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Sample records for methacrylate butyl methacrylate

  1. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  6. Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shanju; Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; He, Lihong; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Allen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  7. Crosslinked superhydrophobic films fabricated by simply casting poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiufang; Ye, Chao; Cai, Zhiqi; Xu, Shouping; Pi, Pihui; Cheng, Jiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Qian, Yu

    2015-06-01

    This study focuses on the preparation of superhydrophobic films by crosslinkable polymer material-Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-Poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) (P (MMA-BA-HEMA)-b-PFMA) with a simple one-step casting process. Nanoscale micelle particles with core-shell structure was obtained by dissolving the polymer and curing agent in the mixture of acetone and 1H, 1H, 5H octafluoropentyl-1,1,2,2 tetrafluoroethyl ether (FHT). Superhydrophobic films were fabricated by casting the micelle solution on the glass slides. By controlling the polymer concentration and acetone/FHT volume ratio, superhydrophobic polymer film with water contact angle of 153.2 ± 2.1° and sliding angle of 4° was obtained. By introducing a curing agent into the micelle solution, mechanical properties of the films can be improved. The adhension grade and hardness of the crosslinked superhydrophobic films reached 2 grade and 3H, respectively. The hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness by nanoscale micelle particles and low surface energy of fluoropolymer. This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  8. ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION OF N-BUTYL METHACRYLATE IN AQUEOUS DISPERSED SYSTEMS: A MINIEMULSION APPROACH. (R826735)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrasonication was applied in combination with a hydrophobe for the copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate in an aqueous dispersed system. A controlled polymerization was successfully achieved, as demonstrated by a linear correlation between...

  9. Studies on acrylated epoxydised triglyceride resin-co-butyl methacrylate towards the development of biodegradable pressure sensitive adhesives.

    PubMed

    David, S Begila; Sathiyalekshmi, K; Gnana Raj, G Allen

    2009-12-01

    The potential chemical utility of Soya bean oil for the preparation of novel biodegradable polymeric pressure sensitive adhesive has been investigated. Epoxy resin was prepared through in situ epoxidation of Soya bean oil under controlled reaction conditions. Acrylated epoxidised triglyceride resin (AET resin) and copolymer of AET resin with butyl methacrylate were prepared and evaluated. Higher the concentration of butyl methacrylate higher is the degree of copolymerization of AET resin with butyl methacrylate. An optimum concentration of AET resin with butyl methacrylate (100 : 0.40) yields favourable shear holding time and peel strength to qualify as pressure sensitive adhesive. The candidate PSA formulation is biodegradable with antimicrobial activity against gram positive S. aureus ATCC 25923. PMID:18584126

  10. Ammonium methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium methacrylate ; CASRN 16325 - 47 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  11. Methyl methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl methacrylate ; CASRN 80 - 62 - 6 ( 03 / 02 / 98 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  12. CEC column behaviour of butyl and lauryl methacrylate monoliths prepared in non-aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Cantó-Mirapeix, Amparo; Herrero-Martínez, José M; Mongay-Fernández, Carlos; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F

    2009-02-01

    Polymeric monolithic stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography were prepared using two bulk monomers, butyl methacrylate (BMA) and lauryl methacrylate (LMA), by in situ polymerization in non-aqueous media. The effect of 1,4-butanediol/1-propanol ratio on porous properties was investigated separately for each monomer, keeping the proportion of monomers to pore-forming solvents fixed at 40:60 wt:wt. Also, mixtures of BMA and LMA at different 1,4-butanediol/1-propanol ratios were studied for tailoring the morphological features of the monolithic columns. The chromatographic performance of the different columns was evaluated by means of van Deemter plots of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Mercury-intrusion porosimetry, SEM, and nitrogen-adsorption measurements were also performed in order to understand their retention behaviour and porous properties. A comparison of these features was also performed for monoliths made with one bulk monomer (BMA or LMA) and with mixtures of both. These mixed monoliths showed satisfactory efficiencies and analysis times compared with those made with one bulk monomer; thus, the BMA-LMA monoliths constitute an attractive alternative to manipulate the electrochromatographic properties of methacrylate beds in CEC. PMID:19170053

  13. Determination of methacrylic acid in food simulants by pyrolytic butylation-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongping; Qiu, Ruofeng; Liu, Tingfei; Huang, Yilei; Zhu, Zuoyi; Wang, Lili

    2016-07-01

    An on-line pyrolytic butylation approach was proposed to determine methacrylic acid (MA) in food simulants by gas chromatography (GC) without an expensive pyrolyzer. MA in food simulants was converted into butyl methacrylate in the presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) without any pretreatment at 330°C in the injection-port, contributing to high GC signal response. The derivatizing conditions for the proposed method were optimized, namely the injection-port temperature, type and amount of the organic alkaline used for derivatization. A series of standard solutions of MA in the range of 1.0-50mg/kg were analyzed with correlation coefficient r≥0.9975. The limits of detection (LODs) were less than 0.15mg/kg for MA in four matrix simulants (distilled water, 3%w/v acetic acid, 10%v/v ethanol, and isooctane). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for retention time, peak height and peak area were all less than 3.88%. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of MA migrating from plastic cup samples, with recoveries of added MA in the range of 96.5-123.0%. Direct injection of the simulants into the GC system after migration tests, without any pretreatment step, makes the developed method of great value for rapid screening analysis of samples in bulks. PMID:27262371

  14. Contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kassis, V; Vedel, P; Darre, E

    1984-07-01

    2 cases of contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate monomer are presented. The patients are nurses who mixed bone cement at orthopedic operations. During the procedure, they used 2 pairs of gloves (latex). Butyl rubber gloves are recommended for methyl methacrylate monomer to avoid sensitization and/or cumulative irritant contact dermatitis on the hands. PMID:6204812

  15. Specialty polymeric membranes. 8: Separation of benzene from benzene/cyclohexane mixtures with nylon 6-graft-poly(butyl methacrylate) membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Masakazu; Tsubouchi, Keisuke; Kitao, Toshio

    1999-02-01

    A novel pervaporation membrane was prepared by radical graft polymerization of butyl methacrylate onto nylon 6. The permselectivity toward benzene was increased by the introduction of poly(butyl methacrylate) onto a nylon 6 membrane. From pervaporation and sorption experiments, it was shown that the introduction of poly(butyl methacrylate) onto a nylon 6 membrane leads to the enhancement of permselectivity toward benzene. The solubility data for benzene were described by a combination of simple sorption and specific sorption, while cyclohexane solubility was described by simple sorption.

  16. Microscopy of thin polymer blend films of polystyrene and poly-n-butyl-methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, T.; Guttmann, P.; Schmidt, O.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Stamm, M.; Schönhense, G.; Schmahl, G.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of thin polymer blend films of polystyrene (PS) and poly-n-butyl-methacrylate (PnBMA) was examined with Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM), Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM), X-Ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy (X-PEEM) and Optical Microscopy (OM). Thin films were prepared by spin casting of a toluene solution of the polymer mixture onto silicon wafers retaining the native oxide. Depending on blend composition and annealing conditions smooth films with and without holes or films with well pronounced surface features (ribbons or islands) were produced. By TXM measurements a high lateral resolution study of the as cast and the annealed polymer blend samples was performed. The contrast in TXM is due to different absorption of x-radiation of the used polymers and due to variation in thickness. With X-PEEM the lateral distribution of the two polymers near the surface was mapped by employing the characteristic Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra of the polymers. The TXM technique is a microscopic method integrating over the total film thickness, whereas the X-PEEM technique is a highly surface sensitive method. TXM and X-PEEM are therefore complementary methods which provide important information on the structure of thin polymer blend films additional to the standard techniques SFM and OM.

  17. Analysis of stochastic effects in chemically amplified poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate) resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of stochastic phenomena is essential to the development of a highly sensitive resist for nanofabrication. In this study, we investigated the stochastic effects in a chemically amplified resist consisting of poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate), triphenylsulfonium nonafluorobutanesulfonate (acid generator), and tri-n-octylamine (quencher). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of resist patterns were analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. It was estimated that a ±0.82σ fluctuation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule led to line edge roughness formation. Here, σ is the standard deviation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule after postexposure baking (PEB). The threshold for the elimination of stochastic bridge generation was 4.38σ (the difference between the average number of protected units after PEB and the dissolution point). The threshold for the elimination of stochastic pinching was 2.16σ.

  18. Characterization of the epithelial permeation enhancing effect of basic butylated methacrylate copolymer--in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Grube, Stefan; Wolfrum, Uwe; Langguth, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Membrane destabilizing properties and increased efflux of doxorubicin from liposomes caused by basic butylated methacrylate copolymer (BBMC), better known under its commercial trade name EUDRAGIT E, have been described in the scientific literature. Here, we investigated the effect of BBMC on suspended and filter-grown Caco2 cells with respect to apical-to-basal transport and membrane permeabilization using transport assays, trypan blue exclusion assay, measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) by okadaic acid was investigated by measuring TEER, but a link between PP2A and the observed effects could not be established. Overall, membrane permeabilization of Caco2 cells by BBMC was demonstrated, which went along with increased apical-to-basal transport of the model compounds mannitol, talinolol, and trospium. The effect was concentration- and time-dependent, and reversible. Enhancement occurred at polymer concentrations as low as 20 microg/mL. PMID:18407686

  19. Polymer electrolyte based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Beatrice Wong Chui; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2015-09-01

    Polymer electrolytes based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) as polymer host and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) as incorporated salt were prepared by in-situ photopolymerization technique. The complexes with different mass ratio of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer to BmimTFSI were investigated. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was increased and reach the highest value of 7.50 × 10-4 S cm-1 at the ratio of 3:7 (GMA: BmimTFSI). The interaction between the polymer host and ionic liquid was proved by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformation Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction analysis shows the amorphousity of the polymer electrolyte film increase with the ionic liquid ratio.

  20. Polymer electrolyte based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Beatrice Wong Chui; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2015-09-25

    Polymer electrolytes based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) as polymer host and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) as incorporated salt were prepared by in-situ photopolymerization technique. The complexes with different mass ratio of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer to BmimTFSI were investigated. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was increased and reach the highest value of 7.50 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at the ratio of 3:7 (GMA: BmimTFSI). The interaction between the polymer host and ionic liquid was proved by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformation Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction analysis shows the amorphousity of the polymer electrolyte film increase with the ionic liquid ratio.

  1. The thickening additives for mineral and synthetic oils based on the copolymers of alkyl acrylates or methacrylates and butyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskina, Evgeniya V.; Moikin, Alexey A.; Semenycheva, Ludmila L.

    2014-05-01

    A new method for synthesizing of the copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters with butyl vinyl ether in an excess of low-boiling monomer, which has proven effective for a number of alkyl methacrylates was proposed. Tests of thickening efficiency of the obtained copolymers were carried out. The resistance to mechanical degradation of the mineral, semi synthetic and synthetic base oils doped with the copolymers was evaluated.

  2. Thermomechanical behavior of amorphous tactic methacrylate polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiran, E.; Gillham, J. K.; Gipstein, E.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical spectra of amorphous stereoregular poly(methyl methacrylate)s and poly(t-butyl methacrylate)s with assigned microtacticities are presented and discussed. An intermolecular argument is invoked to account for the higher glass transition temperature of syndiotactic vis a vis isotactic PMMA, in spite of the higher density of the latter at 30 C. An argument is presented to show that the ratio of glassy-region relaxation temperature to glass transition temperature is not only a measure of the degree of coupling of the beta and glass transition processes, but also of the degree to which intermolecular factors influence these processes. The greater extent of the low-temperature irreversibilities observed in the thermomechanical spectra of poly(t-butyl methacrylate)s is attributed to the brittle character induced by the bulky side groups which presumably weaken cohesive forces.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate)/nano-titanium oxide composite particles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gang; Yu, Jie; Luo, Zhu; Zhou, LiangXue; Liang, Hang; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

    2011-06-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) [P(MMA-BA)]/nanosized titanium oxide (nano-TiO2) composite particles were prepared via insitu emulsion polymerization of MMA and BA in presence of nano-TiO2 particles. Before polymerization, the nano-TiO2 particles were modified by coupling agent. The structure and thermal properties of the obtained P(MMA-BA)/nano-TiO2 composite particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that there are covalent bond bindings between P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles, meaning that P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles were not simply blended or mixed up and that there is a strong interaction between P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles. TGA and DSC measurements indicated an enhancement of thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that P(MMA-BA) enhanced the dispersibility of nano-TiO2 particles. The dispersion stabilization of modified nano-TiO2 particles in aqueous system was significantly improved due to the introduction of grafted polymer on the surface of nano-particles. PMID:21770123

  4. Oil-in-water emulsion lotion providing controlled release using 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine n-butyl methacrylate copolymer as emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akiko; Fujii, Makiko; Morimoto, Kumi; Yamada, Tomomi; Koizumi, Naoya; Kondoh, Masuo; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2012-01-01

    Lotion is a useful vehicle for active ingredients used to treat skin disease because it can be applied to the scalp, can cover large areas of skin, and it is easy to spread due to low viscosity. An emulsion lotion (EL) containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine n-butyl methacrylate copolymer (PMB) as an emulsifier that provides controlled-release was developed. Diphenhydramine (DPH) was used as a model drug. Formulation with 5% DPH, 5% soybean oil, and 4% PMB in water was emulsified using a high-pressure homogenizer. Polysorbate 80 (TO) was used instead of PMB for comparison. They were applied in vitro to Yucatan micropig intact or stripped skin at a practical dose (2 μL/cm(2)). For stripped skin, penetration of DPH from 4% PMB EL was slower than that from 1% TO EL; results for intact skin were similar. The same phenomenon was observed with application to rabbit skin in vivo. When 4% PMB EL dried on the skin, it made a thin film matrix incorporating the oil phase, which controlled the release of DPH. The release rate could be controlled by the ratio of oil phase to PMB. The EL with PMB shows promise as a vehicle for long-acting treatment of skin diseases. PMID:25755990

  5. Construction of wettability gradient surface on copper substrate by controlled hydrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuo-ru

    2014-10-01

    We report a gradient wettability surface on copper slide prepared by a simple controlled ester group hydrolysis procedure of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) [P (MMA-BA)] films coated on the copper substrate. In the method, sodium hydroxide solutions are selected to prepare surface gradient wettability on P (MMA-BA) films. The P (MMA-BA) copolymers with different MMA contents are first synthesized by a conventional free atom radical solution polymerization method. The transfer of surface chemical composition from the ester group to acid salt is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The effects of different concentrations of NaOH solution and reaction times on the physicochemical properties of the resulting surfaces are studied. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the varying concentration along the substrate length is only attributed to the hydrolysis reaction of ester groups. The hydrolysis causes insignificant change on the morphology of the original film on the copper substrate. In addition, it is found that the MMA copolymer content has a significant influence on the concentration of ester groups on the outermost surface and thus important for forming the slope gradients.

  6. Effect of lithium chloride on the living polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate and polymer microstructure using monofunctional initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Varshney, S.K. ); Gao, Z. . Research Dept.); Zhong, Xing Fu; Eisenberg, A. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-02-28

    The effect of LiCl on the anionic polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBuMA) initiated with monofunctional alkali metal-based carbanionic species was investigated at [minus]78 C in THF. The propagation rate of the polymerization process was determined by gas chromatography and by gravimetry. It was found that, in the presence of LiCl in a molar ratio of 5 with respect to the initiator, the rate constant, k[sub p], is 20 times lower than that in the absence of LiCl. The polymers and oligomers were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and [sup 13]C NMR spectroscopy. The polymers obtained in the absence of LiCl had broad molecular weight distributions and contained significant amounts of oligomers, while those obtained in the presence of LiCl were monodisperse, without any noticeable oligomers. [sup 13]C NMR showed that the isotactic content of the polymers increased significantly when the molar ratio of LiCl to the initiator was higher than 2. The effect of LiCl on the rate constant and on the microstructure of the polymers was attributed to complex formation between LiCl and the living polymer chains.

  7. Vibrio fischeri and Escherichia coli adhesion tendencies towards photolithographically modified nanosmooth poly (tert-butyl methacrylate) polymer surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena P; Mitik-Dineva, Natasa; Mocanasu, Radu C; Murphy, Sarah; Wang, James; van Riessen, Grant; Crawford, Russell J

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the adhesion behavior of two bacterial species, Vibrio fischeri and Escherichia coli, to the photoresistant poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (P(tBMA)) polymer surface. The data has demonstrated that ultraviolet irradiation of P(tBMA) was able to provide control over bacterial adhesion tendencies. Following photolithography, several of the surface characteristics of P(tBMA) were found to be altered. Atomic force microscopy analysis indicated that photolithographically modified P(tBMA) (henceforth termed ‘modified polymer’) appeared as a ‘nanosmooth’ surface with an average surface roughness of 1.6 nm. Although confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis clearly demonstrated that V. fischeri and E. coli presented largely different patterns of attachment in order to adhere to the same surfaces, both species exhibited a greater adhesion propensity towards the ‘nanosmooth’ surface. The adhesion of both species to the modified polymer surface appeared to be facilitated by an elevated production of extracellular polymeric substances when in contact with the substrate. PMID:24198459

  8. 76 FR 69659 - Methacrylic Acid-Methyl Methacrylate-Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Methacrylate Graft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate- polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether methacrylate graft copolymer when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation. Akzo Noel Surface Chemistry LLC submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting an......

  9. Identification, Composition, and Asymmetric Formation Mechanism of Glycidyl Methacrylate/Butyl Methacrylate Copolymers up to 7000 Da from Electrospray Ionization Ultrahigh-Resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, S D; Hendrickson, C L; Marshall, A G; Simonsick, W J; Aaserud, D J

    1998-08-01

    Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) have the same nominal mass (142 Da) but differ in exact mass by 0.036 Da (CH(4) vs O). Therefore, copolymers formed from the two isobaric monomers exhibit a characteristic isobaric distribution due to different monomer compositions. Here, we show that electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry at 9.4 T resolves the isobaric components of copolymers as large as 7000 Da with a resolving power (m/Δm(50%)) of ∼500 000 in a gel permeation chromatography fractionated polymer sample. That resolution provides for complete and unequivocal component analysis of such copolymers of the size used for high solid content automobile coatings. All five possible copolymer products predicted by the polymerization mechanism are resolved and identified in the mass spectrum. Two of those polymer series (each with saturated end group) were previously unresolved by mass spectrometry because they differ in mass from the two other unsaturated products by only 0.0089 Da. Finally, analysis of the asymmetrical isobaric distribution for the copolymer n-mers, (GMA)(m)(BMA)(n)(-)(m), 0≤ m ≤ n, in which species with adjacent values of m differ from each other in mass by 36 mDa (i.e., the mass difference, CH(4) vs O, between GMA and BMA) proves that GMA is less reactive than BMA in the polymerization process. PMID:21644659

  10. Study on stochastic phenomena induced in chemically amplified poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate) resist (high performance model resist for extreme ultraviolet lithography)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius J.; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    Understanding of stochastic phenomena is essential to the development of highly sensitive resist for nanofabrication. In this study, we investigated the stochastic effects in a chemically amplified resist consisting of poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate), triphenylsulfonium nonafluorobutanesulfonate (an acid generator), and tri-n-octylamine (a quencher). The SEM images of resist patterns were analyzed, using Monte Carlo simulation on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. It was estimated that +/-0.82σ fluctuation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule led to line edge roughness formation. Here, σ is the standard deviation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule after postexposure baking.

  11. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... methacrylate and substituted methacrylate. 721.9492 Section 721.9492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34638, June 18, 2014....

  12. Grafting densely-packed poly( n-butyl methacrylate) chains from an iron substrate by aryl diazonium surface-initiated ATRP: XPS monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrab, Tarik; Save, Maud; Charleux, Bernadette; Pinson, Jean; Cabet-deliry, Eva; Adenier, Alain; Chehimi, Mohamed M.; Delamar, Michel

    2007-06-01

    Poly( n-butyl methacrylate), PBMA, chains were grafted by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from the surface of iron plates using electrochemically attached initiators based on diazonium salts providing an iron/polyphenylene/PBMA structure. This surface-initiated ATRP procedure was controlled by the addition of a small proportion of Cu ++ deactivator, but in the absence of any sacrificial initiator. Combined XPS, IR and AFM experiments provide a powerful means for the characterization of the obtained complex iron/polyphenylene/PBMA layered structure. It is possible to measure the thickness of the brominated aryl structure covalently attached to iron. Concerning the PBMA brushes, their presence on the surface was confirmed by IRRAS. The brominated chain end could be traced by XPS testifying for the ATRP character of the polymerization and the thickness of the polymer brushes was determined. The controlled living ATRP character of the polymerization is confirmed through a linear correlation between the thickness of the layer and the degree of polymerization. Measurement of the grafting density of PBMA chains indicates that they are compactly packed and that, approximately, one brominated aryl chain out of two efficiently initiates ATRP.

  13. Radiation graft copolymerization of butyl methacrylate and acrylamide onto low density polyethylene and polypropylene films, and its application in wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.; El-Arnaouty, M. B.; Aboulfotouh, Maysara E.; Taher, N. H.; Taha, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Butyl methacrylate and acrylamide (BMA/AAm) comonomers were grafted onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) films using the mutual gamma radiation grafting technique. The influences of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, monomer composition, and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were determined. It was found that using dimethyl formamide as a solvent enhanced the copolymerization process. The grafting yield increases as the comonomer concentration increases up to 60%. Also it was found that the degree of grafting of BMA/AAm onto both LDPE and PP films increases as the AAm content increases till an optimum value at 50:50 wt%. The grafting yield of the comonomers was found to increase with increase in the radiation dose. It was observed that the degree of grafting of polyethylene films is higher than that of polypropylene (PP) films at the same conditions. Some selected properties of the graft copolymers, such as water uptake and thermal properties, were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology and structure of the grafted films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, infra-red, and X-ray diffraction. Improvement in such properties of the prepared copolymers was observed which offers possible uses in some practical applications such as the removal of some heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that the maximum metal uptake by the copolymer followed the order Cu2+>Co2+>Ni2+ ions.

  14. Determination of Sudan dyes in chili pepper powder by online solid-phase extraction with a butyl methacrylate monolithic column coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Wang, Man-Man; Ai, Lian-Feng; Zhang, Chang-Kun; Li, Xin; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was fabricated and used as a novel sorbent for online solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder. The prepared columns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and pressure drop measurements. Online solid-phase extraction was performed on the synthesized monolithic column using 10 mM ammonium acetate solution as the loading solution with the aid of an online cleanup chromatography system. The desorption of Sudan I-IV was achieved with acetonitrile as the eluting solution at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The extracted analytes were subsequently eluted into a C18 analytical column for chromatographic separation using a mixture of 10% acetonitrile/90% formic acid (0.5%) solution as the mobile phase. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method had linear range of 1.0-50 μg/kg, a detection limit of 0.3 μg/kg, and a quantification limit of 1.0 μg/kg for each analyte. The intraday and interday recoveries of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder samples ranged from 94.8 to 100.9% and 94.9 to 99.4%, respectively. The intraday and interday precision were between 3.37-7.01% and 5.01-7.68%, respectively. PMID:24723310

  15. Self-stratified films obtained from poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) colloidal dispersions containing poly(vinyl alcohol): a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Kevin L; Su, Shengpei; Howell, Hunter R; Urban, Marek W

    2008-03-01

    These studies focus on the role of poly(vinyl alcohol) (pVOH) during colloidal synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) (pMMA/nBA) and its effect on particle coalescence. Using 2D photoacoustic FT-IR spectroscopy and internal reflection IR imaging, we showed that the presence of pVOH creates competing environments between the copolymer particle surfaces, aqueous phases, and dispersing agents which results in migration and self-induced stratification occurring during coalescence. pMMA/nBA/pVOH films stratify to form sodium dodecyl sulfate rich film-air interfaces, and the -SO3- moieties exhibit preferential parallel orientation with respect to the surface. At the same time, the bulk of the film is dominated by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the pVOH phase and the copolymer matrix. This behavior is attributed to significant interactions between pVOH and pMMA/nBA, resulting in limited mobility of pVOH. PMID:18193907

  16. Continuous process of preparation of n-butyl(meth)acrylate by esterification of (meth)acrylic acid by butanol on thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznaya, L.L.; Karakhanov, R.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Magadov, R.S.; Meshcheryakov, S.V.; Mkrtychan, V.R.; Fomin, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    The authors propose an effective thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger based on polymers with a system of conjugated bonds, sulfopolyphenylene ketone (SPP) differing from the known cation exchangers by the high thermostability (up to 250/sup 0/C), and also having the effect of the stabilization of the double bond in unsaturated monomers. The combination of inhibiting and cation exchange properties makes it also possible to use these sulfo-cation exchangers in the processes of esterification of (meth)acrylic acids by alcohols without addition of special inhibitors. The SPP catalyst was tested in esterification processes of acrylic an methacrylic acid by butanol at a pilot plant.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10153 Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified methyl methacrylate,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10153 Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified methyl methacrylate,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10153 Modified methyl methacrylate, 2... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified methyl methacrylate,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. Intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel solubilized with poly(2-methacryloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co n-butyl methacrylate) for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Soma, Daisuke; Kitayama, Joji; Konno, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Jun; Kamei, Takao; Ishigami, Hironori; Kaisaki, Shoichi; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2009-10-01

    Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of paclitaxel (PTX) is a hopeful therapeutic strategy for peritoneal malignancy. Intravenously (i.v.) injected nanoparticle anticancer drugs are known to be retained in the blood stream for a long time and favorably extravasated from vessels into the interstitium of tumor tissue. In this study, we evaluated the effect of i.p. injection of PTX (PTX-30W), which was prepared by solubulization with water-soluble amphiphilic polymer composed of PMB-30W, a co-polymer of 2-methacryloxyethyl phosphorylcholine and n-butyl methacrylate, for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. In a peritoneal metastasis model with transfer of MKN45P in nude mice, the effect of i.p. administration of PTX-30W was compared with conventional PTX dissolved in Cremophor EL (PTX-Cre). The drug accumulation in peritoneal nodules was evaluated with intratumor PTX concentration and fluorescence microscopic observation. PTX-30W reduced the number of metastatic nodules and tumor volume significantly more than did conventional PTX dissolved in Cremophor EL (PTX-Cre), and prolonged the survival time (P < 0.05). PTX concentration in disseminated tumors measured by HPLC was higher in the PTX-30W than in the PTX-Cre group up to 24 h after i.p. injection. Oregon green-conjugated PTX-30W, i.p. administered, preferentially accumulated in relatively hypovascular areas in the peripheral part of disseminated nodules, which was significantly greater than the accumulation of PTX-Cre. I.p. administration of PTX-30W may be a promising strategy for peritoneal dissemination, due to its superior characteristics to accumulate in peritoneal lesions. PMID:19604244

  3. The acute aquatic toxicity of a series of acrylate and methacrylate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, C.A.; McLaughlin, J.E.; Hamilton, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Acute aquatic toxicity data for several acrylate and methacrylate esters were reviewed. Acrylates included acrylic acid, ethyl-, and butyl-acrylate. Methacrylates included methacrylic acid, methyl-, and butyl-methacrylate. Tests were 48 hr or 96 hr standard flow through (invertebrates and fish) assays (measured exposure concentrations). These data are currently used in a risk assessment of acrylate/methacrylate environmental safety. Algal growth (Selanastrum capricomutum) 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.17 mg/L (NOEC < 0.13 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 11.0 mg/L (NOEC < 6.5 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC < 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Invertebrate (Daphnia magna) 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were 95.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 7.9 mg/L (NOEC 3.4 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 8.2 mg/L (NOEC 2.4 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 27.0 mg/L (NOEC 6.3 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 4.6 mg/L (NOEC 0.78 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Algae 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.59 mg/L (NOEC 0.38 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 170.0 mg/L (NOEC 100.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 130.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate. Daphnia magna 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were > 130.0 mg/L (NOEC 130.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 69.0 mg/L (NOEC 48.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 32.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for butyl methacrylate. Trout 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 85.0 mg/L (NOEC 12.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid and > 79.0 mg/L (NOEC 40.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 96 hr LC{sub 50} was 11.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate.

  4. Dielectric relaxation study of mixtures of alkyl methacrylates and 1-alcohols using time-domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivagurunathan, P.; Dharmalingam, K.; Ramachandran, K.; Prabhakar Undre, B.; Khirade, P. W.; Mehrotra, S. C.

    2006-05-01

    Dielectric relaxation measurements on alkyl methacrylates (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate) with 1-alcohols (1-propanol, 1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 1-decanol) have been carried out using time-domain reflectometry (TDR) over the frequency range 10 MHz to 20 GHz at 303 K for different concentrations of alcohols. The dielectric parameters, namely the static dielectric constant (ɛ0), the dielectric constant at microwave frequencies (ɛ∞) and the relaxation time (τ) were determined. The Kirkwood correlation factor, which contains information regarding solute-solvent interaction and corresponding structural information, the excess permittivity and the excess inverse relaxation time were also determined. The values of the static dielectric constant and the relaxation time increase with the percentage of alkyl methacrylates in the alcohol, whereas the static dielectric constant decreases and the relaxation time increases with an increase in the alkyl chain length of both the methacrylates and the alcohols.

  5. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may... produced by the polymerization of methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene. The divinylbenzene functions as...

  6. Photolithography with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbaugh, Daniel J.; Wright, Jason T.; Parthiban, Rajan; Rahman, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used as an electron beam resist but is not used as a photoresist because of its insensitivity to electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than about 300 nm. In this paper we describe a technique for performing conventional photolithography with high molecular weight PMMA at the widely used 365 nm i-line wavelength. The technique involves photosensitizing PMMA with Irgacure 651—a commercially available photo-initiator that can cause PMMA strands to cross-link. Optimum amount of Irgacure can produce a negative tone photoresist with adequate photosensitivity and plasma etch resistance. We describe this technique in detail with complete processing conditions and discuss the effects of varying Irgacure 651 concentration in PMMA as well as changes in UV exposure dose. We also show example structures patterned with commonly available materials and equipment. Finally, we show that it is possible to carry out gradient lithography with this approach, in order to produce structures in relief in photosensitive PMMA.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  11. Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes

    PubMed Central

    Dollendorf, Christian; Kreth, Susanne Katharina; Choi, Soo Whan

    2013-01-01

    Summary A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethyl)phenylamino)-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2), blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyl)oxy)phenylamino)anthraquinone (6) and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)amino)anthraquinone (12), as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)amino)anthraquinone (15) were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants. PMID:23503994

  12. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5300 - Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate for cranioplasty. (a) Identification. Methyl methacrylate for cranioplasty (skull repair) is a self-curing acrylic that a surgeon uses to repair a skull defect in a patient. At the time of...

  17. (Methacrylates to form insulation). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.

    1980-05-20

    The use of methacrylates to form the interior foam of a transport insulation was studied. Problems encountered with the methacrylates include its low surface tension, and its slow rate of polymerization. An additional problem was an incompatability between the fluorinated surfactant molecules and the fluorocarbon gas used to blow the foam. Other experimentation involved acrylamide foams using glycerol-ethylene glycol combinations and sodium linolenate. Also investigated was the use of tin oxide coatings which are transported to visible light but reflect infrared light. (BCS)

  18. Anionic polymerization of azo substituted methacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Dimov, D.K.; Dalton, L.R.; Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1993-12-31

    The anionic polymerization of 4-phenylazophenyl methacrylate (PAM) and 6-(4-phenylazophenoxy)-hexyl methacrylate (PAHM) initiated by {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} PMMA with lithium counterion was studied in THF at {minus}78{degrees}C. The polymerization of PAM was prevented by a side termination reaction. The polymerization of PAHM proceeded smoothly to furnish PMMA/azopolymer block copolymers. The process showed features typical of {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} anionic polymerization. No phase transitions could be detected by DSC to prove liquid crystalline mesophase formation by the block copolymers.

  19. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  20. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2007-01-09

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  1. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  2. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  3. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  4. Immobilization of enzymes on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate copolymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tanchen; Mao, Zhengwei; Moya, Sergio Enrique; Gao, Changyou

    2014-08-01

    The immobilization of enzymes is of paramount importance to maintain their activity and stability. In this study, surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization was applied to prepare poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) brushes on glass slides. The polymerization kinetics was followed by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and ellipsometry in terms of mass and thickness growth, respectively. The surface chemical compositions of the obtained polymer brushes were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their mass, thickness, and enzyme-immobilization ability could be easily tuned by the initiator reaction time, monomer ratio, and polymerization time. The antibacterial activity and stability of the immobilized lysozymes were studied by fluorescent staining and bacteria lysis assay, which revealed that the lysozymes on the copolymer brushes had good stability during storage at 4 °C for up to 30 days. PMID:24962678

  5. Second-harmonic generation from Z-type Langmuir-Blodgett films of a transparent dye and a comparison of the properties when the layers are interleaved with poly(t-butyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwell, Geoffrey J.; Ranjan, Rakesh

    1998-10-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film structure of E-4-[(N- octadecyl-6,7,8-trihydro-5-isoquinolylidene)methyl]-N,N- dibutylaniline octadecylsulfate is non-centrosymmetric when the dye is deposited on the up-stroke (Z-type) and when the layers are interleaved with poly(t-butyl methacrylate). The second-harmonic intensity increases as I(N)2(omega ) equals I(1)2(omega )N2, where N is the number of active layers, and the intensity is further enhanced when the dye is mixed in a 1 to 1 ratio with octadecanoic acid. The second-order susceptibility and repeat lattice spacing of the mixed LB films are as follows: (chi) zzz(2) equals 76 pm V-1 at 1.064 micrometers and l equals 3.15 nm layer-1 when Z-type; (chi) zzz(2) equals 52 pm V-1 and l equals 4.13 nm bilayer-1 when interleaved. The films are transparent at the fundamental wavelength and have a slight absorbance of ca. 5 X 10-4 per dye layer at 532 nm. The second-harmonic intensity is the strongest to date from such a weakly absorbing LB film and this is attributed to the close proximity of the charge-transfer band and to an optimized packing arrangement.

  6. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  7. Zwitterionic Poly(amino acid methacrylate) Brushes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A new cysteine-based methacrylic monomer (CysMA) was conveniently synthesized via selective thia-Michael addition of a commercially available methacrylate-acrylate precursor in aqueous solution without recourse to protecting group chemistry. Poly(cysteine methacrylate) (PCysMA) brushes were grown from the surface of silicon wafers by atom-transfer radical polymerization. Brush thicknesses of ca. 27 nm were achieved within 270 min at 20 °C. Each CysMA residue comprises a primary amine and a carboxylic acid. Surface zeta potential and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the pH-responsive PCysMA brushes confirm that they are highly extended either below pH 2 or above pH 9.5, since they possess either cationic or anionic character, respectively. At intermediate pH, PCysMA brushes are zwitterionic. At physiological pH, they exhibit excellent resistance to biofouling and negligible cytotoxicity. PCysMA brushes undergo photodegradation: AFM topographical imaging indicates significant mass loss from the brush layer, while XPS studies confirm that exposure to UV radiation produces surface aldehyde sites that can be subsequently derivatized with amines. UV exposure using a photomask yielded sharp, well-defined micropatterned PCysMA brushes functionalized with aldehyde groups that enable conjugation to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Nanopatterned PCysMA brushes were obtained using interference lithography, and confocal microscopy again confirmed the selective conjugation of GFP. Finally, PCysMA undergoes complex base-catalyzed degradation in alkaline solution, leading to the elimination of several small molecules. However, good long-term chemical stability was observed when PCysMA brushes were immersed in aqueous solution at physiological pH. PMID:24884533

  8. Zwitterionic poly(amino acid methacrylate) brushes.

    PubMed

    Alswieleh, Abdullah M; Cheng, Nan; Canton, Irene; Ustbas, Burcin; Xue, Xuan; Ladmiral, Vincent; Xia, Sijing; Ducker, Robert E; El Zubir, Osama; Cartron, Michael L; Hunter, C Neil; Leggett, Graham J; Armes, Steven P

    2014-07-01

    A new cysteine-based methacrylic monomer (CysMA) was conveniently synthesized via selective thia-Michael addition of a commercially available methacrylate-acrylate precursor in aqueous solution without recourse to protecting group chemistry. Poly(cysteine methacrylate) (PCysMA) brushes were grown from the surface of silicon wafers by atom-transfer radical polymerization. Brush thicknesses of ca. 27 nm were achieved within 270 min at 20 °C. Each CysMA residue comprises a primary amine and a carboxylic acid. Surface zeta potential and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the pH-responsive PCysMA brushes confirm that they are highly extended either below pH 2 or above pH 9.5, since they possess either cationic or anionic character, respectively. At intermediate pH, PCysMA brushes are zwitterionic. At physiological pH, they exhibit excellent resistance to biofouling and negligible cytotoxicity. PCysMA brushes undergo photodegradation: AFM topographical imaging indicates significant mass loss from the brush layer, while XPS studies confirm that exposure to UV radiation produces surface aldehyde sites that can be subsequently derivatized with amines. UV exposure using a photomask yielded sharp, well-defined micropatterned PCysMA brushes functionalized with aldehyde groups that enable conjugation to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Nanopatterned PCysMA brushes were obtained using interference lithography, and confocal microscopy again confirmed the selective conjugation of GFP. Finally, PCysMA undergoes complex base-catalyzed degradation in alkaline solution, leading to the elimination of several small molecules. However, good long-term chemical stability was observed when PCysMA brushes were immersed in aqueous solution at physiological pH. PMID:24884533

  9. On permeability of methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate through protective gloves in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Harriet; Boman, Anders; Johnsson, Stina; Karlsson, Stig; Barregård, Lars

    2003-12-01

    Continuous glove use is more common in dentistry than in most other occupations, and the glove should offer protection against blood-borne infections, skin irritants and contact allergens. Methacrylate monomers are potent contact allergens, and it is known that these substances may penetrate the glove materials commonly used. The aim of this study was to assess the permeability of various types of gloves to methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with special reference to combinations with ethanol or acetone. The permeation rate and time lag breakthrough (lag-BT) for MMA (neat, or diluted to 30% in ethanol or acetone), HEMA (30% in water, ethanol, or acetone) and TEGDMA (30% in ethanol or acetone) were investigated for different protective gloves. Nine different types of gloves were tested for one or several of these methacrylates. The lag-BT for neat MMA was

  10. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  11. Methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Kamada, K.; Nakai, Y.

    1981-10-20

    A methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property wherein an organic compound (A) containing cupric ion and a compound (B) having at least one p-o-h bond in a molecule are contained into the methacrylic resin selected from poly(Methyl methacrylate) or methacrylic polymers containing at least 50% by weight of a methyl methacrylate unit. A process for producing said methacrylic resin is also disclosed.

  12. INTERPRETATION OF COMPLEX MOLECULAR MOTIONS IN SOLUTION. A VARIABLE FREQUENCY CARBON-13 RELAXATION STUDY OF CHAIN SEGMENTAL MOTIONS IN POLY(N-ALKYL METHACRYLATES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive variable temperature study of poly(n-butyl methacrylate) and poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) at two widely separated frequencies (67.9 and 22.6 MHz) has revealed that a model requiring a nonexponential autocorrelation function, or, its mathematical equivalent, a distribut...

  13. Superhydrophobic terpolymer nanofibers containing perfluoroethyl alkyl methacrylate by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Ugur; Avci, Merih Z.; Erbil, H. Yildirim; Sarac, A. Sezai

    2012-05-01

    A new statistical terpolymer containing perfluoroethyl alkyl methacrylate (Zonyl-TM), methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate, poly(Zonyl-TM-ran-MMA-ran-BA) was synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide at 200 bar and 80 °C using AIBN as an initiator by heterogeneous free radical copolymerization. Nanofibers of this terpolymer were produced by electrospinning from its DMF solution. The structural and thermal properties of terpolymers and electrospun poly(Zonyl-TM-MMA-BA) nanofibers were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nanofiber morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun nanofiber layer was found to be superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 172 ± 1° and highly oleophobic with hexadecane, glycerol and ethylene glycol contact angles of 70 ± 1°, 167 ± 1° and 163 ± 1° respectively. The change of the contact angle results on the electrospun fiber layer and flat terpolymer surfaces by varying feed monomer composition were compared and discussed in the text.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  19. DEGRADATION OF POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) IN SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rate of degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to methyl methacrylate (MMA) was investigated in the liquid phase with toluene as the solvent. The degradation experiments were carried out in a tubular flow reactor at 1000 psig (6.8 MPa) and at four different temperat...

  20. Regioselective ester cleavage during the preparation of bisphosphonate methacrylate monomers

    PubMed Central

    Chougrani, Kamel; Niel, Gilles; Boutevin, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Summary New functional monomers bearing a methacrylate, a bisphosphonate function and, for most, an internal carboxylate group, were prepared for incorporation into copolymers with adhesive or anticorrosive properties. Methanolysis of some trimethylsilyl bisphosphonate esters not only deprotects the desired bisphosphonate function but also regioselectively cleaves the alkyl ester function without affecting the methacrylate ester. PMID:21512600

  1. Cell-laden microengineered gelatin methacrylate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Jason W; Koshy, Sandeep T; Bae, Hojae; Hwang, Chang M; Yamanlar, Seda; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-07-01

    The cellular microenvironment plays an integral role in improving the function of microengineered tissues. Control of the microarchitecture in engineered tissues can be achieved through photopatterning of cell-laden hydrogels. However, despite high pattern fidelity of photopolymerizable hydrogels, many such materials are not cell-responsive and have limited biodegradability. Here, we demonstrate gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) as an inexpensive, cell-responsive hydrogel platform for creating cell-laden microtissues and microfluidic devices. Cells readily bound to, proliferated, elongated, and migrated both when seeded on micropatterned GelMA substrates as well as when encapsulated in microfabricated GelMA hydrogels. The hydration and mechanical properties of GelMA were demonstrated to be tunable for various applications through modification of the methacrylation degree and gel concentration. The pattern fidelity and resolution of GelMA were high and it could be patterned to create perfusable microfluidic channels. Furthermore, GelMA micropatterns could be used to create cellular micropatterns for in vitro cell studies or 3D microtissue fabrication. These data suggest that GelMA hydrogels could be useful for creating complex, cell-responsive microtissues, such as endothelialized microvasculature, or for other applications that require cell-responsive microengineered hydrogels. PMID:20417964

  2. Effects of Surfactants on the Properties of Mortar Containing Styrene/Methacrylate Superplasticizer

    PubMed Central

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of mortar containing synthetic cosurfactants as air entraining agent are investigated. The cosurfactants consist of a combination of 2% dodecyl benzene sodium sulfonate (DBSS) and either 1.5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or 1.5% polyoxyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (POE). Also these cosurfactants were used to prepare copolymers latex: styrene/butyl methacrylate (St/BuMA), styrene/methyl methacrylate (St/MMA), and styrene/glycidyl methacrylate (St/GMA), in order to study their effects on the properties of mortar. The properties of mortar examined included flow table, W/C ratio, setting time, water absorption, compressive strength, and combined water. The results indicate that the latex causes improvement in mortar properties compared with cosurfactants. Also polymer latex containing DBSS/POE is more effective than that containing DBSS/PVA. PMID:24955426

  3. Toward pH-responsive coating materials--high-throughput study of (meth)acrylic copolymers.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Andreas; Arici, Elif; Windhab, Norbert; Schattka, Jan Hendrik; Schubert, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2014-08-11

    The release behavior of a model compound (β-naphthol orange) encapsulated in (meth)acrylate-based statistical copolymers under different environmental conditions was investigated. From monomers of varying polarity (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, tert-butyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate) in combination with methacrylic acid, five polymer series were synthesized by free radical polymerization. The pH-dependent release kinetics were investigated via UV-vis spectroscopy at pH 1.2 and 6.8, simulating physiological conditions in the stomach and intestines. Furthermore, the influence of different ethanol contents (0 and 40 vol %) in the acidic medium was investigated. The whole approach was designed to meet the requirements of a high-throughput experimentation workflow. PMID:24964068

  4. Improvement of holographic thermal stability in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Hongpeng; Wang, Heng; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Yongyuan; Sun, Xiudong

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies of holographic thermal stability in phenanthrenequinone (PQ)-doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) [P(MMA-co-MAA)] photopolymers are presented. A possibility to improve the thermal stability of holograms is demonstrated by doping methacrylic acid (MAA) into the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer matrix. MAA as a copolymerization monomer can form a more stable polymer matrix with methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and increase average molecular weight of photoproducts, which finally depress the diffusion of photoproduct. The optimized MAA concentration copolymerized into P(MMA-co-MAA) polymer matrix can bring nearly a month's lifetime of gratings, which is obviously an improvement over the usual PQ-PMMA material under thermal treatment.

  5. Predicting the chromatographic retention of polymers: poly(methyl methacrylate)s and polyacryate blends.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mubasher A; Radke, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    The suitability of a retention model especially designed for polymers is investigated to describe and predict the chromatographic retention behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate)s as a function of mobile phase composition and gradient steepness. It is found that three simple yet rationally chosen chromatographic experiments suffice to extract the analyte specific model parameters necessary to calculate the retention volumes. This allows predicting accurate retention volumes based on a minimum number of initial experiments. Therefore, methods for polymer separations can be developed in relatively short time. The suitability of the virtual chromatography approach to predict the separation of polymer blend is demonstrated for the first time using a blend of different polyacrylates. PMID:17586517

  6. Preparation of ultrafine poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Saade, Hened; Diaz de León-Gómez, Ramón; Enríquez-Medrano, Francisco Javier; López, Raúl Guillermo

    2016-08-01

    Ibuprofen-loaded polymeric particles with around 9.2 nm in mean diameter, as determined by electron microscopy, dispersed in an aqueous media containing up to 12.8% solids were prepared by semicontinuous heterophase polymerization. The polymeric material is a (2/1 mol/mol) methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid copolymer similar to Eudragit S100, deemed safe for human consumption and used in the manufacturing of drug-loaded pills as well as micro- and nanoparticles. The loading efficiency was 100%, attaining around 10-12% in drug content. Release studies showed that the drug is released from the nanoparticles at a slower rate than that in the case of free IB. Given their size as well as the pH values required for their dissolution, it is believed that this type of particles could be used as a basis for preparing nanosystems loaded with a variety of drugs. PMID:27126476

  7. Fate of methyl methacrylate in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bratt, H.; Hathway, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 88% of a single dose of methyl[14C]methacrylate in rats is expired as 14CO2 in 10 days (65% in 2 h), irrespective of the route of administration and of the specific labelling of the propylene residue of the molecule. The implications of this observation, and of the excretion of small amounts of [14C]methylmalonate, [14C]-succinate and probably of [14C]beta-hydroxyisobutyrate and 2-formylpropionate, and of the formation of [14C] normal, physiological metabolites that may be accounted for by anabolism both from 14CO2 and from [14C]acetate emergent from the citric acid cycle, are that the metabolic pathway concerned involves intermediary metabolism and relates to mitochondrial function. Present findings are discussed in relation to the imputations of a report of carcinogenic risk. PMID:889678

  8. Biocompatible Bacterial Cellulose-Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Andrea G. P. R.; Figueiredo, Ana R. P.; Alonso-Varona, Ana; Fernandes, Susana C. M.; Palomares, Teodoro; Rubio-Azpeitia, Eva; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Pascoal Neto, Carlos; Freire, Carmen S. R.

    2013-01-01

    A series of bacterial cellulose-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films was prepared by in situ radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), using variable amounts of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker. Thin films were obtained, and their physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties were evaluated. The films showed improved translucency compared to BC and enhanced thermal stability and mechanical performance when compared to poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). Finally, BC/PHEMA nanocomposites proved to be nontoxic to human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and thus are pointed as potential dry dressings for biomedical applications. PMID:24093101

  9. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .../methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers (CAS... methacrylate polymers consist of basic polymers produced by the copolymerization of vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate such that the basic polymers or the finished food-contact articles meet...

  10. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR METHYL METHACRYLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for methyl methacrylate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardo...

  11. Semi-micro reversed-phase liquid chromatography for the separation of alkyl benzenes and proteins exploiting methacrylate- and polystyrene-based monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2016-05-01

    Monolithic columns were synthesized inside 1.02 mm internal diameter fused-silica lined stainless-steel tubing. Styrene and butyl, hexyl, lauryl, and glycidyl methacrylates were the functional monomers. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and divinylbenzene were the crosslinkers. The glycidyl methacrylate polymer was modified with gold nanoparticles and dodecanethiol (C12 ). The separation of alkylbenzenes was investigated by isocratic elution in 60:40 v/v acetonitrile/water. The columns based on polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene and poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified with dodecanethiol did not provide any separation of alkyl benzenes. The poly(hexyl methacrylate)-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and poly(lauryl methacrylate)-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate columns separated the alkyl benzenes with plate heights between 30 and 60 μm (50 μL min(-1) and 60°C). Similar efficiency was achieved in the poly(butyl methacrylate)-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate column, but only at 10 μL min(-1) (0.22 mm s(-1) ). Backpressures varied from 0.38 MPa in the hexyl methacrylate to 13.4 MPa in lauryl methacrylate columns (50 μL min(-1) and 60°C). Separation of proteins was achieved in all columns with different efficiencies. At 100 μL min(-1) and 60°C, the lauryl methacrylate columns provided the best separation, but their low permeability prevented high flow rates. Flow rates up to 500 μL min(-1) were possible in the styrene, butyl and hexyl methacrylate columns. PMID:26960001

  12. Furfuryl methacrylate plasma polymers for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Hanieh Safizadeh; Rogers, Nicholas; Michelmore, Andrew; Whittle, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Furfuryl methacrylate (FMA) is a promising precursor for producing polymers for biomedical and cell therapy applications. Herein, FMA plasma polymer coatings were prepared with different powers, deposition times, and flow rates. The plasma polymer coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The results from AFM and SEM show the early growth of the coatings and the existence of particle aggregates on the surfaces. XPS results indicated no measureable chemical differences between the deposited films produced under different power and flow rate conditions. ToF-SIMS analysis demonstrated differing amounts of C5H5O (81 m/z) and C10H9O2 (161 m/z) species in the coatings which are related to the furan ring structure. Through judicious choice of plasma polymerization parameters, the quantity of the particle aggregates was reduced, and the fabricated plasma polymer coatings were chemically uniform and smooth. Primary human fibroblasts were cultured on FMA plasma polymer surfaces to determine the effect of surface chemical composition and the presence of particle aggregates on cell culture. Particle aggregates were shown to inhibit fibroblast attachment and proliferation. PMID:27609095

  13. GENOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC ACID, METHYL ACRYLATE, ETHYL ACRYLATE, METHYL METHACRYLATE, AND ETHYL METHACRYLATE IN L5178Y MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of monomeric acrylate/methacrylate esters (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and ethyl methacrylate) as well as acrylic acid were examined for genotoxic activity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells without exogenous activation. All five compounds induced c...

  14. Synthesis, Thermal Properties, and Thermoresponsive Behaviors of Cyclic Poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl Methacrylate)s.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaonan; Tang, Qingquan; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Ke; Zhao, Youliang

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at physicochemical properties of thermo- and pH/CO2 -responsive cyclic homopolymers. Three examples of cyclic poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)s (PDMAs) are synthesized by combining the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer process and the Diels-Alder ring-closure reaction. After cyclization, the glass transition temperature significantly increases (ΔTg = 51.8-59.7 °C) due to the different configurational entropy and end groups, and the maximum decomposition temperature to lose the pendent groups is drastically decreased from 309 to 278 °C. Effects of polymerization degree, polymer concentration, additive of NaCl, and pH/CO2 on lower critical solution temperature behaviors of PDMA aqueous solutions are investigated. The cloud points (Tc ) of ring PDMAs are usually higher than their linear precursors, and the ΔTc values obtained under a fixed condition can reach up to 20.7 °C, revealing the crucial role of the topology effect. This study paves the way for unique properties and applications of smart cyclic polymers and their derivatives. PMID:27126247

  15. Complex microparticulate systems based on glycidyl methacrylate and xanthan.

    PubMed

    Lungan, Maria-Andreea; Popa, Marcel; Desbrieres, Jacques; Racovita, Stefania; Vasiliu, Silvia

    2014-04-15

    Porous microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate, dimethacrylic monomers [ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate] and xanthan gum were synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization method in the presence of toluene as diluent using two types of initiators: benzoyl peroxide and ammonium persulfate. The G microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate and dimethacrylic monomers and X microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate, xanthan and dimethacrylic monomers were characterized by various techniques including FT-IR spectroscopy, TG analysis, SEM analysis and DVS method. The specific surface areas were determined by DVS method, while the copolymer porosities and pore volume were obtained from the apparent and skeletal densities. The results have indicated that xanthan was included in the crosslinked matrix by means of covalent bonds. X microparticles have a porous structure with higher specific surface area (129-44 m(2)/g) and higher sorption capacities compared with G microparticles (69-31 m(2)/g). PMID:24607180

  16. Protonation of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate by acids in various solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, I.L.; Bune, E.V.; Bogachev, Yu.S.; Sheinker, A.P.; Teleshov, E.N.

    1988-04-10

    It was established by /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR that diethylaminoethyl methacrylate exists in the unprotonated form in solvents which are not acids. In the presence of an equimolar amount of hydrochloric or trifluoroacetic acids the amino ester is fully protonated, irrespective of the solvent. The diethylaminoethyl methacrylate-acetic acid system exists in the form of a molecular complex with a hydrogen bond and in the protonated form; the proportions of the protonated form were estimated in various solvents. The change in the reactivity of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and its salts in polymerization was explained by a change in the electronic state of CH/sub 2/ = group of the monomer as a result of its protonation and of the formation of a hydrogen bond between the C = O group of the monomer and the solvent.

