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Sample records for methanol reformate gas

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  5. Development of a selective oxidation CO removal reactor for methanol reformate gas

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Shunji; Takatani, Yoshiaki; Terada, Seijo; Ohtani, Shinichi

    1996-12-31

    This report forms part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns laboratory-scale tests aimed at reducing by selective oxidation to a level below 10 ppm the carbon monoxide (CO) contained to a concentration of around 1% in reformate gas.

  6. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  7. Methanol Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Daniel R.; Dagle, Robert A.; Holladay, Jamie D.

    2007-09-11

    Review article covering developments in methanol steam reforming in the context of PEM fuel cell power systems. Subjects covered include methanol background, use, and production, comparison to other fuels, power system considerations, militrary requirements, competing technologies, catalyst development, and reactor and system development and demonstration.

  8. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  9. Single Step Bi-reforming and Oxidative Bi-reforming of Methane (Natural Gas) with Steam and Carbon Dioxide to Metgas (CO-2H2) for Methanol Synthesis: Self-Sufficient Effective and Exclusive Oxygenation of Methane to Methanol with Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Mathew, Thomas; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya

    2015-07-15

    Catalysts based on suitable metal oxide supports, such as NiO/MgO and CoO/MgO, were shown to be active for single step bi-reforming, the combined steam and dry reforming of methane or natural gas with H2O and CO2 exclusively to metgas (CO-2H2) for efficient methanol synthesis. Reactions were carried out in a tubular flow reactor under pressures up to 42 bar at 830-910 °C. Using a CH4 to steam to CO2 ratio of ∼3:2:1 in the gas feed, the H2/CO ratio of 2:1 was achieved, which is desired for subsequent methanol synthesis. The needed 2/1 steam/CO2 feed ratio together with the reaction heat for the endothermic bi-reforming can be conveniently obtained by the complete combustion of a quarter part of the overall used methane (natural gas) with oxygen of the air (oxidative bi-reforming). Complete combustion of a part of methane followed by bi-reforming leads to the production of metgas (H2/CO in 2:1 mol ratio) for self-sufficient exclusive methanol synthesis. The long sought after but elusive efficient and selective oxygenation of methane to methanol is thus achieved in an effective and economic way without any oxidation byproduct formation according to CH4 + 1/2O2 → CH3OH. PMID:26086090

  10. Methanol simplifies gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Minkkinen, A.; Jonchere, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    Recent development of a simple single solvent technology goes far to meet the complete gas processing needs. The use of methanol, as practiced in the IPFEXOL process, where it is used not only as a hydrate inhibitor and antifreeze agent but as an acid gas extraction solvent makes the complete gas processing scheme simple and probably the most cost effective as well. This paper presents several gas processing applications where water, hydrocarbon liquids and acid gases are removed from natural wellhead production gases. Water and hydrocarbon liquids removal is achieved to the extent necessary to make a pipeline transportable gas or meet downstream cryogenic processing demands. These are illustrated with recent applications of the IFPEX-1 process successfully operating today in North America and the Far East. A recent North Sea offshore project is highlighted showing the particular advantages in offshore applications. For the removal of water and hydrocarbon liquids together with a substantial quantity of not only CO{sub 2} but H{sub 2}S, the most complete methanol use scheme is presented. This is illustrated with the development of an advanced version of the IFPEX-2 process containing some innovative but simple equipment concepts which yields high pressure dry acid gases for reinjection or a high quality acid gas destined to Claus type sulfur recovery.

  11. Methanol steam reforming in a fuel cell drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, W.; Emonts, B.; Peters, R.

    Within the framework of the Joule III project a compact methanol reformer (CMR) with a specific weight of 2 kg/kW (lower heating value of H 2) was developed. This CMR contains a methanol and water vaporizer, a steam reformer, a heat carrier circuit and a catalytic burner unit. A laboratory fixed-bed reactor consisting of four tubes which could be filled with different amounts of catalyst was used to investigate the catalyst performance and the ageing behaviour. A hydrogen yield of 10 m N3/(h l Cat) can be achieved at 280°C. In this case, the methanol conversion rate is 95% and the dry product gas contains 0.9% CO. A linear decrease of the catalyst activity was observed which can be described by a loss of active catalyst mass of 5.5 mg/h. The catalyst was operated for more than 1000 h without having exhibited activity losses that made a catalyst change necessary. Besides, the stationary behaviour of the reforming reactor, the dynamic behaviour was studied. The time needed for start-up procedures has to be improved for reformers of a next generation. Moreover, the hydrogen production during reformer load changes will be discussed. Simulations of the power train in driving cycles show the different states of a reformer during dynamic operation.

  12. Methanol reformers for fuel cell powered vehicles: Some design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel cells are being developed for use in automotive propulsion systems as alternatives for the internal combustion engine in buses, vans, passenger cars. The two most important operational requirements for a stand-alone fuel cell power system for a vehicle are the ability to start up quickly and the ability to supply the necessary power on demand for the dynamically fluctuating load. Methanol is a likely fuel for use in fuel cells for transportation applications. It is a commodity chemical that is manufactured from coal, natural gas, and other feedstocks. For use in a fuel cell, however, the methanol must first be converted (reformed) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The desired features for a methanol reformer include rapid start-up, good dynamic response, high fuel conversion, small size and weight, simple construction and operation, and low cost. In this paper the present the design considerations that are important for developing such a reformer, namely: (1) a small catalyst bed for quick starting, small size, and low weight; (2) multiple catalysts for optimum operation of the dissociation and reforming reactions; (3) reforming by direct heat transfer partial oxidation for rapid response to fluctuating loads; and (4) thermal independence from the rest of the fuel cell system. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Materials experience in methanol reforming units

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, K.L.; Hoffman, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    Metallurgical evaluations were performed on samples of Type 310 and aluminized 304 SS after long-term, high temperature exposure in methanol reforming service. The secondary phases were identified and the effectiveness of aluminizing at inhibiting metal dusting was examined. Secondary phases adversely affect the materials service life and repairability. Aluminizing effectively inhibits metal dusting for at least 13--14 years. Metal dusting is most severe in crevices on bare metal.

  14. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Shen, Chia-Chieh; Yeh, Chuin-Tih; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2011-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well. PMID:22319407

  15. Hydrogen from methanol for fuel cells in mobile systems: development of a compact reformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, B.; Boe, M.; Bøgild-Hansen, J.; Bröckerhoff, P.; Colsman, G.; Emonts, B.; Menzer, R.; Riedel, E.

    On-board generation of hydrogen from methanol with a reformer in connection with the use of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an attractive option for a passenger car drive. Special considerations are required to obtain low weight and volume. Furthermore, the PEMFC of today cannot tolerate more than 10 ppm of carbon monoxide in the fuel. Therefore a gas conditioning step is needed after the methanol reformer. Our main research activities focus on the conceptual design of a drive system for a passenger car with methanol reformer and PEMFC: engineering studies with regard to different aspects of this design including reformer, catalytic burner, gas conditioning, balances of the fuel cycles and basic design of a compact methanol reformer. The work described here was carried out within the framework of a JOULE II project of the European Union (1993-1995). Extensive experimental studies have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (KFA) in Germany and at Haldor Topsøe A/S in Denmark.

  16. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  17. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  18. Compact methanol reformer test for fuel-cell powered light-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, B.; Bøgild Hansen, J.; Lœgsgaard Jørgensen, S.; Höhlein, B.; Peters, R.

    On-board production of hydrogen from methanol based on a steam reformer in connection with the use of low-temperature fuel-cells (PEMFC) is an attractive option as energy conversion unit for light-duty vehicles. A steam reforming process at higher pressures with an external burner offers advantages in comparison to a steam reformer with integrated partial oxidation in terms of total efficiency for electricity production. The main aim of a common project carried out by the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ), Haldor Topsøe A/S (HTAS) and Siemens AG is to design, to construct and to test a steam reformer reactor concept (HTAS) with external catalytic burner (FZJ) as heat source as well as catalysts for heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen production (HTAS), concepts for gas treatment (HTAS, FZJ) and a low-temperature fuel cell (Siemens). Based on the experimental results obtained so far concerning methanol reformers, catalytic burners and gas conditioning units, our report describes the total system, a test unit and preliminary test results related to a hydrogen production capacity of 50 kW (LHV) and dynamic operating conditions. This hydrogen production system is aimed at reducing the specific weight (<2 kg/kWth or 4 kg/kWel) combined with high efficiency for net electricity generation from methanol (about 50%) and low specific emissions. The application of Pd-membranes as gas cleaning unit fulfill the requirements with high hydrogen permeability and low cost of the noble metal.

  19. Kinetics, simulation and optimization of methanol steam reformer for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yongtaek; Stenger, Harvey G.

    To evaluate reaction rates for making hydrogen from methanol, kinetic studies of methanol decomposition, methanol steam reforming, the water gas shift reaction, and CO selective oxidation have been performed. These reactions were studied in a microreactor testing unit using a commercial Cu-ZnO/Al 2O 3 catalyst for the first three reactions and Pt-Fe/γ-alumina catalyst for the last reaction. The activity tests were performed between 120 and 325 °C at atmospheric pressure with a range of feed rates and compositions. For methanol decomposition, a simplified reaction network of five elementary reactions was proposed and parameters for all five rate expressions were obtained using non-linear least squares optimization, numerical integration of a one-dimensional PFR model, and extensive experimental data. Similar numerical analysis was carried out to obtain the rate expressions for methanol steam reaction, the water gas shift reaction, and CO selective oxidation. Combining the three reactors with several heat exchange options, an integrated methanol reformer system was designed and simulated using MATLAB. Using this simulation, the product distribution, the effects of reactor volume and temperature, and the options of water and air injection rates were studied. Also, a series of optimization tests were conducted to give maximum hydrogen yield and/or maximum economic profit.

  20. Characterization of ZrO 2-promoted Cu/ZnO/nano-Al 2O 3 methanol steam reforming catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Samuel D.; Neal, Luke M.; Everett, Michael L.; Hoflund, Gar B.; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena E.

    2010-10-01

    Three Cu/ZnO/ZrO 2/Al 2O 3 methanol reforming catalysts were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalysts which contained ZrO 2 from a monoclinic nanoparticle ZrO 2 precursor exhibit both a higher activity toward the methanol steam reforming reaction and a lower CO production rate compared to catalysts composed of an XRD-amorphous ZrO 2 produced by impregnation using a Zr(NO 3) 2 precursor. The presence of a monoclinic phase appears to result in an increased charge transfer between the Zr and Cu species, as evidenced by a relatively electron-rich ZrO 2 phase and a partially oxidized Cu species on reduced catalysts. This electron deficient Cu species is more reactive toward the methanol reforming reaction and partially suppresses CO formation through the reverse water gas shift or methanol decomposition reactions.

  1. Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalk, T. R.; Mccall, D. M.; Mccanlies, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state were discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2H2 + CO and 3H2 + CO2 respectively), and liquid methanol. Results are presented for engine performance and emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, at various throttle settings and engine speeds. Operation on dissociated and steam reformed methanol was characterized by flashback (violent propagation of a flame into the intake manifold) which limited operation to lower power output than was obtainable using liquid methanol. It was concluded that: an automobile could not be operated solely on dissociated or steam reformed methanol over the entire required power range - a supplementary fuel system or power source would be necessary to attain higher powers; the use of reformed mechanol, compared to liquid methanol, may result in a small improvement in thermal efficiency in the low power range; dissociated methanol is a better fuel than steam reformed methanol for use in a spark ignition engine; and use of dissociated or steam reformed methanol may result in lower exhaust emissions compared to liquid methanol.

  2. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Semelsberger, T. A.; Borup, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

  3. Hydrogen generation for fuel-cell power systems by high-pressure catalytic methanol-steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Peppley, B.A.; Amphlett, J.C.; Kearns, L.M.; Mann, R.F.; Roberge, P.R.

    1997-12-31

    Results of kinetic studies of methanol-steam reforming on a commercial low-temperature shift catalyst, BASF K3-110, are reported. A comprehensive Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model of methanol-steam reforming on Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was used to simulate a methanol-steam reformer operating at pressures up to 45 bar. At constant temperature and steam-to-methanol ratio, increasing the pressure results in an increase in the initial rate of the reaction and a corresponding improvement in reformer performance. This is partially offset as the equilibrium conversion decreases with increasing pressure. The rate of reaction is highest at low conversion. The result is that there is a large heat demand near the entrance of the catalyst bed which causes a strong endothermic effect and a corresponding temperature minimum. In the worst case, this temperature minimum can be below the dewpoint temperature of the operating fluid causing a loss in reformer performance due to condensation in the pores of the catalyst. The situation is exacerbated by the potential for thermal damage to other regions of the catalyst bed if the heating temperature is increased to overcome the endothermic effect. Catalyst deactivation at elevated pressures was also studied in an 80 hour experiment at 260 C. Increasing the operating pressure did not accelerate the rate of deactivation for the typical gas compositions encountered during normal reformer operation. No catalyst fouling was observed for experimental pressures as high as 40 bar at steam-to-methanol ratios greater than unity even though the tendency for carbon formation increases with pressure. Catalyst selectivity improved at lower conversion due to kinetic effects. The equilibrium CO concentration, however, does not vary significantly with pressure because of the stoichiometry of the water-gas shift reaction.

  4. A passively-fed methanol steam reformer heated with two-stage bi-fueled catalytic combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Kai-Fan; Wong, Shwin-Chung

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents further progress on our simple novel passively-fed methanol steam reformer. The present study focuses on the development of a catalytic combustor workable with both hydrogen and methanol fuels. The aim is to reutilize the exhaust hydrogen from a fuel cell under stable operation but burn methanol during the start-up. On a copper plate, the catalytic combustor in a u-turn channel is integrally machined under a two-turn serpentine-channel reformer. To resolve the highly different fuel reactivities, a suitably diluted catalyst formula demonstrates uniform temperature distributions burning with either liquid methanol or an H2/CO2 mixture simulating the exhaust gas from a fuel cell. In a two-stage process, it first takes 25 min to reach 270 °C by burning methanol. After the fuel is switched to the H2/CO2 mixture, another 20 min is needed to attain an optimal steady state which yields a high methanol conversion of 95% and acceptably low CO fraction of 1.04% at a reaction temperature of 278 °C. The H2 and CO2 concentrations are 75.1% and 23.6%.

  5. Controller design and experiment for autothermal reforming of methanol in miniature reactor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiangang; Zhuang, Hong; Yang, Qinmin; Wang, Xuefei; Zheng, Jianfeng; Chen, Jinshui; Sun, Youxian

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a miniature methanol fuel processor and its controller design is introduced for onboard hydrogen production. The hydrogen is generated via autothermal reforming of methanol. The control scheme consists of a hydrogen flow rate controller and a reforming temperature controller. To deal with uncertain system dynamics and external disturbance, an adaptive sliding mode control algorithm is adopted as the hydrogen flow rate controller for regulating hydrogen flow rate by manipulating methanol flow rate. Additionally, a high-gain observer is implemented to estimate the unmeasurable system state. The stability of closed-loop system is guaranteed by standard Lyapunov analysis. Furthermore, a variable ratio control law is employed as the reforming temperature controller to achieve steady reforming temperature by adjusting the reforming air flow rate. Finally, the effectiveness of the entire system is testified by experimental means. PMID:24398056

  6. Rapid catalytic processes in reforming of methane and successive synthesis of methanol and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Tomoyuki

    1997-11-01

    In order to obtain high quality fuels and basic raw materials for petrochemical industries, novel catalysts which enable the realization of new synthetic routes have been investigated. First, a highly active Rh-modified Ni-based composite catalyst, NiCe 2O 3PtRh, supported on a ceramic fiber in a plate shape was developed, which reformed methane into the syngas having an appropriate ratio of H2/CO. Furthermore, more combustible ethane or propane was added into the reaction gas and its catalytic combustion was allowed to occur on the same catalyst. The combustion heat compensated the reforming heat resulting in an extraordinarily high space-time yield of hydrogen, as high as 10,000 mol/1·h, even under the condition of a very short contact time, 5 ms, and a very low furnace temperature at around 400°C. Next, a highly active catalyst for methanol synthesis from CO 2-rich or CO-rich syngases was developed. A Cu-based CuZnCrAlGa mixed oxide catalyst was prepared by the uniform gelation method and it was mixed with Pd supported on χ-alumina. The composite catalyst exhibited a much higher activity than the conventional catalyst prepared by the precipitation method and a space-time yield of methanol of 1,300 and 6,730 g/l·h was amounted, respectively, from CO 2-rich and CO-rich syngases under 80 atm and at 270°C. Finally, the products obtained as mentioned above were introduced into the reactor, which was connected in series and the methanol was totally converted into hydrocarbons. In the case of a HGa-silicate catalyst, gasoline was obtained at as high a value as 1,860 g/l·h in space-time yield, and in the case of SAPO-34, ethylene and propylene were obtained with an equivalent selectivity.

  7. A MEMS-based reformed methanol fuel cell for portable power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, J. D.; Upadhye, R. S.; Graff, R. T.; Spadaccini, C.; Park, H. G.; Hart, E. K.

    2007-09-01

    A reformed methanol fuel cell system is described. The use of a microfluidic fuel processor enables component scaling and integration sufficient to achieve power sources in the 2 10 W regime that are competitive in size and energy density in comparison to alternative power sources. While carbon monoxide tolerance of proton conducting membranes has typically limited the performance of reformed methanol fuel cells, phosphoric-acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been tested that exhibit no degradation for carbon monoxide >2% mole fraction. Further benefits of the PBI membrane include operating temperature of 150 200 °C, and no need for water to assist protonic conduction. As a result, a chemically and thermally robust fuel cell power source is realized. Results of methanol steam reforming and catalytic combustor heating elements formed in a silicon MEMS platform, and PBI membrane performance with reformate fuel feed will be discussed.

  8. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  9. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David B.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  10. The Effects of PdZn Crystallite Size on Methanol Steam Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Chin, Ya-Huei; Wang, Yong

    2007-11-30

    Exceptional activity and selectivity of Pd/ZnO catalysts for methanol steam reforming have been attributed to the formation of PdZn alloy. In this paper, we evaluated the crystallite size effects of PdZn alloy on methanol steam reforming. An organic preparation method was used to avoid the complexity from the alteration of ZnO morphology typically associated with the conventional aqueous preparation method. Both Pd loading and reduction temperature (>350ºC) were used to vary the crystallite size of PdZn alloy. Experimental activity studies and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterizations indicated that formation of large sized PdZn crystallites exhibit high reactivity and low CO selectivity during methanol steam reforming.

