X-rays, CAT scan and MRI). The patient underwent surgery at our service; a granulomatous reaction secondary to a foreign body (methyl methacrylate and Ethibon) was reported. Chest reconstruction for massive lesions is possible with methyl methacrylate. Imaging studies involve the well-known difficulty to identify this material, given that it may produce signals and densities that are difficult to interpret by specialized physicians. PMID:20377062

  4. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup −1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horák, Daniel; Petrovský, Eduard; Kapička, Aleš; Frederichs, Theodor

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were prepared and their detailed structural and magnetic characteristics given. Iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by chemical coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and stabilized with dextran, (carboxymethyl)dextran or tetramethylammonium hydroxide. The microspheres were prepared by emulsion or dispersion polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate in the presence of ferrofluid. The microspheres were uniform both in shape and usually also in size; their size distribution was narrow. All the magnetic parameters confirm superparamagnetic nature of the microspheres. Blocking temperature was not observed, suggesting the absence of magnetic interactions at low temperatures. This is most probably caused by complete encapsulation and the absence of agglomeration. Such microspheres can be used in biomedical applications.

  6. Biodegradation of polystyrene, poly(metnyl methacrylate), and phenol formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, D L; Hartenstein, R; Sutter, J

    1979-01-01

    The biodegradation of three synthetic 14C-labeled polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate), phenol formaldehyde, and polystyrene, was studied with 17 species of fungi in axenic cultures, five groups of soil invertebrates, and a variety of mixed microbial communities including sludges, soils, manures, garbages, and decaying plastics. Extremely low decomposition rates were found. The addition of cellulose and mineral failed to increase decomposition rates significantly. PMID:533278

  7. Evaluation of alternate routes for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.

    1998-12-31

    The use of coal-derived syngas to produce high value chemicals is an important means of upgrading this resource. One example of a chemical that can be produced from coal-derived syngas is methyl methacrylate (MMA). Poly-methyl methacrylate is widely used in coatings and in various industrial molded products. The most widely practiced commercial technology for the synthesis of MMA is the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. This process requires handling of large quantities of toxic hydrogen cyanide and generates one mole of ammonium bisulfate waste per mole of MMA. This bisulfate must either be regenerated or discarded, either of which substantially increases the cost. The ACH technology is thus environmentally and economically untenable for any new MMA plant expansions that would be needed to meet increasing demand. The RTI-Eastman-Bechtel research team is developing an alternative, environmentally benign route to MMA consisting of three steps; (step 1) synthesis of a propionate from ethylene, carbon monoxide, and steam, (step 2) condensation of this propionate with formaldehyde, and (step 3) esterification of resulting methacrylic acid with methanol to form MMA. This paper describes the preliminary economics of the overall process compared to other emerging processes, and focuses on step 2, including long term testing of catalysts for the condensation of propionic acid with formaldehyde to form MAA.

  8. PolyGuanine methacrylate cryogels for ribonucleic acid purification.

    PubMed

    Köse, Kazım; Uzun, Lokman

    2016-05-01

    The isolation and purification of ribonucleic acid have attracted attention recently for the understanding of the functions in detail because of the necessity for the treatment of genetic diseases. In this study, guanine-incorporated polymeric cryogels were developed to obtain highly purified ribonucleic acid. The satisfactory purification performance was achieved with the guanine-incorporated poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-guanine methacrylate) cryogels. The most crucial advantages to use guanine as a functional monomer are to obtain a real natural interaction between guanine on the polymeric material and cytosine on the ribonucleic acid. Moreover, using cryogel with a highly porous structure and high swelling ratio provide advantages of getting more water within the structure to get more analyte to interact. The characterization of cryogels has proved the success of the synthesis and the perfect natural interaction to be taken place between the ligand (guanine methacrylate) and the cytosine in the ribonucleic acid molecules. Although the pores within the structure of cryogels are small, they provide efficient and fast adsorption. The chromatographic separation performance was investigated for different conditions (pH, temperature etc.). The desorption ratio and reusability were also analyzed at the end of the five adsorption-desorption cycles with no significant changes. PMID:27004613

  9. Different in vitro and in vivo behaviors between Poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Lin, Weifeng; Ma, Guanglong; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Shengfu

    2016-10-01

    Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA) and poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA) are two well-known zwitterionic polymers known for their excellent antifouling properties. In this work, these two zwitterionic polymers were compared both in vitro and in vivo. Both of them exhibited excellent antifouling properties and low macrophage uptake although there were negligible differences in resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption of their hydrogels and cell internalization of their star polymers. However, it is found that the β- Cyclodextrin-CBMA (CD-CBMA) showed a circulation time one order of magnitude longer than CD-SBMA, which implied that small differences in vitro may lead to a dramatic difference in vivo. This work demonstrated that pCBMA showed greater potential than pSBMA in biomedical applications. PMID:27459415

  10. Heterocyclic methacrylates for clinical applications. II. Room temperature polymerizing systems for potential clinical use.

    PubMed

    Patel, M P; Braden, M

    1991-09-01

    A number of useful room temperature polymerizing resins were formulated, based on poly(ethyl methacrylate) powder and a range of low shrinkage heterocyclic methacrylate monomers. N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine or p-tolyl diethanolamine were used as activating amines, but the latter material is less active and some care is necessary with respect to the source of the monomer. Isobornyl methacrylate is a useful diluent monomer to reduce the exotherm. PMID:1742408

  11. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates.

    PubMed

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined α-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0/[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25 °C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) . PMID:26013759

  12. Study of the miscibility of poly(styrene-co-4-vinylbenzoic acid) with poly(ethyl methacrylate) or with poly[ethyl methacrylate-co-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate] by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ourdani, Samia; Amrani, Farouk

    2002-09-01

    Poly(styrene) is immiscible with poly(ethyl methacrylate). The introduction of a small amount of 4-vinylbenzoic acid units along poly(styrene) chains (PS-VBA) enhanced its miscibility with poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) or with poly[ethyl methacrylate-co-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate] (PEMA-DAE), as observed from the appearance of a single composition dependent glass transition temperature for each binary system using inverse gas chromatography. The negative values of the apparent polymer-polymer interaction parameter, chi(23)app, determined with different families of molecular probes, for three blend compositions and over a range of temperature confirm quantitatively the miscibility of these blends. The chi(23)app values for PEMA(PS-VBA) and (PEMA-DAE)-(PS-VBA) blends are dependent of the chemical nature of the probes, the temperature and the blend composition. PMID:12385399

  13. Jumpwise deformation of polymethyl methacrylate in the microplasticity region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpeizman, V. V.; Yakushev, P. N.; Mukhina, Zh. V.; Kuznetsov, E. V.; Smolyanskii, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The deformation rate with a step of 325 nm has been measured under uniaxial compression at the initial stage of creep and shape recovery of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sample after unloading. The effect of low γ-ray doses and magnetic fields on the deformation has been studied. It has been shown that a weak pre-exposure of the PMMA sample structure to radiation and magnetic fields can cause a slight hardening in the microplasticity region. The deformation jump sizes have been determined on micro- and nanoscales. The effect of irradiation and magnetic fields manifests itself as redistributed contributions of various jumps to the deformation.

  14. Glycol methacrylate in light microscopy: nucleic acid cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Cole, M B; Ellinger, J

    1981-07-01

    Techniques utilizing Feulgen, azure B bromide, methyl green-pyronin, gallocyanin chromalum and cresyl violet stains have been modified and adapted for visualizing nucleic acids in 0.5-2.0 micrometer sections of tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA). Methods for evaluating the stain specificity for DNA and RNA using deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease digestions, aldehyde blocking, and acid extractions are also described. The specificity of the stains in GMA embedded tissues is comparable to that reported for paraffin-embedded tissues. PMID:6167720

  15. Density of radiolytic gas bubbles in polymethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkonen, T.; Tiainen, O. J. A.; Valkiainen, M.; Winberg, M.

    The density of the radiolytic gas bubbles in irradiated polymethyl methacrylate was measured during subsequent heat treatment as a function of radiation dose. The samples were irradiated in the core of the Triga Mark II reactor in Otaniemi. After the irradiation periods the samples were heat treated at 393 K. The number of the bubbles could be explained by a thermal activation model. The bubbles are born in material inhomogeneities and the threshold dose for the bubble initiation was about 25 Mrad for the heat treatment at 393 K under the atmospheric pressure.

  16. Hardness of irradiated poly(methyl methacrylate) at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, K.-P.; Lee, Sanboh; Cheng, Cheu Pyeng

    2001-08-15

    The decrease in hardness induced by gamma irradiation in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has been investigated. The hardness is assumed to decrease linearly with the concentration of radiation-induced defects. Annealing at high temperatures induces defect annihilation as tracked by an increase in hardness. The annihilation follows first-order kinetics during isothermal annealing. The dependence of hardness on the reciprocal of the time constant satisfies the Arrhenius equation, and the corresponding activation energy of the kinetic process decreases with increasing dose. The hardness of postannealed PMMA decreases linearly with increasing dose. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Variation in the chromatographic, material, and chemical characteristics of methacrylate-based polymer monoliths during photoinitiated low-temperature polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ayumi; Nakaza, Takuya; Hirano, Tomohiko; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Both the separation behavior and the structure of a polymer monolith column depends on both the reaction solution composition and the polymerization conditions. In photoinitiated low-temperature polymerization, polymerization temperature, irradiation intensity, and polymerization time were key factors to control the monolith characteristics. In this study, the effect of polymerization time on the chromatographic, material, and chemical characteristics of poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monoliths was studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography, Raman spectroscopy, inverse size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy, and chromatographic methods. Both butyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate monomers were incorporated into the monolith as the polymerization time increased, and it resulted in increases in both the flow resistance (decrease in both permeability and total/through pore porosities) and retention factors. The longer polymerization time led to lower relative amounts of free methacrylate functional groups in the monolith, i.e. cross-linking was enhanced. The increase of the polymerization time from 8 to 12 min significantly reduced the separation efficiency for the retained analyte, whereas an increase in the fraction of the mesoporosity was observed. PMID:27129896

  18. The immobilization of enzymes onto poly(ethylene)—g.co—methacrylic acid, [poly(ethylene)—g.co—hydroxyethyl methacrylate]—g.co—methacrylic acid and [poly(ethylene)—g.co—methacrylic acid]—g.co—hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, M. Alves; Gil, M. H.; Guiomar, J.; Lapa, E.; Machado, E.; Moreira, M.; Guthrie, J. T.; Kotov, S.

    A series of graft copolymers has been prepared based on the poly(ethylene) backbone. These carry functional groups which are effective in coupling and provide a level of hydrophilicity which is thought to be consistent with generating a suitable micro-environment for enzyme immobilization and subsequent enhanced biocatalyst stability. Four enzymes have been immobilized. These are papain, trypsin, glucose oxidase and α-chymotrypsin. The parent copolymers were assembled via radiation-induced grafting. Secondary grafting was achieved in two ways. The first involved grafting methacrylic acid onto poly(ethylene)—g.co—hydroxyethyl methacrylate, while the second involved grafting hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto poly(ethylene)—g.co—methacrylic acid. The results suggest that a high degree of specificity arises in the systems examined with regard to the enzymes, the type of copolymers and the coupling procedures. Generally, relatively large amounts of enzyme become covalently attached to the copolymers, though the overall level of activity is low. In this work it has been observed that the most satisfactory results were obtained when the partly hydrolyzed poly(ethylene)—g.co—hydroxyethyl methacrylate was used in the immobilization of the biocatalysts.

  19. Supramolecular Cross-Links in Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Copolymers and Their Impact on the Mechanical and Reversible Adhesive Properties.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Salz, Ulrich; Moszner, Norbert; Fiore, Gina L; Weder, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Hydrogen-bonded, side-chain-functionalized supramolecular poly(alkyl methacrylate)s were investigated as light- and temperature-responsive reversible adhesives that are useful for bonding and debonding on demand applications. Here, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was functionalized with 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) via a hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) linker, to create a monomer (UPy-HMDI-HEMA) that serves to form supramolecular cross-links by way of forming quadruple hydrogen bonded dimers. UPy-HMDI-HEMA was copolymerized with either hexyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate to create copolymers comprising 2.5, 5, or 10 mol % of the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of all (co)polymers were investigated with stress-strain experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis. Furthermore, the adhesive properties were studied at temperatures between 20 and 60 °C by testing single lap joints formed with stainless steel substrates. It was found that increasing the concentration of the UPy-HMDI-HEMA cross-linker leads to improved mechanical and adhesive properties at elevated temperatures. Concurrently, the reversibility of the bond formation remained unaffected, where rebonded samples displayed the same adhesive strength as regularly bonded samples. Debonding on demand abilities were also tested exemplarily for one copolymer, which for light-induced debonding experiments was blended with a UV-absorber that served as light-heat converter. Single lap joints were subjected to a constant force and heated or irradiated with UV light until debonding occurred. The necessary debonding temperature was comparable for direct heating and UV irradiation and varied between 28 and 82 °C, depending on the applied force. The latter also influenced the debonding time, which under the chosen conditions ranged from 30 s to 12 min. PMID:26043809

  20. RAFT dispersion polymerization of 3-phenylpropyl methacrylate with poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] macro-CTAs in ethanol and associated thermoreversible polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yiwen; Dharsana, Nadia C; van Hensbergen, Johannes A; Burford, Robert P; Roth, Peter J; Lowe, Andrew B

    2014-08-21

    The direct synthesis of methacrylic-based soft polymeric nanoparticles via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer dispersion polymerization (RAFTDP) is described. The use of poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]s, of varying average degree of polymerization (X¯n), as the stabilizing blocks for the RAFTDP of 3-phenylpropyl methacrylate (PPMA) in ethanol at 70 °C, at various total solids contents, yielded the full spectrum of self-assembled nanoparticles (spherical and worm aggregates and polymersomes). We also demonstrate that nanoparticle morphology can be tuned simply by controlling temperature. This is especially evident in the case of worm aggregates undergoing a thermoreversible transition to spherical species - a process that is accompanied by a macroscopic degelation-gelation process. PMID:24975501

  1. Preparation of Novel Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-coglycidyl methacrylate)-Grafted Core-Shell Magnetic Chitosan Microspheres and Immobilization of Lactase

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Yang, Rui-Jin; Qian, Ting-Ting; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Katiyo, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted magnetic chitosan microspheres (HG-MCM) were prepared using reversed-phase suspension polymerization method. The HG-MCM presented a core-shell structure and regular spherical shape with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto the chitosan layer coating the Fe3O4 cores. The average diameter of the magnetic microspheres was 10.67 μm, within a narrow size distribution of 6.6–17.4 μm. The saturation magnetization and retentivity of the magnetic microspheres were 7.0033 emu/g and 0.6273 emu/g, respectively. The application of HG-MCM in immobilization of lactase showed that the immobilized enzyme presented higher storage, pH and thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. This indicates that HG-MCM have potential applications in bio-macromolecule immobilization. PMID:23743822

  2. Backfilling-Free Strategy for Biopatterning on Intrinsically Dual-Functionalized Poly[2-Aminoethyl Methacrylate-co-Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) Methacrylate] Films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Soo; Lee, Juno; Han, Gyeongyeop; Ha, EunRae; Choi, Insung S; Lee, Jungkyu K

    2016-07-20

    We demonstrated protein and cellular patterning with a soft lithography technique using poly[2-aminoethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] films on gold surfaces without employing a backfilling process. The backfilling process plays an important role in successfully generating biopatterns; however, it has potential disadvantages in several interesting research and technical applications. To overcome the issue, a copolymer system having highly reactive functional groups and bioinert properties was introduced through a surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization with 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride (AMA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA). The prepared poly(AMA-co-OEGMA) film was fully characterized, and among the films having different thicknesses, the 35 nm-thick biotinylated, poly(AMA-co-OEGMA) film exhibited an optimum performance, such as the lowest nonspecific adsorption and the highest specific binding capability toward proteins. PMID:27252120

  3. ACUTE TOXICITY AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACRYLATES AND METHACRYLATES TO JUVENILE FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylate and methacrylate esters are reactive monomers that are used primarily in the synthesis of acrylic plastics and polymers. Ninety-six hour flow-through acute toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) using 6 acrylates and 6 methacrylates. Nin...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... weight of methyl methacrylate; and (2) 21 to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16... 28 parts by weight of styrene and (ii) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... weight of methyl methacrylate; and (2) 21 to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16... 28 parts by weight of styrene and (ii) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... weight of methyl methacrylate; and (2) 21 to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16... 28 parts by weight of styrene and (ii) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the...