  17. Rapid preparation and characterization of methacrylate-based monoliths for chromatographic and electrophoretic separation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li-Qun; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Gong, Wen-Jun; Qu, Ling-Bo; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2010-01-01

    Butyl-methacrylate-based porous monoliths were rapidly prepared in the fused-silica capillary with a 10-cm stripe of polyimide removed from its exterior. The photopolymerization could be carried out in 150 s using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linking agent; 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water as tri-porogenic solvents; and Irgacure 1800 as a photo-initiator. The effect of different morphologies on the efficiency and retention properties was investigated using pressure-assisted CEC (p-CEC), CEC, and low pressure-assisted liquid chromatography modes (LPLC). Baseline separation of the model analytes was respectively achieved including thiourea, toluene, naphthalene, and biphenyl with the lowest theoretical height up to 8.0 microm for thiourea in the mode of p-CEC. Furthermore, the influence of the tri-porogenic solvents on the morphology of methacrylate-based monoliths was systematically studied with mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:20515536

  18. 40 CFR 721.10523 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (generic). 721... methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (PMN P... Substances § 721.10523 Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10523 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (generic). 721... methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (PMN P... Substances § 721.10523 Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide,...

  20. Well-defined inorganic/organic nanocomposite by nano silica core-poly(methyl methacrylate/butylacrylate/trifluoroethyl methacrylate) shell.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gang; He, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Pan, Aizhao; Liu, Jing; Li, Yingjun; Cao, Ruijun

    2013-04-15

    The novel inorganic/organic core-shell SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) nanocomposite for coating application is synthesized in this paper by seed emulsion polymerization, in which the inorganic phase is composed of nano-SiO2 modified by vinyl-trimethoxysilane (VMS) or γ-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxylsilane (MPMS), and the organic phase is made of terpolymer by 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (3FMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and n-butyl acrylate (BA). The chemical structure of SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) is characterized by FTIR. The effect of surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/octyl phenyl polyoxyethylene ether (TX-10), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)/TX-10 and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) on the grafting ratio (GR) of VMS and MPMS, the dispersion of nano-SiO2 particles and the film properties of SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) are investigated by TGA, DLS, TEM, SEM, and XPS. The morphology variation and the particle size distributions of SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) with the content of surfactant and P(MMA/BA/3FMA) are characterized. It is found that MPMS is more effective than VMS in improving GR and the dispersion of nano-SiO2 particles. The surfactants are favor of gaining the higher GR in the multilayer grafted nano-SiO2, especially SDS/TX-10 for 17.6% GR. The morphology of SiO2/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) is controlled by the amount of SDS/TX-10 and P(MMA/BA/3FMA) as the core-shell particles, the stacked pomegranate seed with multicore and the multicore-single shell structure when w(MMA)/w(BA)/w(3FMA)=1.3/1/1. Among the different surfactants, SDBS/TX-10 and PVP could give the monodispersing nano-SiO2 in the terpolymer matrix of the films, but SDS/TX-10 and SDBS/TX-10 could perform the fluorine-rich surface. PMID:23403111

  1. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  2. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  3. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  4. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers (CAS Reg. No. 34364-83-5) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be.../methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers consist of basic polymers produced by the...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers (CAS Reg. No. 34364-83-5) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be.../methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers consist of basic polymers produced by the...

  6. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  7. 21 CFR 73.3121 - Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. 73...(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting one or more of the reactive dyes listed in this paragraph with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), so that...

  8. 21 CFR 73.3121 - Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. 73...(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting one or more of the reactive dyes listed in this paragraph with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), so that...

  9. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10619 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer (PMN P-11-653) is subject to reporting under this.... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(p)(any amount after September 30, 2014). (b) Specific requirements. The...) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as specified in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (h), and (i)...

  11. Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Jang, B.W.L.

    1995-12-31

    Acrylates and methacrylates are among the most widely used chemical intermediates in the world. One of the key chemicals of this type is methyl methacrylate. Of the 4 billion pounds produced each year, roughly 85% is made using the acetone-cyanohydrin process, which requires handling of large quantities of hydrogen cyanide and produces ammonium sulfate wastes that pose an environmental disposal challenge. The U.S. Department of Energy and Eastman Chemical Company are sharing the cost of research to develop an alternative process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate from syngas. Research Triangle Institute is focusing on the synthesis and testing of active catalysts for the condensation reactions, and Bechtel is analyzing the costs to determine the competitiveness of several process alternatives. Results thus far show that the catalysts for the condensation of formaldehyde and the propionate are key to selectively producing the desired product, methacrylic acid, with a high yield. These condensation catalysts have both acid and base functions and the strength and distribution of these acid-base sites controls the product selectivity and yield.

  12. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775 Section 172.775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1830 - Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers. 177.1830 Section 177.1830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and...

  14. Release of Water Soluble Drugs from Dynamically Swelling POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL Methacrylate - CO - Methacrylic Acid) Hydrogels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jim Hwai-Cher

    In this study, ionizable copolymers of HEMA and methacrylic acid (MA) are investigated for their potential use in developing pH dependent oral delivery systems. Because of the MA units, these gels swell extensively at high pH. Since solute diffusion in the hydrophilic polymers depends highly on the water content of the matrix, it is anticipated that the release rate will be modulated by this pH induced swelling. From a practical point of view, the advantage of the present system is that one can minimize drug loss in the stomach and achieve a programmed release in intestine. This approach is expected to improve delivery of acid labile drugs or drugs that cause severe gastrointestinal side effects. This work mainly focuses on the basic understanding of the mechanism involved in drug release from the poly(HEMA -co- MA) gels, especially under dynamic swelling conditions. Equilibrium swelling is first characterized since water content is the major determinant of transport properties in these gels. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is chosen as the model drug for the release study and its diffusion characteristics in the gel matrix determined. The data obtained show that the PPA diffusivity follows the free volume theory of Yasuda, which explains the accelerating effect of swelling on drug release. A mathematical model based on a diffusion mechanism has been developed to describe PPA release from the swelling gels. Based on this model, several significant conclusions can be drawn. First, the release rate can be modulated by the aspect ratio of the cylindrical geometry, and this has a practical implication in dosage form design. Second, the release rate can be lowered quite considerably if the dimensional increase due to swelling is significant. Consequently, it is the balance between the drug diffusivity increase and the gel dimensional growth that determines the release rate from the swelling matrix. Third, quasi-steady release kinetics, which are characteristic of swelling

  15. A novel crosslinker for UV copolymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone and methacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Yu-Chin

    1993-12-31

    Methacryloxyethyl vinyl carbonate, a novel crosslinker containing a vinyl carbonate and a methacrylate group which is capable of copolymerizing N-vinyl pyrrolidone and methacrylates, was prepared. With this crosslinker, N-vinyl pyrrolidone and methacrylates can copolymerize efficiently under strictly UV condition. Previously, polymeric systems containing N-vinyl pyrrolidone and methacrylates were prepared using thermal initiators, or a combination of thermal and UV initiators in the presence of crosslinkers such as allyl methacrylate or ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, These processes often led to polymers with inferior properties and less controllable quality. The use of this novel crosslinker represents a sharp improvement in polymerization conditions (UV vs heat) as well as product quality.

  16. Aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate)s for constructing efficient gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Dou, X B; Chai, M Y; Zhu, Y; Yang, W T; Xu, F J

    2013-04-24

    Aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) vectors could efficiently mediate gene delivery. Recently, we reported that ethanolamine (EA)-functionalized PGMA could provide high transfection efficiency, while exhibiting very low toxicity. Herein, different amine species, including 1-amino-2-propanol (AP1), 3-amino-2-propanol (AP2), EA, and N,N,-dimethylethylenediamine (DED), and its quaternized DED, were proposed to aminate PGMA. The DNA condensation abilities, pH buffering capacities, cytotoxicities, and gene transfection efficiencies of the resultant aminated PGMA vectors were systematically compared. Compared with EA, AP1 (or AP2) contains an additional methyl (or methylene) group. EA-, AP1-, and AP2-functionalized PGMA vectors exhibited similar condensation abilities. The methyl (from AP1) and methylene (from AP2) species could benefit the gene delivery. The transfection performance mediated by AP1-functionalized PGMA is best. DED possesses a tertiary amine group, which could be quaternized to further enhance the DNA condensation ability of aminated PGMA. No obvious increase in cytotoxicity of quaternized DED-aminated PGMA was observed. But both DED- and its quaternized counterpart-functionalized PGMA vectors exhibited very low pH buffering capacities, making them exhibit poor gene transfection performances. The current study would provide useful information for constructing better PGMA-based delivery systems with good biophysical properties. PMID:23514579

  17. Investigation of Methacrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Marshall, William G; Urquhart, Andrew J; Oswald, Iain D H

    2015-09-10

    This article shows that pressure can be a low-intensity route to the synthesis of polymethacrylic acid. The exploration of perdeuterated methacrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction reveals that methacrylic acid exhibits two polymorphic phase transformations at relatively low pressures. The first is observed at 0.39 GPa, where both phases were observed simultaneously and confirm our previous observations. This transition is followed by a second transition at 1.2 GPa to a new polymorph that is characterized for the first time. On increasing pressure, the diffraction pattern of phase III deteriorates significantly. On decompression phase III persists to 0.54 GPa before transformation to the ambient pressure phase. There is significant loss of signal after decompression, signifying that there has been a loss of material through polymerization. The orientation of the molecules in phase III provides insight into the possible polymerization reaction. PMID:26289930

  18. Preparation and characterization of methacrylate hydrogels for zeta potential control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregonis, D. E.; Ma, S. M.; Vanwagenen, R.; Andrade, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic coatings on electroosmotic flow. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of glass capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming potential measurements is discussed. Various silane adhesion promoters exhibited only a slight decrease in streaming potential. A coating utilizing a glycidoxy silane base upon which methylcellulose is applied affords a six-fold decrease over uncoated tubes. Hydrophilic methacrylate gels show similar streaming potential behavior, independent of the water content of the gel. By introduction of positive or negative groups into the hydrophilic methacrylate gels, a range of streaming potential values are obtained having absolute positive or negative signs.

  19. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2013-11-01

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm-1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi; Samuel S. Tam

    1999-04-21

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (January-March/99), in-situ formaldehyde generation and condensation with methyl propionate were tested over various catalysts and reaction conditions. The patent application is in preparation and the results are retained for future reports.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF METHACRYLATES FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, B.W.L.; Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.

    1999-12-01

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel have developed a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the US Department of Energy/Fossil Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC). This project has resulted in five US patents (four already published and one pending publication). It has served as the basis for the technical and economic assessment of the production of this high-volume intermediate from coal-derived synthesis gas. The three-step process consists of the synthesis of a propionate from ethylene carbonylation using coal-derived CO, condensation of the propionate with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA); and esterification of MAA with methanol to yield MMA. The first two steps, propionate synthesis and condensation catalysis, are the key technical challenges and the focus of the research presented here.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horák, Daniel; Petrovský, Eduard; Kapička, Aleš; Frederichs, Theodor

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were prepared and their detailed structural and magnetic characteristics given. Iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by chemical coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and stabilized with dextran, (carboxymethyl)dextran or tetramethylammonium hydroxide. The microspheres were prepared by emulsion or dispersion polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate in the presence of ferrofluid. The microspheres were uniform both in shape and usually also in size; their size distribution was narrow. All the magnetic parameters confirm superparamagnetic nature of the microspheres. Blocking temperature was not observed, suggesting the absence of magnetic interactions at low temperatures. This is most probably caused by complete encapsulation and the absence of agglomeration. Such microspheres can be used in biomedical applications.

  3. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup −1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  4. Penile enlargement with methacrylate injection: is it safe?

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Andrade, Enrico Martins de; Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Claro, Joaquim Francisco Almeida; Cury, Jose; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Penis size is a great concern for men in many cultures. Despite the great variety of methods for penile augmentation, none has gained unanimous acceptance among experts in the field. However, in this era of minimally invasive procedure, injection therapy for penile augmentation has become more popular. Here we report a case of methacrylate injection in the penis that evolved with penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. This work also reviews the investigation and management of this pathological condition. CASE REPORT A 36-year-old male sought medical care with a complaint of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction after methacrylate injection. The treatment administered was surgical removal. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were reached after two months. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for better structured scientific research to evaluate the outcomes and complication rates from all penile augmentation procedures. PMID:23538596

  5. [Chest granuloma secondary to methyl methacrylate. Case report].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bistrain, Ricardo; Robles García, Verónica; Cornejo-Morales, Ivonne

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with a history of a massive left hemithorax crushing injury in 1985; the exact management of the lesion is unknown. Twenty years later he had a thoracic fistula with a culture that was reported as positive for Enteroccocus faecalis and Staphyloccocus epidermidis. The patient was referred by the chest surgery service with the diagnosis of rib osteomyelitis once complementary imaging tests were performed (plain X-rays, CAT scan and MRI). The patient underwent surgery at our service; a granulomatous reaction secondary to a foreign body (methyl methacrylate and Ethibon) was reported. Chest reconstruction for massive lesions is possible with methyl methacrylate. Imaging studies involve the well-known difficulty to identify this material, given that it may produce signals and densities that are difficult to interpret by specialized physicians. PMID:20377062

  6. Biodegradation of polystyrene, poly(metnyl methacrylate), and phenol formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, D L; Hartenstein, R; Sutter, J

    1979-01-01

    The biodegradation of three synthetic 14C-labeled polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate), phenol formaldehyde, and polystyrene, was studied with 17 species of fungi in axenic cultures, five groups of soil invertebrates, and a variety of mixed microbial communities including sludges, soils, manures, garbages, and decaying plastics. Extremely low decomposition rates were found. The addition of cellulose and mineral failed to increase decomposition rates significantly. PMID:533278

  7. PolyGuanine methacrylate cryogels for ribonucleic acid purification.

    PubMed

    Köse, Kazım; Uzun, Lokman

    2016-05-01

    The isolation and purification of ribonucleic acid have attracted attention recently for the understanding of the functions in detail because of the necessity for the treatment of genetic diseases. In this study, guanine-incorporated polymeric cryogels were developed to obtain highly purified ribonucleic acid. The satisfactory purification performance was achieved with the guanine-incorporated poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-guanine methacrylate) cryogels. The most crucial advantages to use guanine as a functional monomer are to obtain a real natural interaction between guanine on the polymeric material and cytosine on the ribonucleic acid. Moreover, using cryogel with a highly porous structure and high swelling ratio provide advantages of getting more water within the structure to get more analyte to interact. The characterization of cryogels has proved the success of the synthesis and the perfect natural interaction to be taken place between the ligand (guanine methacrylate) and the cytosine in the ribonucleic acid molecules. Although the pores within the structure of cryogels are small, they provide efficient and fast adsorption. The chromatographic separation performance was investigated for different conditions (pH, temperature etc.). The desorption ratio and reusability were also analyzed at the end of the five adsorption-desorption cycles with no significant changes. PMID:27004613

  8. Evaluation of alternate routes for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.

    1998-12-31

    The use of coal-derived syngas to produce high value chemicals is an important means of upgrading this resource. One example of a chemical that can be produced from coal-derived syngas is methyl methacrylate (MMA). Poly-methyl methacrylate is widely used in coatings and in various industrial molded products. The most widely practiced commercial technology for the synthesis of MMA is the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. This process requires handling of large quantities of toxic hydrogen cyanide and generates one mole of ammonium bisulfate waste per mole of MMA. This bisulfate must either be regenerated or discarded, either of which substantially increases the cost. The ACH technology is thus environmentally and economically untenable for any new MMA plant expansions that would be needed to meet increasing demand. The RTI-Eastman-Bechtel research team is developing an alternative, environmentally benign route to MMA consisting of three steps; (step 1) synthesis of a propionate from ethylene, carbon monoxide, and steam, (step 2) condensation of this propionate with formaldehyde, and (step 3) esterification of resulting methacrylic acid with methanol to form MMA. This paper describes the preliminary economics of the overall process compared to other emerging processes, and focuses on step 2, including long term testing of catalysts for the condensation of propionic acid with formaldehyde to form MAA.

  9. Different in vitro and in vivo behaviors between Poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Lin, Weifeng; Ma, Guanglong; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Shengfu

    2016-10-01

    Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA) and poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA) are two well-known zwitterionic polymers known for their excellent antifouling properties. In this work, these two zwitterionic polymers were compared both in vitro and in vivo. Both of them exhibited excellent antifouling properties and low macrophage uptake although there were negligible differences in resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption of their hydrogels and cell internalization of their star polymers. However, it is found that the β- Cyclodextrin-CBMA (CD-CBMA) showed a circulation time one order of magnitude longer than CD-SBMA, which implied that small differences in vitro may lead to a dramatic difference in vivo. This work demonstrated that pCBMA showed greater potential than pSBMA in biomedical applications. PMID:27459415

  10. Heterocyclic methacrylates for clinical applications. II. Room temperature polymerizing systems for potential clinical use.

    PubMed

    Patel, M P; Braden, M

    1991-09-01

    A number of useful room temperature polymerizing resins were formulated, based on poly(ethyl methacrylate) powder and a range of low shrinkage heterocyclic methacrylate monomers. N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine or p-tolyl diethanolamine were used as activating amines, but the latter material is less active and some care is necessary with respect to the source of the monomer. Isobornyl methacrylate is a useful diluent monomer to reduce the exotherm. PMID:1742408

  11. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates.

    PubMed

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined α-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0/[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25 °C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) . PMID:26013759

  12. Study of the miscibility of poly(styrene-co-4-vinylbenzoic acid) with poly(ethyl methacrylate) or with poly[ethyl methacrylate-co-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate] by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ourdani, Samia; Amrani, Farouk

    2002-09-01

    Poly(styrene) is immiscible with poly(ethyl methacrylate). The introduction of a small amount of 4-vinylbenzoic acid units along poly(styrene) chains (PS-VBA) enhanced its miscibility with poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) or with poly[ethyl methacrylate-co-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate] (PEMA-DAE), as observed from the appearance of a single composition dependent glass transition temperature for each binary system using inverse gas chromatography. The negative values of the apparent polymer-polymer interaction parameter, chi(23)app, determined with different families of molecular probes, for three blend compositions and over a range of temperature confirm quantitatively the miscibility of these blends. The chi(23)app values for PEMA(PS-VBA) and (PEMA-DAE)-(PS-VBA) blends are dependent of the chemical nature of the probes, the temperature and the blend composition. PMID:12385399

  13. Glycol methacrylate in light microscopy: nucleic acid cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Cole, M B; Ellinger, J

    1981-07-01

    Techniques utilizing Feulgen, azure B bromide, methyl green-pyronin, gallocyanin chromalum and cresyl violet stains have been modified and adapted for visualizing nucleic acids in 0.5-2.0 micrometer sections of tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA). Methods for evaluating the stain specificity for DNA and RNA using deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease digestions, aldehyde blocking, and acid extractions are also described. The specificity of the stains in GMA embedded tissues is comparable to that reported for paraffin-embedded tissues. PMID:6167720

  14. Density of radiolytic gas bubbles in polymethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkonen, T.; Tiainen, O. J. A.; Valkiainen, M.; Winberg, M.

    The density of the radiolytic gas bubbles in irradiated polymethyl methacrylate was measured during subsequent heat treatment as a function of radiation dose. The samples were irradiated in the core of the Triga Mark II reactor in Otaniemi. After the irradiation periods the samples were heat treated at 393 K. The number of the bubbles could be explained by a thermal activation model. The bubbles are born in material inhomogeneities and the threshold dose for the bubble initiation was about 25 Mrad for the heat treatment at 393 K under the atmospheric pressure.

  15. Jumpwise deformation of polymethyl methacrylate in the microplasticity region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpeizman, V. V.; Yakushev, P. N.; Mukhina, Zh. V.; Kuznetsov, E. V.; Smolyanskii, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The deformation rate with a step of 325 nm has been measured under uniaxial compression at the initial stage of creep and shape recovery of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sample after unloading. The effect of low γ-ray doses and magnetic fields on the deformation has been studied. It has been shown that a weak pre-exposure of the PMMA sample structure to radiation and magnetic fields can cause a slight hardening in the microplasticity region. The deformation jump sizes have been determined on micro- and nanoscales. The effect of irradiation and magnetic fields manifests itself as redistributed contributions of various jumps to the deformation.

  16. Hardness of irradiated poly(methyl methacrylate) at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, K.-P.; Lee, Sanboh; Cheng, Cheu Pyeng

    2001-08-15

    The decrease in hardness induced by gamma irradiation in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has been investigated. The hardness is assumed to decrease linearly with the concentration of radiation-induced defects. Annealing at high temperatures induces defect annihilation as tracked by an increase in hardness. The annihilation follows first-order kinetics during isothermal annealing. The dependence of hardness on the reciprocal of the time constant satisfies the Arrhenius equation, and the corresponding activation energy of the kinetic process decreases with increasing dose. The hardness of postannealed PMMA decreases linearly with increasing dose. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Variation in the chromatographic, material, and chemical characteristics of methacrylate-based polymer monoliths during photoinitiated low-temperature polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ayumi; Nakaza, Takuya; Hirano, Tomohiko; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Both the separation behavior and the structure of a polymer monolith column depends on both the reaction solution composition and the polymerization conditions. In photoinitiated low-temperature polymerization, polymerization temperature, irradiation intensity, and polymerization time were key factors to control the monolith characteristics. In this study, the effect of polymerization time on the chromatographic, material, and chemical characteristics of poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monoliths was studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography, Raman spectroscopy, inverse size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy, and chromatographic methods. Both butyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate monomers were incorporated into the monolith as the polymerization time increased, and it resulted in increases in both the flow resistance (decrease in both permeability and total/through pore porosities) and retention factors. The longer polymerization time led to lower relative amounts of free methacrylate functional groups in the monolith, i.e. cross-linking was enhanced. The increase of the polymerization time from 8 to 12 min significantly reduced the separation efficiency for the retained analyte, whereas an increase in the fraction of the mesoporosity was observed. PMID:27129896

  18. The immobilization of enzymes onto poly(ethylene)—g.co—methacrylic acid, [poly(ethylene)—g.co—hydroxyethyl methacrylate]—g.co—methacrylic acid and [poly(ethylene)—g.co—methacrylic acid]—g.co—hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, M. Alves; Gil, M. H.; Guiomar, J.; Lapa, E.; Machado, E.; Moreira, M.; Guthrie, J. T.; Kotov, S.

    A series of graft copolymers has been prepared based on the poly(ethylene) backbone. These carry functional groups which are effective in coupling and provide a level of hydrophilicity which is thought to be consistent with generating a suitable micro-environment for enzyme immobilization and subsequent enhanced biocatalyst stability. Four enzymes have been immobilized. These are papain, trypsin, glucose oxidase and α-chymotrypsin. The parent copolymers were assembled via radiation-induced grafting. Secondary grafting was achieved in two ways. The first involved grafting methacrylic acid onto poly(ethylene)—g.co—hydroxyethyl methacrylate, while the second involved grafting hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto poly(ethylene)—g.co—methacrylic acid. The results suggest that a high degree of specificity arises in the systems examined with regard to the enzymes, the type of copolymers and the coupling procedures. Generally, relatively large amounts of enzyme become covalently attached to the copolymers, though the overall level of activity is low. In this work it has been observed that the most satisfactory results were obtained when the partly hydrolyzed poly(ethylene)—g.co—hydroxyethyl methacrylate was used in the immobilization of the biocatalysts.

  19. Supramolecular Cross-Links in Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Copolymers and Their Impact on the Mechanical and Reversible Adhesive Properties.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Salz, Ulrich; Moszner, Norbert; Fiore, Gina L; Weder, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Hydrogen-bonded, side-chain-functionalized supramolecular poly(alkyl methacrylate)s were investigated as light- and temperature-responsive reversible adhesives that are useful for bonding and debonding on demand applications. Here, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was functionalized with 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) via a hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) linker, to create a monomer (UPy-HMDI-HEMA) that serves to form supramolecular cross-links by way of forming quadruple hydrogen bonded dimers. UPy-HMDI-HEMA was copolymerized with either hexyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate to create copolymers comprising 2.5, 5, or 10 mol % of the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of all (co)polymers were investigated with stress-strain experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis. Furthermore, the adhesive properties were studied at temperatures between 20 and 60 °C by testing single lap joints formed with stainless steel substrates. It was found that increasing the concentration of the UPy-HMDI-HEMA cross-linker leads to improved mechanical and adhesive properties at elevated temperatures. Concurrently, the reversibility of the bond formation remained unaffected, where rebonded samples displayed the same adhesive strength as regularly bonded samples. Debonding on demand abilities were also tested exemplarily for one copolymer, which for light-induced debonding experiments was blended with a UV-absorber that served as light-heat converter. Single lap joints were subjected to a constant force and heated or irradiated with UV light until debonding occurred. The necessary debonding temperature was comparable for direct heating and UV irradiation and varied between 28 and 82 °C, depending on the applied force. The latter also influenced the debonding time, which under the chosen conditions ranged from 30 s to 12 min. PMID:26043809

  20. RAFT dispersion polymerization of 3-phenylpropyl methacrylate with poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] macro-CTAs in ethanol and associated thermoreversible polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yiwen; Dharsana, Nadia C; van Hensbergen, Johannes A; Burford, Robert P; Roth, Peter J; Lowe, Andrew B

    2014-08-21

    The direct synthesis of methacrylic-based soft polymeric nanoparticles via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer dispersion polymerization (RAFTDP) is described. The use of poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]s, of varying average degree of polymerization (X¯n), as the stabilizing blocks for the RAFTDP of 3-phenylpropyl methacrylate (PPMA) in ethanol at 70 °C, at various total solids contents, yielded the full spectrum of self-assembled nanoparticles (spherical and worm aggregates and polymersomes). We also demonstrate that nanoparticle morphology can be tuned simply by controlling temperature. This is especially evident in the case of worm aggregates undergoing a thermoreversible transition to spherical species - a process that is accompanied by a macroscopic degelation-gelation process. PMID:24975501

  1. Preparation of Novel Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-coglycidyl methacrylate)-Grafted Core-Shell Magnetic Chitosan Microspheres and Immobilization of Lactase

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Yang, Rui-Jin; Qian, Ting-Ting; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Katiyo, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted magnetic chitosan microspheres (HG-MCM) were prepared using reversed-phase suspension polymerization method. The HG-MCM presented a core-shell structure and regular spherical shape with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto the chitosan layer coating the Fe3O4 cores. The average diameter of the magnetic microspheres was 10.67 μm, within a narrow size distribution of 6.6–17.4 μm. The saturation magnetization and retentivity of the magnetic microspheres were 7.0033 emu/g and 0.6273 emu/g, respectively. The application of HG-MCM in immobilization of lactase showed that the immobilized enzyme presented higher storage, pH and thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. This indicates that HG-MCM have potential applications in bio-macromolecule immobilization. PMID:23743822

  2. Backfilling-Free Strategy for Biopatterning on Intrinsically Dual-Functionalized Poly[2-Aminoethyl Methacrylate-co-Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) Methacrylate] Films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Soo; Lee, Juno; Han, Gyeongyeop; Ha, EunRae; Choi, Insung S; Lee, Jungkyu K

    2016-07-20

    We demonstrated protein and cellular patterning with a soft lithography technique using poly[2-aminoethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] films on gold surfaces without employing a backfilling process. The backfilling process plays an important role in successfully generating biopatterns; however, it has potential disadvantages in several interesting research and technical applications. To overcome the issue, a copolymer system having highly reactive functional groups and bioinert properties was introduced through a surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization with 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride (AMA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA). The prepared poly(AMA-co-OEGMA) film was fully characterized, and among the films having different thicknesses, the 35 nm-thick biotinylated, poly(AMA-co-OEGMA) film exhibited an optimum performance, such as the lowest nonspecific adsorption and the highest specific binding capability toward proteins. PMID:27252120

  3. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... weight of methyl methacrylate; and (2) 21 to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16... 28 parts by weight of styrene and (ii) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... weight of methyl methacrylate; and (2) 21 to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16... 28 parts by weight of styrene and (ii) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... weight of methyl methacrylate; and (2) 21 to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16... 28 parts by weight of styrene and (ii) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the...

  6. Cell toxicity of methacrylate monomers-the role of glutathione adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Ansteinsson, V; Kopperud, H B; Morisbak, E; Samuelsen, J T

    2013-12-01

    Polymer-based dental restorative materials are designed to polymerize in situ. However, the conversion of methacrylate monomer to polymer is never complete, and leakage of the monomer occurs. It has been shown that these monomers are toxic in vitro; hence concerns regarding exposure of patients and dental personnel have been raised. Different monomer methacrylates are thought to cause toxicity through similar mechanisms, and the sequestration of cellular glutathione (GSH) may be a key event. In this study we examined the commonly used monomer methacrylates, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), triethylenglycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), bisphenol-A-glycidyl-dimethacrylate (BisGMA), glycerol-dimethacrylate (GDMA) and methyl-methacrylate (MMA). The study aimed to establish monomers' ability to complex with GSH, and relate this to cellular toxicity endpoints. Except for BisGMA, all the monomer methacrylates decreased the GSH levels both in cells and in a cell-free system. The spontaneous formation of methacrylate-GSH adducts were observed for all methacrylate monomers except BisGMA. However, we were not able to correlate GSH depletion and toxic response measured as SDH activity and changes in cell growth pattern. Together, the current study indicates mechanisms other than GSH-binding to be involved in the toxicity of methacrylate monomers. PMID:23613115

  7. ACUTE TOXICITY AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACRYLATES AND METHACRYLATES TO JUVENILE FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylate and methacrylate esters are reactive monomers that are used primarily in the synthesis of acrylic plastics and polymers. Ninety-six hour flow-through acute toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) using 6 acrylates and 6 methacrylates. Nin...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  11. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  13. Adsorption of water vapor on modified methacrylate polymeric sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Platonova, N.P.; Tataurova, O.G.; Vartapetyan, R.Sh.

    1995-12-31

    Adsorption of water vapor on methacrylate copolymers and terpolymers was studied. An increase in the content of the cross-linking agent gives rise to increase in the limiting adsorption of water vapor at the saturation pressure (a{sub s}) and to decrease in the concentration of primary adsorption centers. Modification of the initial copolymer containing 60% of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (EPMA) monomer and 40% of cross-linking agent, ethylene dimethacrylate, with diethylenetriamine (DETA) results in an increase in the a{sub s} value, while modification with C{sub 12} and C{sub 18} alkyl, benzyl, and phenyl groups gives rise to decrease in the a{sub s} values for the copolymeric sorbents. The concentration of primary adsorption centers (a{sub m}) increases considerably on modification of the copolymer with DETA and C{sub 12} groups and decreases markedly on modification with benzyl and phenyl groups. For terpolymers, containing EPMA and styrene, an increase in the styrene/EPMA ratio reduces the a{sub s}, and a{sub m} values. The copolymer modified with DETA groups possesses the most hydrophilic properties, while the copolymer modified with benzyl group exhibits the most hydrophobic properties. The mechanism of adsorption of water molecules on the polymers is discussed.

  14. Novel syngas-based process for methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.; Choi, G.N.; Tam, S.S.; Tischer, R.E.; Srivastava, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel are developing a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the research on propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis, which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis process is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P and Ta metal oxide catalysts for condensation reactions of propionates with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, acid-base properties, in situ condensation in a high- temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory reactor operating data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

  15. Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate from Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Makarand R. Gogate; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

    1998-04-17

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last month, RTI has finalized the design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI incorporated some design changes to the feed blending system, so as to be able to blend varying proportions of DME and oxygen. RTI has also examined the flammability limits of DME-air mixtures. Since the lower flammability limit of DME in air is 3.6 volume percent, RTI will use a nominal feed composition of 1.6 percent in air, which is less than half the lower explosion limit for DME-air mixtures. This nominal feed composition is thus considered operationally safe, for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI is also currently developing an analytical system for DME partial oxidation reaction system.

  16. Sulfone-Containing Methacrylate Homopolymers: Wetting and Thermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shota; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2016-01-26

    Although the sulfonyl functional group has a large dipole moment and compounds containing them (sulfones) have correspondingly high dielectric constants, this chemical structure has been neglected for use as a functional group to render surfaces hydrophilic. We have prepared three methacrylate polymers containing side chains capped with sulfolane, methylsulfone, and ethylsulfone functionality. The sulfolane-containing polymer exhibits an unusually high glass transition temperature (Tg = 188°C) for a methacrylate polymer and slightly different thermal degradation behavior than the other two sulfone-containing polymers, likely due to the bulky structure of the sulfolane group in the polymer side chain. At macroscopic polymer film/water interfaces, the sulfone-containing side chains exposed to the interface impart hydrophilic properties as assessed by contact angle analysis. The hydrophilicities of sulfolane and methylsulfone surfaces are similar, and greater than the ethylsulfone surface. Although the chemical compositions of the sulfolane and ethylsulfone polymers are almost identical, the five-membered ring structure of sulfolane allows the sulfonyl moiety to be exposed at the interface in a manner similar to that of the methylsulfone polymer. The sulfonyl group at the ethylsulfone polymer/water interface is slightly masked by the ethyl group. Interestingly, the sulfolane surface displays a higher affinity to methylene iodide and n-hexadecane probe fluids compared to the other sulfone surfaces, suggesting that the five-membered ring structure of the sulfolane moiety can orient in a manner that shelters the sulfonyl group at hydrophobic interfaces. PMID:26716766

  17. Investigation of infrared calibration methods for application to the study of methyl methacrylate polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, B; Morejko-Buz, B; Stolarzewicz, A

    2001-08-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to monitor the polymerization of methyl methacrylate. Concentrations of methyl methacrylate in the reaction mixture were determined by use of three calibration methods. Classical quantitative analysis was used to measure the height of the stretching vibration bands of the vinyl group at 1639 cm(-1). A calibration procedure using the considerably higher intensity of the C = O stretching vibration band of the carbonyl ester group at 1725 cm(-1) seemed useful only for high concentrations of methyl methacrylate, i.e. at the beginning of reaction, because this band overlaps that of poly(methyl methacrylate). Use of second-derivative spectra and measuring their values at 1725 cm(-1) enabled estimation of ten times lower concentrations of methyl methacrylate the calibration using the band from the vinyl group. PMID:11569872

  18. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

    1999-01-20

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(Oct.-Dec./98), we have investigated the condensation between methyl propionate and formaldehyde (MP/HCHO=4.5/1) at various reaction temperatures(280-360EC) over 5%, 10%, and 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts. The conversion of HCHO increases with reaction 2 5 2 temperature and niobium loading. MMA+MAA selectivity goes through a maximum with the temperature over both 10% and 20% Nb O /SiO . The selectivities to MMA+MAA are 67.2%, 2 5 2 72.3%and 58.1% at 320EC over 5%, 10%, 20% Nb O /SiO , respectively. However, the 2 5 2 conversion of formaldehyde decreases rapidly with time on stream. The results suggest that silica supported niobium catalysts are active and selective for condensation of MP with HCHO, but deactivation needs to be minimized for the consideration of commercial application. We have preliminarily investigated the partial oxidation of dimethyl ether(DME) over 5% Nb O /SiO catalyst. Reactant gas mixture of 0.1% DME, 0.1% O and balance nitrogen is 2 5 2 2 studied with temperature ranging from 200°C to 500°C. The conversion of DME first increases with temperature reaching an maximum at 400°C then decreases. The selectivity to HCHO also increases with reaction temperature first. But the selectivity to HCHO decreases at temperature above 350

  19. Radiation synthesis of nanosilver nanohydrogels of poly(methacrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Gautam, Deepti; Anjum, Sadiya; Saxena, Shalini; Kapil, Arti

    2013-11-01

    Nanosilver nanohydrogels (nSnH) of poly(methacrylic acid) were synthesized and stabilized using gamma irradiation. The main objective of this study was to develop silver nanoparticles and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. Radiation helps in the polymerization, crosslinking and reduction of silver nitrate as well. Highly stable and uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles have been obtained within hydrogel network by water in oil nanoemulsion polymerization and were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. TEM showed almost spherical and uniform distribution of silver nanoparticles through the hydrogel network. The mean size of silver nanoparticles ranging is 10-50 nm. The nanohydrogels showed good swelling in water. Antibacterial studies of nSnH suggest that it can be a good candidate as coating material in biomedical applications.

  20. Thiol-ene/methacrylate systems for mechanical damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNair, Olivia; Senyurt, Askim; Wei, Huanyu; Gould, Trent; Piland, Scott; Hoyle, Charles; Savin, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Ternary thiol-ene-methacrylate (TEMA) networks as materials for mechanical energy damping are unique to the sports world. Using a photoinitiation process, TEMA systems are formed via an initial thiol-ene step-growth mechanism along with traditional radical polymerization of acrylate and ene monomers. Final networks have two-part morphologies: acrylate homopolymer sectors imbedded in a multi-component mesh. Several (TEMA) systems have been synthesized and analyzed via thermal and mechanical probing. Initial studies on these ternary systems have shown excellent properties compared to traditional ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVA) copolymers. For example, PEMA networks exhibit glass transition temperatures 33 K higher than EVA, resulting in improved damping at room temperature. This research will help develop relationships between tan delta, glass transition and their effects on mechanical energy damping for ternary (TEMA) systems.

  1. Interaction between N-vinylpyrrolidone and methyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, V. V.; Shtonda, A. V.; Tyurina, T. G.; Bagdasarova, A. R.; Zaitsev, S. Yu.

    2014-04-01

    It is established that the interaction of the isomers of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) leads to the formation of molecular π-H- and H-complexes with energies within the limits of 10.2-13.6 (AM1) or 18.2-24.0 (B3LYP/6-311++G( d)) kJ/mol. The structures of complex-bound molecules are examined with respect to changes in the charges on terminal -C1=C2- groups, the distance between them and atoms in an H-bond, and the presence of combined overlapping molecular orbitals (MOs). The presence of an averaged complex that includes presumably all possible structures and allows us to perform the copolymerization of specified monomers in the absence of an initiator is confirmed by means of UV and NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methacrylic Acid: A Won Challenge.

    PubMed

    Fantin, Marco; Isse, Abdirisak A; Venzo, Alfonso; Gennaro, Armando; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2016-06-15

    Polymerization of acidic monomers is one of the biggest challenges for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). An intramolecular cyclization reaction leading to the loss of the C-X chain-end functionality was found to be the main reason for the partial termination of the growing polymer chains. Three approaches were used to overcome this problem: using Cl as the chain-end halogen, lowering the pH (to 0.9), and increasing polymerization rate. Methacrylic acid (MAA) was polymerized by both electrochemically mediated ATRP and supplemental activator and reducing agent ATRP up to high conversion (>90%), in t ≤ 4 h at 25 °C, using inexpensive and nontoxic reagents (NaCl, diluted HCl, water). Control over molecular weight (MW) dispersity was satisfactory, and MWs were in agreement with theoretical values. The "livingness" of the process was confirmed by an electrochemical switch, used to repeatedly and periodically deactivate/reactivate growing chains. PMID:27244091

  3. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest. PMID:23453291

  4. Management of complication after breast augmentation with methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Grella, Roberto; Almadori, Aurora; D’Ari, Antonio; Romanucci, Vincenza; D’Andrea, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several alloplastic biomaterials are available for injection to the breast, nevertheless not all of them are approved for biomedical use. Although in North America and Western Europe experience with synthetic biomaterials for breast augmentation is very limited, migratory streams might expose physicians worldwide to manage the related complications of these procedures. The aim of this study was to share with other surgeons the case of a patient presenting complications after breast augmentation with an unknown synthetic substance containing methacrylate. Presentation of case A 33-years old Asian woman presented to our Institution with breast deformities, lumps and chest pain. The patient referred previous breast injection “with hospital fat” performed in China six years before. She was not aware about the details of the procedure, and language barriers limited communication. Clinical examination and ultrasounds revealed the irregular distribution of an unknown substance in both breasts. The material was surgically removed and replaced in the same session with polyurethane implants. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of methacrylate. Discussion With a growing demand for non-invasive cosmetic surgery, has been reported a growing population of untrained and unlicensed personnel performing cosmetic surgery in many countries where there are no laws that restrict the use of cosmetic procedures to physicians with appropriate training and with approved materials. Surgical removal of this substances can be extremely challenging and an open procedure with surgical debridement is recommended. Conclusion Breast augmentation with non-absorbable biomaterials can lead to severe complications, in particular for patients intending to breastfeed. PMID:26298244

  5. Functional Human Vascular Network Generated in Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Methacrylate Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Qi, Hao; Yang, Yunzhi; Bae, Hojae; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-05-23

    The generation of functional, 3D vascular networks is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of many future tissue engineering-based therapies. Current approaches in vascular network bioengineering are largely carried out using natural hydrogels as embedding scaffolds. However, most natural hydrogels present a poor mechanical stability and a suboptimal durability, which are critical limitations that hamper their widespread applicability. The search for improved hydrogels has become a priority in tissue engineering research. Here, the suitability of a photopolymerizable gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel to support human progenitor cell-based formation of vascular networks is demonstrated. Using GelMA as the embedding scaffold, it is shown that 3D constructs containing human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) generate extensive capillary-like networks in vitro. These vascular structures contain distinct lumens that are formed by the fusion of ECFC intracellular vacuoles in a process of vascular morphogenesis. The process of vascular network formation is dependent on the presence of MSCs, which differentiate into perivascular cells occupying abluminal positions within the network. Importantly, it is shown that implantation of cell-laden GelMA hydrogels into immunodeficient mice results in a rapid formation of functional anastomoses between the bioengineered human vascular network and the mouse vasculature. Furthermore, it is shown that the degree of methacrylation of the GelMA can be used to modulate the cellular behavior and the extent of vascular network formation both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that GelMA hydrogels can be used for biomedical applications that require the formation of microvascular networks, including the development of complex engineered tissues. PMID:22907987

  6. Functional Human Vascular Network Generated in Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Methacrylate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Qi, Hao; Yang, Yunzhi; Bae, Hojae

    2012-01-01

    The generation of functional, 3D vascular networks is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of many future tissue engineering-based therapies. Current approaches in vascular network bioengineering are largely carried out using natural hydrogels as embedding scaffolds. However, most natural hydrogels present a poor mechanical stability and a suboptimal durability, which are critical limitations that hamper their widespread applicability. The search for improved hydrogels has become a priority in tissue engineering research. Here, the suitability of a photopolymerizable gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel to support human progenitor cell-based formation of vascular networks is demonstrated. Using GelMA as the embedding scaffold, it is shown that 3D constructs containing human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) generate extensive capillary-like networks in vitro. These vascular structures contain distinct lumens that are formed by the fusion of ECFC intracellular vacuoles in a process of vascular morphogenesis. The process of vascular network formation is dependent on the presence of MSCs, which differentiate into perivascular cells occupying abluminal positions within the network. Importantly, it is shown that implantation of cell-laden GelMA hydrogels into immunodeficient mice results in a rapid formation of functional anastomoses between the bioengineered human vascular network and the mouse vasculature. Furthermore, it is shown that the degree of methacrylation of the GelMA can be used to modulate the cellular behavior and the extent of vascular network formation both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that GelMA hydrogels can be used for biomedical applications that require the formation of microvascular networks, including the development of complex engineered tissues. PMID:22907987

  7. Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate From Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Ben W.-L. Jang; Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

    1998-07-27

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(April-June, 1998), RTI has modified the reactor system including a new preheater and new temperature settings for the preheater. Continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid were carried out over 10% Nb O /SiO at 300°C without 2 5 2 interruption. Five activity and four regeneration cycles have been completed without plugging or material balance problems. The results show that 10% Nb O /SiO deactivates slowly with time 2 5 2 but can be regenerated, at least four times, to 100% of its original activity with 2% O in nitrogen 2 at 400°C. The cycles continue with consistent 90-95% of carbon balance. The reaction is scheduled to complete with 6 activity cycles and 5 regenerations. Used catalysts will be analyzed with TGA and XPS to determine bulk and surface coke content and coke properties. RTI will start the investigation of effects of propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts.

  8. Synthesis of acrylates and Methacrylates from Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-12

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees} C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis step is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. Eastman and Bechtel have also compared the RTI- Eastman-Bechtel three-step methanol route to five other process routes to MMA. The results show that the product MMA can be produced at 520/lb, for a 250 Mlb/year MMA plant, and this product cost is competitive to all other process routes to MMA, except propyne carbonylation. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P tertiary metal oxide catalysts, Nb/Si0{sub 2}, and Ta/Si0{sub 2} catalysts for condensation of propionic anhydride or propionic acid with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst performance. Eastman and Bechtel have used the RTI experimental results of a 20 percent Nb/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, in terms of reactant conversions, MAA selectivities, and MAA yield, for their economic analysis. Recent research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, a better understanding of the acid-base property correlation and enhancing the catalyst lifetime.

  9. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of divalent europium-poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, N.; Nakamura, H.; Mishima, T.; Shiokawa, J.; Adachi, G. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on divalent europium complexes with poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure)s, poly(crown ether)s, prepared and their fluorescence properties studied. The polymers used were poly(15-crown-5-methyl methacrylate) (PMA15C5), copoly(15- crown-5-methyl methacrylate-X) (copoly(MA15C5-X)); (X = MMA, EMA, BMA, 2-methoxyethyl methacrylate (MAGI) 3,6,9,12,15- pentaoxahexadecyl methacrylate (MAG5)), poly(18-crown-6- methyl methacrylate) (PMA18C6), and copoly(18-crown-6-methyl methacrylate-MMA) (copoly(MA18C6-MMA)), which were obtained by bulk polymerization. The fluorescence properties of Eu{sup 2+} polymers activated by complexing Eu{sup 2+} ions with crown ether groups were measured in powder form. The Eu{sup 2+}-poly (crown ether)s irradiated by UV light generally gave blue bright emission in the region of 420-465 nm. It was Eu{sup 2+}-copoly(Ma15C5-X); (X = MMA, EMA, and MAG1) that showed the largest emission intensity among the Eu{sup 2+} polymers, and its emission intensity was ca. 20% of that for CaWO{sub 4}:Pb (NBS1026) whose quantum efficiency is about 76%. The intensities of emission for the Eu{sup 2+} polymers containing 15-crown-5 were much larger than that for the ones containing 18-crown-6.

  10. Manufacture of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) hydrogel tubes for use as nerve guidance channels.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Paul D; Flynn, Lauren; Shoichet, Molly S

    2002-09-01

    Hydrogel tubes of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA-co-MMA)) made by liquid-liquid centrifugal casting are being investigated as potential nerve guidance channels in the central nervous system. An important criterion for the nerve guidance channel is that its mechanical properties are similar to those of the spinal cord, where it will be implanted. The formulated p(HEMA-co-MMA) tubes are soft and flexible, consisting of a gel-like outer layer, and an interconnected macroporous, inner layer. The relative thickness of the gel phase to macroporous phase is controlled by the formulation chemistry, and specifically by the ratio of co-monomers, HEMA and MMA. By varying the surface chemistry of the mold within which the tubes are synthesized, tubes were prepared with either a "cracked" or a smooth outer morphology. Tubes with the cracked outer morphology had periodic channels that traversed the wall of the tube, which resulted in a lower modulus than smooth outer morphology tubes, yet likely greater diffusive permeability. For tubes (and not rods) to be formed, phase separation must precede gelation as is detailed in a formulation phase diagram for HEMA, MMA and water. The tensile elastic modulus of p(HEMA-co-MMA) tubes reflected the formulation chemistry, with greater moduli (up to 400 kPa) recorded for tubes having 10 wt% MMA. The p(HEMA-co-MMA) tubes therefore had similar mechanical properties to those of the spinal cord, which has a reported elastic modulus range between 200 and 600 kPa. PMID:12164188

  11. A poly(alkyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene-vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride) monolithic column for solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Lirio, Stephen; Yang, Yicong; Wu, Lin-Tai; Hsiao, Shu-Ying; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2015-05-22

    In this study, an organic polymer monolithic columns, which were prepared via in situ polymerization of alkyl methacrylate-ester (AMA), divinylbenzene (DVB) and vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride (VBTA, charged monomer), were developed as adsorbent for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Different parameters affecting the extraction efficiency for nine (9) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the ratio of the stearyl methacrylate (SMA) to DVB monomer, column length, sample pH, extraction flow rate and desorption solvent were investigated to obtain the optimal SPME condition. Also, the permeability for each poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolithic column was investigated by adding porogenic solvent (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG). Using the optimized condition, a series of AMA-based poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolith columns were developed to determine the effect the extraction efficiency of NSAIDs by varying the alkyl chain length of the methacrylate ester (methyl-, butyl-, octyl-, or lauryl-methacrylate; (MMA, BMA, OMA, LMA)). Results showed that decreasing the AMA chain length increases the extraction efficiency of some NSAIDs (i.e. sulindac (sul), naproxen (nap), ketoprofen (ket) and indomethacin (idm)). Among the poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolithic columns, poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) showed a highly repeatable extraction efficiency for NSAIDs with recoveries ranging from 85.0 to 100.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 6.8% (n=3). The poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) can also be reused for at least 50 times without any significant effect in extraction efficiency for NSAIDs. Finally, using the established conditions, the poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) was used to extract trace-level NSAIDs (100μgL(-1)) in river water with good recoveries ranging from 75.8 to 90.8% (RSD<14.9%). PMID:25869799

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in an adhesive on an electrosurgical earthing plate.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Alanko, K

    1998-01-01

    A highly (meth)acrylate-allergic patient underwent surgery because of nodular struma. Three days after her operation she developed an itching dermatitis on her left thigh. She came to our attention 18 days after the operation, because of an oozing, highly pruritic dermatitis, 8 x 19 cm in width on her left thigh, at the site where an electrosurgical earthing plate had been used during the surgery. It was revealed that the pressure-sensitive adhesive of the pad contained 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) to which the patient earlier had had an allergic patch test reaction. The patient was negative on patch testing to other (meth)acrylates present in the pad. Patients should be questioned about possible methacrylate sensitivity before methacrylate-containing electrosurgical earthing plates are used during surgery. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylic adhesives is briefly reviewed. PMID:9854170

  13. Magnetic hydrophilic methacrylate-based polymer microspheres designed for polymerase chain reactions applications.

    PubMed

    Spanová, Alena; Horák, Daniel; Soudková, Eva; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2004-02-01

    Magnetic hydrophilic non-porous P(HEMA-co-EDMA), P(HEMA-co-GMA) and PGMA microspheres were prepared by dispersion (co)polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) or glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) in the presence of several kinds of magnetite. It was found that some components used in the preparation of magnetic carriers interfered with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Influence of non-magnetic and magnetic microspheres, including magnetite nanoparticles and various components used in their synthesis, on the PCR course was thus investigated. DNA isolated from bacterial cells of Bifidobacterium longum was used in PCR evaluation of non-interfering magnetic microspheres. The method enabled verification of the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles in the particular methacrylate-based polymer microspheres and evaluation of suitability of their application in PCR. Preferably, electrostatically stabilized colloidal magnetite (ferrofluid) should be used in the design of new magnetic methacrylate-based microspheres by dispersion polymerization. PMID:14698232

  14. Novel catalysts for the environmentally friendly synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    The development of a process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas can alleviate the environmental hazards associated with the current commercial MMA technology, the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. A three-step syngas-based process consisted of synthesis of a propionic acid, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) to form MMA. The first two steps, propionic acid synthesis and condensation, are discussed here. The low-temperature, low-pressure process for single-step hydrocarbonylation of ethylene to propionic acid is carried out using a homogeneous iodine-promoted Mo(CO){sub 6} catalyst at pressures (30--70 atm) and temperatures (150--200 C) lower than those reported for other catalysts. Mechanistic investigations suggest that catalysis is initiated by a rate-limiting CO dissociation from Mo(CO){sub 6}. This dissociation appears to be followed by an inner electron-transfer process of an I atom from EtI to the coordinately unsaturated Mo(CO){sub 5}. This homogeneous catalyst for propionate synthesis represents the first case of an efficient carbonylation process based on Cr group metals. The condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid is carried out by acid-base bifunctional catalysts. As a result of screening over 80 catalytic materials, group V metals supported on an amorphous silica are found to be most effective. A 20% Nb/SiO{sub 2} catalyst appears to be the most active and stable catalyst thus far. Preliminary relations among the reaction yield and catalyst properties indicate that a high surface area and a low overall surface acidity (<50 = mol of NH{sub 3}/g), with a high proportion of the acidity being weak (<350 C desorption of NH{sub 3}), are desirable. Long-term deactivation of V-Si-P, Nb-Si, and Ta-Si catalysts suggests that carbon deposition is the primary cause for activity decay, and the catalyst activity is partially restorable by oxidative regeneration.

  15. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi

    1999-07-19

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. During the April-June quarter(04-06/99) the first in-situ formaldehyde generation from DME and condensation with methyl propionate is demonstrated and the results are summarized. The supported niobium catalyst shows better condensation activity, but supported tungsten catalyst has higher formaldehyde selectivity. The project team has also completed a 200-hour long term test of PA-HCHO condensation over 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. Three activity cycles and two regeneration cycles were carried out. 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} showed similar MAA yields as 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. However, the deactivation appears to be slower with 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} than 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. An detailed economic analysis of PA-HCHO condensation process for a 250 million lb/yr MMA plant is currently studied by Bechtel. Using the Amoco data-based azeotropic distillation model as the basis, an ASPEN flow sheet model was constructed to simulate the formaldehyde and propionic acid condensation processing section based on RTI's design data. The RTI MAA effluent azeotropic distillation column was found to be much more difficult to converge. The presence of non-condensible gases along with the byproduct DEK (both of which were not presented in

  16. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

    1998-10-20

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (July-September, 1998), the project team has completed the continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid over 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. Six activity and five regeneration cycles have been completed. The results show that 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} deactivates slowly with time but can be regenerated to its original activity with 2% O{sub 2} in nitrogen over night at 400 C. We have investigated the effects of regeneration, propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio (PA/HCHO = 4.5/1 to 1.5/1) and reaction temperature(280-300 C) on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. The regeneration effect on 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} is similar to the effect on 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. The regeneration can bring the deactivated catalyst to its original activity. However, the selectivity to MAA decreases with regeneration while the selectivity to DEK and CO{sub 2} increases. When PA/HCHO ratio is decreased from 4.5/1 to 2.25/1 then to 1.5/1 at 300 C the MAA yield decreases but the MAA selectivity first increases then decreases. Decreasing the reaction temperature from 300 C to 280 C decreases the MAA yield from 39.5% to 30.7% but increases the MAA selectivity from 73.7% to 82.2%. The

  17. Synthesis of Acrylates and Methacrylates from Coal-Derived Syngas.

    SciTech Connect

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.; Tam, S.S.