  11. In situ XPS study of methanol reforming on PdGa near-surface intermetallic phases

    PubMed Central

    Rameshan, Christoph; Stadlmayr, Werner; Penner, Simon; Lorenz, Harald; Mayr, Lukas; Hävecker, Michael; Blume, Raoul; Rocha, Tulio; Teschner, Detre; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Memmel, Norbert; Klötzer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering were used to study the preparation, (thermo)chemical and catalytic properties of 1:1 PdGa intermetallic near-surface phases. Deposition of several multilayers of Ga metal and subsequent annealing to 503–523 K led to the formation of a multi-layered 1:1 PdGa near-surface state without desorption of excess Ga to the gas phase. In general, the composition of the PdGa model system is much more variable than that of its PdZn counterpart, which results in gradual changes of the near-surface composition with increasing annealing or reaction temperature. In contrast to near-surface PdZn, in methanol steam reforming, no temperature region with pronounced CO2 selectivity was observed, which is due to the inability of purely intermetallic PdGa to efficiently activate water. This allows to pinpoint the water-activating role of the intermetallic/support interface and/or of the oxide support in the related supported PdxGa/Ga2O3 systems, which exhibit high CO2 selectivity in a broad temperature range. In contrast, corresponding experiments starting on the purely bimetallic model surface in oxidative methanol reforming yielded high CO2 selectivity already at low temperatures (∼460 K), which is due to efficient O2 activation on PdGa. In situ detected partial and reversible oxidative Ga segregation on intermetallic PdGa is associated with total oxidation of intermediate C1 oxygenates to CO2. PMID:22875996

  12. Non-syngas direct steam reforming of methanol to hydrogen and carbon dioxide at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Tong, Weiyi; West, Adam; Cheung, Kevin; Li, Tong; Smith, George; Guo, Yanglong; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2012-01-01

    A non-syngas direct steam reforming route is investigated for the conversion of methanol to hydrogen and carbon dioxide over a CuZnGaO(x) catalyst at 150-200 °C. This route is in marked contrast with the conventional complex route involving steam reformation to syngas (CO/H2) at high temperature, followed by water gas shift and CO cleanup stages for hydrogen production. Here we report that high quality hydrogen and carbon dioxide can be produced in a single-step reaction over the catalyst, with no detectable CO (below detection limit of 1 ppm). This can be used to supply proton exchange membrane fuel cells for mobile applications without invoking any CO shift and cleanup stages. The working catalyst contains, on average, 3-4 nm copper particles, alongside extremely small size of copper clusters stabilized on a defective ZnGa2O4 spinel oxide surface, providing hydrogen productivity of 393.6 ml g(-1)-cat h(-1) at 150 °C. PMID:23187630

  13. Performance evaluation of a proof-of-concept 70 W internal reforming methanol fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgouropoulos, G.; Schlicker, S.; Schelhaas, K.-P.; Papavasiliou, J.; Papadimitriou, K. D.; Theodorakopoulou, E.; Gourdoupi, N.; Machocki, A.; Ioannides, T.; Kallitsis, J. K.; Kolb, G.; Neophytides, S.

    2016-03-01

    A proof-of-concept 70 W Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell (IRMFC) stack including Balance-of-Plant (BoP) was designed, assembled and tested. Advent TPS® high-temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane electrode assemblies were employed for fuel cell operation at 200 °C. In order to avoid phosphoric acid poisoning of the reformer, the anode electrocatalyst of each cell was indirectly adjoined, via a separation plate, to a highly active CuMnAlOx catalyst coated onto copper foam, which served as methanol reforming layer. The reformer was in-situ converting the methanol/steam feed to the required hydrogen (internal reforming concept) at 200 °C, which was readily oxidized at the anode electrodes. The operation of the IRMFC was supported through a number of BoP components consisting of a start-up subsystem (air blower, evaporator and monolithic burner), a combined afterburner/evaporator device, methanol/water supply and data acquisition units (reactants/products analysis, temperature control, flow control, system load/output control). Depending on the composition of the liquid MeOH/H2O feed streams, current densities up to 0.18 A cm-2 and power output up to 70 W could be obtained with remarkable repeatability. Specific targets for improvement of the efficiency were identified.

  14. Bi-reforming of methane from any source with steam and carbon dioxide exclusively to metgas (CO-2H2) for methanol and hydrocarbon synthesis.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Prakash, G K Surya

    2013-01-16

    A catalyst based on nickel oxide on magnesium oxide (NiO/MgO) thermally activated under hydrogen is effective for the bi-reforming with steam and CO(2) (combined steam and dry reforming) of methane as well as natural gas in a tubular flow reactor at elevated pressures (5-30 atm) and temperatures (800-950 °C). By adjusting the CO(2)-to-steam ratio in the gas feed, the H(2)/CO ratio in the produced syn-gas could be easily adjusted in a single step to the desired value of 2 for methanol and hydrocarbon synthesis. PMID:23256664

  15. Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

    2007-04-13

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Süd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct

  16. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  17. An introduction of CO₂ conversion by dry reforming with methane and new route of low-temperature methanol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Yang, Guohui; Tao, Kai; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Tan, Yisheng; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2013-08-20

    Carbon dioxide is one of the highest contributors to the greenhouse effect, as well as a cheap and nontoxic building block for single carbon source chemistry. As such, CO₂ conversion is one of most important research areas in energy and environment sciences, as well as in catalysis technology. For chemical conversion of CO₂, natural gas (mainly CH₄) is a promising counterpart molecule to the CO₂-related reaction, due to its high availability and low price. More importantly, being able to convert CH₄ to useful fuels and molecules is advantageous, because it is also a kind of "greenhouse effect" gas, and can be an energy alternative to petroleum oil. In this Account, we discuss our development of efficient catalysts with precisely designed nanostructure for CO₂ reforming of CH₄ to produce syngas (mixture of CO and H₂), which can then be converted to many chemicals and energy products. This new production flow can establish a GTL (gas-to-liquid) industry, being currently pushed by the shale gas revolution. From the viewpoint of GTL industry, developing a catalyst for CO₂ reforming of CH₄ is a challenge, because they need a very high production rate to make the huge GTL methane reformer as small as possible. In addition, since both CO₂ and CH₄ give off carbon deposits that deactivate non-precious metallic catalysts very quickly, the total design of catalyst support and supported metallic nanoparticles is necessary. We present a simple but useful method to prepare bimodal catalyst support, where small pores are formed inside large ones during the self-organization of nanoparticles from solution. Large pores enhance the mass transfer rate, while small pores provide large surface areas to disperse active metallic nanoparticles. More importantly, building materials for small pores can also be used as promoters or cocatalysts to further enhance the total activity and stability. Produced syngas from methane reforming is generally catalytically

  18. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  19. Methanol steam reforming in microreactor with constructal tree-shaped network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongping; Zhang, Chengbin; Wu, Rui; Shi, Mingheng

    2011-08-01

    The construcal tree-shaped network is introduced into the design of a methanol steam microreactor in the context of optimization of the flow configuration. A three-dimensional model for methanol steam reaction in this designed microreactor is developed and numerically analyzed. The methanol conversion, CO concentration in the product and the total pressure drop of the gases in the microreactor with constructal tree-shaped network are evaluated and compared with those in the serpentine reactor. It is found that the reaction of methanol steam reforming is enhanced in the constructal tree-shaped microreactor, since the tree-shaped reactor configuration, which acts an optimizer for the reactant distribution, provides a reaction space with larger surface-to-volume ratio and the reduction of reactant velocities in the branches. Compared with the serpentine microreactor, the constructal reactor possesses a higher methanol conversion rate accompanied with a higher CO concentration. The conversion rate of the constructal microreactor is more than 10% over that of serpentine reactor. More particularly, the reduction of flow distance makes the constructal microreactor still possess almost the same pressure drop as the corresponding serpentine reactor, despite that the bifurcations induce extra local pressure loss, and the reduction of channel size in branches also causes pressure losses.

  20. Hynol -- An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO{sub 2} emission

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji

    1993-10-01

    The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO{sub 2} emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (a) hydrogasification of biomass, (b) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (c) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H{sub 2}-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

  1. Hynol: An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO2 emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji

    1993-10-01

    The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO2 emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (1) hydrogasification of biomass, (2) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (3) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H2-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO2 emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

  2. A non-syn-gas catalytic route to methanol production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Tar; Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Liao, Fenglin; Young, Neil; Nellist, Peter; Dent, Andrew; Kroner, Anna; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2012-01-01

    Methanol is an important platform molecule for chemical synthesis and its high energy density also renders it a good candidate as a cleaner transportation fuel. At present, methanol is manufactured from natural gas via the indirect syn-gas route. Here we show that ethylene glycol, a versatile chemical derived from biomass or fossil fuels, can be directly converted to methanol in hydrogen with high selectivity over a Pd/Fe(2)O(3) co-precipitated catalyst. This opens up a possibility for diversification in natural resources for energy-starved countries. The working catalyst contains extremely small 'PdFe' clusters and metal adatoms on defective iron oxide to give the required metal-support interaction for the novel synthesis. PMID:22968696

  3. Bio-methanol from Bio-oil Reforming Syngas Using Dual-reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tong-qi; Yan, Shi-zhi; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Song-bai; Liu, Yong; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-08-01

    A dual-reactor, assembled with the on-line syngas conditioning and methanol synthesis, was successfully applied for high efficient conversion of rich CO2 bio-oil derived syngas to bio-methanol. In the forepart catalyst bed reactor, the catalytic conversion can effectively adjust the rich-CO2 crude bio-syngas into the CO-containing bio-syngas using the CuZnAlZr catalyst. After the on-line syngas conditioning at 450 °C, the CO2/CO ratio in the bio-syngas significantly decreased from 6.3 to 1.2. In the rearward catalyst bed reactor, the conversion of the conditioned bio-syngas to bio-methanol shows the maximum yield about 1.21 kg/(kgcatal·h) MeOH with a methanol selectivity of 97.9% at 260 °C and 5.05 MPa using conventional CuZnAl catalyst, which is close to the level typically obtained in the conventional methanol synthesis process using natural gas. The influences of temperature, pressure and space velocity on the bio-methanol synthesis were also investigated in detail.

  4. CO(2)-selective methanol steam reforming on In-doped Pd studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rameshan, Christoph; Lorenz, Harald; Mayr, Lukas; Penner, Simon; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Arrigo, Rosa; Haevecker, Michael; Blume, Raoul; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert; Klötzer, Bernhard

    2012-11-01

    In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (in situ XPS) was used to study the structural and catalytic properties of Pd-In near-surface intermetallic phases in correlation with previously studied PdZn and PdGa.Room temperature deposition of ∼4 monolayer equivalents (MLEs) of In metal on Pd foil and subsequent annealing to 453 K in vacuum yields a ∼1:1 Pd/In near-surface multilayer intermetallic phase. This Pd(1)In(1) phase exhibits a similar "Cu-like" electronic structure and indium depth distribution as its methanol steam reforming (MSR)-selective multilayer Pd(1)Zn(1) counterpart.Catalytic characterization of the multilayer Pd(1)In(1) phase in MSR yielded a CO(2)-selectivity of almost 100% between 493 and 550 K. In contrast to previously studied In(2)O(3)-supported PdIn nanoparticles and pure In(2)O(3), intermediate formaldehyde is only partially converted to CO(2) using this Pd(1)In(1) phase. Strongly correlated with PdZn, on an In-diluted PdIn intermetallic phase with "Pd-like" electronic structure, prepared by thermal annealing at 623 K, methanol steam reforming is suppressed and enhanced CO formation via full methanol dehydrogenation is observed.To achieve CO(2)-TOF values on the isolated Pd(1)In(1) intermetallic phase as high as on supported PdIn/In(2)O(3), at least 593 K reaction temperature is required. A bimetal-oxide synergism, with both bimetallic and oxide synergistically contributing to the observed catalytic activity and selectivity, manifests itself by accelerated formaldehyde-to-CO(2) conversion at markedly lowered temperatures as compared to separate oxide and bimetal. Combination of suppression of full methanol dehydrogenation to CO on Pd(1)In(1) inhibited inverse water-gas-shift reaction on In(2)O(3) and fast water activation/conversion of formaldehyde is the key to the low-temperature activity and high CO(2)-selectivity of the supported catalyst. PMID:23226689

  5. CO2-selective methanol steam reforming on In-doped Pd studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rameshan, Christoph; Lorenz, Harald; Mayr, Lukas; Penner, Simon; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Arrigo, Rosa; Haevecker, Michael; Blume, Raoul; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert; Klötzer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (in situ XPS) was used to study the structural and catalytic properties of Pd–In near-surface intermetallic phases in correlation with previously studied PdZn and PdGa. Room temperature deposition of ∼4 monolayer equivalents (MLEs) of In metal on Pd foil and subsequent annealing to 453 K in vacuum yields a ∼1:1 Pd/In near-surface multilayer intermetallic phase. This Pd1In1 phase exhibits a similar “Cu-like” electronic structure and indium depth distribution as its methanol steam reforming (MSR)-selective multilayer Pd1Zn1 counterpart. Catalytic characterization of the multilayer Pd1In1 phase in MSR yielded a CO2-selectivity of almost 100% between 493 and 550 K. In contrast to previously studied In2O3-supported PdIn nanoparticles and pure In2O3, intermediate formaldehyde is only partially converted to CO2 using this Pd1In1 phase. Strongly correlated with PdZn, on an In-diluted PdIn intermetallic phase with “Pd-like” electronic structure, prepared by thermal annealing at 623 K, methanol steam reforming is suppressed and enhanced CO formation via full methanol dehydrogenation is observed. To achieve CO2-TOF values on the isolated Pd1In1 intermetallic phase as high as on supported PdIn/In2O3, at least 593 K reaction temperature is required. A bimetal-oxide synergism, with both bimetallic and oxide synergistically contributing to the observed catalytic activity and selectivity, manifests itself by accelerated formaldehyde-to-CO2 conversion at markedly lowered temperatures as compared to separate oxide and bimetal. Combination of suppression of full methanol dehydrogenation to CO on Pd1In1 inhibited inverse water–gas-shift reaction on In2O3 and fast water activation/conversion of formaldehyde is the key to the low-temperature activity and high CO2-selectivity of the supported catalyst. PMID:23226689

  6. Steam reforming of methanol over a Cu/ZnO/Al 2O 3 catalyst: a kinetic analysis and strategies for suppression of CO formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrell, Johan; Birgersson, Henrik; Boutonnet, Magali

    Steam reforming of methanol (CH 3OH+H 2O→CO 2+3H 2) was studied over a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al 2O 3 catalyst for production of hydrogen onboard proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles. A simple power-law rate expression was fitted to experimental data in order to predict the rates of CO 2 and H 2 formation under various reaction conditions. The apparent activation energy ( Ea) was estimated to be 100.9 kJ mol -1, in good agreement with values reported in the literature. Appreciable amounts of CO by-product were formed in the reforming process at low contact times and high methanol conversions. Being a catalyst poison that deactivates the electrocatalyst at the fuel cell anode at concentrations exceeding a few ppm, special attention was paid to the pathways for CO formation and strategies for its suppression. It was found that increasing the steam-methanol ratio effectively decreases CO formation. Likewise, addition of oxygen or air to the steam-methanol mixture minimises the production of CO. By shortening the contact time and lowering the maximum temperature in the reactor, CO production can be further decreased by suppressing the reverse water-gas shift reaction.

  7. Where does methanol lose hydrogen to trigger steam reforming? A revisit of methanol dehydrogenation on the PdZn alloy model obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Chen, Zhao-Xu

    2016-02-01

    Pd/ZnO is a promising catalyst studied for methanol steam reforming (MSR) and the 1 : 1 PdZn alloy is demonstrated to be the active component. It is believed that MSR starts from methanol dehydrogenation to methoxy. Previous studies of methanol dehydrogenation on the ideal PdZn(111) surface show that methanol adsorbs weakly on the PdZn(111) surface and it is hard for methanol to transform into methoxy because of the high dehydrogenation barrier, indicating that the catalyst model is not appropriate for investigating the first step of MSR. Using the model derived from our recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we examined the process CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO. Compared with the ideal model, methanol adsorbs much more strongly and the barrier from CH3OH → CH3O is much lower on the kMC model. On the other hand, the C-H bond breaking of CH3O, CH2O and CHO becomes harder. We show that co-adsorbed water is important for refreshing the active sites. The present study shows that the first MSR step most likely takes place on three-fold hollow sites formed by Zn atoms, and the inhomogeneity of the PdZn alloy may exert significant influences on reactions. PMID:26771029

  8. Cu-Al spinel oxide as an efficient catalyst for methanol steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Xi, Hongjuan; Hou, Xiaoning; Liu, Yajie; Qing, Shaojun; Gao, Zhixian

    2014-10-27

    Cu-Al spinel oxide, which contains a small portion of the CuO phase, has been successfully used in methanol steam reforming (MSR) without prereduction. The omission of prereduction not only avoids the copper sintering prior to the catalytic reaction, but also slows down the copper-sintering rate in MSR. During this process, the CuO phase can initiate MSR at a lower temperature, and CuAl2O4 releases active copper gradually. The catalyst CA2.5-900, calcined at 900 °C with n(Al)/n(Cu) = 2.5, has a higher CuAl2O4 content, higher BET surface area, and smaller CuAl2O4 crystal size. Its activity first increases and then decreases during MSR. Furthermore, both fresh and regenerated CA2.5-900 showed better catalytic performance than the commercial Cu-Zn-Al catalyst. PMID:25213737

  9. Steam reforming of methanol over copper loaded anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) prepared through electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linga Reddy, E.; Karuppiah, J.; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to produce hydrogen for fuel cells, porous γ-alumina support is developed on Al substrate using anodic oxidation process and copper catalyst particles are deposited homogeneously over anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface by electrodeposition method. We investigated the effect of electrodeposition time and hot water treatment (HWT) on the activity of catalysts for SRM reaction in the temperature range between 160 and 360 °C. The experimental results indicate that the SRM activity, CO2 and dimethyl ether (DME) selectivity's over Cu catalysts increased as the electrodeposition time increased from 30 to 120 s, further increment in deposition time of Cu have no significant effect on it. The rates of SRM conversion are found to be higher for the catalysts made from the supports obtained after HWT, which may be due to the enhancement in the surface area of AAO support. It is found that the SRM activity and CO2 selectivity strongly depended upon the free exposed copper sites available for methanol adsorption and reaction, and DME in products is mainly observed in the reaction temperature range between 300 and 350 °C and it is higher for the catalysts with low Cu content.

  10. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the first such report that will be submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1--December 31, 2003. This quarter saw progress in three areas. These areas are: (1) Evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor, as well as (3) Set up and data collection of baseline performance using the steam reformer. All of the projects are proceeding on schedule. During this quarter one conference paper was written that will be presented at the ASME Power 2004 conference in March 2004, which outlines the research direction and basis for looking at the coal to hydrogen pathway.

  11. Methanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methanol ; CASRN 67 - 56 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  12. Activity and stability enhancement of copper-alumina catalysts using cerium and zinc promoters for the selective production of hydrogen via steam reforming of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sanjay; Pant, K. K.

    The catalytic activity and hydrogen selectivity of cerium and zinc promoted copper-alumina catalysts have been investigated for the selective production of hydrogen via steam reforming of methanol (SRM). The SRM was carried out in a fixed bed tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure over a temperature range 200-300 °C. The major reaction products were hydrogen and carbon dioxide with traces of carbon monoxide. Catalysts of varying compositions were prepared by the wet impregnation method and characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), BET surface area, pore volume, pore size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). Results revealed that the methanol conversion, hydrogen selectivity and carbon monoxide formation varied with the type of promoter and content of copper in the catalyst. Cerium promoted Cu-Zn-Ce-Al-oxide catalysts improved the activity and hydrogen selectivity greatly and also kept the CO formation very low. Using cerium the SRM could be carried out at lower temperature with high methanol conversion, results in suppression of methanol decomposition and reverse water gas shift reactions eventually end-up with the low carbon monoxide and hydrogen rich product stream. Cerium also stabilizes the copper-alumina catalysts effectively that was confirmed by deactivation studies in which cerium promoted Cu-Zn-Ce-Al-oxide catalysts gave the consistent performance for a long run-time compared to catalysts containing only zinc promoter. The optimum operating conditions for SRM have been investigated by detailed study of effects of reaction temperature, contact time and steam to methanol molar ratio on methanol conversion, hydrogen selectivity and CO formation. Reaction pathway has been proposed for the SRM based on results obtained.