  7. Cell toxicity of methacrylate monomers-the role of glutathione adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Ansteinsson, V; Kopperud, H B; Morisbak, E; Samuelsen, J T

    2013-12-01

    Polymer-based dental restorative materials are designed to polymerize in situ. However, the conversion of methacrylate monomer to polymer is never complete, and leakage of the monomer occurs. It has been shown that these monomers are toxic in vitro; hence concerns regarding exposure of patients and dental personnel have been raised. Different monomer methacrylates are thought to cause toxicity through similar mechanisms, and the sequestration of cellular glutathione (GSH) may be a key event. In this study we examined the commonly used monomer methacrylates, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), triethylenglycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), bisphenol-A-glycidyl-dimethacrylate (BisGMA), glycerol-dimethacrylate (GDMA) and methyl-methacrylate (MMA). The study aimed to establish monomers' ability to complex with GSH, and relate this to cellular toxicity endpoints. Except for BisGMA, all the monomer methacrylates decreased the GSH levels both in cells and in a cell-free system. The spontaneous formation of methacrylate-GSH adducts were observed for all methacrylate monomers except BisGMA. However, we were not able to correlate GSH depletion and toxic response measured as SDH activity and changes in cell growth pattern. Together, the current study indicates mechanisms other than GSH-binding to be involved in the toxicity of methacrylate monomers. PMID:23613115

  8. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  13. Novel syngas-based process for methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.; Choi, G.N.; Tam, S.S.; Tischer, R.E.; Srivastava, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel are developing a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the research on propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis, which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis process is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P and Ta metal oxide catalysts for condensation reactions of propionates with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, acid-base properties, in situ condensation in a high- temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory reactor operating data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

  14. Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate from Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Makarand R. Gogate; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

    1998-04-17

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last month, RTI has finalized the design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI incorporated some design changes to the feed blending system, so as to be able to blend varying proportions of DME and oxygen. RTI has also examined the flammability limits of DME-air mixtures. Since the lower flammability limit of DME in air is 3.6 volume percent, RTI will use a nominal feed composition of 1.6 percent in air, which is less than half the lower explosion limit for DME-air mixtures. This nominal feed composition is thus considered operationally safe, for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI is also currently developing an analytical system for DME partial oxidation reaction system.

  15. Adsorption of water vapor on modified methacrylate polymeric sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Platonova, N.P.; Tataurova, O.G.; Vartapetyan, R.Sh.

    1995-12-31

    Adsorption of water vapor on methacrylate copolymers and terpolymers was studied. An increase in the content of the cross-linking agent gives rise to increase in the limiting adsorption of water vapor at the saturation pressure (a{sub s}) and to decrease in the concentration of primary adsorption centers. Modification of the initial copolymer containing 60% of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (EPMA) monomer and 40% of cross-linking agent, ethylene dimethacrylate, with diethylenetriamine (DETA) results in an increase in the a{sub s} value, while modification with C{sub 12} and C{sub 18} alkyl, benzyl, and phenyl groups gives rise to decrease in the a{sub s} values for the copolymeric sorbents. The concentration of primary adsorption centers (a{sub m}) increases considerably on modification of the copolymer with DETA and C{sub 12} groups and decreases markedly on modification with benzyl and phenyl groups. For terpolymers, containing EPMA and styrene, an increase in the styrene/EPMA ratio reduces the a{sub s}, and a{sub m} values. The copolymer modified with DETA groups possesses the most hydrophilic properties, while the copolymer modified with benzyl group exhibits the most hydrophobic properties. The mechanism of adsorption of water molecules on the polymers is discussed.

  16. Sulfone-Containing Methacrylate Homopolymers: Wetting and Thermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shota; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2016-01-26

    Although the sulfonyl functional group has a large dipole moment and compounds containing them (sulfones) have correspondingly high dielectric constants, this chemical structure has been neglected for use as a functional group to render surfaces hydrophilic. We have prepared three methacrylate polymers containing side chains capped with sulfolane, methylsulfone, and ethylsulfone functionality. The sulfolane-containing polymer exhibits an unusually high glass transition temperature (Tg = 188°C) for a methacrylate polymer and slightly different thermal degradation behavior than the other two sulfone-containing polymers, likely due to the bulky structure of the sulfolane group in the polymer side chain. At macroscopic polymer film/water interfaces, the sulfone-containing side chains exposed to the interface impart hydrophilic properties as assessed by contact angle analysis. The hydrophilicities of sulfolane and methylsulfone surfaces are similar, and greater than the ethylsulfone surface. Although the chemical compositions of the sulfolane and ethylsulfone polymers are almost identical, the five-membered ring structure of sulfolane allows the sulfonyl moiety to be exposed at the interface in a manner similar to that of the methylsulfone polymer. The sulfonyl group at the ethylsulfone polymer/water interface is slightly masked by the ethyl group. Interestingly, the sulfolane surface displays a higher affinity to methylene iodide and n-hexadecane probe fluids compared to the other sulfone surfaces, suggesting that the five-membered ring structure of the sulfolane moiety can orient in a manner that shelters the sulfonyl group at hydrophobic interfaces. PMID:26716766

  17. Investigation of infrared calibration methods for application to the study of methyl methacrylate polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, B; Morejko-Buz, B; Stolarzewicz, A

    2001-08-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to monitor the polymerization of methyl methacrylate. Concentrations of methyl methacrylate in the reaction mixture were determined by use of three calibration methods. Classical quantitative analysis was used to measure the height of the stretching vibration bands of the vinyl group at 1639 cm(-1). A calibration procedure using the considerably higher intensity of the C = O stretching vibration band of the carbonyl ester group at 1725 cm(-1) seemed useful only for high concentrations of methyl methacrylate, i.e. at the beginning of reaction, because this band overlaps that of poly(methyl methacrylate). Use of second-derivative spectra and measuring their values at 1725 cm(-1) enabled estimation of ten times lower concentrations of methyl methacrylate the calibration using the band from the vinyl group. PMID:11569872

  18. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

    1999-01-20

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(Oct.-Dec./98), we have investigated the condensation between methyl propionate and formaldehyde (MP/HCHO=4.5/1) at various reaction temperatures(280-360EC) over 5%, 10%, and 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts. The conversion of HCHO increases with reaction 2 5 2 temperature and niobium loading. MMA+MAA selectivity goes through a maximum with the temperature over both 10% and 20% Nb O /SiO . The selectivities to MMA+MAA are 67.2%, 2 5 2 72.3%and 58.1% at 320EC over 5%, 10%, 20% Nb O /SiO , respectively. However, the 2 5 2 conversion of formaldehyde decreases rapidly with time on stream. The results suggest that silica supported niobium catalysts are active and selective for condensation of MP with HCHO, but deactivation needs to be minimized for the consideration of commercial application. We have preliminarily investigated the partial oxidation of dimethyl ether(DME) over 5% Nb O /SiO catalyst. Reactant gas mixture of 0.1% DME, 0.1% O and balance nitrogen is 2 5 2 2 studied with temperature ranging from 200°C to 500°C. The conversion of DME first increases with temperature reaching an maximum at 400°C then decreases. The selectivity to HCHO also increases with reaction temperature first. But the selectivity to HCHO decreases at temperature above 350

  19. Thiol-ene/methacrylate systems for mechanical damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNair, Olivia; Senyurt, Askim; Wei, Huanyu; Gould, Trent; Piland, Scott; Hoyle, Charles; Savin, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Ternary thiol-ene-methacrylate (TEMA) networks as materials for mechanical energy damping are unique to the sports world. Using a photoinitiation process, TEMA systems are formed via an initial thiol-ene step-growth mechanism along with traditional radical polymerization of acrylate and ene monomers. Final networks have two-part morphologies: acrylate homopolymer sectors imbedded in a multi-component mesh. Several (TEMA) systems have been synthesized and analyzed via thermal and mechanical probing. Initial studies on these ternary systems have shown excellent properties compared to traditional ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVA) copolymers. For example, PEMA networks exhibit glass transition temperatures 33 K higher than EVA, resulting in improved damping at room temperature. This research will help develop relationships between tan delta, glass transition and their effects on mechanical energy damping for ternary (TEMA) systems.

  20. Interaction between N-vinylpyrrolidone and methyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, V. V.; Shtonda, A. V.; Tyurina, T. G.; Bagdasarova, A. R.; Zaitsev, S. Yu.

    2014-04-01

    It is established that the interaction of the isomers of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) leads to the formation of molecular π-H- and H-complexes with energies within the limits of 10.2-13.6 (AM1) or 18.2-24.0 (B3LYP/6-311++G( d)) kJ/mol. The structures of complex-bound molecules are examined with respect to changes in the charges on terminal -C1=C2- groups, the distance between them and atoms in an H-bond, and the presence of combined overlapping molecular orbitals (MOs). The presence of an averaged complex that includes presumably all possible structures and allows us to perform the copolymerization of specified monomers in the absence of an initiator is confirmed by means of UV and NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methacrylic Acid: A Won Challenge.

    PubMed

    Fantin, Marco; Isse, Abdirisak A; Venzo, Alfonso; Gennaro, Armando; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2016-06-15

    Polymerization of acidic monomers is one of the biggest challenges for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). An intramolecular cyclization reaction leading to the loss of the C-X chain-end functionality was found to be the main reason for the partial termination of the growing polymer chains. Three approaches were used to overcome this problem: using Cl as the chain-end halogen, lowering the pH (to 0.9), and increasing polymerization rate. Methacrylic acid (MAA) was polymerized by both electrochemically mediated ATRP and supplemental activator and reducing agent ATRP up to high conversion (>90%), in t ≤ 4 h at 25 °C, using inexpensive and nontoxic reagents (NaCl, diluted HCl, water). Control over molecular weight (MW) dispersity was satisfactory, and MWs were in agreement with theoretical values. The "livingness" of the process was confirmed by an electrochemical switch, used to repeatedly and periodically deactivate/reactivate growing chains. PMID:27244091

  2. Radiation synthesis of nanosilver nanohydrogels of poly(methacrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Gautam, Deepti; Anjum, Sadiya; Saxena, Shalini; Kapil, Arti

    2013-11-01

    Nanosilver nanohydrogels (nSnH) of poly(methacrylic acid) were synthesized and stabilized using gamma irradiation. The main objective of this study was to develop silver nanoparticles and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. Radiation helps in the polymerization, crosslinking and reduction of silver nitrate as well. Highly stable and uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles have been obtained within hydrogel network by water in oil nanoemulsion polymerization and were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. TEM showed almost spherical and uniform distribution of silver nanoparticles through the hydrogel network. The mean size of silver nanoparticles ranging is 10-50 nm. The nanohydrogels showed good swelling in water. Antibacterial studies of nSnH suggest that it can be a good candidate as coating material in biomedical applications.

  3. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest. PMID:23453291

  4. Synthesis of acrylates and Methacrylates from Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-12

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees} C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis step is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. Eastman and Bechtel have also compared the RTI- Eastman-Bechtel three-step methanol route to five other process routes to MMA. The results show that the product MMA can be produced at 520/lb, for a 250 Mlb/year MMA plant, and this product cost is competitive to all other process routes to MMA, except propyne carbonylation. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P tertiary metal oxide catalysts, Nb/Si0{sub 2}, and Ta/Si0{sub 2} catalysts for condensation of propionic anhydride or propionic acid with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst performance. Eastman and Bechtel have used the RTI experimental results of a 20 percent Nb/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, in terms of reactant conversions, MAA selectivities, and MAA yield, for their economic analysis. Recent research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, a better understanding of the acid-base property correlation and enhancing the catalyst lifetime.

  5. Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate From Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Ben W.-L. Jang; Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

    1998-07-27

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(April-June, 1998), RTI has modified the reactor system including a new preheater and new temperature settings for the preheater. Continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid were carried out over 10% Nb O /SiO at 300°C without 2 5 2 interruption. Five activity and four regeneration cycles have been completed without plugging or material balance problems. The results show that 10% Nb O /SiO deactivates slowly with time 2 5 2 but can be regenerated, at least four times, to 100% of its original activity with 2% O in nitrogen 2 at 400°C. The cycles continue with consistent 90-95% of carbon balance. The reaction is scheduled to complete with 6 activity cycles and 5 regenerations. Used catalysts will be analyzed with TGA and XPS to determine bulk and surface coke content and coke properties. RTI will start the investigation of effects of propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts.