    1997-10-17

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy/Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC). This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, RTI carried out activity tests on a pure (99 percent) Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst, received from Alfa Aesar, under the following experimental conditions: T=300 C; P=4 atm, 72:38:16:4:220 mmol/h, PA:H{sub 2}0:HCHO:CH{sub 3}0H:N{sub 2}; 5-g catalyst charge. For the pure material, the MAA yields (based on HCHO and PA) were at 8.8 and 1.5 percent, clearly inferior compared to those for a 10-percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst (20.1 and 4.5 percent). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of pure Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 20-percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} that while pure Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is very highly crystalline, Si0{sub 2} support for an amorphous nature of the 20 percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst the last quarter, RTI also began research on the use of dimethyl ether (DME), product of methanol dehydrocondensation, as an alternate feedstock in MMA synthesis. As a result, formaldehyde is generated either externally or in situ, from DME, in the process envisaged in the contract extension. The initial work on the DME extension of the contract focuses on a tradeoff analysis that will include a preliminary economic analysis of the DME and formaldehyde routes and catalyst synthesis and testing for DME partial oxidation and condensation reactions. Literature guides exist for DME partial oxidation catalysts; however, there are no precedent studies on catalyst development for DME-methyl propionate (MP) condensation reactions, thereby making DME-MP reaction studies a

  18. Tissue reaction to methyl methacrylate monomer. A comparative study in the rabbit's ear on the toxicity of methyl methacrylate monomer of varying composition.

    PubMed

    Linder, L

    1976-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate if a bone cement monomer with a high concentration of accelerator (N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine) is more toxic than a methyl methacrylate monomer, free from accelerator. 1) No difference in the acute local toxicity between CMW, Simplex-P and pure methyl methacrylate monomer was seen. 2) By gas chromatography. N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine was shown to be water soluble to a small extent. Any bone cement monomer in current use can be fully dissolved in saline to a concentration of about 1 per cent. PMID:1266590

  19. Fabrication of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8-methacrylate monolith composite capillary columns for fast gas chromatographic separation of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Kareem; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed Yacine; Aqel, Ahmad; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    A composite zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) with a butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic capillary column (33.5cm long×250μm i.d.) was fabricated to enhance the separation efficiency of methacrylate monoliths toward small molecules using conventional low-pressure gas chromatography in comparison with a neat butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic capillary column (33.5cm long×250μm i.d.). The addition of 10mgmL(-1) ZIF-8 micro-particles increased the BET surface area of BuMA-co-EDMA by 3.4-fold. A fast separation of five linear alkanes in 36s with high resolution (Rs≥1.3) was performed using temperature program. Isothermal separation of the same sample also showed a high efficiency (3315platesm(-1) for octane) at 0.89min. Moreover, the column was able to separate skeletal isomers, such as iso-octane/octane and 2-methyl octane/nonane. In addition, an iso-butane/iso-butylene gas mixture was separated at ambient temperature. Comparison with an open tubular TR-5MS column (30m long×250μm i.d.) revealed the superiority of the composite column in separating the five-membered linear alkane mixture with 4-5 times increase in efficiency and a total separation time of 0.89min instead of 4.67min. A paint thinner sample was fully separated using the composite column in 2.43min with a good resolution (Rs≥0.89). The perfect combination between the polymeric monolith, with its high permeability, and ZIF-8, with its high surface area and flexible 0.34nm pore openings, led to the fast separation of small molecules with high efficiency and opened a new horizon in GC applications. PMID:26141277

  20. Adsorption of paraquat using methacrylic acid-modified rice husk.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Tong; Pan, Ting-Chung

    2007-12-01

    This work investigates the adsorption of paraquat from aqueous medium using a methacrylic acid (MAA)-modified rice husk. The carboxyl groups were chemically bound to the surface of the rice husk by graft copolymerization using Fenton's reagent as a redox initiator. The graft copolymerization was examined to determine the H(2)O(2) concentration and the amount of MAA monomer used. FT-IR spectra confirmed the presence of carbonyl groups on the structural units of the rice husk derivative. The MAA-modified rice husks were hydrolyzed to sodium salt and used to adsorb paraquat. The adsorption was rapid in the first few minutes and quickly reached equilibrium. Equilibrium adsorption data are more consistent with the Langmuir isotherm equation than with the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of modified rice husks was 317.7mg/g-adsorbent. This value clearly exceeds the 60mg/g of Fuller's earth and the 90mg/g of activated carbon, which are the most commonly used binding agents for paraquat. PMID:17303413

  1. Directed endothelial cell morphogenesis in micropatterned gelatin methacrylate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Eshak, Nouran; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Annabi, Nasim; Castello, Marco; Kim, Keekyoung; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Edalat, Faramarz; Bae, Hojae; Yang, Yunzhi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Engineering of organized vasculature is a crucial step in the development of functional and clinically relevant tissue constructs. A number of previous techniques have been proposed to spatially regulate the distribution of angiogenic biomolecules and vascular cells within biomaterial matrices to promote vascularization. Most of these approaches have been limited to two-dimensional (2D) micropatterned features or have resulted in formation of random vasculature within three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. In this study, we investigate 3D endothelial cord formation within micropatterned gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels with varying geometrical features (50-150 μm height). We demonstrated the significant dependence of endothelial cells proliferation, alignment and cord formation on geometrical dimensions of the patterned features. The cells were able to align and organize within the micropatterned constructs and assemble to form cord structures with organized actin fibers and circular/elliptical cross-sections. The inner layer of the cord structure was filled with gel showing that the micropatterned hydrogel constructs guided the assembly of endothelial cells into cord structures. Notably, the endothelial cords were retained within the hydrogel microconstructs for all geometries after two weeks of culture; however, only the 100 μm-high constructs provided the optimal microenvironment for the formation of circular and stable cord structures. Our findings suggest that endothelial cord formation is a preceding step to tubulogenesis and the proposed system can be used to develop organized vasculature for engineered tissue constructs. PMID:23018132

  2. Directed Endothelial Cell Morphogenesis in Micropatterned Gelatin Methacrylate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Eshak, Nouran; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Annabi, Nasim; Castello, Marco; Kim, Keekyoung; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Edalat, Faramarz; Bae, Hojae; Yang, Yunzhi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Engineering of organized vasculature is a crucial step in the development of functional and clinically relevant tissue constructs. A number of previous techniques have been proposed to spatially regulate the distribution of angiogenic biomolecules and vascular cells within biomaterial matrices to promote vascularization. Most of these approaches have been limited to two-dimensional (2D) micropatterned features or have resulted in formation of random vasculature within three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. In this study, we investigate 3D endothelial cord formation within micropatterned gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels with varying geometrical features (50–150 µm height). We demonstrated the significance dependence of endothelial cells proliferation, alignment and cord formation on geometrical dimensions of the patterned features. The cells were able to align and organize within the micropatterned constructs and assemble to form cord structures with organized actin fibers and circular/elliptical cross-sections. The inner layer of the cord structure was filled with gel showing that the micropatterned hydrogel constructs guided the assembly of endothelial cells into cord structures. Notably, the endothelial cords were retained within the hydrogel microconstructs for all geometries after two weeks of culture; however, only the 100 µm-high constructs provided the optimal microenvironment for the formation of circular and stable cord structures. Our findings suggest that endothelial cord formation is a preceding step to tubulogenesis and the proposed system can be used to develop organized vasculature for engineered tissue constructs. PMID:23018132

  3. Control of cell adhesion on poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Patel, Shyam; Thakar, Rahul G; Wong, Josh; McLeod, Stephen D; Li, Song

    2006-05-01

    Keratoprostheses have been constructed from a wide variety of transparent materials, including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). However, the success of keratoprosthesis has been plagued by numerous shortcomings that include the weakening of the implant-host interface due to weak cell adhesion and opaque fibrous membrane formation over the inner surface of the implant due to fibroblast attachment. An effective solution requires a surface modification that would selectively allow enhanced cell attachment at the implant-host interface and reduced cell attachment over the interior surface of the implant. Here, we have developed a novel and simple peptide conjugation scheme to modify PMMA surfaces, which allowed for region-specific control of cell adhesion. This method uses di-amino-PEG, which can be grafted onto PMMA using hydrolysis or aminolysis method. PEG can resist cell adhesion and protein adsorption. The functionalization of grafted di-amino-PEG molecules with RGD peptide not only restored cell adhesion to the surfaces, but also enhanced cell attachment and spreading as compared to untreated PMMA surfaces. Long-term cell migration and micropatterning studies clearly indicated that PEG-PMMA surfaces with and without RGD conjugation can be used to differentiate cell adhesion and control cell attachment spatially on PMMA, which will have potential applications in the modification of keratoprostheses. PMID:16439014

  4. Methyl methacrylate and respiratory sensitization: A Critical review

    PubMed Central

    Borak, Jonathan; Fields, Cheryl; Andrews, Larry S; Pemberton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a respiratory irritant and dermal sensitizer that has been associated with occupational asthma in a small number of case reports. Those reports have raised concern that it might be a respiratory sensitizer. To better understand that possibility, we reviewed the in silico, in chemico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology literature, and also epidemiologic and occupational medicine reports related to the respiratory effects of MMA. Numerous in silico and in chemico studies indicate that MMA is unlikely to be a respiratory sensitizer. The few in vitro studies suggest that MMA has generally weak effects. In vivo studies have documented contact skin sensitization, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and weakly positive responses on local lymph node assay; guinea pig and mouse inhalation sensitization tests have not been performed. Cohort and cross-sectional worker studies reported irritation of eyes, nose, and upper respiratory tract associated with short-term peaks exposures, but little evidence for respiratory sensitization or asthma. Nineteen case reports described asthma, laryngitis, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis in MMA-exposed workers; however, exposures were either not well described or involved mixtures containing more reactive respiratory sensitizers and irritants.The weight of evidence, both experimental and observational, argues that MMA is not a respiratory sensitizer. PMID:21401327

  5. Purification of large plasmids with methacrylate monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Smrekar, Franci; Cerne, Jasmina; Raspor, Peter; Modic, Martina; Krgovic, Danijela; Strancar, Ales; Podgornik, Ales

    2009-08-01

    The rapid evolution of gene therapy and DNA vaccines results in an increasing interest in producing large quantities of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA. Most current clinical trials involve plasmids of 10 kb or smaller in size, however, future requirements for multigene vectors including extensive control regions may require the production of larger plasmids, e. g., 20 kb and bigger. The objective of this study was to examine certain process conditions for purification of large plasmids with the size of up to 93 kb. Since there is a lack of knowledge about production and purification of bigger plasmid DNA, cell lysis and storage conditions were investigated. The impact of chromatographic system and methacrylate monolithic column on the degradation of plasmid molecules under nonbinding conditions at different flow rates was studied. Furthermore, capacity measurements varying salt concentration in loading buffer were performed and the capacities up to 13 mg of plasmid per mL of the monolithic column were obtained. The capacity flow independence in the range from 130 to 370 cm/h was observed. Using high resolution monolithic column the separation of linear and supercoiled isoforms of large plasmids was obtained. Last but not least, since the baseline separation of RNA and pDNA was achieved, the one step purification on larger CIM DEAE 8 mL tube monolithic column was performed and the fractions were analyzed by CIM analytical monolithic columns. PMID:19598166

  6. IR laser ablation of doped poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, S.; Oujja, M.; Rebollar, E.; Walczak, M.; Díaz, L.; Santos, M.; Castillejo, M.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the TEA CO 2 laser ablation of films of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, with average MW 2.5, 120 and 996 kDa doped with photosensitive compounds iodo-naphthalene (NapI) and iodo-phenanthrene (PhenI) by examining the induced morphological and physicochemical modifications. The films casted on CaF 2 substrates were irradiated with a pulsed CO 2 laser (10P(20) line at 10.59 μm) in resonance with vibrational modes of PMMA and of the dopants at fluences up to 6 J/cm 2. Laser induced fluorescence probing of photoproducts in a pump and probe configuration is carried out at 266 nm. Formation of naphthalene (NapH) and phenanthrene (PhenH) is observed in NapI and PhenI doped PMMA, respectively, with relatively higher yields in high MW polymer, in similarity with results obtained previously upon irradiation in the UV at 248 nm. Above threshold, formation of photoproducts is nearly complete after 200 ms. As established via optical microscopy, bubbles are formed in the irradiated areas with sizes that depend on polymer MW and filaments are observed to be ejected out of the irradiated volume in the samples made with high MW polymer. The implications of these results for the mechanisms of polymer IR laser ablation are discussed and compared with UV range studies.

  7. Characterization of methacrylate chromatographic monoliths bearing affinity ligands.

    PubMed

    Černigoj, Urh; Vidic, Urška; Nemec, Blaž; Gašperšič, Jernej; Vidič, Jana; Lendero Krajnc, Nika; Štrancar, Aleš; Podgornik, Aleš

    2016-09-16

    We investigated effect of immobilization procedure and monolith structure on chromatographic performance of methacrylate monoliths bearing affinity ligands. Monoliths of different pore size and various affinity ligands were prepared and characterized using physical and chromatographic methods. When testing protein A monoliths with different protein A ligand densities, a significant nonlinear effect of ligand density on dynamic binding capacity (DBC) for IgG was obtained and accurately described by Langmuir isotherm curve enabling estimation of protein A utilization as a function of ligand density. Maximal IgG binding capacity was found to be at least 12mg/mL exceeding theoretical monolayer adsorption value of 7.8mg/mL assuming hexagonal packing and IgG hydrodynamic diameter of 11nm. Observed discrepancy was explained by shrinkage of IgG during adsorption on protein A experimentally determined through calculated adsorbed IgG layer thickness of 5.4nm from pressure drop data. For monoliths with different pore size maximal immobilized densities of protein A as well as IgG dynamic capacity linearly correlates with monolith surface area indicating constant ligand utilization. Finally, IgGs toward different plasma proteins were immobilized via the hydrazide coupling chemistry to provide oriented immobilization. DBC was found to be flow independent and was increasing with the size of bound protein. Despite DBC was lower than IgG capacity to immobilized protein A, ligand utilization was higher. PMID:27554023

  8. Manufacture of poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres using membrane emulsification.

    PubMed

    Bux, Jaiyana; Manga, Mohamed S; Hunter, Timothy N; Biggs, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Accurate control of particle size at relatively narrow polydispersity remains a key challenge in the production of synthetic polymer particles at scale. A cross-flow membrane emulsification (XME) technique was used here in the preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres at a 1-10 l h(-1) scale, to demonstrate its application for such a manufacturing challenge. XME technology has previously been shown to provide good control over emulsion droplet sizes with careful choice of the operating conditions. We demonstrate here that, for an appropriate formulation, equivalent control can be gained for a precursor emulsion in a batch suspension polymerization process. We report here the influence of key parameters on the emulsification process; we also demonstrate the close correlation in size between the precursor emulsion and the final polymer particles. Two types of polymer particle were produced in this work: a solid microsphere and an oil-filled matrix microcapsule.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298430

  9. Nonsolvents-induced swelling of poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shundo, Atsuomi; Hori, Koichiro; Penaloza, David P; Yoshihiro, Kazuki; Annaka, Masahiko; Tanaka, Keiji

    2013-10-21

    Polymer nanoparticles have been used in a wide variety of applications. In most of these applications, they are generally dispersed in a non-solvent. However, the effect of the non-solvent on the structure, physical properties and function of the nanoparticles has not yet ever taken into account. In this study, monodispersed poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles were prepared by a surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The PMMA nanoparticles were dispersed in water and in methanol, both typical non-solvents for PMMA, so that we could discuss the effect of the non-solvent on the nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the hydrodynamic radius of the PMMA nanoparticles in methanol was larger than the same PMMA dispersed in water. Their DLS values were also larger than the radius of the nanoparticles measured by atomic force microscopy. When pyrene was dispersed in methanol with the PMMA nanoparticles, it was incorporated into the nanoparticles. These results clearly indicate that non-solvent molecules can be sorbed into polymer nanoparticles because the area of the interface, where polymer segments might be dissolved into liquid phases, as the total volume is quite larger for such nanoparticles. Therefore, based on our findings, it can be arguably established that the present assumption for a polymer not to be swollen in its non-solvent is not necessarily true. PMID:23955567

  10. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Brushes as Peptide/Protein Microarray Substrate for Improving Protein Binding and Functionality.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Gao, Jiaxue; Liu, Xia; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-04-27

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) polymer-brush substrate for protein and peptide microarray fabrication, and this substrate was facilely prepared by copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomers via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on a glass slide. The performance of obtained poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (P(GMA-HEMA)) brush substrate was assessed by binding of human IgG with rabbit antihuman IgG antibodies on a protein microarray and by the determination of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities on a peptide microarray. The P(GMA-HEMA) brush substrate exhibited higher immobilization capacities for proteins and peptides than those of a two-dimensional (2D) planar epoxy slide. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the P(GMA-HEMA) brush-based microarray on rabbit antihuman IgG antibody detection was much higher than that of its 2D counterpart. The enzyme activities of MMPs were determined specifically with a low detection limit of 6.0 pg mL(-1) for MMP-2 and 5.7 pg mL(-1) for MMP-9. By taking advantage of the biocompatibility of PHEMA, the P(GMA-HEMA) brush-based peptide microarray was also employed to evaluate the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by cells cultured off the chip or directly on the chip, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:27049528

  11. Surface modification of silk fibroin fibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tributylsilyl methacrylate) via RAFT polymerization for marine antifouling applications.

    PubMed

    Buga, Mihaela-Ramona; Zaharia, Cătălin; Bălan, Mihai; Bressy, Christine; Ziarelli, Fabio; Margaillan, André

    2015-06-01

    In this study, silk fibroin surface containing hydroxyl and aminogroups was firstly modified using a polymerizable coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS), in order to induce vinyl groups onto the fiber surface. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and tributylsilyl methacrylate (TBSiMA) through the immobilized vinyl bond on the silk fibroin surface in the presence of 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain-transfer agent and 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator was conducted in toluene solution at 70°C for 24h. The structure and properties of the modified fiber were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, (13)C, (29)Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confirming the presence of the coupling molecule and the methacrylate groups onto the silk fibroin fiber surface. Molecular weight distributions were assessed by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC) in order to verify the livingness of the polymerization. PMID:25842130

  12. Synthesis of three different galactose-based methacrylate monomers for the production of sugar-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Desport, Jessica S; Mantione, Daniele; Moreno, Mónica; Sardón, Haritz; Barandiaran, María J; Mecerreyes, David

    2016-09-01

    Glycopolymers, synthetic sugar-containing macromolecules, are attracting ever-increasing interest from the chemistry community. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is an important building block for the synthesis of sugar based methacrylate monomers and polymers. Normally, glycidyl methacrylate shows some advantages such as reactivity against nucleophiles or milder synthetic conditions such as other reactive methacrylate monomers. However, condensation reactions of glycidyl methacrylate with for instance protected galactose monomer leads to a mixture of two products due to a strong competition between the two possible pathways: epoxide ring opening or transesterification. In this paper, we propose two alternative routes to synthesize regiospecific galactose-based methacrylate monomers using the epoxy-ring opening reaction. In the first alternative route, the protected galactose is first oxidized to the acid in order to make it more reactive against the epoxide of GMA. In the second route, the protected sugar was first treated with epichlorohydrin followed by the epoxy ring opening reaction with methacrylic acid, to create an identical analogue of the ring-opening product of GMA. These two monomers were polymerized using conventional radical polymerization and were compared to the previously known galactose-methacrylate one. The new polymers show similar thermal stability but lower glass transition temperature (Tg) with respect to the known galactose methacrylate polymer. PMID:27394038

  13. Can quaternary ammonium methacrylates inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins?

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Carrilho, Marcela; Tersariol, Ivarne L.; Nascimento, Fabio D.; Imazato, Satoshi; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dentin matrices release ICTP and CTX fragments during collagen degradation. ICTP fragments are known to be produced by MMPs. CTX fragments are thought to come from cathepsin K activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if quaternary methacrylates (QAMs) can inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins. Methods Dentin beams were demineralizated, and dried to constant weight. Beams were incubated with rh-cathepsin B, K, L or S for 24 h at pH 7.4 to identify which cathepsins release CTX at neutral pH. Beams were dipped in ATA, an antimicrobial QAM to determine if it can inhibit dentin matrix proteases. Other beams were dipped in another QAM (MDPB) to determine if it produced similar inhibition of dentin proteases. Results Only beams incubated with cathepsin K lost more dry mass than the controls and released CTX. Dentin beams dipped in ATA and incubated for 1 week at pH 7.4, showed a concentration-dependent reduction in weight-loss. There was no change in ICTP release from control values, meaning that ATA did not inhibit MMPs. Media concentrations of CTX fell significantly at 15 wt% ATA indicating that ATA inhibits capthesins. Beams dipped in increasing concentrations of MDPB lost progressively less mass, showing that MDPB is a protease-inhibitor. ICTP released from controls or beams exposed to low concentrations were the same, while 5 or 10% MDPB significantly lowered ICTP production. CTX levels were strongly inhibited by 2.5–10% MDPB, indicating that MDPB is a potent inhibitor of both MMPs and cathepsin K. Significance CTX seems to be released from dentin matrix only by cathepsin K. MMPs and cathepsin K and B may all contribute to matrix degradation. PMID:25467953

  14. Mechanical Properties of Surface-Charged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) as Denture Resins

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang E.; Chao, Maggie; Raj, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of a new surface-modified denture resin for its suitability as denture base material. This experimental resin is made by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA) to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to produce a negative charge. Four experimental groups consisted of Orthodontic Dental Resin (DENTSPLY Caulk) as a control and three groups of modified PMMA (mPMMA) produced at differing ratios of methacrylic acid (5 : 95, 10 : 90, and 20 : 80 MA : MMA). A 3-point flexural test using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp.) measured force-deflection curves and a complete stress versus strain history to calculate the transverse strength, transverse deflection, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe Post-test were performed on the data. Resins with increased methacrylic acid content exhibited lower strength values for the measured physical properties. The most significant decrease occurred as the methacrylic acid content was increased to 20% mPMMA. No significant differences at P < .05 were found in all parameters tested between the Control and 5% mPMMA. PMID:20339462

  15. Conversion of (Meth)acrylic acids to methane granular sludge: Initiation by specific anerobic microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Shtarkman, N.B.; Obraztova, A.Y.; Laurinavichyus, K.S.; Galushko, A.S.; Akimenko, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The role of a specific anaerobic microflora in the initiation of degradation of (meth)acrylic acids to methane by granular sludge from a UASB reactor was investigated. Associations of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the anaerobic sludge, which was used for a long time for treatment of wastewater from (meth)acrylate production, were able to realize the initial stage of (meth)acrylic acid decomposition, i.e., a conversion of acrylic and methacrylic acids to propionic and isobutyric acids, respectively. When added to granules, these association played a role of an {open_quotes}initiator{close_quotes} of the degradation process, which was then continued by the granular sludge microflora utilizing propionate and isobutyrate. Some characteristics of the granules adapted to propionate or isobutyrate are presented. The rates of propionate and isobutyrate consumption by adapted granules is, respectively, 21 and 53 times higher than the values obtained for nonadapted granules. A combined use of {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria and adapted granules provided degradation of (meth)acrylic acids with a maximum methane yield. The possibility is discussed of employing the granules, which are adapted to short-chain fatty acids, and the {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria, which accomplish the initial steps of the organic material decomposition to lower fatty acids, for the conversion of various chemical compounds to methane. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Dispersion of luminescent nanoparticles in different derivatives of poly(ethyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Davion, B; Delhorbe, V; Péralta, S P; Goubard, F; Vidal, F

    2011-04-01

    Gd2O3:Tb(5%) nanoparticles were prepared via the polyol route and dispersed without any stabilizer in several ethyl methacrylate derivatives matrices such as poly(ethyl methacrylate), poly(2-methoxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). Nanocomposites were obtained via free-radical polymerization of methacrylic monomers with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and colloidal solution of Gd2O3:Tb(5%) nanoparticles. Best results are obtained with PHEMA in which the dispersed Gd2O3:Tb(5%) nanoparticles are spherical with a mean diameter of 15 nm, as measured by TEM. The obtained solid Gd2O3:Tb(5%)/PHEMA nanocomposites are highly transparent (in the visible spectral range) and exhibit characteristic photoluminescence of Tb3+ 5D4-7F(J) (J = 6-3), with 5D4-7F5 strong green emission at 536 nm upon UV excitation. The nanoparticles and nanocomposites have been well characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV/Vis transmission spectra, photoluminescence excitation, and emission spectra. PMID:21776688

  17. Flexural properties of ethyl or methyl methacrylate-UDMA blend polymers.

    PubMed

    Kanie, Takahito; Kadokawa, Akihiko; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Koichi; Ban, Seiji

    2010-10-01

    Light-curing polyethyl methacrylate (PEMA)-urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) resins and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-UDMA resins were prepared by two processes. For first step, PEMA or PMMA powders were fully dissolved in ethyl methacrylate (EMA) or methyl methacrylate (MMA) and then the PEMA-EMA/PMMA-MMA mixtures were mixed with UDMA. The flexural properties of cured PEMA-UDMA and PMMA-UDMA polymers were measured using two PEMA (Mw: 300,000-400,000 and 650,000-1,000,000) and three PMMA (Mw: 30,000-60,000, 350,000 and 650,000-1,000,000) powders with different molecular weight, four mixing ratios of PMMA-MMA, and three mixing ratios of PMMA-MMA mixture and UDMA oligomer. Polymers with PMMA(Mw: 350,000) MMA=25/50, and with PMMA(Mw: 350,000)-MMA/UDMA=1/2 and =1/1, showed no-fracture in a flexural test at 1 mm/min and flexural strength and flexural modulus showed no significant difference compared with those of commercially available heat- and self-curing acrylic resins (p>0.01). Within limitation of this investigation, methyl methacrylate-UDMA blend polymer of this composition is available for denture base resin. PMID:20733259

  18. Toughening epoxy resin with poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaifard, A.H.; Hodd, K.A.; Barton, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    A novel rubber, poly(methyl methacrylate)-g-natural rubber (Hevea-plus MG), has been studied as a toughening agent for bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (Shell 828 epoxy resin) cured with piperidine. Effective dispersions of the rubber, in concentrations of 2-10 parts per hundred parts resin, were achieved by adjusting the solubility parameter of the epoxy to approximate that of poly(methyl methacrylate) by adding bisphenol A. The fracture energy of the rubber-modified resin was determined by compact tension tests (in the temperature range -60 to +40{degrees}C) and by Charpy impact tests. The poly(methyl methacrylate)-g-natural rubber was found to be an effective toughening agent for the epoxy resin at both low and high rates of strain. Possible fracture mechanisms are discussed. 22 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Chondrocyte Generation of Cartilage-Like Tissue Following Photoencapsulation in Methacrylated Polysaccharide Solution Blends.

    PubMed

    Hayami, James W S; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

    2016-07-01

    Chondrocyte-seeded, photo-cross-linked hydrogels prepared from solutions containing 50% mass fractions of methacrylated glycol chitosan or methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MHA) with methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (MCS) are cultured in vitro under static conditions over 35 d to assess their suitability for load-bearing soft tissue repair. The photo-cross-linked hydrogels have initial equilibrium moduli between 100 and 300 kPa, but only the MHAMCS hydrogels retain an approximately constant modulus (264 ± 5 kPa) throughout the culture period. Visually, the seeded chondrocytes in the MHAMCS hydrogels are well distributed with an apparent constant viability in culture. Multicellular aggregates are surrounded by cartilaginous matrix, which contain aggrecan and collagen II. Thus, co-cross-linked MCS and MHA hydrogels may be suited for use in an articular cartilage or nucleus pulposus repair applications. PMID:27061241

  20. Designing ultraviolet curing of multifunctional (meth)acrylate hard coats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mei

    Ultraviolet (UV) curing rapidly converts multifunctional (meth)acrylate liquid monomers into highly cross-linked, impervious, hard polymeric coatings at ambient temperature. This solidification process occurs by free-radical cross-linking polymerization. To achieve a better design of this process, it is desirable to have high conversion of functional groups, low stress, adequate mechanical properties, and low costs. To approach this design goal, the following modeling and experimental work was carried out. Firstly, a kinetic model was developed to simulate radical trapping. This model predicts a peak in the concentration of active radicals and a monotonic rise of the concentration of trapped radicals during polymerization. It also predicts a decrease in the fraction of trapped radicals at a given conversion as the UV light intensity is raised. Secondly, a kinetic gelation model, in which reaction occurs locally on a lattice, was developed. Unlike previous such models, this model accounts for free radical reaction time more accurately. It was found that a more uniform distribution of reacted sites leads to a favored propagation at a given conversion. Moreover, radical trapping and termination were found to shorten the kinetic chain length and to lower the asymptotic conversion reached when initiators are exhausted. Thirdly, elastic modulus evolution was simulated with a rigidity percolation model, in which bonds created by free-radical polymerization are represented as rigidly jointed beams. Simulations show that modulus of a network depends on the connectivity between monomer units as well as bonding structure. Finally, experimental determination of volume shrinkage of a sandwiched film was measured with a dynamic mechanical analyzer probe. A faster reaction causes more severely delayed volume shrinkage from the thermodynamic equilibrium volume required by the reaction. Nevertheless, volume shrinks more when the shrinkage of the thermodynamic volume rises. In

  1. Mutagenicity assessment of acrylate and methacrylate compounds and implications for regulatory toxicology requirements.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, F R; Vogt, Barbara; Waite, Maureen; Deskin, Randy

    2008-04-01

    Esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, more commonly known as acrylates and methacrylates, respectively, are key raw materials in the coatings and printing industry, with several of its chemical class used in food packaging. The results of over 200 short-term in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies available in the open literature have been evaluated. Despite differences in acrylate or methacrylate functionality or in the number of functional groups, a consistent pattern of test response was seen in a typical regulatory battery of mutagenicity tests. No evidence of point mutations was observed when acrylic acid or over 60 acrylates and methacrylates were investigated in Salmonella bacterial tests or in hprt mutation tests mammalian cells, and no evidence of a mutagenic effect was seen when tested in whole animal clastogenicity and/or aneuploidy (chromosomal aberration/micronucleus) studies. Consistent with the in vivo testing results, acrylic acid exhibited no evidence of carcinogenicity in chronic rodent cancer bioassays. In contrast, acrylic acid and the entire acrylate and methacrylate chemical class produced a consistently positive response when tested in the mouse lymphoma assay and/or other in vitro mammalian cell assays designed to detect clastogenicity. The biological relevance of this in vitro response is questioned based on the non-concordance of in vitro results with those of in vivo studies addressing the same mutagenic endpoint (clastogenicity). Thus, in short-term mutagenicity tests, the acrylates and methacrylates behave as a single chemical category, and genotoxicity behavior of a similar chemical can be predicted with confidence by inclusion within this chemical class, thus avoiding unnecessary testing. PMID:18346829

  2. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers functionalized with poly (glycidyl methacrylate) via atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongwei; Xiong, Lei; Qin, Xiaokang; Wang, Zhengyue; Ding, Bei; Ren, Huan; Pi, Xiaolong

    2015-07-01

    In this work, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers (CF) were chemically modified with poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to improve the interaction between the CF and polymer matrix. The FT-IR, TGA, and XPS were used to determine the chemical structure of the resulting products and the quantities of PGMA chains grafted from the CF surface. The experimental results confirm that the CF surface was functionalized and glycidyl methacrylate was graft-polymerized onto the CF, and the grafting content of polymer could reach 10.2%.

  3. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymer gels and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-05-15

    The present invention provides novel gel forming methacrylic blocking copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether polymer. The polymers may be used for drug and gene delivery, protein separation, as structural supplements, and more.

  4. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of organofluorine esters of acrylic, methacrylic, and maleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Gol'din, G.S.; Averbakh, K.O.; Lavygin, I.A.; Nekrasova, L.A.

    1985-12-01

    The authors synthesize and study the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates. The organofluorine esters are colorless liquids; their composition and structure were confirmed by elemental analysis and IR spectra. The results of studies of the dependence of the density, surface tension, and viscosity of these compounds on temperature are presented. The results revealed the influence of the length of the fluorocarbon chain on the combination of the physicochemical properties of organofluorine acrylates, methacrylates, and maleates, and also provided a method for estimating certain thermophysical characteristics of such compounds without recourse to experimental measurements.

  5. Balancing Size Exclusion and Adsorption of Methacrylate Polymers in Nanoporous Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulahad, Asem; Lee, Sekyung; Chang, Taihyun; Ryu, Chang

    2010-03-01

    Liquid chromatography at the critical condition (LCCC) is a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique that lies between size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and adsorption-based interaction chromatography (IC) where the elution of polymers becomes independent of polymer molecular weight. At LCCC, the balance between the entropic exclusion and the enthalpic adsorption interactions between polymers and stationary phases results in the simultaneous elution of polymers regardless of molecular weight. Using C18-bonded silica chromatographic columns we demonstrate the LCCC elution of a series of methacrylate polymers and discuss how the alkyl side groups in methacrylate polymers affects the adsorption of polymer chains against the size exclusion in nanopores.

  6. Effect of filling technique on the bond strength of methacrylate and silorane-based composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernanda Weingartner; Borges, Fernanda Blos; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de; Boscato, Noéli

    2016-01-01

    The bond strength of methacrylate (Z350, 3M ESPE) and silorane (P90, 3M ESPE) restorations, using different cavity filling techniques, was investigated. Cavities (6 × 3 × 3) in bovine teeth were filled using bulk, oblique, or horizontal increments. A push-out test was carried out after 24 h. Data were statistically analyzed (α = 5%). Methacrylate-based composites and the horizontal filling technique showed the highest bond strength values (10.2 ± 3.9, p < 0.05). Silorane-based composites showed no statistically significant differences regarding the filling techniques (p > 0.05). PMID:27050940

  7. Terminal-Selective Transesterification of Chlorine-Capped Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)s: A Modular Approach to Telechelic and Pinpoint-Functionalized Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yusuke; Terashima, Takaya; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2016-04-20

    Terminal-selective transesterification of chlorine-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA-Cl) with alcohols was developed as a modular approach to create telechelic and pinpoint-functionalized polymers. Being sterically less hindered and electronically activated, both the α-end ethyl ester and ω-end methyl ester of PMMA-Cl were efficiently and selectively transesterified with diverse alcohols in the presence of a titanium alkoxide catalyst, while retaining the pendent esters intact, to almost quantitatively give various chlorine-capped telechelic PMMAs. In sharp contrast to conventional telechelic counterparts, the telechelic polymers obtained herein yet carry a chlorine atom at the ω-terminal to further work as a macroinitiator in living radical polymerization. The iterative process of living radical polymerization and terminal-selective transesterification successfully afforded unique pinpoint-functionalized polymers where a single functional monomer unit was introduced into the desired site of the polymer chains. PMID:27040865

  8. In situ synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticle/polymer hybrid from a mixed Fe-Co methacrylate for magnetic hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Koichiro; Maeda, Kazuki; Moriya, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2012-09-01

    Hyperthermic CoFe2O4 nanoparticle (CFO NP)/polymer hybrids were synthesized by hydrolysis-condensation from a complex of Co and Fe possessing methacrylate ligands. Single-crystal analysis revealed that the complex consisted of two Co and four Fe metal atoms coordinated by methacrylate and 2-methoxyethoxy groups. The complex was copolymerized with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and the resulting copolymer was then hydrolyzed to form a CFO NP/copolymer of poly(methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hybrid. Copolymerization with HEMA enhanced the stability of the hybrid in water. The size and magnetic properties of CFO in the hybrid were controlled by adjusting the hydrolysis conditions. Moreover, the hybrid generated heat under an alternating current magnetic field; its exothermal properties depended on the magnetic properties of the hybrid, the strength of the applied field, and the CFO NP content in the agar phantom matrix.

  9. Investigation of bonding properties of denture bases to silicone-based soft denture liner immersed in isobutyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Tugut, Faik; Mutaf, Burcu; Guney, Umit

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the bonding properties of denture bases to silicone-based soft denture liners immersed in isobutyl methacrylate (iBMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) for various lengths of time. MATERIALS AND METHODS Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) test specimens were fabricated (75 mm in length, 12 mm in diameter at the thickest section, and 7 mm at the thinnest section) and then randomly assigned to five groups (n=15); untreated (Group 1), resilient liner immersed in iBMA for 1 minute (Group 2), resilient liner immersed in iBMA for 3 minutes (Group 3), resilient liner immersed in HEMA for 1 minute (Group 4), and resilient liner immersed in HEMA for 3 minutes (Group 5). The resilient liner specimens were processed between 2 PMMA blocks. Bonding strength of the liners to PMMA was compared by tensile test with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Data were evaluated by 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons tests (α=0.05). RESULTS The highest mean value of force was observed in Group 3 specimens. The differences between groups were statistically significant (P<.05), except between Group 1 and Group 4 (P=.063). CONCLUSION Immersion of silicone-based soft denture liners in iBMA for 3 minutes doubled the tensile bond strength between the silicone soft liner and PMMA denture base materials compared to the control group. PMID:24843397

  10. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer. 177.1030 Section 177.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...

  11. Recent Origin of the Methacrylate Redox System in Geobacter sulfurreducens AM-1 through Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Arkhipova, Oksana V.; Meer, Margarita V.; Mikoulinskaia, Galina V.; Zakharova, Marina V.; Galushko, Alexander S.; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of novel biochemical functions remains one of the key questions in molecular evolution. We study recently emerged methacrylate reductase function that is thought to have emerged in the last century and reported in Geobacter sulfurreducens strain AM-1. We report the sequence and study the evolution of the operon coding for the flavin-containing methacrylate reductase (Mrd) and tetraheme cytochrome с (Mcc) in the genome of G. sulfurreducens AM-1. Different types of signal peptides in functionally interlinked proteins Mrd and Mcc suggest a possible complex mechanism of biogenesis for chromoproteids of the methacrylate redox system. The homologs of the Mrd and Mcc sequence found in δ-Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres are also organized into an operon and their phylogenetic distribution suggested that these two genes tend to be horizontally transferred together. Specifically, the mrd and mcc genes from G. sulfurreducens AM-1 are not monophyletic with any of the homologs found in other Geobacter genomes. The acquisition of methacrylate reductase function by G. sulfurreducens AM-1 appears linked to a horizontal gene transfer event. However, the new function of the products of mrd and mcc may have evolved either prior or subsequent to their acquisition by G. sulfurreducens AM-1. PMID:25962149

  12. 21 CFR 177.2465 - Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers. 177.2465 Section 177.2465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2465 - Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers. 177.2465 Section 177.2465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only...

  14. 21 CFR 177.2465 - Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate/poly(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate copolymers. 177.2465 Section 177.2465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3121 - Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...(hydroxyethyl methacrylate). The dyes that may be used alone or in combination are (1) Reactive Black 5 (CAS Reg...)-, sulfo((4-((2-sulfooxy)ethyl)sulfonyl)phenyl)amino) sulfonyl derivs] (CAS Reg. No. 73049-92-0); (3) Reactive Orange 78 CAS Reg. No. 68189-39-9); (4) Reactive Yellow 15 (CAS Reg. No. 60958-41-0); (5)...

  16. 21 CFR 73.3121 - Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(hydroxyethyl methacrylate). The dyes that may be used alone or in combination are (1) Reactive Black 5 (CAS Reg...)-, sulfo((4-((2-sulfooxy)ethyl)sulfonyl)phenyl)amino) sulfonyl derivs] (CAS Reg. No. 73049-92-0); (3) Reactive Orange 78 CAS Reg. No. 68189-39-9); (4) Reactive Yellow 15 (CAS Reg. No. 60958-41-0); (5)...

  17. Controlled Degradation of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate-Co-Methyl Methacrylate)(PECA-Co-PMMA) Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for modifying poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) in order to control the degradation and the stability as well as the glass transition temperatures. Copolymers of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PECA-co-PMMA) with various compositions were synthesized by free ...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7200 - Perfluoroalkyl aromatic carbamate modified alkyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl aromatic carbamate modified alkyl methacrylate copolymer. 721.7200 Section 721.7200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  19. Use of methacrylate-modified chitosan to increase the durability of dentine bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Diolosà, Marina; Donati, Ivan; Turco, Gianluca; Cadenaro, Milena; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of a methacrylate-modified chitosan on the durability of adhesive interfaces to improve the clinical performance of dental restorations. Chitosan was modified with methacrylic acid (Chit-MA70) on 16% of the amino groups. Viscosity, rheology, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy were performed to characterize the modified polysaccharide. Chit-MA70 was blended into a primer of an "etch-and-rinse" experimental adhesive system and tested on human teeth. The presence of methacrylate moieties and of residual positive charges on the polysaccharide chain allowed Chit-MA70 to covalently bind to the restorative material and electrostatically interact with demineralized dentin. The Chit-MA70 containing an adhesive system showed values of the immediate bond strength (26.0 ± 8.7 MPa) comparable to the control adhesive system (25.5 ± 8.7 MPa). However, it was shown that upon performing thermo-mechanical cycling treatment of the dental restoration on human teeth, the adhesive with the methacrylate-modified chitosan, in variance with the control adhesive, did not show any decrease in the bond strength (28.4 ± 8.8 MPa). The modified chitosan is proposed as a component of the "etch-and-rinse" adhesive system to efficiently improve the durability of dental restorations. PMID:25347288

  20. Versatility of Alkyne-Modified Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate) Layers for Click Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Soto-Cantu, Dr. Erick; Lokitz, Bradley S; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo; Deodhar, Chaitra; Messman, Jamie M; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, II, S Michael

    2011-01-01

    Functional soft interfaces are of interest for a variety of technologies. We describe three methods for preparing substrates with alkyne groups, which show versatility for 'click' chemistry reactions. Two of the methods have the same root: formation of thin, covalently attached, reactive interfacial layers of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via spin coating onto silicon wafers followed by reactive modification with either propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid. The amine or the carboxylic acid moieties react with the epoxy groups of PGMA, creating interfacial polymer layers decorated with alkyne groups. The third method consists of using copolymers comprising glycidyl methacrylate and propargyl methacrylate (pGP). The pGP copolymers are spin coated and covalently attached on silicon wafers. For each method, we investigate the factors that control film thickness and content of alkyne groups using ellipsometry, and study the nanophase structure of the films using neutron reflectometry. Azide-terminated polymers of methacrylic acid and 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization were attached to the alkyne-modified substrates using 'click' chemistry, and grafting densities in the range of 0.007-0.95 chains nm{sup -2} were attained. The maximum density of alkyne groups attained by functionalization of PGMA with propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid was approximately 2 alkynes nm{sup -3}. The alkyne content obtained by the three decorating approaches was sufficiently high that it was not the limiting factor for the click reaction of azide-capped polymers.

  1. Enthalpy of mixing of methacrylic acid with organic solvents at 293 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The enthalpies of mixing of binary systems of methacrylic acid with acetonitrile, benzene, hexane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and acetic acid are measured calorimetrically at 293 K and atmospheric pressure. The enthalpy of mixing of all the studied binary systems is positive over the range of concentrations.

  2. Impact strength of a modified continuous glass fiber--poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K; Narva, K

    1997-01-01

    The effect of fiber reinforcement of autopolymerizing poly(methyl methacrylate) was investigated. The impact strength of continuous E-glass fiber-poly(methyl methacrylate) composite was determined. Rectangular test specimens (n = 10 per group) were modified by incorporating an additional fiber reinforcement of untreated E-glass fibers, silanized E-glass fibers, or aramid fibers in the test specimens. Controls were either unreinforced or reinforced from the middle of the test specimen only. The impact strength of the specimens was measured by using a charpy-type pendulum impact tester after the specimens had been stored in water at 37 degrees C for 4 weeks. After the impact strength test, the length of the delamination of poly(methyl methacrylate) from the fibers was measured and plotted to the impact strength of the test specimens by using a linear regression model. The impact strength of unreinforced autopolymerizing poly(methyl methacrylate) was 7.8 kl/m2, while incorporation of glass fiber reinforcement with a fiber concentration of 12.4 wt% increased the impact strength to 74.7 kl/m2 (P = .000). The additional fiber reinforcement of the test specimen did not affect the impact strength (P = .363). Delamination negatively correlated with the impact strength of the test specimens (r = -.72, P = .000). The results of this study suggest that glass fiber reinforcement enhanced the impact strength of autopolymerizing poly(methyl methacrylate), while the use of additional fiber reinforcement made of aramid or glass fibers in the test specimens did not have an effect on the impact strength. PMID:9206454

  3. Investigation of thiol-ene and thiol-ene-methacrylate based resins as dental restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Neil B.; Couch, Charles L.; Schreck, Kathleen M.; Carioscia, Jacquelyn A.; Boulden, Jordan E.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this work was to evaluate thiol-norbornene and thiol-ene-methacrylate systems as the resin phase of dental restorative materials and demonstrate their superior performance as compared to dimethacrylate materials. Methods Polymerization kinetics and overall functional group conversions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Flexural strength and modulus were determined with a 3-point flexural test. Polymerization-induced shrinkage stress was measured with a tensometer. Results Thiol-ene polymer systems were demonstrated to exhibit advantageous properties for dental restorative materials in regards to rapid curing kinetics, high conversion, and low shrinkage and stress. However, both the thiol-norbornene and thiol-allyl ether systems studied here exhibit significant reductions in flexural strength and modulus relative to BisGMA/TEGDMA. By utilizing the thiol-ene component as the reactive diluent in dimethacrylate systems, high flexural modulus and strength are achieved while dramatically reducing the polymerization shrinkage stress. The methacrylate-thiol-allyl ether and methacrylate-thiol-norbornene systems both exhibited equivalent flexural modulus (2.1 ± 0.1 GPa) and slightly reduced flexural strength (95 ± 1 and 101 ± 3 MPa, respectively) relative to BisGMA/TEGDMA (flexural modulus; 2.2 + 0.1 GPa and flexural strength; 112 ± 3 MPa). Both the methacrylate-thiol-allyl ether and methacrylate-thiol-norbornene systems exhibited dramatic reductions in shrinkage stress (1.1 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.2 MPa, respectively) relative to BisGMA/TEGDMA (2.6 ± 0.2 MPa). Significance The improved polymerization kinetics and overall functional group conversion, coupled with reductions in shrinkage stress while maintaining equivalent flexural modulus, result in a superior overall dental restorative material as compared to traditional bulk dimethacrylate resins. PMID:19781757

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of novel siloxane-methacrylate monomers used as dentin adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xueping; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to synthesize two new siloxane-methacrylate (SM) monomers for application in dentin adhesives and to investigate the influence of different functionality of the siloxane-containing monomers on the adhesive photopolymerization, water sorption, and mechanical properties. Materials and method Two siloxane-methacrylate monomers (SM1 and SM2) with four and eight methacrylate groups were synthesized. Dentin adhesives containing BisGMA, HEMA and the siloxane-methacrylate monomers were photo-polymerized. The experimental adhesives were compared with the control adhesive (HEMA/BisGMA 45/55 w/w) and characterized with regard to degree of conversion (DC), water miscibility of the liquid resin, water sorption and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Results The experimental adhesives exhibited improved water miscibility as compared to the control. When cured in the presence of 12 wt % water to simulate the wet environment of the mouth, the SM-containing adhesives showed DC comparable to the control. The experimental adhesives showed higher rubbery modulus than the control under dry conditions. Under wet conditions, the mechanical properties of the formulations containing SM monomer with increased functionality were comparable with the control, even with more water sorption. Significance The concentration and functionality of the newly synthesized siloxane-methacrylate monomers affected the water miscibility, water sorption and mechanical properties of the adhesives. The experimental adhesives show improved water compatibility compared with the control. The mechanical properties were enhanced with an increase of the functionality of the siloxane-containing monomers. The results provide critical structure/property relationships and important information for future development of durable, versatile siloxane-containing dentin adhesives. PMID:24993811

  5. Development of methacrylate/silorane hybrid monomer system: Relationship between photopolymerization behavior and dynamic mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Song, Linyong; Ye, Qiang; Ge, Xueping; Singh, Viraj; Misra, Anil; Laurence, Jennifer S; Berrie, Cindy L; Spencer, Paulette

    2016-07-01

    Resin chemistries for dental composite are evolving as noted by the introduction of silorane-based composites in 2007. This shift in the landscape from methacrylate-based composites has fueled the quest for versatile methacrylate-silorane adhesives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the polymerization behavior and structure/property relationships of methacrylate-silorane hybrid systems. Amine compound ethyl-4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (EDMAB) or silane compound tris(trimethylsilyl) silane (TTMSS) was selected as coinitiators. The mechanical properties of the copolymer were improved significantly at low concentrations (15, 25, or 35 wt %) of silorane when EDMAB was used as coinitiator. The rubbery moduli of these experimental copolymers were increased by up to 260%, compared with that of the control (30.8 ± 1.9 MPa). Visible phase separation appeared in these formulations if the silorane concentrations in the formulations were 50-75 wt %. The use of TTMSS as coinitiator decreased the phase separation, but there was a concomitant decrease in mechanical properties. In the neat methacrylate formulations, the maximum rates of free-radical polymerization with EDMAB or TTMSS were 0.28 or 0.06 s(-1) , respectively. In the neat silorane resin, the maximum rates of cationic ring-opening polymerization with EDMAB or TTMSS were 0.056 or 0.087 s(-1) , respectively. The phase separation phenomenon may be attributed to differences in the rates of free-radical polymerization of methacrylates and cationic ring-opening polymerization of silorane. In the hybrid systems, free-radical polymerization initiated with EDMAB led to higher crosslink density and better mechanical properties under dry/wet conditions. These beneficial effects were, however, associated with an increase in heterogeneity in the network structure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 841-852, 2016. PMID:25953619

  6. Pentablock copolymers of pluronic F127 and modified poly(2-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate for internalization mechanism and gene transfection studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Jer; Wang, Tzu-Pin; Lue, Sheng-I; Wang, Li-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Cationic polymers are one of the major nonviral gene delivery vectors investigated in the past decade. In this study, we synthesized several cationic copolymers using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for gene delivery vectors: pluronic F127-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PF127-pDMAEMA), pluronic F127-poly (dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-tert-butyl acrylate) (PF127-p(DMAEMA-tBA)), and pluronic F127-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (PF127-p(DMAEMA-AA)). The copolymers showed high buffering capacity and efficiently complexed with plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (pDNA) to form nanoparticles 80–180 nm in diameter and with positive zeta potentials. In the absence of 10% fetal bovine serum, PF127-p(DMAEMA-AA) showed the highest gene expression and the lowest cytotoxicity in 293T cells. After acrylic acid groups had been linked with a fluorescent dye, the confocal laser scanning microscopic image showed that PF127-p(DMAEMA-AA)/pDNA could efficiently enter the cells. Both clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis mechanisms were involved. Our results showed that PF127-p(DMAEMA-AA) has great potential to be a gene delivery vector. PMID:23745045

  7. Preparation and application of sol-gel acrylate and methacrylate solid-phase microextraction fibres for gas chromatographic analysis of organoarsenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Popiel, Stanisław; Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof

    2014-07-21

    Novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres containing methyl, ethyl, butyl acrylate and methacrylate were first prepared by a sol-gel technique and investigated for determination of selected organoarsenic compounds (lewisite, methyldichloroarsine, phenyldichloroarsine, diphenylchloroarsine and triphenylarsine) from water samples. The influence of sorption and desorption temperature and time for extraction efficiency were examined. The best new fibre coatings (methyl acrylate (MA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and combination of methyl acrylate and methacrylate (MA/MMA)) for analysis of organoarsenic compounds were selected and compared with commercial fibres. The distribution coefficients Kfs were determined for the best novel fibres and for absorption commercial fibres. The highest Kfs value were obtained for MA/MMA and MMA fibres and were respectively 9458 and 6561 for lewisite and 6458 and 5884 for triphenylarsine. The limit of detection and quantification were determined for the three laboratory obtained fibres (MA, MMA and MA/MMA). LODs for tested fibres, at a signal-to-noise of 3, were 0.03-0.3 ng mL(-1). LOQs for selected coatings, at signal-to-noise of 10, were 0.1-0.8 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) for all measurements were 4.3-6.5% (n=9) and relative errors were 2.5-5%. The laboratory obtained fibres were used for environmental analysis of pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. PMID:25000858

  8. Highly sensitive poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] brush-based flow-through microarray immunoassay device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingshuai; Wang, Wei; Hu, Weihua; Lu, Zhisong; Zhou, Xiaoqun; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-08-01

    Flow-through immunoassay is an attractive method for fast, inexpensive and high-throughput protein analyses. However, its practical application is limited by low sensitivity. In this work, a highly sensitive flow-through microarray immunoassay device is developed, in which a poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] (P(GMA-co-PEGMA)) brush as a flexible matrix is uniformly coated on a glass slide through a purge-free surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to immobilize capture proteins for a larger loading capacity and higher bioactivity while allowing easy target access to the brush-attached probes for efficient antibody-antigen (Ab-Ag) bindings. The integrated device is then constructed by simply laminating the protein-arrayed slide onto a ready-for-bonding double-sided adhesive tape-attached poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic structure. As a demonstration, a parallel microarray panel is designed to perform flow-through immunoassays for good detection flexibility and simultaneous analysis of various samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of 1-10 pg/mL for detected target proteins is achieved, which is one to two orders better than those of reported flow-through immunoassays. The device also demonstrates significantly reduced total assay time over the static microarray immunoassay. The rapid and sensitive detection can be mainly ascribed to the P(GMA-co-PEGMA) brushed substrate, of which both the hydrophilicity from its PEG component and the binding capability from its GMA moiety result in higher protein loading capacity, lower nonspecific adsorption, and higher Ab-Ag binding efficiency. The integrated microfluidic device was further used to detect an important cancer biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum and achieved a LOD of 10 pg/mL, demonstrating its great potential for clinical applications. PMID:21547537

  9. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Marc A.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2008-01-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S--, --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group. The present invention is also directed to a process of preparing labeled compounds, e.g., process of preparing [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid by reacting a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13CH.sub.2)-- aryl sulfone precursor with .sup.13CHI to form a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate, and, reacting the (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate with sodium hydroxide, followed by acid to form [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid. The present invention is further directed to a process of preparing [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate by reacting a (HOOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate with CD.sub.3I to form a (.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate, and heating the(.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate at temperatures and for time sufficient to form [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate.