  13. Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

  14. Twenty kW fuel cell units of compact design. Part 5: Hydrogen production by steam reforming of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grave, B.

    1980-09-01

    To assess its potential use in alkaline fuel cells, The production of hydrogen by steam reforming of methanol was studied analytically and experimentally. The reformer, the converter, and the purification system of a prototype installation were designed and the optimal operation parameters derived and experimentally confirmed. For comparison, hydrogen production by ammonia cracking was also studied. An estimate of the manufacturing costs for a fuel cell aggregate of 20 kW indicates economical operation only to be possible at very high duty cycles. As a result the project was terminated.

  15. Thermodynamic equilibrium composition analysis of methanol autothermal reforming for proton exchanger membrane fuel cell based on FLUENT Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Wang, Shudong

    Methanol autothermal reforming was thermodynamically analyzed using FLUENT software. The calculation methodology using this software is simple and convenient, and its validity was confirmed by comparing the obtained data with previous studies. As a function of the effects of temperature, pressure, molar steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C), and molar oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) on the objective products, favorable operational parameters were evaluated, under which H 2 yield maximizes, the CO molar fraction minimizes and carbon deposition can be eliminated. The equilibrium constants of the possible reactions involved in oxidative methanol steam reforming, coupled with the reaction mechanism for the entire investigated temperature range, were elucidated and discussed. On the basis of the concluded possible mechanisms, three areas are inferred. In each individual area, H 2 or CO yield reached a maximum, or solid C was efficiently suppressed. Therein, a favorable operational range is proposed to assure the most optimized product yield.

  16. Methanol steam reforming promoted by molten salt-modified platinum on alumina catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kusche, Matthias; Agel, Friederike; Ní Bhriain, Nollaig; Kaftan, Andre; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2014-09-01

    We herein describe a straight forward procedure to increase the performance of platinum-on-alumina catalysts in methanol steam reforming by applying an alkali hydroxide coating according to the "solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer" (SCILL) approach. We demonstrate by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies that potassium doping plays an important role in the catalyst activation. Moreover, the hygroscopic nature and the basicity of the salt modification contribute to the considerable enhancement in catalytic performance. During reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxides/carbonates forms on the catalyst/alumina surface, thus significantly enhancing the availability of water at the catalytically active sites. Too high catalyst pore fillings with salt introduce a considerable mass transfer barrier into the system as indicated by kinetic studies. Thus, the optimum interplay between beneficial catalyst modification and detrimental mass transfer effects had to be identified and was found on the applied platinum-on-alumina catalyst at KOH loadings around 7.5 mass%. PMID:25124120

  17. Durable Cu composite catalyst for hydrogen production by high temperature methanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Yasuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Durable catalysts are necessitated for the high temperature methanol steam reforming in compact hydrogen processors. The high durability at 400 °C can be obtained with a composite Cu catalyst where a small amount of Cu-ZnO-ZrO2-Y2O3-In2O3 is coprecipitated on a zirconia support. The lifetime of the composite catalyst containing 3 wt.% Cu is estimated to be as long as 53 × 102 h at 400 °C to produce the full conversion at a contact time of 250 g h m-3. The deactivation rate empirically relates to the cube of the activity. The gradual deactivation is caused by the gradual reduction of the Cu surface amount and also by the reduction of the surface activity which is believed to decrease with an increase in the Cu particle size. The interaction between the thin layer of the coprecipitate and the support surface probably suppresses the aggregation of the coprecipitate leading to Cu sintering.

  18. Methanol Steam Reforming Promoted by Molten Salt-Modified Platinum on Alumina Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Kusche, Matthias; Agel, Friederike; Ní Bhriain, Nollaig; Kaftan, Andre; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe a straight forward procedure to increase the performance of platinum-on-alumina catalysts in methanol steam reforming by applying an alkali hydroxide coating according to the “solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer” (SCILL) approach. We demonstrate by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies that potassium doping plays an important role in the catalyst activation. Moreover, the hygroscopic nature and the basicity of the salt modification contribute to the considerable enhancement in catalytic performance. During reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxides/carbonates forms on the catalyst/alumina surface, thus significantly enhancing the availability of water at the catalytically active sites. Too high catalyst pore fillings with salt introduce a considerable mass transfer barrier into the system as indicated by kinetic studies. Thus, the optimum interplay between beneficial catalyst modification and detrimental mass transfer effects had to be identified and was found on the applied platinum-on-alumina catalyst at KOH loadings around 7.5 mass %. PMID:25124120

  19. Self-sufficient and exclusive oxygenation of methane and its source materials with oxygen to methanol via metgas using oxidative bi-reforming.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Prakash, G K Surya; Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Mathew, Thomas

    2013-07-10

    A combination of complete methane combustion with oxygen of the air coupled with bi-reforming leads to the production of metgas (H2/CO in 2:1 mole ratio) for exclusive methanol synthesis. The newly developed oxidative bi-reforming allows direct oxygenation of methane to methanol in an overall economic and energetically efficient process, leaving very little, if any, carbon footprint or byproducts. PMID:23795911

  20. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell grade hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming: A comparative multiple reactor modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Nisha; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of a fuel processor based on methanol steam reforming has been carried out to produce fuel cell grade H2. Six reactor configurations namely FBR1 (fixed bed reactor), MR1 (H2 selective membrane reactor with one reaction tube), MR2 (H2 selective membrane reactor with two reaction tubes), FBR2 (FBR1 + preferential CO oxidation (PROX) reactor), MR3 (MR1 + PROX), and MR4 (MR2 + PROX) are evaluated by simulation to identify the suitable processing scheme. The yield of H2 is significantly affected by H2 selective membrane, residence time, temperature, and pressure conditions at complete methanol conversion. The enhancement in residence time in MR2 by using two identical reaction tubes provides H2 yield of 2.96 with 91.25 mol% recovery at steam/methanol ratio of 1.5, pressure of 2 bar and 560 K temperature. The exit retentate gases from MR2 are further treated in PROX reactor of MR4 to reduce CO concentration to 4.1 ppm to ensure the safe discharge to the environment. The risk of carbon deposition on reforming catalyst is highly reduced in MR4, and MR4 reactor configuration generates 7.4 NL min-1 of CO free H2 from 0.12 mol min-1 of methanol which can provide 470 W PEMFC feedstock requirement. Hence, process scheme in MR4 provides a compact and innovative fuel cell grade H2 generating unit.

  1. Preferential oxidation of methanol and carbon monoxide for gas cleanup during methanol fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsell, S.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Inbody, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    Methanol fuel processing generates hydrogen for low-temperature, PEM fuel cell systems now being considered for transportation and other applications. Although liquid methanol fuel is convenient for this application, existing fuel processing techniques generate contaminants that degrade fuel cell performance. Through mathematical models and laboratory experiments chemical processing is described that removes CO and other contaminants from the anode feed stream.

  2. METHANOL MEASUREMENT IN AUTO EXHAUST USING A GAS-FILTER CORRELATION SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spectroscopic methods offer an alternative to wet chemical methods for analysis of methanol emissions from automobiles. The gas filter correlation infrared optical analysis approach appears very promising. The report describes the gas correlation optical system constructed to ana...

  3. Autothermal reforming of natural gas to synthesis gas:reference: KBR paper #2031.

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, David; Rice, Steven, D.

    2007-04-01

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Sued-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO{sub 2} in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the

  4. Test and evaluation of methanol in a gas turbine system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, A. Jr.; vonKleinSmid, W.H.; Danko, E.A.

    1981-02-01

    A test was conducted to compare the operational and emission characteristics of two Turbo Power and Marine Systems, Inc. (TPM) gas turbines, one operating on distillate fuel (Jet A) and the other operating on methanol. The test, which included 523 h of methanol burn time, was conducted at Southern California Edison Company's (SCE) Ellwood Energy Support Facility in Goleta, California. The facility consisted of two gas turbines combined with an electric generator in a TP-4 Twin Pac configuration. Normally, distilled water is injected into the combustion chambers of each turbine to reduce oxides of nitrogen emissions. During the major portion of the program, no water was injected into the methanol fueled turbine. Periodically during the program, performance and emission tests as well as physical inspections of the hot section of each turbine were conducted. Emission and performance tests were also conducted on natural gas. One series of tests was conducted with distilled water injected into the combustion chamber during methanol operations. Oxides of nitrogen emissions on the methanol-fueled turbine, without water injection, were approximately 80% of the emissions of the distillate fueled turbine with water injection. There was a significant reduction in particulate emissions during methanol operation. An additional reduction in oxides of nitrogen emission was obtained during operations of the methanol-fueled turbine with water injection. No significant problems occurred during the test that could be attributed to firing methanol. The hot end inspections indicated cleaner components within the methanol fueled turbine.

  5. Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book was designed for persons who lease federal lands for oil and gas development and who require an understanding of both the current and historic laws relating to leasing. The manual from this workshop is useful as a reference tool for attorneys, landsmen, and others who require information on the original Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 and all subsequent amendments, including the Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 and selected legislative history. Included in this manual is a lengthy discussion of the Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act, along with a reference section containing full text of: Mineral Leasing Act of February 25, 1920, with all amendments including the Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987, comprehensively footnoted with subject notations and comments; Senate Report 100-188: Committee Report on Leasing Reform Act; House Report 100-495: Joint Explanatory Statement on Leasing Reform Act; Testimony of the Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain States to House Interior Subcommittee on Mining and Natural Resources.

  6. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86.120-94 Section 86.120-94 Protection of... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  7. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86.120-94 Section 86.120-94 Protection of... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  8. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  9. Water and methanol in low-mass protostellar outflows: gas-phase synthesis, ice sputtering and destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suutarinen, A. N.; Kristensen, L. E.; Mottram, J. C.; Fraser, H. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2014-05-01

    Water in outflows from protostars originates either as a result of gas-phase synthesis from atomic oxygen at T ≳ 200 K, or from sputtered ice mantles containing water ice. We aim to quantify the contribution of the two mechanisms that lead to water in outflows, by comparing observations of gas-phase water to methanol (a grain surface product) towards three low-mass protostars in NGC 1333. In doing so, we also quantify the amount of methanol destroyed in outflows. To do this, we make use of James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared data of H2O, CH3OH and CO emission lines and compare them to RADEX non-local thermodynamic equilibrium excitation simulations. We find up to one order of magnitude decrease in the column density ratio of CH3OH over H2O as the velocity increases in the line wings up to ˜15 km s-1. An independent decrease in X(CH3OH) with respect to CO of up to one order of magnitude is also found in these objects. We conclude that gas-phase formation of H2O must be active at high velocities (above 10 km s-1 relative to the source velocity) to re-form the water destroyed during sputtering. In addition, the transition from sputtered water at low velocities to form water at high velocities must be gradual. We place an upper limit of two orders of magnitude on the destruction of methanol by sputtering effects.

  10. Improvement in methanol production by regulating the composition of synthetic gas mixture and raw biogas.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2016-10-01

    Raw biogas can be an alternative feedstock to pure methane (CH4) for methanol production. In this investigation, we evaluated the methanol production potential of Methylosinus sporium from raw biogas originated from an anaerobic digester. Furthermore, the roles of different gases in methanol production were investigated using synthetic gas mixtures of CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen (H2). Maximum methanol production was 5.13, 4.35, 6.28, 7.16, 0.38, and 0.36mM from raw biogas, CH4:CO2, CH4:H2, CH4:CO2:H2, CO2, and CO2:H2, respectively. Supplementation of H2 into raw biogas increased methanol production up to 3.5-fold. Additionally, covalent immobilization of M. sporium on chitosan resulted in higher methanol production from raw biogas. This study provides a suitable approach to improve methanol production using low cost raw biogas as a feed containing high concentrations of H2S (0.13%). To our knowledge, this is the first report on methanol production from raw biogas, using immobilized cells of methanotrophs. PMID:27371792

  11. Using Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the Glass Transition Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiesen, Jesper; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2009-12-01

    The permeation of rare-gas atoms through deeply supercooled metastable liquid methanol films is used to probe the diffusivity. The technique allows for measurement of supercooled liquid mobility at temperatures near the glass transition. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity is well described by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation. These new measurements and the temperature dependent kinetic parameters obtained from their analysis provide clear evidence that methanol is a fragile liquid near the glass transition.

  12. Using rare gas permeation to probe methanol diffusion near the glass transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, Jesper; Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D

    2009-12-11

    The permeation of rare-gas atoms through deeply supercooled metastable liquid methanol films is used to probe the diffusivity. The technique allows for measurement of supercooled liquid mobility at temperatures near the glass transition. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity is well described by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation. These new measurements and the temperature dependent kinetic parameters obtained from their analysis provide clear evidence that methanol is a fragile liquid near the glass transition. PMID:20366212

  13. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

  15. A self-reductive mesoporous CuO(x)/Fe/silicate nanocomposite as a highly active and stable catalyst for methanol reforming.

    PubMed

    Li, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Yan-Wun; Lin, Ran-Jin; Chang, Ching-Chun; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Lin, Hong-Ping; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2011-09-01

    A simple and convenient one-pot synthetic route to directly prepare a self-reductive mesoporous copper-iron-silicate (CuO(x)-Fe-silicate)-based catalyst has been developed. The resultant catalyst is highly active and stable in methanol reforming without needing a pre-reduction procedure. PMID:21773606

  16. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  17. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  18. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas...

  19. Insights on the effective incorporation of a foam-based methanol reformer in a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgouropoulos, George; Papavasiliou, Joan; Ioannides, Theophilos; Neophytides, Stylianos

    2015-11-01

    Highly active Al-doped CuMnOx catalyst supported on metallic copper foam was prepared via the combustion method and placed adjacent to the anode electrocatalyst of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operating at 200-210 °C. The addition of aluminum oxide in the catalyst composition enhanced the specific surface area (19.1 vs. 8.6 m2 g-1) and the reducibility of the Cu-Mn spinel oxide. Accordingly, the catalytic performance of CuMnOx was also improved. The doped sample is up to 2.5 times more active than the undoped sample at 200 °C, depending on the methanol concentration at the inlet, while CO selectivity is less than 0.8% in all cases. A membrane-electrode assembly comprising the ADVENT cross-linked TPS® high-temperature polymer electrolyte was integrated with the Cu-based methanol reformer in an Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell (IRMFC). In order to avoid extensive poisoning of the reforming catalyst by H3PO4, a thin separation plate was placed between the reforming catalyst and the electrooxidation catalyst. Preliminary results obtained from a single-cell laboratory prototype demonstrated the improved functionality of the unit. Indeed, promising electrochemical performance was obtained during the first 24 h, during which the required H2 for achieving 580 mV at 0.2 A cm-2, was supplied from the reformer.

  20. Effectiveness of heat-integrated methanol steam reformer and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack systems for portable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotrič, A.; Sekavčnik, M.; Hočevar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Efficiently combining proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack with methanol steam reformer (MSR) into a small portable system is still quite a topical issue. Using methanol as a fuel in PEMFC stack includes a series of chemical processes where each proceeds at a unique temperature. In a combined MSR-PEMFC-stack system with integrated auxiliary fuel processors (vaporizer, catalytic combustor, etc.) the processes are both endothermic and exothermic hence their proper thermal integration can help raising the system efficiency. A concept of such fully integrated and compact system is proposed in this study. Three separate systems are designed based on different PEMFC stacks and MSR. Low-temperature (LT) and conventional high-temperature (cHT) PEMFC stack characteristics are based on available data from suppliers. Also, a novel high-temperature (nHT) PEMFC stack is proposed because its operating temperature coincides with that of MSR. A comparative study of modelled systems is performed using a mass and energy balances zero-dimensional model, which is interdependently coupled to a physical model based on finite element method (FEM). The results indicate that a system with nHT PEMFC stack is feasible and has the potential to reach higher system efficiencies than systems with LT or cHT PEMFC stacks.

  1. Methanol Emission from Leaves (Enzymatic Detection of Gas-Phase Methanol and Relation of Methanol Fluxes to Stomatal Conductance and Leaf Development).

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; MacDonald, R. C.; Franzen, J. J.; Wojciechowski, C. L.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    We recently reported the detection of methanol emissions from leaves (R. MacDonald, R. Fall [1993] Atmos Environ 27A: 1709-1713). This could represent a substantial flux of methanol to the atmosphere. Leaf methanol production and emission have not been investigated in detail, in part because of difficulties in sampling and analyzing methanol. In this study we used an enzymatic method to convert methanol to a fluorescent product and verified that leaves from several species emit methanol. Methanol was emitted almost exclusively from the abaxial surfaces of hypostomatous leaves but from both surfaces of amphistomatous leaves, suggesting that methanol exits leaves via stomates. The role of stomatal conductance was verified in experiments in which stomates were induced to close, resulting in reduced methanol. Free methanol was detected in bean leaf extracts, ranging from 26.8 [mu]g g-1 fresh weight in young leaves to 10.0 [mu]g g-1 fresh weight in older leaves. Methanol emission was related to leaf development, generally declining with increasing leaf age after leaf expansion; this is consistent with volatilization from a cellular pool that declines in older leaves. It is possible that leaf emission could be a major source of methanol found in the atmosphere of forests. PMID:12228547

  2. First Detection of Gas-phase Methanol in a Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Catherine; Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Kama, Mihkel; van ’t Hoff, Merel L. R.; Millar, Tom J.; Aikawa, Yuri; Herbst, Eric; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Nomura, Hideko

    2016-05-01

    The first detection of gas-phase methanol in a protoplanetary disk (TW Hya) is presented. In addition to being one of the largest molecules detected in disks to date, methanol is also the first disk organic molecule with an unambiguous ice chemistry origin. The stacked methanol emission, as observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is spectrally resolved and detected across six velocity channels (\\gt 3σ ), reaching a peak signal-to-noise of 5.5σ , with the kinematic pattern expected for TW Hya. Using an appropriate disk model, a fractional abundance of 3× {10}-12{--}4× {10}-11 (with respect to H2) reproduces the stacked line profile and channel maps, with the favored abundance dependent upon the assumed vertical location (midplane versus molecular layer). The peak emission is offset from the source position, suggesting that the methanol emission has a ring-like morphology: the analysis here suggests it peaks at ≈ 30 {{au}}, reaching a column density ≈ 3{--}6× {10}12 cm‑2. In the case of TW Hya, the larger (up to millimeter-sized) grains, residing in the inner 50 au, may thus host the bulk of the disk ice reservoir. The successful detection of cold gas-phase methanol in a protoplanetary disk implies that the products of ice chemistry can be explored in disks, opening a window into studying complex organic chemistry during planetary system formation.

  3. Non-intrusive detection of methanol in gas phase using infrared degenerate four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Sahlberg, A. L.; Nilsson, H.; Lundgren, E.; Zetterberg, J.