  6. Management of complication after breast augmentation with methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Grella, Roberto; Almadori, Aurora; D’Ari, Antonio; Romanucci, Vincenza; D’Andrea, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several alloplastic biomaterials are available for injection to the breast, nevertheless not all of them are approved for biomedical use. Although in North America and Western Europe experience with synthetic biomaterials for breast augmentation is very limited, migratory streams might expose physicians worldwide to manage the related complications of these procedures. The aim of this study was to share with other surgeons the case of a patient presenting complications after breast augmentation with an unknown synthetic substance containing methacrylate. Presentation of case A 33-years old Asian woman presented to our Institution with breast deformities, lumps and chest pain. The patient referred previous breast injection “with hospital fat” performed in China six years before. She was not aware about the details of the procedure, and language barriers limited communication. Clinical examination and ultrasounds revealed the irregular distribution of an unknown substance in both breasts. The material was surgically removed and replaced in the same session with polyurethane implants. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of methacrylate. Discussion With a growing demand for non-invasive cosmetic surgery, has been reported a growing population of untrained and unlicensed personnel performing cosmetic surgery in many countries where there are no laws that restrict the use of cosmetic procedures to physicians with appropriate training and with approved materials. Surgical removal of this substances can be extremely challenging and an open procedure with surgical debridement is recommended. Conclusion Breast augmentation with non-absorbable biomaterials can lead to severe complications, in particular for patients intending to breastfeed. PMID:26298244

  7. Functional Human Vascular Network Generated in Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Methacrylate Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Qi, Hao; Yang, Yunzhi; Bae, Hojae; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-05-23

    The generation of functional, 3D vascular networks is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of many future tissue engineering-based therapies. Current approaches in vascular network bioengineering are largely carried out using natural hydrogels as embedding scaffolds. However, most natural hydrogels present a poor mechanical stability and a suboptimal durability, which are critical limitations that hamper their widespread applicability. The search for improved hydrogels has become a priority in tissue engineering research. Here, the suitability of a photopolymerizable gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel to support human progenitor cell-based formation of vascular networks is demonstrated. Using GelMA as the embedding scaffold, it is shown that 3D constructs containing human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) generate extensive capillary-like networks in vitro. These vascular structures contain distinct lumens that are formed by the fusion of ECFC intracellular vacuoles in a process of vascular morphogenesis. The process of vascular network formation is dependent on the presence of MSCs, which differentiate into perivascular cells occupying abluminal positions within the network. Importantly, it is shown that implantation of cell-laden GelMA hydrogels into immunodeficient mice results in a rapid formation of functional anastomoses between the bioengineered human vascular network and the mouse vasculature. Furthermore, it is shown that the degree of methacrylation of the GelMA can be used to modulate the cellular behavior and the extent of vascular network formation both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that GelMA hydrogels can be used for biomedical applications that require the formation of microvascular networks, including the development of complex engineered tissues. PMID:22907987

  8. Functional Human Vascular Network Generated in Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Methacrylate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Qi, Hao; Yang, Yunzhi; Bae, Hojae

    2012-01-01

    The generation of functional, 3D vascular networks is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of many future tissue engineering-based therapies. Current approaches in vascular network bioengineering are largely carried out using natural hydrogels as embedding scaffolds. However, most natural hydrogels present a poor mechanical stability and a suboptimal durability, which are critical limitations that hamper their widespread applicability. The search for improved hydrogels has become a priority in tissue engineering research. Here, the suitability of a photopolymerizable gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel to support human progenitor cell-based formation of vascular networks is demonstrated. Using GelMA as the embedding scaffold, it is shown that 3D constructs containing human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) generate extensive capillary-like networks in vitro. These vascular structures contain distinct lumens that are formed by the fusion of ECFC intracellular vacuoles in a process of vascular morphogenesis. The process of vascular network formation is dependent on the presence of MSCs, which differentiate into perivascular cells occupying abluminal positions within the network. Importantly, it is shown that implantation of cell-laden GelMA hydrogels into immunodeficient mice results in a rapid formation of functional anastomoses between the bioengineered human vascular network and the mouse vasculature. Furthermore, it is shown that the degree of methacrylation of the GelMA can be used to modulate the cellular behavior and the extent of vascular network formation both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that GelMA hydrogels can be used for biomedical applications that require the formation of microvascular networks, including the development of complex engineered tissues. PMID:22907987

  9. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of divalent europium-poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, N.; Nakamura, H.; Mishima, T.; Shiokawa, J.; Adachi, G. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on divalent europium complexes with poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure)s, poly(crown ether)s, prepared and their fluorescence properties studied. The polymers used were poly(15-crown-5-methyl methacrylate) (PMA15C5), copoly(15- crown-5-methyl methacrylate-X) (copoly(MA15C5-X)); (X = MMA, EMA, BMA, 2-methoxyethyl methacrylate (MAGI) 3,6,9,12,15- pentaoxahexadecyl methacrylate (MAG5)), poly(18-crown-6- methyl methacrylate) (PMA18C6), and copoly(18-crown-6-methyl methacrylate-MMA) (copoly(MA18C6-MMA)), which were obtained by bulk polymerization. The fluorescence properties of Eu{sup 2+} polymers activated by complexing Eu{sup 2+} ions with crown ether groups were measured in powder form. The Eu{sup 2+}-poly (crown ether)s irradiated by UV light generally gave blue bright emission in the region of 420-465 nm. It was Eu{sup 2+}-copoly(Ma15C5-X); (X = MMA, EMA, and MAG1) that showed the largest emission intensity among the Eu{sup 2+} polymers, and its emission intensity was ca. 20% of that for CaWO{sub 4}:Pb (NBS1026) whose quantum efficiency is about 76%. The intensities of emission for the Eu{sup 2+} polymers containing 15-crown-5 were much larger than that for the ones containing 18-crown-6.

  10. Manufacture of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) hydrogel tubes for use as nerve guidance channels.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Paul D; Flynn, Lauren; Shoichet, Molly S

    2002-09-01

    Hydrogel tubes of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA-co-MMA)) made by liquid-liquid centrifugal casting are being investigated as potential nerve guidance channels in the central nervous system. An important criterion for the nerve guidance channel is that its mechanical properties are similar to those of the spinal cord, where it will be implanted. The formulated p(HEMA-co-MMA) tubes are soft and flexible, consisting of a gel-like outer layer, and an interconnected macroporous, inner layer. The relative thickness of the gel phase to macroporous phase is controlled by the formulation chemistry, and specifically by the ratio of co-monomers, HEMA and MMA. By varying the surface chemistry of the mold within which the tubes are synthesized, tubes were prepared with either a "cracked" or a smooth outer morphology. Tubes with the cracked outer morphology had periodic channels that traversed the wall of the tube, which resulted in a lower modulus than smooth outer morphology tubes, yet likely greater diffusive permeability. For tubes (and not rods) to be formed, phase separation must precede gelation as is detailed in a formulation phase diagram for HEMA, MMA and water. The tensile elastic modulus of p(HEMA-co-MMA) tubes reflected the formulation chemistry, with greater moduli (up to 400 kPa) recorded for tubes having 10 wt% MMA. The p(HEMA-co-MMA) tubes therefore had similar mechanical properties to those of the spinal cord, which has a reported elastic modulus range between 200 and 600 kPa. PMID:12164188

  11. A poly(alkyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene-vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride) monolithic column for solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Lirio, Stephen; Yang, Yicong; Wu, Lin-Tai; Hsiao, Shu-Ying; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2015-05-22

    In this study, an organic polymer monolithic columns, which were prepared via in situ polymerization of alkyl methacrylate-ester (AMA), divinylbenzene (DVB) and vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride (VBTA, charged monomer), were developed as adsorbent for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Different parameters affecting the extraction efficiency for nine (9) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the ratio of the stearyl methacrylate (SMA) to DVB monomer, column length, sample pH, extraction flow rate and desorption solvent were investigated to obtain the optimal SPME condition. Also, the permeability for each poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolithic column was investigated by adding porogenic solvent (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG). Using the optimized condition, a series of AMA-based poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolith columns were developed to determine the effect the extraction efficiency of NSAIDs by varying the alkyl chain length of the methacrylate ester (methyl-, butyl-, octyl-, or lauryl-methacrylate; (MMA, BMA, OMA, LMA)). Results showed that decreasing the AMA chain length increases the extraction efficiency of some NSAIDs (i.e. sulindac (sul), naproxen (nap), ketoprofen (ket) and indomethacin (idm)). Among the poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolithic columns, poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) showed a highly repeatable extraction efficiency for NSAIDs with recoveries ranging from 85.0 to 100.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 6.8% (n=3). The poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) can also be reused for at least 50 times without any significant effect in extraction efficiency for NSAIDs. Finally, using the established conditions, the poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) was used to extract trace-level NSAIDs (100μgL(-1)) in river water with good recoveries ranging from 75.8 to 90.8% (RSD<14.9%). PMID:25869799

  12. Magnetic hydrophilic methacrylate-based polymer microspheres designed for polymerase chain reactions applications.

    PubMed

    Spanová, Alena; Horák, Daniel; Soudková, Eva; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2004-02-01

    Magnetic hydrophilic non-porous P(HEMA-co-EDMA), P(HEMA-co-GMA) and PGMA microspheres were prepared by dispersion (co)polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) or glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) in the presence of several kinds of magnetite. It was found that some components used in the preparation of magnetic carriers interfered with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Influence of non-magnetic and magnetic microspheres, including magnetite nanoparticles and various components used in their synthesis, on the PCR course was thus investigated. DNA isolated from bacterial cells of Bifidobacterium longum was used in PCR evaluation of non-interfering magnetic microspheres. The method enabled verification of the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles in the particular methacrylate-based polymer microspheres and evaluation of suitability of their application in PCR. Preferably, electrostatically stabilized colloidal magnetite (ferrofluid) should be used in the design of new magnetic methacrylate-based microspheres by dispersion polymerization. PMID:14698232

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in an adhesive on an electrosurgical earthing plate.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Alanko, K

    1998-01-01

    A highly (meth)acrylate-allergic patient underwent surgery because of nodular struma. Three days after her operation she developed an itching dermatitis on her left thigh. She came to our attention 18 days after the operation, because of an oozing, highly pruritic dermatitis, 8 x 19 cm in width on her left thigh, at the site where an electrosurgical earthing plate had been used during the surgery. It was revealed that the pressure-sensitive adhesive of the pad contained 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) to which the patient earlier had had an allergic patch test reaction. The patient was negative on patch testing to other (meth)acrylates present in the pad. Patients should be questioned about possible methacrylate sensitivity before methacrylate-containing electrosurgical earthing plates are used during surgery. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylic adhesives is briefly reviewed. PMID:9854170

  14. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

    1998-10-20

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (July-September, 1998), the project team has completed the continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid over 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. Six activity and five regeneration cycles have been completed. The results show that 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} deactivates slowly with time but can be regenerated to its original activity with 2% O{sub 2} in nitrogen over night at 400 C. We have investigated the effects of regeneration, propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio (PA/HCHO = 4.5/1 to 1.5/1) and reaction temperature(280-300 C) on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. The regeneration effect on 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} is similar to the effect on 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. The regeneration can bring the deactivated catalyst to its original activity. However, the selectivity to MAA decreases with regeneration while the selectivity to DEK and CO{sub 2} increases. When PA/HCHO ratio is decreased from 4.5/1 to 2.25/1 then to 1.5/1 at 300 C the MAA yield decreases but the MAA selectivity first increases then decreases. Decreasing the reaction temperature from 300 C to 280 C decreases the MAA yield from 39.5% to 30.7% but increases the MAA selectivity from 73.7% to 82.2%. The

  15. Synthesis of Acrylates and Methacrylates from Coal-Derived Syngas.

    SciTech Connect

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.; Tam, S.S.

    1997-10-17

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy/Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC). This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, RTI carried out activity tests on a pure (99 percent) Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst, received from Alfa Aesar, under the following experimental conditions: T=300 C; P=4 atm, 72:38:16:4:220 mmol/h, PA:H{sub 2}0:HCHO:CH{sub 3}0H:N{sub 2}; 5-g catalyst charge. For the pure material, the MAA yields (based on HCHO and PA) were at 8.8 and 1.5 percent, clearly inferior compared to those for a 10-percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst (20.1 and 4.5 percent). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of pure Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 20-percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} that while pure Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is very highly crystalline, Si0{sub 2} support for an amorphous nature of the 20 percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst the last quarter, RTI also began research on the use of dimethyl ether (DME), product of methanol dehydrocondensation, as an alternate feedstock in MMA synthesis. As a result, formaldehyde is generated either externally or in situ, from DME, in the process envisaged in the contract extension. The initial work on the DME extension of the contract focuses on a tradeoff analysis that will include a preliminary economic analysis of the DME and formaldehyde routes and catalyst synthesis and testing for DME partial oxidation and condensation reactions. Literature guides exist for DME partial oxidation catalysts; however, there are no precedent studies on catalyst development for DME-methyl propionate (MP) condensation reactions, thereby making DME-MP reaction studies a

  16. Novel catalysts for the environmentally friendly synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    The development of a process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas can alleviate the environmental hazards associated with the current commercial MMA technology, the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. A three-step syngas-based process consisted of synthesis of a propionic acid, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) to form MMA. The first two steps, propionic acid synthesis and condensation, are discussed here. The low-temperature, low-pressure process for single-step hydrocarbonylation of ethylene to propionic acid is carried out using a homogeneous iodine-promoted Mo(CO){sub 6} catalyst at pressures (30--70 atm) and temperatures (150--200 C) lower than those reported for other catalysts. Mechanistic investigations suggest that catalysis is initiated by a rate-limiting CO dissociation from Mo(CO){sub 6}. This dissociation appears to be followed by an inner electron-transfer process of an I atom from EtI to the coordinately unsaturated Mo(CO){sub 5}. This homogeneous catalyst for propionate synthesis represents the first case of an efficient carbonylation process based on Cr group metals. The condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid is carried out by acid-base bifunctional catalysts. As a result of screening over 80 catalytic materials, group V metals supported on an amorphous silica are found to be most effective. A 20% Nb/SiO{sub 2} catalyst appears to be the most active and stable catalyst thus far. Preliminary relations among the reaction yield and catalyst properties indicate that a high surface area and a low overall surface acidity (<50 = mol of NH{sub 3}/g), with a high proportion of the acidity being weak (<350 C desorption of NH{sub 3}), are desirable. Long-term deactivation of V-Si-P, Nb-Si, and Ta-Si catalysts suggests that carbon deposition is the primary cause for activity decay, and the catalyst activity is partially restorable by oxidative regeneration.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi

    1999-07-19

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. During the April-June quarter(04-06/99) the first in-situ formaldehyde generation from DME and condensation with methyl propionate is demonstrated and the results are summarized. The supported niobium catalyst shows better condensation activity, but supported tungsten catalyst has higher formaldehyde selectivity. The project team has also completed a 200-hour long term test of PA-HCHO condensation over 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. Three activity cycles and two regeneration cycles were carried out. 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} showed similar MAA yields as 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. However, the deactivation appears to be slower with 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} than 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. An detailed economic analysis of PA-HCHO condensation process for a 250 million lb/yr MMA plant is currently studied by Bechtel. Using the Amoco data-based azeotropic distillation model as the basis, an ASPEN flow sheet model was constructed to simulate the formaldehyde and propionic acid condensation processing section based on RTI's design data. The RTI MAA effluent azeotropic distillation column was found to be much more difficult to converge. The presence of non-condensible gases along with the byproduct DEK (both of which were not presented in

  18. Tissue reaction to methyl methacrylate monomer. A comparative study in the rabbit's ear on the toxicity of methyl methacrylate monomer of varying composition.