  10. Process for producing a well-adhered durable optical coating on an optical plastic substrate. [abrasion resistant polymethyl methacrylate lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubacki, R. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A low temperature plasma polymerization process is described for applying an optical plastic substrate, such as a polymethyl methacrylate lens, with a single layer abrasive resistant coating to improve the durability of the plastic.

  11. A rare case of pseudotumor formation associated with methyl methacrylate hypersensitivity in a patient following cemented total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kenan, Shachar; Kahn, Leonard; Haramati, Noga; Kenan, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to orthopedic implant materials has been well documented with potential catastrophic consequences if not addressed pre-operatively. The spectrum of reactions is wide, from mild non-specific pain with localized erythema to severe periprosthetic inflammatory destruction and pseudotumor formation. It is therefore essential to identify patients who have or are at risk for implant-associated hypersensitivity. Although metal sensitivity is commonly cited as the cause of these reactions, methyl methacrylate (MMA) has rarely been implicated. To the best of our knowledge, methyl methacrylate-associated pseudotumor formation has not yet been described. The following is a case report of a 68-year-old female who, after undergoing a routine cemented right total knee arthroplasty, developed a painless, enlarging mass during a 13-year period. This mass was found to be a pseudotumor in association with methyl methacrylate hypersensitivity. A review of pseudotumor pathogenesis, methyl methacrylate hypersensitivity, and preoperative preventative care is discussed. PMID:27022733

  12. Use of hydrophobically modified inulin for the preparation of polymethyl methacrylate/polybutyl acrylate latex particles using a semicontinuous reactor.

    PubMed

    Obiols-Rabasa, M; Ramos, J; Forcada, J; Esquena, J; Solans, C; Levecke, B; Booten, K; Tadros, Tharwat F

    2010-06-01

    The seeded semicontinuous emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BuA) stabilized with a graft polymeric surfactant based on inulin, INUTEC SP1, as well as its mixture with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is described. The mixture of SLS and Brij58 (alcohol ethoxylated) and the mixture of SLS and Pluronic P85 (block copolymer PEO-PPO-PEO) are also used as surfactant systems. The addition of methacrylic acid (MAA) or acrylic acid (AA) as comonomers is also studied. Previous results proved this inulin-derivative surfactant, INUTEC SP1, to be very effective on synthesizing latexes using a very low surfactant concentration. The kinetic features of the emulsion polymerization (instantaneous conversion and total conversion) were gravimetrically determined along the reactions. Latex dispersions were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain the average particle size, the particle size distributions (PSDs) as well as the polydispersity index (PdI). The stability was determined by turbidimetry measurements and expressed in terms of critical coagulation concentration. The results showed that the use of the graft polymeric surfactant allowed obtaining highly stable nanoparticles, at low surfactant concentrations and high solid contents (up to 37 wt %). This is an improvement with respect to previous works, in which a mixture of the graft polymeric surfactant with another surfactant was required to obtain stable nanoparticles with low polydispersity, at high solid content. In the present work, low polydispersity was achieved using INUTEC as the only emulsifier, which was related to the absence of secondary nucleations. When a mixture of INUTEC SP1 and SLS is used, a wider PSD is obtained due to secondary nucleations. Replacing INUTEC SP1 by other nonionic surfactants such as Brij58 or Pluronic P85 leads to an increase of average particle size and wider PSD. PMID:20121169

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly(isobutyl methacrylate) microbeads with grafted amidoxime groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çaykara, Tuncer; Alaslan, Şerife Şirin; Gürü, Metin; Bodugöz, Hatice; Güven, Olgun

    2007-10-01

    Poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (PiBMA) microspheres with a 800- to 1500-μm diameter range synthesized by suspension polymerization technique were used as the trunk polymer in the preparation of a highly efficient new adsorbent. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was grafted onto the trunk polymer by pre-irradiation grafting technique. Grafting conditions were optimized, and GMA grafted PiBMA beads were modified with iminodiacetonitrile (IDAN) in ethanol at 80 °C. The nitrile groups were then amidoximated by using 6% (m/v) hydroxylamine hydrochloride in methanol solution. The IDAN modification and the conversion of the nitrile groups to amidoxime were followed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The surface morphology and thermal behavior of the PiBMA and its modificated forms were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques further confirming modification and amidoximation.

  14. Grafting of Chitosan and Chitosantrimethoxylsilylpropyl Methacrylate on Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Synthesis and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Laura; Kelly-Brown, Cordella; Stewart, Melisa; Oki, Aderemi; Regisford, Gloria; Stone, Julia; Traisawatwong, Pasakorn; Durand-Rougely, Clarissa; Luo, Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    Acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grafted to chitosan by first reacting the oxidized CNTs with thionyl chloride to form acyl-chlorinated CNTs. This product was subsequently dispersed in chitosan and covalently grafted to form CNT-chitosan. CNT-chitosan was further grafted onto 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate by free radical polymerization conditions, to yield CNT-g-chitosan-g-3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (TMSPM), hereafter referred to as CNT-chitosan-3-TMSPM. These composites were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Resonance Spectroscopy (FTIR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The composite showed improved thermal stability and could be of great potential use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:21765959

  15. Influence of pulse width on ultraviolet laser ablation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Braren, Bodil

    1988-10-01

    The etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using pulses of 248 nm laser radiation which had a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 40-100 ns is reported. These pulses were created by combining two identical pulses, each of 40 ns FWHM, with a set time delay. The etch depth/pulse is sensitive to the pulse width and, therefore, the power density in this polymer. It can be explained by the changes in absorptivity during a pulse that have been reported by G. M. Davis and M. C. Gower [J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2090 (1987)]. The shape of the pulse was also found to influence the etch depth/pulse. The etching of polyimide by these extended pulses shows trends that are opposite to those observed in poly(methyl methacrylate). In this instance, the shielding of the latter portion of the incoming pulse by the products that are ablated by the front portion is probably a serious effect.

  16. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-08-28

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in {sup 1}HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR)

  17. Unbiased phosphoproteomic method identifies the initial effects of a methacrylic acid copolymer on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Michael Dean; Wells, Laura A; Lisovsky, Alexandra; Guo, Hongbo; Isserlin, Ruth; Talior-Volodarsky, Ilana; Mahou, Redouan; Emili, Andrew; Sefton, Michael V

    2015-08-25

    An unbiased phosphoproteomic method was used to identify biomaterial-associated changes in the phosphorylation patterns of macrophage-like cells. The phosphorylation differences between differentiated THP1 (dTHP1) cells treated for 10, 20, or 30 min with a vascular regenerative methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer or a control methyl methacrylate (MM) copolymer were determined by MS. There were 1,470 peptides (corresponding to 729 proteins) that were differentially phosphorylated in dTHP1 cells treated with the two materials with a greater cellular response to MAA treatment. In addition to identifying pathways (such as integrin signaling and cytoskeletal arrangement) that are well known to change with cell-material interaction, previously unidentified pathways, such as apoptosis and mRNA splicing, were also discovered. PMID:26261332

  18. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized, methacrylate resin composition with antimicrobial activities and self-repair potential

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Niu, Li-na; Kemp, Lisa K.; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Ryou, Heonjune; Qi, Yi-pin; Blizzard, John D.; Nikonov, Sergey; Brackett, Martha G.; Messer, Regina L.W.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Brister, L. Bryan; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Arola, Dwayne D.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Design of antimicrobial polymers for enhancing healthcare issues and minimizing environmental problems is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized methacrylate (QAMS) represents an example of antimicrobial macromonomers synthesized by a sol-gel chemical route; these compounds possess flexible Si-O-Si bonds. In present work, a partially-hydrolyzed QAMS copolymerized with bis-GMA is introduced. This methacrylate resin was shown to possess desirable mechanical properties with both a high degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. Kill-on-contact microbiocidal activities of this resin were demonstrated using single-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 36558), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Improved mechanical properties after hydration provided the proof-of-concept that QAMS-incorporated resin exhibits self-repair potential via water-induced condensation of organic modified silicate (ormosil) phases within the polymerized resin matrix. PMID:22659173

  19. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sumeet; Jain, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacrylate retained by anatomic undercuts is quiet effective and should not be overlooked and forgotten. This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of two male patients with polymethyl methacrylate resin orbital prosthesis after orbital exenteration, for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid. The orbital prosthesis was sufficiently retained by hard and soft tissue undercuts without any complications. The patients using the prosthesis are quite satisfied with the cosmetic results and felt comfortable attending the social events. PMID:27134437

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the complexation of methacrylic acid and diisopropyl urea.

    PubMed

    Pogány, Peter; Razali, Mayamin; Szekely, Gyorgy

    2017-01-01

    The present paper explores the complexation ability of methacrylic acid which is one of the most abundant functional monomer for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers. Host-guest interactions and the mechanism of complex formation between methacrylic acid and potentially genotoxic 1,3-diisopropylurea were investigated in the pre-polymerization solution featuring both experimental (NMR, IR) and in silico density functional theory (DFT) tools. The continuous variation method revealed the presence of higher-order complexes and the appearance of self-association which were both taken into account during the determination of the association constants. The quantum chemical calculations - performed at B3LYP 6-311++G(d,p) level with basis set superposition error (BSSE) corrections - are in agreement with the experimental observations, reaffirming the association constants and justifying the validity of computational investigation of such systems. Furthermore, natural bond orbital analysis was carried out to appraise the binding properties of the complexes. PMID:27419640

  1. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolysed starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Magdy K; Ahmed, Enas M; El-Rafie, Mohamed H

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite was adopted by graft polymerization of hydrolysed starch (HS) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in aqueous medium using an efficient sodium perborate (SPB)-thiourea (TU) redox initiation system. The parameters influencing the redox system efficiency and thence the polymerization method were considered. These parameters comprehended the concentrations of MAA, SPB, TU and SPB/TU molar ratio as well as the polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was scrutinized through calculation of the MAA total conversion percent (TC%). The resultant poly(MAA-HS) composite was assessed by evaluating the polymer criteria (the graft yield, GY%; the grafting efficiency, GE%; the homopolymer, HP%; and the total conversion). The comportment of the apparent viscosity of the cooked poly(MAA)-starch composite paste, obtained under diverse polymerization conditions, was examined. Tentative mechanisms, which depict all occasions that happen amid the entire course of the polymerization reaction, have been proffered. PMID:26968925

  2. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-08-01

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in 1HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF3SO3 show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF3SO3 were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR).

  3. Surface-initiated Polymerization of Azidopropyl Methacrylate and its Film Elaboration via Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sampa; Bruening, Merlin L.; Baker, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Azidopropyl methacrylate (AzPMA), a functional monomer with a pendent azido group, polymerizes from surfaces and provides polymer brushes amenable to subsequent elaboration via click chemistry. In DMF at 50 °C, click reactions between poly(AzPMA) brushes and an alkynylated dye proceed with >90% conversion in a few minutes. However, in aqueous solutions, reaction with an alkyne-containing poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG, Mn=5000) gives <10% conversion after a 12-h reaction at room temperature. Formation of copolymers with AzPMA and polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (mPEGMA) enables control over the hydrophilicity and functional group density in the copolymer to increase the yield of aqueous click reactions. The copolymers show reaction efficiencies as high as 60%. These studies suggest that for aqueous applications such as bioconjugation via click chemistry, control over brush hydrophilicity is vital. PMID:24293702

  4. Amphiphilic Copolymers of Polyfluorene Methacrylates Exhibiting Tunable Emissions for Ink-Jet Printing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Ling, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Functionalized polyfluorene receives more and more attention due to its wide applications. Here, the syntheses of three novel polyfluorene-based methacrylate macromonomers exhibiting a vast flexibility for further applications are reported. Their emissions strongly depend on the end groups and thus the macromonomers provide blue, green, and red emissions simultaneously with the same excitation light of 365 nm. Their well-defined copolymers with 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization are investigated in detail. These copolymers exhibit high quantum yields in solid film (up to 0.8), and self-assemble into photoluminescent nanoparticles in aqueous solutions with pure blue, green, and red emissions. By simply mixing them, perfect white light emission with high quality is obtained. These aqueous nanoparticles solutions are ready for ink-jet printing to produce exquisite bright and colorful fluorescent pictures. PMID:27310485

  5. Unbiased phosphoproteomic method identifies the initial effects of a methacrylic acid copolymer on macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Michael Dean; Wells, Laura A.; Lisovsky, Alexandra; Guo, Hongbo; Isserlin, Ruth; Talior-Volodarsky, Ilana; Mahou, Redouan; Emili, Andrew; Sefton, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    An unbiased phosphoproteomic method was used to identify biomaterial-associated changes in the phosphorylation patterns of macrophage-like cells. The phosphorylation differences between differentiated THP1 (dTHP1) cells treated for 10, 20, or 30 min with a vascular regenerative methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer or a control methyl methacrylate (MM) copolymer were determined by MS. There were 1,470 peptides (corresponding to 729 proteins) that were differentially phosphorylated in dTHP1 cells treated with the two materials with a greater cellular response to MAA treatment. In addition to identifying pathways (such as integrin signaling and cytoskeletal arrangement) that are well known to change with cell–material interaction, previously unidentified pathways, such as apoptosis and mRNA splicing, were also discovered. PMID:26261332

  6. Preparation of well-defined poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) macromonomers via atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengcheng; Armes, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    A series of six near-monodisperse methacrylic macromonomers is prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate using a tertiary amine-functionalized initiator at 50 °C, followed by quaternization with excess 4-vinylbenzyl chloride at 20 °C. GPC analyses indicate polydispersities of around 1.20 and their mean degrees of polymerization (DP) range from 20 to 70, as judged by both (1) H NMR and UV spectroscopy. The former technique is more convenient but the latter proved more accurate for the higher DP values, provided that an appropriate model compound is utilized for calibration. Finally, these new macromonomers are used to prepare sterically stabilized polystyrene latexes with relatively narrow size distributions via alcoholic dispersion polymerization. PMID:24123461

  7. Preparation of silver-poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite microspheres with patterned surface structures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Huiyun; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Junxia; Fang, Yu; Gu, Zhongze

    2006-01-01

    Acrylamide (AM) and methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer microgels were prepared by a reverse suspension polymerization technique. The microgels were used as templates for the preparation of silver-poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) [Ag-P(AM-co-MAA)] composite microspheres. The surface structures of the microspheres prepared in this way are characterized by zigzag-like structures. It was found that the composition of the microgels, the nature and dosage of surfactants, the quantity of the metal, and even the reduction methods employed have a significant effect upon the surface structures of the microspheres. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that Ag formed during the process is in a crystal state of a face-centered cubic structure. PMID:24058232

  8. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-A soft template for the facile preparation of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core-copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed Safiullah, S.; Abdul Wasi, K.; Anver Basha, K.

    2015-12-01

    Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core/copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite (PGMA/Cu nanohybrid) was prepared by simple two step method (i) The synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) beads by free radical suspension polymerization followed by (ii) direct deposition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on activated PGMA beads. The PGMA beads were used as a soft template to host the CuNPs without surface modification of it. In this method the CuNPs were formed by chemical reduction of copper salts using sodium borohydride in water medium and deposited directly on the activated PGMA. Two different concentrations of copper salts were employed to know the effect of concentration on the shape and size of nanoparticles. The results showed that, the different sizes and shapes of CuNPs were deposited on the PGMA matrix. The X-ray Diffraction study results showed that the CuNPs were embedded on the surface of the PGMA matrix. The scanning electron microscopic images revealed that the fabrication of CuNPs on the PGMA matrix possess different shapes and changes the morphology and nature of PGMA beads significantly. The fluorescent micrograph also confirmed that the CuNPs were doped on the PGMA surface. The thermal studies have demonstrated that the CuNPs deposition on the surface of PGMA beads had a significant effect.

  9. Nonviral Plasmid DNA Carriers Based on N,N'-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate and Di(ethylene glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate Star Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mendrek, Barbara; Sieroń, Łukasz; Żymełka-Miara, Iwona; Binkiewicz, Paulina; Libera, Marcin; Smet, Mario; Trzebicka, Barbara; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Kowalczuk, Agnieszka; Dworak, Andrzej

    2015-10-12

    Star polymers with random and block copolymer arms made of cationic N,N'-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and nonionic di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA) were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in gene therapy. All stars were able to form polyplexes with plasmid DNA. The structure and size of the polyplexes were precisely determined using light scattering and cryo-TEM microscopy. The hydrodynamic radius of a complex of DNA with star was dependent on the architecture of the star arms, the DEGMA content and the number of amino groups in the star compared to the number of phosphate groups of the nucleic acid (N/P ratio). The smallest polyplexes (Rh90°∼50 nm) with positive zeta potentials (∼15 mV) were formed of stars with N/P=6. The introduction of DEGMA into the star structure caused a decrease of polyplex cytotoxicity in comparison to DMAEMA homopolymer stars. The overall transfection efficiency using HT-1080 cells showed that the studied systems are prospective gene delivery agents. The most promising results were obtained for stars with random copolymer arms of high DEGMA content. PMID:26375579

  10. NMR Characterization of Segmental Dynamics in Glassy Poly(alkyl methacrylate)s Using Centerband-Only Detection of Exchange (CODEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonagamba, Tito J.; Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Deazevedo, Eduardo R.; Hu, Weiguo; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2000-03-01

    We will present applications of a new solid-state NMR technique, CODEX, for detecting slow (0.1/s to 3000/s) segmental reorientations with the highest achievable sensitivity and site resolution, under fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The chemical-shift anisotropy is recoupled before and after a mixing time by a sequence of rotor-synchronized 180^o radio-frequency pulses. Segmental reorientations during the mixing time result in frequency changes that dephase the magnetization and thus decrease the mobile-site signal. The correlation function is traced out by the mixing-time dependence of the intensity, while the motional amplitude can be estimated from the recoupling-time dependence. The fraction of mobile groups and the number of orientational sites is obtained from the long-time asymptotic intensity, in combination with four-time CODEX. A detailed CODEX-based characterization of the segmental dynamics associated with the beta-relaxation in glassy poly(alkyl methacrylate)s will be presented. We have quantified the fraction of flipping sidegroups as a function of the sidegroup size and characterized the slow backbone motions that are also observed.

  11. Preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive and antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes blended with poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Ju, Junping; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tingmei; Wang, Qihua

    2014-11-15

    Functional terpolymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(MMA-HEMA-AA)) was synthesized via a radical polymerization method. The terpolymer could be directly blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to prepare the microfiltration (MF) membranes via phase separate process. The synthesized polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the nuclear magnetic resonance proton spectra ((1)H NMR). The membrane had the typical asymmetric structure and the hydrophilic side chains tended to aggregate on the membrane surface. The surface enrichment of amphiphilic copolymer and morphology of MF membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contact angle (CA) and water uptake were also tested to assess the hydrophilicity and wetting characteristics of the polymer surface. The water filtration properties were measured. It was found the modified membranes showed excellent pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility behavior. Furthermore, the hydrophilicity of the blended membranes increased, and the membranes showed good protein antifouling property. PMID:25203908

  12. Photophysical, photochemical and laser behavior of some diolefinic laser dyes in sol-gel and methyl methacrylate/2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Mahmoud A. S.; Abdel Gawad, El-Sayed A.; Abou Kana, Maram T. H.; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.

    2015-08-01

    The photophysical properties such as singlet absorption, molar absorptivity, fluorescence spectra, dipole moment, fluorescence quantum yields, fluorescence lifetimes and laser activity of 1,4-bis (β-Pyridyl-2-Vinyl) Benzene (P2VB), 2,5-distyryl-pyrazine (DSP) and 1,4-bis(2-methylstyryl)benzene(MSB) diolefineic laser dyes have been measured in different restricted hosts. (P2VB), (DSP) and (MSB) are embedded in transparent sol-gel glass and a copolymer of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) media. The absorption and fluorescence properties of these laser dyes in sol-gel glass matrices are compared with their respective properties in copolymer host. The photostability of these laser dyes in sol-gel glass and (MMA/HEMA) copolymer samples are measured in terms of half-life method (using nitrogen laser 337.1 nm in pumping), as the number of pulses necessary to reduce the dye laser intensity to 50% of its original value. The gel laser materials show improved photostability upon pumping by nitrogen laser compared with those in organic polymeric host matrix.

  13. Effects of Grafting Density and Film Thickness on the Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) and Poly(poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate) Brushes.

    PubMed

    Ibanescu, Sorin-Alexandru; Nowakowska, Justyna; Khanna, Nina; Landmann, Regine; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2016-05-01

    Thin polymer films that prevent the adhesion of bacteria are of interest as coatings for the development of infection-resistant biomaterials. This study investigates the influence of grafting density and film thickness on the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to poly(poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate) (PPEGMA) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). These brushes are compared with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brushes, which are obtained by grafting PEG onto an epoxide-modified substrate. Except for very low grafting densities (ρ = 1%), crystal violet staining experiments show that the PHEMA and PPEGMA brushes are equally effective as the PEG-modified surfaces in preventing S. epidermis adhesion and do not reveal any significant variations as a function of film thickness or grafting density. These results indicate that brushes generated by SI-ATRP are an attractive alternative to grafted-onto PEG films for the preparation of surface coatings that resist bacterial adhesion. PMID:26757483

  14. Microleakage of silorane- and methacrylate-based class V composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Krifka, Stephanie; Federlin, Marianne; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2012-08-01

    The marginal integrity of class V restorations in a silorane- and a group of methacrylate-based composite resins with varying viscosities was tested in the present study. Different adhesives (OptiBond FL, KerrHawe; AdheSE One, Vivadent; or Silorane System Adhesive, 3M ESPE) were applied to 168 standardized class V cavities. The cavities (n = 12) were filled with a wide range of different viscous composite resins: Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE; els and els flow, Saremco; Tetric EvoCeram and Tetric EvoFlow, Vivadent; Grandio, Voco; and Ultraseal XT Plus, Ultradent. Microleakage of the restoration was assessed by dye penetration (silver staining) on multiple sections with and without thermocycling and mechanical loading (TCML: 5,000 × 5-55°C; 30 s/cycle; 500,000 × 72.5 N, 1.6 Hz). Data were statistically analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Error Rates Method (ERM). The silorane-based composite resin yielded the lowest dye penetration after TCML. Microleakage of methacrylate-based composite restorations, in general (ERM), was statistically significantly influenced by the adhesive system, Moreover, dye penetration at enamel margins was significantly lower than dye penetration at dentin margins. The chemical basis of composite resins and adjacent tooth substance seems to strongly influence marginal sealing of class V restorations for methacrylate-based materials. Moreover, the steps of dental adhesives used affected marginal integrity. The silorane-based composite resin evaluated in the present study exhibits the best marginal seal. The three-step adhesive yielded better marginal sealing than the one-step adhesive for methacrylate-based class V composite restorations. PMID:21947906

  15. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

  16. Surgical treatment of frontal sinus fracture sequelae with methyl methacrylate prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; Assis, Adriano; Olate, Sergio; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate treatment of fractures of the frontal sinus can lead to serious complications. These fractures are often associated with soft tissue injuries and loss of bony structures. This case report shows the use of methyl methacrylate frontal prosthesis to treat a sequel of frontal sinus fracture; surgical options are discusses and one-year follow-up is present to show stability and good cosmetic result. PMID:24273699

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cell comprising polyethyl methacrylate doped with ammonium iodide solid polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vivek Kr.; Bhattacharya, B.; Shukla, S.; Singh, Pramod K.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a new solid electrolyte polyethyl methacrylate doped with ammonium iodide polymer electrolyte and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of polymer electrolytes are presented in detail. DSSCs have been fabricated and characterized. The polymer electrolyte film with maximum ionic conductivity shows maximum efficient DSSC of efficiency 0.43 % at 1 sun condition.

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cell comprising polyethyl methacrylate doped with ammonium iodide solid polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vivek Kr.; Bhattacharya, B.; Shukla, S.; Singh, Pramod K.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a new solid electrolyte polyethyl methacrylate doped with ammonium iodide polymer electrolyte and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of polymer electrolytes are presented in detail. DSSCs have been fabricated and characterized. The polymer electrolyte film with maximum ionic conductivity shows maximum efficient DSSC of efficiency 0.43 % at 1 sun condition.

  19. Fabrication of Poly(methyl Methacrylate) microfluidic chips by redox-initiated polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiang; Lin, Yuehe; Chen, Gang

    2007-08-16

    In this report, a method based on the redox-initiated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been developed for the rapid fabrication of PMMA microfluidic chips.The new fabrication approach obviates the need for special equipment and significantly simplifies the process of fabricating microdevices. The attractive performance of the novel PMMA microchips has been demonstrated in connection with contactless conductivity detection for the separation and detection of ionic species.

  20. Inhibition of the polymerization of methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate by mixtures of chloranil with phenothiazine

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.A; Lysenko, G.M.; Zholina, I.N.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates the kinetic peculiarities of inhibited polymerization of methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate in the presence of mixtures of chloranil with phenothiazine. It is shown that depending on the structure of the monomer and the concentrations of the electron donor and electron acceptor, the radicals of propagation may form complexes with chloranil or with phenothiazine at the first step of the inhibition reaction or may interact with the complex (phenothiazine to chloranil).

  1. Fabrication, modeling and characterization of multi-crosslinked methacrylate copolymeric nanoparticles for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Khan, Riaz A

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, structural modification, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Chemometric Computational (CC) modeling was conducted to deduce the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis as well as to corroborate the experimental findings. The CC modeling deduced that the nanoparticles synthesis may have followed the mixed triangular formations or the mixed patterns. They were found to be hollow nanocapsules with a size ranging from 152 nm (methacrylate copolymer) to 321 nm (methacrylate copolymer blend) and a zeta potential range of 15.8-43.3 mV. The nanoparticles were directly compressible and it was found that the desired rate of drug release could be achieved by formulating the nanoparticles as a nanosuspension, and then directly compressing them into tablet matrices or incorporating the nanoparticles directly into polymer tablet matrices. However, sustained release of MCNs was achieved only when it was incorporated into a polymer matrix. The experimental results were well corroborated by the CC modeling. The developed technology may be potentially useful for the fabrication of multi-crosslinked polymer blend nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. PMID:22016653

  2. Polypropylene fumarate/phloroglucinol triglycidyl methacrylate blend for use as partially biodegradable orthopaedic cement.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, M; Thomas, V; Rajesh, P N

    2001-10-01

    Polypropylene fumarate/phloroglucinol triglycidyl methacrylate oligomeric blend-based bone cement was studied. Higher the percentage of phloroglucinol triglycidyl methacrylate, lesser the setting time. An optimum setting time could be arrived with 50:50 blend composition of the two oligomers. Composite cement of 50:50 blend prepared with hydroxyapatite granules of particle size 125 microm binds bovine rib bones. The tensile strength of this adhesive bond was found to be 1.11 kPa. The thermal studies suggest the onset of cross-linking reaction in the cured blend if the blend is heated. The absence of softening endotherm in the cured blend shows the thermosetting-like amorphous nature of blend system, which may restrict the changes in creep properties. The in vitro biodegradation studies reveal possible association of calcium ions with negatively charged units of degrading polymer chain resulting in slow down of degradation. Relatively slow degradation was observed in Ringer's solution. The study reveals the potential use of polypropylene fumarate/phloroglucinol triglycidyl methacrylate as partially degradable polymeric cement for orthopaedic applications. PMID:11545309

  3. Structures and packing of ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate and ferrocene-1,1'-diylbis(methylene) dimethacrylate.

    PubMed

    McAdam, C John; Moratti, Stephen C; Simpson, Jim

    2015-12-01

    Electroactive metallocene polymers are of interest due to the possibility that they offer a muscle-like response, and in gel systems very large volume changes are possible. The ferrocenyl moiety exhibits physical and electrochemical stability of the neutral and oxidized forms and could be a candidate for use as the redox-active group in these materials. The title compounds, [Fe(C5H5)(C10H11O2)], (I), and [Fe(C10H11O2)2], (II), comprise a typical ferrocene core with coplanar and approximately eclipsed cyclopentadienyl (Cp) rings. In (I), there is a single methyl methacrylate substituent, with the other Cp ring unsubstituted. In (II), a methyl methacrylate substituent on each Cp ring completes the structure. In both compounds, there is an s-trans geometry of the vinyl and carbonyl components of the methacrylate group. Inversion dimers formed through C-H...O contacts dominate the crystal packing of both molecules. Weak C-H...π(ring) contacts and, in the case of (I), an unusual C-H...π(alkene) contact further stabilize the structures. PMID:26632839

  4. Cell-laden microengineered pullulan methacrylate hydrogels promote cell proliferation and 3D cluster formation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hojae; Ahari, Amir F; Shin, Hyeongho; Nichol, Jason W; Hutson, Che B; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Kim, Su-Hwan; Aubin, Hug; Yamanlar, Seda; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The ability to encapsulate cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments is potentially of benefit for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we introduce pullulan methacrylate (PulMA) as a promising hydrogel platform for creating cell-laden microscale tissues. The hydration and mechanical properties of PulMA were demonstrated to be tunable through modulation of the degree of methacrylation and gel concentration. Cells encapsulated in PulMA exhibited excellent viability. Interestingly, while cells did not elongate in PulMA hydrogels, cells proliferated and organized into clusters, the size of which could be controlled by the hydrogel composition. By mixing with gelatin methacrylate (GelMA), the biological properties of PulMA could be enhanced as demonstrated by cells readily attaching to, proliferating, and elongating within the PulMA/GelMA composite hydrogels. These data suggest that PulMA hydrogels could be useful for creating complex, cell-responsive microtissues, especially for applications that require controlled cell clustering and proliferation. PMID:21415929

  5. Reconstruction of the sternum and chest wall with methyl methacrylate: CT and MRI appearance.

    PubMed

    Gayer, G; Yellin, A; Apter, S; Rozenman, Y

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to define the appearance of methyl methacrylate grafts replacing resected sternum and ribs on CT and MRI and how the sternal graft may mimic an abnormally sclerotic sternum on CT images. We reviewed the CT scans of nine patients who had undergone chest wall resection (eight with malignant and one with benign disease) and reconstruction with a composite of methyl methacrylate and Marlex mesh graft. One of them had an MRI study as well. The size, shape and CT attenuation were assessed on mediastinal and bone window settings. The sternal graft was seen on mediastinal and even better on bone windows as an abnormally wide, irregularly shaped structure, somewhat denser than the normal sternum. The chest wall prosthesis replacing resected ribs was seen as a continuous dense structure and of similar attenuation as that of the sternal graft. On MRI the prosthesis appeared as a well-defined structure with no signal. Reconstruction of the chest wall with methyl methacrylate appears on CT as a diffusely dense sclerotic bone lesion not unlike a malignant lesion. The possibility of a graft has to be included in the differential diagnosis in these cases. PMID:9477274

  6. Fabrication, Modeling and Characterization of Multi-Crosslinked Methacrylate Copolymeric Nanoparticles for Oral Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C.; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; du Toit, Lisa C.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M.K.; Khan, Riaz A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, structural modification, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Chemometric Computational (CC) modeling was conducted to deduce the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis as well as to corroborate the experimental findings. The CC modeling deduced that the nanoparticles synthesis may have followed the mixed triangular formations or the mixed patterns. They were found to be hollow nanocapsules with a size ranging from 152 nm (methacrylate copolymer) to 321 nm (methacrylate copolymer blend) and a zeta potential range of 15.8–43.3 mV. The nanoparticles were directly compressible and it was found that the desired rate of drug release could be achieved by formulating the nanoparticles as a nanosuspension, and then directly compressing them into tablet matrices or incorporating the nanoparticles directly into polymer tablet matrices. However, sustained release of MCNs was achieved only when it was incorporated into a polymer matrix. The experimental results were well corroborated by the CC modeling. The developed technology may be potentially useful for the fabrication of multi-crosslinked polymer blend nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. PMID:22016653

  7. Cell-laden microengineered pullulan methacrylate hydrogels promote cell proliferation and 3D cluster formation

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hojae; Ahari, Amir F.; Shin, Hyeongho; Nichol, Jason W.; Hutson, Che B.; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Kim, Su-Hwan; Aubin, Hug; Yamanlar, Seda; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The ability to encapsulate cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments is potentially of benefit for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we introduce pullulan methacrylate (PulMA) as a promising hydrogel platform for creating cell-laden microscale tissues. The hydration and mechanical properties of PulMA were demonstrated to be tunable through modulation of the degree of methacrylation and gel concentration. Cells encapsulated in PulMA exhibited excellent viability. Interestingly, while cells did not elongate in PulMA hydrogels, cells proliferated and organized into clusters, the size of which could be controlled by the hydrogel composition. By mixing with gelatin methacrylate (GelMA), the biological properties of PulMA could be enhanced as demonstrated by cells readily attaching to, proliferating, and elongating within the PulMA/GelMA composite hydrogels. These data suggest that PulMA hydrogels could be useful for creating complex, cell-responsive microtissues, especially for applications that require controlled cell clustering and proliferation. PMID:21415929

  8. Dynamic mechanical analysis and esterase degradation of dentin adhesives containing a branched methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Gu; Ye, Qiang; Topp, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Chi H.; Kostoryz, Elisabet L.; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    A study of the dynamic mechanical properties and the enzymatic degradation of new dentin adhesives containing a multifunctional methacrylate are described. Adhesives contained 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]-propane (BisGMA), and a new multifunctional methacrylate with a branched side chain-trimethylolpropane mono allyl ether dimethacrylate (TMPEDMA). Adhesives were photopolymerized in the presence of 0, 8 and 16 wt% water to simulate wet bonding conditions in the mouth and compared to control adhesives. The degree of conversion as a function of irradiation time was comparable for experimental and control adhesives. In dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), broad tan δ peaks were obtained for all samples, indicating that the polymerized networks are heterogeneous; comparison of the full-width-at-half-maximum values obtained from the tan δ curves indicated increased heterogeneity for samples cured in the presence of water and/or containing TMPEDMA. The experimental adhesive showed higher Tg and higher rubbery modulus indicating increased crosslink density as compared to the control. The improvement in esterase resistance afforded by adhesives containing the TMPEDMA is greater when this material is photopolymerized in the presence of water, suggesting better performance in the moist environment of the mouth. The improved esterase resistance of the new adhesive could be explained in terms of the densely crosslinked network structure and/or the steric hindrance of branched alkyl side chains. PMID:19358261

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation of New Ibuprofen Polymeric Prodrugs Based on 2-Hydroxypropyl Methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Mirzaagha; Sheidaei, Maryam; Abbaspour, Sara; Edjlali, Ladan

    2013-01-01

    The present research work describes the synthesis and evaluation of new acrylic-type polymeric systems having degradable ester bonds linked to ibuprofen as materials for drug delivery. Ibuprofen was linked to 2-hydroxy-propyl methacrylate by an activated ester methodology in a one-pot procedure with a high yield. The resulting material was copolymerized with either 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or methyl methacrylate (in 1:3 mole ratios) by the free radical polymerization method, utilizing azoisobutyronitrile at 65–70 °C. The characterization of the resulting products by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DSC, and elemental analysis confirmed their synthesis successfully. Ibuprofen release from the obtained polymers was preliminarily evaluated at different buffered solutions (pH 1, 7.4, and 10) into dialysis bags to show the capacity of prodrugs to release the drug under hydrolytic conditions. Detection of hydrolysis by UV spectroscopy at selected intervals showed that the drug can be released by selective hydrolysis of the ester bond at the side of the drug moiety. The release profiles indicated that the hydrolytic behavior of polymers is strongly based on the polymer hydrophilicity and the pH value of the hydrolysis solution. The results suggest that these polymers could be useful in controlled release systems. PMID:23641345

  10. Radiation grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acid to cellulose fibers to impart high water sorbency

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, A.H.; Williams, J.L.; Stannett, V.T.

    1980-04-01

    Acrylic and methacrylic acids have been directly grafted to rayon and cotton using the preirradiation technique with /sup 60/ Co gamma rays. The rate of grafting increased with increasing temperature and monomer concentration, as did the final degree of grafting. The amount and rate of grafting also increased with the total irradiation dose but tended to level off at higher doses, in agreement with the leveling off of the radical content reported previously. Methacrylic acid grafted more and faster than acrylic acid to both rayon and cotton. Methacrylic acid grafted more with rayon than cotton, but acrylic acid gave somewhat similar yields with both fibers. The water abosrbency of the grafted fibers depended strongly on their posttreatment. Decrystallizing with 70% zinc chloride or with hot sodium hydroxidy developed supersorbency. The two treatments in succession, respectively, gave the highest values. Metacrylic acid brought about less sorbency than the corrsponding acrylic acid grafts. Useful levels of grafting and supersorbency could be readily and practically achieved by the methods described.

  11. Mechanical Characterization of a Dynamic and Tunable Methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Ondeck, Matthew G; Engler, Adam J

    2016-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a commonly used natural polymer for cell scaffolding. Modification by methacrylate allows it to be polymerized by free radicals via addition of an initiator, e.g., light-sensitive Irgacure, to form a methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogel. Light-activated crosslinking can be used to control the degree of polymerization, and sequential polymerization steps allow cells plated onto or in the hydrogel to initially feel a soft and then a stiff matrix. Here, the elastic modulus of MeHA hydrogels was systematically analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for a number of variables including duration of UV exposure, monomer concentration, and methacrylate functionalization. To determine how cells would respond to a specific two-step polymerization, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured on the stiffening MeHA hydrogels and found to reorganize their cytoskeleton and spread area upon hydrogel stiffening, consistent with cells originally cultured on substrates of the final elastic modulus. PMID:26746491

  12. Mitigated reactive oxygen species generation leads to an improvement of cell proliferation on poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] functionalized polydimethylsiloxane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Shi, ZhuanZhuan; Gao, LiXia; Li, ChangMing

    2015-09-01

    In vitro cell-based analysis is strongly affected by material's surface chemical properties. The cell spreading, migration, and proliferation on a substrate surface are initiated and controlled by successful adhesion, particularly for anchor-dependent cells. Unfortunately, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), one of the most used polymeric materials for construction of microfluidic and miniaturized biomedical analytic devices, is not a cell-friendly surface because of its inherent hydrophobic property. Herein, a poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] (poly(GMA-co-pEGMA)) polymer brush was synthesized on a PDMS surface through a surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization method. Contact angle and Fourier transform infrared characterization show that the poly (GMA-co-pEGMA) polymer brush functionalization can increase wettability of PDMS and introduce epoxy, hydroxyl, and ether groups into PDMS surface. In vitro cell growth assay demonstrates that cell adhesion and proliferation on poly(GMA-co-pEGMA) polymer brush-functionalized PDMS (poly(GMA-co-pEGMA)@PDMS) are better than on pristine PDMS. Additionally, immobilization of collagen type I (CI) and fibronectin (FN) on poly(GMA-co-pEGMA)@PDMS is better than direct coating of CI and FN on pristine PDMS to promote cell adhesion. Furthermore, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and cell mitochondrial membrane depolarization, two indicators of cell oxidative stress, are observed from cells growing on pristine PDMS, but not from those on poly(GMA-co-pEGMA)@PDMS. Collectively, we demonstrate that poly(GMA-co-pEGMA) functionalization can enhance cell adhesion and proliferation on PDMS, and thus can be potentially used for microfluidic cell assay devices for cellular physiology study or drug screening. PMID:25711883

  13. Flexural Strength Comparison of Silorane- and Methacrylate-Based Composites with Pre-impregnated Glass Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Doozandeh, Maryam; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Karimizadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Sufficient adhesion between silorane/methacrylate-based composites and methacrylate impregnated glass fiber increases the benefits of fibers and enhances the mechanical and clinical performance of both composites. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of silorane and methacrylate-based composites with pre-impregnated glass fiber by using flexural strength (FS) test. Materials and Method A total of 60 bar specimens were prepared in a split mold (25×2×2 mm) in 6 groups (n=10). In groups 1 and 4 (control), silorane-based (Filtek P90) and nanohybrid (Filtek Z350) composites were placed into the mold and photopolymerized with a high-intensity curing unit. In groups 2 and 5, pre-impregnated glass fiber was first placed into the mold and after two minutes of curing, the mold was filled with respective composites. Prior to filling the mold in groups 3 and 6, an intermediate adhesive layer was applied to the glass fiber. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours and then their flexural strength was measured by 3 point bending test, using universal testing machine at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc test were used for analyzing the data (p< 0.05). Results A significant difference was observed between the groups (p< 0.05). The highest FS was registered for combination of Z350 composite, impregnated glass fiber, and application of intermediate adhesive layer .The lowest FS was obtained in Filtek P90 alone. Cohesive failure in composite was the predominant failure in all groups, except group 5 in which adhesive failure between the composite and fiber was exclusively observed. Conclusion Significant improvement in FS was achieved for both composites with glass fiber. Additional application of intermediate adhesive layer before composite build up seems to increase FS. Nanohybrid composite showed higher FS than silorane-based composite. PMID:27284555

  14. Effect of film thickness on the antifouling performance of poly(hydroxy-functional methacrylates) grafted surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Lingyan; Wang, Qiuming; Yu, Qiuming; Zheng, Jie

    2011-04-19

    The development of nonfouling biomaterials to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption and cell/bacterial adhesion is critical for many biomedical applications, such as antithrombogenic implants and biosensors. In this work, we polymerize two types of hydroxy-functional methacrylates monomers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) into polymer brushes on the gold substrate via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). We systematically examine the effect of the film thickness of polyHEMA and polyHPMA brushes on their antifouling performance in a wide range of biological media including single-protein solution, both diluted and undiluted human blood serum and plasma, and bacteria culture. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) results show a strong correlation between antifouling property and film thickness. Too thin or too thick polymer brushes lead to large protein adsorption. Surfaces with the appropriate film thickness of ∼25-45 nm for polyHPMA and ∼20-45 nm for polyHEMA can achieve almost zero protein adsorption (<0.3 ng/cm(2)) from single-protein solution and diluted human blood plasma and serum. For undiluted human blood serum and plasma, polyHEMA brushes at a film thickness of ∼20-30 nm adsorb only ∼3.0 and ∼3.5 ng/cm(2) proteins, respectively, while polyHPMA brushes at a film thickness of ∼30 nm adsorb more proteins of ∼13.5 and ∼50.0 ng/cm(2), respectively. Moreover, both polyHEMA and polyHPMA brushes with optimal film thickness exhibit very low bacteria adhesion. The excellent antifouling ability and long-term stability of polyHEMA and polyHPMA brushes make them, especially for polyHEMA, effective and stable antifouling materials for usage in blood-contacting devices. PMID:21405141

  15. Effect of curing environment on mechanical properties and polymerizing behaviour of methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Hasegawa, A

    2005-03-01

    Methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin is used for multiple applications. Therefore, the mechanical properties of autopolymerizing resin should be assessed comprehensively including strength, stiffness and hardness. Any methods that effectively improve these mechanical properties are desirable. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the curing environment: air or water with/without pressure, and air or water temperature during polymerization, on the strength, stiffness and hardness of autopolymerizing resin. In addition, we examined the polymerizing behaviour associated with the mechanical properties. Autopolymerizing methyl-methacrylate resin (Unifast II) was polymerized under the following conditions: in air and water with/without pressure at 10, 23, 30, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C. The resin specimens were subjected to a transverse test (three-point flexural test) and micro-Brinell surface hardness test. Fractured surfaces of the specimens after the transverse test were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The transverse strength and transverse modulus increased with increasing curing temperature in both wet and dry conditions. Pressured wet conditions increased transverse strength and transverse modulus over non-pressured wet and dry conditions. The resin polymerized in dry conditions showed higher surface hardness than the one polymerized in wet conditions at matching temperature. The SEM images of fractured surfaces cured at lower temperature exhibited porosity within the polymer base and cracks between the base and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) particulates. Surfaces of the resin polymerized in wet conditions were characterized with PMMA particulates having rougher surfaces suggestive of water incorporation. Raising temperature and pressuring during polymerization increase strength and stiffness of autopolymerizing resin. However, wet condition reduces surface hardness of resin compared with dry condition. These altered

  16. Utilization of Methacrylates and Polymer Matrices for the Synthesis of Ion Specific Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, Kenneth

    2013-10-29

    Disposal, storage, and/or transmutation of actinides such as americium (Am) will require the development of specific separation schemes. Existing efforts focus on solvent extraction systems for achieving suitable separation of actinide from lanthanides. However, previous work has shown the feasibility of ion-imprinting polymer-based resins for use in ion-exchange-type separations with metal ion recognition. Phenolic-based resins have been shown to function well for Am-Eu separations, but these resins exhibited slow kinetics and difficulties in the imprinting process. This project addresses the need for new and innovative methods for the selective separation of actinides through novel ion-imprinted resins. The project team will explore incorporation of metals into extended frameworks, including the possibility of 3D polymerized matrices that can serve as a solid-state template for specific resin preparation. For example, an anhydrous trivalent f-element chain can be formed directly from a metal carbonate, and methacrylic acid from water. From these simple coordination complexes, molecules of discrete size or shape can be formed via the utilization of coordinating ligands or by use of an anionic multi-ligand system incorporating methacrylate. Additionally, alkyl methyl methacrylates have been used successfully to create template nanospaces, which underscores their potential utility as 3D polymerized matrices. This evidence provides a unique route for the preparation of a specific metal ion template for the basis of ion-exchange separations. Such separations may prove to be excellent discriminators of metal ions, even between f-elements. Resins were prepared and evaluated for sorption behavior, column properties, and proton exchange capacity.

  17. A new approach to network heterogeneity: Polymerization Induced Phase Separation in photo-initiated, free-radical methacrylic systems.

    PubMed

    Szczepanski, Caroline R; Pfeifer, Carmem S; Stansbury, Jeffrey W

    2012-09-28

    Non-reactive, thermoplastic prepolymers (poly- methyl, ethyl and butyl methacrylate) were added to a model homopolymer matrix composed of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) to form heterogeneous networks via polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS). PIPS creates networks with distinct phase structure that can partially compensate for volumetric shrinkage during polymerization through localized internal volume expansion. This investigation utilizes purely photo-initiated, free-radical systems, broadening the scope of applications for PIPS since these processing conditions have not been studied previously.The introduction of prepolymer into TEGDMA monomer resulted in stable, homogeneous monomer formulations, most of which underwent PIPS upon photo-irradiation, creating heterogeneous networks. During polymerization the presence of prepolymer enhanced autoacceleration, allowing for a more extensive ambient cure of the material. Phase separation, as characterized by dynamic changes in sample turbidity, was monitored simultaneously with monomer conversion and either preceded or was coincident with network gelation. Dynamic mechanical analysis shows a broadening of the tan delta peak and secondary peak formation, characteristic of phase-separated materials, indicating one phase rich in prepolymer and another depleted form upon phase separation. In certain cases, PIPS leads to an enhanced physical reduction of volumetric shrinkage, which is attractive for many applications including dental composite materials. PMID:23109733

  18. Elaboration of ammonio methacrylate copolymer based spongy cationic particles via double emulsion solvent evaporation process.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Nadiah; Bitar, Ahmad; Valour, Jean Pierre; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-04-01

    The aim of present work is to investigate systematic study of the preparation of biodegradable particles via double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The used formation is based on cationic ammonium methacrylate copolymer Eudragit® RS 100, without the use of any stabilizer. The effect of process parameters like ultra turrax® stirring speed and stirring time, ultrasonication time, polymer amount, and volume of outer aqueous phases on the colloidal properties of particles was investigated. All prepared dispersions were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, and electrokinetic properties, and surface morphology was investigated. PMID:26838828

  19. Quantitative analysis of (styrene/acrylonitrile/methyl methacrylate) co-polymer systems by infrared resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Jiang, Tao; Fengqi, Liu; Ding, C.; Darwish, Abdalla M.

    2002-02-01

    A detailed careful analysis of the infrared resonance (IR) spectra of polystyrene (PSt), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and their co-mixtures were performed. Through this study the absorption peak area to weight ratios as well as working curves were obtained to test for their reliability as well as their suitability. Satisfactory results were achieved and these working curves were then used to measure the polymerized components of binary and ternary co-polymers. By investigating the acquired data we conclude that the monomer preferential polymeric sequence is St>MMA>AN. A quantitative method to measure P (St/AN/MMA) concentrations by IR spectroscopy is proposed in this work.

  20. Reduction of space charge breakdown in e-beam irradiated nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Feihu; Zhang Yewen; An Zhenlian; Dong Jianxing; Lei Qingquan

    2013-01-07

    Fast discharge of numerous space charges in dielectric materials can cause space charge breakdown. This letter reports the role of nanoparticles in affecting space charge breakdown of nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites. Space charge distributions in the composites, implanted by electron beam irradiation, were measured by pressure wave propagation method. The results show that the nanoparticles have significant effects on the isothermal charge decay and space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites. The resistance to space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites is attributed to the combined action of the introduction of deep trapping states and the scattering effect by the added nanoparticles.

  1. Solid-state dye laser with modified poly(methyl methacrylate)-doped active elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslyukov, A.; Sokolov, S.; Kaivola, M.; Nyholm, K.; Popov, S.

    1995-03-01

    Laser generation with modified poly(methyl methacrylate) (MPMMA)-doped matrices with several different types of Rhodamine-based dyes was obtained. Pumping with a frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was used. During the experiments, high conversion efficiency was achieved. The strong nonlinear dependence of the operating lifetime and the conversion efficiency of material tested on the pump-pulse-repetition rate was observed. Possible mechanisms responsible for the conversion-efficiency drop and the useful lifetime of the material are discussed.

  2. Genotoxic effects of erioflorin acetate and erioflorin methacrylate: Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Podanthus ovatifolius Lag. (Compositae)

    SciTech Connect

    Cea, G.; Alarcon, M.; Weigert, G.; Sepulveda, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Three major sesquiterpene lactones: eriflorin methacrylate (EM), erioflorin acetate (EA), and ovatifolin acetate (OA) have been isolated from neutral extracts of Podanthus ovatifolius, and all of them have been shown to exhibit antineoplastic properties as tested in standard KB human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx assay procedures. In the present study the authors report in vivo induction of micronuclei in bone-marrow mice polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) by EM, and EA. Chemicals can be screened for chromosome breaking ability by measuring the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei derived from acentric chromosomal fragments or lagging chromosomes. This assay has also been described for genotoxicity studies in several mammalian tissues other than polychromatic erythrocytes.

  3. Properties of cellulase as template molecule on chitosan—methyl methacrylate membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Qi; Zheng, Xuefang; Wu, Haixia; Song, Shitao; Wang, Dongjun

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a novel molecular imprinting membrane made of chitosan and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was fabricated with cellulase as template molecule and the thermal response to cellulase was characterized. The film was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the permeation experiment. The results showed that the space structure of the film was as similar as the cellulase. Moreover, the membrane had advanced molecular imprinting capability to cellulase comparing to pepsin and pectinase at any temperature and the film had excellent ability to identify specific template molecule (cellulase) at the synthesis temperature compared to other temperatures.

  4. Synthesis and swelling behavior of Protein-g-poly Methacrylic acid/kaolin superabsorbent hydrogel composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2008-08-01

    A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on Collagen have been prepared via graft copolymerization of Methacrylic acid (MAA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The composite structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. A new absorption band at 1728 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed kaolin-organic polymer linkage. The effect of kaolin amount and MBA concentration showed that with increasing of these parameters, the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite was decreased. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in aqueous salt solutions.