    2015-11-01

    Sensitive and non-intrusive detection of gas-phase methanol with high spatial and temporal resolution has for the first time been reported using mid-infrared degenerate four-wave mixing (IR-DFWM). IR-DFWM spectra of methanol have been successfully recorded in nitrogen-diluted gas flows at room temperature and at 300 °C, by probing ro-vibrational transitions belonging to the fundamental C-H stretching modes, ν 2 and ν 9, and the O-H stretching mode, ν 1. The detection limit of methanol vapor at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is estimated to be 250 ppm with the present setup. Potential interference from CH4 and CO2 is discussed from recorded IR-DFWM spectra of CH4 and CO2, and it was found that detection of methanol free from CH4 and CO2 interference is possible. These results show the potential of the detection of methanol with IR-DFWM for applications in both combustion and catalytic environments, such as CO2 hydrogenation and CH4 oxidation.

  4. Hydrogen enrichment of synthesis gas for once-through methanol production: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaliere, G.F.; Riley, C.J.

    1987-04-01

    A previous report, EPRI AP-3749, included the economics of producing methanol fuel from coal gasifiers by a once-through methanol synthesis plant configuration, using the unconverted gas as a gas turbine fuel in a combined-cycle power plant. In that study, the CO-rich gas was adjusted by shift conversion to a composition suitable for methanol synthesis. In the present study, the shift conversion method of gas composition adjustment was compared against several CO-rejection methods, with the rejected CO-rich gas used as fuel for production of power. All cases assumed the same gasification plant size. As a result, the CO-rejection methods produced more electric power and less methanol than the base case of shift conversion. Two alternatives, one based on physical adsorption and one on chemical absorption, were quickly eliminated as uncompetitive on cost grounds and unproven commercially on this scale. The remaining alternatives are membrane separation and cryogenic fractionation. Flowsheets and cost estimates were prepared for these cases and for the shift conversion base case. Total required revenues were calculated for all cases. Then, making reasonable assumptions of the range of unit revenue values of produced methanol and power, competitiveness of the alternatives with the base case was estimated. Some unit revenue combinations gave small revenue advantages for the alternatives, while others gave small advantages for the base case. None of the revenue differentials can be regarded as significant when compared with the accuracy levels of the total cost and income figures being compared. Therefore, both the membrane and cryogenic based process routes are judged to be competitive with the shift-based process, but none of the processes is clearly superior to another using current economic criteria. 1 ref., 32 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  6. Mutagenic effect of methanol in gas station operators from Sao Paulo/Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gattas, G.J.F.; Cardoso, L.A.; Faria, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    The frequency of micronucleus (MN) in oral scamous cells of 76 gas station operators was investigated. Subjects were exposed to a fuel called MEG a mix of 33% methanol, 60% ethanol and 7% gasoline. In Brazil the ethyl alcohol, extracted from sugar cane have been used as a fuel since 70`s. In November 1991, for economical reasons, the MEG fuel was introduced in big cities. The MN frequency was evaluated in three different periods: before MEG introduction (1989), and twice after MEG utilization (1992 and 1995). Some individuals were analyzed more than one time. For each individual the frequency of MN was performed in 2000 oral cells. Statistical analysis through non parametric tests revealed a highly significant increase (P=0.001) in the frequency of MN before (1.38/2000 cells) and immediately after methanol introduction (3.0/2000 cells). The frequency of MN returned to be normal (1.4/2000 cells), in the third evaluation when the exposition to methanol decreased. It should represent genetic risk for individuals under occupational exposure and for the population as a whole when methanol has been introduced as a large-scale fuel.

  7. Catalysts prepared from copper-nickel ferrites for the steam reforming of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yung-Han; Wang, Sea-Fue; Tsai, An-Pang; Kameoka, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, Fe3O4-supported Cu and Ni catalysts are prepared through reduction of Cu-Ni (Ni1-xCuxFe2O4) ferrites. The Cu-Ni ferrites, synthesized using a solid-state reaction method, are reduced at temperatures from 240 °C to 500 °C in a H2 atmosphere. All ferrites are characterized with granular morphology and a smooth particle surface before reduction. For the CuFe2O4, Ni0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 and NiFe2O4 ferrites reduced at 240, 300, and 400 °C, respectively, nanosized Cu and/or Ni particles (5-32 nm) and mesopores (5-30 nm) are distributed and adhered on the surfaces of Fe3O4 supports. After increasing the reduction temperature of NiFe2O4 ferrite to 500 °C, the Ni particles and mesopores disappear from the Fe3O4 surfaces, which is due to the formation of a Fe-Ni alloy covering on the Fe3O4 surfaces. The CuFe2O4 ferrite after H2 reduction at 240 °C exhibits the highest H2 production rate of 149 ml STP/min g-cat at 360 °C. The existence of Ni content in the Cu-Ni ferrites enhances the reverse water gas shift reaction, and raises the CO selectivity while reducing the CO2 selectivity. Formation of a Fe-Ni alloy exaggerates the trend and poisons the H2 production rate.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

  10. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A.; Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Leek, Donald M.; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.; Ripmeester, John A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate cages. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR experiments showed that at temperatures near 273 K, methanol is incorporated in the hydrate lattice along with other guest molecules. The amount of included methanol depends on the preparative method used. For instance, single-crystal XRD shows that at low temperatures, the methanol molecules are hydrogen-bonded in 4.4% of the small cages of tetrahydrofuran cubic structure II hydrate. At higher temperatures, NMR spectroscopy reveals a number of methanol species incorporated in hydrocarbon hydrate lattices. At temperatures characteristic of icy planetary bodies, vapor deposits of methanol, water, and methane or xenon show that the presence of methanol accelerates hydrate formation on annealing and that there is unusually complex phase behavior as revealed by powder XRD and NMR spectroscopy. The presence of cubic structure I hydrate was confirmed and a unique hydrate phase was postulated to account for the data. Molecular dynamics calculations confirmed the possibility of methanol incorporation into the hydrate lattice and show that methanol can favorably replace a number of methane guests. PMID:23661058

  11. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A; Moudrakovski, Igor L; Leek, Donald M; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I; Ripmeester, John A

    2013-05-21

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate cages. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR experiments showed that at temperatures near 273 K, methanol is incorporated in the hydrate lattice along with other guest molecules. The amount of included methanol depends on the preparative method used. For instance, single-crystal XRD shows that at low temperatures, the methanol molecules are hydrogen-bonded in 4.4% of the small cages of tetrahydrofuran cubic structure II hydrate. At higher temperatures, NMR spectroscopy reveals a number of methanol species incorporated in hydrocarbon hydrate lattices. At temperatures characteristic of icy planetary bodies, vapor deposits of methanol, water, and methane or xenon show that the presence of methanol accelerates hydrate formation on annealing and that there is unusually complex phase behavior as revealed by powder XRD and NMR spectroscopy. The presence of cubic structure I hydrate was confirmed and a unique hydrate phase was postulated to account for the data. Molecular dynamics calculations confirmed the possibility of methanol incorporation into the hydrate lattice and show that methanol can favorably replace a number of methane guests. PMID:23661058

  12. Stabilization of Hydrogen Production via Methanol Steam Reforming in Microreactor by Al2O3 Nano-Film Enhanced Catalyst Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heondo; Na, Jeong-Geol; Jang, Min Su; Ko, Chang Hyun

    2016-05-01

    In hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming reaction with microchannel reactor, Al2O3 thin film formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced on the surface of microchannel reactor prior to the coating of catalyst particles. Methanol conversion rate and hydrogen production rate, increased in the presence of Al2O3 thin film. Over-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy study showed that the adhesion between catalyst particles and the surface of microchannel reactor enhanced due to the presence of Al2O3 thin film. The improvement of hydrogen production rate inside the channels of microreactor mainly came from the stable fixation of catalyst particles on the surface of microchannels. PMID:27483762

  13. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy. PMID:20078033

  14. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesia, E.

    1995-04-24

    The contract objectives are: to design a catalytic material for the synthesis of isobutanol with a productivity of 200 g isoalcohols/g-cat-h and a molar isobutanol/methanol ratio near unity; and to develop structure-function rules for the design of catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas to isoalcohols. Several catalyst samples have been prepared by controlled co-precipitation from aqueous mixtures of metal nitrates. The composition of these materials is based on reports of best available catalysts for methanol synthesis, for isobutanol synthesis, and for methanol coupling reactions. The mechanical construction and pressure testing of the microreactor system has been completed. The in-situ infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a nitrogen purge is fully operational. The temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) unit has been designed; construction will begin during the third quarter FY`95. Air Products and Chemicals has provided us with a sample of a BASF isobutanol synthesis catalyst and with catalytic data obtained on this catalyst in a LaPorte test run. This catalyst will serve as a benchmark for the certification of our new microreactor system.

  15. Determination of methanol in pulp washing filtrates by desiccated full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2012-01-27

    This paper reports on a desiccated full evaporation headspace gas chromatographic (FE HS-GC) technique for determination of the methanol content in dilute mill effluents. Anhydrous K(2)CO(3) was selected as the preferred salt for eliminating the water in the sample in the headspace sample vial. The results showed that the addition of 12 g K(2)CO(3) made it possible to introduce a larger sample size (up to 1 mL) into the FE HS-GC measurement, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the technique. At the given equilibration temperature (105°C), a near-complete mass transfer of methanol from the liquid phase to vapor phase (headspace) was achieved within 10 min. Replicate samples showed that the relative standard deviation of the method was less than 1.5%. Further, the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.12 μg and the recovery ranged from 95 to 104%. The present method greatly improves the methanol detection sensitivity in the FE HS-GC method and has the added advantage of being simple, rapid and accurate. PMID:22209356

  16. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eglesia, E.

    1995-10-24

    Mechanistic and kinetic studies of methanol and ethanol coupling reactions on Cs/Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/MnO catalysts using isotopically-labeled compounds have confirmed that coupling reactions proceed via intermediate dehydrogenation of alcohols to aldehydes. Ethanol coupling reactions are much faster than those of methanol because ethanol forms a more thermodynamically favored intermediate (acetaldehyde), with aldol condensation pathways kinetically available for chain growth. Cs decreases the rate of formation of aldehydes in alcohol dehydrogenation reaction and inhibits the undesired conversion of methanol and ethanol to synthesis gas (CO/H{sub 2}). Construction and start-up of the Catalytic Microreactor Unit (CMRU) for high pressure isobutanol synthesis studies have been completed. Initial certification runs have reproduced catalytic CO conversion rates on a standard APCI material (Cs/Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Condensation of higher alcohols in the transfer lines appears to be responsible for the observed low apparent selectivity to higher alcohols. The design and construction of the Temperature-Programmed Surface Reaction (TPSR) Unit for the study of the adsorption and reaction properties of alcohols and other oxygenates on isobutanol, synthesis catalysts and components is complete. The reduction of CuO powder and of a Cs/Cu/ZnO catalyst were used to certify the apparatus before proceeding with alcohol adsorption and reaction studies.

  17. A study on methanol steam reforming to CO 2 and H 2 over the La 2CuO 4 nanofiber catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lizhen; Sun, Gebiao; Kawi, Sibudjing

    2008-01-01

    The La 2CuO 4 crystal nanofibers were prepared by using single-walled carbon nanotubes as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions. The steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to CO 2 and H 2 over such nanofiber catalysts was studied. At the low temperature of 150 °C and steam/methanol=1.3, methanol was completely (100%, 13.8 g/h g catalyst) converted to hydrogen and CO 2 without the generation of CO. Within the 60 h catalyst lifespan test, methanol conversion was maintained at 98.6% (13.6 g/h g catalyst) and with 100% CO 2 selectivity. In the meantime, for distinguishing the advantage of nanoscale catalyst, the La 2CuO 4 bulk powder was prepared and tested for the SRM reaction for comparison. Compared with the La 2CuO 4 nanofiber, the bulk powder La 2CuO 4 showed worse catalytic activity for the SRM reaction. The 100% conversion of methanol was achieved at the temperature of 400 °C, with the products being H 2 and CO 2 together with CO. The catalytic activity in terms of methanol conversion dropped to 88.7% (12.2 g/h g catalyst) in 60 h. The reduction temperature for nanofiber La 2CuO 4 was much lower than that for the La 2CuO 4 bulk powder. The nanofibers were of higher specific surface area (105.0 m 2/g), metal copper area and copper dispersion. The in situ FTIR and EPR experiments were employed to study the catalysts and catalytic process. In the nanofiber catalyst, there were oxygen vacancies. H 2-reduction resulted in the generation of trapped electrons [e] on the vacancy sites. Over the nanofiber catalyst, the intermediate H 2CO/HCO was stable and was reformed to CO 2 and H 2 by steam rather than being decomposed directly to CO and H 2. Over the bulk counterpart, apart from the direct decomposition of H 2CO/HCO to CO and H 2, the intermediate H 2COO might go through two decomposition ways: H 2COO=CO+H 2O and H 2COO=CO 2+H 2.

  18. Gas-phase reactivity of metavanadate [VO3]- towards methanol and ethanol: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Waters, Tom; Wedd, Anthony G; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2007-01-01

    The gas-phase reactivity of the metavanadate anion [VO3]- towards methanol and ethanol was examined by a combination of ion-molecule reaction and isotope labelling experiments in a quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. The experimental data were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory calculations. [VO3]- dehydrated methanol to eliminate water and form [VO2(eta2-OCH2)]-, which features an [eta2-C,O-OCH2]2- ligand formed by formal removal of two protons from methanol and which is isoelectronic with peroxide. [VO3]- reacted with ethanol in an analogous manner to form [VO2(eta2-OCHCH3)]-, as well as by loss of ethene to form [VO2(OH)2]-. The calculations predicted that important intermediates in these reactions were the hydroxo alkoxo anions [VO2(OH)(OCH2R)]- (R: H, CH3). These were predicted to undergo intramolecular hydrogen-atom transfer to form [VO(OH)2(eta1-OCHR)]- followed by eta1-O-->eta2-C,O rearrangements to form [VO(OH)2(eta2-OCHR)]-. The latter reacted further to eliminate water and generate the product [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]-. This major product observed for [VO3]- is markedly different from that observed previously for [NbO3]- containing the heavier Group 5 congener niobium. In that case, the major product of the reaction was an ion of stoichiometry [Nb, O3, H2]- arising from the formal dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde. The origin of this difference was examined theoretically and attributed to the intermediate alkoxo anion [NbO2(OH)(OCH3)]- preferring hydride transfer to form [HNbO2(OH)]- with loss of formaldehyde. This contrasts with the hydrogen-atom-transfer pathway observed for [VO2(OH)(OCH3)]-. PMID:17661322

  19. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) gas to methanol and MTG-gasoline: An economic and sensitivity study, task B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the production of methanol and gasoline using gas from an underground coal gasification (UCG) facility are discussed. The economics of producing gasoline is studied as well as a number of other aspects of the economics of upgrading UCG gas. Capital and operating costs for three different capacities of gasoline plants are presented. These are 1600 barrels per day (BPD), 4800 BPD, and 9600 BPD. These capacities are equivalent to fuel grade methanol plants having capacities of 4000 BPD, 12,000 BPD, and 24,000 BPD - the methanol capacities considered in the previous studies. The economics of the gasoline plant were developed using published information and the best estimate of the processing steps in the gasoline process. Several sensitivity studies were undertaken to examine the sensitivity of both methanol and gasoline product costs to changes in technical and economic parameters.

  20. A planar anode-supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell model with internal reforming of natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinda, P.; Chanchaona, S.; Brault, P.; Wechsatol, W.

    2011-05-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest due to their high energy efficiency, low emission level, and multiple fuel utilization. SOFC can operate with various kinds of fuels such as natural gas, carbon monoxide, methanol, ethanol, and hydrocarbon compounds, and they are becoming one of the main competitors among environmentally friendly energy sources for the future. In this study, a mathematical model of a co-flow planar anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming of natural gas has been developed. The model simultaneously solves mass, energy transport equations, and chemical as well as electrochemical reactions. The model can effectively predict the compound species distributions as well as the cell performance under specific operating conditions. The main result is a rather small temperature gradient obtained at 800 °C with S/C = 1 in classical operating conditions. The cell performance is reported for several operating temperatures and pressures. The cell performance is specified in terms of cell voltage and power density at any specific current density. The influence of electrode microstructure on cell performance was investigated. The simulation results show that the steady state performance is almost insensitive to microstructure of cells such as porosity and tortuosity unlike the operating pressure and temperature. However, for SOFC power output enhancement, the power output could be maximized by adjusting the pore size to an optimal value, similarly to porosity and tortuosity. At standard operating pressure (1 atm) and 800 °C with 48% fuel utilization, when an output cell voltage was 0.73 V, a current density of 0.38 A cm-2 with a power density of 0.28 W cm-2 was predicted. The accuracy of the model was validated by comparing with existing experimental results from the available literature.

  1. Analytical methods for measuring the parameters of interstellar gas using methanol observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenskii, S. V.; Kurtz, S.

    2016-08-01

    The excitation of methanol in the absence of external radiation is analyzed, and LTE methods for probing interstellar gas considered. It is shown that rotation diagrams correctly estimate the gas kinetic temperature only if they are constructed using lines whose upper levels are located in the same K-ladders, such as the J 0- J -1 E lines at 157 GHz, the J 1- J 0 E lines at 165 GHz, and the J 2- J 1 E lines at 25 GHz. The gas density must be no less than 107 cm-3. Rotation diagrams constructed from lines with different K values for their upper levels (e.g., 2 K -1 K at 96 GHz, 3 K -2 K at 145 GHz, 5 K -4 K at 241 GHz) significantly underestimate the temperature, but enable estimation of the density. In addition, diagrams based on the 2 K -1 K lines can be used to estimate the methanol column density within a factor of about two to five. It is suggested that rotation diagrams should be used in the following manner. First, two rotation diagrams should be constructed, one from the lines at 96, 145, or 241 GHz, and another from the lines at 157, 165, or 25 GHz. The former diagram is used to estimate the gas density. If the density is about 107 cm-3 or higher, the latter diagram reproduces the temperature fairly well. If the density is around 106 cm-3, the temperature obtained from the latter diagram should be multiplied by a factor of 1.5-2. If the density is about 105 cm-3 or lower, then the latter diagram yields a temperature that is lower than the kinetic temperature by a factor of three or more, and should be used only as a lower limit for the kinetic temperature. The errors in the methanol column density determined from the integrated intensity of a single line can be more than an order of magnitude, even when the gas temperature is well known. However, if the J 0-( J - 1)0 E lines, as well as the J 1-( J - 1)1 A + or A - lines are used, the relative error in the column density is no more than a factor of a few.

  2. Effect of Gold Particle Size on Steam Reforming of Methanol Over Au/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Pandian; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Eun Duck

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effect of the particle size of gold on steam reforming of methanol over Au/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts. Gold was loaded onto CeO2-ZrO2 through deposition-precipitation. The average particle size (2-12 nm) of the gold was controlled by thermal reduction under H2 at various temperatures and by chemical reduction with various reducing agents. The catalytic activity decreased significantly with increasing particle size of the gold. The turnover frequency at the interface between gold and a support appeared to be independent of particle size in the range 2-5 nm, which implies that the perimeter of the particle may be the active site for this reaction. Methanol adsorption and conversion over these catalysts were also investigated with in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. Analytical results for various adsorbed intermediate species during methanol conversion suggests that transformation of methoxy species is facilitated by use of smaller gold particles. PMID:27483761

  3. Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed: Reforming of the gas composition with commercial steam reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Corella, J.; Orio, A.; Aznar, P.