    PubMed

    Linder, L

    1976-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate if a bone cement monomer with a high concentration of accelerator (N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine) is more toxic than a methyl methacrylate monomer, free from accelerator. 1) No difference in the acute local toxicity between CMW, Simplex-P and pure methyl methacrylate monomer was seen. 2) By gas chromatography. N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine was shown to be water soluble to a small extent. Any bone cement monomer in current use can be fully dissolved in saline to a concentration of about 1 per cent. PMID:1266590

  19. Fabrication of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8-methacrylate monolith composite capillary columns for fast gas chromatographic separation of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Kareem; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed Yacine; Aqel, Ahmad; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    A composite zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) with a butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic capillary column (33.5cm long×250μm i.d.) was fabricated to enhance the separation efficiency of methacrylate monoliths toward small molecules using conventional low-pressure gas chromatography in comparison with a neat butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic capillary column (33.5cm long×250μm i.d.). The addition of 10mgmL(-1) ZIF-8 micro-particles increased the BET surface area of BuMA-co-EDMA by 3.4-fold. A fast separation of five linear alkanes in 36s with high resolution (Rs≥1.3) was performed using temperature program. Isothermal separation of the same sample also showed a high efficiency (3315platesm(-1) for octane) at 0.89min. Moreover, the column was able to separate skeletal isomers, such as iso-octane/octane and 2-methyl octane/nonane. In addition, an iso-butane/iso-butylene gas mixture was separated at ambient temperature. Comparison with an open tubular TR-5MS column (30m long×250μm i.d.) revealed the superiority of the composite column in separating the five-membered linear alkane mixture with 4-5 times increase in efficiency and a total separation time of 0.89min instead of 4.67min. A paint thinner sample was fully separated using the composite column in 2.43min with a good resolution (Rs≥0.89). The perfect combination between the polymeric monolith, with its high permeability, and ZIF-8, with its high surface area and flexible 0.34nm pore openings, led to the fast separation of small molecules with high efficiency and opened a new horizon in GC applications. PMID:26141277

  20. Control of cell adhesion on poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Patel, Shyam; Thakar, Rahul G; Wong, Josh; McLeod, Stephen D; Li, Song

    2006-05-01

    Keratoprostheses have been constructed from a wide variety of transparent materials, including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). However, the success of keratoprosthesis has been plagued by numerous shortcomings that include the weakening of the implant-host interface due to weak cell adhesion and opaque fibrous membrane formation over the inner surface of the implant due to fibroblast attachment. An effective solution requires a surface modification that would selectively allow enhanced cell attachment at the implant-host interface and reduced cell attachment over the interior surface of the implant. Here, we have developed a novel and simple peptide conjugation scheme to modify PMMA surfaces, which allowed for region-specific control of cell adhesion. This method uses di-amino-PEG, which can be grafted onto PMMA using hydrolysis or aminolysis method. PEG can resist cell adhesion and protein adsorption. The functionalization of grafted di-amino-PEG molecules with RGD peptide not only restored cell adhesion to the surfaces, but also enhanced cell attachment and spreading as compared to untreated PMMA surfaces. Long-term cell migration and micropatterning studies clearly indicated that PEG-PMMA surfaces with and without RGD conjugation can be used to differentiate cell adhesion and control cell attachment spatially on PMMA, which will have potential applications in the modification of keratoprostheses. PMID:16439014

  1. Methyl methacrylate and respiratory sensitization: A Critical review

    PubMed Central

    Borak, Jonathan; Fields, Cheryl; Andrews, Larry S; Pemberton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a respiratory irritant and dermal sensitizer that has been associated with occupational asthma in a small number of case reports. Those reports have raised concern that it might be a respiratory sensitizer. To better understand that possibility, we reviewed the in silico, in chemico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology literature, and also epidemiologic and occupational medicine reports related to the respiratory effects of MMA. Numerous in silico and in chemico studies indicate that MMA is unlikely to be a respiratory sensitizer. The few in vitro studies suggest that MMA has generally weak effects. In vivo studies have documented contact skin sensitization, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and weakly positive responses on local lymph node assay; guinea pig and mouse inhalation sensitization tests have not been performed. Cohort and cross-sectional worker studies reported irritation of eyes, nose, and upper respiratory tract associated with short-term peaks exposures, but little evidence for respiratory sensitization or asthma. Nineteen case reports described asthma, laryngitis, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis in MMA-exposed workers; however, exposures were either not well described or involved mixtures containing more reactive respiratory sensitizers and irritants.The weight of evidence, both experimental and observational, argues that MMA is not a respiratory sensitizer. PMID:21401327

  2. Purification of large plasmids with methacrylate monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Smrekar, Franci; Cerne, Jasmina; Raspor, Peter; Modic, Martina; Krgovic, Danijela; Strancar, Ales; Podgornik, Ales

    2009-08-01

    The rapid evolution of gene therapy and DNA vaccines results in an increasing interest in producing large quantities of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA. Most current clinical trials involve plasmids of 10 kb or smaller in size, however, future requirements for multigene vectors including extensive control regions may require the production of larger plasmids, e. g., 20 kb and bigger. The objective of this study was to examine certain process conditions for purification of large plasmids with the size of up to 93 kb. Since there is a lack of knowledge about production and purification of bigger plasmid DNA, cell lysis and storage conditions were investigated. The impact of chromatographic system and methacrylate monolithic column on the degradation of plasmid molecules under nonbinding conditions at different flow rates was studied. Furthermore, capacity measurements varying salt concentration in loading buffer were performed and the capacities up to 13 mg of plasmid per mL of the monolithic column were obtained. The capacity flow independence in the range from 130 to 370 cm/h was observed. Using high resolution monolithic column the separation of linear and supercoiled isoforms of large plasmids was obtained. Last but not least, since the baseline separation of RNA and pDNA was achieved, the one step purification on larger CIM DEAE 8 mL tube monolithic column was performed and the fractions were analyzed by CIM analytical monolithic columns. PMID:19598166

  3. Manufacture of poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres using membrane emulsification.

    PubMed

    Bux, Jaiyana; Manga, Mohamed S; Hunter, Timothy N; Biggs, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Accurate control of particle size at relatively narrow polydispersity remains a key challenge in the production of synthetic polymer particles at scale. A cross-flow membrane emulsification (XME) technique was used here in the preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres at a 1-10 l h(-1) scale, to demonstrate its application for such a manufacturing challenge. XME technology has previously been shown to provide good control over emulsion droplet sizes with careful choice of the operating conditions. We demonstrate here that, for an appropriate formulation, equivalent control can be gained for a precursor emulsion in a batch suspension polymerization process. We report here the influence of key parameters on the emulsification process; we also demonstrate the close correlation in size between the precursor emulsion and the final polymer particles. Two types of polymer particle were produced in this work: a solid microsphere and an oil-filled matrix microcapsule.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298430

  4. Nonsolvents-induced swelling of poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shundo, Atsuomi; Hori, Koichiro; Penaloza, David P; Yoshihiro, Kazuki; Annaka, Masahiko; Tanaka, Keiji

    2013-10-21

    Polymer nanoparticles have been used in a wide variety of applications. In most of these applications, they are generally dispersed in a non-solvent. However, the effect of the non-solvent on the structure, physical properties and function of the nanoparticles has not yet ever taken into account. In this study, monodispersed poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles were prepared by a surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The PMMA nanoparticles were dispersed in water and in methanol, both typical non-solvents for PMMA, so that we could discuss the effect of the non-solvent on the nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the hydrodynamic radius of the PMMA nanoparticles in methanol was larger than the same PMMA dispersed in water. Their DLS values were also larger than the radius of the nanoparticles measured by atomic force microscopy. When pyrene was dispersed in methanol with the PMMA nanoparticles, it was incorporated into the nanoparticles. These results clearly indicate that non-solvent molecules can be sorbed into polymer nanoparticles because the area of the interface, where polymer segments might be dissolved into liquid phases, as the total volume is quite larger for such nanoparticles. Therefore, based on our findings, it can be arguably established that the present assumption for a polymer not to be swollen in its non-solvent is not necessarily true. PMID:23955567

  5. Adsorption of paraquat using methacrylic acid-modified rice husk.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Tong; Pan, Ting-Chung

    2007-12-01

    This work investigates the adsorption of paraquat from aqueous medium using a methacrylic acid (MAA)-modified rice husk. The carboxyl groups were chemically bound to the surface of the rice husk by graft copolymerization using Fenton's reagent as a redox initiator. The graft copolymerization was examined to determine the H(2)O(2) concentration and the amount of MAA monomer used. FT-IR spectra confirmed the presence of carbonyl groups on the structural units of the rice husk derivative. The MAA-modified rice husks were hydrolyzed to sodium salt and used to adsorb paraquat. The adsorption was rapid in the first few minutes and quickly reached equilibrium. Equilibrium adsorption data are more consistent with the Langmuir isotherm equation than with the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of modified rice husks was 317.7mg/g-adsorbent. This value clearly exceeds the 60mg/g of Fuller's earth and the 90mg/g of activated carbon, which are the most commonly used binding agents for paraquat. PMID:17303413

  6. Directed endothelial cell morphogenesis in micropatterned gelatin methacrylate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Eshak, Nouran; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Annabi, Nasim; Castello, Marco; Kim, Keekyoung; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Edalat, Faramarz; Bae, Hojae; Yang, Yunzhi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Engineering of organized vasculature is a crucial step in the development of functional and clinically relevant tissue constructs. A number of previous techniques have been proposed to spatially regulate the distribution of angiogenic biomolecules and vascular cells within biomaterial matrices to promote vascularization. Most of these approaches have been limited to two-dimensional (2D) micropatterned features or have resulted in formation of random vasculature within three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. In this study, we investigate 3D endothelial cord formation within micropatterned gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels with varying geometrical features (50-150 μm height). We demonstrated the significant dependence of endothelial cells proliferation, alignment and cord formation on geometrical dimensions of the patterned features. The cells were able to align and organize within the micropatterned constructs and assemble to form cord structures with organized actin fibers and circular/elliptical cross-sections. The inner layer of the cord structure was filled with gel showing that the micropatterned hydrogel constructs guided the assembly of endothelial cells into cord structures. Notably, the endothelial cords were retained within the hydrogel microconstructs for all geometries after two weeks of culture; however, only the 100 μm-high constructs provided the optimal microenvironment for the formation of circular and stable cord structures. Our findings suggest that endothelial cord formation is a preceding step to tubulogenesis and the proposed system can be used to develop organized vasculature for engineered tissue constructs. PMID:23018132

  7. Directed Endothelial Cell Morphogenesis in Micropatterned Gelatin Methacrylate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Eshak, Nouran; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Annabi, Nasim; Castello, Marco; Kim, Keekyoung; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Edalat, Faramarz; Bae, Hojae; Yang, Yunzhi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Engineering of organized vasculature is a crucial step in the development of functional and clinically relevant tissue constructs. A number of previous techniques have been proposed to spatially regulate the distribution of angiogenic biomolecules and vascular cells within biomaterial matrices to promote vascularization. Most of these approaches have been limited to two-dimensional (2D) micropatterned features or have resulted in formation of random vasculature within three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. In this study, we investigate 3D endothelial cord formation within micropatterned gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels with varying geometrical features (50–150 µm height). We demonstrated the significance dependence of endothelial cells proliferation, alignment and cord formation on geometrical dimensions of the patterned features. The cells were able to align and organize within the micropatterned constructs and assemble to form cord structures with organized actin fibers and circular/elliptical cross-sections. The inner layer of the cord structure was filled with gel showing that the micropatterned hydrogel constructs guided the assembly of endothelial cells into cord structures. Notably, the endothelial cords were retained within the hydrogel microconstructs for all geometries after two weeks of culture; however, only the 100 µm-high constructs provided the optimal microenvironment for the formation of circular and stable cord structures. Our findings suggest that endothelial cord formation is a preceding step to tubulogenesis and the proposed system can be used to develop organized vasculature for engineered tissue constructs. PMID:23018132

  8. Characterization of methacrylate chromatographic monoliths bearing affinity ligands.

    PubMed

    Černigoj, Urh; Vidic, Urška; Nemec, Blaž; Gašperšič, Jernej; Vidič, Jana; Lendero Krajnc, Nika; Štrancar, Aleš; Podgornik, Aleš

    2016-09-16

    We investigated effect of immobilization procedure and monolith structure on chromatographic performance of methacrylate monoliths bearing affinity ligands. Monoliths of different pore size and various affinity ligands were prepared and characterized using physical and chromatographic methods. When testing protein A monoliths with different protein A ligand densities, a significant nonlinear effect of ligand density on dynamic binding capacity (DBC) for IgG was obtained and accurately described by Langmuir isotherm curve enabling estimation of protein A utilization as a function of ligand density. Maximal IgG binding capacity was found to be at least 12mg/mL exceeding theoretical monolayer adsorption value of 7.8mg/mL assuming hexagonal packing and IgG hydrodynamic diameter of 11nm. Observed discrepancy was explained by shrinkage of IgG during adsorption on protein A experimentally determined through calculated adsorbed IgG layer thickness of 5.4nm from pressure drop data. For monoliths with different pore size maximal immobilized densities of protein A as well as IgG dynamic capacity linearly correlates with monolith surface area indicating constant ligand utilization. Finally, IgGs toward different plasma proteins were immobilized via the hydrazide coupling chemistry to provide oriented immobilization. DBC was found to be flow independent and was increasing with the size of bound protein. Despite DBC was lower than IgG capacity to immobilized protein A, ligand utilization was higher. PMID:27554023

  9. IR laser ablation of doped poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, S.; Oujja, M.; Rebollar, E.; Walczak, M.; Díaz, L.; Santos, M.; Castillejo, M.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the TEA CO 2 laser ablation of films of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, with average MW 2.5, 120 and 996 kDa doped with photosensitive compounds iodo-naphthalene (NapI) and iodo-phenanthrene (PhenI) by examining the induced morphological and physicochemical modifications. The films casted on CaF 2 substrates were irradiated with a pulsed CO 2 laser (10P(20) line at 10.59 μm) in resonance with vibrational modes of PMMA and of the dopants at fluences up to 6 J/cm 2. Laser induced fluorescence probing of photoproducts in a pump and probe configuration is carried out at 266 nm. Formation of naphthalene (NapH) and phenanthrene (PhenH) is observed in NapI and PhenI doped PMMA, respectively, with relatively higher yields in high MW polymer, in similarity with results obtained previously upon irradiation in the UV at 248 nm. Above threshold, formation of photoproducts is nearly complete after 200 ms. As established via optical microscopy, bubbles are formed in the irradiated areas with sizes that depend on polymer MW and filaments are observed to be ejected out of the irradiated volume in the samples made with high MW polymer. The implications of these results for the mechanisms of polymer IR laser ablation are discussed and compared with UV range studies.