  5. Carboxymethyl cellulose-g-poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) hydrogel as adsorbent for dye removal.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed; Shukry, Nadia; El-Sakhawy, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    A novel adsorbent was prepared via crosslinking graft copolymerization of 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) backbone. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and potassium persulphate were used as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. CMC-g-PDMAEMA hydrogel was used to remove methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were found to follow Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model, respectively. The high maximum adsorption capacity (1825 mg/g) implied that CMC-g-PDMAEMA can be used as promising adsorbent for the synthetic dyes removal from wastewater. PMID:25450049

  6. Solid phase extraction and HPLC analysis of toxic components eluted from methyl methacrylate dental materials.

    PubMed

    Shintani, H; Tsuchiya, T; Hata, Y; Nakamura, A

    1993-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate polymer (PolyMMA) is widely used as the composite resin for the dental plate. During the fabrication process of PolyMMA for the polymerization reaction, benzoylperoxide (BPO) and N,N-dimethyl p-toluidine (DMPT) are added as the initiator and the stimulator, respectively. Because these compounds exhibit toxicity as well as a residue potential, their use raises concerns regarding human safety. The degree of dissolution into serum was determined to evaluate risk to the user. Analysis was by HPLC combined with solid-phase extraction using a C-18 column. The eluted compounds were found to be in the order of 10 to 100 ppm. PMID:8492570

  7. High Strain-Rate Compressive Behavior of Bulk Structural Adhesives: Epoxy and Methacrylate Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Nakai, Kenji; Yatim, Norfazrina Hayati Mohd

    The present paper describes the determination of high strain-rate compressive stress-strain loops for bulk specimens of two different epoxy and methacrylate structural adhesives on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar with a tapered striker bar. The full compressive stress-strain data including unloading process are obtained over a wide range of strain rates from 10-3 to 103/s at room temperature. The effects of strain rate on the initial (secant) modulus, flow stress, dissipation energy and hysteresis loss ratio are studied. The experimental results show that both bulk structural adhesives exhibit highly strain-rate dependent viscoelastic behavior like polymeric materials.

  8. Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy of carboxylated cobalt-containing nanocomposite ethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytsihovskaya, S. A.; Sokolov, M. E.; Panyushkin, V. T.; Gromov, P. Yu.; Shcherbina, A. A.; Matveev, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    We have used ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the effect of the concentration of cobalt nanoparticles (5-9 nm) incorporated into ethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymers (monomer ratios 100:1 and 10:1) on the magnitude of the resonant field in ferromagnetic resonance and on the effective magnetization of thin-film samples of these nanocomposite polymer materials. The cobalt nanoparticles were obtained by thermolysis of Co2(CO)8 in 5% solutions of the indicated copolymers in toluene. From the solutions obtained, we prepared films of thickness 1 μm on aluminum substrates.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Mesoporous Zirconia Made by Using a Poly (methyl methacrylate) Template

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Superfine powders of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) have been prepared by means of an emulsion polymerization method. These have been used as templates in the synthesis of tetragonal phase mesoporous zirconia by the sol–gel method, using zirconium oxychloride and oxalic acid as raw materials. The products have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, N2adsorption-desorption isotherms, and pore size distribution. The results indicate that the average pore size was found to be 3.7 nm. PMID:21787437

  10. In-situ photopolymerization of monodisperse and discoid oxidized methacrylated alginate microgels in a microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Jeon, Oju; Shankles, Peter G; Liu, Yuan; Alsberg, Eben; Retterer, Scott T; Lee, Bruce P; Choi, Chang Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple microfluidic technique to in-situ photopolymerize (by 365 nm ultraviolet) monodisperse oxidized methacrylated alginate (OMA) microgels using a photoinitiator (VA-086). By this technique, we generated monodisperse spherical OMA beads and discoid non-spherical beads with better shape consistency than ionic crosslinking methods do. We found that a high monomer concentration (8 w/v %), a high photoinitiator concentration (1.5 w/v %), and absence of oxygen are critical factors to cure OMA microgels. This photopolymerizing method is an alternative to current methods to form alginate microgels and is a simpler approach to generate non-spherical alginate microgels. PMID:26865901

  11. Volume polarization holographic recording in thick phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiuan Huei; Chen, Po-Lin; Chuang, Chun-I; Chao, Yu-Faye; Hsu, Ken Y

    2011-08-15

    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly (methyl methacrylate) photopolymer is obtained. Photoinduced birefringence in a 2 mm thick sample is measured by a phase-modulated ellipsometry. The birefringence induced in this material by linearly polarized beam at 514 nm reaches 1.2×10(-5). In addition, ability for recording volume polarization grating using two different polarization configurations is demonstrated and compared. The experimental results show that the diffraction efficiency of the hologram reaches to ∼40% by using two orthogonal circularly polarized beams. PMID:21847152

  12. Structure/property relationships in methacrylate/dimethacrylate polymers for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehlem, Jeremy John

    Since its invention Bis-GMA or one of its analogs has been the main component of the polymer portion of composites for dental restorations. The need for dilution of Bis-GMA and its analogs to optimize its properties has long been recognized. Bis-GMA is a highly viscous monomer. This high viscosity leads to early vitrification, which limits conversion during cure. This viscosity also limits filler loading. Vitrification at low conversions leads to heterogeneous systems composed of low and high cross-link density phases. The low cross-link density phases behave as defects in the system; therefore, if the amount of low cross-link density phases in the system can be reduced and a more uniform network structure can be achieved, then the mechanical properties of the resin can be improved. Since the increase in viscosity during cure causes vitrification, it is logical that a system with a low initial viscosity will delay the onset of vitrification. Reactive diluents such as triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) are effective at lower levels. However, large amounts negatively affect matrix properties by increasing polymerization shrinkage and water sorption. Shrinkage has been cited as one of the main deficiencies in dental composites. The goal of this project is to improve upon standard viscosity modifying comonomers such as triethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The comonomers that were explored were phenyloxyethyl methacrylate, cyclohexyl methacrylate, and tert-butylcylcohexyl methacrylate. Multicomponent systems based on analogs of ethylene glycol dimethacrylates with different length ethyl glycol chains were also examined. The substitution of monomethacrylates for TEGDMA as a comonomer resulted in enhanced or negligible affects on the mechanical properties of Bis-MEPP based polymer systems while reducing polymerization shrinkage. 129Xenon NMR and TappingMode(TM) AFM were used to characterize the heterogeneity of dimethacrylates systems during their cure cycle as well

  13. Nano-engineered optical properties of iodine doped poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sheetal; Keller, Jag Mohan; Das, Kallol

    2016-05-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Iodine hybrid matrixes have been prepared and characterized. The optical properties of the prepared I-PMMA hybrid composites were characterized by linear absorption studies and these composites have been found to contain embedded Iodine nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles was found to be a function of the Iodine content of PMMA. Refractive index measurements were undertaken for different wavelengths. The results showed that the refractive index of the composite is dependent on thermal annealing and also varies nonlinearly with the doping concentration at low Iodine concentration or in the region of nanoparticles formation.

  14. Generalized peripheral neuropathy in a dental technician exposed to methyl methacrylate monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Donaghy, M.; Rushworth, G.; Jacobs, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    A 58-year-old dental prosthetic technician developed generalized sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Neurophysiologic studies showed a generalized sensorimotor neuropathy of axonal degeneration type. Examination of a sural nerve biopsy showed a moderately severe axonal neuropathy with loss of large myelinated fibers and unmyelinated axons. There was evidence of slow ongoing degeneration and considerable fiber regeneration. Electron microscopy showed increased numbers of filaments in a few fibers. These findings show resemblances to the nerve changes caused by another acrylic resin, acrylamide. They suggest that the neuropathy may have been caused by 30 years of occupational cutaneous and inhalational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer since they excluded other recognized causes of neuropathy.

  15. Thermal response of polystyrene/poly methyl methacrylate (PS/PMMA) polymeric blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Vishal; Sharma, Kananbala

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the investigationsto evaluate thermal behavior of polystyrene/poly methyl methacrylate (PS/PMMA) polymeric blends, prepared at different compositions through solution casting method. The glass transition temperatures have been obtained using dynamic mechanical analyzer. Simultaneous measurements of temperature dependentthermal transport properties (thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) have been made using Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyzer based on transient plane source. The study reveals that blending of PS with PMMA leads to different phase morphologies corresponding to different composition range which further affects the thermal performance of respective blends.

  16. Turning electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers into graphitic nanostructures by in situ electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, H. G.; Xie, E. Q.; Han, L.

    2008-02-15

    Using ultrathin electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers as precursor, graphitic nanofibers, nanobridges, nanocones, and fullerenelike onions could be prepared by electron beam irradiation in a controlled manner. With the help of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy, the real time processing of the carbonization and graphitization of the PMMA nanofibers could be investigated. This way to obtain graphitic nanostructures has promising applications in graphitic carbon nanostructure electronics and devices. Because PMMA is a widely used standard high resolution electron resist, this graphitization could be combined with electron beam lithography to obtain high resolution patterned graphitic circuits.

  17. Amine functionalization of cellulose surface grafted with glycidyl methacrylate by γ-initiated RAFT polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsbay, Murat; Güven, Olgun; Kodama, Yasko

    2016-07-01

    This study presents the functionalization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) grafted cellulose filter paper by a model compound, ethylenediamine (EDA), through the epoxy groups of PGMA. Cellulose based copolymers were prepared via the radiation-induced and RAFT-mediated graft polymerization. The samples were characterized by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental analysis, contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An efficient modification density of around 1 mmol EDA/mg copolymer was attained within ca. 8 h, indicating that chemical composition of well-defined copolymers may further be tuned by appropriately selecting the reactive agents for use in many emerging fields.

  18. Photoinitiated polymerization of methyl methacrylate using Q-sized ZnO colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.J.; Yee, H.; Mills, G.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1992-06-25

    Q-sized ZnO particles are determined to be efficient photoinitiators of methyl methacrylate polymerization. The effects of semiconductor particle size, solvent, initiator concentration, monomer concentration, and light intensity on reaction rates are examined. The reaction path is initiated anionically, followed by free-radical propogation steps. Polymerization increases with increased photoinitiator and monomer concentration and particle size; it also has a dependence upon the square root of the light intensity. Illumination-induced holes are scavenged by the solvent. 29 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Poly (methyl methacrylate) Formation and Patterning Initiated by Synchrotron X-ray Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, J.; Je, J. H.; Wang, C. H.; Yang, T. Y.; Hwu, Y.

    2007-01-19

    A facile radiation method was developed to obtain micro-sized poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles and create patterned coating on different substrates by a synchrotron x-ray induced dispersion polymerization. The polymerization of MMA monomer and well defined patterning was successfully realized. The produced PMMA particles and patterning were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The observed patterning contrast essentially derived from a variation of size, density and morphology of particles and the type of substrate materials used.

  20. Positronium Formation Of Glyeisdyl Methacrylic Acid (GMA)/Styrene Grafted On PVDF Membrane For Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Hady, E. E.; Abdel-Hamed, M. O.; Eltonny, M. M.

    2011-06-01

    Simultaneous gamma irradiation was used effectively for grafting of glycidyl methacrylic acid and styrene onto Poly vinyldine fluoride (PVDF). Membranes were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The properties of the obtained membranes were evaluated in terms of proton conductivity, methanol permeability and positron annihilation lifetime (PALS) parameters. The high probability of Positronium formation enables the application of PALS to the study of free volume. Good property values approved the applicability of the membrane from the cost benefit point of view.

  1. Microstructure-property relationships in alumina trihydrate filled poly (methyl methacrylate) composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruoyu

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical properties (Young's modulus and fracture toughness) of composite made from a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix filled with alumina trihydrate(ATH) are reported. The experiments were performed using flexural tests and single edge notched bend (SENB) tests. The composites samples were tested at a range of filler volume fractions (34.7%, 39.4% and 44.4%) and mean filler diameters (8 pm, 15 pm and 25 pm). The data of Young's modulus agreed well with the results of Lielens model and finite element analysis (FEA) model.

  2. Water-developable resists based on glyceryl methacrylate for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Baek; Jang, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Hak; Lee, Kwan-Ku; Ko, Jong-Sung

    2004-05-01

    Novel water-developable negative resists were designed to induce both cross-linking and polarity change upon exposure and bake. The matrix polymers were synthesized by copolymerization of glyceryl methacrylate and methacrolein. The acid-catalyzed acetalization of the polymer induced cross-linking, polarity change, and increase in dry-etch resistance. The resist formulated with this polymer and cast in a water-ethanol mixture, showed 0.7 μm line and space patterns using a mercury-xenone lamp in a contact printing mode and pure water as a developer.

  3. Aquatic toxicity of acrylates and methacrylates: quantitative structure-activity relationships based on Kow and LC50

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, K.H.

    1987-12-01

    Recent EPA scrutiny of acrylate and methacrylate monomers has resulted in restrictive consent orders and Significant New Use Rules under the Toxic Substances Control Act, based on structure-activity relationships using mouse skin painting studies. The concern is centered on human health issues regarding worker and consumer exposure. Environmental issues, such as aquatic toxicity, are still of concern. Understanding the relationships and environmental risks to aquatic organisms may improve the understanding of the potential risks to human health. This study evaluates the quantitative structure-activity relationships from measured log Kow's and log LC50's for Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and Carassius auratus (goldfish). Scientific support of the current regulations is also addressed. Two monomer classes were designated: acrylates and methacrylates. Spearman rank correlation and linear regression were run. Based on this study, an ecotoxicological difference exists between acrylates and methacrylates. Regulatory activities and scientific study should reflect this difference.

  4. Periodontal repair in dogs: histologic observations of guided tissue regeneration with a prostaglandin E1 analog/methacrylate composite.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Lee, M B; Promsudthi, A; Guglielmoni, P G; Wikesjö, U M

    1999-06-01

    This report describes observations of healing following guided tissue regeneration (GTR) including surgical implantation of the prostaglandin E1 analog misoprostol with calcium-layered methacrylate particles. Critical size, supra-alveolar periodontal defects were surgically created around the 3rd and 4th mandibular premolar teeth in 4 beagle dogs. Wound management included soaking with a 24 microg/ml misoprostol solution and implantation of the misoprostol/methacrylate composite. One jaw quadrant per animal was prepared for GTR using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes. The gingival flaps were coronally advanced and sutured to submerge the teeth. The tissues covering the surgical sites daily received topical misoprostol in an oral adhesive over the 4-week healing interval. Upon euthanasia, tissue blocks were prepared for histometric analysis of regeneration of alveolar bone and cementum, root resorption and ankylosis. The defect area underneath the membrane and the density of methacrylate particles were recorded for the GTR defects. The methacrylate particles appeared encapsulated in a dense connective tissue without signs of an inflammatory reaction, some in contact to newly formed bone. Alveolar bone regeneration height averaged (+/-SD) 1.2+/-1.0 and 1.0+/-0.6 mm for GTR and non-GTR defects, respectively. Corresponding values for bone regeneration area were 1.3+/-1.0 and 0.7+/-0.5 mm2. Cementum regeneration was confined to the apical aspect of the defects. Small areas of root resorption and ankylosis were observed for all teeth. Bone regeneration area correlated positively to the defect area and negatively to the density of methacrylate particles in the GTR defects. The histologic observations suggest that the methacrylate composite has marginal potential to promote bone and cementum regeneration under provisions for GTR. PMID:10382578

  5. Bond Strengths of Silorane- and Methacrylate-Based Composites to Various Underlying Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Sezin; Sen Tunc, Emine; Gonulol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) values of a methacrylate (FZ 250) and a silorane-based (FS) resin composite to various underlying materials. Materials and Methods. A total of 80 samples were prepared with four different underlying materials; a flowable (FLC) and a bulk-fill flowable composite (BFC), and a conventional (CGIC) and resin modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC). These underlying materials were laminated plus to methacrylate or silorane-based resin composites (n = 10). To evaluate the specimens SBS values were evaluated with a universal testing machine (cross-head speed; 1.0 mm/min). Statistical comparisons were carried out using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results. SBS values for FZ250 were significantly higher than for FS for all of the underlying materials tested (P < 0.05). SBS values of FZ250 to BFC were significantly higher than to all other materials (P < 0.05), whereas SBS values of FS did not vary significantly according to underlying material (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The use of FS in conjunction with any of the tested materials showed lower SBS than the FZ 250. Also, new low elastic modulus liner BFC presented slightly good interfacial adhesion so, the usage of BFC as an underlying material may be preferable for FZ 250. PMID:24895608

  6. Effect of Montmorillonite Modification on Ultra Violet Radiation Cured Nanocomposite Filled with Glycidyl Methacrylate Modified Kenaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozyanty, A. R.; Rozman, H. D.; Zhafer, S. F.; Musa, L.; Zuliahani, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this study nanocomposite cured by ultra violet radiation, were produced using modified montmorillonite (MMT) as reinforcing agent, chemically modified kenaf bast fiber as filler and unsaturated polyester as the matrix. Kenaf bast fiber was chemically modified with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) whilst MMT were modified with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). Fixed 12 percent of GMA modified kenaf bast fiber with different percentage (i.e., 1, 3 and 5) of unmodified and modified MMT loading was used to produce the composite. The performed of GMA reaction with hydroxyl group of cellulose in kenaf bast fiber was evaluated using Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. GMA-MMT filled composite showed higher mechanical properties than MMT and CTAB-MMT filled composite. However, the increase of MMT, CTAB-MMT and GMA- MMT loading resulted in the reduction of mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the evidence of compatibility enhancement between MMT and kenaf bast fiber with unsaturated polyester matrix.

  7. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized, methacrylate resin composition with antimicrobial activities and self-repair potential.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Niu, Li-Na; Kemp, Lisa K; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Ryou, Heonjune; Qi, Yi-Pin; Blizzard, John D; Nikonov, Sergey; Brackett, Martha G; Messer, Regina L W; Wu, Christine D; Mao, Jing; Bryan Brister, L; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Arola, Dwayne D; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2012-09-01

    The design of antimicrobial polymers to address healthcare issues and minimize environmental problems is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized methacrylate (QAMS) represents an example of antimicrobial macromonomers synthesized by a sol-gel chemical route; these compounds possess flexible Si-O-Si bonds. In present work, a partially hydrolyzed QAMS co-polymerized with 2,2-[4(2-hydroxy 3-methacryloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane is introduced. This methacrylate resin was shown to possess desirable mechanical properties with both a high degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. The kill-on-contact microbiocidal activities of this resin were demonstrated using single-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 36558), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Improved mechanical properties after hydration provided the proof-of-concept that QAMS-incorporated resin exhibits self-repair potential via water-induced condensation of organic modified silicate (ormosil) phases within the polymerized resin matrix. PMID:22659173

  8. Engineered Contractile Skeletal Muscle Tissue on a Microgrooved Methacrylated Gelatin Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Chen, Song; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan

    2012-01-01

    To engineer tissue-like structures, cells must organize themselves into three-dimensional (3D) networks that mimic the native tissue microarchitecture. Microfabricated hydrogel substrates provide a potentially useful platform for directing cells into biomimetic tissue architecture in vitro. Here, we present microgrooved methacrylated gelatin hydrogels as a suitable platform to build muscle-like fibrous structures in a facile and highly reproducible fashion. Microgrooved hydrogel substrates with two different ridge sizes (50 and 100 μm) were fabricated to assess the effect of the distance between engineered myofibers on the orientation of the bridging C2C12 myoblasts and the formation of the resulting multinucleated myotubes. It was shown that although the ridge size did not significantly affect the C2C12 myoblast alignment, the wider-ridged micropatterned hydrogels generated more myotubes that were not aligned to the groove direction as compared to those on the smaller-ridge micropatterns. We also demonstrated that electrical stimulation improved the myoblast alignment and increased the diameter of the resulting myotubes. By using the microstructured methacrylated gelatin substrates, we built free-standing 3D muscle sheets, which contracted when electrically stimulated. Given their robust contractility and biomimetic microarchitecture, engineered tissues may find use in tissue engineering, biological studies, high-throughput drug screening, and biorobotics. PMID:22963391

  9. Transdermal regulation of vascular network bioengineering using a photopolymerizable methacrylated gelatin hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    The search for hydrogel materials compatible with vascular morphogenesis is an active area of investigation in tissue engineering. One candidate material is methacrylated gelatin (GelMA), a UV-photocrosslinkable hydrogel that is synthesized by adding methacrylate groups to the amine-containing side-groups of gelatin. GelMA hydrogels containing human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be photopolymerized ex vivo and then surgically transplanted in vivo as a means to generate vascular networks. However, the full clinical potential of GelMA will be best captured by enabling minimally invasive implantation and in situ polymerization. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of bioengineering human vascular networks inside GelMA constructs that were first subcutaneously injected into immunodeficient mice while in liquid form, and then rapidly crosslinked via transdermal exposure to UV light. These bioengineered vascular networks developed within 7 days, formed functional anastomoses with the host vasculature, and were uniformly distributed throughout the constructs. Most notably, we demonstrated that the vascularization process can be directly modulated by adjusting the initial exposure time to UV light (15–45 s range), with constructs displaying progressively less vascular density and smaller average lumen size as the degree of GelMA crosslinking was increased. Our studies support the use of GelMA in its injectable form, followed by in situ transdermal photopolymerization, as a preferable means to deliver cells in applications that require the formation of vascular networks in vivo. PMID:23773819

  10. Transdermal regulation of vascular network bioengineering using a photopolymerizable methacrylated gelatin hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Melero-Martin, Juan M

    2013-09-01

    The search for hydrogel materials compatible with vascular morphogenesis is an active area of investigation in tissue engineering. One candidate material is methacrylated gelatin (GelMA), a UV-photocrosslinkable hydrogel that is synthesized by adding methacrylate groups to the amine-containing side-groups of gelatin. GelMA hydrogels containing human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be photopolymerized ex vivo and then surgically transplanted in vivo as a means to generate vascular networks. However, the full clinical potential of GelMA will be best captured by enabling minimally invasive implantation and in situ polymerization. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of bioengineering human vascular networks inside GelMA constructs that were first subcutaneously injected into immunodeficient mice while in liquid form, and then rapidly crosslinked via transdermal exposure to UV light. These bioengineered vascular networks developed within 7 days, formed functional anastomoses with the host vasculature, and were uniformly distributed throughout the constructs. Most notably, we demonstrated that the vascularization process can be directly modulated by adjusting the initial exposure time to UV light (15-45 s range), with constructs displaying progressively less vascular density and smaller average lumen size as the degree of GelMA crosslinking was increased. Our studies support the use of GelMA in its injectable form, followed by in situ transdermal photopolymerization, as a preferable means to deliver cells in applications that require the formation of vascular networks in vivo. PMID:23773819

  11. Morphological characterization of silica obtained by calcination of methacrylic and epoxy - silica hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tescione, F.; Lionetto, F.; Corcione, C. Esposito; Buonocore, G. G.; Striani, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Frigione, M.

    2016-05-01

    The work is addressed to investigating the potentiality of calcination of organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids as a feasible approach to produce silica particles, at mild temperature conditions and with tailored morphology. Two different innovative hybrid systems were obtained through sol-gel process with a siloxane content ranging from 6 to 26wt%. The two O-I hybrids differed for i) the organic matrix (methacrylic or epoxy), ii) its crosslinking mechanism (photopolymerization for methacrylic systems or thermal cold-cure for epoxy systems) and iii) the rate ratio between sol-gel and crosslinking reactions. Different characterization techniques were used to understand the effect of composition and curing method on the morphology of the silica obtained from O-I hybrids after calcination in air. The results confirm the morphology and properties of silica particles in terms of surface and porosity may be tailored over a wide range by varying the composition and nature of organic and inorganic precursors of hybrids.

  12. Effects of star-shape poly(alkyl methacrylate) arm uniformity on lubricant properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Qu, Jun; Erck, Robert; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Zhou, Yan

    2016-03-29

    Star-shaped poly(alkyl methacrylate)s (PAMAs) were prepared and blended into an additive-free engine oil to assess the structure property relationship between macromolecular structure and lubricant performance. These additives were designed with a comparable number of repeating units per arm and the number of arms was varied between 3 and 6. Well-defined star-shaped PAMAs were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) via a core-first strategy from multi-functional headgroups. Observations of the polymer-oil blends suggest that stars with less than four arms are favorable as a viscosity index improver (VII), and molecular weight dominates viscosity-related effects over other structural features. Star-shaped PAMAs,more » as oil additives, effectively reduce the friction coefficient in both mixed and boundary lubrication regime. Several analogs outperformed commercial VIIs in both viscosity and friction performance. Furthermore, increased wear rates were observed for these star-shaped PAMAs in the boundary lubrication regime suggesting pressure-sensitive conformations may exist.« less

  13. Surface dynamics of poly(methyl methacrylate) films affected by the concentration of casting solutions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Houkuan; Yang, Yuhui; Ding, Jia; Liu, Wanglong; Zuo, Biao; Yang, Juping; Wang, Xinping

    2014-09-01

    The effect of the concentration of casting solutions on the surface dynamics of the corresponding spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film was investigated by measuring the surface reorganization of fluorine tracer-labeled PMMA. The onset temperature of fluorinated PMMA chain end reorganization (T(onsetR)) was identified and is shown to depend on the PMMA concentration in the film-forming solution. It was found that the surface T(onsetR) and relaxation activation energy E(a) of the PMMA films prepared from 4.2 wt% PMMA cyclohexanone solution are 70 °C and 260 kJ mol(-1), respectively, which are higher than those of the PMMA films prepared from 0.8 wt% PMMA cyclohexanone solution (55 °C and 144 kJ mol(-1), respectively). The T(onsetR) and E(a) of PMMA films increased with increasing concentration of casting solutions within the range of 1.8 wt% to 4 wt%. The chain entanglement of PMMA chains is proposed to be the speculative origin for these observed depressed dynamics of poly(methyl methacrylate) chains on the films' surface prepared using casting solutions of various concentrations. PMID:25036734

  14. Binding of leachable components of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and peptide on modified SPR chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaloki, M.; Vitalyos, G.; Harfalvi, J.; Hegedus, Cs

    2013-12-01

    Many types of polymers are often used in dentistry, which may cause allergic reaction, mainly methyl methacrylate allergy due to the leachable, degradable components of polymerized dental products. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between the leachable components of PMMA and peptides by Fourier-transform Surface Plasmon Resonance (FT SPR). In our previous work binding of oligopeptides (Ph.D.-7 and Ph.D.-12 Peptide Library Kit) was investigated to PMMA surface by phage display technique. It was found that oligopeptides bounded specifically to PMMA surface. The most common amino acids were leucine and proline inside the amino acids sequences of DNA of phages. The binding of haptens, as formaldehyde and methacrylic acid, to frequent amino acids was to investigate on the modified gold SPR chip. Self assembled monolayer (SAM) modified the surface of gold chip and ensured the specific binding between the haptens and amino acids. It was found that amino acids bounded to modified SPR gold and the haptens bounded to amino acids by creating multilayer on the chip surface. By the application of phage display and SPR modern bioanalytical methods the interaction between allergens and peptides can be investigated.

  15. Exposure assessment of acrylates/methacrylates in radiation-cured applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-25

    Occupational exposures to radiation-cured acrylates/methacrylates during their processing and use in coatings, inks, and adhesives were evaluated in 12 walk-through surveys at formulator and applicator sites. Inhalation and dermal-exposure routes were studied. According to the authors, the basic process used to formulate coatings, inks, and adhesives consists of blending raw materials in closed mixing vessels using local exhaust ventilation in the form of elephant trunks at vessel charging and packaging locations. Application methods surveyed included reverse-roll coaters, direct roll coaters, curtain/rain coaters, laminators, pneumatic injection, spray guns, and manual application. At the sites surveyed, the number of workers potentially exposed at each site ranged from two to 142. Process operators at applicator sites had the greatest potential for dermal exposure. Generally, the potential for inhalation exposure was low due to low volatility of the multifunctional acrylates/methacrylates used in the formulations. No reliable air-monitoring data were available at any site. Respirator use was limited and sporadic.

  16. Chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped poly (methyl methacrylate) with high nonlinearity for optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaojie; Nagasaka, Kenshiro; Cheng, Tonglei; Deng, Dinghuan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lai; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear optical polymers show promising potential applications in photonics, for example, electro-optical devices. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used in optical waveguides, integrated optics and optical fibers. However, PMMA has not been used for nonlinear optical waveguides since it has a low nonlinear refractive index. We successfully prepared chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped PMMA that had a high nonlinearity. The As3S7 bulk glass was dissolved in propylamine to form a cluster solution. Then the As3S7/propylamine solution was added into methyl methacrylate (MMA) containing photoinitiator Irgacure 184 about 0.5 wt%. After well mixing the As3S7 nanoparticle doped MMA was transparent. Under the irradiation by a 365 nm UV lamp, As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was obtained with yellow color. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was investigated. An optical waveguide array based on the As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA composite of high nonlinearity was fabricated.

  17. Methacrylated gelatin and mature adipocytes are promising components for adipose tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Borchers, Kirsten; Tovar, Günter Em; Kluger, Petra J

    2016-01-01

    In vitro engineering of autologous fatty tissue constructs is still a major challenge for the treatment of congenital deformities, tumor resections or high-graded burns. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of photo-crosslinkable methacrylated gelatin (GM) and mature adipocytes as components for the composition of three-dimensional fatty tissue constructs. Cytocompatibility evaluations of the GM and the photoinitiator Lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate (LAP) showed no cytotoxicity in the relevant range of concentrations. Matrix stiffness of cell-laden hydrogels was adjusted to native fatty tissue by tuning the degree of crosslinking and was shown to be comparable to that of native fatty tissue. Mature adipocytes were then cultured for 14 days within the GM resulting in a fatty tissue construct loaded with viable cells expressing cell markers perilipin A and laminin. This work demonstrates that mature adipocytes are a highly valuable cell source for the composition of fatty tissue equivalents in vitro. Photo-crosslinkable methacrylated gelatin is an excellent tissue scaffold and a promising bioink for new printing techniques due to its biocompatibility and tunable properties. PMID:26017717

  18. Effects of Dental Methacrylates on Oxygen Consumption and Redox Status of Human Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nocca, Giuseppina; Callà, Cinzia; Martorana, Giuseppe Ettore; Cicillini, Loredana; Lupi, Alessandro; Cordaro, Massimo; Luisa Gozzo, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have already demonstrated that the incomplete polymerization of resin-based dental materials causes the release of monomers which might affect cell metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate on (1) cellular energy metabolism, evaluating oxygen consumption rate, glucose consumption, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lactate production, and (2) cellular redox status, through the evaluation of glutathione concentration and of the activities of enzymes regulating glutathione metabolism. Methods. Human pulp cells were used and oxygen consumption was measured by means of a Clark electrode. Moreover, reactive oxygen species production was quantified. Enzymatic activity and glucose and lactate concentrations were determined through a specific kit. Results. Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate induced a decrease in oxygen consumption rate, an enhancement of glucose consumption, and lactate production, whilst glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity were not significantly modified. Moreover, the monomers induced an increase of reactive oxygen species production with a consequent increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. A depletion of both reduced and total glutathione was also observed. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that dental monomers might alter energy metabolism and glutathione redox balance in human pulp cells. PMID:24693541

  19. Morphological Determinants of Yield Stress for Semicrystalline Ethylene / Methacrylic Acid Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scogna, Robert; Register, Richard

    2008-03-01

    Reducing the crystal thickness of ethylene/α-olefin copolymers typically results in a decrease in the measured yield stress. However, statistical incorporation of methacrylic acid, also a noncrystallizable comonomer, actually increases the yield stress at room temperature. The yield stress for ethylene/methacrylic acid (E/MAA) copolymers as a function of temperature and test rate is described using a model which accounts for polyethylene crystal plasticity through thermal nucleation of screw dislocations in addition to the effects of incomplete relaxation of the amorphous fraction at the strain rate employed. This is possible using a small number of physically reasonable best-fit parameters. Yield stress master curves can be constructed for any material that obeys the model; such curves have been constructed for a low-density polyethylene and five copolymers of varying MAA content from data taken at various strain rates and temperatures. The master curves clearly show that this unusual behavior of the yield stress is caused by the increase in β relaxation temperature with increasing MAA content, as seen via dynamic mechanical testing.

  20. Visible Light Crosslinking of Methacrylated Hyaluronan Hydrogels for Injectable Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Spencer L.; Oldinski, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering hydrogels are primarily cured in situ using ultraviolet (UV) radiation which limits the use of hydrogels as drug or cell carriers. Visible green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a safe alternative to UV photocrosslinked hydrogels, without compromising material properties such as viscosity and stiffness. The objective of this study was to fabricate and characterize photocrosslinked hydrogels with well-regulated gelation kinetics and mechanical properties for the repair or replacement of soft tissue. An anhydrous methacrylation of hyaluronan (HA) was performed to control the degree of modification (DOM) of HA, verified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. UV activated crosslinking was compared to visible green light activated crosslinking. While the different photocrosslinking techniques resulted in varied crosslinking times, comparable mechanical properties of UV and green light activated crosslinked hydrogels were achieved using each photocrosslinking method by adjusting time of light exposure. Methacrylated HA (HA-MA) hydrogels of varying molecular weight, DOM and concentration exhibited compressive moduli ranging from 1 kPa to 116 kPa, for UV crosslinking, and 3 kPa to 146 kPa, for green light crosslinking. HA-MA molecular weight and concentration were found to significantly influence moduli values. HA-MA hydrogels did not exhibit any significant cytotoxic affects towards human mesenchymal stem cells. Green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a viable method to form natural-based hydrogels in situ. PMID:26097172

  1. Synthesis of methyl methacrylate from coal-derived syngas: Quarterly report,, October 1-December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of three steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, Eastman developed two new processes which have resulted in two new invention reports. One process deals with carbonylation of benzyl ether which represents a model for coal liquefaction and the second focuses on the acceleration of carbonylation rates for propionic acid synthesis, via use of polar aprotic solvents. These two inventions are major improvements in the novel Mo-catalyzed homogeneous process for propionic acid synthesis technology, developed by Eastman. Over the last quarter, RTI completed three reaction cycles and two regeneration cycles as a part of long-term reaction regeneration cycle study on a 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, for vapor phase condensation reaction of formaldehyde with propionic acid.

  2. Stimuli-responsive spherical brushes based on D-galactopyranose and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hülya; Pfaff, André; Lu, Yan; Stepanek, Petr; Müller, Axel H E

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive spherical brushes composed of 6-O-methacryloyl-1,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-D-galactopyranose (MAIGal) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) are prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using cross-linked polystyrene nanoparticles covered with a thin layer of 2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate (BIEM) as ATRP initiator by the "grafting from" approach. The stimuli-responsive behavior of the deprotected spherical PMAGal-b-PDMAEMA block copolymer brushes is investigated by dynamic light scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. A brush with arms containing 160 MAGal and 170 DMAEMA monomer units shows a significant contraction of the hydrodynamic radius from 20 to 70 °C at pH = 8 with a cloud point at ≈40 °C, whereas no LCST is detected at pH = 6 and 7 due to the protonation of the DMAEMA units. Aggregates occur at low temperatures and pH 8 due to intermolecular interactions between the chains of different brushes, which disappear above LCST, when the PDMAEMA chains fold back to the core of the brushes, exposing the glycopolymer chains to the outside. PMID:24106068

  3. Syringyl Methacrylate, a Hardwood Lignin-Based Monomer for High-Tg Polymeric Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As viable precursors to a diverse array of macromolecules, biomass-derived compounds must impart wide-ranging and precisely controllable properties to polymers. Herein, we report the synthesis and subsequent reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization of a new monomer, syringyl methacrylate (SM, 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl methacrylate), that can facilitate widespread property manipulations in macromolecules. Homopolymers and heteropolymers synthesized from SM and related monomers have broadly tunable and highly controllable glass transition temperatures ranging from 114 to 205 °C and zero-shear viscosities ranging from ∼0.2 kPa·s to ∼17,000 kPa·s at 220 °C, with consistent thermal stabilities. The tailorability of these properties is facilitated by the controlled polymerization kinetics of SM and the fact that one vs two o-methoxy groups negligibly affect monomer reactivity. Moreover, syringol, the precursor to SM, is an abundant component of depolymerized hardwood (e.g., oak) and graminaceous (e.g., switchgrass) lignins, making SM a potentially sustainable and low-cost candidate for tailoring macromolecular properties. PMID:27213117

  4. Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition of cytocompatible poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) films.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Brian J; Pfluger, Courtney A; Sun, Bing; Ziemer, Katherine S; Burkey, Daniel D; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) is a widely utilized biomaterial due to lack of toxicity and suitable mechanical properties; conformal thin pHEMA films produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) would thus have broad biomedical applications. Thin films of pHEMA were deposited using photoinitiated CVD (piCVD). Incorporation of ethylene glycol diacrylate (EGDA) into the pHEMA polymer film as a crosslinker, confirmed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, resulted in varied swelling and degradation behavior. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate-only films showed significant thickness loss (up to 40%), possibly due to extraction of low-molecular-weight species or erosion, after 24 h in aqueous solution, whereas films crosslinked with EGDA (9.25-12.4%) were stable for up to 21 days. These results differ significantly from those obtained with plasma-polymerized pHEMA, which degraded steadily over a 21-day period, even with crosslinking. This suggests that the piCVD films differ structurally from those fabricated via plasma polymerization (plasma-enhanced CVD). piCVD pHEMA coatings proved to be good cell culture materials, with Caco-2 cell attachment and viability comparable to results obtained on tissue-culture polystyrene. Thus, thin film CVD pHEMA offers the advantage of enabling conformal coating of a cell culture substrate with tunable properties depending on method of preparation and incorporation of crosslinking agents. PMID:23852714

  5. Polystyrene/methacrylate microphase separated semi-interpenetrating polymer networks with controlled morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Graaf, L.A. de

    1993-12-31

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks with on forehand controllable morphology could be obtained using a three-step process, separating morphology formation and polymerization/crosslinking. This is opposite to conventional synthesis routes, where morphology is formed due to polymerization and crosslinking. Morphology was formed by spinodal liquid/liquid demixing of a solution of atactic polystyrene in a methacrylate monomer, which was arrested by thermoreversible gelation (vitrification) of the polymer-rich phase at a desired stage. After low-temperature UV-polymerization and crosslinking of the methacrylate, the phase separated structure was preserved at room temperature. The morphology was found to be determined by the viscosity of the solution (polymer molecular weight and concentration) and by the efficiency of quenching (quench temperature, sample geometry). Domains of 0.03-0.06 m could be achieved, due to vitrification of the summits of concentration fluctuations of spinodal demixing in its initial stage. Thereby, domains were separated a distance (n times) the wavelength of spinodal demixing.

  6. Chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto polyurethane surface for improving blood compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunli; Wang, Miao; Cai, Xianmei; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Li; Zhu, Haomiao; Shen, Jian; Yuan, Jiang

    2011-11-01

    To improve hydrophilicity and blood compatibility properties of polyurethane (PU) film, we chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the surface of polyurethane film using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effects of grafting temperature, grafting time, monomer and initiator concentrations on the grafting yields were studied. The maximum grafting yield value was obtained 0.0275 g/cm2 for HEMA. Characterization of the films was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements. ATR-FTIR data showed that HEMA was successfully grafted onto the PU films surface. Water contact angle measurement demonstrated the grafted films possessed a relatively hydrophilic surface. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was preliminarily evaluated by a platelet-rich plasma adhesion test and hemolysis test. The results of platelet adhesion experiment showed that polyurethane grafted polymerization with monomer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate had good blood compatibility featured by the low platelet adhesion. Hemolysis rate of the PU-g-PHEMA films was dramatically decreased than the ungrafted PU films. This kind of new biomaterials grafted with HEMA monomers might have a potential usage for biomedical applications.

  7. Cellulose nanocrystal-poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) brushes with tunable LCSTs.

    PubMed

    Grishkewich, Nathan; Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Parinaz; Zhaoling, Yao; Berry, Richard; Tam, Kam C

    2016-06-25

    This paper reports on the synthesis of poly(oligoethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (POEGMA) grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). An ATRP initiator (α-Bromoisobutyryl bromide) was covalently bonded to the surface of CNCs, followed by copolymerizing di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MEO2MA) and oligoethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA300) monomers from the surface using Cu(I)Br/2,2-dipyridal. Multiple POEGMA-g-CNC systems with varying MEO2MA/OEGMA300 content were synthesized, and they displayed a range of lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) in aqueous medium. μDSC endotherms and microstructural analysis indicated the collapse of POEGMA chains, followed by the aggregation of nanoparticles above their LCSTs. Cloud point measurements demonstrated a hysteresis in the heating and cooling of the POEGMA-g-CNC systems. It was found that the LCST of the nanoparticles could be tuned to between 23.8 to 63.8°C by adjusting the OEGMA300 content of the POEGMA brushes. PMID:27083811

  8. Large-volume methacrylate monolith for plasmid purification. Process engineering approach to synthesis and application.

    PubMed

    Danquah, Michael K; Forde, Gareth M

    2008-04-25

    The extent of exothermicity associated with the construction of large-volume methacrylate monolithic columns has somewhat obstructed the realisation of large-scale rapid biomolecule purification especially for plasmid-based products which have proven to herald future trends in biotechnology. A novel synthesis technique via a heat expulsion mechanism was employed to prepare a 40 mL methacrylate monolith with a homogeneous radial pore structure along its thickness. Radial temperature gradient was recorded to be only 1.8 degrees C. Maximum radial temperature recorded at the centre of the monolith was 62.3 degrees C, which was only 2.3 degrees C higher than the actual polymerisation temperature. Pore characterisation of the monolithic polymer showed unimodal pore size distributions at different radial positions with an identical modal pore size of 400 nm. Chromatographic characterisation of the polymer after functionalisation with amino groups displayed a persistent dynamic binding capacity of 15.5 mg of plasmid DNA/mL. The maximum pressure drop recorded was only 0.12 MPa at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The polymer demonstrated rapid separation ability by fractionating Escherichia coli DH5alpha-pUC19 clarified lysate in only 3 min after loading. The plasmid sample collected after the fast purification process was tested to be a homogeneous supercoiled plasmid with DNA electrophoresis and restriction analysis. PMID:18329651

  9. Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-02

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the propionate synthesis step. the resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis step is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-Si-P ternary metal oxide catalysts Nb/SiO{sub 2} and Ta/SiO{sub 2} catalysts for the condensation of propionic anhydride and acid with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields by better understanding of the acid-base property correlation, in situ condensation in a high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

  10. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by methacrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Baochun; Lei, Yanda; Chen, Feng; Liu, Xiaoliang; Du, Mingliang; Jia, Demin

    2008-12-01

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed interaction mechanisms of MAA and the in situ formed zinc methacrylate (ZDMA) were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and porosity analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) together with crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through ZDMA and MAA intermediated linkages. ZDMA connects SBR and HNTs via grafting/complexation mechanism. MAA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA was achieved. Effects of MAA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of MAA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs.

  11. Mesoporous carbon amperometric glucose sensors using inexpensive, commercial methacrylate-based binders.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingzhi; Maxwell, Stephanie; Vogt, Bryan D; La Belle, Jeffrey T

    2012-08-13

    Two ordered, soft-templated mesoporous carbon powders with cubic and hexagonal framework structure and four different commercial, low cost methacrylate-based polymer binders with widely varying physical properties are investigated as screen printed electrodes for glucose sensors using glucose oxidase and ferricyanide as the mediator. Both the chemistry and concentration of the binder in the electrode formulation can significantly impact the performance. Poly(hydroxybutyl methacrylate) as the binder provides hydrophilicity to enable transport of species in the aqueous phase to the carbon surface, but yet is sufficiently hydrophobic to provide mechanical robustness to the sensor. The current from the mesoporous carbon electrodes can be more than an order of magnitude greater than for a commercial printed carbon electrode (Zensor) with improved sensitivity for model glucose solutions. Even when applying these sensors to rabbit whole blood, the performance of these glucose sensors compares favorably to a standard commercial glucose meter with the lower detection limit of the mesoporous electrode being approximately 20mgdL(-1) despite the lack of a separation membrane to prevent non-specific events; these results suggest that the small pore sizes and high surface areas associated with ordered mesoporous carbons may effectively decrease some non-specific inferences for electrochemical sensing. PMID:22790696

  12. Effect of Nanoclay on Thermal Conductivity and Flexural Strength of Polymethyl Methacrylate Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Barzegar, Ali; Hamedi Rad, Fahimeh; Moslehifard, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The mechanical and thermal properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resin should be improved to counterweigh its structural deficiencies. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of conventional acrylic resin and acrylic resin loaded with nanoclay. Materials and Method The methacrylate monomer containing the 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% of nanoclay was placed in an ultrasonic probe and mixed with the PMMA powder. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify homogeneous distribution of particles. Twenty-four 20×20×200-mm cubic samples were prepared for flexural strength test; 18 samples containing nanoclay and 6 samples for the control group. Another 24 cylindrical samples of 38×25 mm were prepared for thermal conductivity test. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple-comparison test (Scheffé’s test). Statistical significance was set at p< 0.05. Results Increasing the concentration of nanoclay incorporated into the acrylic resin samples increased thermal conductivity but decreased flexural strength (p< 0.05). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, adding nanoclay particles to PMMA improved its thermal conductivity, while it had a negative effect on the flexural strength. PMID:27284557

  13. Controllable surface morphology and properties via mist polymerization on a plasma-treated polymethyl methacrylate surface.

    PubMed

    Wan, S J; Wang, L; Xu, X J; Zhao, C H; Liu, X D

    2014-02-14

    Surface modification by grafting polymers on solid materials is an important strategy used to improve surface properties. This article reports that under appropriate conditions, very thin layers with desired morphologies may be constructed on a plasma-treated substrate by feeding a small quantity of a monomer with a mist stream carrying droplets produced from monomer solutions. We investigate the effects of process parameters that affect layer morphology, including exposure time to the mist stream, concentration of the monomer solution, and solvent selectivity. For a methyl methacrylate solution in ethanol, nanoparticles are uniformly grown with increasing monomer concentration or exposure time and finally form a porous layer at 3.65 mol L(-1) for 30 min. Decreasing solvent polarity not only affects surface morphology, but also increases hydrophobicity of the resulting surface. With 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate as the monomer, SEM and AFM micrographs indicated that mist polymerization results in numerous microspheres on the activated surface. These experimental results were interpreted by a mechanism in terms of an in situ polymerization accompanied by a phase transformation of the resulting polymer. Specifically, plasma treatment provides highly active cations and radicals to initiate very rapid polymerization, and the resulting polymers are consequently deposited from the liquid onto the surface under phase transition mechanisms. PMID:24835436

  14. Ionogels Based on Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Metal-Containing Ionic Liquids: Correlation between Structure and Mechanical and Electrical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zehbe, Kerstin; Kollosche, Matthias; Lardong, Sebastian; Kelling, Alexandra; Schilde, Uwe; Taubert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ionogels (IGs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs) bis-1-butyl-3-methlimidazolium tetrachloridocuprate(II), tetrachloride cobaltate(II), and tetrachlorido manganate(II) have been synthesized and their mechanical and electrical properties have been correlated with their microstructure. Unlike many previous examples, the current IGs show a decreasing stability in stress-strain experiments on increasing IL fractions. The conductivities of the current IGs are lower than those observed in similar examples in the literature. Both effects are caused by a two-phase structure with micrometer-sized IL-rich domains homogeneously dispersed an IL-deficient continuous PMMA phase. This study demonstrates that the IL-polymer miscibility and the morphology of the IGs are key parameters to control the (macroscopic) properties of IGs. PMID:26999112

  15. Ionogels Based on Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Metal-Containing Ionic Liquids: Correlation between Structure and Mechanical and Electrical Properties.

    PubMed

    Zehbe, Kerstin; Kollosche, Matthias; Lardong, Sebastian; Kelling, Alexandra; Schilde, Uwe; Taubert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ionogels (IGs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs) bis-1-butyl-3-methlimidazolium tetrachloridocuprate(II), tetrachloride cobaltate(II), and tetrachlorido manganate(II) have been synthesized and their mechanical and electrical properties have been correlated with their microstructure. Unlike many previous examples, the current IGs show a decreasing stability in stress-strain experiments on increasing IL fractions. The conductivities of the current IGs are lower than those observed in similar examples in the literature. Both effects are caused by a two-phase structure with micrometer-sized IL-rich domains homogeneously dispersed an IL-deficient continuous PMMA phase. This study demonstrates that the IL-polymer miscibility and the morphology of the IGs are key parameters to control the (macroscopic) properties of IGs. PMID:26999112

  16. The effects of organic modifier on physicochemical and chromatographic characteristics of self-assembled micelle from poly (stearyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) in electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Ni, Xinjiong; Cao, Yuhua; Xin, Xiaoping; Cao, Guangqun

    2016-08-01

    In our previous work, organic solvents, especially 1-butanol, play a key role to separate highly hydrophobic analytes in EKC using the polymeric micelle self-assembled from amphiphilic random copolymer poly (stearyl methacrylate-co-methyl acrylic acid) (P(SMA-co-MAA)) as a novel pseudostationary phase. Herein, the influences of organic solvents on polymeric micelle physicochemical properties including environmental micropolarity and dimension, as well as chromatographic characteristics containing elution window, hydrophobic selectivity and polar group selectivity were investigated in detail. P(SMA-co-MAA) has extremely low CMC of 1.26 × 10(-6) g/mL, and the self-assembled micelles with selective solvent method had regular spherical structure with diameter about 50 nm. The experimental results showed that methanol, isopropanol or acetonitrile molecules could not penetrate into the interior of the polymeric micelles, and mainly affected the properties of surrounding running buffer. Too much these organic solvents led to elution window narrowed down, methylene selectivity and group selectivity weaken, even the micelles collasped. Whereas, addition of 2% 1-butanol did not influence the elution window, instead, improved the hydrophobic selectivity. Furthermore, both better group selectivity and faster migration for relatively hydrophobic analytes could be achieved simultaneously. It indicated that 1-butanol could insert into the polymeric micelle and 2% 1-butanol was enough to modify the structure of the micelles. PMID:27334427

  17. Microgel colloidosomes based on pH-responsive poly(tert-butylaminoethyl methacrylate) latexes.

    PubMed

    Morse, Andrew J; Madsen, Jeppe; Growney, David J; Armes, Steven P; Mills, Peter; Swart, Ron

    2014-10-28

    Emulsion copolymerization of 2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate (TBAEMA) with divinylbenzene (DVB) cross-linker in the presence of monomethoxy-capped poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) at 70 °C afforded sterically stabilized poly[2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PTBAEMA) latexes at 10% solids at pH 9. Such particles proved to be an effective Pickering emulsifier at pH 10 for both n-dodecane and n-hexane. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to follow the model reaction between the secondary amine of the TBAEMA monomer and the isocyanate groups of tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate-terminated poly(propylene glycol) (PPG-TDI). Cross-linking the PTBAEMA latex particles adsorbed at the n-dodecane/water interface using this oil-soluble PPG-TDI cross-linker at around 0 (o)C led to robust colloidosomes that survived an acid challenge. This resistance to demulsification was confirmed via laser diffraction studies following an in situ switch from pH 10 to 3, since no change was observed in either the oil droplet size or concentration (compared to non-cross-linked PTBAEMA-stabilized Pickering emulsions). Such PTBAEMA colloidosomes survived removal of the internal oil phase on washing with excess ethanol. However, because ethanol is a good solvent for the PTBAEMA chains, imaging the ethanol-treated colloidosomes via electron microscopy proved rather problematic due to partial film formation. Therefore, a series of TBAEMA/styrene copolymer latexes (comprising 10, 30, 50, or 60 mol % styrene) were prepared via emulsion copolymerization at 70 °C in the presence of DVB and PEGMA. The higher glass transition temperatures exhibited by these copolymer particles (and their greater resistance to ethanol swelling) enabled better-quality electron microscopy images to be obtained. The presence of nitrogen atoms at the surface of these copolymer latex particles was confirmed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies; these secondary amine groups allow covalent cross-linking via

  18. Light-curing time and aging effects on the nanomechanical properties of methacrylate- and silorane-based restorations.

    PubMed

    Catelan, A; Pollard, T; Bedran-Russo, Ak; Santos, Ph Dos; Ambrosano, Gmb; Aguiar, Fhb

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to assess the influence of light-curing time on the nanohardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er) of components (underlying dentin, hybrid layer, adhesive, and composite) of methacrylate- and silorane-based restorations after 24 hours and six months of storage. Class II slot preparations were carried out in human molars (n=3) and restored with methacrylate (Clearfil SE Bond [Kuraray] + Filtek Z250 [3M ESPE]) or silorane (LS restorative system [3M ESPE]) restorative systems and light-cured using light-emitting diode at 1390 mW/cm(2) for the recommended manufacturers' time or double time. Restorations were sectioned, and bonded dentin-resin interfaces were embedded in epoxy resin and polished for evaluation with a Berkovich fluid cell tip (TI 700 Ubi-1 nanoindenter, Hysitron). Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). Overall, the H and Er values were higher for methacrylate-based restorations than for silorane materials (p≤0.05), an increase in curing time did not improve the H and Er of the bonded interface components of either material (p>0.05), and aging significantly decreased the mechanical properties of interface components of both resin-based restorative systems (p≤0.05). In general, nanomechanical properties decreased after six months of storage, the methacrylate restorative system exhibited higher H and Er than silorane, and light-curing time did not influence the properties tested. PMID:24967984

  19. REACTIVITIES OF ACRYLIC AND METHACRYLIC ACIDS IN A NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION MODEL OF THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactivities of derivatives of acrylic and methacrylic acid (AA and MAA) in Michael reactions of nucleophilic addition that have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms for the toxicity of such compounds are evaluated from a study of the mechanism of addition of a nucleoph...

  20. Study of the sequential conversion of citric to itaconic to methacrylic acid in near-critical and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson, M.; Habenicht, C.; Kam, L.C.; Antal, M.J. Jr. ); Bian, N.; Cunningham, R.J.; Jones, M. Jr. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-08-01

    Between 200 and 400 million lb of citric acid are produced annually in the USA by fermentation of molasses and other sugars using the microorganism Aspergillus niger. A lesser quantity of itaconic acid is manufactured by a similar technology using Aspergillus terreus. The recovery of citric acid from its fermentation broth via calcium salt precipitation is a costly, highly complex, sophisticated operation. USDOE estimates the cost of dry citric acid produced from a new plant to be about $0.59/lb, whereas the estimated cost of wet citric acid (in its fermentation broth) from a new plant is about $0.19/lb and from an old plant is about $0.15/lb. Citric acid rapidly reacts in hot (250 C), compressed (34.5 MPa) liquid water to form itaconic and citraconic acids with a combined selectivity that exceeds 90%. At higher temperatures (360 C), in the absence and presence of NaOH, itaconic acid decarboxylates to form methacrylic acid. The yield of methacrylic acid depends on the temperature, pH, and buffer strength of the medium, reaching a maximum of about 70% (by mole) of the itaconic acid feed. Conditions which favor the production of methacrylic acid also lead to the formation of its hydration product: hydroxyisobutyric acid. Under optimum conditions the combined yield of methacrylic acid and hydroxyisobutyric acid from itaconic acid exceeds 80%. Results are consistent with well-established dehydration and decarboxylation mechanisms.