    1998-12-01

    Four commercial catalysts for steam reforming of higher hydrocarbons (naphthas) and three for steam reforming of light hydrocarbons are tested for hot gas clean up and upgrading in biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. The catalysts used originate from four manufacturers: BASF, AG, ICI-Katalco, Haldor Topsoe a/s, and United Catalysts Inc. The work is performed in a small pilot plant (1--2 kg of biomass fed/h) with three reactors in series: gasifier, guard bed of dolomite, and full flow catalytic bed. Samples of gas are taken before and after the catalytic bed at different times-on-stream. It is shown how the H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and steam contents in the flue gas change because of the catalytic bed approaching contents near to the ones corresponding to the equilibrium state. Variations in the heating value of the gas and gas yield as a result of the catalytic bed are also reported.

  4. COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME II. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OPERATION WITH DEVOLATILIZED BITUMINOUS COAL AND CHILLED METHANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of initial runs of a pilot-scale coal gasification and gas cleaning plant at North Carolina State University. In these runs, a devolatilized Western Kentucky No. 11 bituminous coal was gasified with steam and oxygen, and chilled methanol was used as the a...

  5. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically. PMID:22305604

  6. Evaluation of the use of UCG gas to produce 4000 BPD and 12,000 BPD of methanol with conversion to M-gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Donald

    1981-01-01

    This study involves an examination of the technical and economic feasibility of using raw gas from an underground coal gasification facility as feedstock for methanol synthesis, and producing M-gasoline from the methanol. It differs from previous studies in considering facilities smaller than those previously studied. Addressed also is the economic and technical feasibility of using equipment from existing ammonia plants for the production of methanol. Ammonia and methanol plants are very similar in type of equipment used and plant layout. Consequently, it is possible to convert an existing ammonia plant into a methanol facility. Existing ammonia and methanol plants which contain equipment that might be utilized with UCG all use natural gas for feedstock. The processing steps in these plants can be divided into unit operations which are described. The product price analysis shows that significant economies of scale exist for the larger of the two facility sizes considered in this study. The economies of scale are evident for both the methanol/M-gasoline and methanol-only facilities. Compared to current market prices, the calculated product prices for the 4000 BPD and 12,000 BPD methanol-only facilities are within the range of competitiveness with the prices of conventionally produced methanol. The product prices calculated for the 12,000 BPD methanol/4910 BPD M-gasoline facility are, under the most optimistic assumptions, 50% higher than the current market price for unleaded gasoline.

  7. CO sub 2 -foam fracturing with methanol successfully stimulates canyon gas sand

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, J.R.; Waddell, S.P. ); McFatridge, D.G. )

    1992-05-01

    Successful stimulation using CO{sub 2} foam with methanol has revived the economically marginal Canyon gas-sand reservoir of Sterling County, TX. Field experience in the Conger (Penn) field demonstrated that CO{sub 2} foam (1) lessened the water required in the fluid and (2) provided a gas assist to help remove water and lower interfacial tension (IFT). The low pH of the fluid, combined with additional clay stabilization, iron control, and enhanced water recovery additives, proved helpful in initial well response and subsequent performances. Since the CO{sub 2}-foam fracture treatments were administered, production from Sterling County Canyon gas sands met or surpassed initial rates, even though formation pressure in the field declined 33.2%. Stimulation is essential for commercial production in these sands. However, water blockage, caused by stimulation, was encountered in designing an effective completion technique for a tight formation with reduced bottomhole pressure (HBP). Production in tight, low-pressure gas wells can be completely blocked if formation pressure does not exceed the capillary pressure increase caused by injected fracture fluid. Original stimulation techniques consisted mainly of gelled-water fracture treatments containing 65,000 lbm of 20/40-mesh sand with a maximum concentration of 2 1/2 lbm/gal. In many cases, several weeks of swabbing were required to ensure continuous flow. After the fracture treatments, about 40% water recovery was realized throughout the field. This paper discusses CO{sub 2}-foam fracture treatments and job design and presents case histories from several Conger (Penn) field CO{sub 2}-foam fracture treatments.

  8. In situ Gas Conditioning in Fuel Reforming for Hydrogen Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandi, A.; Specht, M.; Sichler, P.; Nicoloso, N.

    2002-09-20

    The production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications requires cost and energy efficient technologies. The Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER), developed at ZSW with industrial partners, is aimed to simplify the process by using a high temperature in situ CO2 absorption. The in situ CO2 removal results in shifting the steam reforming reaction equilibrium towards increased hydrogen concentration (up to 95 vol%). The key part of the process is the high temperature CO2 absorbent. In this contribution results of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) investigations on natural minerals, dolomites, silicates and synthetic absorbent materials in regard of their CO2 absorption capacity and absorption/desorption cyclic stability are presented and discussed. It has been found that the inert parts of the absorbent materials have a structure stabilizing effect, leading to an improved cyclic stability of the materials.

  9. Multifuel reformer R D

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    1991-01-01

    The on-board fuel for fuel cell powered vehicles may be one or more of hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, propane, or other liquified petroleum gases. To use hydrogen as the fuel, suitable means of storing, and subsequently delivering, adequate quantities of the gas must be developed. For all other fuels suitable reformers must be developed to convert the fuel to hydrogen or a hydrogen-rich gas mixture at rates corresponding to the varying power demand rates of the automotive system; this is especially true for the lower temperature fuel cells, such as the polymer electrolyte fuel cell which operates at 80{degrees}C and the phosphoric acid fuel cell which operates at 190{degrees}C. This paper discusses the key design and performance characteristics of such hydrogen storage and fuel reformer systems for use in stand-alone fuel cell automotive applications.

  10. Isotope Effects in the Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering Maps of Gas-Phase Methanol.

    PubMed

    Benkert, A; Meyer, F; Hauschild, D; Blum, M; Yang, W; Wilks, R G; Bär, M; Reinert, F; Heske, C; Weinhardt, L

    2016-04-14

    The electronic structure of gas-phase methanol molecules (H3COH, H3COD, and D3COD) at atmospheric pressure was investigated using resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the O K and C K edges. We observe strong changes of the relative emission intensities of all valence orbitals as a function of excitation energy, which can be related to the symmetries of the involved orbitals causing an angularly anisotropic RIXS intensity. Furthermore, all observed emission lines are subject to strong spectator shifts of up to -0.9 eV at the O K edge and up to -0.3 eV at the C K edge. At the lowest O K resonance, we find clear evidence for dissociation of the methanol molecule on the time scale of the RIXS process, which is illustrated by comparing X-ray emission spectra of regular and deuterated methanol. PMID:27003748

  11. Control of hydrocarbon content of a reforming gas by using a hydrogenation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    To control of hydrocarbon content in waste pyrolysis-gasification and reforming processes, the use of a hydrogenation catalyst was examined in a test system with a model gas. To reduce the concentration of benzene in the reforming gas, benzene was hydrogenated with a nickel catalyst. The catalyst is usually used to convert gas-phase unsaturated hydrocarbons to saturated hydrocarbons, and the benzene was converted to cyclohexane at a temperature range of about 130 to 180 degrees C in the presence of steam. However, the conversion to methane occurred at about 250 to 300 degrees C. Methane seems to be a useful conversion compound because it does not cohere as a light tar. Sometimes the reforming gas needs to be cooled for use as generator fuel. In this case, it is possible to avoid the tar cohesion if the benzene in the gas is converted to methane at about 300 degrees C after the reforming. Reduction of the efficiency of conversion to methane was not observed over a 60h reaction period. The lower hydrocarbons (ethylene, ethane, and propylene) were also converted to methane at about 300 degrees C. Conversion of benzene was also possible when other hydrocarbons were present at high concentrations. PMID:20022077

  12. Modeling the effect of anisotropy of gas diffusion layer on transport phenomena in a direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Zheng; He, Ya-Ling; Zou, Jin-Qiang

    Transport phenomena in the gas diffusion layer (GDL) are of vital importance for the operation of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In this work, a two-phase mass transport model is developed to investigate the effects of anisotropic characteristics of a GDL, including the inherent anisotropy, deformation, and electrical and thermal contact resistances, on the coupled species, charges and thermal transport processes in a DMFC. In this model, methanol crossover and non-equilibrium evaporation/condensation of water and methanol are considered. The multistep electrochemical mechanisms are used to obtain a detailed description of the kinetics of methanol oxidization reaction (MOR) in both the anode and cathode catalyst layers (CLs). The numerical results show that the anisotropy of the GDL has a great effect on the distribution of species concentration, overpotential, local current density, and temperature. The deformation of the GDL depresses the transport of species through the GDL, particularly methanol diffusion in anode GDL, but facilitates the transport of electron and the removal of heat. The electrical contact resistance plays an important role in determining the cell performance.

  13. Method for forming synthesis gas using a plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOEpatents

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J; Elangovan, S; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2015-04-28

    A method of forming a synthesis gas utilizing a reformer is disclosed. The method utilizes a reformer that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding apparatus and system are also disclosed herein.

  14. Internal reforming for natural gas fueled molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report 1 May 80-30 Jun 81

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.; Burns, D.; Lee, C.; Maru, H.; Patel, P.

    1981-12-01

    A natural gas fueled molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is an attractive system for efficient electricity generation. The system yields maximum efficiency while operating on internal reforming mode. Among the various configurations evaluated for internal reforming MCFC, direct internal reforming appears to be most promising. Compared to the conventional baseline external reformer system, it can save as much as 20% natural gas at reduced capital and operating costs. The feasibility of internal reforming in MCFC has been verified through laboratory-scale (10 sq cm) cell tests followed by a successful scale-up to bench-scale (300 sq cm) cell. Bench-scale cells have been operated with direct methane feed up to 2000 hours. The results of system analysis and experimental work show that a successful development of the internal reforming MCFC will result in significant savings of natural gas and a cost effective electricity generation.

  15. Hydrogenolysis of cellulose to C4-C7 alcohols over bi-functional CuO-MO/Al2O3 (M=Ce, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn) catalysts coupled with methanol reforming reaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Gu, Fangna; Xu, Guangwen; Zhong, Ziyi; Su, Fabing

    2013-06-01

    This work demonstrates the efficient hydrogenolysis of cellulose to C4-C7 alcohols and gas products (reaction 1) by coupling it with the reforming reaction of methanol (reaction 2) over bi-functional CuO-based catalysts. In this process, the CuO-based catalysts catalyze both the reactions 1 and 2, and the in situ regenerated H2 in the reaction 2 is used for the reaction 1. A series of CuO-MO/Al2O3 (M=Ce, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn) catalysts were prepared by the co-precipitation method. Among these catalysts, CuO-ZnO/Al2O3 exhibited the highest activity to generate a high cellulose conversion of 88% and a high C4-C7 alcohols content above 95% in the liquid products. The CuO-ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was stable under the reaction conditions and reusable after 4 runs. This work provides a cost-effective route to convert abundant renewable cellulose to liquid fuels. PMID:23591118

  16. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  17. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  18. Efficacy of different methanolic plant extracts on anti-methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sirohi, S.K.; Goel, N.; Pandey, P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanolic extracts of three plants, mehandi (Lawsonia inermis), jaiphal (Myristica fragrans) and green chili (Capsicum annuum) on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and fermentation kinetic parameters by in vitro gas production techniques. Single dose of each plant extract (1 ml / 30 ml buffered rumen fluid) and two sorghum fodder containing diets (high and low fiber diets) were used for evaluating the effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern, while sequential incubations (0, 1, 2, 3, 6 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 96 h) were carried out for gas production kinetics. Results showed that methane production was reduced, ammonia nitrogen was increased significantly, while no significant effect was found on pH and protozoal population following addition of different plant extracts in both diets except mehandi. Green chili significantly reduced digestibility of dry matter, total fatty acid and acetate concentration at incubation with sorghum based high and low fiber diets. Among all treatments, green chili increased potential gas production, while jaiphal decreased the gas production rate constant significantly. The present results demonstrate that methanolic extracts of different plants are promising rumen modifying agents. They have the potential to modulate the methane production, potential gas production, gas production rate constant, dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass synthesis. PMID:26623296

  19. Plasma reforming of glycerol for synthesis gas production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinli; Hoang, Trung; Lobban, Lance L; Mallinson, Richard G

    2009-05-28

    Glycerol can be effectively converted to synthesis gas (selectivity higher than 80%) with small amounts of water or no water using plasmas at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, without external heating. PMID:19436906

  20. Vapor-liquid activity coefficients for methanol and ethanol from heat of solution data: application to steam-methane reforming.

    PubMed

    Kunz, R G; Baade, W F

    2001-11-16

    This paper presents equations and curves to calculate vapor-liquid phase equilibria for methanol and ethanol in dilute aqueous solution as a function of temperature, using activity coefficients at infinite dilution. These thermodynamic functions were originally derived to assess the distribution of by-product contaminants in the process condensate and the steam-system deaerator of a hydrogen plant [Paper ENV-00-171 presented at the NPRA 2000 Environmental Conference, San Antonio, TX, 10-12 September 2000], but have general applicability to other systems as well. The functions and calculation method described here are a necessary piece of an overall prediction technique to estimate atmospheric emissions from the deaerator-vent when the process condensate is recycled as boiler feed water (BFW) make-up. Having such an estimation technique is of particular significance at this time because deaerator-vent emissions are already coming under regulatory scrutiny in California [Emissions from Hydrogen Plant Process Vents, Adopted 21 January 2000] followed closely elsewhere in the US, and eventually worldwide. The overall technique will enable a permit applicant to estimate environmental emissions to comply with upcoming regulations, and a regulatory agency to evaluate those estimates. It may also be useful to process engineers as a tool to estimate contaminant concentrations and flow rates in internal process streams such as the steam-generating system. Metallurgists and corrosion engineers might be able to use the results for materials selection. PMID:11606240

  1. Plasma steam reforming of E85 for hydrogen rich gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xinli; Hoang, Trung; Lobban, Lance L.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    2011-07-01

    E85 (85 vol% ethanol and 15 vol% gasoline) is a partly renewable fuel that is increasing in supply availability. Hydrogen production from E85 for fuel cell or internal combustion engine applications is a potential method for reducing CO2 emissions. Steam reforming of E85 using a nonthermal plasma (pulse corona discharge) reactor has been exploited at low temperature (200-300 °C) without external heating, diluent gas, oxidant or catalyst in this work. Several operational parameters, including the discharge current, E85 concentration and feed flow rate, have been investigated. The results show that hydrogen rich gases (63-67% H2 and 22-29% CO, with small amounts of CO2, C2 hydrocarbons and CH4) can be produced by this method. A comparison with ethanol reforming and gasoline reforming under identical conditions has also been made and the behaviour of E85 reforming is found to be close to that of ethanol reforming with slightly higher C2 hydrocarbons yields.

  2. Palladium coated porous anodic alumina membranes for gas reforming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jeremy P.; Brown, Ian W. M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kemmitt, Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Nanostructured ceramic membranes with ultrathin coatings of palladium metal have been demonstrated to separate hydrogen gas from a gas mixture containing nitrogen with 10% carbon dioxide and 10% hydrogen at temperatures up to 550 °C. The mechanically robust and thermally durable membranes were fabricated using a combination of conventional and high-efficiency anodisation processes on high purity aluminium foils. A pH-neutral plating solution has also been developed to enable electroless deposition of palladium metal on templates which were normally prone to chemical corrosion in strong acid or base environment. Activation and thus seeding of palladium nuclei on the surface of the template were essential to ensure uniform and fast deposition, and the thickness of the metal film was controlled by time of deposition. The palladium coated membranes showed improved hydrogen selectivity with increased temperature as well as after prolonged exposure to hydrogen, demonstrating excellent potential for gas separation technologies.

  3. Methanol Conversion for the Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.E.; Howard, B.H.; Myers, C.R.

    2007-12-19

    The production of methanol from a variety of biomass sources is gaining favor. Several facilities exist or are under construction throughout the world to convert biogenerated methane from the decomposition of biomass into methanol using conventional steam reforming. Methanol is an excellent liquid-hydrogen-transport medium. When powered by hydrogen, fuel cells have the potential to be the cleanest and most efficient source of electricity for use by the automotive industry. On-board reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is a viable alternative to the storage of compressed hydrogen. A problem in current reforming processes is the quantity of carbon monoxide (CO) produced. Our research is geared toward circumventing the production of carbon monoxide in methanol reforming through the development of novel reforming catalysts. By modifying a copper-based catalyst, we have produced several catalysts that retain their activity and high surface area after extended methanol reforming runs both with and without the addition of steam.

  4. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  5. Bridging the Gap: From Model Surfaces to Nanoparticle Analogs for Selective Oxidation and Steam Reforming of Methanol and Selective Hydrogenation Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Matthew B.