  10. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Brushes as Peptide/Protein Microarray Substrate for Improving Protein Binding and Functionality.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Gao, Jiaxue; Liu, Xia; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-04-27

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) polymer-brush substrate for protein and peptide microarray fabrication, and this substrate was facilely prepared by copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomers via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on a glass slide. The performance of obtained poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (P(GMA-HEMA)) brush substrate was assessed by binding of human IgG with rabbit antihuman IgG antibodies on a protein microarray and by the determination of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities on a peptide microarray. The P(GMA-HEMA) brush substrate exhibited higher immobilization capacities for proteins and peptides than those of a two-dimensional (2D) planar epoxy slide. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the P(GMA-HEMA) brush-based microarray on rabbit antihuman IgG antibody detection was much higher than that of its 2D counterpart. The enzyme activities of MMPs were determined specifically with a low detection limit of 6.0 pg mL(-1) for MMP-2 and 5.7 pg mL(-1) for MMP-9. By taking advantage of the biocompatibility of PHEMA, the P(GMA-HEMA) brush-based peptide microarray was also employed to evaluate the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by cells cultured off the chip or directly on the chip, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:27049528

  11. Surface modification of silk fibroin fibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tributylsilyl methacrylate) via RAFT polymerization for marine antifouling applications.

    PubMed

    Buga, Mihaela-Ramona; Zaharia, Cătălin; Bălan, Mihai; Bressy, Christine; Ziarelli, Fabio; Margaillan, André

    2015-06-01

    In this study, silk fibroin surface containing hydroxyl and aminogroups was firstly modified using a polymerizable coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS), in order to induce vinyl groups onto the fiber surface. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and tributylsilyl methacrylate (TBSiMA) through the immobilized vinyl bond on the silk fibroin surface in the presence of 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain-transfer agent and 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator was conducted in toluene solution at 70°C for 24h. The structure and properties of the modified fiber were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, (13)C, (29)Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confirming the presence of the coupling molecule and the methacrylate groups onto the silk fibroin fiber surface. Molecular weight distributions were assessed by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC) in order to verify the livingness of the polymerization. PMID:25842130

  12. Synthesis of three different galactose-based methacrylate monomers for the production of sugar-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Desport, Jessica S; Mantione, Daniele; Moreno, Mónica; Sardón, Haritz; Barandiaran, María J; Mecerreyes, David

    2016-09-01

    Glycopolymers, synthetic sugar-containing macromolecules, are attracting ever-increasing interest from the chemistry community. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is an important building block for the synthesis of sugar based methacrylate monomers and polymers. Normally, glycidyl methacrylate shows some advantages such as reactivity against nucleophiles or milder synthetic conditions such as other reactive methacrylate monomers. However, condensation reactions of glycidyl methacrylate with for instance protected galactose monomer leads to a mixture of two products due to a strong competition between the two possible pathways: epoxide ring opening or transesterification. In this paper, we propose two alternative routes to synthesize regiospecific galactose-based methacrylate monomers using the epoxy-ring opening reaction. In the first alternative route, the protected galactose is first oxidized to the acid in order to make it more reactive against the epoxide of GMA. In the second route, the protected sugar was first treated with epichlorohydrin followed by the epoxy ring opening reaction with methacrylic acid, to create an identical analogue of the ring-opening product of GMA. These two monomers were polymerized using conventional radical polymerization and were compared to the previously known galactose-methacrylate one. The new polymers show similar thermal stability but lower glass transition temperature (Tg) with respect to the known galactose methacrylate polymer. PMID:27394038

  13. Can quaternary ammonium methacrylates inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins?

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Carrilho, Marcela; Tersariol, Ivarne L.; Nascimento, Fabio D.; Imazato, Satoshi; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dentin matrices release ICTP and CTX fragments during collagen degradation. ICTP fragments are known to be produced by MMPs. CTX fragments are thought to come from cathepsin K activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if quaternary methacrylates (QAMs) can inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins. Methods Dentin beams were demineralizated, and dried to constant weight. Beams were incubated with rh-cathepsin B, K, L or S for 24 h at pH 7.4 to identify which cathepsins release CTX at neutral pH. Beams were dipped in ATA, an antimicrobial QAM to determine if it can inhibit dentin matrix proteases. Other beams were dipped in another QAM (MDPB) to determine if it produced similar inhibition of dentin proteases. Results Only beams incubated with cathepsin K lost more dry mass than the controls and released CTX. Dentin beams dipped in ATA and incubated for 1 week at pH 7.4, showed a concentration-dependent reduction in weight-loss. There was no change in ICTP release from control values, meaning that ATA did not inhibit MMPs. Media concentrations of CTX fell significantly at 15 wt% ATA indicating that ATA inhibits capthesins. Beams dipped in increasing concentrations of MDPB lost progressively less mass, showing that MDPB is a protease-inhibitor. ICTP released from controls or beams exposed to low concentrations were the same, while 5 or 10% MDPB significantly lowered ICTP production. CTX levels were strongly inhibited by 2.5–10% MDPB, indicating that MDPB is a potent inhibitor of both MMPs and cathepsin K. Significance CTX seems to be released from dentin matrix only by cathepsin K. MMPs and cathepsin K and B may all contribute to matrix degradation. PMID:25467953

  14. Dispersion of luminescent nanoparticles in different derivatives of poly(ethyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Davion, B; Delhorbe, V; Péralta, S P; Goubard, F; Vidal, F

    2011-04-01

    Gd2O3:Tb(5%) nanoparticles were prepared via the polyol route and dispersed without any stabilizer in several ethyl methacrylate derivatives matrices such as poly(ethyl methacrylate), poly(2-methoxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). Nanocomposites were obtained via free-radical polymerization of methacrylic monomers with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and colloidal solution of Gd2O3:Tb(5%) nanoparticles. Best results are obtained with PHEMA in which the dispersed Gd2O3:Tb(5%) nanoparticles are spherical with a mean diameter of 15 nm, as measured by TEM. The obtained solid Gd2O3:Tb(5%)/PHEMA nanocomposites are highly transparent (in the visible spectral range) and exhibit characteristic photoluminescence of Tb3+ 5D4-7F(J) (J = 6-3), with 5D4-7F5 strong green emission at 536 nm upon UV excitation. The nanoparticles and nanocomposites have been well characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV/Vis transmission spectra, photoluminescence excitation, and emission spectra. PMID:21776688

  15. Mechanical Properties of Surface-Charged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) as Denture Resins

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang E.; Chao, Maggie; Raj, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of a new surface-modified denture resin for its suitability as denture base material. This experimental resin is made by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA) to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to produce a negative charge. Four experimental groups consisted of Orthodontic Dental Resin (DENTSPLY Caulk) as a control and three groups of modified PMMA (mPMMA) produced at differing ratios of methacrylic acid (5 : 95, 10 : 90, and 20 : 80 MA : MMA). A 3-point flexural test using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp.) measured force-deflection curves and a complete stress versus strain history to calculate the transverse strength, transverse deflection, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe Post-test were performed on the data. Resins with increased methacrylic acid content exhibited lower strength values for the measured physical properties. The most significant decrease occurred as the methacrylic acid content was increased to 20% mPMMA. No significant differences at P < .05 were found in all parameters tested between the Control and 5% mPMMA. PMID:20339462

  16. Conversion of (Meth)acrylic acids to methane granular sludge: Initiation by specific anerobic microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Shtarkman, N.B.; Obraztova, A.Y.; Laurinavichyus, K.S.; Galushko, A.S.; Akimenko, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The role of a specific anaerobic microflora in the initiation of degradation of (meth)acrylic acids to methane by granular sludge from a UASB reactor was investigated. Associations of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the anaerobic sludge, which was used for a long time for treatment of wastewater from (meth)acrylate production, were able to realize the initial stage of (meth)acrylic acid decomposition, i.e., a conversion of acrylic and methacrylic acids to propionic and isobutyric acids, respectively. When added to granules, these association played a role of an {open_quotes}initiator{close_quotes} of the degradation process, which was then continued by the granular sludge microflora utilizing propionate and isobutyrate. Some characteristics of the granules adapted to propionate or isobutyrate are presented. The rates of propionate and isobutyrate consumption by adapted granules is, respectively, 21 and 53 times higher than the values obtained for nonadapted granules. A combined use of {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria and adapted granules provided degradation of (meth)acrylic acids with a maximum methane yield. The possibility is discussed of employing the granules, which are adapted to short-chain fatty acids, and the {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria, which accomplish the initial steps of the organic material decomposition to lower fatty acids, for the conversion of various chemical compounds to methane. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Flexural properties of ethyl or methyl methacrylate-UDMA blend polymers.

    PubMed

    Kanie, Takahito; Kadokawa, Akihiko; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Koichi; Ban, Seiji

    2010-10-01

    Light-curing polyethyl methacrylate (PEMA)-urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) resins and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-UDMA resins were prepared by two processes. For first step, PEMA or PMMA powders were fully dissolved in ethyl methacrylate (EMA) or methyl methacrylate (MMA) and then the PEMA-EMA/PMMA-MMA mixtures were mixed with UDMA. The flexural properties of cured PEMA-UDMA and PMMA-UDMA polymers were measured using two PEMA (Mw: 300,000-400,000 and 650,000-1,000,000) and three PMMA (Mw: 30,000-60,000, 350,000 and 650,000-1,000,000) powders with different molecular weight, four mixing ratios of PMMA-MMA, and three mixing ratios of PMMA-MMA mixture and UDMA oligomer. Polymers with PMMA(Mw: 350,000) MMA=25/50, and with PMMA(Mw: 350,000)-MMA/UDMA=1/2 and =1/1, showed no-fracture in a flexural test at 1 mm/min and flexural strength and flexural modulus showed no significant difference compared with those of commercially available heat- and self-curing acrylic resins (p>0.01). Within limitation of this investigation, methyl methacrylate-UDMA blend polymer of this composition is available for denture base resin. PMID:20733259

  18. Toughening epoxy resin with poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaifard, A.H.; Hodd, K.A.; Barton, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    A novel rubber, poly(methyl methacrylate)-g-natural rubber (Hevea-plus MG), has been studied as a toughening agent for bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (Shell 828 epoxy resin) cured with piperidine. Effective dispersions of the rubber, in concentrations of 2-10 parts per hundred parts resin, were achieved by adjusting the solubility parameter of the epoxy to approximate that of poly(methyl methacrylate) by adding bisphenol A. The fracture energy of the rubber-modified resin was determined by compact tension tests (in the temperature range -60 to +40{degrees}C) and by Charpy impact tests. The poly(methyl methacrylate)-g-natural rubber was found to be an effective toughening agent for the epoxy resin at both low and high rates of strain. Possible fracture mechanisms are discussed. 22 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Chondrocyte Generation of Cartilage-Like Tissue Following Photoencapsulation in Methacrylated Polysaccharide Solution Blends.

    PubMed

    Hayami, James W S; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

    2016-07-01

    Chondrocyte-seeded, photo-cross-linked hydrogels prepared from solutions containing 50% mass fractions of methacrylated glycol chitosan or methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MHA) with methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (MCS) are cultured in vitro under static conditions over 35 d to assess their suitability for load-bearing soft tissue repair. The photo-cross-linked hydrogels have initial equilibrium moduli between 100 and 300 kPa, but only the MHAMCS hydrogels retain an approximately constant modulus (264 ± 5 kPa) throughout the culture period. Visually, the seeded chondrocytes in the MHAMCS hydrogels are well distributed with an apparent constant viability in culture. Multicellular aggregates are surrounded by cartilaginous matrix, which contain aggrecan and collagen II. Thus, co-cross-linked MCS and MHA hydrogels may be suited for use in an articular cartilage or nucleus pulposus repair applications. PMID:27061241

  20. Designing ultraviolet curing of multifunctional (meth)acrylate hard coats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mei

    Ultraviolet (UV) curing rapidly converts multifunctional (meth)acrylate liquid monomers into highly cross-linked, impervious, hard polymeric coatings at ambient temperature. This solidification process occurs by free-radical cross-linking polymerization. To achieve a better design of this process, it is desirable to have high conversion of functional groups, low stress, adequate mechanical properties, and low costs. To approach this design goal, the following modeling and experimental work was carried out. Firstly, a kinetic model was developed to simulate radical trapping. This model predicts a peak in the concentration of active radicals and a monotonic rise of the concentration of trapped radicals during polymerization. It also predicts a decrease in the fraction of trapped radicals at a given conversion as the UV light intensity is raised. Secondly, a kinetic gelation model, in which reaction occurs locally on a lattice, was developed. Unlike previous such models, this model accounts for free radical reaction time more accurately. It was found that a more uniform distribution of reacted sites leads to a favored propagation at a given conversion. Moreover, radical trapping and termination were found to shorten the kinetic chain length and to lower the asymptotic conversion reached when initiators are exhausted. Thirdly, elastic modulus evolution was simulated with a rigidity percolation model, in which bonds created by free-radical polymerization are represented as rigidly jointed beams. Simulations show that modulus of a network depends on the connectivity between monomer units as well as bonding structure. Finally, experimental determination of volume shrinkage of a sandwiched film was measured with a dynamic mechanical analyzer probe. A faster reaction causes more severely delayed volume shrinkage from the thermodynamic equilibrium volume required by the reaction. Nevertheless, volume shrinks more when the shrinkage of the thermodynamic volume rises. In