  1. The optical polarization properties of phenanthrenequinone-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer materials for volume holographic storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Zhenzhen; Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Barada, Daisuke; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    We present an experimental study on the optical polarization properties of the phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer materials. We discuss the diffraction efficiency with different weight ratios of phenanthrenequinone that was dissolved in the materials. In addition, we observe the diffraction efficiency difference between polarization holography and traditional holography.

  2. New Functionalities of PA6,6 Fabric Modified by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma and Grafted Glycidyl Methacrylate Derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative atmospheric pressure plasma was utilized to activate surface of PA 6,6 fabrics followed by graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and further reacted with triethylene tetramine (TETA), quaternary ammonium chitosan (HTCC) or cyclodextrin (CD). The inner CD cavity was complexe...

  3. On the degelation of networks - Case of the radiochemical degradation of methyl methacrylate - ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richaud, Emmanuel; Gilormini, Pierre; Verdu, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    Methyl methacrylate networks were synthetized and submitted to radiochemical degradation. Ageing was monitored by means of sol-gel analysis and glass transition temperature measurements. Networks were shown to undergo exclusively chain scission process leading to the degelation of network. The critical conversion degree corresponding to degelation (loss of all elastically active chains) is discussed regarding a statistical theory.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Determination of Volatile Matter Content of Methacrylate Multicomponent Coatings Used as Traffic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of Volatile Matter Content of Methacrylate Multicomponent Coatings Used as Traffic Marking Coatings A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND...

  5. Click synthesis of quaternized poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) functionalized graphene oxide with improved antibacterial and antifouling ability.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qin; Tian, Chang; Ma, Tongtong; Pang, Long; Wang, Jinyi

    2016-05-01

    A quaternized poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) functionalized graphene oxide (GO-QPDMAEMA) was successfully prepared in this study via click chemistry. Alkyne-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-alkyne) was first synthesized through a two-step amidation reaction of GO-COOH. Meanwhile, azide-terminated poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA-N3) was prepared via the atom-transfer radical-polymerization of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). Subsequently, PDMAEMA-N3 was grafted onto the GO-alkyne through click chemistry to obtain PDMAEMA modified graphene oxide (GO-PDMAEMA). Finally, the tertiary amino groups of GO-PDMAEMA were quaternized by ethyl bromide to provide a quaternized poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) functionalized graphene oxide (GO-QPDMAEMA). Various characterization techniques, including Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrometry, ζ potential, Raman, contact angle analyses and field emission scanning electron microscope were used to ascertain the successful preparation of the quaternized GO-QPDMAEMA. Furthermore, antibacterial and antifouling activities of GO-QPDMAEMA were investigated via protein adsorption, as well as bacterial and cell adhesion studies. The results suggest that the GO-QPDMAEMA surface exhibited significant antibacterial and antifouling properties, compared with the GO-COOH and GO-PDMAEMA surfaces. PMID:26852103

  6. Protective effect of chitosan oligosaccharide lactate against DNA double-strand breaks induced by a model methacrylate dental adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanska, Joanna; Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Synowiec, Ewelina; Czarny, Piotr; Rekas, Marek; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jacek Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Monomers of methacrylates used in restorative dentistry have been recently reported to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in vitro. Because such monomers may penetrate the pulp and oral cavity due to the incompleteness of polymerization and polymer degradation, they may induce a similar effect in vivo. DSBs are the most serious type of DNA damage and if misrepaired or not repaired may lead to mutation, cancer transformation and cell death. Therefore, the protection against DSBs induced by methacrylate monomers released from dental restorations is imperative. Material/Methods We examined the protective action of chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (ChOL) against cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by monomers of the model adhesive consisting of 55% bisphenol A-diglycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and 45% 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). We evaluated the extent of DSBs by the neutral comet assay and the phosphorylation of the H2AX histone test. Results ChOL increased the viability of HGFs exposed to Bis-GMA/HEMA as assessed by flow cytometry. ChOL decreased the extent of DSBs induced by Bis-GMA/HEMA as evaluated by neutral comet assay and phosphorylation of the H2AX histone. ChOL did not change mechanical properties of the model adhesive, as checked by the shear bond test. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a better sealing of the dentinal microtubules in the presence of ChOL, which may protect pulp cells against the harmful action of the monomers. Conclusions ChOL can be considered as an additive to methacrylate-based dental materials to prevent DSBs induction, but further studies are needed on its formulation with the methacrylates. PMID:21804456

  7. Glycol Methacrylate Embedding for the Histochemical Study of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania Infantum

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A.J.W.; de Amorim, I.F.G.; Pinheiro, L.J.; Madeira, I.M.V.M.; Souza, C.C.; Chiarini-Garcia, H.; Caliari, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    In canine visceral leishmaniasis a diffuse chronic inflammatory exudate and an intense parasite load throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been previously reported. However, these studies did not allow a properly description of canine cellular morphology details. The aim of our study was to better characterize these cells in carrying out a qualitative and quantitative histological study in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum by examining gut tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate. Twelve infected adult dogs were classified in asymptomatic and symptomatic. Five uninfected dogs were used as controls. After necropsy, three samples of each gut segment, including oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected and fixed in Carnoy’s solution for glycol methacrylate protocols. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue borate, and periodic acid-Schiff stain. Leishmania amastigotes were detected by immunohistochemistry employed in both glycol methacrylate and paraffin embedded tissues. The quantitative histological analysis showed higher numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages in lamina propria of all segments of GIT of infected dogs compared with controls. The parasite load was more intense and cecum and colon, independently of the clinical status of these dogs. Importantly, glycol methacrylate embedded tissue stained with toluidine blue borate clearly revealed mast cell morphology, even after mast cell degranulation. Infected dogs showed lower numbers of mast cells in all gut segments than controls. Despite the glycol methacrylate (GMA) protocol requires more attention and care than the conventional paraffin processing, this embedding procedure proved to be especially suitable for the present histological study, where it allowed to preserve and observe cell morphology in fine detail. PMID:26708180

  8. Marginal sealing ability of silorane and methacrylate resin composites in class II cavities: A scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Nanjundasetty, Jyothi Kashi; Nanda, Soumyaranjan; Panuganti, Venugopal; Marigowda, Jayashankar Chatra

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: To comparatively evaluate the microleakage and microgap formation along the gingival margin in class II cavities restored with silorane resin composite and methacrylate resin composite with and without flowable resin liner. Materials and Methods: Sixty human mandibular premolars were distributed into three groups, each group containing 20 teeth (n = 20). Mesial (subgroup A) and distal (subgroup B) box cavities were prepared with gingival margin above and below cemento enamel junction (CEJ), respectively, in each tooth and restored as follows — Group I — Silorane resin composite with self-etch primer and bond (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE MN, USA). Group II — Methacrylate resin composite (Filtek P60, 3M ESPE MN, USA) and self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy one, 3M ESPE MN, USA). Group III — Methacrylate resin composite with self-etch adhesive and a flowable resin liner (Filtek Z350 XT, 3M ESPE MN, USA). The teeth were thermocycled and immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution before sectioning. The specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope for dye penetration and microgap formation. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test using SPSS version 18. Results: Subgroup A in all the three groups showed significantly less microleakage and microgap formation compared to subgroup B with P < 0.05. Intergroup comparison of subgroup A did not show statistically significant difference, whereas subgroup B showed statistically significant difference for microleakage between group I and group II (P = 0.003), group III and group II (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Silorane resin composite and methacrylate resin with liner showed significantly less microleakage in class II cavities along the gingival margin placed below CEJ compared to methacrylate resin without liner. All the study groups showed less microleakage and microgap formation along the gingival margin placed above CEJ. PMID:24347882

  9. Reducible poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate): synthesis, cytotoxicity, and gene delivery activity.

    PubMed

    You, Ye-Zi; Manickam, Devika Soundara; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Oupický, David

    2007-10-01

    Reducible polycations represent promising carriers of therapeutic nucleic acids. Oligomers of 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) containing terminal thiol groups were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using difunctional chain transfer agent. Reducible poly(DMAEMA) (rPDMAEMA) was synthesized by oxidation of the terminal thiol groups, forming a polymer with disulfide bonds in the backbone. Physico-chemical properties of DNA polyplexes of rPDMAEMA were evaluated by dynamic and static light scattering methods, revealing lower structural density and DNA content than control PDMAEMA polyplexes. Cytotoxicity and transfection activity of rPDMAEMA-based DNA polyplexes were evaluated in vitro. In comparison with control PDMAEMA, only minimum toxic effects of rPDMAEMA were observed in a panel of cell lines. Transfection activity was tested in B16F10 mouse melanoma and six human pancreatic cancer cell lines. rPDMAEMA polyplexes showed a comparable or better activity than control PDMAEMA polyplexes. PMID:17574292

  10. Reducible poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate): Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and gene delivery activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing-Hui; Oupický, David

    2007-01-01

    Reducible polycations represent promising carriers of therapeutic nucleic acids. Oligomers of 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) containing terminal thiol groups were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using difunctional chain transfer agent. Reducible poly(DMAEMA) (rPDMAEMA) was synthesized by oxidation of the terminal thiol groups, forming a polymer with disulfide bonds in the backbone. Physico-chemical properties of DNA polyplexes of rPDMAEMA were evaluated by dynamic and light scattering methods, revealing lower structural density and DNA content than control PDMAEMA polyplexes. Cytotoxicity and transfection activity of rPDMAEMA-based DNA polyplexes were evaluated in vitro. In comparison with control PDMAEMA, only minimum toxic effects of rPDMAEMA were observed in a panel of cell lines. Transfection activity was tested in B16F10 mouse melanoma and six human pancreatic cancer cell lines. rPDMAEMA polyplexes showed a comparable or better activity than control PDMAEMA polyplexes. PMID:17574292

  11. Tensile behaviour of blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) with poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Chung, Shirley Y.

    1990-01-01

    Blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVF2) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared over a wide concentration range and tested in tension at the same relative temperature below the glass transition. In nearly all blends, under conditions favoring disentanglement, (decrease in strain rate, or increase in test temperature), the yield stress and drawing stress decreased while the breaking strain increased. For materials with about the same degree of crystallinity, those with a higher proportion of amorphous PVF2 exhibited brittle-like behavior as a result of interlamellar tie molecules. In the semicrystalline blends, yield stress remains high as the test temperature approaches Tg, whereas in the amorphous blends the yield stress falls to zero near Tg. Results of physical aging support the role of interlamellar ties which cause semicrystalline blends to exhibit aging at temperatures above Tg.

  12. Development of an anthropomorphic head phantom using dolomite and polymethyl methacrylate for dosimetry in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ximenes, R. E.; Silva, A.; Balbino, D.; Poletti, M. E.; Maia, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    A real human skull was selected to be a mold for the construction of an anthropomorphic head phantom with a mixture of dolomite and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Using linear attenuation coefficients, we show that it is possible to use dolomite as a bone simulator as long as the proportion of the mixture is 1:1. Acrylic tubes were placed in the phantom constructed to enable the insertion of the ionization chamber to estimate the effective dose. Values for a typical head computed tomography examination found in the literature vary from 0.9 to 4.0 mSv. Dosimetric studies showed that the effective dose for the anthropomorphic phantom was (2.70±0.03) mSv and for the geometric PMMA phantom (3.67±0.04) mSv, values which are in agreement with the intervals reported in the literature. The investment to produce the phantom was approximately US160.00.

  13. Morphology of polyaniline in solution processed blends with poly(methyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.Y.; Cao, Y.; Smith, P.; Heeger, A.J.

    1993-12-31

    Using transmission electron microscopy, the authors have investigated the morphology of the polyaniline-camphor sulfonic acid (PANI-CSA) complex in polyblends with poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, over a wide range of concentrations. The results demonstrate an interpenetrating network of fibrillar crystalline PANI with the PMMA, consistent with the existance of connected conducting paths at volume fractions as low as 1%. In this dilute regime, the PANI morphology is a tenuous, interconnected fibrillar network with cross-sectional dimension of a few tends of nanometers. At higher volume fractions of PANI, the density of connected paths increases and the morphology appears foam-like with the PANI network surrounding the PMMA. This unusual morphology is the origin of the high electrical conductivities and the excellent optical quality of the PANI/PMMA blends.

  14. Evaluation of Bone Regeneration on Polyhydroxyethyl-polymethyl Methacrylate Membrane in a Rabbit Calvarial Defect Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Somin; Hwang, Yawon; Kashif, Muhammad; Jeong, Dosun; Kim, Gonhyung

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capacity of guiding bone regeneration of polyhydroxyethyl-polymethyl methacrylate (PHEMA-PMMA) membrane as a guided tissue regeneration membrane for bone defects. Two 8-mm diameter transosseous round defects were made at the parietal bone of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. Defects were covered with or without PHEMA-PMMA membrane. Radiological and histological evaluation revealed that the bone tissue over the defect was more regenerated with time in both groups. However, there was significantly more bone regeneration at 8 weeks in the experimental group than the control group (p<0.05). There was no sign of membrane degradation or tissue inflammation and no invasion of muscle and fibrous tissue into defects. PHEMA-PMMA is a potential material for guided tissue regeneration membrane as it induces no adverse tissue reaction and effectively supports selective bone regeneration. PMID:27566076

  15. Characterization of metal-supported poly(methyl methacrylate) microstructures by FTIR imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Gerald; Zimmerer, Cordelia; Salzer, Reiner

    2006-04-25

    Thin microstructured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films may be used as scaffolds for biosensor arrays. Microstructured pores form miniaturized vessels, each constituting an individual reaction vessel or detector element. Arrays of micropores with diameters between 2 and 80 microm were prepared in thin PMMA films on gold by optical lithography. Laterally resolved chemical information for microstructured PMMA films on a gold substrate was obtained by FTIR spectroscopic imaging. The carbonyl band was used to characterize the microstructure. Spectroscopic results indicate small amounts of PMMA residues inside the pores. A downshift of 5 cm(-1) compared to the position of the PMMA bulk carbonyl band indicates interactions of the PMMA residue with the gold substrate. Additional small bands are observed which indicate the formation of carboxylate during PMMA microstructuring. Three possible types of strong PMMA-gold interactions are discussed. All strong PMMA-gold interactions involve carbonyl or carboxyl oxygen. PMID:16618154

  16. Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Minggang; Su Zhidan; Zhang Shengli

    2012-09-15

    The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

  17. Novel (meth)acrylate monomers for ultrarapid polymerization and enhanced polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Beckel, E. R.; Berchtold, K. A.; Nie, J.; Lu, H.; Stansbury, J. W.; Bowman, C. N.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet light is known to be one of the most efficient methods to initiatc polymeric reactions in the presence of a photonitiator. Photopolymerizations are advantageous because the chemistry of the materials can be tailored to design liquid monomers for ultrarapid polymerization into a solid polymer material. One way to achieve rapid photopolymerizations is to utilize multifunctional (meth)acrylate monomers. which form highly crosslinked polymers; however, these monomers typically do not achieve complete functional group conversion. Recently, Decker et al. developed novel monovinyl acrylate monomers that display polyriicrization kinetics that rival those of multifunctional acrylate monomers. These novel acrylate monomers incorporate secondary functionalities and end groups such as carbonates, carbamates, cyclic carbonates and oxazolidone which promote the increased polymerization kinetics of these monomers. In addition to thc polynierization kinetics, these novel monovinyl monomers form crosslinked polymers, which are characterized by having high strength and high flexibility. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the polymerization kinetics and crosslinking are not well understood.

  18. Confocal Microscopy Studies of Trypsin Immobilization on Porous Glycidyl Methacrylate Beads.

    PubMed

    Malmsten; Xing; Ljunglöf

    1999-12-15

    The immobilization of trypsin on porous glycidyl methacrylate (GMA-GDMA) beads has been investigated. In particular, the distribution within the beads of trypsin and of dextran used for hydrophilizing the bead surface prior to protein immobilization was investigated with confocal microscopy. For the system investigated, the fluorescence intensity profiles obtained when using borate buffer as an ambient solution displayed a distinct minimum at the center of the beads, irrespective of the observation depth. However, by reduction of the refractive index difference between the solution and the beads through the addition of glucose to the aqueous solution, artifacts relating to optical length differences could be reduced. For both low molecular weight fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), FITC-labeled trypsin, and FITC-labeled dextran, an essentially homogeneous distribution throughout the beads was observed. This simple "contrast matching" method seems therefore to be an interesting tool when investigating the distribution of immobilized protein in porous chromatography media. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10607463

  19. New Poly(amino acid methacrylate) Brush Supports the Formation of Well-Defined Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel poly(amino acid methacrylate) brush comprising zwitterionic cysteine groups (PCysMA) was utilized as a support for lipid bilayers. The polymer brush provides a 12-nm-thick cushion between the underlying hard support and the aqueous phase. At neutral pH, the zeta potential of the PCysMA brush was ∼−10 mV. Cationic vesicles containing >25% DOTAP were found to form a homogeneous lipid bilayer, as determined by a combination of surface analytical techniques. The lipid mobility as measured by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) gave diffusion coefficients of ∼1.5 μm2 s–1, which are comparable to those observed for lipid bilayers on glass substrates. PMID:25746444

  20. Computational investigation of intermolecular interactions in polymer mixtures: Polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzwater, S.

    1993-12-31

    Molecular modeling and semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations on model compounds can give us detailed information about specific interactions in polymer mixtures. This study examines interactions between a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) tetramer and the polycarbonate (PC) repeat unit. The results suggested that PC-PMMA mixtures are stabilizing by hydrogen bonds between a carbonyl oxygen on one polymer and a proton or protons on the other. Multiple hydrogen bonds occur; stabilized generally increases with the number of hydrogen bonds. Several configurations had a PMMA carbonyl O H-bonded to a PC ring H, and the adjacent PC carbyonyl O H-bonded to PMMA methyl and methylene H`s. This suggests that the reduced PC mobility observed in PC-PMMA mixtures arises from suppression of both ring flips and carbonate group motion.

  1. Mechanical properties of methacrylate-based model dentin adhesives: effect of loading rate and moisture exposure.

    PubMed

    Singh, Viraj; Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Ye, Qiang; Park, Jonggu; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical behavior of model methacrylate-based dentin adhesives under conditions that simulate the wet oral environment. A series of monotonic and creep experiments were performed on rectangular beam samples of dentin adhesive in three-point bending configuration under different moisture conditions. The monotonic test results show a significant effect of loading rate on the failure strength and the linear limit (yield point) of the stress-strain response. In addition, these tests show that the failure strength is low, and the failure occurs at a smaller deformation when the test is performed under continuously changing moisture conditions. The creep test results show that under constant moisture conditions, the model dentin adhesives can have a viscoelastic response under certain low loading levels. However, when the moisture conditions vary under the same low loading levels, the dentin adhesives have an anomalous creep response accompanied by large secondary creep and high strain accumulation. PMID:23744598

  2. Enhancement of impact strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) with surface fine-tuned nano-silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Bin; Dong, Yixiao; Wu, Lili; Long, Chao; Zhang, Chaocan

    2015-07-01

    Highly dispersible nanoparticles in organic solvent always receive wide interests due to their compatibility with polymer materials. This paper reported a kind of isopropanol alcohol silica dispersion which obtained using a method of azeotropic distillation. The isopropanol alcohol dispersed silica (IPADS) were treated with coupling agents to fine-tune their surface properties. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was then used as a research object to test the compatibility between IPADS and polymer. UV-vis spectra indicate that IPADS would reach its high compatibility with PMMA if coupling with trimethoxypropylsilane (PTMS). Followed experiments on PMMA proved that the high compatibility can prominently enhance the impact strength about 30%. The results may provide reference both for nano-silica modification and better understanding of nano-enhanced materials.

  3. Hydrophobic modification of cellulose isolated from Agave angustifolia fibre by graft copolymerisation using methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan; Mohamed, Faizal

    2015-07-10

    Graft copolymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto Agave angustifolia was conducted with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the redox initiator. The maximum grafting efficiency was observed at CAN and MMA concentrations of 0.91 × 10(-3) and 5.63 × 10(-2)M, respectively, at 45°C for 3h reaction time. Four characteristic peaks at 2995, 1738, 1440, and 845 cm(-1), attributed to PMMA, were found in the IR spectrum of grafted cellulose. The crystallinity index dropped from 0.74 to 0.46, while the thermal stability improved upon grafting. The water contact angle increased with grafting yield, indicating increased hydrophobicity of cellulose. SEM images showed the grafted cellulose to be enlarged and rougher. The changes in the physical nature of PMMA-grafted cellulose can be attributed to the PMMA grafting in the amorphous regions of cellulose, causing it to expand at the expense of the crystalline component. PMID:25857961

  4. Optimization of benzoyl peroxide concentration in an experimental bone cement based on poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Vazquez, B; Deb, S; Bonfield, W

    1997-07-01

    The effect of the concentration of benzoyl peroxide in poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement formulations on their setting characteristics, particularly peak temperature and setting time, were studied. An optimization of the concentration of benzoyl peroxide was made with respect to curing parameters and compared with the residual monomer content. The mechanical properties of the different formulations were also determined and the results indicated that a composition of 1.5% wt/wt and 0.82% wt/wt of benzoyl peroxide and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine concentrations, respectively, gave the highest yield strength. Studies on the preparation of bone cement formulations containing different amounts of barium sulphate were also performed to assess the effect on the polymerization process and mechanical properties of the cements. PMID:15348730

  5. Surface modification of polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses by plasma for improvement of antithrombogenicity and transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lihua; Wu, Di; Chen, Yashao; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Guowei; Wan, Haiyan; Huang, Changzheng

    2009-05-01

    To improve antithrombogenicity and reduce ultraviolet transmittance, polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses (PMMA IOLs) were pretreated with Ar plasma and combined with heparin (Hp), with polyglycol (PEG) and with both Hp and PEG in a plasma atmosphere. The resulting modified PMMA IOLs denoted as PEG-PMMA, Hp-PMMA and Hp-PEG-PMMA were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), contact angle (CA) and platelet adhesion experiments. The results indicated that Hp and PEG had been successfully immobilized onto the surfaces of PMMA IOLs. Antithrombogenicity was improved remarkably and ultraviolet transmittance was reduced as well.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence studies of novel bi-phenyl based acrylate and methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, R.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-09-01

    4-[(1 E)-3-(biphenyl-4-yl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl]phenyl prop-2-enoate ( ACH) and 4-[(1 E)-3-(biphenyl-4-yl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl]phenyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate ( MCH) was synthesized from biphenyl in three steps and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, NMR ( 1H, 13C, DEPT135, 1H- 1H COSY, 1H- 13C HSQC and 1H- 13C HMBC) spectroscopic techniques. In this present study, various physicochemical characteristics we demonstrate solubility, color, absorbance and fluorescence property of novel biphenyl based acrylate and methacrylate measured in different solvents like benzene, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide and ethanol.

  7. Phosphate sensor based on immobilized aluminium-morin in poly (glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Amalina; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Suhud, Khairi; Zaini, Norhadisah Mohd; Heng, Lee Yook

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports the development of dihydrogen phosphate ion (H2PO4-) sensor in free solution and immobilized aluminium-morin (Al-Mo) complex on poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (pGMA) microspheres. The immobilization was carried out by suspension photopolymerization technique. Based on Al-Mo solution work, phosphate can be detected from 0.1 - 15.0 ppm of dihydrogen phosphate at pH 5. Phosphate detection only takes about 5 minutes. Morphology analyses showed that the immobilization of Aluminium-Morin complex maintained the size of the microspheres and proved that entrapment involves in the formation of the microspheres. This result is further explained by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) spectrum which does not show any formation of new bands. The microspheres were then used for further applications.

  8. Preparation of medical magnetic nanobeads with ferrite particles encapsulated in a polyglycidyl methacrylate (GMA) for bioscreening

    SciTech Connect

    Nishibiraki, H.; Kuroda, C.S.; Maeda, M.; Matsushita, N.; Abe, M.; Handa, H.

    2005-05-15

    Ferrite nanoparticles (an intermediate between Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), {approx}7 nm in diameter, were embedded in beads of a mixed polymer of styrene (St) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization method. The beads were coated with GMA by a seeded polymerization method in order to suppress nonspecific protein binding on the surfaces; GMA exhibits very low nonspecific protein binding, which is required for carriers used for bioscreening. The beads have diameters of 180{+-}50 nm and saturation magnetizations of 28 emu/g, exceeding commercially available polymer-coated beads of micron size having a weaker saturation magnetization ({approx}12 emu/g)

  9. Facile One-step Micropatterning Using Photodegradable Methacrylated Gelatin Hydrogels for Improved Cardiomyocyte Organization and Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Kelly M.C.; Annabi, Nasim; Ercole, Francesca; Zhou, Kun; Karst, Daniel; Li, Fanyi; Haynes, John M.; Evans, Richard A.; Thissen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels are often employed as temporary platforms for cell proliferation and tissue organization in vitro. Researchers have incorporated photodegradable moieties into synthetic polymeric hydrogels as a means of achieving spatiotemporal control over material properties. In this study protein-based photodegradable hydrogels composed of methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) and a crosslinker containing o-nitrobenzyl ester groups have been developed. The hydrogels are able to degrade rapidly and specifically in response to UV light and can be photopatterned to a variety of shapes and dimensions in a one-step process. Micropatterned photodegradable hydrogels are shown to improve cell distribution, alignment and beating regularity of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Overall this work introduces a new class of photodegradable hydrogel based on natural and biofunctional polymers as cell culture substrates for improving cellular organization and function. PMID:26327819

  10. Interaction between physical aging, deformation, and segmental mobility in poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hau-Nan; Ediger, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    Optical photobleaching experiments were used to investigate the interaction between physical aging, segmental mobility, and mechanical properties in polymer glasses. Mechanical creep experiments were performed on lightly cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses with systematically varying aging histories. By directly measuring the molecular mobility of polymer glasses under deformation, we observe that stresses in the preflow regime and flow regime have qualitatively different influences on the aging process. In the preflow regime, the effects of aging and stress on mobility act as two independent processes; stress causes an increase in segmental mobility but does not erase the influence of previous aging. In contrast, as a sample enters the flow regime, plastic deformation takes the glass into a high mobility state that is independent of any predeformation aging history.

  11. Fabrication of Poly (methyl methacrylate) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) Thin Film Capacitors on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Bindu; Meenaa Pria KNJ, Jaisree; Alagappan, M.; Kandaswamy, A.

    2015-11-01

    Flexible electronics is becoming more popular with introduction of more and more organic conducting materials and processes for making thin films. The use of polymers as gate dielectric has over ruled the usage of conventional inorganic oxides in Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) on account of its solution process ability and ease of making highly insulating thin film. In this work Capacitance is fabricated with polymeric dielectrics namely poly (methyl methacrylate) - PMMA and poly (vinyl alcohol) - PVA. The electrodes used for these capacitors are Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and Aluminium. Capacitance value of 9.5nF/cm2 and 33.12nF/cm2 is achieved for thickness of 510 nm of PMMA and 80 nm of PVA respectively. This study on capacitance can be used for assessing the suitability of these polymers as gate insulators in OTFTs.

  12. Methyl methacrylate as a healing agent for self-healing cementitious materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tittelboom, K.; Adesanya, K.; Dubruel, P.; Van Puyvelde, P.; De Belie, N.

    2011-12-01

    Different types of healing agents have already been tested on their efficiency for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Generally, commercial healing agents are used while their properties are adjusted for manual crack repair and not for autonomous crack healing. Consequently, the amount of regain in properties due to self-healing of cracks is limited. In this research, a methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based healing agent was developed specifically for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Various parameters were optimized including the viscosity, curing time, strength, etc. After the desired properties were obtained, the healing agent was encapsulated and screened for its self-healing efficiency. The decrease in water permeability due to autonomous crack healing using MMA as a healing agent was similar to the results obtained for manually healed cracks. First results seem promising: however, further research needs to be undertaken in order to obtain an optimal healing agent ready for use in practice.

  13. Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süske, Erik; Scharf, Thorsten; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich; Panchenko, Elena; Junkers, Thomas; Egorov, Mark; Buback, Michael; Kijewski, Harald

    2005-03-01

    The chemical composition, amount of cross-linking and its influence on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at a wavelength of 248nm under ultrahigh vacuum were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanoindentation experiments. The films consist of two components, one fraction with a molecular weight well below that of the target material and a second fraction, which is cross-linked. Compared to bulk material, the Young's modulus of the film is increased. The amount of cross-linking in the film can be tuned by the applied laser fluence leading to changes of the mechanical properties.

  14. Semiconductor nanoparticles in poly((2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafilović, L. V.; Bibić, N.; Georges, M. K.; Blanuša, J.; Radhakrishnan, T.; Djoković, V.

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead sulfide (PbS) semiconductors were prepared in a poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) matrix. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by using optical and structural methods. Co-polymers were synthesized in two different molar ratios of pDMAEMA:acrylic acid monomer units (1:2, 1:1). Transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of nano-sized CdSe and PbS particles. In the case of CdSe, a shift of the onset of the optical absorption toward lower wavelengths was observed. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both CdSe and PbS nanoparticles have cubic crystal structure.

  15. Electron capture of dopants in two-photonic ionization in a poly(methyl methacrylate) solid

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Akira; Sakai, Wataru; Nakano, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Masahide

    1992-10-29

    Behavior of the electron produced by two-photonic excitation of an aromatic donor in a poly(methyl methacrylate) solid was studied by the addition of the electron scavengers to the system. According to the Perrin type analysis for the two-photonically ejected electron, the capture radii (R{sub c}) of the scavengers examined were estimated to be from 8 to 40 {Angstrom}. For the two-photonically ejected electrons, R{sub c} is a capture radius for thermalized electrons. In this case the parent electron donor is not necessarily within this radius. On the other hand, for the fluorescence quenching, the distance between the donor and acceptor is within the static quenching radius (R{sub q}) of the donor. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Dye-attached magnetic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanospheres for albumin depletion from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Gökay, Öznur; Karakoç, Veyis; Andaç, Müge; Türkmen, Deniz; Denizli, Adil

    2015-02-01

    The selective binding of albumin on dye-affinity nanospheres was combined with magnetic properties as an alternative approach for albumin depletion from human plasma. Magnetic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) nanospheres were synthesized using mini-emulsion polymerization method in the presence of magnetite powder. The specific surface area of the mPHEMA nanospheres was found to be 1302 m(2)/g. Subsequent to Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB) immobilization onto mPHEMA nanospheres, a serial characterization processing was implemented. The quantity of immobilized CB was calculated as 800 μmol/g. Ultimately, albumin adsorption performance of the CB-attached mPHEMA nanospheres from both aqueous dissolving medium and human plasma were explored. PMID:24093765

  17. Thermal-induced conversion of maleic and fumaric acid anion radicals in poly(methyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, A.; Fukumoto, M.

    1980-04-01

    Thermal-induced conversion of maleic and fumaric acid anion radicals produced by ..gamma.. irradiation at 77/sup 0/K in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical absorption spectroscopic measurements. The ESR spectra of these acid anion radicals change into two-line spectra with a line separation of ca. 10 G by thermal annealing. This spectrum is assigned to a protonated radical of each acid anion radical. Anion radicals of the solutes are relatively stable below the ..gamma.. transition point of PMMA and the conversion reaction takes place near this point. This means that the molecular motion of matrix molecule affects the radical conversion reaction.

  18. Facile Soap-Free Miniemulsion Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate via Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaohua; Zhang, Lifen; Pan, Xiangqiang; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

    2012-12-21

    A facile soap-free miniemulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was successfully carried out via a reverse ATRP technique, using a water-soluble potassium persulfate (KPS) or 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V-50) both as the initiator and the stabilizer, and using an oil-soluble N,N-n-butyldithiocarbamate copper (Cu(S2CN(C4H9)2)2) as the catalyst without adding any additional ligand. Polymerization results demonstrated the "living"/controlled characteristics of ATRP and the resultant latexes showed good colloidal stability with average particle size around 300-700 nm in diameter. The monomer droplet nucleation mechanism was proposed. NMR spectroscopy and chain-extension experiments under UV light irradiation confirmed the attachment and livingness of UV light sensitive -S-C(=S)-N(C4H9)2 group in the chain end. PMID:23019131

  19. Influence of carbon fillers on the thermal conductivity of Poly (methyl methacrylate)/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Komal; Chauhan, Alok P. S.

    2016-04-01

    In the present research on carbon polymer composites, the effects of variation of the concentration of conductive fillers on the thermal conductivity of the resultant composite were studied. Carbon powders in the form of Carbon Fibers (CF) (200µm), Carbon Black (CB) (30-100 nm) and Graphite (75-100µm) were being considered as conductive fillers in the Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. Nielsen model was found to be the best proposed model that incorporated geometric configuration comprising of both the orientation and shape of fillers. It was established that the calculated values of thermal conductivity of PMMA composites with single fillers of CF were higher than those of CB followed by Graphite. Furthermore, a visible synergy was observed between the combinations of these fillers such as Graphite and CF, Graphite and CB, CF and CB, as well as CB and CF.

  20. Functional polymeric microspheres based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate for immunochemical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Yen, S. P. S.; Cheong, E.; Wallace, S.; Molday, R. S.; Gordon, I. L.; Dreyer, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Co gamma irradiation of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in the presence or in the absence of other acrylic monomers was found to constitute an effective technique for the synthesis of hydrophilic functional microspheres in the size range of approximately 0.3 to 3 microns in diameter. The effect of monomer concentration, steric stabilization, and electrostatic interaction on the particle size was investigated. Experimental conditions were determined to obtain desired particle sizes of relatively narrow distribution. It was shown that particles may be formed without intermediate micelles, i.e., by homogeneous nucleation, and the rate of particle formation is affected primarily by the rate of particle coalescence in the initial stages of the reaction. When covalently bound to antibodies these microspheres were successfully used to label murine and human lymphocytes.

  1. Free Radical Polymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate in Various Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongwei; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    Conventional free radical polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate was carried out in various room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The RTILs used in this research encompass a wide range of cations and anions. Typical cations include imidazolium, phosphonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium; typical anions include amide, borate, chloride, imide, phosphate, and phosphinate. Reactions are faster and polymers obtained usually have higher molecular weights when compared to polymerizations carried out in volatile organic solvents under the same conditions. This shows that rapid rates of polymerization and high molecular weights are general features of conventional radical polymerizations in RTILs. Attempts to correlate the polarities and viscosities of the RTILs with the polymerization behavior fail to yield discernible trends.

  2. Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Sueske, Erik; Scharf, Thorsten; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich; Panchenko, Elena; Junkers, Thomas; Egorov, Mark; Buback, Michael; Kijewski, Harald

    2005-03-15

    The chemical composition, amount of cross-linking and its influence on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at a wavelength of 248 nm under ultrahigh vacuum were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanoindentation experiments. The films consist of two components, one fraction with a molecular weight well below that of the target material and a second fraction, which is cross-linked. Compared to bulk material, the Young's modulus of the film is increased. The amount of cross-linking in the film can be tuned by the applied laser fluence leading to changes of the mechanical properties.

  3. Acoustic and ultrasonic characterization constraints of self-healing (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestka, Kenneth, II; Buckley, Jonathan; Kalista, Stephen; Bowers, Nicholas

    Recent experiments indicate that small sample poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers (EMAA copolymers) exhibit time dependent variation in their acoustic and ultrasonic resonant spectra after exposure to a damage event. However, due to the relatively soft nature of these thermoplastic materials, several experimental constraints affect efficacy of resonant spectral analysis. In this work we will the address the effect of several characterization constraints on a self-healing EMAA ionomer (commercially known as Dupont Surlyn 8920) including the effects of transducer loading, continuous rapid resonant excitation and temporally separated long-term resonant excitation. In some circumstances, these experimental constraints can influence the time dependence of sample resonant frequency evolution, quality factor, and variation in spectral waveform. By quantifying these effects, robust characterization of post-damage self-healing EMAA samples is possible and will be presented.

  4. Thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidyl methacrylate) microgels for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Li, Penghui; Xu, Ruizhen; Wang, Wenhao; Li, Xiaolong; Xu, Zushun; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chu, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    A new type of thermosensitive microgels with epoxy functional groups is designed and synthesized for drug delivery. The thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (designated as P(NIPAM-co-GMA)) microgels are prepared by an emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization method and the chemical composition of the copolymer is determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the microgels is 32°C based on the transmittance changes at 500 nm monitored by UV/visible spectrophotometry. The hydrodynamic diameter and morphology of the microgel particles are examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The drug release properties determined using 5-FU as the drug model in vitro reveal temperature dependence and low cytotoxicity. The thermosensitive microgels have large potential as targeted anti-cancer drug carriers. PMID:23010027

  5. Chemical modification of glass surface with a monolayer of nonchromophoric and chromophoric methacrylate terpolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Ryszard; Kucharski, Stanisław; Sobolewska, Anna; Barille, Regis

    2010-11-01

    The methacrylate terpolymers, a nonchromophoric and chromophoric one, containing 2-hydroxyethyl groups were reacted with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane to obtain reactive polymers able to form covalent bonding with -SiOH groups of the glass surface via triethoxysilane group condensation. Chemical modification of the Corning 2949 glass plates treated in this way resulted in increase of wetting angle from 11° to ca. 70-73°. Determination of ellipsometric parameters revealed low value of the substrate refractive index as compared with that of bulk Corning 2949 glass suggesting roughness of the surface. The AFM image of the bare glass surface and that modified with terpolymer monolayer confirmed this phenomenon. Modification of the glass with the terpolymer monolayer made it possible to create the substrate surface well suited for deposition of familiar chromophore film by spin-coating. The chromophore polymer film deposited onto the modified glass surface was found to be resistant to come unstuck in aqueous solution.

  6. Optical absorption intensities of trivalent erbium in a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) polymeric host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Yow, Raylon M.; Gruber, John B.

    2008-02-01

    The standard Judd-Ofelt model has been applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Er 3+(4f 11) transitions in a plastic host 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, referred to as HEMA, to determine the three phenomenological intensity parameters: Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6. Values are used to determine the spectroscopic quality factor for Er 3+ in HEMA and are compared to those for Er 3+ in crystalline hosts. The intensity parameters are subsequently used to determine the radiative decay rates and branching ratios of the Er 3+ transitions from the upper multiplet manifolds to the corresponding lower-lying multiplet manifolds 2 S+1 L J of Er 3+(4f 11) in HEMA. Using the radiative decay rates for Er 3+(4f 11) transitions between the corresponding excited states and the lower-lying states, the radiative lifetimes of eight excited states are determined.

  7. Novel synthesis of cellulose-based diblock copolymer of poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) by mechanochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Ohura, Takeshi; Tsutaki, Yusaku; Sakaguchi, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical fracture of polymer produces polymeric free radical chain-ends, by which liner block copolymers have been synthesized. A diblock copolymer of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA) was produced by the mechanochemical polymerization under vacuum and room temperature. The fraction of pHEMA in MCC-block-pHEMA produced by the mechanochemical polymerization increased up to 21 mol% with increasing fracture time (~6 h). Then, the tacticities of HEMA sequences in MCC-block-pHEMA varied according to the reaction time. In the process of mechanochemical polymerization, cellulose could play the role of a radical polymerization initiator capable of controlling stereoregularity. PMID:24741340

  8. Thermal behavior of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine) networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Figueroa, L. A.; Salgado Delgado, R.; García Hernandez, E.; Vargas Galarza, Z.; Rubio Rosas, E.; Salgado Rodriguez, R.

    2013-06-01

    Poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks were prepared by using acid-catalyzed sol-gel of bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine (BisSi) and free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The thermal properties of the poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermal behavior of these networks was also compared with homopolymers (The networks formed in both PHEMA and PBisSi gels were identified). The glass transition temperature (Tg) of PHEMA homopolymer was found as 103.74 °C. The thermal degradation of the poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks with different silica contents (e.g. 10, 15 and 25 wt%) were evaluated with use of DTG. It was observed that the thermal degradation temperature of poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks changed much with the BisSi content.

  9. Laser-assisted high-pressure-induced polymerization of 2-(hydroxyethyl)methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Evlyukhin, E; Museur, L; Traore, M; Nikitin, S M; Zerr, A; Kanaev, A

    2015-02-26

    We report on a successful room-temperature polymerization of 2-(hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (HEMA) under high pressure. The polymerization is observed in a limited range of pressures 0.1 to 1.6 GPa without the use of any initiator. When the compressed sample is irradiated at 488 or 355 nm by a laser, the polymerization reaction rate is increased by a factor of 10 or 30, respectively. Moreover, the shift of the laser wavelength to the UV improves the polymerization yield of the recovered sample to 84%. The catalysis of the polymerization process by light results from a one-photon-assisted electron transfer to π* antibonding states of the monomer molecule. The observed polymerization is irreversible and almost complete, which makes this synthesis process suitable for applications. PMID:25632927

  10. Phase Behavior of Star-shaped polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sangshin; Moon, Hongchul; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Jin Kon

    2012-02-01

    Star-shaped polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) was synthesized by utilizing α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) as a junction point of the star-shaped block copolymer. Eighteen hydroxyl groups on α-CD were substituted with bromine by the reaction with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide for atom transfer radical polymerization. We found that the number of bromine substituted arms per one α-CD was higher than 16 measured by nuclear magnetic resonance and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. We could control molecular weight of this unusual kind of block copolymer depending on polymerization times. Those polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Phase behavior of these star-shaped block copolymers were investigated.

  11. Phase behavior of multi-arm star-shaped polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sangshin; Moon, Hong Chul; Bae, Dusik; Kwak, Jonghen; Kim, Jin Kon

    2013-03-01

    We synthesized star-shaped polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer (PS- b-PMMA) by utilizing α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) as a core of the star-shaped block copolymer. Eighteen hydroxyl groups on α-CD were transformed to bromine by the reaction with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. We found that the number of bromine substituted arms per one α-CD was higher than 16, which was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. We could control molecular weight of block copolymers by changing polymerization times. The block copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Phase behaviors of these star-shaped block copolymers were investigated by small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Enhancing the sensitivity of poly(methyl methacrylate) based optical fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Webb, David J; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    In poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based optical fiber gratings (POFBGs), the temperature response is determined by thermal expansion and the thermo-optic effect of the fiber. Because thermal expansion introduces a positive change and the thermo-optic effect introduces a negative change in the Bragg wavelength of the POFBG, they cancel out each other to some extent, leading to reduced and varying temperature sensitivity. By pre-straining a POFBG, the contribution of thermal expansion can be removed, and, consequently, the temperature sensitivity of POFBG can be greatly enhanced. Theoretical analysis also indicates a reduced thermo-optic coefficient of POFBG due to restrained linear expansion that matches experimental results. PMID:26368708

  13. New poly(amino acid methacrylate) brush supports the formation of well-defined lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Blakeston, Anita C; Alswieleh, Abdullah M; Heath, George R; Roth, Johannes S; Bao, Peng; Cheng, Nan; Armes, Steven P; Leggett, Graham J; Bushby, Richard J; Evans, Stephen D

    2015-03-31

    A novel poly(amino acid methacrylate) brush comprising zwitterionic cysteine groups (PCysMA) was utilized as a support for lipid bilayers. The polymer brush provides a 12-nm-thick cushion between the underlying hard support and the aqueous phase. At neutral pH, the zeta potential of the PCysMA brush was ∼-10 mV. Cationic vesicles containing >25% DOTAP were found to form a homogeneous lipid bilayer, as determined by a combination of surface analytical techniques. The lipid mobility as measured by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) gave diffusion coefficients of ∼1.5 μm(2) s(-1), which are comparable to those observed for lipid bilayers on glass substrates. PMID:25746444

  14. Zinc oxide nanowire-poly(methyl methacrylate) dielectric layers for polymer capacitive pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Sheng; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Tseng, Pin-Yen; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Polymer capacitive pressure sensors based on a dielectric composite layer of zinc oxide nanowire and poly(methyl methacrylate) show pressure sensitivity in the range of 2.63 × 10(-3) to 9.95 × 10(-3) cm(2) gf(-1). This represents an increase of capacitance change by as much as a factor of 23 over pristine polymer devices. An ultralight load of only 10 mg (corresponding to an applied pressure of ∼0.01 gf cm(-2)) can be clearly recognized, demonstrating remarkable characteristics of these nanowire-polymer capacitive pressure sensors. In addition, optical transmittance of the dielectric composite layer is approximately 90% in the visible wavelength region. Their low processing temperature, transparency, and flexible dielectric film makes them a highly promising means for flexible touching and pressure-sensing applications. PMID:25494204

  15. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

  16. Non-viscoelastic Alloy by Reactive Blending of Nylon with Poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Daisuke; Kadowaki, Yuji; Ishibashi, Junya; Kobayashi, Sadayuki; Inoue, Takashi

    Polyamide (PA) was blended with a reactive polyolefin, poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate), using an extremely long (L/D=100, L: screw length, D: screw diameter) twin-screw extruder. The reactive blending yielded a unique morphology of the sub-μm polyolefin particles in which 20 nm PA micelles were occluded. It implies that the in situ-formed graft copolymer was pulled in the dispersed particles. The blend showed ultra-high toughness (non-break at Izod impact test) and non-viscoelastic tensile property: the higher deformation rate led to the lower modulus and the larger elongation at break. In the tensile stress-strain curve, the sharp yielding point characteristic to crystalline polymer was hardly seen and the necking stress was maintained almost constant without strain hardening. It suggests a potential application for the energy absorbing car parts, to be friendly for pedestrian and driver.

  17. Characterization of glycidyl methacrylate – Crosslinked hyaluronan hydrogel scaffolds incorporating elastogenic hyaluronan oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, S.; Kothapalli, C.R.; Kang, Q.K.; Ramamurthi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies on two-dimensional cell cultures suggest that hyaluronic acid (HA) stimulates cell-mediated regeneration of extracellular matrix structures, specifically those containing elastin, though such biologic effects are dependent on HA fragment size. Towards being able to regenerate three-dimensional (3-D) elastic tissue constructs, the present paper studies photo-crosslinked hydrogels containing glycidyl methacrylate (GM)-derivatized bio-inert high molecular weight(HMW)HA (1 × 106 Da) and a bioactive HA oligomer mixture (HA-o: MW ~0.75 kDa). The mechanical (rheology, degradation) and physical (apparent crosslinking density, swelling ratio) properties of the gels varied as a function of incorporated HA oligomer content; however, overall, the mechanics of these hydrogels were too weak for vascular applications as stand-alone materials. Upon in vivo subcutaneous implantation, only a few inflammatory cells were evident around GM–HA gels, however their number increased as HA-o content within the gels increased, and the collagen I distribution was uniform. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) were encapsulated into GM hydrogels, and calcein acetoxymethyl detection revealed that the cells were able to endure twofold the level of UV exposure used to crosslink the gels. After 21 days of culture, SMC elastin production, measured by immunofluorescence quantification, showed HA-o to increase cellular deposition of elastic matrix twofold relative to HA-o-free GM–HAgels. These results demonstrate that cell response to HA/HA-o is not altered by their methacrylation and photo-crosslinking into a hydrogel, and that HA-o incorporation into cell-encapsulating hydrogel scaffolds can be useful for enhancing their production of elastic matrix structures in a 3-D space, important for regenerating elastic tissues. PMID:20709199

  18. Visible light crosslinking of methacrylated hyaluronan hydrogels for injectable tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Spencer L; Oldinski, Rachael A

    2016-08-01

    Tissue engineering hydrogels are primarily cured in situ using ultraviolet (UV) radiation which limits the use of hydrogels as drug or cell carriers. Visible green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a safe alternative to UV photocrosslinked hydrogels, without compromising material properties such as viscosity and stiffness. The objective of this study was to fabricate and characterize photocrosslinked hydrogels with well-regulated gelation kinetics and mechanical properties for the repair or replacement of soft tissue. An anhydrous methacrylation of hyaluronan (HA) was performed to control the degree of modification (DOM) of HA, verified by (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. UV-activated crosslinking was compared to visible green light activated crosslinking. While the different photocrosslinking techniques resulted in varied crosslinking times, comparable mechanical properties of UV and green light activated crosslinked hydrogels were achieved using each photocrosslinking method by adjusting time of light exposure. Methacrylated HA (HA-MA) hydrogels of varying molecular weight, DOM, and concentration exhibited compressive moduli ranging from 1 kPa to 116 kPa, for UV crosslinking, and 3 kPa to 146 kPa, for green light crosslinking. HA-MA molecular weight and concentration were found to significantly influence moduli values. HA-MA hydrogels did not exhibit any significant cytotoxic effects toward human mesenchymal stem cells. Green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a viable method to form natural-based hydrogels in situ. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1229-1236, 2016. PMID:26097172

  19. Evaluation of three-dimensional biofilms on antibacterial bonding agents containing novel quaternary ammonium methacrylates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Antonucci, Joseph M; Schumacher, Gary E; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial adhesives are promising to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The objectives of this study were to synthesize and incorporate quaternary ammonium methacrylates into adhesives, and investigate the alkyl chain length effects on three-dimensional biofilms adherent on adhesives for the first time. Six quaternary ammonium methacrylates with chain lengths of 3, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 18 were synthesized and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. Streptococcus mutans bacteria were cultured on resin to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to measure biofilm thickness, live/dead volumes and live-bacteria percentage vs. distance from resin surface. Biofilm thickness was the greatest for Scotchbond control; it decreased with increasing chain length, reaching a minimum at chain length 16. Live-biofilm volume had a similar trend. Dead-biofilm volume increased with increasing chain length. The adhesive with chain length 9 had 37% live bacteria near resin surface, but close to 100% live bacteria in the biofilm top section. For chain length 16, there were nearly 0% live bacteria throughout the three-dimensional biofilm. In conclusion, strong antibacterial activity was achieved by adding quaternary ammonium into adhesive, with biofilm thickness and live-biofilm volume decreasing as chain length was increased from 3 to 16. Antibacterial adhesives typically only inhibited bacteria close to its surface; however, adhesive with chain length 16 had mostly dead bacteria in the entire three-dimensional biofilm. Antibacterial adhesive with chain length 16 is promising to inhibit biofilms at the margins and combat secondary caries. PMID:24722581

  20. Methyl-methacrylate bone cement surface does not promote platelet aggregation or plasma coagulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Blinc, Ales; Bozic, Mojca; Vengust, Rok; Stegnar, Mojca

    2004-01-01

    Leakage of viscous bone cement into venous blood possibly resulting in pulmonary embolism may occur during percutaneous vertebroplasty. Our aim was to study if bone cement surface or cement liquid component could induce platelet aggregation or plasma coagulation in vitro. Two types of commonly used methyl-methacrylate bone cement, Palacos (Heraeus Kulzer, Germany) and Vertebroplastic (DePuy, Acro Med, England), were smeared on thin glass slides that were inserted over the bottom of cuvettes immediately or after 24 h, and platelet aggregation was recorded over 10 min. Bone cement liquid component, containing methyl-methacrylate monomer and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, was tested in 2% and 4% final concentration. Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) was determined by the hook method in the presence of bone cement-smeared glass slides or 6% bone cement liquid. Both types of bone cement, either fresh or aged, did not promote platelet aggregation, whereas collagen-coated glass slides induced substantial platelet aggregation (65 +/- 37%). On the other hand, bone cement liquids reduced platelet aggregation induced by collagen solution to an average of less than 15% (p < 0.01). Bone cement, fresh or aged, had no effect on PTT, but bone cement liquids significantly prolonged PTT: median and 1st-3rd interquartile range 149 (96-171) s for Vertebroplastic and 132 (99-194) s for Palacos, p = 0.03 for both comparisons with normal pool plasma without additives that had PTT of 69 (62-71) s. We conclude that the surface of fresh or aged bone cement is not thrombogenic in vitro. The bone cement liquid inhibits platelet aggregation and plasma clotting in relatively high concentrations that cannot be expected in vivo. PMID:15342214

  1. A thermally responsive injectable hydrogel incorporating methacrylate-polylactide for hydrolytic lability

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zuwei; Nelson, Devin M.; Hong, Yi; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Injectable thermoresponsive hydrogels are of interest for a variety of biomedical applications, including regional tissue mechanical support as well as drug and cell delivery. Within this class of materials there is a need to provide options for gels with stronger mechanical properties as well as variable degradation profiles. To address this need, the hydrolytically labile monomer, methacrylate-polylactide (MAPLA), with an average 2.8 lactic acid units, was synthesized and copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to obtain bioabsorbable thermally responsive hydrogels. Poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA) with three monomer feed ratios (84/10/6, 82/10/8 and 80/10/10) was synthesized and characterized with NMR, FTIR and GPC. The copolymers were soluble in saline at reduced temperature (<10°C), forming clear solutions that increased in viscosity with the MAPLA feed ratio. The copolymers underwent sol-gel transition at lower critical solution temperatures of 12.4, 14.0 and 16.2°C respectively and solidified immediately upon being placed in a 37°C water bath. The warmed hydrogels gradually excluded water to reach final water contents of ~45%. The hydrogels as formed were mechanically strong, with tensile strengths as high as 100 kPa and shear moduli of 60 kPa. All three hydrogels were completely degraded (solubilized) in PBS over a 6–8 month period at 37°C, with a higher MAPLA feed ratio resulting in a faster degradation period. Culture of primary vascular smooth muscle cells with degradation solutions demonstrated a lack of cytotoxicity. The synthesized hydrogels provide new options for biomaterial injection therapy where increased mechanical strength and relatively slow resorption rates would be attractive. PMID:20575552

  2. Reinforcement of Dental Methacrylate with Glass Fiber after Heated Silane Application

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; de Paula, Marcella Silva; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; de Almeida, Letícia Nunes; Mendes, Gustavo Adolfo Martins; Carlo, Hugo Lemes

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of silane heat treatment and glass fiber fabrication type, industrially treated (I) or pure (P), on flexural and compressive strength of methacrylate resin bars (BISGMA/TEGDMA, 50/50%). Six groups (n = 10) were created: I-sil: I/silanated; P-sil: P-silanated; I-sil/heat: I/silanated heated to 100°; P-sil/heat: P/silanated heated to 100°; (I: I/not silanated; and P: P/not silanated. Specimens were prepared for flexural strength (10 × 2 × 1 mm) and for compressive strength 9.5 × 5.5 × 3 mm) and tested at 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analysis demonstrated the following for flexural strength (P < 0.05): I-sil: 155.89 ± 45.27BC; P-sil: 155.89 ± 45.27BC; I-sil/heat: 130.20 ± 22.11C; P-sil/heat: 169.86 ± 50.29AB; I: 131.87 ± 15.86C. For compressive strength, the following are demonstrated: I-sil: 1367.25 ± 188.77ab; P-sil: 867.61 ± 102.76d; I-sil/heat: 1162.98 ± 222.07c; P-sil/heat: 1499.35 ± 339.06a; and I: 1245.78 ± 211.16bc. Due to the impossibility of incorporating the stipulated amount of fiber, P group was excluded. Glass fiber treatment with heated silane enhanced flexural and compressive strength of a reinforced dental methacrylate. PMID:24967361

  3. Robust naphthyl methacrylate monolithic column for high performance liquid chromatography of a wide range of solutes.

    PubMed

    Jonnada, Murthy; El Rassi, Ziad

    2015-08-28

    An organic monolithic column based on the co-polymerization of 2-naphthyl methacrylate (NAPM) as the functional monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker was introduced for high performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPC). The co-polymerization was performed in situ in a stainless steel column of 4.6mm i.d. in the presence of a ternary porogen consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. This monolithic column (referred to as naphthyl methacrylate monolithic column or NMM column) showed high mechanical stability at relatively high mobile phase flow velocity indicating that the column has excellent hydrodynamic characteristics. To characterize the NMM column, different probe molecules including alkyl benzenes, and aniline, benzene, toluene and phenol derivatives were chromatographed on the column and the results in terms of k, selectivity and plate counts were compared to those obtained on an octadecyl silica (ODS) column in order to assess the presence of π-π and hydrophobic interactions on the NMM column under otherwise the same elution conditions. The NMM column offered additional π-π interactions with aromatic molecules in addition to hydrophobic interactions under RPC elution conditions. Run-to-run and column-to-column reproducibility of solute k values were evaluated, and percent relative standard deviation of <1% and ∼2-3.5%, respectively, were obtained. Six standard proteins were readily separated on the NMM column using shallow (30min at 1.0mL/min), steep (10min at 1.0mL/min) and ultra steep (1min at 3.0mL/min) linear gradient elution at increasing ACN concentration in the mobile phase using a 10cm×4.6mm i.d. column in case of shallow and steep linear gradients and a 3cm×4.6mm i.d. column for ultra steep linear gradient. PMID:26228852

  4. Smart poly(oligo(propylene glycol) methacrylate) hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suljovrujic, E.; Micic, M.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of poly(oligo(propylene glycol) methacrylate) (POPGMA) from functionalised oligo(propylene glycol) methacrylate (OPGMA) monomers by gamma radiation-induced radical polymerisation is reported for the first time; POPGMA homopolymeric hydrogel with oligo(propylene glycol) (OPG) pendant chains, as a non-linear PPGMA-analogue, was synthesised from an monomer-solvent (OPGMA375-water/ethanol) mixture at different irradiation doses (5, 10, 25, and 40 kGy). Determination of the gel fraction was conducted after synthesis. The swelling properties of the POPGMA hydrogel were preliminarily investigated over wide pH (2.2-9.0) and temperature (4-70 °C) ranges. Additional characterisation of structure and properties was conducted by UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In order to evaluate the potential for biomedical applications, biocompatibility (cytocompatibility and haemolytic activity) studies were performed as well. Sol-gel conversion was relatively high for all irradiation doses, indicating radiation-induced synthesis as a good method for fabricating this hydrogel. Thermoresponsiveness and variations in swelling capacity as a result of thermosensitive OPG pendant chains with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were mainly observed below room temperature; thus, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of POPGMA homopolymeric hydrogel is about 15 °C. Furthermore, POPGMA has satisfactory biocompatibility. The results indicate that the hydrogels with propylene glycol pendant chains can be easily prepared by gamma radiation and have potential for different applications as smart and biocompatible polymers.