    Most industrial catalysts are very complex, comprising of non-uniform materials with varying structures, impurities, and interaction between the active metal and supporting substrate. A large portion of the ongoing research in heterogeneous catalysis focuses on understanding structure-function relationships in catalytic materials. In parallel, there is a large area of surface science research focused on studying model catalytic systems for which structural parameters can be tuned and measured with high precision. It is commonly argued, however, that these systems are oversimplified, and that observations made in model systems do not translate to robust catalysts operating in practical environments; this discontinuity is often referred to as a "gap." The focus of this thesis is to explore the mutual benefits of surface science and catalysis, or "bridge the gap," by studying two catalytic systems in both ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and near ambient-environments. The first reaction is the catalytic steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The SRM reaction is a promising route for on-demand hydrogen production. For this catalytic system, the central hypothesis in this thesis is that a balance between redox capability and weak binding of reaction intermediates is necessary for high SRM activity and selectivity to carbon dioxide. As such, a new catalyst for the SRM reaction is developed which incorporates very small amounts of gold (<1 atomic %) supported on zinc oxide nanoparticles with controlled crystal structures. The performance of these catalysts was studied in a fixed-bed micro-reactor system at ambient pressures, and their structure was characterized by high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Pre-existing oxygen defects in zinc oxide {0001} surfaces, and those created by a perturbation of the defect equilibrium by addition of gold, provide an anchoring site for highly dispersed gold species. By utilizing shape control of

  6. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  7. A Novel Study of Methane-Rich Gas Reforming to Syngas and Its Kinetics over Semicoke Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojie; Su, Aiting; Qu, Jiangwen; Du, Yannian

    2014-01-01

    A small-size gasification unit is improved through process optimization to simulate industrial United Gas Improvement Company gasification. It finds that the reaction temperature has important impacts on semicoke catalyzed methane gas mixture. The addition of water vapor can enhance the catalytic activity of reforming, which is due to the fact that addition of water vapor not only removes carbon deposit produced in the reforming and gasification reaction processes, but also participates in gasification reaction with semicoke to generate some active oxygen-containing functional groups. The active oxygen-containing functional groups provide active sites for carbon dioxide reforming of methane, promoting the reforming reaction. It also finds that the addition of different proportions of methane-rich gas can yield synthesis gas with different H2/CO ratio. The kinetics study shows that the semicoke can reduce the activation energy of the reforming reaction and promote the occurrence of the reforming reaction. The kinetics model of methane reforming under the conditions of steam gasification over semicoke is as follows: k-=5.02×103·pCH40.71·pH20.26·exp(−74200/RT). PMID:24959620

  8. A novel study of methane-rich gas reforming to syngas and its kinetics over semicoke catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojie; Su, Aiting; Qu, Jiangwen; Du, Yannian

    2014-01-01

    A small-size gasification unit is improved through process optimization to simulate industrial United Gas Improvement Company gasification. It finds that the reaction temperature has important impacts on semicoke catalyzed methane gas mixture. The addition of water vapor can enhance the catalytic activity of reforming, which is due to the fact that addition of water vapor not only removes carbon deposit produced in the reforming and gasification reaction processes, but also participates in gasification reaction with semicoke to generate some active oxygen-containing functional groups. The active oxygen-containing functional groups provide active sites for carbon dioxide reforming of methane, promoting the reforming reaction. It also finds that the addition of different proportions of methane-rich gas can yield synthesis gas with different H2/CO ratio. The kinetics study shows that the semicoke can reduce the activation energy of the reforming reaction and promote the occurrence of the reforming reaction. The kinetics model of methane reforming under the conditions of steam gasification over semicoke is as follows: [Formula in text]. PMID:24959620

  9. Thermal analysis of cylindrical natural-gas steam reformer for 5 kW PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Taehyun; Han, Junhee; Koo, Bonchan; Lee, Dohyung

    2016-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of a natural-gas based cylindrical steam reformer coupled with a combustor are investigated for the use with a 5 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. A reactor unit equipped with nickel-based catalysts was designed to activate the steam reforming reaction without the inclusion of high-temperature shift and low-temperature shift processes. Reactor temperature distribution and its overall thermal efficiency depend on various inlet conditions such as the equivalence ratio, the steam to carbon ratio (SCR), and the fuel distribution ratio (FDR) into the reactor and the combustor components. These experiments attempted to analyze the reformer's thermal and chemical properties through quantitative evaluation of product composition and heat exchange between the combustor and the reactor. FDR is critical factor in determining the overall performance as unbalanced fuel injection into the reactor and the combustor deteriorates overall thermal efficiency. Local temperature distribution also influences greatly on the fuel conversion rate and thermal efficiency. For the experiments, the operation conditions were set as SCR was in range of 2.5-4.0 and FDR was in 0.4-0.7 along with equivalence ratio of 0.9-1.1; optimum results were observed for FDR of 0.63 and SCR of 3.0 in the cylindrical steam reformer.

  10. Methanol-reforming reaction over copper-containing catalysts: the effects of anions and copper loading in the preparation of the catalysts by kneading method

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Takezawa, N.; Minochi, C.

    1981-06-01

    Methanol-reforming reaction CH/sub 3/OH + H/sub 2/O = 3H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ was carried out over copper-containing catalysts which were prepared from hydroxides of copper or from the hydroxide kneaded with various metal oxides. The specific activity (activity per weight of copper used) either of supported or support-free catalyst was markedly increased when the hydroxide was prepared from alkali solution with addition of copper salt solution at higher pH or when the weight percentage of copper on the support was decreased. However, other kinetic parameters such as activation energy and selectivity of the reaction were unaffected by the preparation of the catalyst unless copper chloride was employed as a starting material of the hydroxide preparation at lower pH. DTA, ir, XPS, AES and other chemical analyses of the catalysts revealed that hydroxide ion in the hydroxide precipitate prepared at lower pH exchanged in part with the anionic group of its starting material during the course of the preparation. The anion or its fragment was found to be strongly held on the surface and inhibited the reaction to a great extent. On the other hand, the anion held was markedly decreased when the catalyst was prepared at higher pH. This catalyst was found to be highly active for the title reaction. The surface areas of metallic copper were considerably increased when copper was kneaded with the support. This gave rise to the increase in the specific activity of the catalyst.

  11. Thermodynamic models to predict gas-liquid solubilities in the methanol synthesis, the methanol-higher alcohol synthesis, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gas-slurry processes

    SciTech Connect

    Breman, B.B.; Beenackers, A.A.

    1996-10-01

    Various thermodynamic models were tested concerning their applicability to predict gas-liquid solubilities, relevant for synthesis gas conversion to methanol, higher alcohols, and hydrocarbons via gas-slurry processes. Without any parameter optimization the group contribution equation of state (GCEOS) turns out to be the best model with an average, relative deviation of 19.0%. If a single binary interaction parameter is optimized for each binary system, the Peng-Robinson equation of state, the regular solutions theory, and the Flory-Staverman model all give good predictions with average, relative deviations 4.0, 10.4, and 10.0%, respectively. As expected, the predictions from these models improve further and agree excellently with the experimental values by optimizing two binary interaction parameters for each binary system (average relative deviations <2% for all models). The gas-liquid solubilities could also be correlated accurately to the temperature (average relative deviation = 2.1%) by assuming a constant enthalpy of solution (CEOS) models. For particular binary systems the Flory-Staverman model and the CEOS model give also reasonably accurate predictions of the gas-liquid solubilities by calculating the binary interaction parameters from pure component properties. Such an approach is promising for predicting as yet unknown gas-liquid solubilities without the need for experimental data.

  12. Evaluation of different dielectric barrier discharge plasma configurations as an alternative technology for green C1 chemistry in the carbon dioxide reforming of methane and the direct decomposition of methanol.

    PubMed

    Rico, Víctor J; Hueso, José L; Cotrino, José; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2010-03-25

    Carbon dioxide reforming of methane and direct decomposition of methanol have been investigated using dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) at atmospheric pressure and reduced working temperatures. Two different plasma reactor configurations are compared and special attention is paid to the influence of the surface roughness of the electrodes on the conversion yields in the first plasma device. The influence of different filling gap dielectric materials (i.e., Al(2)O(3) or BaTiO(3)) in the second packed configuration has been also evaluated. Depending on the experimental conditions of applied voltage, residence time of reactants, feed ratios, or reactor configuration, different conversion yields are achieved ranging from 20 to 80% in the case of methane and 7-45% for the carbon dioxide. The direct decomposition of methanol reaches 60-100% under similar experimental conditions. Interestingly, the selectivity toward the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is kept almost constant under all the experimental conditions, and the formation of longer hydrocarbon chains or coke as a byproduct is not detected. The maximum efficiency yields are observed for the packed-bed reactor configuration containing alumina for both reaction processes (approximately 1 mol H(2) per kilowatt hour for dry reforming of methane and approximately 4.5 mol H(2) per kilowatt hour for direct decomposition of methanol). PMID:20184329

  13. Optimized fuel cell grade hydrogen from methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yongtaek

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate reaction rates liar making hydrogen from methanol, kinetic studies of methanol decomposition, methanol steam reforming, water gas shift reaction, and CO selective oxidation have been performed. These reactions were studied in a micro reactor testing unit using a commercial Cu-ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for the first three reactions and Pt-Fe/gamma-alumina catalyst for the last reaction. The activity tests were performed between 120˜325°C and atmospheric pressure with a range of feed rates and compositions. For methanol decomposition, water addition to the feed increased the yield of hydrogen and reduced the formation of by-products. XPS analysis of used catalyst samples and time on-stream data showed that the Cu2+ oxidation state of copper favors methanol decomposition. A simplified reaction network of 5 elementary reactions was proposed and all five rate expressions were obtained using non-linear least squares optimization, numerical integration of a one-dimensional PFR model, and extensive experimental data. Similar numerical analysis was carried out to obtain the rate expressions for methanol steam reaction, the water gas shift reaction, and CO selective oxidation. For the kinetics of the water gas shift reaction, an empirical rate expression was obtained from the experimental data. Based on a review of published work on the WGS reaction mechanism, our study found that a rate expression derived from a regenerative mechanism and another rate expression derived from adsorptive mechanism fit the experimental data equally well. For the kinetics of CO preferential oxidation, a reaction model in which three reactions (CO oxidation, H2 oxidation and the WGS reaction) occur simultaneously was chosen to predict the reactor performance. In particular the reverse water gas shift reaction had an important role when fitting the experimental data precisely and explained the selectivity decrease at higher reaction temperatures. Combining the three reactors and several

  14. The synthesis of methanol and the reverse water-gas shift reaction over Zn-deposited Cu(100) and Cu(110) surfaces: comparison with Zn/Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, I.; Fujitani, T.; Uchijima, T.; Nakamura, J.

    1998-03-01

    The catalytic activity of Zn vapor-deposited Cu(100) and Cu(110) surfaces for methanol synthesis by the hydrogenation of CO 2 and the reverse water-gas shift reaction were studied using an XPS apparatus combined with a high-pressure flow reactor (18 atm). At a reaction temperature of 523 K, no promotional effect of Zn was observed for the methanol synthesis on both Zn/Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(110). The results were quite different from those for Zn/Cu(111), on which a significant promotion of methanol synthesis activity appeared to be due to the deposition of Zn, indicating that the promotional effect of Zn was sensitive to the surface structure of Cu. However, hysteresis was observed in the catalytic activity for methanol synthesis over the Zn/Cu(110) surface upon heating above 543 K in the reaction mixture. The activity became twice that measured before heating, which was close to the methanol synthesis activity of Zn/Cu(111) at the same Zn coverage. On the other hand, no such hysteresis was observed for the reverse water-gas shift reaction on Zn/Cu(110), indicating that the active site for methanol synthesis was not identical to that for the reverse water-gas shift reaction. In the post-reaction surface analysis, formate species was detected on both Zn/Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(110), whose coverage increased with increasing Zn coverage at 0< ΘZn<0.2. No correlation between the formate coverage and the methanol synthesis activity was obtained, which was in contrast to the results for Zn/Cu(111). Thus, the structure sensitivity observed in the catalytic activity of methanol synthesis over Zn-deposited Cu surfaces is ascribed to the significant difference in the reactivity of the formate intermediate.

  15. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  16. A rapid method for simultaneously determining ethanol and methanol content in wines by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Lin, Neng-Biao; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhong-Li; Barnes, Donald G

    2015-09-15

    This work reports on a full evaporation headspace gas chromatographic (FE HS-GC) method for simultaneously determining the ethanol (EtOH) and methanol (MeOH) content in wines. A small sample (10μL) was placed in a headspace sample vial, and a near-complete mass transfer of ethanol and methanol from the liquid sample to the vapor phase was obtained within three minutes at a temperature of 105°C, which allowed the measurement of the EtOH and MeOH content in the sample by GC. The results showed excellent precision and accuracy, as shown by the reproducibilities of 1.02% and 2.11% for EtOH and MeOH, respectively, and recoveries that ranged from 96.1% to 104% for both alcohols. The method is efficient, accurate and suitable for the determination of EtOH and MeOH in wine production and quality control. PMID:25863625

  17. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  18. Nanoporous gold catalysts for selective gas-phase oxidative coupling of methanol at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Wittstock, A; Zielasek, V; Biener, J; Friend, C M; Bäumer, M

    2010-01-15

    Gold (Au) is an interesting catalytic material because of its ability to catalyze reactions, such as partial oxidations, with high selectivities at low temperatures; but limitations arise from the low O2 dissociation probability on Au. This problem can be overcome by using Au nanoparticles supported on suitable oxides which, however, are prone to sintering. Nanoporous Au, prepared by the dealloying of AuAg alloys, is a new catalyst with a stable structure that is active without any support. It catalyzes the selective oxidative coupling of methanol to methyl formate with selectivities above 97% and high turnover frequencies at temperatures below 80 degrees C. Because the overall catalytic characteristics of nanoporous Au are in agreement with studies on Au single crystals, we deduced that the selective surface chemistry of Au is unaltered but that O2 can be readily activated with this material. Residual silver is shown to regulate the availability of reactive oxygen. PMID:20075249

  19. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  20. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  1. Review on dry reforming of methane, a potentially more environmentally-friendly approach to the increasing natural gas exploitation.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    With the actual growth of the natural gas industry in the US as well as the potential and availability of this non-renewable carbon source worldwide, reforming of methane gas is getting increasing attention. Methane can be used for the production of heat or electricity, as well, it can be converted to syngas, a building block that could lead to the production of liquid fuels and chemicals, a very promising pathway in light of the increasing price of oil. Amongst the different reforming techniques, dry reforming could represent a very interesting approach both to valorize a cheap source or carbon (CO2) as well as to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the increasing worldwide fossil-based methane consumption. In this short review, attention will be given to the thermodynamics of dry reforming followed by an investigation on dry reforming using heterogeneous catalyst by focusing on the most popular elements used in literature for dry reforming. Attention will as well be given to other emerging techniques that may allow countering at one point the high thermodynamic penalties that accompanies conversion of methane using carbon dioxide. PMID:25426488

  2. Review on dry reforming of methane, a potentially more environmentally-friendly approach to the increasing natural gas exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    With the actual growth of the natural gas industry in the US as well as the potential and availability of this non-renewable carbon source worldwide, reforming of methane gas is getting increasing attention. Methane can be used for the production of heat or electricity, as well, it can be converted to syngas, a building block that could lead to the production of liquid fuels and chemicals, a very promising pathway in light of the increasing price of oil. Amongst the different reforming techniques, dry reforming could represent a very interesting approach both to valorize a cheap source or carbon (CO2) as well as to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the increasing worldwide fossil-based methane consumption. In this short review, attention will be given to the thermodynamics of dry reforming followed by an investigation on dry reforming using heterogeneous catalyst by focusing on the most popular elements used in literature for dry reforming. Attention will as well be given to other emerging techniques that may allow countering at one point the high thermodynamic penalties that accompanies conversion of methane using carbon dioxide. PMID:25426488

  3. Review on dry reforming of methane, a potentially more environmentally-friendly approach to the increasing natural gas exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-11-01

    With the actual growth of the natural gas industry in the US as well as the potential and availability of this non-renewable carbon source worldwide, reforming of methane gas is getting increasing attention. Methane can be used for the production of heat or electricity, as well, it can be converted to syngas, a building block that could lead to the production of liquid fuels and chemical, a very promising pathway in light of the increasing price of oil. Amongst the different reforming techniques, dry reforming could represent a very interesting approach both to valorize a cheap source or carbon (CO2) as well as to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the increasing worldwide fossil-based methane consumption. In this short review, attention will be given on the thermodynamics of dry reforming followed by an investigation on dry reforming using heterogeneous catalyst by focusing on the mots popular elements used in literature for dry reforming. Attention will as well be given to different other emerging techniques that may allow countering at one point the high thermodynamic penalties that accompanies conversion of methane using carbon dioxide.

  4. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriyana, Susanto, Herri; Subagjo

    2015-12-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H2 to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H2 for increasing H2/CO ratio. CO2 removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy balance and economic

  5. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriyana; Susanto, Herri Subagjo

    2015-12-29

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H{sub 2} to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H{sub 2} for increasing H{sub 2}/CO ratio. CO{sub 2} removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy

  6. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesia, E.

    1996-12-01

    A series of CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts have been prepared by coprecipitating the corresponding metal nitrates with a mixed solution of potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide. The bulk composition of the catalyst has been measured by atomic absorption (AA) analysis and the Cu dispersion has been determined by N{sub 2}O titration at 90 {degrees}C. CeO{sub x} does not contribute to the measured copper dispersion in K-CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}CeO{sub x} samples and the high dispersion value indeed reflects the presence of Cu metal small crystallites. Kinetic studies of methanol and propionaldehyde coupling reactions on K-Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} and MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts indicate that Cu enhances the rates of alcohol dehydrogenation. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} has been studied on CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}O{sub x} catalysts at 593 K and 4.5 MPa. CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}O{sub x} catalysts show high hydrocarbon and low isobutanol selectivities compared to K-CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}CeO{sub x}, suggesting the presence of residual acidity in CuO{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 5}O{sub x}.

  7. Gas-liquid solubilities of the methanol synthesis components in various solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Graaf, G.H.; Smit, H.J.; Stamhuls, E.J.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M. )

    1992-04-01

    The solubilities of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, and H{sub 2}O were measured in hexadecane, octadecane, squalane, and benzophenone at 293-573 K and 1.013-90 bar using volume displacement and material balance techniques. The experimental results, consisting of 260 solubility data for 16 binary mixtures, were used to test the applicability of four solubility models. When using literature model parameters, the Skjold-Jorgensen group-contribution equation of state gives the best agreement with the experimental results with an average deviation of 15%. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong and Peng-Robinson equations of state give an excellent agreement with the experimental results when optimized binary interaction coefficients are used. The regular solutions theory gives reasonable results except for the methanol- and water-containing systems when using no optimized binary parameters. This paper reports that the authors' results show a reasonable agreement with the available literature data.

  8. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-20

    A series of CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts have been prepared. Range of Cu dispersion, determined by N{sub 2}O titration, was 19-48% and are among the highest reported in the literature for Cu-based methanol and higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. Kinetics of MeOH and EtOH coupling reactions on Cu/ZnO and K-Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts indicate that Cu promotes alcohol dehydrogenation. Acetaldehyde is a reactive intermediate. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis studies have been carried out on K- and Cs-promoted Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. The K promoter is more active than Cs for CO conversion, but the Cs promoter activates the C{sub 1} to C{sub 2} step more effectively. Catalysts with high alkali loading resulted in low conversions. Temperature programmed surface reaction studies of MeOH, EtOH, and acetaldehyde on MgO/CeO{sub 2}-based Cu catalysts show evolution of acetone, crotonaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, H2, carbon oxides. Neither EtOH nor acetaldehyde produces propionaldehyde or 1- propanol, suggesting that these C{sub 3} species can only form via reactions involving C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} oxygenate species.

  9. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesia, E.

    1996-01-10

    A series of Cu{sub 0.5}CeMe(II)O{sub x} catalysts (Me refers to Group II alkali earth elements) have been prepared by coprecipitating the corresponding metal nitrates with potassium carbonate. The bulk composition of the catalyst has been determined by atomic absorption (AA) analysis. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis studies have been carried out over a standard BASF Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. At a CO conversion level of 32%, the isobutanol carbon selectivity is about 5%; whereas that of methanol is 40.2%. A 100% selectivity sum has now been obtained as a result of using response factors measured by the laboratory. The reactions of ethanol and acetic acid over a number of catalysts have been investigated using a temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR) technique. Ethanol and acetone are the only desorption products observed over Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Surface acetate ion is believed to be the precursor for acetone formation. Over calcined hydrotalcites, i.e., MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ethylene is formed instead of acetone. The amount of ethylene formed decreases as Mg/Al ratio increases, suggesting a role of aluminum ions in ethanol dehydration reactions.

  10. Reforming of biogas to synthesis gas by a rotating arc plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woo-Jae; Park, Hyun-Woo; Liu, Jing-Lin; Park, Dong-Wha

    2015-09-01

    In order to produce synthesis gas, reforming of biogas composed with 60 percent for CH4 and 40 percent for CO2 was performed by a novel rotating arc plasma process. The effect of O2/CH4 ratio on the conversion, syngas composition and energy cost was investigated to evaluate the performance of proposed system compared with conventional gliding arc plasma process. When the O2/CH4 ratio was increased from 0.4 to 0.9, the conversions of CH4 and O2 increased up to 97.5 percent and 98.8 percent, respectively, while CO2 conversion was almost constant to be 38.6 percent. This is due to more enhance the partial oxidation of CH4 to CO and H2 than that of dry reforming by increasing the O2/CH4 ratio. In this work, energy cost of 32 kJ/mol was achieved with high syngas composition of 71 percent using pure O2 as oxidant reactant. These are lower than those of different arc plasma processes (energy cost of 122 - 1870 kJ/mol) such as spark, spark-shade and gliding arc plasma. Because, this rotating arc plasma can remain in a long arc length and a large volume of plasma with constant arc length mode.