  1. Mutagenicity assessment of acrylate and methacrylate compounds and implications for regulatory toxicology requirements.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, F R; Vogt, Barbara; Waite, Maureen; Deskin, Randy

    2008-04-01

    Esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, more commonly known as acrylates and methacrylates, respectively, are key raw materials in the coatings and printing industry, with several of its chemical class used in food packaging. The results of over 200 short-term in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies available in the open literature have been evaluated. Despite differences in acrylate or methacrylate functionality or in the number of functional groups, a consistent pattern of test response was seen in a typical regulatory battery of mutagenicity tests. No evidence of point mutations was observed when acrylic acid or over 60 acrylates and methacrylates were investigated in Salmonella bacterial tests or in hprt mutation tests mammalian cells, and no evidence of a mutagenic effect was seen when tested in whole animal clastogenicity and/or aneuploidy (chromosomal aberration/micronucleus) studies. Consistent with the in vivo testing results, acrylic acid exhibited no evidence of carcinogenicity in chronic rodent cancer bioassays. In contrast, acrylic acid and the entire acrylate and methacrylate chemical class produced a consistently positive response when tested in the mouse lymphoma assay and/or other in vitro mammalian cell assays designed to detect clastogenicity. The biological relevance of this in vitro response is questioned based on the non-concordance of in vitro results with those of in vivo studies addressing the same mutagenic endpoint (clastogenicity). Thus, in short-term mutagenicity tests, the acrylates and methacrylates behave as a single chemical category, and genotoxicity behavior of a similar chemical can be predicted with confidence by inclusion within this chemical class, thus avoiding unnecessary testing. PMID:18346829

  2. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers functionalized with poly (glycidyl methacrylate) via atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongwei; Xiong, Lei; Qin, Xiaokang; Wang, Zhengyue; Ding, Bei; Ren, Huan; Pi, Xiaolong

    2015-07-01

    In this work, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers (CF) were chemically modified with poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to improve the interaction between the CF and polymer matrix. The FT-IR, TGA, and XPS were used to determine the chemical structure of the resulting products and the quantities of PGMA chains grafted from the CF surface. The experimental results confirm that the CF surface was functionalized and glycidyl methacrylate was graft-polymerized onto the CF, and the grafting content of polymer could reach 10.2%.

  3. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymer gels and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-05-15

    The present invention provides novel gel forming methacrylic blocking copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether polymer. The polymers may be used for drug and gene delivery, protein separation, as structural supplements, and more.

  4. Effect of filling technique on the bond strength of methacrylate and silorane-based composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernanda Weingartner; Borges, Fernanda Blos; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de; Boscato, Noéli

    2016-01-01

    The bond strength of methacrylate (Z350, 3M ESPE) and silorane (P90, 3M ESPE) restorations, using different cavity filling techniques, was investigated. Cavities (6 × 3 × 3) in bovine teeth were filled using bulk, oblique, or horizontal increments. A push-out test was carried out after 24 h. Data were statistically analyzed (α = 5%). Methacrylate-based composites and the horizontal filling technique showed the highest bond strength values (10.2 ± 3.9, p < 0.05). Silorane-based composites showed no statistically significant differences regarding the filling techniques (p > 0.05). PMID:27050940

  5. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of organofluorine esters of acrylic, methacrylic, and maleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Gol'din, G.S.; Averbakh, K.O.; Lavygin, I.A.; Nekrasova, L.A.

    1985-12-01

    The authors synthesize and study the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates. The organofluorine esters are colorless liquids; their composition and structure were confirmed by elemental analysis and IR spectra. The results of studies of the dependence of the density, surface tension, and viscosity of these compounds on temperature are presented. The results revealed the influence of the length of the fluorocarbon chain on the combination of the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates, and also provided a method for estimating certain thermophysical characteristics of such compounds without recourse to experimental measurements.

  6. Balancing Size Exclusion and Adsorption of Methacrylate Polymers in Nanoporous Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulahad, Asem; Lee, Sekyung; Chang, Taihyun; Ryu, Chang

    2010-03-01

    Liquid chromatography at the critical condition (LCCC) is a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique that lies between size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and adsorption-based interaction chromatography (IC) where the elution of polymers becomes independent of polymer molecular weight. At LCCC, the balance between the entropic exclusion and the enthalpic adsorption interactions between polymers and stationary phases results in the simultaneous elution of polymers regardless of molecular weight. Using C18-bonded silica chromatographic columns we demonstrate the LCCC elution of a series of methacrylate polymers and discuss how the alkyl side groups in methacrylate polymers affects the adsorption of polymer chains against the size exclusion in nanopores.

  7. Terminal-Selective Transesterification of Chlorine-Capped Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)s: A Modular Approach to Telechelic and Pinpoint-Functionalized Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yusuke; Terashima, Takaya; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2016-04-20

    Terminal-selective transesterification of chlorine-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA-Cl) with alcohols was developed as a modular approach to create telechelic and pinpoint-functionalized polymers. Being sterically less hindered and electronically activated, both the α-end ethyl ester and ω-end methyl ester of PMMA-Cl were efficiently and selectively transesterified with diverse alcohols in the presence of a titanium alkoxide catalyst, while retaining the pendent esters intact, to almost quantitatively give various chlorine-capped telechelic PMMAs. In sharp contrast to conventional telechelic counterparts, the telechelic polymers obtained herein yet carry a chlorine atom at the ω-terminal to further work as a macroinitiator in living radical polymerization. The iterative process of living radical polymerization and terminal-selective transesterification successfully afforded unique pinpoint-functionalized polymers where a single functional monomer unit was introduced into the desired site of the polymer chains. PMID:27040865

  8. In situ synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticle/polymer hybrid from a mixed Fe-Co methacrylate for magnetic hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Koichiro; Maeda, Kazuki; Moriya, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2012-09-01

    Hyperthermic CoFe2O4 nanoparticle (CFO NP)/polymer hybrids were synthesized by hydrolysis-condensation from a complex of Co and Fe possessing methacrylate ligands. Single-crystal analysis revealed that the complex consisted of two Co and four Fe metal atoms coordinated by methacrylate and 2-methoxyethoxy groups. The complex was copolymerized with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and the resulting copolymer was then hydrolyzed to form a CFO NP/copolymer of poly(methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hybrid. Copolymerization with HEMA enhanced the stability of the hybrid in water. The size and magnetic properties of CFO in the hybrid were controlled by adjusting the hydrolysis conditions. Moreover, the hybrid generated heat under an alternating current magnetic field; its exothermal properties depended on the magnetic properties of the hybrid, the strength of the applied field, and the CFO NP content in the agar phantom matrix.

  9. Investigation of bonding properties of denture bases to silicone-based soft denture liner immersed in isobutyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Tugut, Faik; Mutaf, Burcu; Guney, Umit

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the bonding properties of denture bases to silicone-based soft denture liners immersed in isobutyl methacrylate (iBMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) for various lengths of time. MATERIALS AND METHODS Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) test specimens were fabricated (75 mm in length, 12 mm in diameter at the thickest section, and 7 mm at the thinnest section) and then randomly assigned to five groups (n=15); untreated (Group 1), resilient liner immersed in iBMA for 1 minute (Group 2), resilient liner immersed in iBMA for 3 minutes (Group 3), resilient liner immersed in HEMA for 1 minute (Group 4), and resilient liner immersed in HEMA for 3 minutes (Group 5). The resilient liner specimens were processed between 2 PMMA blocks. Bonding strength of the liners to PMMA was compared by tensile test with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Data were evaluated by 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons tests (α=0.05). RESULTS The highest mean value of force was observed in Group 3 specimens. The differences between groups were statistically significant (P<.05), except between Group 1 and Group 4 (P=.063). CONCLUSION Immersion of silicone-based soft denture liners in iBMA for 3 minutes doubled the tensile bond strength between the silicone soft liner and PMMA denture base materials compared to the control group. PMID:24843397

  10. Recent Origin of the Methacrylate Redox System in Geobacter sulfurreducens AM-1 through Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Arkhipova, Oksana V.; Meer, Margarita V.; Mikoulinskaia, Galina V.; Zakharova, Marina V.; Galushko, Alexander S.; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of novel biochemical functions remains one of the key questions in molecular evolution. We study recently emerged methacrylate reductase function that is thought to have emerged in the last century and reported in Geobacter sulfurreducens strain AM-1. We report the sequence and study the evolution of the operon coding for the flavin-containing methacrylate reductase (Mrd) and tetraheme cytochrome с (Mcc) in the genome of G. sulfurreducens AM-1. Different types of signal peptides in functionally interlinked proteins Mrd and Mcc suggest a possible complex mechanism of biogenesis for chromoproteids of the methacrylate redox system. The homologs of the Mrd and Mcc sequence found in δ-Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres are also organized into an operon and their phylogenetic distribution suggested that these two genes tend to be horizontally transferred together. Specifically, the mrd and mcc genes from G. sulfurreducens AM-1 are not monophyletic with any of the homologs found in other Geobacter genomes. The acquisition of methacrylate reductase function by G. sulfurreducens AM-1 appears linked to a horizontal gene transfer event. However, the new function of the products of mrd and mcc may have evolved either prior or subsequent to their acquisition by G. sulfurreducens AM-1. PMID:25962149

  11. 21 CFR 177.2465 - Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers. 177.2465 Section 177.2465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2465 - Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers. 177.2465 Section 177.2465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2465 - Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers. 177.2465 Section 177.2465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended...

  14. 21 CFR 73.3121 - Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...(hydroxyethyl methacrylate). The dyes that may be used alone or in combination are (1) Reactive Black 5 (CAS Reg...)-, sulfo((4-((2-sulfooxy)ethyl)sulfonyl)phenyl)amino) sulfonyl derivs] (CAS Reg. No. 73049-92-0); (3) Reactive Orange 78 CAS Reg. No. 68189-39-9); (4) Reactive Yellow 15 (CAS Reg. No. 60958-41-0); (5)...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3121 - Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(hydroxyethyl methacrylate). The dyes that may be used alone or in combination are (1) Reactive Black 5 (CAS Reg...)-, sulfo((4-((2-sulfooxy)ethyl)sulfonyl)phenyl)amino) sulfonyl derivs] (CAS Reg. No. 73049-92-0); (3) Reactive Orange 78 CAS Reg. No. 68189-39-9); (4) Reactive Yellow 15 (CAS Reg. No. 60958-41-0); (5)...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer. 177.1030 Section 177.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...

  17. Versatility of Alkyne-Modified Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate) Layers for Click Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Soto-Cantu, Dr. Erick; Lokitz, Bradley S; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo; Deodhar, Chaitra; Messman, Jamie M; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, II, S Michael

    2011-01-01

    Functional soft interfaces are of interest for a variety of technologies. We describe three methods for preparing substrates with alkyne groups, which show versatility for 'click' chemistry reactions. Two of the methods have the same root: formation of thin, covalently attached, reactive interfacial layers of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via spin coating onto silicon wafers followed by reactive modification with either propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid. The amine or the carboxylic acid moieties react with the epoxy groups of PGMA, creating interfacial polymer layers decorated with alkyne groups. The third method consists of using copolymers comprising glycidyl methacrylate and propargyl methacrylate (pGP). The pGP copolymers are spin coated and covalently attached on silicon wafers. For each method, we investigate the factors that control film thickness and content of alkyne groups using ellipsometry, and study the nanophase structure of the films using neutron reflectometry. Azide-terminated polymers of methacrylic acid and 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization were attached to the alkyne-modified substrates using 'click' chemistry, and grafting densities in the range of 0.007-0.95 chains nm{sup -2} were attained. The maximum density of alkyne groups attained by functionalization of PGMA with propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid was approximately 2 alkynes nm{sup -3}. The alkyne content obtained by the three decorating approaches was sufficiently high that it was not the limiting factor for the click reaction of azide-capped polymers.

  18. Enthalpy of mixing of methacrylic acid with organic solvents at 293 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The enthalpies of mixing of binary systems of methacrylic acid with acetonitrile, benzene, hexane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and acetic acid are measured calorimetrically at 293 K and atmospheric pressure. The enthalpy of mixing of all the studied binary systems is positive over the range of concentrations.