  5. The Competing Effects of Hyaluronic and Methacrylic Acid in Model Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Andrea; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon; Sheardown, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) on lysozyme sorption in model contact lenses containing varying amounts of methacrylic acid (MAA). One model conventional hydrogel (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)) and two model silicone hydrogels (pHEMA, methacryloxypropyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane (pHEMA TRIS) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide, TRIS (DMAA TRIS)) lens materials were prepared with and without MAA at two different concentrations (1.7 and 5%). HA, along with dendrimers, was loaded into these model contact lens materials and then cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC). Equilibrium water content (EWC), advancing water contact angle and lysozyme sorption on these lens materials were investigated. In the HA-containing materials, the presence (P < 0.05) and amount (P < 0.05) of MAA increased the EWC of the materials. For most materials, addition of MAA reduced the advancing contact angles (P < 0.05) and for all the materials, the addition of HA further improved hydrophilicity (P < 0.05). For the non-HA containing hydrogels, the presence (P < 0.05) and amount (P < 0.05) of MAA increased lysozyme sorption. The presence of HA decreased lysozyme sorption for all materials (P < 0.05). MAA appears to work synergistically with HA to increase the EWC in addition to improving the hydrophilicity of model pHEMA-based and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. Hydrogel materials that contain HA have tremendous potential as hydrophilic, protein-resistant contact lens materials. PMID:21477462

  6. Characterization of glycidyl methacrylate - crosslinked hyaluronan hydrogel scaffolds incorporating elastogenic hyaluronan oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S; Kothapalli, C R; Kang, Q K; Ramamurthi, A

    2011-02-01

    Prior studies on two-dimensional cell cultures suggest that hyaluronic acid (HA) stimulates cell-mediated regeneration of extracellular matrix structures, specifically those containing elastin, though such biologic effects are dependent on HA fragment size. Towards being able to regenerate three-dimensional (3-D) elastic tissue constructs, the present paper studies photo-crosslinked hydrogels containing glycidyl methacrylate (GM)-derivatized bio-inert high molecular weight (HMW) HA (1 × 10(6)Da) and a bioactive HA oligomer mixture (HA-o: MW ∼0.75 kDa). The mechanical (rheology, degradation) and physical (apparent crosslinking density, swelling ratio) properties of the gels varied as a function of incorporated HA oligomer content; however, overall, the mechanics of these hydrogels were too weak for vascular applications as stand-alone materials. Upon in vivo subcutaneous implantation, only a few inflammatory cells were evident around GM-HA gels, however their number increased as HA-o content within the gels increased, and the collagen I distribution was uniform. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) were encapsulated into GM hydrogels, and calcein acetoxymethyl detection revealed that the cells were able to endure twofold the level of UV exposure used to crosslink the gels. After 21 days of culture, SMC elastin production, measured by immunofluorescence quantification, showed HA-o to increase cellular deposition of elastic matrix twofold relative to HA-o-free GM-HA gels. These results demonstrate that cell response to HA/HA-o is not altered by their methacrylation and photo-crosslinking into a hydrogel, and that HA-o incorporation into cell-encapsulating hydrogel scaffolds can be useful for enhancing their production of elastic matrix structures in a 3-D space, important for regenerating elastic tissues. PMID:20709199

  7. Biomimetically-mineralized composite coatings on titanium functionalized with gelatin methacrylate hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guoxin; Zhou, Lei; Ning, Chengyun; Tan, Ying; Ni, Guoxin; Liao, Jingwen; Yu, Peng; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2013-08-01

    Immobilizing organic-inorganic hybrid composites onto the implant surface is a promising strategy to improve host acceptance of the implant. The objective of this present study was to obtain a unique macroporous titanium-surface with the organic-mineral composite coatings consisting of gelatin methacrylate hydrogel (GelMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA). A 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) layer was first coated onto the titanium surface, and surface was then covalently functionalized with GelMA using a photochemical method. Mineralization of the GelMA coating on the titanium surface was subsequently carried out by a biomimetic method. After 3-day mineralization, a large number of mineral phases comprising spherical amorphous nanoparticles were found randomly deposited inside GelMA matrix. The resulting mineralized hydrogel composites exhibited a unique rough surface of macroporous structure. The structure of the prepared GelMA/HA composite coating was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), attenuated total refraction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Water contact angle measurement revealed the hydrophilicity properties of composite coatings. GelMA/HA on titanium after the TMSPMA treatment is very stable when tested in vitro with a PBS solution at 37 °C, due to the role of TMSPMA as a molecular bridge. It was expected that the macroporous GelMA/HA composite coatings might potentially promote and accelerate titanium (Ti)-based implants osseointegration for bone repair and regeneration.

  8. The influence of chemical structure on the properties in methacrylate-based dentin adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jonggu; Eslick, John; Ye, Qiang; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the chemical structure of methacrylate monomers used in dentin adhesives on degree of conversion (DC), water sorption, and dynamic mechanical properties. Materials and methods Experimental adhesives containing 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]-propane (BisGMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and co-monomer, 30/45/25 w/w were photo-polymerized. Ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDM), diethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (DEGDM), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), 1,3-glycerol dimethacrylate (GDM), and glycerol trimethacrylate (GTM) were used as a co-monomer. The adhesives were characterized with regard to DC, water sorption, and dynamic mechanical analysis and compared to control adhesive [HEMA/BisGMA, 45/55 w/w]. Results DC and water sorption increased with an increase in the number of ethylene glycol units in the monomer. Experimental adhesive containing GDM showed significantly higher storage moduli (p < 0.05) in both dry and wet samples than experimental adhesives containing EGDM or DEGDM. The rubbery moduli of adhesives containing GDM and GTM were found to be significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that of the control. Adhesives containing GTM exhibited the widest tanδ curves, indicating the greatest structural heterogeneity. Significance The hydrophilicity, functionality and size of monomers in dentin adhesives affected the water sorption, solubility, crosslink density and heterogeneity of the polymer network. The experimental adhesives containing GDM and GTM showed higher rubbery moduli, indicating higher crosslink density accompanied by a decrease in the homogeneity of the polymer network structure. PMID:21816460

  9. [Analysis of the character of film decomposition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) coated urea by infrared spectrum].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-po; Wu, Zhi-jie; Liang, Cheng-hua; Chen, Li-jun; Zhang, Yu-lan; Nie, Yan-xi

    2012-03-01

    The degradability characteristics of film with 4 kinds of methyl methacrylate coated urea amended with inhibitors were analyzed by FITR, which was purposed to supply theoretical basis for applying the FITR analysis method to film decomposition and methyl methacrylate coated urea fertilizers on farming. The result showed that the chemical component, molecule structure and material form of the membrane were not changed because of adding different inhibitors to urea. the main peaks of expressing film degradation process were brought by the -C-H of CH3 & CH2, -OH, C-O, C-C, C-O-C, C=O, C=C flexing vibrancy in asymmetry and symmetry in 3 479-3 195, 2 993--2 873, 1 741-1 564, 1 461-925 and 850-650 cm(-1). The peak value changed from smooth to tip, and from width to narrow caused by chemical structural transform of film The infrared spectrum of 4 kinds of fertilizers was not different remarkably before 60 days, and the film was slowly degraded. But degradation of the film was expedited after 60 days, it was most quickened at 120 day, and the decomposition rate of film was decreased at 310 day. The substantiality change of film in main molecule structure of 4 kinds of fertilizers didn't happen in 310 days. The main component of film materials was degraded most slowly in brown soil. The speed of film degradation wasn't heavily impacted by different inhibitors. The characteristic of film degradation may be monitored entirely by infrared spectrum. The degradation dynamic, chemical structure change, degradation speed difference of the film could be represented through infrared spectrum. PMID:22582622

  10. Efficient gene carriers composed of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate), and poly((2-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate) by combination of ATRP and click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Zheng, Xuefeng; Yu, Bingran; Yang, Wantai; Zhao, Nana; Xu, Fujian

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a simple one-step method is first employed to produce the bromoisobutyryl-terminated 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD-Br). The pendant epoxy groups of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) block prepared via ATRP from HPCD-Br can be reacted with ethanolamine to produce HPCD-PGEA which exhibits much lower cytotoxicity and better gene transfection yield than polyethylenimine (25 kDa) in COS7 and HepG2 cell lines. Moreover, poly((2-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate) blocks can be incorporated into low-molecular-weight HPCD-PGEA via "click" reaction to further enhance the gene transfection efficiency in HepG2 cell lines. PMID:24789347

  11. Fabrication of flexible, transparent and conductive films from single-walled carbon nanotubes with high aspect ratio using poly((furfuryl methacrylate)-co-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)) as a new polymeric dispersant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Byunghee; Kim, Sumin; Han, Jong Hun; Jeon, Heung Bae; Lee, Young Sil; Paik, Hyun-Jong

    2015-04-01

    We synthesized poly((furfuryl methacrylate)-co-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)) (p(FMA-co-DMAEMA)) for the dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) while maintaining their high aspect ratios. The nanotubes' length and height were 2.0 μm and 2 nm, as determined by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Transparent conductive films (TCFs) were fabricated by individually dispersed long SWCNTs onto a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sheet resistance (Rs) was 210 Ω □-1 with 81% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm. To reduce their Rs, the TCFs were treated with HNO3 and SOCl2. After treatment, the TCFs had an Rs of 85.75 Ω □-1 at a transmittance of 85%. The TCFs exhibited no appreciable change over 200 repeated bending cycles. Dispersing SWCNTs with this newly synthesized polymer is an effective way to fabricate a transparent, highly conductive and flexible film.

  12. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester)-co-Methyl Methacrylate Networks under Simulated Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Safranski, David L.; Crabtree, Jacob C.; Huq, Yameen R.; Gall, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Poly(β-amino ester) networks are being explored for biomedical applications, but they may lack the mechanical properties necessary for long term implantation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding methyl methacrylate on networks' mechanical properties under simulated physiological conditions. The networks were synthesized in two parts: (1) a biodegradable crosslinker was formed from a diacrylate and amine, (2) and then varying concentrations of methyl methacrylate were added prior to photopolymerizing the network. Degradation rate, mechanical properties, and glass transition temperature were studied as a function of methyl methacrylate composition. The crosslinking density played a limited role on mechanical properties for these networks, but increasing methyl methacrylate concentration improved the toughness by several orders of magnitude. Under simulated physiological conditions, networks showed increasing toughness or sustained toughness as degradation occurred. This work establishes a method of creating degradable networks with tailorable toughness while undergoing partial degradation. PMID:21966028

  13. Near-infrared light-triggered irreversible aggregation of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-stabilised polypyrrole nanoparticles under biologically relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Au, Kin Man; Chen, Mei; Armes, Steven P; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2013-11-18

    We report the use of near-infrared (NIR) radiation to trigger the irreversible flocculation of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-stabilised polypyrrole nanoparticles in physiological buffer. PMID:24089078

  14. Nanomechanical properties of solvent cast polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer blends and self-assembled block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzoni, Matteo; Evangelio, Laura; Nicolet, Célia; Navarro, Christophe; San Paulo, Alvaro; Rius, Gemma; Pérez-Murano, Francesc

    2015-07-01

    The nanomechanical properties of solvent-cast polymer thin films have been investigated using PeakForce™ Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping. The samples consisted of films of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) obtained after the dewetting of toluene solution on a polymeric brush layer. Additionally, we have probed the mechanical properties of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) block copolymers (BCP) as randomly oriented thin films. The probed films have a critical thickness <50 nm and present features to be resolved <42 nm. The Young's modulus values obtained through several nanoindentation experiments present a good agreement with previous literature, suggesting that the PeakForce™ technique could be crucial for BCP investigations, e.g., as a predictor of the mechanical stability of the different phases.

  15. Methacrylated monosaccharides as the modifiers for carbochain polymers: Synthesis, mechanical/thermal properties and biodegradability of hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, P.; Bershtein, V.; Bukowska-Śluz, I.; Sobiesiak, M.; Gawdzik, B.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylated derivatives of glucose (MGLU) and galactose (MGAL) were synthesized by the procedure described by Vogel, and their copolymers with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and MMA/N-vinyl pyrrolidone (MMA/NVP) (1:1) mixture were obtained with the aim to modify some properties of carbochain polymers, in particular to generate their biodegradability. These hybrids of synthetic and natural products, with 10, 20 or 30 wt. % modifiers, were characterized by DMA and TGA methods and in the biodegradation tests. Increasing Tg values by 20-30°C was registered in all cases whereas thermal stability was improved only for PMMA due to modification. On the contrary, only for hybrids based on hygroscopic MMA/NVP copolymer the essential biodegradability could be generated.

  16. Modified distraction-stabilization technique using an interbody polymethyl methacrylate plug in dogs with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B C; Tomlinson, J L; Kraus, K H

    1996-01-01

    A modified technique for distraction-stabilization that used an interbody polymethyl methacrylate plug was performed in 22 dogs with confirmed caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. Myelographically, all compressive lesions were dynamic and predominantly located ventral to the spinal cord. Nineteen of 21 (90%) dogs for which success/failure could be determined had a successful outcome, and 11 of 22 (50%) dogs attained normal neurologic status. The 2 cases that were considered failures involved dogs that were nonambulatory tetraparetic prior to surgery and failed to improve to a functional status. Complications were self-limiting and included ventral displacement of the cement without loss of distraction in 1 dog and diskosponsylitis at an adjacent disk space in another dog. Evidence of fusion of the affected vertebrae, in the distracted position, was radiographically evident in all dogs. Use of the interbody polymethyl methacrylate plug appears to be a viable surgical treatment of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in dogs. PMID:8682707

  17. Influence of spoliation in poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) soft contact lens on its free volume and optical transparency.

    PubMed

    Deepa Urs, M V; Ranganathaiah, C

    2008-03-01

    The calcification in poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) contact lens was investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PLS). The two poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) lenses of different companies were calcified employing a simple mechanism of calcification in abiotic aqueous solutions. The calcium deposit was analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Calcified lenses showed decrease in ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and free volume hole size of the lens material suggesting diffusion of Ca2+ into these cavities. The change in optical property viz. refractive index of these calcified lenses were measured and correlated with positron results. To find a better correlation, a series of worn spoilt PHEMA lenses of the same power with mainly calcium deposits, were similarly characterized using PLS and refractive index. These results correlate well with the free volume of the material. For hydrophilic lenses this correlation is reported for the first time. PMID:17914610

  18. Influence of cyclodextrin on the solubility and the polymerization of (meth)acrylated Triton(®) X-100.

    PubMed

    Kemnitz, Melanie; Ritter, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Triton(®) X-100 (poly(ethylene glycol) tert-octylphenyl ether) was (meth)acrylated and polymerized in the absence and presence of randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD). Triton(®)-polymers that were polymerized with RAMEB-CD in water were compared with polymers that were synthesized in organic solvents after the addition of RAMEB-CD. The polymers were characterized by (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and turbidity measurements. Additionally, the viscosity change of the methacrylic homopolymer with RAMEB-CD was evaluated. PMID:23378858

  19. Synthesis and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid)/PbS hybrid composite

    SciTech Connect

    Preda, N.; Rusen, E.; Musuc, A.; Enculescu, M.; Matei, E.; Marculescu, B.; Fruth, V.; Enculescu, I.

    2010-08-15

    The synthesis of a new hybrid composite based on PbS nanoparticles and poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) [P(MMA-AMPSA)] copolymer is reported. The chemical synthesis consists in two steps: (i) a surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization between methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (ii) the generation of PbS particles in the presence of the P(MMA-AMPSA) latex, from the reaction between lead nitrate and thiourea. The composite was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructure observed using SEM proves that the PbS nanoparticles are well dispersed in the copolymer matrix. The X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that the PbS nanoparticles have a cubic rock salt structure. It was also found that the inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles improve the thermal stability of the copolymer matrix.

  20. Morphological study and thermal analysis of surface modified {alpha}-FeOOH via in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yaoxing; Ma Xinsheng; Cao Hongming; Zhang Haiying; Wu Qiufang

    2004-06-08

    Considering the interfacial characteristics of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH, iron oxide yellow), the in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate was employed to modify the surfaces of {alpha}-FeOOH pigments in aqueous slurry. The scanning electron micrographs indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) anchored on the surfaces of the particle homogeneously. From this study, it was found that one of the key requirements in the synthesis of the {alpha}-FeOOH-PMMA composite was to enhance interfacial compatibility between inorganic particles and organic monomer. Moreover, polymer-treated {alpha}-FeOOH particles were easily dispersed in organic medium to form a stable colloid and the heat resistance of {alpha}-FeOOH particles was improved.

  1. Preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted titanate nanotubes by in situ atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Gao, Xueping; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2008-12-10

    This paper reports the successful preparation of core-shell hybrid nanocomposites by a 'grafting from' approach based on in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from titanate nanotubes (TNTs). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the products provide direct evidence for the formation of a core-shell structure, possessing a hard core of TNTs and a soft shell of poly-MMA (PMMA). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to determine the chemical structure, morphology, and the grafted PMMA quantities of the resulting products. The grafted PMMA content was well controlled and increased with increasing monomer/initiator ratio. Further copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with PMMA-coated TNTs as initiators was realized, illustrating the 'living' characteristics of the ATRP method used in this paper. PMID:21730679

  2. Degradable poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-polycaprolactone Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Atzet, Sarah; Curtin, Scott; Trinh, Phalen; Bryant, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels for engineered tissue constructs were developed using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a degradable crosslinker and a macroinitiator. Hydrogels are appropriate materials for tissue engineering scaffolds due to their tissue-like mechanical compliance and mass transfer properties. However, many hydrogels that have seen wide application in medicine are not biodegradable or cannot be easily cleared from the body. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) was selected for the scaffold material due to its reasonable mechanical strength, elasticity, long history of successful use in medicine and because it can be easily fabricated into numerous configurations. pHEMA was studied at various molecular weights between 2 kDa and 50 kDa. The molecular weight range suitable for renal clearance was an important factor in the experimental design. The fabricated hydrogels contain oligomeric blocks of polycaprolactone (PCL), a hydrolytically and enzymatically degradable polymer, as a crosslinking agent. In addition a degradable macroinitiator also containing oligomeric PCL was used to initiate the ATRP. The chain length, crosslink density, and polymerization solvent were found to greatly affect the mechanical properties of the pHEMA hydrogels. Degradation of the pHEMA hydrogels was characterized using 0.007 M NaOH, lipase solutions and phosphate buffered saline. Mass loss, swelling ratio and tensile modulus were evaluated. Degradation products from the sodium hydroxide were measured using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to verify the polymer lengths and polydispersity. Erosion was only observed in the sodium hydroxide and lipase solutions. However, swelling ratio and tensile modulus indicate bulk degradation in all PCL containing samples. Degradable hydrogels in enzymatic solutions showed 30% mass loss in 16 weeks. Initial cell toxicity studies indicate no adverse cellular response to the hydrogels or their

  3. Synthesis of comb-like copolymers from renewable resources: Itaconic anhydride, stearyl methacrylate and lactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Shurui

    The synthesis and properties of comb-like copolymers and ionomers derived from renewable resources: itaconic anhydride (ITA), stearyl methacrylate (SM) and lactic acid (LA) are described. The copolymers based on ITA and SM (ITA-SM) were nearly random with a slight alternating tendency. The copolymers exhibited a nanophase-separated morphology, with the stearate side-chains forming a bilayer, semi-crystalline structure. The crystalline side-chains suppressed molecular motion of the main-chain, so that a glass transition temperature (Tg) was not resolved unless the ITA concentration was sufficiently high so that Tg > the melting point (Tm). The softening point and modulus of the copolymers increased with the increasing ITA concentration, but the thermal stability decreased. The ITA moiety along the main chain of the copolymers was neutralized with metal acetates to produce Na-, Ca- and Zn- random ionomers with comb-like architectures. In general, the incorporation of the ionic groups increased the Tg and suppressed the crystallinity of the side-chain packing. Ionomers with high SM side-chain density had two competing driving forces for self-assembled nano-phase separation: ionic aggregation and side-chain crystalline packing. Upon neutralization, a morphological transition from semi-crystalline lamella to spherical ionic aggregation was observed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermomechanical analysis revealed an increasing resistance to penetration deformation with an increasing degree of neutralization and an apparent rubbery plateau was observed above Tg. A controlled transesterification of PLA in glassware was an effective way to prepare a methacrylate functionalized PLA macromonomer with controlled molecular weight, which was used to synthesize a variety of copolymers. The copolymerization of this functionalized PLA macromonomer with ITA totally suppressed the side-chain crystallinity for the PLA chain

  4. Novel Pickering emulsifiers based on pH-responsive poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) latexes.

    PubMed

    Morse, A J; Armes, S P; Thompson, K L; Dupin, D; Fielding, L A; Mills, P; Swart, R

    2013-05-01

    The emulsion copolymerization of 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEA) with a divinylbenzene cross-linker in the presence of monomethoxy-capped poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) at 70 °C afforded near-monodisperse, sterically stabilized PEGMA-PDEA latexes at 10% solids. Dynamic light scattering studies indicated intensity-average diameters of 190 to 240 nm for these latexes at pH 9. A latex-to-microgel transition occurred on lowering the solution pH to below the latex pKa of 6.9. When dilute HCl/KOH was used to adjust the aqueous pH, a systematic reduction in the cationic microgel hydrodynamic diameter of 80 nm was observed over ten pH cycles as a result of the gradual buildup of background salt. However, no such size reduction was observed when using CO2/N2 gases to regulate the aqueous pH because this protocol does not generate background salt. Thus, the latter approach offers better reversibility, albeit at the cost of slower response times. PEGMA-PDEA microgel does not stabilize Pickering emulsions when homogenized at pH 3 with n-dodecane, sunflower oil, isononyl isononanoate, or isopropyl myristate. In contrast, PEGMA-PDEA latex proved to be a ubiquitous Pickering emulsifier at pH 10, forming stable oil-in-water emulsions with each of these four model oils. Lowering the solution pH from 10 to 3 resulted in demulsification within seconds. This is because these pH-responsive particles undergo a latex-to-microgel transition, which leads to their interfacial desorption. Six successive demulsification/emulsification cycles were performed on these Pickering emulsions using HCl/KOH to adjust the solution pH. Demulsification could also be achieved by purging the emulsion solution with CO2 gas to lower the aqueous pH to 4.8. However, complete phase separation required CO2 purging for 4 h at 20 °C. A subsequent N2 purge raised the aqueous pH sufficiently to induce a microgel-to-latex transition, but rehomogenization did not produce a stable Pickering

  5. Degree of conversion and leached monomers of urethane dimethacrylate-hydroxypropyl methacrylate-based dental resin systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Puska, Mervi A; Botelho, Michael G; Säilynoja, Eija S; Matinlinna, Jukka P

    2016-01-01

    The degree of conversion (DC) and monomer leaching of three experimental urethane dimethacrylate (UEDMA)-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA)-based resin systems were studied. Three experimental resins (E1: 70.6 wt% UEDMA + 27.4 wt% HPMA, E2: 80.6 wt% UEDMA + 17.4 wt% HPMA, E3: 90.6 wt% UEDMA + 7.4 wt% HPMA) and one control resin [C: 70.6 wt% bis-phenol A glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) + 27.4 wt% methyl methacrylate (MMA)] were prepared. For the DC test, cylindrical specimens [1.5 mm (h) × 6 mm (d)] were scanned with an ATR-FTIR instrument before and after light-curing (n = 5). For the monomer leaching test, block-shaped specimens [5.67 mm (l) × 2.00 mm (w) × 2.00 mm (h)] were light-cured (n = 6), stored in a 75% ethanol:water solution for 3 days, and then analyzed with HPLC. The UEDMA-HPMA-based experimental groups showed higher DC (62-78%) than the bis-GMA-MMA-based control group (58-66%), and the DC decreased as the UEDMA content increased (P < 0.05). Amongst the four groups, E3 exhibited the lowest leaching of both mono methacrylate (0.1% HPMA) and dimethacrylate (<0.043% UEDMA) monomers after 30 or 40 s of curing. The UEDMA-HPMA-based resins, therefore, exhibited higher DC and less monomer leaching compared to the bis-GMA-MMA-based resin. (J Oral Sci 58, 15-22, 2016). PMID:27021535

  6. A highly effective gene delivery vector--hyperbranched poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) from in situ deactivation enhanced ATRP.

    PubMed

    Newland, Ben; Tai, Hongyun; Zheng, Yu; Velasco, Diego; Di Luca, Andrea; Howdle, Steven M; Alexander, Cameron; Wang, Wenxin; Pandit, Abhay

    2010-07-14

    A hyperbranched 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) based polymer has been synthesised by a one-pot in situ deactivation enhanced atom transfer radical polymerisation (DE-ATRP); it exhibits much higher transfection ability than linear poly(DMAEMA) and is comparable to the well known branched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and the SuperFect dendrimer but with lower cytotoxicity. PMID:20514386

  7. Improvement of pesticide adsorption capacity of cellulose fibre by high-energy irradiation-initiated grafting of glycidyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László; Koczog Horváth, Éva; Fekete, Tamás; Borsa, Judit

    2012-09-01

    Cellulose as a renewable raw material was used for preparation of adsorbent of organic impurities in wastewater treatment. Hydrophobic surface of cellulose substrate was developed by grafting glycidyl methacrylate in simultaneous grafting using gamma irradiation initiation. Water uptake of cellulose significantly decreased while adsorption of phenol and a pesticide molecule (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: 2,4-D) increased upon grafting. Adsorption equilibrium data fitted the Freundlich isotherm for both solutes.

  8. Evaluation of Microleakage of Silorane and Methacrylate Based Composite Materials in Class I Restorations by Using Two Different Bonding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alshetili, Mohsen S; Aldeyab, Sultan S

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the microleakage of silorane-based composite material (Filtek P90) with that of two homologous methacrylate-based composites materials (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z250 XT), by using two different bonding techniques. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human maxillary first premolars prepared for standardized Class I cavities (4 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm) were randomly divided into three groups. Group A (n = 20) was filled with Filtek Z250 (Methacrylate) using single bond universal total etching technique, Group B (n = 20) was filled with Filtek Z250 XT (Methacrylate) using single bond universal self-etching technique and Group C (n = 20) restored with Filtek P90 (Silorane) with dedicated two-step self-etching prime and bond adhesive system (P90 system adhesive). Teeth were subjected to thermocycling regime (500×, 5-55°C), and dye penetration by immersing in 2% methylene blue for 24 h. Tooth sectioning was performed, and extent of the dye penetration was scored based on dye penetration scale to evaluate the microleakage. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and inferential statistics of Kruskal–Wallis test to compare the mean ranks between groups. Results: There was no significant difference observed for microleakage among the three composite materials tested in the present study. However, the cavities restored with silorane (Filtek P90) based composite displayed higher microleakage than the Filtek Z250, Z250 XT. Conclusion: All the restorative systems tested in this study exhibited microleakage, but the silorane technology showed more microleakage when compared to the methacrylate-based composite systems. PMID:26668473

  9. Bioinspired Hydroxyapatite/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composite with a Nacre-Mimetic Architecture by a Bidirectional Freezing Method.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hao; Walsh, Flynn; Gludovatz, Bernd; Delattre, Benjamin; Huang, Caili; Chen, Yuan; Tomsia, Antoni P; Ritchie, Robert O

    2016-01-01

    Using a bidirectional freezing technique, combined with uniaxial pressing and in situ polymerization, "nacre-mimetic" hydroxyapatite/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites are developed by processing large-scale aligned lamellar ceramic scaffolds. Structural and mechanical characterization shows "brick-and-mortar" structures, akin to nacre, with interesting combinations of strength, stiffness, and work of fracture, which provide a pathway to making strong and tough lightweight materials. PMID:26554760

  10. Relationships Between Base-Catalyzed Hydrolysis Rates or Glutathione Reactivity for Acrylates and Methacrylates and Their NMR Spectra or Heat of Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The NMR chemical shift, i.e., the π-electron density of the double bond, of acrylates and methacrylates is related to the reactivity of their monomers. We investigated quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) between the base-catalyzed hydrolysis rate constants (k1) or the rate constant with glutathione (GSH) (log kGSH) for acrylates and methacrylates and the 13C NMR chemical shifts of their α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups (δCα and δCβ) or heat of formation (Hf) calculated by the semi-empirical MO method. Reported data for the independent variables were employed. A significant linear relationship between k1 and δCβ, but not δCα, was obtained for methacrylates (r2 = 0.93), but not for acrylates. Also, a significant relationship between k1 and Hf was obtained for both acrylates and methacrylates (r2 = 0.89). By contrast, log kGSH for acrylates and methacrylates was linearly related to their δCβ (r2 = 0.99), but not to Hf. These findings indicate that the 13C NMR chemical shifts and calculated Hf values for acrylates and methacrylates could be valuable for estimating the hydrolysis rate constants and GSH reactivity of these compounds. Also, these data for monomers may be an important tool for examining mechanisms of reactivity. PMID:22754331

  11. Effect of methacrylic acid beads on the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and macrophage polarization in a subcutaneous injection mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lisovsky, Alexandra; Zhang, David K Y; Sefton, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    Poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (MAA) beads promote a vascular regenerative response when used in diabetic wound healing. Previous studies reported that MAA beads modulated the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) and inflammation related genes in diabetic wounds. The aim of this work was to follow up on these observations in a subcutaneous injection model to study the host response in the absence of the confounding factors of diabetic wound healing. In this model, MAA beads improved vascularization in healthy mice of both sexes compared to control poly(methyl methacrylate) (MM) beads, with a stronger effect seen in males than females. MAA-induced vessels were perfusable, as evidenced from the CLARITY-processed images. In Shh-Cre-eGFP/Ptch1-LacZ non-diabetic transgenic mice, the increased vessel formation was accompanied by a higher density of cells expressing GFP (Shh) and β-Gal (patched 1, Ptch1) suggesting MAA enhanced the activation of the Shh pathway. Ptch1 is the Shh receptor and a target of the pathway. MAA beads also modulated the inflammatory cell infiltrate in CD1 mice: more neutrophils and more macrophages were noted with MAA relative to MM beads at days 1 and 7, respectively. In addition, MAA beads biased macrophages towards a MHCII-CD206+ ("M2") polarization state. This study suggests that the Shh pathway and an altered inflammatory response are two elements of the complex mechanism whereby MAA-based biomaterials effect vascular regeneration. PMID:27264502

  12. Deciphering Physical versus Chemical Contributions to the Ionic Conductivity of Functionalized Poly(methacrylate)-Based Ionogel Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Anthony J; Grimes, Jerren J; Panzer, Matthew J

    2015-11-25

    Polymer-supported ionic liquids (ionogels) are emergent, nonvolatile electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage applications. Here, chemical and physical interactions between the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMI TFSI) and three different cross-linked polymer scaffolds with varying chemical functional groups have been investigated in ionogels fabricated via in situ UV-initiated radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFEMA), or 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and a small amount of the cross-linker pentaerythritol tetraacrylate. Experimental findings demonstrate that the chemical functionality of the polymer side groups can significantly affect the degree of ion dissociation within the ionic liquid component of the ionogel and that the fraction of dissociated ions is the dominant factor in determining relative ionic conductivity in these materials, rather than any large differences in ion diffusivity. The MMA-based polymer scaffold exhibits a stronger attractive interaction with EMI TFSI (as evidenced by a higher activation energy of ionic conductivity) compared to the TFEMA- and DMAEMA-based scaffolds, resulting in consistently lower ionic conductivity values for MMA-based ionogels. These results may offer guidance toward the rational selection of future polymer-ionic liquid pairings in order to maximize the fraction of dissociated ions, thereby yielding highly conductive ionogel electrolytes. PMID:26528868

  13. A comparative study of the decomposition of pig carcasses in a methyl methacrylate box and open air conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangliang; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of the process of decomposition is essential in establishing the postmortem interval. However, despite the fact that insects are important players in body decomposition, their exact function within the decay process is still unclear. There is also limited knowledge as to how the decomposition process occurs in the absence of insects. In the present study, we compared the decomposition of a pig carcass in open air with that of one placed in a methyl methacrylate box to prevent insect contact. The pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box was in the fresh stage for 1 day, the bloated stage from 2 d to 11 d, and underwent deflated decay from 12 d. In contrast, the pig carcass in open air went through the fresh, bloated, active decay and post-decay stages; and 22.3 h (0.93 d), 62.47 h (2.60 d), 123.63 h (5.15 d) and 246.5 h (10.27 d) following the start of the experiment respectively, prior to entering the skeletonization stage. A large amount of soft tissue were remained on the pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box on 26 d, while only scattered bones remained on the pig carcass in open air. The results indicate that insects greatly accelerate the decomposition process. PMID:27314973

  14. Beam waist position study for surface modification of polymethyl-methacrylate with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero-Lucas, F.; Florian, C.; Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Morenza, J. L.; Serra, P.

    2016-06-01

    Femtosecond lasers are versatile tools to process transparent materials. This optical property poses an issue for surface modification. In this case, laser radiation would not be absorbed at the surface unless the beam is just focused there. Otherwise, absorption would take place in the bulk leaving the surface unperturbed. Therefore, strategies to position the material surface at the laser beam waist with high accuracy are essential. We investigated and compared two options to achieve this aim: the use of reflectance data and transmittance measurements across the sample, both obtained during z-scans with pulses from a 1027 nm wavelength laser and 450 fs pulse duration. As the material enters the beam waist region, a reflectance peak is detected while a transmittance drop is observed. With these observations, it is possible to control the position of the sample surface with respect to the beam waist with high resolution and attain pure surface modification. In the case of polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), this resolution is 0.6 μm. The results prove that these methods are feasible for submicrometric processing of the surface.

  15. Influence of formulation technique on acrylate methacrylate copolymer modified paracetamol matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Cash-Torunarigha, Omonyemen Edoise; Eichie, Florence Egbomonjiade; Arhewoh, Matthew Ikhuoria

    2015-03-01

    This work was designed to evaluate the influence of various methods such as dry granulation (DG), wet granulation (using the polymer in an ethanolic solution (WGO) or aqueous dispersion (WGA) and solid dispersion (SD) techniques, on properties of paracetamol matrix tablets prepared using varying concentrations of acrylate methacrylate copolymer. Tablet properties were investigated using official and unofficial standards. Drug dissolution profile assessed at pH 1.2 was studied spectrophotometrically at λ(max) of 245 nm. With the use of various kinetic models, the release mechanism of the drug was analyzed. The parameters, maximum amount of drug release (m(∞)) at time t(∞) were obtained, m(∞) was ≥ 91.36 %, while t(∞) was ≥ 4.5 h. The release rate constant (k) for DG tablets was 15.61 h(sup>-1(/sup>, while, WGO, WGA and SD tablets were 12.90, 11.03 and 10.75 h(-1) respectively. The matrix tablets, which exhibited marked retardation in drug release displayed a Higuchi square root of time model (R(2) > 0.98). The mechanism through which the drug was released was governed by Fickian diffusion release (n values < 0.5). The performance of the drug was affected by the formulation technique in the order of SD > WGO > WGA > DG. PMID:25730787

  16. Biomolecular functionalization for enhanced cell–material interactions of poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Punet, Xavier; Mauchauffé, Rodolphe; Rodríguez-Cabello, José C.; Alonso, Matilde; Engel, Elisabeth; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of implants or medical devices into the body tissues requires of good cell–material interactions. However, most polymeric materials used for these applications lack on biological cues, which enhanced mid- and long-term implant failure due to weak integration with the surrounding tissue. Commonly used strategies for tissue–material integration focus on functionalization of the material surface by means of natural proteins or short peptides. However, the use of these biomolecules involves major drawbacks such as immunogenic problems and oversimplification of the constructs. Here, designed elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs) are used to enhance poly(methyl methacrylate) surface properties and compared against the use of short peptides. In this study, cell response has been analysed for different functionalization conditions in the presence and absence of a competing protein, which interferes on surface–cell interaction by unspecific adsorption on the interface. The study has shown that ELRs can induce higher rates of cell attachment and stronger cell anchorages than short peptides, being a better choice for surface functionalization. PMID:26816640

  17. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) beads for nattokinase purification from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengli; Xing, Jianmin; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-09-01

    An effective method for purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth using magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads immobilized with p-aminobenzamidine was proposed in this study. Firstly, magnetic PMMA beads with a narrow size distribution were prepared by spraying suspension polymerization. Then, they were highly functionalized via transesterification reaction with polyethylene glycol. The surface hydroxyl-modified magnetic beads obtained were further modified with chloroethylamine to transfer the surface amino-modified magnetic functional beads. The morphology and surface functionality of the magnetic beads were examined by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. An affinity ligand, p-aminobenzamidine was covalently immobilized to the amino-modified magnetic beads by the glutaraldehyde method for nattokinase purification directly from the fermentation broth. The purification factor and the recovery of the enzyme activity were found to be 8.7 and 85%, respectively. The purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth by magnetic beads only took 40 min, which shows a very fast purification of nattokinase compared to traditional purification methods. PMID:16736086

  18. Some effects of the microtome knife and electron beam on methacrylate-embedded thin sections.

    PubMed

    MOORE, D H; MORGAN, C; ROSE, H M

    1956-07-25

    A technique for the examination of specimens at low electron beam intensity has been presented. Sections micrographed with this technique showed numerous knife scratches and frequently contained bands running parallel to the knife edge. Banding with an average spacing of 0.2 micro appeared to result from periodic distortion produced by impact of the knife. At the beam intensities customarily employed, differential sublimation and probably flow of the methacrylate resulted in obliteration of the bands and all but the deepest knife scratches. In addition, changes in the size, shape, and orientation of certain structures were noted. Artifacts resulting from incineration or sublimation of tissue components fixed in formalin were illustrated, and the suggestion was made that such instability to the electron beam accounted in part for the differences observed in osmium- and formalin-fixed tissues. The deformation revealed in serial sections was discussed, and it was pointed out that shortening in the axis perpendicular to the knife edge was associated with elongation in the axis parallel to the cutting edge, the elongation usually occurring locally without change in the width of the section. It was noted that the material causing contamination of the surface of sections during examination exhibited no structure but caused progressive loss of contrast. PMID:13357516

  19. PEGylation of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles for microfluidic bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, Jana; Svobodova, Zuzana; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Vlcek, Milan; Kincl, Miloslav; Horak, Daniel; Autebert, Julien; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Bilkova, Zuzana

    2014-07-01

    In this study, magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles containing carboxyl groups (PGMA-COOH) were coated using highly hydrophilic polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG was used to reduce nonspecific interactions with proteins and cells while decreasing adhesion of particles to the walls of a microfluidic devices from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Zeta potential measurement, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, anti-PEG ELISA assay, and bioaffinity interactions between biotin and streptavidin-HRP successfully proved the presence of PEG on the surface of microspheres. Both neat and PEGylated microspheres were then incubated with the inert protein bovine serum albumin or cells to evaluate the rate of nonspecific adsorption (NSA). PEG with Mr of 30,000 Da was responsible for 45% reduction in NSA of proteins and 74% for cells compared to neat particles. The microspheres' behavior in PDMS and COC microchannels was then evaluated. Aggregation and adhesion of PEGylated microspheres significantly decreased compared to neat particles. Finally, the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on the microspheres through the heterobifunctional PEG chain. The possibility for subsequent covalent coupling of the ligand of interest was confirmed. Such PEGylated microparticles can be efficiently used in PDMS microchips as a carrier for bioaffinity separation or of enzyme for catalysis. PMID:24857498

  20. Use of directly molded poly(methyl methacrylate) channels for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Kang, Do Hyun; Kim, Hong Nam; Suh, Kahp Y

    2010-12-01

    A direct molding method for creating a homogeneous, polymer microfluidic channel is presented. By utilizing capillary rise and subsequent absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution into a solvent-permeable poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) mold, various circular or elliptic polymer microchannels were fabricated without channel bonding and additional surface modification processes. In addition, the channel diameter was tunable from several micrometres to several hundreds of micrometres by controlling concentration and initial amount of polymer solution for a given PDMS mold geometry. The molded PMMA channels were used for two applications: blocking absorption of Rhodamine B dye and constructing artificial endothelial cell-cultured capillaries. It was observed that the molded PMMA channels effectively prevented absorption and diffusion of Rhodamine molecules over 5 h time span, demonstrating approximately 40 times higher blocking efficiency as compared to porous PDMS channels. Also, calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAEs) adhered, spread, and proliferated uniformly within the molded microchannels to form near confluency within 3 days and remained viable at day 6 without notable cell death, suggesting high biocompatibility and possibility for emulating in vivo-like three-dimensional architecture of blood vessels. PMID:20938498

  1. Olfactory function in chemical workers exposed to acrylate and methacrylate vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, B.S.; Doty, R.L.; Frye, R. ); Monroe, C.; Barker, S. )

    1989-05-01

    An investigation of the olfactory function of 731 workers at a chemical facility which manufactures acrylates and methacrylates was undertaken using a standardized quantitative test. In a cross-section analysis of the data, no associations of chemical exposure with olfactory test scores were observed. A nested case-control study designed to evaluate the cumulative effects of exposure on olfactory function, however, revealed elevated crude exposure odds ratios of 2.0 (1.1, 3.8) for all workers and 6.0 (1.7, 21.5) for workers who never smoked cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for multiple confounders, revealed exposure odds ratios of 2.8 (1.1, 7.0) and 13.5 (2.1, 87.6) in these same groups, respectively, and a dose-response relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cumulative exposure scores - semi-quantitative indices of lifetime exposure to the acrylates. The data also revealed decreasing exposure odds ratios with increasing duration since last exposure to these chemicals, suggesting that the effects may be reversible.

  2. Dispersion characteristics and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Vaudreuil, Sébastien; Labzour, Asmae; Sinha-Ray, Suprakas; El Mabrouk, Khalil; Bousmina, Mosto

    2007-07-01

    The preparation, characterization, and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites are described. Nanocomposites have been prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer. Both unmodified and surface modified MWCNTs have been used for the nanocomposites preparation. Using both unmodified and modified MWCNTs, the effect of surface modification in nanocomposites is investigated by focusing on three major aspects: dispersion characteristics, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity measurements. Dispersion of the MWCNTs in the PMMA matrix is examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy that revealed a homogeneous distribution-dispersion of MWCNTs in the PMMA matrix for both unmodified and modified MWCNTs. Thermomechanical behavior is studied by dynamic mechanical analyzer and results showed a substantial improvement in the mechanical properties of PMMA in conjunction to an increase in the elastic behavior. The tensile properties of neat PMMA moderately improved after nanocomposites preparation with both modified and unmodified MWCNTs, however, electrical conductivity of neat PMMA significantly improved after nanocomposites preparation with 2 wt% unmodified MWCNTs. For example, the through plane conductivity increased from 3.6 x 10(-12) S x cm(-1) for neat PMMA to 3.6 x 10(-9) S x cm(-1) for nanocomposite. The various property measurements have been conducted and results have shown that, in overall, surface modifications have very little or no effect on final properties of neat PMMA. PMID:17663251

  3. Customized Cranioplasty Implants Using Three-Dimensional Printers and Polymethyl-Methacrylate Casting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Hong, Ki-Sun; Park, Kyung-Jae; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Chung, Yong-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Objective The prefabrication of customized cranioplastic implants has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of intra-operative implant molding. The authors present a new technique, which consists of the prefabrication of implant molds using three-dimensional (3D) printers and polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) casting. Methods A total of 16 patients with large skull defects (>100 cm2) underwent cranioplasty between November 2009 and April 2011. For unilateral cranial defects, 3D images of the skull were obtained from preoperative axial 1-mm spiral computed tomography (CT) scans. The image of the implant was generated by a digital subtraction mirror-imaging process using the normal side of the cranium as a model. For bilateral cranial defects, precraniectomy routine spiral CT scan data were merged with postcraniectomy 3D CT images following a smoothing process. Prefabrication of the mold was performed by the 3D printer. Intraoperatively, the PMMA implant was created with the prefabricated mold, and fit into the cranial defect. Results The median operation time was 184.36±26.07 minutes. Postoperative CT scans showed excellent restoration of the symmetrical contours and curvature of the cranium in all cases. The median follow-up period was 23 months (range, 14-28 months). Postoperative infection was developed in one case (6.2%) who had an open wound defect previously. Conclusion Customized cranioplasty PMMA implants using 3D printer may be a useful technique for the reconstruction of various cranial defects. PMID:23346326

  4. Preparation of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-silicon dioxide nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinyan; Chen, Xinhua; Kang, Yingke; Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

    2010-12-01

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-SiO 2 (coded as PMMA-SiO 2) nanocomposite films with micro-nanohierarchical structure were prepared via a simple approach in the absence of low surface-energy compounds. By spin-coating the suspension of hydrophobic silica (SiO 2) nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution, target nanocomposite films were obtained on glass slides. The wetting behavior of PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films was investigated in relation to the dosage of SiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution. It was found that hydrophilic PMMA film was transferred to superhydrophobic PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films when hydrophobic SiO 2 nanoparticles were introduced into the PMMA solution at a high enough dosage (0.2 g and above). Resultant PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films had a static water contact angle of above 162°, showing promising applications in selfcleaning and waterproof for outer wall of building, outer covering for automobile, sanitary wares, and so forth.

  5. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures: a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ocola, Leonidas E; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J

    2016-01-22

    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic developer for exposed PMMA. We have also found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data show that both tightly bonded -OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded -OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded -OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA, pointing to possible ordering or reduced amorphization due to the liquid state. The impact of understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream. PMID:26656030

  6. Nano-imprint lithography using poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yung-Chiang; Shy, Shyi-Long

    2016-04-01

    Nano-imprinting lithography (NIL) technology, as one of the most promising fabrication technologies, has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for large-area replication up to wafer-level, with features down to nanometer scale. The cost of resists used for NIL is important for wafer-level large-area replication. This study aims to develop capabilities in patterning larger area structure using thermal NIL. The commercial available Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) and Polystyrene (PS) polymers possess a variety of characteristics desirable for NIL, such as low material cost, low bulkvolumetric shrinkage, high spin coating thickness uniformity, high process stability, and acceptable dry-etch resistance. PMMA materials have been utilized for positive electron beam lithography for many years, offering high resolution capability and wide process latitude. In addition, it is preferable to have a negative resist like PMMA, which is a simple polymer with low cost and practically unlimited shelf life, and can be dissolved easily using commercial available Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) safer solvent to give the preferred film thickness. PS is such a resist, as it undergoes crosslinking when exposed to deep UV light or an electron beam and can be used for NIL. The result is a cost effective patterning larger area structure using thermal nano-imprint lithography (NIL) by using commercial available PMMA and PS ploymers as NIL resists.

  7. Blend miscibility of cellulose propionate with poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Kazuki; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-15

    The blend miscibility of cellulose propionate (CP) with poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MMA)) was investigated. The degree of substitution (DS) of CP used ranged from 1.6 to >2.9, and samples for the vinyl polymer component were prepared in a full range of VP:MMA compositions. Through DSC analysis and solid-state (13)C NMR and FT-IR measurements, we revealed that CPs of DS<2.7 were miscible with P(VP-co-MMA)s of VP≥~10mol% on a scale within a few nanometers, in virtue of hydrogen-bonding interactions between CP-hydroxyls and VP-carbonyls. When the DS of CP exceeded 2.7, the miscibility was restricted to the polymer pairs using P(VP-co-MMA)s of VP=ca. 10-40 mol%; the scale of mixing in the blends concerned was somewhat larger (ca. 5-20 nm), however. The appearance of such a "miscibility window" was interpretable as an effect of intramolecular repulsion in the copolymer component. Results of DMA and birefringence measurements indicated that the miscible blending of CP with the vinyl polymer invited synergistic improvements in thermomechanical and optical properties of the respective constituent polymers. Additionally, it was found that the VP:MMA composition range corresponding to the miscibility window was expanded by modification of the CP component into cellulose acetate propionate. PMID:23987378

  8. Direct-write Bioprinting of Cell-laden Methacrylated Gelatin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Bertassoni, Luiz E.; Cardoso, Juliana C.; Manoharan, Vijayan; Cristino, Ana L.; Bhise, Nupura S.; Araujo, Wesleyan A.; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Vrana, Nihal E.; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of three dimensional (3D) organoids with controlled microarchitectures has been shown to enhance tissue functionality. Bioprinting can be used to precisely position cells and cell-laden materials to generate controlled tissue architecture. Therefore, it represents an exciting alternative for organ fabrication. Despite the rapid progress in the field, the development of printing processes that can be used to fabricate macroscale tissue constructs from ECM-derived hydrogels has remained a challenge. Here we report a strategy for bioprinting of photolabile cell-laden methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels. We bioprinted cell-laden GelMA at concentrations ranging from 7 to 15% with varying cell densities and found a direct correlation between printability and the hydrogel mechanical properties. Furthermore, encapsulated HepG2 cells preserved cell viability for at least 8 days following the bioprinting process. In summary, this work presents a strategy for direct-write bioprinting of a cell-laden photolabile ECM-derived hydrogel, which may find widespread application for tissue engineering, organ printing and the development of 3D drug discovery platforms. PMID:24695367

  9. Encapsulation of porcine pancreatic islets within an immunoprotective capsule comprising methacrylated glycol chitosan and alginate.