  11. A novel methanol sensor based on gas-penetration through a porous polypyrrole-coated polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mat.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tae-Sun; Ho, Thi Anh; Rashid, Muhammad; Kim, Yong Shin

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we propose a novel chemoresistive gas sensor operated under a vertical analyte flow passing through a permeable sensing membrane. Such a configuration is different from the use of a planar sensor implemented under a conventional horizontal flow. A highly porous core-shell polyacrylonitrile-polypyrrole (PAN@PPy) nanofiber mat was prepared as the sensing element via electrospinning and two-step vapor-phase polymerization (VPP). Various analysis methods such as SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS measurements were employed in order to characterize structural features of the porous sensing mat. These analyses confirmed that very thin (ca. 10 nm) conductive PPy sheath layers were deposited by VPP on electrospun PAN nanofibers with an average diameter of 258 nm. Preliminary results revealed that the gas penetration-type PAN@PPy sensor had a higher sensor response and shorter detection and recovery times upon exposure to methanol analyte when compared with a conventional horizontal flow sensor due to efficient and fast analyte transfer into the sensing layer. PMID:24205639

  12. Synthesis gas and olefins from the catalytic autothermal reforming of volatile and non-volatile liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Bradon Justin

    2007-12-01

    The research presented in this thesis develops an understanding of a clean energy process technology, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO). CPO is a process in which a carbon containing fuel, such as a hydrocarbon, is passed over a noble metal catalyst (e.g. rhodium and platinum) to efficiently generate synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and olefins (e.g. ethylene and propylene) in millisecond contact times. Chapter 1 introduces CPO and compares this technology with conventional methods for synthesis gas and olefin production. CPO has several advantages over the traditional synthesis gas and olefin production methods. One advantage includes autothermal operation, requiring no external heat input from furnaces or heat exchangers. Autothermal operation allows these reactors to be built compactly. The short contact-times associated with CPO further enable for high throughput in relatively small reactor systems, and more compact reactors typically translate to faster response times if transient operation is required. Nobel metal based CPO catalysts are also resistant to deactivation, resulting in less catalyst replacement, regeneration, and maintenance, and an increase in operating efficiency. An overview of the many applications of the chemicals produced from CPO is also presented in Chapter 1. The chemicals produced are crucial in generating valuable chemical intermediates that are eventually incorporated in consumer products, medical devices, building structures, and fertilizers. Additionally, H2 can be used as a source of energy in mobile fuel applications. Fuel cells convert H2 and O2 into electricity and water at higher efficiencies than thermal engine generators. Due to the difficulties in H2 storage, these more efficient energy generators are dependent on hydrogen obtained from synthesis gas production in compact, portable fuel reformers, such as CPO reactors. Furthermore, H2 and CO can be used in reducing environmentally harmful emissions. Particularly, the implementation

  13. Effect of cooled EGR on performance and exhaust gas emissions in EFI spark ignition engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohadi, Heru; Syaiful, Bae, Myung-Whan

    2016-06-01

    Fuel needs, especially the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels which are non-renewable. However, oil reserves are very limited. Furthermore, the hazardous components produced by internal combustion engine forces many researchers to consider with alternative fuel which is environmental friendly and renewable sources. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the impact of cooled EGR on the performance and exhaust gas emissions in the gasoline engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends. The percentage of wet methanol blended with gasoline is in the range of 5 to 15% in a volume base. The experiment was performed at the variation of engine speeds from 2500 to 4000 rpm with 500 intervals. The re-circulated exhaust gasses into combustion chamber was 5%. The experiment was performed at the constant engine speed. The results show that the use of cooled EGR with wet methanol of 10% increases the brake torque up to 21.3%. The brake thermal efficiency increases approximately 39.6% using cooled EGR in the case of the engine fueled by 15% wet methanol. Brake specific fuel consumption for the engine using EGR fueled by 10% wet methanol decreases up to 23% at the engine speed of 2500 rpm. The reduction of CO, O2 and HC emissions was found, while CO2 increases.

  14. Reduction of carbon dioxide gas formation at the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell using chemically enhanced solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Michael D.; McCready, Mark J.

    The production of CO 2 gas at the DMFC anode leads to dramatic increases in pumping power requirements and reduced power output because of mass transfer limitations as bubble trains form in the channels of larger stacks. Experimental observations taken in a 5 cm 2 DMFC test cell operated at 60 °C, 1 atm, and with a methanol/water fuel flow rates of 5-10 cm 3 min -1 indicate that the rate of bubble formation can be reduced by increasing the fuel flow because more liquid is available for the CO 2 to dissolve in. Further observations indicate that KOH and LiOH added to the fuel eliminates CO 2 gas formation in situ at low concentrations because of the greatly increased solubility that results. A mathematical model for the volumetric rate of CO 2 gas production that includes effects of temperature and solubility is developed and extended to include the effects of hydroxide ions in solution. The model is used to predict the onset location of gas formation in the flow field as well as the void fraction at any point in the flow field. Predictions from the model agree very well with our experiments. Model predictions explain differences in the initial location of bubble formation for fuel solutions pre-saturated with CO 2 as opposed to CO 2-free solutions. Experiments with KOH and LiOH added to fuel solutions confirm the validity of the model extension that includes solubility that is enhanced by chemical reaction. Experiments with LiOH, KOH, and ammonium hydroxide show that the long-term durability of standard Pt-Ru/Nafion ®/Pt membrane electrode assemblies is compromised because of the presence of lithium, potassium, and ammonium cations that interact with the Nafion ® membrane and result in increasing the ohmic limitations of the polymer electrolyte membrane. Experiments with Ca(OH) 2, while reducing gas formation, precipitate the product CaCO 3 out of solution too rapidly for downstream filtering, blocking channels in the flow field.

  15. Influence of size-induced oxidation state of platinum nanoparticles on selectivity and activity in catalytic methanol oxidation in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailiang; Wang, Yihai; Zhu, Zhongwei; Sapi, Andras; An, Kwangjin; Kennedy, Griffin; Michalak, William D; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2013-06-12

    Pt nanoparticles with various sizes of 1, 2, 4, and 6 nm were synthesized and studied as catalysts for gas-phase methanol oxidation reaction toward formaldehyde and carbon dioxide under ambient pressure (10 Torr of methanol, 50 Torr of oxygen, and 710 Torr of helium) at a low temperature of 60 °C. While the 2, 4, and 6 nm nanoparticles exhibited similar catalytic activity and selectivity, the 1 nm nanoparticles showed a significantly higher selectivity toward partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, but a lower total turnover frequency. The observed size effect in catalysis was correlated to the size-dependent structure and oxidation state of the Pt nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared vibrational spectroscopy using adsorbed CO as molecular probes revealed that the 1 nm nanoparticles were predominantly oxidized while the 2, 4, and 6 nm nanoparticles were largely metallic. Transmission electron microscopy imaging witnessed the transition from crystalline to quasicrystalline structure as the size of the Pt nanoparticles was reduced to 1 nm. The results highlighted the important impact of size-induced oxidation state of Pt nanoparticles on catalytic selectivity as well as activity in gas-phase methanol oxidation reactions. PMID:23701488

  16. Combustion synthesized copper-ion substituted FeAl2O4 (Cu0.1Fe0.9Al2O4): A superior catalyst for methanol steam reforming compared to its impregnated analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Sayantani; Llorca, Jordi; Dominguez, Montserrat; Colussi, Sara; Trovarelli, Alessandro; Priolkar, Kaustubh R.; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Gayen, Arup

    2016-02-01

    A series of copper ion substituted MAl2O4 (M = Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn) spinels is prepared by a single step solution combustion synthesis (SCS) and tested for methanol steam reforming (MSR). The copper ion substituted Cu0.1Fe0.9Al2O4 appears to be the most active, showing ∼98% methanol conversion at 300 °C with ∼5% CO selectivity at GHSV = 30,000 h-1 and H2O:CH3OH = 1.1. The analogous impregnated catalyst, CuO (10 at%)/FeAl2O4, is found to be much less active. These materials are characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, BET, HRTEM, XPS and XANES analyses. Spinel phase formation is highly facilitated upon Cu-ion substitution and Cu loading beyond 10 at% leads to the formation of CuO as an additional phase. The ionic substitution of copper in FeAl2O4 leads to the highly crystalline SCS catalyst containing Cu2+ ion sites that are shown to be more active than the dispersed CuO nano-crystallites on the FeAl2O4 impregnated catalyst, despite its lower surface area. The as prepared SCS catalyst contains also a portion of copper as Cu1+ that increases when subjected to reforming atmosphere. The MSR activity of the SCS catalyst decreases with time-on-stream due to the sintering of catalyst crystallites as established from XPS and HRTEM analyses.

  17. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  18. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  19. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products. PMID:19063591

  20. A new headspace gas chromatographic method for the determination of methanol content in paper materials used for food and drink packaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Tian, Ying-Xin; Jin, Hui-Jun; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Barnes, Donald G

    2013-10-01

    This study reports on a method for determination of methanol in paper products by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The method is based on the hydrolysis of the pulp or paper matrix, using a phosphoric acid solution (42.5%) as the medium at 120 °C in 5 h (excluding air contact) in order to release matrix-entrapped methanol, which is then determined by HS-GC. Data show that, under the given conditions of hydrolysis, no methanol was formed from the methoxyl groups in the material. Reproducibility tests of the method generated a relative standard deviation of <3.5%, with recovery in the range of 93.4-102%. The present method is reliable, accurate, and suitable for use in batch testing of the methanol content in paper-related materials. The method can play an important role in addressing food safety concerns that may be raised regarding the use of paper materials in food and beverage packaging. PMID:24020390

  1. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesia, E.

    1995-07-24

    Three types of catalytic materials for alcohol coupling and isobutanol synthesis reactions have been prepared and characterized by BET surface area and x-ray diffraction methods. The materials consist of (1) modified low-temperature methanol synthesis catalysts and their constitutive components, (2) high temperature isobutanol synthesis catalysts consisting of Nb-Zn-Zr mixed oxides promoted with Cu, and (3) high surface area basic oxides prepared from hydrotalcite precursors and active in alcohol coupling reactions. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of methanol and ethanol coupling reactions using labeled compounds have shown that the reaction proceeds via an intermediate dehydrogenation reaction that form aldehydic intermediates. Ethanol is much more reactive than methanol because it forms a more thermodynamically stable acetaldehyde intermediate with kinetically available aldol condensation pathways for the formation of higher oxygenates. The presence of Cs in this catalysts decreases dehydrogenation rates but prevents the decomposition of methanol and ethanol to CO and H{sub 2}.

  2. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.; Whelan, James A.

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  3. Cooperative Reformable Channel System with Unique Recognition of Small Gas Molecules in a two-dimensional ZIF-membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, Benyamin; Taherifar, Neda; Liu, Zhe

    We report a cooperative reformable channel system in a coordination porous polymer, named as ZIF-L. Three types of local flexible ligands coexist in the crystal structure of this polymer, resulting in ultra-flexibility. The reformable channel is able to regulate permeation of a nonspherical guest molecule, such as N2 or CO2, based on its longer molecular dimension, which is in a striking contrast to conventional molecular sieves that regulate the shorter cross-sectional dimension of the guest molecules. Our density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the guest molecule induces dynamic motion of the flexible ligands, leading to the channel reformation, and then the guest molecule reorientates itself to fit in the reformed channel. Such a unique ``induced fit-in'' mechanism causes the gas molecule to pass through 6 membered-ring windows in the c- crystal direction of ZIF-L with its longer axis parallel to the window plane. Our experimental permeance of N2 through the ZIF-L membranes is about three times greater than that of CO2, supporting the DFT simulation predictions.

  4. Utilization of methanol for polymer electrolyte fuel cells in mobile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V. M.; Brockerhoff, P.; Hohlein, B.; Menzer, R.; Stimming, U.

    1994-04-01

    The constantly growing volume of road traffic requires the introduction of new vehicle propulsion systems with higher efficiency and drastically reduced emission rates. As part of the fuel cell programme of the Research Centre Julich a vehicle propulsion system with methanol as secondary energy carrier and a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main component for energy conversion is developed. The fuel gas is produced by a heterogeneously catalyzed steam reforming reaction in which methanol is converted to H2, CO and CO2. The required energy is provided by the catalytic conversion of methanol for both heating up the system and reforming methanol. The high CO content of the fuel gas requires further processing of the gas or the development of new electrocatalysts for the anode. Various Pt-Ru alloys show promising behaviour as CO-tolerant anodes. The entire fuel cell system is discussed in terms of energy and emission balances. The development of important components is described and experimental results are discussed.

  5. Water co-catalyzed selective dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Junjun; Lucci, Felicia R.; Liu, Jilei; El-Soda, Mostafa; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Sykes, E. Charles H.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The non-oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde is considered a promising method to produce formaldehyde and clean hydrogen gas. Although Cu-based catalysts have an excellent catalytic activity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol, metallic Cu is commonly believed to be unreactive for the dehydrogenation of methanol in the absence of oxygen adatoms or oxidized copper. Herein we show that metallic Cu can catalyze the dehydrogenation of methanol in the absence of oxygen adatoms by using water as a co-catalyst both under realistic reaction conditions using silica-supported PtCu nanoparticles in a flow reactor system at temperatures below 250 °C, and in ultra-high vacuum using model PtCu(111) catalysts. Adding small amounts of isolated Pt atoms into the Cu surface to form PtCu single atom alloys (SAAs) greatly enhances the dehydrogenation activity of Cu. Under the same reaction conditions, the yields of formaldehyde from PtCu SAA nanoparticles are more than one order of magnitude higher than on the Cu nanoparticles, indicating a significant promotional effect of individual, isolated Pt atoms. Moreover, this study also shows the unexpected role of water in the activation of methanol. Water, a catalyst for methanol dehydrogenation at low temperatures, becomes a reactant in the methanol steam reforming reactions only at higher temperatures over the same metal catalyst.

  6. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  7. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  8. Heterogeneous Chemistry Involving Methanol in Tropospheric Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Yokelson, R. J.; Singh, H. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Crawford, J. H.; Iraci, L. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this report we analyze airborne measurements to suggest that methanol in biomass burning smoke is lost heterogeneously in clouds. When a smoke plume intersected a cumulus cloud during the SAFARI 2000 field project, the observed methanol gas phase concentration rapidly declined. Current understanding of gas and aqueous phase chemistry cannot explain the loss of methanol documented by these measurements. Two plausible heterogeneous reactions are proposed to explain the observed simultaneous loss and production of methanol and formaldehyde, respectively. If the rapid heterogeneous processing of methanol, seen in a cloud impacted by smoke, occurs in more pristine clouds, it could affect the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere on a global scale.

  9. Performance tests for steam methane reformers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.I.; DiMartino, S.P.; Patel, N.M.; Smith, D.D.

    1982-08-01

    Most of the synthesis gas plants in operation in the United States for production of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and ammonia use steam methane reforming (SMR). Economic projections indicate that the SMR plant may continue to be the most favorable process choice through the 1980s or until partial oxidation or coal gasification processes are technically proven. The complexity of an efficiently designed SMR plant for production of these chemicals requires a thorough understanding of many unit operations to correctly evaluate the performance of an operating plant. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) owns and operates various types of SMR plants for production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases for pipe line sales, liquid hydrogen for merchant sale, methanol and ammonia. Over the past few years, APCI has developed guidelines and procedures for plant performance tests done at its major SMR plants. This article documents the plant test procedure used in conducting onsite SMR plant performance tests.

  10. Direct methanol fuel cell and system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2004-10-26

    A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

  11. Slab reformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  12. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  13. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  14. Molecular gas dynamics applied to phase change processes at a vapor-liquid interface: shock-tube experiment and MGD computation for methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, S.; Yano, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Iwanami, K.; Ichijo, M.

    This paper deals with a molecular gas-dynamics method applied to the accurate determination of the condensation coefficient of methanol vapor. The method consisted of an experiment using a shock tube and computations using a molecular gas-dynamics equation. The experiments were performed in such situations where the shift from a vapor-liquid equilibrium state to a nonequilibrium one is realized by a shock wave in a scale of molecular mean free time of vapor molecules. The temporal evolution in thickness of a liquid film formed on the shock-tube endwall behind a reflected shock wave is measured by an optical interferometer. By comparing the measured liquid-film thickness with numerical solutions for a polyatomic version of the Gaussian-BGK model of the Boltzmann equation, the condensation coefficient of methanol vapor is accurately determined in vapor-liquid nonequilibrium states. As a result, it is clear that the condensation coefficient is just unity very near to an equilibrium state, but is smaller far from the equilibrium state.