  19. Controlled Degradation of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate-Co-Methyl Methacrylate)(PECA-Co-PMMA) Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for modifying poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) in order to control the degradation and the stability as well as the glass transition temperatures. Copolymers of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PECA-co-PMMA) with various compositions were synthesized by free ...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7200 - Perfluoroalkyl aromatic carbamate modified alkyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl aromatic carbamate modified alkyl methacrylate copolymer. 721.7200 Section 721.7200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  1. Use of methacrylate-modified chitosan to increase the durability of dentine bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Diolosà, Marina; Donati, Ivan; Turco, Gianluca; Cadenaro, Milena; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of a methacrylate-modified chitosan on the durability of adhesive interfaces to improve the clinical performance of dental restorations. Chitosan was modified with methacrylic acid (Chit-MA70) on 16% of the amino groups. Viscosity, rheology, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy were performed to characterize the modified polysaccharide. Chit-MA70 was blended into a primer of an "etch-and-rinse" experimental adhesive system and tested on human teeth. The presence of methacrylate moieties and of residual positive charges on the polysaccharide chain allowed Chit-MA70 to covalently bind to the restorative material and electrostatically interact with demineralized dentin. The Chit-MA70 containing an adhesive system showed values of the immediate bond strength (26.0 ± 8.7 MPa) comparable to the control adhesive system (25.5 ± 8.7 MPa). However, it was shown that upon performing thermo-mechanical cycling treatment of the dental restoration on human teeth, the adhesive with the methacrylate-modified chitosan, in variance with the control adhesive, did not show any decrease in the bond strength (28.4 ± 8.8 MPa). The modified chitosan is proposed as a component of the "etch-and-rinse" adhesive system to efficiently improve the durability of dental restorations. PMID:25347288

  2. Investigation of thiol-ene and thiol-ene-methacrylate based resins as dental restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Neil B.; Couch, Charles L.; Schreck, Kathleen M.; Carioscia, Jacquelyn A.; Boulden, Jordan E.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this work was to evaluate thiol-norbornene and thiol-ene-methacrylate systems as the resin phase of dental restorative materials and demonstrate their superior performance as compared to dimethacrylate materials. Methods Polymerization kinetics and overall functional group conversions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Flexural strength and modulus were determined with a 3-point flexural test. Polymerization-induced shrinkage stress was measured with a tensometer. Results Thiol-ene polymer systems were demonstrated to exhibit advantageous properties for dental restorative materials in regards to rapid curing kinetics, high conversion, and low shrinkage and stress. However, both the thiol-norbornene and thiol-allyl ether systems studied here exhibit significant reductions in flexural strength and modulus relative to BisGMA/TEGDMA. By utilizing the thiol-ene component as the reactive diluent in dimethacrylate systems, high flexural modulus and strength are achieved while dramatically reducing the polymerization shrinkage stress. The methacrylate-thiol-allyl ether and methacrylate-thiol-norbornene systems both exhibited equivalent flexural modulus (2.1 ± 0.1 GPa) and slightly reduced flexural strength (95 ± 1 and 101 ± 3 MPa, respectively) relative to BisGMA/TEGDMA (flexural modulus; 2.2 + 0.1 GPa and flexural strength; 112 ± 3 MPa). Both the methacrylate-thiol-allyl ether and methacrylate-thiol-norbornene systems exhibited dramatic reductions in shrinkage stress (1.1 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.2 MPa, respectively) relative to BisGMA/TEGDMA (2.6 ± 0.2 MPa). Significance The improved polymerization kinetics and overall functional group conversion, coupled with reductions in shrinkage stress while maintaining equivalent flexural modulus, result in a superior overall dental restorative material as compared to traditional bulk dimethacrylate resins. PMID:19781757

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of novel siloxane-methacrylate monomers used as dentin adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xueping; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to synthesize two new siloxane-methacrylate (SM) monomers for application in dentin adhesives and to investigate the influence of different functionality of the siloxane-containing monomers on the adhesive photopolymerization, water sorption, and mechanical properties. Materials and method Two siloxane-methacrylate monomers (SM1 and SM2) with four and eight methacrylate groups were synthesized. Dentin adhesives containing BisGMA, HEMA and the siloxane-methacrylate monomers were photo-polymerized. The experimental adhesives were compared with the control adhesive (HEMA/BisGMA 45/55 w/w) and characterized with regard to degree of conversion (DC), water miscibility of the liquid resin, water sorption and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Results The experimental adhesives exhibited improved water miscibility as compared to the control. When cured in the presence of 12 wt % water to simulate the wet environment of the mouth, the SM-containing adhesives showed DC comparable to the control. The experimental adhesives showed higher rubbery modulus than the control under dry conditions. Under wet conditions, the mechanical properties of the formulations containing SM monomer with increased functionality were comparable with the control, even with more water sorption. Significance The concentration and functionality of the newly synthesized siloxane-methacrylate monomers affected the water miscibility, water sorption and mechanical properties of the adhesives. The experimental adhesives show improved water compatibility compared with the control. The mechanical properties were enhanced with an increase of the functionality of the siloxane-containing monomers. The results provide critical structure/property relationships and important information for future development of durable, versatile siloxane-containing dentin adhesives. PMID:24993811

  4. Impact strength of a modified continuous glass fiber--poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K; Narva, K

    1997-01-01

    The effect of fiber reinforcement of autopolymerizing poly(methyl methacrylate) was investigated. The impact strength of continuous E-glass fiber-poly(methyl methacrylate) composite was determined. Rectangular test specimens (n = 10 per group) were modified by incorporating an additional fiber reinforcement of untreated E-glass fibers, silanized E-glass fibers, or aramid fibers in the test specimens. Controls were either unreinforced or reinforced from the middle of the test specimen only. The impact strength of the specimens was measured by using a charpy-type pendulum impact tester after the specimens had been stored in water at 37 degrees C for 4 weeks. After the impact strength test, the length of the delamination of poly(methyl methacrylate) from the fibers was measured and plotted to the impact strength of the test specimens by using a linear regression model. The impact strength of unreinforced autopolymerizing poly(methyl methacrylate) was 7.8 kl/m2, while incorporation of glass fiber reinforcement with a fiber concentration of 12.4 wt% increased the impact strength to 74.7 kl/m2 (P = .000). The additional fiber reinforcement of the test specimen did not affect the impact strength (P = .363). Delamination negatively correlated with the impact strength of the test specimens (r = -.72, P = .000). The results of this study suggest that glass fiber reinforcement enhanced the impact strength of autopolymerizing poly(methyl methacrylate), while the use of additional fiber reinforcement made of aramid or glass fibers in the test specimens did not have an effect on the impact strength. PMID:9206454

  5. Development of methacrylate/silorane hybrid monomer system: Relationship between photopolymerization behavior and dynamic mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Song, Linyong; Ye, Qiang; Ge, Xueping; Singh, Viraj; Misra, Anil; Laurence, Jennifer S; Berrie, Cindy L; Spencer, Paulette

    2016-07-01

    Resin chemistries for dental composite are evolving as noted by the introduction of silorane-based composites in 2007. This shift in the landscape from methacrylate-based composites has fueled the quest for versatile methacrylate-silorane adhesives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the polymerization behavior and structure/property relationships of methacrylate-silorane hybrid systems. Amine compound ethyl-4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (EDMAB) or silane compound tris(trimethylsilyl) silane (TTMSS) was selected as coinitiators. The mechanical properties of the copolymer were improved significantly at low concentrations (15, 25, or 35 wt %) of silorane when EDMAB was used as coinitiator. The rubbery moduli of these experimental copolymers were increased by up to 260%, compared with that of the control (30.8 ± 1.9 MPa). Visible phase separation appeared in these formulations if the silorane concentrations in the formulations were 50-75 wt %. The use of TTMSS as coinitiator decreased the phase separation, but there was a concomitant decrease in mechanical properties. In the neat methacrylate formulations, the maximum rates of free-radical polymerization with EDMAB or TTMSS were 0.28 or 0.06 s(-1) , respectively. In the neat silorane resin, the maximum rates of cationic ring-opening polymerization with EDMAB or TTMSS were 0.056 or 0.087 s(-1) , respectively. The phase separation phenomenon may be attributed to differences in the rates of free-radical polymerization of methacrylates and cationic ring-opening polymerization of silorane. In the hybrid systems, free-radical polymerization initiated with EDMAB led to higher crosslink density and better mechanical properties under dry/wet conditions. These beneficial effects were, however, associated with an increase in heterogeneity in the network structure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 841-852, 2016. PMID:25953619

  6. Pentablock copolymers of pluronic F127 and modified poly(2-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate for internalization mechanism and gene transfection studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Jer; Wang, Tzu-Pin; Lue, Sheng-I; Wang, Li-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Cationic polymers are one of the major nonviral gene delivery vectors investigated in the past decade. In this study, we synthesized several cationic copolymers using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for gene delivery vectors: pluronic F127-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PF127-pDMAEMA), pluronic F127-poly (dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-tert-butyl acrylate) (PF127-p(DMAEMA-tBA)), and pluronic F127-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (PF127-p(DMAEMA-AA)). The copolymers showed high buffering capacity and efficiently complexed with plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (pDNA) to form nanoparticles 80–180 nm in diameter and with positive zeta potentials. In the absence of 10% fetal bovine serum, PF127-p(DMAEMA-AA) showed the highest gene expression and the lowest cytotoxicity in 293T cells. After acrylic acid groups had been linked with a fluorescent dye, the confocal laser scanning microscopic image showed that PF127-p(DMAEMA-AA)/pDNA could efficiently enter the cells. Both clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis mechanisms were involved. Our results showed that PF127-p(DMAEMA-AA) has great potential to be a gene delivery vector. PMID:23745045

  7. Preparation and application of sol-gel acrylate and methacrylate solid-phase microextraction fibres for gas chromatographic analysis of organoarsenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Popiel, Stanisław; Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof

    2014-07-21

    Novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres containing methyl, ethyl, butyl acrylate and methacrylate were first prepared by a sol-gel technique and investigated for determination of selected organoarsenic compounds (lewisite, methyldichloroarsine, phenyldichloroarsine, diphenylchloroarsine and triphenylarsine) from water samples. The influence of sorption and desorption temperature and time for extraction efficiency were examined. The best new fibre coatings (methyl acrylate (MA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and combination of methyl acrylate and methacrylate (MA/MMA)) for analysis of organoarsenic compounds were selected and compared with commercial fibres. The distribution coefficients Kfs were determined for the best novel fibres and for absorption commercial fibres. The highest Kfs value were obtained for MA/MMA and MMA fibres and were respectively 9458 and 6561 for lewisite and 6458 and 5884 for triphenylarsine. The limit of detection and quantification were determined for the three laboratory obtained fibres (MA, MMA and MA/MMA). LODs for tested fibres, at a signal-to-noise of 3, were 0.03-0.3 ng mL(-1). LOQs for selected coatings, at signal-to-noise of 10, were 0.1-0.8 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) for all measurements were 4.3-6.5% (n=9) and relative errors were 2.5-5%. The laboratory obtained fibres were used for environmental analysis of pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. PMID:25000858

  8. Highly sensitive poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] brush-based flow-through microarray immunoassay device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingshuai; Wang, Wei; Hu, Weihua; Lu, Zhisong; Zhou, Xiaoqun; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-08-01

    Flow-through immunoassay is an attractive method for fast, inexpensive and high-throughput protein analyses. However, its practical application is limited by low sensitivity. In this work, a highly sensitive flow-through microarray immunoassay device is developed, in which a poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] (P(GMA-co-PEGMA)) brush as a flexible matrix is uniformly coated on a glass slide through a purge-free surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to immobilize capture proteins for a larger loading capacity and higher bioactivity while allowing easy target access to the brush-attached probes for efficient antibody-antigen (Ab-Ag) bindings. The integrated device is then constructed by simply laminating the protein-arrayed slide onto a ready-for-bonding double-sided adhesive tape-attached poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic structure. As a demonstration, a parallel microarray panel is designed to perform flow-through immunoassays for good detection flexibility and simultaneous analysis of various samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of 1-10 pg/mL for detected target proteins is achieved, which is one to two orders better than those of reported flow-through immunoassays. The device also demonstrates significantly reduced total assay time over the static microarray immunoassay. The rapid and sensitive detection can be mainly ascribed to the P(GMA-co-PEGMA) brushed substrate, of which both the hydrophilicity from its PEG component and the binding capability from its GMA moiety result in higher protein loading capacity, lower nonspecific adsorption, and higher Ab-Ag binding efficiency. The integrated microfluidic device was further used to detect an important cancer biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum and achieved a LOD of 10 pg/mL, demonstrating its great potential for clinical applications. PMID:21547537

  9. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Marc A.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2008-01-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S--, --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group. The present invention is also directed to a process of preparing labeled compounds, e.g., process of preparing [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid by reacting a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13CH.sub.2)-- aryl sulfone precursor with .sup.13CHI to form a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate, and, reacting the (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate with sodium hydroxide, followed by acid to form [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid. The present invention is further directed to a process of preparing [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate by reacting a (HOOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate with CD.sub.3I to form a (.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate, and heating the(.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate at temperatures and for time sufficient to form [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate.

  10. Process for producing a well-adhered durable optical coating on an optical plastic substrate. [abrasion resistant polymethyl methacrylate lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubacki, R. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A low temperature plasma polymerization process is described for applying an optical plastic substrate, such as a polymethyl methacrylate lens, with a single layer abrasive resistant coating to improve the durability of the plastic.

  11. A rare case of pseudotumor formation associated with methyl methacrylate hypersensitivity in a patient following cemented total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kenan, Shachar; Kahn, Leonard; Haramati, Noga; Kenan, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to orthopedic implant materials has been well documented with potential catastrophic consequences if not addressed pre-operatively. The spectrum of reactions is wide, from mild non-specific pain with localized erythema to severe periprosthetic inflammatory destruction and pseudotumor formation. It is therefore essential to identify patients who have or are at risk for implant-associated hypersensitivity. Although metal sensitivity is commonly cited as the cause of these reactions, methyl methacrylate (MMA) has rarely been implicated. To the best of our knowledge, methyl methacrylate-associated pseudotumor formation has not yet been described. The following is a case report of a 68-year-old female who, after undergoing a routine cemented right total knee arthroplasty, developed a painless, enlarging mass during a 13-year period. This mass was found to be a pseudotumor in association with methyl methacrylate hypersensitivity. A review of pseudotumor pathogenesis, methyl methacrylate hypersensitivity, and preoperative preventative care is discussed. PMID:27022733

  12. Use of hydrophobically modified inulin for the preparation of polymethyl methacrylate/polybutyl acrylate latex particles using a semicontinuous reactor.