    PubMed

    Hillberg, Anna Louise; Oudshoorn, Matthew; Lam, Janice B B; Kathirgamanathan, Kalyani

    2015-04-01

    Encapsulation of cells in biocompatible polymer matrices represents a powerful tool for cell-based therapies and therapeutic delivery systems. This technology has successfully been used to deliver pancreatic islets to humans for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes. However, the clinical impact of this technology may be improved by reducing the inflammatory response brought on after implantation of capsules in vivo. Within this study a biocompatible polymeric delivery system combining alginate and photo-crosslinked methacrylated glycol chitosan (MGC) was developed. This approach involved encapsulating cells in calcium-alginate beads, coating with MGC and photo-polymerizing using UVA in the presence of photo-initiator (VA-086), resulting in the formation of capsules ∼600 µm in size. Crosslinking of the MGC outer wall allowed control over capsule swelling and improved the capsules overall properties. Capsule characterization demonstrated the stabilizing influence of polymerization and fluorescence imaging showed that the distribution of glycol chitosan is dependent on molecular weight. Good islet viability and insulin release was demonstrated in vitro over the course of a month, and in vivo transplantation of the capsules demonstrated good biocompatibility, particularly when compared with standard alginate/poly-l-ornithine/alginate capsules. PMID:24915784

  10. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  11. Hydrogen-bonds structure in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) studied by temperature-dependent infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Shigeaki

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonds structure in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) were investigated by means of temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Spectral variations involved with the OH…OH and C=O…HO types of hydrogen-bonds were found around the glass transition temperature of 80°C. Hydrogen-bonds among the hydroxyl groups gradually dissociate with increasing temperature. In contrast, discontinuous variation in the carbonyl bands was observed around the glass transition temperature. An association of the C=O…HO type of hydrogen-bond with increasing temperature above the glass transition temperature was revealed. These were concluded from the present study that hydrogen-bonds among the hydroxyl groups in each side chain terminal suppress the main chain mobility in the polymer matrix below the glass transition temperature, while the dissociation of the OH…OH type of hydrogen-bonds induces the association of the C=O…HO type of hydrogen-bond. As a result, the mobility of the main chain is induced by the change in hydrogen-bonds structure at the glass transition temperature. PMID:24790979

  12. Chemically modified poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel for the adsorption of heparin.

    PubMed

    La Spina, R; Tripisciano, C; Mecca, T; Cunsolo, F; Weber, V; Mattiasson, B

    2014-08-01

    Various clinical procedures, such as cardiovascular surgery or extracorporeal blood purification, involve systemic anticoagulation using heparin. High concentrations of circulating heparin require neutralization due to possible serious bleeding complications. The intravenous administration of the heparin antagonist protamine sulfate is routinely clinically performed, but is frequently associated with adverse reactions. Therefore, there is a need for a valid and safe alternative to achieve extracorporeal heparin removal from blood or plasma, such as a filter, a matrix, or an adsorbent. Here, we describe the development of a macroporous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-based monolithic cryogel functionalized with l-lysine (pHEMA-lys) and the characterization of its selective heparin adsorption. The maximum binding capacity was quantified in vitro using aqueous and serum solutions under static and dynamic conditions, and fresh human plasma under static conditions. The pHEMA-lys bound 40,500 IU and 32,500 IU heparin/g cryogel at the equilibrium in aqueous solution and 50% serum, respectively. In human plasma spiked with 100 IU/mL of heparin, the binding was still highly efficient (4330 IU/g cryogel after 30 min, i.e., 87% of the initial concentration). The cryogels showed good blood compatibility, as indicated by negligible adsorption of albumin, antithrombin III, and total protein, and may thus be suitable for extracorporeal heparin removal. PMID:24425361

  13. Modification of flax fibres by radiation induced emulsion graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawia, Rihab Musaad; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Nor Hasimah; Ripin, Adnan

    2016-05-01

    Flax fibres were modified by radiation induced graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by pre-irradiation method in an emulsion medium. The effect of reaction parameters on the degree of grafting (DOG) such as concentration of bleaching agent, absorbed dose, monomer concentration, temperature and reaction time were investigated. The DOG was found to be dependent on the investigated parameters. The incorporation of poly(GMA) grafts in the bleached flax fibres was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural and mechanical changes were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mechanical tester, respectively. The results revealed that reacting bleached flax fibres irradiated with 20 kGy with 5% GMA emulsion containing 0.5% polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) surfactant at 40 °C for 1 h led to a maximum DOG of 148%. The grafted fibres showed sufficient mechanical strength and hydrophobicity which make them promising precursors for development of adsorbents after appropriate chemical treatments.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Tunable Poly(Ethylene Glycol): Gelatin Methacrylate Composite Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Che B.; Nichol, Jason W.; Aubin, Hug; Bae, Hojae; Yamanlar, Seda; Al-Haque, Shahed; Koshy, Sandeep T.

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are popular for cell culture and tissue-engineering applications because they are nontoxic and exhibit favorable hydration and nutrient transport properties. However, cells cannot adhere to, remodel, proliferate within, or degrade PEG hydrogels. Methacrylated gelatin (GelMA), derived from denatured collagen, yields an enzymatically degradable, photocrosslinkable hydrogel that cells can degrade, adhere to and spread within. To combine the desirable features of each of these materials we synthesized PEG-GelMA composite hydrogels, hypothesizing that copolymerization would enable adjustable cell binding, mechanical, and degradation properties. The addition of GelMA to PEG resulted in a composite hydrogel that exhibited tunable mechanical and biological profiles. Adding GelMA (5%–15% w/v) to PEG (5% and 10% w/v) proportionally increased fibroblast surface binding and spreading as compared to PEG hydrogels (p<0.05). Encapsulated fibroblasts were also able to form 3D cellular networks 7 days after photoencapsulation only within composite hydrogels as compared to PEG alone. Additionally, PEG-GelMA hydrogels displayed tunable enzymatic degradation and stiffness profiles. PEG-GelMA composite hydrogels show great promise as tunable, cell-responsive hydrogels for 3D cell culture and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:21306293

  15. Synthesis and characterization of tunable poly(ethylene glycol): gelatin methacrylate composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Che B; Nichol, Jason W; Aubin, Hug; Bae, Hojae; Yamanlar, Seda; Al-Haque, Shahed; Koshy, Sandeep T; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are popular for cell culture and tissue-engineering applications because they are nontoxic and exhibit favorable hydration and nutrient transport properties. However, cells cannot adhere to, remodel, proliferate within, or degrade PEG hydrogels. Methacrylated gelatin (GelMA), derived from denatured collagen, yields an enzymatically degradable, photocrosslinkable hydrogel that cells can degrade, adhere to and spread within. To combine the desirable features of each of these materials we synthesized PEG-GelMA composite hydrogels, hypothesizing that copolymerization would enable adjustable cell binding, mechanical, and degradation properties. The addition of GelMA to PEG resulted in a composite hydrogel that exhibited tunable mechanical and biological profiles. Adding GelMA (5%-15% w/v) to PEG (5% and 10% w/v) proportionally increased fibroblast surface binding and spreading as compared to PEG hydrogels (p<0.05). Encapsulated fibroblasts were also able to form 3D cellular networks 7 days after photoencapsulation only within composite hydrogels as compared to PEG alone. Additionally, PEG-GelMA hydrogels displayed tunable enzymatic degradation and stiffness profiles. PEG-GelMA composite hydrogels show great promise as tunable, cell-responsive hydrogels for 3D cell culture and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:21306293

  16. VA-086 methacrylate gelatine photopolymerizable hydrogels: A parametric study for highly biocompatible 3D cell embedding.

    PubMed

    Occhetta, Paola; Visone, Roberta; Russo, Laura; Cipolla, Laura; Moretti, Matteo; Rasponi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    The ability to replicate in vitro the native extracellular matrix (ECM) features and to control the three-dimensional (3D) cell organization plays a fundamental role in obtaining functional engineered bioconstructs. In tissue engineering (TE) applications, hydrogels have been successfully implied as biomatrices for 3D cell embedding, exhibiting high similarities to the natural ECM and holding easily tunable mechanical properties. In the present study, we characterized a promising photocrosslinking process to generate cell-laden methacrylate gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in the presence of VA-086 photoinitiator using a ultraviolet LED source. We investigated the influence of prepolymer concentration and light irradiance on mechanical and biomimetic properties of resulting hydrogels. In details, the increasing of gelatin concentration resulted in enhanced rheological properties and shorter polymerization time. We then defined and validated a reliable photopolymerization protocol for cell embedding (1.5% VA-086, LED 2 mW/cm2) within GelMA hydrogels, which demonstrated to support bone marrow stromal cells viability when cultured up to 7 days. Moreover, we showed how different mechanical properties, derived from different crosslinking parameters, strongly influence cell behavior. In conclusion, this protocol can be considered a versatile tool to obtain biocompatible cell-laden hydrogels with properties easily adaptable for different TE applications. PMID:25294368

  17. Cell-induced flow-focusing instability in gelatin methacrylate microdroplet generation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jinmu; Oh, Jonghyun

    2014-01-01

    Photo-crosslinkable gelatin methacrylate (GelMa) microspheres are applicable to deliver cells or drugs in biological or biomedical applications. To fabricate GelMa microdroplets, a flow focusing technique with advantages of size control and rapid production was used in a T-junction microfluidic device. Instability played an important role in promoting microdroplet uniformity. 5 wt. % GelMa prepolymer solution mixed with cells affected cell-induced instability. At low flow rate ratio of GelMa to mineral oil below 0.200, stability was maintained regardless of GelMa concentration (5 and 8 wt. %) and cell presence, which led to uniform microdroplet generation. In contrast, instability at high flow rate ratio above 0.200 was worsened by cell presence and unstable jetting length, resulting in the generation of non-uniform cell-laden microdroplets. Therefore, the effect of cell-induced instability on microdroplet generation was minimized at a low flow rate ratio. PMID:24932318

  18. Cell-induced flow-focusing instability in gelatin methacrylate microdroplet generation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinmu; Oh, Jonghyun

    2014-05-01

    Photo-crosslinkable gelatin methacrylate (GelMa) microspheres are applicable to deliver cells or drugs in biological or biomedical applications. To fabricate GelMa microdroplets, a flow focusing technique with advantages of size control and rapid production was used in a T-junction microfluidic device. Instability played an important role in promoting microdroplet uniformity. 5 wt. % GelMa prepolymer solution mixed with cells affected cell-induced instability. At low flow rate ratio of GelMa to mineral oil below 0.200, stability was maintained regardless of GelMa concentration (5 and 8 wt. %) and cell presence, which led to uniform microdroplet generation. In contrast, instability at high flow rate ratio above 0.200 was worsened by cell presence and unstable jetting length, resulting in the generation of non-uniform cell-laden microdroplets. Therefore, the effect of cell-induced instability on microdroplet generation was minimized at a low flow rate ratio. PMID:24932318

  19. Gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) mediated electrochemical DNA biosensor for DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Topkaya, Seda Nur

    2015-02-15

    In this study, an electrochemical biosensor system for the detection of DNA hybridization by using gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) modified electrodes was developed. Electrochemical behavior of GelMA modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE) that serve as a functional platform was investigated by using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and compared with those of the bare PGE. Hybridization was achieved in solution phase and guanine oxidation signal changes were evaluated. The decrease in the guanine oxidation peak currents at around +1.0 V was used as an indicator for the DNA hybridization. Also, more interestingly GelMA intrinsic oxidation peaks at around +0.7 V changed substantially by immobilization of different oligonucleotides such as probe, hybrid and control sequences to the electrode surface. It is the first study of using GelMA as a part of an electrochemical biosensor system. The results are very promising in terms of using GelMA as a new DNA hybridization indicator. Additionally, GelMA modified electrodes could be useful for detecting ultra low quantity of oligonucleotides by providing mechanical support to the bio-recognition layer. The detection limit of this method is at present 10(-12)mol. Signal suppressions were increased from 50% to 93% for hybrid with using GelMA when it was compared to bare electrode which facilitates the hybridization detection. PMID:25286352

  20. Microfabricated photocrosslinkable polyelectrolyte-complex of chitosan and methacrylated gellan gum

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Daniela F.; Sant, Shilpa; Shakiba, Mojdeh; Wang, Ben; Gomes, Manuela E.; Neves, Nuno M.; Reis, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT) based polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) have been receiving great attention for tissue engineering approaches. These hydrogels are held together by ionic forces and can be disrupted by changes in physiological conditions. In this study, we present a new class of CHT-based PEC hydrogels amenable to stabilization by chemical crosslinking. The photocrosslinkable anionic methacrylated gellan gum (MeGG) was complexed with cationic CHT and exposed to light, forming a PEC hydrogel. The chemical characterization of the photocrosslinkable PEC hydrogel by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed absorption peaks specific to the raw polymers. A significantly higher swelling ratio was observed for the PEC hydrogel with higher CHT content. The molecular interactions between both polysaccharides were evaluated chemically and microscopically, indicating the diffusion of CHT to the interior of the hydrogel. We hypothesized that the addition of MeGG to CHT solution first leads to a membrane formation around MeGG. Then, migration of CHT inside the MeGG hydrogel occurs to balance the electrostatic charges. The photocrosslinkable feature of MeGG further allowed the formation of cell-laden microscale hydrogel units with different shapes and sizes. Overall, this system is potentially useful for a variety of applications including the replication of microscale features of tissues for modular tissue engineering. PMID:23293429

  1. Electrospinning of poly(dimethylsiloxane)/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibrous membrane: fabrication and application in protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dayong; Liu, Xing; Jin, Yu; Zhu, Ying; Zeng, Dongdong; Jiang, Xingyu; Ma, Hongwei

    2009-12-14

    Fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers is critical to harness the advantage of nanostructured membrane applied in protein microarrays. Electrospinning (ES) of PDMS nanofibers is challenging because of the relatively low molecular weight of PDMS prepolymer. We report a strategy to fabricate PDMS/PMMA nanofibers via ES by introducing carrier polymer PMMA into PDMS solutions to supplement the deficiency of chain entanglements in the PDMS prepolymer. The prepared PDMS/PMMA nanofibrous membrane (PDMS/PMMA NFM) was successfully used as substrates for protein microarrays. The results of immunoassays showed the superior performance of PDMS/PMMA NFM as 3D substrate for protein microarrays; the limit-of-detection (LOD) on PDMS/PMMA NFM was 32 times lower than that on nitrocellulose membrane. The realization of ES PDMS extends the scope of ES materials from thermoplastic polymers to thermosetting materials. Given the simplicity, low cost, and high efficiency of ES technology, we believe that PDMS/PMMA NFM is a promising 3D substrate for protein microarrays. PMID:19924999

  2. Microshear bond strength of preheated silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins to dentin.

    PubMed

    Demirbuga, Sezer; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Cayabatmaz, Muhammed; Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Cantekin, Kenan; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preheating on microshear bond strength (MSBS) of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins to human dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into three main groups: (1) composite resins were heated upto 68 °C; (2) cooled to 4 °C; and (3) control [room temperature (RT)]. Each group was then randomly subdivided into four subgroups according to adhesive system used [Solobond M (Voco), All Bond SE (Bisco), Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) (Kuraray), Silorane adhesive system (SAS) (3M ESPE)]. Resin composite cylinders were formed (0.9 mm diameter × 0.7 mm length) and MSBS of each specimen was tested. The preheated groups exhibited the highest MSBS (p < 0.001) and the groups cooled to 4 °C exhibited the lowest MSBS (p < 0.001). The CSE showed higher MSBS than the other adhesives (p < 0.001). This study concludes that preheating of composite resins may be an alternative way to increase the MSBS of composites on dentin. PMID:26381904

  3. AGING OF ADHESIVE INTERFACES TREATED WITH BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE AND BENZALKONIUM METHACRYLATE

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Camila; Pashley, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of endogenous dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) within incompletely infiltrated hybrid layers can contribute to the preservation of resin-dentin bonds. This study evaluated the bond stability of interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and benzalkonium methacrylate (MBAC), and its inhibitory properties in dentin MMP activity. Single-component adhesive ALL-BOND UNIVERSAL, modified with BAC or MBAC in concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% was used for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) evaluation after 24 h, 6 months and 1 yr. Human dentin beams were treated with 37% phosphoric acid, dipped either in 0.5% BAC, 1.0% BAC or water (control) for 60 s and then incubated in SensoLyte generic MMP substrate to determine MMP activity. A significant decrease in μTBS after 6 months and 1 yr was observed for the control group only. No significant differences among groups were shown at 24 h. After 6 months and 1 yr, the control group demonstrated significantly lower μTBS than all treatment groups. Both 0.5% and 1.0%, BAC applied for 60 s inhibited total MMP activity by 31% and 54%, respectively. Both BAC and MBAC contributed to the preservation of resin-dentin bonds likely due to its inhibitory properties of endogenous dentin proteinases. PMID:25639285

  4. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyar, Tamer; Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2009-03-01

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 °C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order α-CD<β-CD<γ-CD, the thermal evolution of menthol shifted to higher temperatures, suggesting that the strength of interaction between menthol and the CD cavity is in the order γ-CD>β-CD>α-CD.

  5. Composite Polylactic-Methacrylic Acid Copolymer Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Sibeko, Bongani; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Khan, Riaz A.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Iyuke, Sunny E.; Pillay, Viness

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop poly(lactic acid)-methacrylic acid copolymeric nanoparticles with the potential to serve as nanocarrier systems for methotrexate (MTX) used in the chemotherapy of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Nanoparticles were prepared by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique employing a 3-Factor Box-Behnken experimental design strategy. Analysis of particle size, absolute zeta potential, polydispersity (Pdl), morphology, drug-loading capacity (DLC), structural transitions through FTIR spectroscopy, and drug release kinetics was undertaken. Molecular modelling elucidated the mechanisms of the experimental findings. Nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 211.0 to 378.3 nm and a recovery range of 36.8–86.2 mg (Pdl ≤ 0.5) were synthesized. DLC values were initially low (12 ± 0.5%) but were finally optimized to 98 ± 0.3%. FTIR studies elucidated the comixing of MTX within the nanoparticles. An initial burst release (50% of MTX released in 24 hours) was obtained which was followed by a prolonged release phase of MTX over 84 hours. SEM images revealed near-spherical nanoparticles, while TEM micrographs revealed the presence of MTX within the nanoparticles. Stable nanoparticles were formed as corroborated by the chemometric modelling studies undertaken. PMID:22919501

  6. Immobilization of trypsin on porous glycidyl methacrylate beads: effects of polymer hydrophilization.

    PubMed

    Malmsten; Larsson

    2000-10-01

    The immobilization of trypsin at porous glycidyl methacrylate (GMA-GDMA) beads was investigated. In particular, the effects of surface modification of the beads through hydrophilic polymers on the amount protein immobilized and on the extent of retained activity after immobilization were adressed. Furthermore, immobilization at unmodified and hydrophilized beads from aqueous solution was compared to that from a water-in-oil microemulsion. It was found that the amount trypsin immobilized at the unmodified GMA-GDMA beads was significantly higher than that at hydrophilized GMA-GDMA beads. However, also the extent of specific activity loss after immobilization was larger for the unmodified than for the hydrophilized beads. Despite the latter, however, the total activity displayed by the hydrophilized beads was comparable to the unmodified beads at best. On the other hand, by peforming the immobilization from the microemulsion a high immobilization yield can be reached even for the hydrophilized beads, which also results in a higher degree of retained activity in the latter case than obtained for immobilization at the unmodified beads. Using this approach therefore resulted in the highest total activity of the trypsin-activated GMA-GDMA beads. PMID:10915949

  7. Study of plasma-induced graft polymerization of stearyl methacrylate on cotton fabric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Chao; Shao, Jianzhong

    2015-12-01

    A simple and facile method to prepare the cotton fabric with hydrophobicity was described in the present work. In the one-step process, the cotton fabric pre-impregnated with the monomer solution of stearyl methacrylate (SMA) was placed in the plasma chamber and followed by glow discharge of the Helium low temperature plasma. The cotton fabrics before and after the plasma treatment were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The wettability of the cotton fabrics was evaluated by contact angle measurement. Fabric Hand Values and mechanical properties were also measured in the experiment. The results showed that polymer films could be coated on the cotton fibers through the plasma induced grafting polymerization of SMA. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited an extraordinary hydrophobicity with a contact angle of 149° for a 5 μL water droplet and excellent thermal stability. The relative hand value and mechanical breaking strength of the cotton fabrics declined slightly after graft polymerization of SMA by the plasma.

  8. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate onto graphene oxide for Cr(VI) removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Youwei; Zhang, Long; Wang, Liancai; Sun, Chao; Liu, Pinggui; He, Lihua; Zeng, Xinmiao; Zhai, Maolin

    2016-07-01

    Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA)-grafted graphene oxide hybrid materials (GO-g-P) were fabricated using γ-ray irradiation at ambient temperature. The morphology and structure of GO-g-P were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was confirmed that DMAEMA was grafted successfully on the surface of graphene sheet. The grafting yield of GO-g-P increased with monomer concentration (0-2.5 mol L-1) and dose (0-40 kGy). The resulting adsorbent (GO-g-P) with amine groups was highly efficient for removing Cr(VI) from its acidic aqueous solution and could be easily separated by filtration. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) removal was observed at pH 1.1 and the Cr(VI) uptake of GO-g-P at this pH was 82.4 mg g-1.

  9. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongo, S.; Kerasidou, A. P.; Sone, B. T.; Diallo, A.; Mthunzi, P.; Iliopoulos, K.; Nkosi, M.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-06-01

    Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10-21 m2 V-2 or 0.72 × 10-13 esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  10. Photo-cross-linkable methacrylated gelatin and hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel for modularly engineering biomimetic osteon.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yicong; Liu, Xiaolu; Wei, Dan; Sun, Jing; Xiao, Wenqian; Zhao, Huan; Guo, Likun; Wei, Qingrong; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-05-20

    Modular tissue engineering holds great potential in regenerating natural complex tissues by engineering three-dimensional modular scaffolds with predefined geometry and biological characters. In modular tissue-like construction, a scaffold with an appropriate mechanical rigidity for assembling fabrication and high biocompatibility for cell survival is the key to the successful bioconstruction. In this work, a series of composite hydrogels (GH0, GH1, GH2, and GH3) based on a combination of methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) was exploited to enhance hydrogel mechanical rigidity and promote cell functional expression for osteon biofabrication. These composite hydrogels presented a lower swelling ratio, higher mechanical moduli, and better biocompatibility when compared to the pure GelMA hydrogel. Furthermore, on the basis of the composite hydrogel and photolithograph technology, we successfully constructed an osteon-like concentric double-ring structure in which the inner ring encapsulating human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) was designed to imitate blood vessel tubule while the outer ring encapsulating human osteoblast-like cells (MG63s) acts as part of bone. During the coculture period, MG63s and HUVECs exhibited not only satisfying growth status but also the enhanced genic expression of osteogenesis-related and angiogenesis-related differentiations. These results demonstrate this GelMA-HA composite hydrogel system is promising for modular tissue engineering. PMID:25928732

  11. Durability of poly(methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrating photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Gedvilas, Lynn M.; To, Bobby; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  12. Stabilization and sustained-release effect of misoprostol with methacrylate copolymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Tsay, R J; Lin, H I; Chen, H; Chao, S C; Ku, H

    2000-08-10

    The use of ammonio methacrylate copolymer (Eudrgit RS, RL) to form a sustained-release solid dispersion of Misoprostol can improve and enhance two important physical and chemical properties of Misoprostol. First, the solid dispersion matrix formed by the copolymer can protect Misoprostol from being degraded by water so that its stability is improved. Second, Misoprostol can be slowly released by diffusion from the copolymer matrix. Accelerated stability studies of Misoprostol-Eudragit solid dispersion after storing at various temperatures for different time periods were carried out. According to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, the stability of Misoprostol in a series of Eudragit appeared significantly improved at different ratios. The Misoprostol-Eudragit dispersion can be used in a powder form, filled in capsules, or compressed into tablets. The dissolution profiles of Misoprostol-Eudragit solid dispersion and its tablets in water, pH 1. 2, 4.5 and 6.8, dissolution media show that this stable solid dispersion is a sustained-release type. PMID:10967436

  13. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures: a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic developer for exposed PMMA. We have also found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data show that both tightly bonded -OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded -OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded -OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA, pointing to possible ordering or reduced amorphization due to the liquid state. The impact of understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  14. Cationic Methacrylate Polymers as Topical Antimicrobial Agents against Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of primary ammonium ethyl methacrylate homopolymers (AEMPs) was investigated. AEMPs with different degrees of polymerization (DP = 7.7–12) were prepared by reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The AEMPs showed higher inhibitory effects against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), than Gram-negative bacteria. The AEMPs also showed potent anti-S. aureus activity in the presence of fetal bovine serum, whereas the activity of the antibiotic mupirocin was reduced under the same conditions. The AEMPs showed very little or no hemolytic activity. The cytotoxicity of AEMPs against mammalian cells HEp-2 and COS-7 was concentration-dependent, and the cell viability significantly decreased at higher polymer concentrations. The AEMPs significantly reduced the number of viable S. aureus cells in the nasal environment of cotton rats when compared to that of the control. This study demonstrates that AEMPs have potential for use in treating topical S. aureus infections. PMID:25010735

  15. Synthesis and adsorption performance of dithiocarbamate-modified glycidyl methacrylate starch.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiumei; Cheng, Rumei; Ou, Shengju; Li, Yijiu

    2013-07-01

    The design of chelating polymers with fast complexation of the metal ions is particularly interest. In this work, the dithiocarbamate-modified glycidyl methacrylate starch was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, (13)C NMR and XRD spectra. Its sorption performance for heavy metals fixation was studied. It was found that the removal process of metal ions involved a fast increase stage followed by a slower stage. There was a higher match between the pseudo-second-order equation and the experimental data. The sorption rate constants were related to the substitution rates of hydrated metal ions in aqueous solutions, showing typical chemisorption. The Langmuir isotherm gave satisfying fits to equilibrium data of metals adsorption. And the capacities followed the sequence Cu(2+)>Cd(2+)>Co(2+)>Zn(2+)>Ni(2+)>Mn(2+), which could be well demonstrated with chelating interaction caused by sulfur atoms. Such understanding provides new insights as how to synthesize and use the dithiocarbamate-based polysaccharides. PMID:23688487

  16. Olfactory function in chemical workers exposed to acrylate and methacrylate vapors.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, B S; Doty, R L; Monroe, C; Frye, R; Barker, S

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the olfactory function of 731 workers at a chemical facility which manufacturers acrylates and methacrylates was undertaken using a standardized quantitative test. In a cross-sectional analysis of the data, no associations of chemical exposure with olfactory test scores were observed. A nested case-control study designed to evaluate the cumulative effects of exposure on olfactory function, however, revealed elevated crude exposure odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 2.0 (1.1, 3.8) for all workers and 6.0 (1.7, 21.5) for workers who never smoked cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for multiple confounders, revealed exposure odds ratios of 2.8 (1.1, 7.0) and 13.5 (2.1, 87.6) in these same groups, respectively, and a dose-response relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cumulative exposure scores--semi-quantitative indices of lifetime exposure to the acrylates. The data also revealed decreasing exposure odds ratios with increasing duration since last exposure to these chemicals, suggesting that the effects may be reversible. PMID:2784947

  17. Dual-crosslinked oxidized, methacrylated alginate/PEG hydrogels for bioadhesive applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Oju; Samorezov, Julia E.; Alsberg, Eben

    2013-01-01

    A degradable, cytocompatible bioadhesive can facilitate surgical procedures and minimize patient pain and postsurgical complications. In this study, a bioadhesive hydrogel system based on oxidized, methacrylated alginate/8-arm poly(ethylene glycol) amine (OMA/PEG) has been developed, and the bioadhesive characteristics of the crosslinked OMA/PEG hydrogels are evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that the swelling behavior, degradation profiles, and storage moduli of crosslinked OMA/PEG hydrogels are tunable by varying the degree of alginate oxidation. The crosslinked OMA/PEG hydrogels exhibit cytocompatibility when cultured with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the adhesion strength of these hydrogels, controllable by varying the alginate oxidation level and measured using a porcine skin model, is superior to commercially available fibrin glue. This OMA/PEG hydrogel system with controllable biodegradation and mechanical properties and adhesion strength may be a promising bioadhesive for clinical use in biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, wound closure and healing, biomedical device implantation, and tissue engineering. PMID:24035886

  18. A novel antibacterial orthodontic cement containing a quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary A.S.; Wu, Junling; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Demineralized lesions in tooth enamel around orthodontic brackets are caused by acids from cariogenic biofilm. This study aimed to develop a novel antibacterial orthodontic cement by incorporating a quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) into a commercial orthodontic cement, and to investigate the effects on microcosm biofilm response and enamel bond strength. DMADDM, a recently-synthetized antibacterial monomer, was incorporated into orthodontic cement at 0%, 1.5%, 3% and 5% mass fractions. Bond strength of brackets to enamel was measured. A microcosm biofilm model was used to measure metabolic activity, lactic acid production, and colony-forming units (CFU) on orthodontic cements. Shear bond strength was not reduced at 3% DAMDDM (p > 0.1), but was slightly reduced at 5% DMADDM, compared to 0% DMADDM. Biofilm viability was substantially inhibited when in contact with orthodontic cement containing 3% DMADDM. Biofilm metabolic activity, lactic acid production, and CFU were much lower on orthodontic cement containing DMADDM than control cement (p < 0.05). Therefore, the novel antibacterial orthodontic cement containing 3% DMADDM inhibited oral biofilms without compromising the enamel bond strength, and is promising to reduce or eliminate demineralization in enamel around orthodontic brackets. PMID:25035230

  19. Antibacterial effect of dental adhesive containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate on the development of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05). In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:25046750

  20. Narrowly size-distributed cobalt salt containing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) particles by inverse miniemulsion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhihai; Wang, Zhuo; Herrmann, Christine; Ziener, Ulrich; Landfester, Katharina

    2010-05-18

    Cobalt-containing hybrid particles have been prepared through the encapsulation of cobalt tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate (CoTFB) via inverse miniemulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). We systematically varied the amount and type of cosolvent (water, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol), apolar continuous phase (cyclohexane, isooctane, isopar M, hexadecane), amount of cobalt salt, and molecular weight of the polymeric surfactant. The influence of those parameters on the particle size, size distribution, and particle morphology were investigated. Narrowly size-distributed hybrid particles with good colloidal stability could be obtained in a wide range of cobalt content between 5.7 and 22.6 wt % salt relative to the monomer. The addition of a cosolvent such as water not only promotes the loading of metal salt but also has a positive influence on narrowing the particle size distribution. We assume that generally narrowly size-distributed particles can be obtained for a large variety of combinations of polar/apolar phase by adjusting the balance between osmotic and Laplace pressure via the solubility of the metal salt in the continuous phase and lowering the interfacial tension by adjusting the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant. The results show a significant advantage of the inverse miniemulsion over the direct system with respect to the variability and total amount of metal salt without losing the narrow particle size distribution and colloidal stability. PMID:20112941

  1. The Effect of Nanoconfinemnt on Methyl Methacrylate Polymerization: Reactivity and Resulting Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haoyu; Yu, Ziniu; Hedden, Ronald; Simon, Sindee

    2014-03-01

    The effect of nanoconfinement is well known to affect the properties of polymers. In this work, free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) is performed in hydrophilic or hydrophobic 13 nm diameter controlled pore glass (CPG). Changes in polymerization kinetics and the properties of the synthesized polymer are quantified. Reaction kinetics and glass transition temperatures are followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After polymerization, the changes in the molecular weights and tacticity are measured using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Nanoconfinement is found to result in earlier onset of autoacceleration leading to the increase in both number-average and weight-average molecular weights, whereas the polydispersity index at full conversion decreases relative to the bulk value. Moreover, for both pore surfaces, the glass transition temperature increases compared with the bulk, but the increase in hydrophilic pores is more pronounced at 20 °C. In addition to the changes in molecular weight and Tg, the tacticity changes from syndiotactic-rich triads for the bulk PMMA to a higher percentage of isotacticity under nanoconfinement. Funding from the National Science Foundation CMMI 0826437 and CRIF MU grant CHE-1048553 is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Hydrophobic modification of polymethyl methacrylate as intraocular lenses material to improve the cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bailiang; Lin, Quankui; Shen, Chenghui; Tang, Junmei; Han, Yuemei; Chen, Hao

    2014-10-01

    The development of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after intraocular lenses (IOL) implantation for dealing with cataract is mainly due to the severe loss of the human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) during surgery contact. A novel poly (hedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-co-methyl methacrylate) copolymer (allyl POSS-PMMA) was synthesized by free radical polymerization method to promote the adhesion of HLECs. FT-IR and (1)H NMR measurements indicated the existence of POSS cage in the product, which demonstrated the successful synthesis of allyl POSS-PMMA copolymer. Effect of allyl POSS in the hybrids on crystal structure, surface wettability and morphology, optical transmission, thermodynamic properties and cytocompatibility was investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction peaks at 2θ∼11° and 12° indicated that POSS molecules had aggregated and crystallized. Thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimeter and optical transmission measurements confirmed that the allyl POSS-PMMA copolymer had high glass transition temperatures (more than 100°C) and good transparency. The hydrophilicity and morphology of PMMA and copolymers surfaces were characterized by static water contact angle and atomic force microscopy. The results revealed that the surface of the allyl POSS-PMMA copolymer displayed higher hydrophobicity and higher roughness than that of pure PMMA. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by morphology and activity measurement with HLECs in vitro. The results verified that the surface of allyl POSS-PMMA copolymer films had more HLECs adhesion and better spreading morphology than that of PMMA film. PMID:24972346

  3. Dual-Crosslinked Methacrylated Alginate Sub-Microspheres for Intracellular Chemotherapeutic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Ryan M.; Oldinski, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular delivery vehicles comprised of methacrylated alginate (Alg-MA) were developed for the internalization and release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). Alg-MA was synthesized via an anhydrous reaction, and a mixture of Alg-MA and DOX was formed into sub-microspheres using a water/oil emulsion. Covalently crosslinked sub-microspheres were formed via exposure to green light, in order to investigate effects of crosslinking on drug release and cell internalization, compared to traditional techniques such as ultra violet (UV) light. Crosslinking was performed using light exposure alone, or in combination with ionic crosslinking using calcium chloride (CaCl2). Alg-MA sub-microsphere diameters were between 88 – 617 nm, and zeta-potentials were between −20 and −37 mV. Using human lung epithelial carcinoma cells (A549s) as a model, cellular internalization was confirmed using flow cytometry; different sub-microsphere formulations varied the efficiency of internalization, with UV-crosslinked sub-microspheres achieving the highest internalization percentages. While blank (non-loaded) Alg-MA sub-microspheres were non-cytotoxic to A549s, DOX-loaded sub-microspheres significantly reduced mitochondrial activity after five days of culture. Photo-crosslinked Alg-MA sub-microspheres may be a potential chemotherapeutic delivery system for cancer treatment. PMID:27378419

  4. Evaluation of polymethyl methacrylate resin mechanical properties with incorporated halloysite nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study inspects the effect of incorporating halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin on its flexural strength, hardness, and Young's modulus. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four groups of acrylic resin powder were prepared. One group without HNTs was used as a control group and the other three groups contained 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 wt% HNTs. For each one, flexural strength, Young's modulus and hardness values were measured. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for comparison (P<.05). RESULTS At lower concentration (0.3 wt%) of HNT, there was a significant increase of hardness values but no significant increase in both flexural strength and Young's modulus values of PMMA resin. In contrast, at higher concentration (0.6 and 0.9 wt%), there was a significant decrease in hardness values but no significant decrease in flexural strength and Young's modulus values compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSION Addition of lower concentration of halloysite nanotubes to denture base materials could improve some of their mechanical properties. Improving the mechanical properties of acrylic resin base material could increase the patient satisfaction. PMID:27350849

  5. Surface-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) capillary electrophoresis microchips for protein and peptide analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jikun; Pan, Tao; Woolley, Adam T; Lee, Milton L

    2004-12-01

    Polymeric materials have emerged as appealing alternatives to conventional inorganic substrates for the fabrication of microscale analytical systems; however, native polymeric surfaces typically require covalent modification to ensure optimum biocompatibility. 2-Bromoisobutyryl bromide was immobilized on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates activated using an oxygen plasma. Atom-transfer radical polymerization was then performed to graft poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on the PMMA surface. PMMA microcapillary electrophoresis (muCE) devices made with the covalently modified surfaces exhibited substantially reduced electroosmotic flow and nonspecific adsorption of proteins on microchannel surfaces. Experiments using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated bovine serum albumin indicated that both column efficiency and migration time reproducibility were 1 order of magnitude better with derivatized compared to untreated PMMA muCE chips. Fast, reproducible, and efficient separations of proteins and peptides were demonstrated using the PEG-grafted PMMA muCE chips. All analyses were completed in less than 60 s, and separation efficiencies as high as 5.2 x10(4) plates for a 3.5-cm-long separation channel were obtained. These results demonstrate the general applicability of surface-grafted PMMA microdevices for a broad range of protein analyses. PMID:15571346

  6. Photomechanical actuator device based on disperse red 1 doped poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xianjun

    The photomechanical effect is the phenomenon involving any mechanical property change of a material induced by light exposure. Photomechanical devices can be built with superior performance over traditional devices and offer versatile control tactics. Previous experiments show that disperse red 1 azobenzene (DR1) doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) optical fiber has a fast photomechanical response upon asymmetrical 633nm laser irradiation originating in photoisomerization of the dopants between the cis and trans forms, which causes an elongation of the polymer fiber. In this work, laser light of 355nm wavelength is used to investigate the dynamics of the trans to cis photoisomerization process, which should result in length contraction of the DR1 doped PMMA polymer fiber. A three-point-contact optically-actuated beam controlling tilt mount is made and used as the measurement apparatus to study this process. The photomechanical fiber is observed to elongate upon UV irradiation. Numerical simulations, which take into account the coupled effect between the laser-induced temperature increase and population density change of the dye molecules, show that contraction of the fiber due to direct trans-cis photoisomerization is overwhelmed by elongation due to the photo-thermally-stimulated cis-trans isomerization under high intensity. An ink coated entrance face of the fiber is placed in the measurement tilt mount and is found to exhibit contraction in the fast process under low intensity without sacrificing the good signal to noise ratio enjoyed in the high intensity case.

  7. Surface segregation of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) in a mixture with poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Hirata, Toyoaki; Matsuno, Hisao; Tanaka, Masaru; Tanaka, Keiji

    2011-03-21

    Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) exhibits excellent blood compatibility. To understand why such a surface functionality exists, the surface of PMEA should be characterized in detail, structurally and dynamically, under not only ambient conditions, but also in water. However, a thin film of PMEA supported on a solid substrate can be easily broken, namely it is dewetted. Our strategy to overcome this difficulty is to mix PMEA with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Differential scanning calorimetry and cloud point measurements revealed that the PMEA/PMMA blend has a phase diagram with a lower critical solution temperature. The blend surface was also characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with microscopic observations. Although PMEA is preferentially segregated over PMMA at the blend surface due to its lower surface free energy, the extent of segregation in the as-prepared films was not sufficient to cover the surface. Annealing the blend film at an appropriate temperature, higher than the glass transition temperature and lower than the phase-separation temperature of the blend, enabled us to prepare a stable and flat surface that was perfectly covered with PMEA. PMID:21243167

  8. Mineralized gelatin methacrylate-based matrices induce osteogenic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Heemin; Shih, Yu-Ru V.; Hwang, Yongsung; Wen, Cai; Rao, Vikram; Seo, Timothy; Varghese, Shyni

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising cell source with pluripotency and self-renewal properties. Design of simple and robust biomaterials with an innate ability to induce lineage-specificity of hiPSCs is desirable to realize their applications in regenerative medicine. In this study, we investigated the potential of biomaterials containing calcium phosphate minerals to induce osteogenic differentiation of hiPSCs. hiPSCs cultured using mineralized gelatin methacrylate-based matrices underwent osteogenic differentiation ex vivo, both in two- dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cultures, in growth medium devoid of any osteogenic-inducing chemical components or growth factors. Our findings that osteogenic differentiation of hiPSCs can be achieved through biomaterial-based cues alone present new avenues for personalized regenerative medicine. Such biomaterials that could not only act as structural scaffolds, but could also provide tissue-specific functions such as directing stem cell differentiation commitment, have great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25153779

  9. Water-soluble polyelectrolyte complexes of Astramol poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers with poly(methacrylate) anion.

    PubMed

    Zhiryakova, Marina V; Izumrudov, Vladimir A

    2014-11-26

    Water-soluble complexes formed by pyrenyl-tagged poly(methacrylate) anion with cationic DAB-dendr-(NH2)x of five generations, x = 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 were prepared and studied. The ability of the dendrimers to quench the pyrenyl fluorescence was used to monitor formation/dissociation of the complexes by fluorescence quenching technique. In salt-free solutions, dissociation of the complexes occurred in highly acidic and highly alkaline media independently on the dendrimer generation, whereas stability of the complexes against destruction by added salt (NaCl) enhanced markedly with x increase. Phase separations were dependent on pH and charged ratio of the components, but independent of a dendrimer generation. By contrast, in water-salt solutions the generation had a profound impact on phase diagram manifested by a considerable extension of a heterogeneity region as x increased. These findings strongly suggest that the complexes obey the main regularities ascertained for polyelectrolyte complexes of oppositely charged polyions. The revealed possibility of preparing negatively charged and positively charged complexes with controllable stability and solubility demonstrates potentialities of Astramol dendrimers for design self-assembled and self-adjusted systems attractive for biotechnological and biomedical applications. PMID:25369241

  10. Dynamic mechanical analysis of single walled carbon nanotubes/polymethyl methacrylate nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Badawi; Al Hosiny, N.

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic mechanical properties of nanocomposite films with different ratios of single walled carbon nanotubes/polymethyl methacrylate (SWCNTs/PMMA) are studied. Nanocomposite films of different ratios (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 weight percent (wt%)) of SWCNTs/PMMA are fabricated by using a casting technique. The morphological and structural properties of both SWCNT powder and SWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposite films are investigated by using a high resolution transmission electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer respectively. The mechanical properties including the storage modulus, loss modulus, loss factor (tan δ) and stiffness of the nanocomposite film as a function of temperature are recorded by using a dynamic mechanical analyzer at a frequency of 1 Hz. Compared with pure PMMA film, the nanocomposite films with different ratios of SWCNTs/PMMA are observed to have enhanced storage moduli, loss moduli and high stiffness, each of which is a function of temperature. The intensity of the tan δ peak for pure PMMA film is larger than those of the nanocomposite films. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of SWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposite film shifts towards the higher temperature side with respect to pure PMMA film from 91.2 °C to 99.5 °C as the ratio of SWCNTs/PMMA increases from 0 to 2.0 wt%. Project supported by Taif University (Grant No. 1/435/3524).

  11. Highly Transparent and Toughened Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Films Containing Networks of Cellulose Nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong; Sliozberg, Yelena R; Snyder, James F; Steele, Joshua; Chantawansri, Tanya L; Orlicki, Joshua A; Walck, Scott D; Reiner, Richard S; Rudie, Alan W

    2015-11-18

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are a class of cellulosic nanomaterials with high aspect ratios that can be extracted from various natural sources. Their highly crystalline structures provide the nanofibrils with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The main challenges of CNFs in nanocomposite applications are associated with their high hydrophilicity, which makes CNFs incompatible with hydrophobic polymers. In this study, highly transparent and toughened poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite films were prepared using various percentages of CNFs covered with surface carboxylic acid groups (CNF-COOH). The surface groups make the CNFs interfacial interaction with PMMA favorable, which facilitate the homogeneous dispersion of the hydrophilic nanofibrils in the hydrophobic polymer and the formation of a percolated network of nanofibrils. The controlled dispersion results in high transparency of the nanocomposites. Mechanical analysis of the resulting films demonstrated that a low percentage loading of CNF-COOH worked as effective reinforcing agents, yielding more ductile and therefore tougher films than the neat PMMA film. Toughening mechanisms were investigated through coarse-grained simulations, where the results demonstrated that a favorable polymer-nanofibril interface together with percolation of the nanofibrils, both facilitated through hydrogen bonding interactions, contributed to the toughness improvement in these nanocomposites. PMID:26513136

  12. Evaluating surface roughness of a polyamide denture base material in comparison with poly (methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Abuzar, Menaka A; Bellur, Suman; Duong, Nancy; Kim, Billy B; Lu, Priscilla; Palfreyman, Nick; Surendran, Dharshan; Tran, Vinh T

    2010-12-01

    Polyamide denture base materials are more flexible than the commonly used poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). However polishability of polyamides has not been examined adequately. This study investigated the surface roughness (Ra) and clinical acceptability of samples of a polyamide denture base material and PMMA fabricated by injection moulding and traditional heat processing systems, respectively. Half of each sample surface was polished using the conventional technique (lathe with pumice followed by high shine buffs) and the other half was left unpolished. A profilometer was used to measure Ra along 3 tracks on each surface before and after polishing. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the two surfaces of the two materials for variations in Ra values. Polyamide denture base material when polished with conventional laboratory technique became more than 7 times smoother whereas processed PMMA when polished became more than 20 times smoother using the same polishing technique. However the surface roughness of polyamide is well within the accepted norm of 0.2 µm Ra. Polyamide produces a clinically acceptable smoothness after conventional polishing by lathe. PMID:21206160

  13. Tailoring the morphology of methacrylate ester-based monoliths for optimum efficiency in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Herrero-Martinez, José Manuel; Rozing, Gerard P; Schoenmakers, Peter J; Kok, Wim Th

    2005-11-15

    Methacrylate ester-based monolithic stationary phases were prepared in situ in fused-silica capillaries and simultaneously in vials. The influence of the composition of the polymerization mixture on the morphology was studied with mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption measurements. A high-density porous polymeric material with a unimodal pore-size distribution was prepared with 40 wt % monomers and 60 wt % solvent in the mixture. A low-density material, prepared with a 20:80 ratio of monomers versus pore-forming solvent, showed a bimodal pore-size distribution and a much finer structure than the high-density monolith. The characteristic pore size could be controlled by changing the ratio of pore-forming solvents. With increasing solvent polarity, both the pore size and the dimension of the globules increased. The best efficiency in the CEC mode was obtained with an average pore size of 600 nm. Low-density monoliths exhibited lower A- and C-terms than high-density monoliths. With the optimal monolithic material, a minimum plate height of 5 mum could be obtained. The low-density monolith also performed better in the HPLC mode, giving a minimum plate height of 15 mum and a much higher flow permeability than that of the high-density material. PMID:16285684

  14. A study of normoxic polymer gel using monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Ishak, Siti Atiqah; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Moktar, Mohd; Min, Ung Ngie

    2015-04-24

    The aim of this study is to determine the sensitivity of HEMA-polymer gel mixture consist of monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with different types of composition. Several composition of HEMA-polymer gel were fabricated and the gels were irradiated with radiation dose between 10 cGy to 100cGy by using x-ray machine and 100 cGy to 1400 cGy by using 6 MV photon beam energy of linear accelerator. The degree of polymerization was evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with dependence of R2-dose response. Polymer gel consists of cross-linker, anti-oxidant Tetrakis(Hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride solution (THPC) and oxygen scavenger hydroquinone shows a stable sensitivity with highest dose dependency. Besides, the results shows the stage polymerization consist of induction, propagation, termination, and chain transfer were dependence with type of chemical mixture and radiation dose. Thus, normoxic HEMA-polymer gel with the different gel formulations can have a better dose resolution and an appropriate recipe must be selected to increase of the sensitivity required and the stability of the dosimeter.

  15. A study of normoxic polymer gel using monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Siti Atiqah; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Moktar, Mohd; Min, Ung Ngie

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the sensitivity of HEMA-polymer gel mixture consist of monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with different types of composition. Several composition of HEMA-polymer gel were fabricated and the gels were irradiated with radiation dose between 10 cGy to 100cGy by using x-ray machine and 100 cGy to 1400 cGy by using 6 MV photon beam energy of linear accelerator. The degree of polymerization was evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with dependence of R2-dose response. Polymer gel consists of cross-linker, anti-oxidant Tetrakis(Hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride solution (THPC) and oxygen scavenger hydroquinone shows a stable sensitivity with highest dose dependency. Besides, the results shows the stage polymerization consist of induction, propagation, termination, and chain transfer were dependence with type of chemical mixture and radiation dose. Thus, normoxic HEMA-polymer gel with the different gel formulations can have a better dose resolution and an appropriate recipe must be selected to increase of the sensitivity required and the stability of the dosimeter.

  16. Morphological Origin of Thermomechanical Behavior in Semicrystalline Ethylene/Methacrylic Acid Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Katsuyuki; Register, Richard A.

    2006-03-01

    Two peculiar and intriguing phenomena in ethylene/methacrylic acid (E/MAA) ionomers are an initial sharp increase in stiffness with neutralization and an inverse dependence of Young’s modulus on crystallinity. We have identified how the polyethylene crystallites, amorphous polymer segments, and ionic aggregates combine to produce these unusual effects. At temperatures just below the melting point of the primary crystallites, the ionomers can be satisfactorily described as two-phase composites of crystallites and ionically-crosslinked rubber, but at room temperature, the modulus is much greater. We trace this effect to a synergy between the ionic aggregates and secondary crystallites, which together form percolated rigid pathways through the amorphous phase at room temperature, generating a far higher modulus than one would anticipate from the modest crystallinity and ion content. When the secondary crystallites melt and/or the segments in the regions of restricted mobility surrounding the aggregates devitrify, these paths break down and the simple two-phase composite description is recovered.

  17. Biobased poly(lactides)/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends: A perfect association for durable and smart applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Cédric; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Dubois, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Biobased poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) undoubtedly represents an interesting alternative to petro-based polymers, but still remains excluded from most of high-value and durable applications. The introduction of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in poly(lactides)-based materials is thereby exposed to develop miscible polymer blends with new functionalities and superior thermomechanical properties. The miscibility between PLLA and PMMA was first evaluated and only miscible blends were recovered using melt-processes. Interestingly, these miscible binary blends are marked by a high transparency with tunable, enhanced and promising thermomechanical and barrier performances. PMMA was also found to be miscible with stereocomplexable poly(lactides) and, surprisingly, the amount of PLA stereocomplexes formed during high-speed cooling is significantly enhanced by PMMA. Consequently, highly-crystalline ternary PLLA/PDLA /PMMA blends can be easily produced with impressive and complex thermomechanical behavior. Shape-memory properties of miscible PLLA / PMMA blends were also investigated and triple-shape memory effects were demonstrated. Under appropriate stretching conditions, multiple shapes could be stored and recover. The symmetric formulation was found to be particularly suitable for advanced triple-shape memory applications.

  18. Diffusion Coefficients of Water and Leachables in Methacrylate-based Crosslinked Polymers using Absorption Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Park, Jonggu; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of water into dentin adhesive polymers and leaching of unpolymerized monomer from the adhesive are linked to their mechanical softening and hydrolytic degradation. Therefore, diffusion coefficient data are critical for the mechanical design of these polymeric adhesives. In this study, diffusion coefficients of water and leachables were obtained for sixteen methacrylate-based crosslinked polymers using absorption experiments. The experimental mass change data was interpreted using numerical solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equations. The calculated diffusion coefficients varied from 1.05 × 10−8 cm2/sec (co-monomer TMTMA) to 3.15 × 10−8 cm2/sec (co-monomer T4EGDMA). Correlation of the diffusion coefficients with crosslink density and hydrophilicity showed an inverse trend (R2 = 0.41). The correlation of diffusion coefficient with crosslink density and hydrophilicity are closer for molecules differing by simple repeat units (R2 = 0.95). These differences in the trends reveal mechanisms of interaction of the diffusing water with the polymer structure. PMID:22430592

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Weir, Michael D.; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05). In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:25046750

  20. Improved covalent immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on macroporous glycidyl methacrylate-based copolymers.

    PubMed

    Prodanović, Olivera; Prokopijević, Miloš; Spasojević, Dragica; Stojanović, Zeljko; Radotić, Ksenija; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D; Prodanović, Radivoje

    2012-11-01

    A macroporous copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, poly(GMA-co-EGDMA), with various surface characteristics and mean pore size diameters ranging from 44 to 200 nm was synthesized, modified with 1,2-diaminoethane, and tested as a carrier for immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by two covalent methods, glutaraldehyde and periodate. The highest specific activity of around 35 U g(-1) dry weight of carrier was achieved on poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) copolymers with mean pore diameters of 200 and 120 nm by the periodate method. A study of deactivation kinetics at 65 °C and in 80 % dioxane revealed that periodate immobilization also produced an appreciable stabilization of the biocatalyst, while stabilization factor depended strongly on the surface characteristics of the copolymers. HRP immobilized on copolymer with a mean pore diameter of 120 nm by periodate method showing not only the highest specific activity but also good stability was further characterized. It appeared that the immobilization resulted in the stabilization of enzyme over a broader pH range while the Michaelis constant value (K (m)) of the immobilized HRP was 10.8 mM, approximately 5.6 times higher than that of the free enzyme. After 6 cycles of repeated use in a batch reactor for pyrogallol oxidation, the immobilized HRP retained 45 % of its original activity. PMID:22941271