    PubMed

    Obiols-Rabasa, M; Ramos, J; Forcada, J; Esquena, J; Solans, C; Levecke, B; Booten, K; Tadros, Tharwat F

    2010-06-01

    The seeded semicontinuous emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BuA) stabilized with a graft polymeric surfactant based on inulin, INUTEC SP1, as well as its mixture with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is described. The mixture of SLS and Brij58 (alcohol ethoxylated) and the mixture of SLS and Pluronic P85 (block copolymer PEO-PPO-PEO) are also used as surfactant systems. The addition of methacrylic acid (MAA) or acrylic acid (AA) as comonomers is also studied. Previous results proved this inulin-derivative surfactant, INUTEC SP1, to be very effective on synthesizing latexes using a very low surfactant concentration. The kinetic features of the emulsion polymerization (instantaneous conversion and total conversion) were gravimetrically determined along the reactions. Latex dispersions were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain the average particle size, the particle size distributions (PSDs) as well as the polydispersity index (PdI). The stability was determined by turbidimetry measurements and expressed in terms of critical coagulation concentration. The results showed that the use of the graft polymeric surfactant allowed obtaining highly stable nanoparticles, at low surfactant concentrations and high solid contents (up to 37 wt %). This is an improvement with respect to previous works, in which a mixture of the graft polymeric surfactant with another surfactant was required to obtain stable nanoparticles with low polydispersity, at high solid content. In the present work, low polydispersity was achieved using INUTEC as the only emulsifier, which was related to the absence of secondary nucleations. When a mixture of INUTEC SP1 and SLS is used, a wider PSD is obtained due to secondary nucleations. Replacing INUTEC SP1 by other nonionic surfactants such as Brij58 or Pluronic P85 leads to an increase of average particle size and wider PSD. PMID:20121169

  13. Unbiased phosphoproteomic method identifies the initial effects of a methacrylic acid copolymer on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Michael Dean; Wells, Laura A; Lisovsky, Alexandra; Guo, Hongbo; Isserlin, Ruth; Talior-Volodarsky, Ilana; Mahou, Redouan; Emili, Andrew; Sefton, Michael V

    2015-08-25

    An unbiased phosphoproteomic method was used to identify biomaterial-associated changes in the phosphorylation patterns of macrophage-like cells. The phosphorylation differences between differentiated THP1 (dTHP1) cells treated for 10, 20, or 30 min with a vascular regenerative methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer or a control methyl methacrylate (MM) copolymer were determined by MS. There were 1,470 peptides (corresponding to 729 proteins) that were differentially phosphorylated in dTHP1 cells treated with the two materials with a greater cellular response to MAA treatment. In addition to identifying pathways (such as integrin signaling and cytoskeletal arrangement) that are well known to change with cell-material interaction, previously unidentified pathways, such as apoptosis and mRNA splicing, were also discovered. PMID:26261332

  14. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized, methacrylate resin composition with antimicrobial activities and self-repair potential

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Niu, Li-na; Kemp, Lisa K.; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Ryou, Heonjune; Qi, Yi-pin; Blizzard, John D.; Nikonov, Sergey; Brackett, Martha G.; Messer, Regina L.W.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Brister, L. Bryan; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Arola, Dwayne D.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Design of antimicrobial polymers for enhancing healthcare issues and minimizing environmental problems is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized methacrylate (QAMS) represents an example of antimicrobial macromonomers synthesized by a sol-gel chemical route; these compounds possess flexible Si-O-Si bonds. In present work, a partially-hydrolyzed QAMS copolymerized with bis-GMA is introduced. This methacrylate resin was shown to possess desirable mechanical properties with both a high degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. Kill-on-contact microbiocidal activities of this resin were demonstrated using single-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 36558), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Improved mechanical properties after hydration provided the proof-of-concept that QAMS-incorporated resin exhibits self-repair potential via water-induced condensation of organic modified silicate (ormosil) phases within the polymerized resin matrix. PMID:22659173

  15. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sumeet; Jain, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacrylate retained by anatomic undercuts is quiet effective and should not be overlooked and forgotten. This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of two male patients with polymethyl methacrylate resin orbital prosthesis after orbital exenteration, for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid. The orbital prosthesis was sufficiently retained by hard and soft tissue undercuts without any complications. The patients using the prosthesis are quite satisfied with the cosmetic results and felt comfortable attending the social events. PMID:27134437

  16. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the complexation of methacrylic acid and diisopropyl urea.

    PubMed

    Pogány, Peter; Razali, Mayamin; Szekely, Gyorgy

    2017-01-01

    The present paper explores the complexation ability of methacrylic acid which is one of the most abundant functional monomer for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers. Host-guest interactions and the mechanism of complex formation between methacrylic acid and potentially genotoxic 1,3-diisopropylurea were investigated in the pre-polymerization solution featuring both experimental (NMR, IR) and in silico density functional theory (DFT) tools. The continuous variation method revealed the presence of higher-order complexes and the appearance of self-association which were both taken into account during the determination of the association constants. The quantum chemical calculations - performed at B3LYP 6-311++G(d,p) level with basis set superposition error (BSSE) corrections - are in agreement with the experimental observations, reaffirming the association constants and justifying the validity of computational investigation of such systems. Furthermore, natural bond orbital analysis was carried out to appraise the binding properties of the complexes. PMID:27419640

  17. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolysed starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Magdy K; Ahmed, Enas M; El-Rafie, Mohamed H

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite was adopted by graft polymerization of hydrolysed starch (HS) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in aqueous medium using an efficient sodium perborate (SPB)-thiourea (TU) redox initiation system. The parameters influencing the redox system efficiency and thence the polymerization method were considered. These parameters comprehended the concentrations of MAA, SPB, TU and SPB/TU molar ratio as well as the polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was scrutinized through calculation of the MAA total conversion percent (TC%). The resultant poly(MAA-HS) composite was assessed by evaluating the polymer criteria (the graft yield, GY%; the grafting efficiency, GE%; the homopolymer, HP%; and the total conversion). The comportment of the apparent viscosity of the cooked poly(MAA)-starch composite paste, obtained under diverse polymerization conditions, was examined. Tentative mechanisms, which depict all occasions that happen amid the entire course of the polymerization reaction, have been proffered. PMID:26968925

  18. Preparation and characterization of poly(isobutyl methacrylate) microbeads with grafted amidoxime groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çaykara, Tuncer; Alaslan, Şerife Şirin; Gürü, Metin; Bodugöz, Hatice; Güven, Olgun

    2007-10-01

    Poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (PiBMA) microspheres with a 800- to 1500-μm diameter range synthesized by suspension polymerization technique were used as the trunk polymer in the preparation of a highly efficient new adsorbent. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was grafted onto the trunk polymer by pre-irradiation grafting technique. Grafting conditions were optimized, and GMA grafted PiBMA beads were modified with iminodiacetonitrile (IDAN) in ethanol at 80 °C. The nitrile groups were then amidoximated by using 6% (m/v) hydroxylamine hydrochloride in methanol solution. The IDAN modification and the conversion of the nitrile groups to amidoxime were followed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The surface morphology and thermal behavior of the PiBMA and its modificated forms were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques further confirming modification and amidoximation.

  19. Grafting of Chitosan and Chitosantrimethoxylsilylpropyl Methacrylate on Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Synthesis and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Laura; Kelly-Brown, Cordella; Stewart, Melisa; Oki, Aderemi; Regisford, Gloria; Stone, Julia; Traisawatwong, Pasakorn; Durand-Rougely, Clarissa; Luo, Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    Acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grafted to chitosan by first reacting the oxidized CNTs with thionyl chloride to form acyl-chlorinated CNTs. This product was subsequently dispersed in chitosan and covalently grafted to form CNT-chitosan. CNT-chitosan was further grafted onto 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate by free radical polymerization conditions, to yield CNT-g-chitosan-g-3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (TMSPM), hereafter referred to as CNT-chitosan-3-TMSPM. These composites were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Resonance Spectroscopy (FTIR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The composite showed improved thermal stability and could be of great potential use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:21765959

  20. Influence of pulse width on ultraviolet laser ablation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Braren, Bodil

    1988-10-01

    The etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using pulses of 248 nm laser radiation which had a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 40-100 ns is reported. These pulses were created by combining two identical pulses, each of 40 ns FWHM, with a set time delay. The etch depth/pulse is sensitive to the pulse width and, therefore, the power density in this polymer. It can be explained by the changes in absorptivity during a pulse that have been reported by G. M. Davis and M. C. Gower [J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2090 (1987)]. The shape of the pulse was also found to influence the etch depth/pulse. The etching of polyimide by these extended pulses shows trends that are opposite to those observed in poly(methyl methacrylate). In this instance, the shielding of the latter portion of the incoming pulse by the products that are ablated by the front portion is probably a serious effect.

  1. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-08-28

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in {sup 1}HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR)

  2. Unbiased phosphoproteomic method identifies the initial effects of a methacrylic acid copolymer on macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Michael Dean; Wells, Laura A.; Lisovsky, Alexandra; Guo, Hongbo; Isserlin, Ruth; Talior-Volodarsky, Ilana; Mahou, Redouan; Emili, Andrew; Sefton, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    An unbiased phosphoproteomic method was used to identify biomaterial-associated changes in the phosphorylation patterns of macrophage-like cells. The phosphorylation differences between differentiated THP1 (dTHP1) cells treated for 10, 20, or 30 min with a vascular regenerative methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer or a control methyl methacrylate (MM) copolymer were determined by MS. There were 1,470 peptides (corresponding to 729 proteins) that were differentially phosphorylated in dTHP1 cells treated with the two materials with a greater cellular response to MAA treatment. In addition to identifying pathways (such as integrin signaling and cytoskeletal arrangement) that are well known to change with cell–material interaction, previously unidentified pathways, such as apoptosis and mRNA splicing, were also discovered. PMID:26261332

  3. Preparation of well-defined poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) macromonomers via atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengcheng; Armes, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    A series of six near-monodisperse methacrylic macromonomers is prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate using a tertiary amine-functionalized initiator at 50 °C, followed by quaternization with excess 4-vinylbenzyl chloride at 20 °C. GPC analyses indicate polydispersities of around 1.20 and their mean degrees of polymerization (DP) range from 20 to 70, as judged by both (1) H NMR and UV spectroscopy. The former technique is more convenient but the latter proved more accurate for the higher DP values, provided that an appropriate model compound is utilized for calibration. Finally, these new macromonomers are used to prepare sterically stabilized polystyrene latexes with relatively narrow size distributions via alcoholic dispersion polymerization. PMID:24123461

  4. Preparation of silver-poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite microspheres with patterned surface structures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Huiyun; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Junxia; Fang, Yu; Gu, Zhongze

    2006-01-01

    Acrylamide (AM) and methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer microgels were prepared by a reverse suspension polymerization technique. The microgels were used as templates for the preparation of silver-poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) [Ag-P(AM-co-MAA)] composite microspheres. The surface structures of the microspheres prepared in this way are characterized by zigzag-like structures. It was found that the composition of the microgels, the nature and dosage of surfactants, the quantity of the metal, and even the reduction methods employed have a significant effect upon the surface structures of the microspheres. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that Ag formed during the process is in a crystal state of a face-centered cubic structure. PMID:24058232

  5. Amphiphilic Copolymers of Polyfluorene Methacrylates Exhibiting Tunable Emissions for Ink-Jet Printing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Ling, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Functionalized polyfluorene receives more and more attention due to its wide applications. Here, the syntheses of three novel polyfluorene-based methacrylate macromonomers exhibiting a vast flexibility for further applications are reported. Their emissions strongly depend on the end groups and thus the macromonomers provide blue, green, and red emissions simultaneously with the same excitation light of 365 nm. Their well-defined copolymers with 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization are investigated in detail. These copolymers exhibit high quantum yields in solid film (up to 0.8), and self-assemble into photoluminescent nanoparticles in aqueous solutions with pure blue, green, and red emissions. By simply mixing them, perfect white light emission with high quality is obtained. These aqueous nanoparticles solutions are ready for ink-jet printing to produce exquisite bright and colorful fluorescent pictures. PMID:27310485

  6. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-08-01

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in 1HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF3SO3 show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF3SO3 were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR).

  7. Surface-initiated Polymerization of Azidopropyl Methacrylate and its Film Elaboration via Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sampa; Bruening, Merlin L.; Baker, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Azidopropyl methacrylate (AzPMA), a functional monomer with a pendent azido group, polymerizes from surfaces and provides polymer brushes amenable to subsequent elaboration via click chemistry. In DMF at 50 °C, click reactions between poly(AzPMA) brushes and an alkynylated dye proceed with >90% conversion in a few minutes. However, in aqueous solutions, reaction with an alkyne-containing poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG, Mn=5000) gives <10% conversion after a 12-h reaction at room temperature. Formation of copolymers with AzPMA and polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (mPEGMA) enables control over the hydrophilicity and functional group density in the copolymer to increase the yield of aqueous click reactions. The copolymers show reaction efficiencies as high as 60%. These studies suggest that for aqueous applications such as bioconjugation via click chemistry, control over brush hydrophilicity is vital. PMID:24293702

  8. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-A soft template for the facile preparation of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core-copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed Safiullah, S.; Abdul Wasi, K.; Anver Basha, K.

    2015-12-01

    Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core/copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite (PGMA/Cu nanohybrid) was prepared by simple two step method (i) The synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) beads by free radical suspension polymerization followed by (ii) direct deposition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on activated PGMA beads. The PGMA beads were used as a soft template to host the CuNPs without surface modification of it. In this method the CuNPs were formed by chemical reduction of copper salts using sodium borohydride in water medium and deposited directly on the activated PGMA. Two different concentrations of copper salts were employed to know the effect of concentration on the shape and size of nanoparticles. The results showed that, the different sizes and shapes of CuNPs were deposited on the PGMA matrix. The X-ray Diffraction study results showed that the CuNPs were embedded on the surface of the PGMA matrix. The scanning electron microscopic images revealed that the fabrication of CuNPs on the PGMA matrix possess different shapes and changes the morphology and nature of PGMA beads significantly. The fluorescent micrograph also confirmed that the CuNPs were doped on the PGMA surface. The thermal studies have demonstrated that the CuNPs deposition on the surface of PGMA beads had a significant effect.

  9. Nonviral Plasmid DNA Carriers Based on N,N'-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate and Di(ethylene glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate Star Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mendrek, Barbara; Sieroń, Łukasz; Żymełka-Miara, Iwona; Binkiewicz, Paulina; Libera, Marcin; Smet, Mario; Trzebicka, Barbara; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Kowalczuk, Agnieszka; Dworak, Andrzej

    2015-10-12

    Star polymers with random and block copolymer arms made of cationic N,N'-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and nonionic di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA) were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in gene therapy. All stars were able to form polyplexes with plasmid DNA. The structure and size of the polyplexes were precisely determined using light scattering and cryo-TEM microscopy. The hydrodynamic radius of a complex of DNA with star was dependent on the architecture of the star arms, the DEGMA content and the number of amino groups in the star compared to the number of phosphate groups of the nucleic acid (N/P ratio). The smallest polyplexes (Rh90°∼50 nm) with positive zeta potentials (∼15 mV) were formed of stars with N/P=6. The introduction of DEGMA into the star structure caused a decrease of polyplex cytotoxicity in comparison to DMAEMA homopolymer stars. The overall transfection efficiency using HT-1080 cells showed that the studied systems are prospective gene delivery agents. The most promising results were obtained for stars with random copolymer arms of high DEGMA content. PMID:26375579

  10. Preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive and antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes blended with poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Ju, Junping; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tingmei; Wang, Qihua

    2014-11-15

    Functional terpolymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(MMA-HEMA-AA)) was synthesized via a radical polymerization method. The terpolymer could be directly blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to prepare the microfiltration (MF) membranes via phase separate process. The synthesized polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the nuclear magnetic resonance proton spectra ((1)H NMR). The membrane had the typical asymmetric structure and the hydrophilic side chains tended to aggregate on the membrane surface. The surface enrichment of amphiphilic copolymer and morphology of MF membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contact angle (CA) and water uptake were also tested to assess the hydrophilicity and wetting characteristics of the polymer surface. The water filtration properties were measured. It was found the modified membranes showed excellent pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility behavior. Furthermore, the hydrophilicity of the blended membranes increased, and the membranes showed good protein antifouling property. PMID:25203908