  15. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gases in a gas-to-liquids process combined with CO2/steam-mixed reforming and Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chundong; Jun, Ki-Won; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Yun-Jo; Kang, Seok Chang

    2014-07-15

    Two process models for carbon dioxide utilized gas-to-liquids (GTL) process (CUGP) mainly producing light olefins and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthetic oils were developed by Aspen Plus software. Both models are mainly composed of a reforming unit, an F-T synthesis unit and a recycle unit, while the main difference is the feeding point of fresh CO2. In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. Meanwhile, CO2 hydrogenation is conducted via reverse water gas shift on the Fe-based catalysts in the F-T synthesis unit to produce hydrocarbons. After F-T synthesis, the unreacted syngas is recycled to F-T synthesis and reforming units to enhance process efficiency. From the simulation results, it was found that the carbon efficiencies of both CUGP options were successfully improved, and total CO2 emissions were significantly reduced, compared with the conventional GTL processes. The process efficiency was sensitive to recycle ratio and more recycle seemed to be beneficial for improving process efficiency and reducing CO2 emission. However, the process efficiency was rather insensitive to split ratio (recycle to reforming unit/total recycle), and the optimum split ratio was determined to be zero. PMID:24933030

  16. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  17. Production of syngas via partial oxidation and CO{sub 2} reforming of coke oven gas over a Ni catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Jianzhong Guo; Zhaoyin Hou; Jing Gao; Xiaoming Zheng

    2008-05-15

    The partial oxidation and CO{sub 2} reforming of coke oven gas (COG) to syngas was investigated on differently sized Ni catalysts in a fluidized-bed reactor. It was found that the catalytic performance of Ni depends strongly on its particle size. The small-sized Ni catalyst exhibited higher activity and higher selectivity in the partial oxidation of COG. The conversion of CH{sub 4} was kept at 80.7% at a lower temperature (750{sup o}C) and a wide space velocity (from 8000 to 80 000 h{sup -1}). CO{sub 2} reforming of COG is also an efficient route for syngas production. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the COG-derived syngas could be controlled by manipulating the concentration of O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} added in the feed. The yield of produced syngas increases with an increase in temperature. 19 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Acidities of Water and Methanol in Aqueous Solution and DMSO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Daqing

    2009-01-01

    The relative acidities of water and methanol have been a nagging issue. In gas phase, methanol is more acidic than water by 36.0 kJ/mol; however, in aqueous solution, the acidities of methanol and water are almost identical. The acidity of an acid in solution is determined by both the intrinsic gas-phase ionization Gibbs energy and the solvent…

  19. Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Yasushi; Furukawa, Naotsugu; Matsukata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Eiichi

    2011-07-01

    Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C2 hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO2/Cfuel = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

  20. Understanding the effect of reformate gas components and stack component impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Tao

    The performance can be lost depending on the concentration and type of reformate components. Gas crossover in PEMFCs can also cause performance loss and these effects are also presented. Impurities such as acetone coming from composite stack components and sealants can also deteriorate the performance severely. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used as a diagnostic tool to study the impurity poisoning. Reformate contains N2 and CO2 and these components affect performance differently. These effects were quantified using anode overvoltage. Data for anode overvoltage shows that CO2 yields a significant poisoning effect (about 30 mV) on a Pt electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) data showed that CO was produced in-situ from CO2 and H 2 (reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction) on both Pt and Pt/Ru electrodes. The coverage of CO achieved by RWGS can reach 5 x 10-7 mol/cm2 on an electrode with 0.4 mg/cm2 Pt under open circuit with normal operating conditions. This work also investigated how pressure, gas composition, and temperature affect the RWGS reaction in a PEMFC for both Pt and Pt/Ru alloy catalysts. The data are shown to be consistent with a kinetic catalytic model and not with an equilibrium model. Data was presented on H2 and O2 crossover in PEMFCs. Electrochemical techniques and mass balance measurements were used to quantify the crossover under typical working conditions. Mixed potential theory was applied to analyze the effect of gas crossover on open circuit voltage (OCV) of PEMFCs. Off-gassing from bipolar plates previously identified styrene, acetone, t-butyl alcohol, and dimethyl succinate as impurities. The effects of those impurities were quantified with both poisoning-recovery transient curves and steady state VI curves before, during, and after poisoning on anode and cathode side respectively. The poisoning effects of them to the anode side are smaller than to the cathode side. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  1. Hydrogen production by reforming of liquid hydrocarbons in a membrane reactor for portable power generation-Experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Ashok S.

    One of the most promising technologies for lightweight, compact, portable power generation is proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells, however, require a source of pure hydrogen. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in an integrated membrane reactor has potential to provide pure hydrogen in a compact system. Continuous separation of product hydrogen from the reforming gas mixture is expected to increase the yield of hydrogen significantly as predicted by model simulations. In the laboratory-scale experimental studies reported here steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, butane, methanol and Clearlite ® was conducted to produce pure hydrogen in a single step membrane reformer using commercially available Pd-Ag foil membranes and reforming/WGS catalysts. All of the experimental results demonstrated increase in hydrocarbon conversion due to hydrogen separation when compared with the hydrocarbon conversion without any hydrogen separation. Increase in hydrogen recovery was also shown to result in corresponding increase in hydrocarbon conversion in these studies demonstrating the basic concept. The experiments also provided insight into the effect of individual variables such as pressure, temperature, gas space velocity, and steam to carbon ratio. Steam reforming of butane was found to be limited by reaction kinetics for the experimental conditions used: catalysts used, average gas space velocity, and the reactor characteristics of surface area to volume ratio. Steam reforming of methanol in the presence of only WGS catalyst on the other hand indicated that the membrane reactor performance was limited by membrane permeation, especially at lower temperatures and lower feed pressures due to slower reconstitution of CO and H 2 into methane thus maintaining high hydrogen partial pressures in the reacting gas mixture. The limited amount of data collected with steam reforming of Clearlite ® indicated very good match between theoretical predictions and

  2. Propane Clathrate Hydrate Formation Accelerated by Methanol.

    PubMed

    Amtawong, Jaruwan; Guo, Jin; Hale, Jared S; Sengupta, Suvrajit; Fleischer, Everly B; Martin, Rachel W; Janda, Kenneth C

    2016-07-01

    The role of methanol as both an inhibitor and a catalyst for the formation of clathrate hydrates (CHs) has been a topic of intense study. We report a new quantitative study of the kinetics of propane CH formation at 253 K from the reaction of propane gas with <75 μm ice particles that have been doped with varying amounts of methanol. We find that methanol significantly accelerates the formation reaction with quite small doping quantities. Even for only 1 methanol molecule per 10 000 water molecules, the maximum uptake rate of propane into CHs is enhanced and the initiation pressure is reduced. These results enable more efficient production of CHs for gas storage. This remarkable acceleration of the CH formation reaction by small quantities of methanol may place constraints on the mechanism of the inhibition effect observed under other conditions, usually employing much larger quantities of methanol. PMID:27275862

  3. Studying the characteristics of a 5 kW power installation on solid-oxide fuel cells with steam reforming of natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munts, V. A.; Volkova, Yu. V.; Plotnikov, N. S.; Dubinin, A. M.; Tuponogov, V. G.; Chernishev, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The results from tests of a 5 kW power plant on solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), in which natural gas is used as fuel, are presented. The installation's process circuit, the test procedure, and the analysis of the obtained results are described. The characteristics of the power plant developed by the Ural Industrial Company are investigated in four steady-state modes of its operation: with the SOFC nominal power capacity utilized by 40% (2 kW), 60% (3 kW), 90% (4.5 kW) and 110% (5.4 kW) (the peaking mode). The electrical and thermodynamic efficiencies are calculated for all operating modes, and the most efficient mode, in which the electrical efficiency reached almost 70%, is determined. The air excess coefficient and heat loss with flue gases q 2 are determined, and it is revealed that the heat loss q 5 decreases from 40 to 25% with increasing the load. Thermal balances are drawn up for the following components of the system the reformer, the SOFC battery, the catalytic burner for afterburning anode gases, the heat exchanger for heating the cathode air and the mixture of natural gas and steam, and the actual fuel utilization rates in the electrochemical generator are calculated. An equation for the resulting natural gas steam reforming reaction was obtained based on the results from calculating the equilibrium composition of reforming products for the achieved temperatures at the reformer outlet t 3.

  4. Predicted emissions from a methanol-fueled ``electrochemical automobile engine`` based on a PEM fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Amphlett, J.C.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    A simulation of a fuel cell engine (FCE) based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack was developed using a process simulation software package. Rates of emissions of unburned methanol, formaldehyde, CO and NO{sub x}, were calculated based on chemical equilibria. The predicted rates of emissions for unburned methanol, formaldehyde and CO were found to all be less than 1 {micro}g/km. This is considerably less than has been reported in the literature but represents a theoretical limit which should be achievable as effective catalytic-combustion systems are developed for hydrogen/methanol fueled burners. The worst-case rate of NO{sub x}, emissions was shown to be less than 0.03 g/km (0.05 g/mi.). It was found that increasing the rate of heat transfer in the steam reformer, which converts the methanol to a hydrogen-rich gas, significantly reduced the rate of NO{sub x}, emission due to the lower burner temperatures which could be used. The results indicate that, in terms of emissions reduction, a methanol fueled FCE is an excellent long-term alternative to the ICE.

  5. Hydrogen-bonded ring closing and opening of protonated methanol clusters H(+)(CH3OH)(n) (n = 4-8) with the inert gas tagging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Cheng; Hamashima, Toru; Yamazaki, Ryoko; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Yuta; Mizuse, Kenta; Fujii, Asuka; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2015-09-14

    The preferential hydrogen bond (H-bond) structures of protonated methanol clusters, H(+)(MeOH)n, in the size range of n = 4-8, were studied by size-selective infrared (IR) spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. The IR spectra of bare clusters were compared with those with the inert gas tagging by Ar, Ne, and N2, and remarkable changes in the isomer distribution with the tagging were found for clusters with n≥ 5. The temperature dependence of the isomer distribution of the clusters was calculated by the quantum harmonic superposition approach. The observed spectral changes with the tagging were well interpreted by the fall of the cluster temperature with the tagging, which causes the transfer of the isomer distribution from the open and flexible H-bond network types to the closed and rigid ones. Anomalous isomer distribution with the tagging, which has been recently found for protonated water clusters, was also found for H(+)(MeOH)5. The origin of the anomaly was examined by the experiments on its carrier gas dependence. PMID:26235389

  6. Unveiling the gas kinematics at 10 AU scales in high-mass star-forming regions. Milliarcsecond structure of 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscadelli, L.; Sanna, A.; Goddi, C.

    2011-12-01

    Context. High-mass stars play a prominent role in Galactic evolution, but their formation mechanism is still poorly understood. This lack of knowledge reflects the observational limitations of present instruments, whose angular resolution (at the typical distances of massive protostars) precludes probing circumstellar gas on scales of 1-100 AU, relevant for a detailed investigation of accretion structures and launch/collimation mechanims of outflows in high-mass star formation. Aims: This work presents a study of the milliarcsecond structure of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers at high-velocity resolution (0.09 km s-1) in four high-mass star-forming regions: G16.59-0.05, G23.01-0.41, IRAS 20126 + 4104, and AFGL 5142. Methods: We studied these sources by means of multi-epoch VLBI observations in the 22 GHz water and 6.7 GHz methanol masers, to determine the 3-D gas kinematics within a few thousand AU from the (proto)star. Our results demonstrate the ability of maser emission to trace kinematic structures close to the (proto)star, revealing the presence of fast wide-angle and/or collimated outflows (traced by the H2O masers), and of rotation and infall (indicated by the CH3OH masers). The present work exploits the 6.7 GHz maser data collected so far to investigate the milliarcsecond structure of this maser emission at high-velocity resolution. Results: Most of the detected 6.7 GHz maser features present an ordered (linear, or arc-like) distribution of maser spots on the plane of the sky, together with a regular variation in the spot LSR velocity (VLSR) with position. Typical values for the amplitude of the VLSR gradients (defined in terms of the derivative of the spot VLSR with position) are found to be 0.1-0.2 km s-1 mas-1. In each of the four target sources, the orientation and the amplitude of most of the feature VLSR gradients remain remarkably stable in time, on timescales of (at least) several years. We also find that the data are consistent with having the VLSR

  7. Hydrogen production from alcohol reforming in a microwave ‘tornado’-type plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarova, E.; Bundaleska, N.; Dias, F. M.; Tsyganov, D.; Saavedra, R.; Ferreira, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation of microwave plasma-assisted reforming of different alcohols is presented. A microwave (2.45 GHz) ‘tornado’-type plasma with a high-speed tangential gas injection (swirl) at atmospheric pressure is applied to decompose alcohol molecules, namely methanol, ethanol and propanol, and to produce hydrogen-rich gas. The reforming efficiency is investigated both in Ar and Ar+ water vapor plasma environments. The hydrogen yield dependence on the partial alcohol flux is analyzed. Mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to detect the outlet gas products from the decomposition process. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and solid carbon are the main decomposition by-products. A significant increase in the hydrogen production rate is observed with the addition of a small amount of water. Furthermore, optical emission spectroscopy is applied to detect the radiation emitted by the plasma and to estimate the gas temperature and electron density.

  8. Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen rich gas.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen H; Kannangara, G S Kamali

    2013-12-21

    Presently there is a glut of glycerol as the by-product of biofuel production and it will grow as production increases. The conundrum is how we can consume this material and convert it into a more useful product. One potential route is to reform glycerol to hydrogen rich gas including synthesis gas (CO + H2) and hydrogen. However, there is recent literature on various reforming techniques which may have a bearing on the efficiency of such a process. Hence in this review reforming of glycerol at room temperature (normally photo-catalytic), catalysis at moderate and high temperature and a non-catalytic pyrolysis process are presented. The high temperature processes allow the generation of synthesis gas with the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios being suitable for synthesis of dimethyl ether, methanol and for the Fischer-Tropsch process using established catalysts. Efficient conversion of synthesis gas to hydrogen involves additional catalysts that assist the water gas shift reaction, or involves in situ capture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Reforming at reduced temperatures including photo-reforming offers the opportunity of producing synthesis gas or hydrogen using single catalysts. Together, these processes will assist in overcoming the worldwide glut of glycerol, increasing the competitiveness of the biofuel production and reducing our dependency on the fossil based, hydrogen rich gas. PMID:24043264

  9. Gas Cell Observations of Methanol from 0.6 to 1.9 Thz Using the Herschel Space Observatory Hifi Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Ronan D.; Pearson, John C.; Lord, Steve D.; Teyssier, David

    2009-06-01

    The Herschel HIFI instrument, in its ground testing, collected over 6000 spectra of methanol (with natural terrestrial isotopic abundance). These data were gathered primarily to validate the instrument's spectroscopic functionality and proper operation. They have a secondary benefit of increasing the database of methanol lines. Furthermore, the data has enormous and largely untapped potential for a fundamental spectroscopic investigation. We present the analysis of this broad range of methanol spectra and detail the instrument effects seen. Additionally we detail the new insight into the torsional states and self-broadening characteristics of methanol.

  10. Steam reforming of gasification gas tar over dolomite with benzene as a model compound

    SciTech Connect

    Simell, P.A.; Hirvensalo, E.K.; Smolander, V.T.; Krause, A.O.I.

    1999-04-01

    Tar decomposition over a dolomite catalyst in gasification conditions was modeled using benzene as a tar model compound. The reactions of the gas main components were included in the models studied. Kinetic studies were carried out at 750--925 C and under ambient pressure in a plug flow reactor using a mixture of simulated gasification gas. Operation conditions without external or internal mass-transfer limitations were applied. Mechanistic models of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type describing benzene decomposition were developed and tested. Experimental results could be best described by a kinetic rate equation based on the assumption that single-site adsorption of benzene was the rate-determining step and that adsorption of hydrogen inhibited benzene decomposition.

  11. BHP may scale up methanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-06-23

    Broken Hill Pty. (BHP: Melbourne) says otherwise uneconomic gas reserves in the Timor Sea off northwest Australia could be developed if the company`s plans to commercialize a novel gas-to-methanol technology prove to be viable. BHP is building an A$70-million ($50 million) research unit in Victoria using ICI`s Leading Concept Methanol gas-to-methanol process. If this unit proves viable, it could be put on a vessel and taken to Timor Sea where BHP has oil exploration and production interests. Timor gas is not economically viable because of lack of nearby markets. The 54,000-m.t./year research plant, located at Werrbee near Melbourne, is scheduled to start production in the second half of 1994, according to BHP manager Joe Evon. The plant is being built by Davy/John Brown. Provided the economic climate is right, BHP is expected to build a world-scale methanol plant offshore.

  12. Neat methanol fuel cell power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abens, S.; Farooque, M.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to a fuel cell development effort which has been directed, by ease-of-supply, low weight, and low volume criteria toward the use of undiluted methanol. Partial oxidation and internal water recovery concepts are incorporated, allowing the onboard dilution of methanol fuel through mixing with exhaust-recovered water. This scheme is successfully demonstrated for the case of a 3 kW unit employing commercial cross flow heat exchangers, as well as for a 5 kW reformer flue exhaust water recovery design with U.S. Air force baseload stationary applications. The USAF powerplant has an overall thermal efficiency of 32 percent at rated load.

  13. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. . Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. . Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  14. Look what you can make from methanol

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Grate, J.H.

    1985-04-01

    In a synthetic gas based chemicals industry there are many advantages in using an indirect methanol-based route for producing two carbon or higher oxygenated chemicals. Because of poor product selectivity and low production rates, direct syngas mechanisms are not commercially viable. Specific examples of indirect methanol-based routes and also routes from formaldehyde are given. These include the production of ethanol by reductive carbonylation of methanol and the production of vinyl acetate, although more work needs to be done on the methanol-syngas route to vinyl acetate. The chemistry of ethylene glycol from formaldehyde is discussed. It is concluded that the success of syngas-based technologies will be linked to the economics of ethylene production and new methanol-based processes will contribute to this success. 35 references.

  15. Standalone ethanol micro-reformer integrated on silicon technology for onboard production of hydrogen-rich gas.

    PubMed

    Pla, D; Salleras, M; Morata, A; Garbayo, I; Gerbolés, M; Sabaté, N; Divins, N J; Casanovas, A; Llorca, J; Tarancón, A

    2016-08-01

    A novel design of a silicon-based micro-reformer for onboard hydrogen generation from ethanol is presented in this work. The micro-reactor is fully fabricated with mainstream MEMS technology and consists of an active low-thermal-mass structure suspended by an insulating membrane. The suspended structure includes an embedded resistive metal heater and an array of ca. 20k vertically aligned through-silicon micro-channels per square centimetre. Each micro-channel is 500 μm in length and 50 μm in diameter allowing a unique micro-reformer configuration that presents a total surface per projected area of 16 cm(2) cm(-2) and per volume of 320 cm(2) cm(-3). The walls of the micro-channels become the active surface of the micro-reformer when coated with a homogenous thin film of Rh-Pd/CeO2 catalyst. The steam reforming of ethanol under controlled temperature conditions (using the embedded heater) and using the micro-reformer as a standalone device are evaluated. Fuel conversion rates above 94% and hydrogen selectivity values of ca. 70% were obtained when using operation conditions suitable for application in micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs), i.e. 750 °C and fuel flows of 0.02 mlL min(-1) (enough to feed a one watt power source). PMID:27378399

  16. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  17. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  18. Tri-reforming and combined reforming of methane for producing syngas with desired hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei

    This dissertation is an exploratory study of a new process concept for direct production of synthesis gas (CO + H2) with desired H 2/CO ratios (1.5--2.0) for methanol synthesis and F-T synthesis, using CO2 together with steam and unconverted O2 in flue gas from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants to react with methane or natural gas. This new process is called tri-reforming, referring to simultaneous CO2-steam-O2 reforming of methane or natural gas. This study included (1) The investigation of carbon formation in the tri-reforming process. For comparison, carbon formation in the combined reforming and CO2 reforming reaction was studied as well. (2) The effect of reaction conditions and feed compositions on equilibrium composition (e.g. H2/CO ratio) and equilibrium conversions in the tri-reforming process. (3) The role of catalysts in the tri-reforming process, especially the effect of catalysts on CO2 conversion in the presence of H 2O and O2. It was clearly evidenced from this study that CO in the product stream is probably the major source of carbon over Ni/Al2O3 in the equimolar CO2-CH4 reforming at 650°C and 1 atm. Addition of either O2 or H2O into the CO 2 reforming reaction system can suppress carbon formation. It was demonstrated that carbon-free operation can be achieved in the tri-reforming process. A thermodynamic comparison of tri-reforming with feed compositions of (H2O+CO2+0.5O2)/CH4 (mol ratio) = 1 showed that O2 improves equilibrium CH4 conversion, yet greatly decreases equilibrium CO2 conversion. H2O in tri-reforming has a significant effect on the H2/CO ratio in the products, while O2 has a minor effect. A kinetic study and catalytic performance tests indicated that the support in a supported catalyst has a significant role in enhancing CO2 conversion to CO in the presence of H2O and O2 in tri-reforming. The Ni/MgO catalyst showed superior performance with close to equilibrium CH4 and CO2 conversions at 850°C, 1 atm, and 32,000 ml

  19. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-05-12

    In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  20. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-04-24

    In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  1. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Final topical report, demonstration of one-step slurry-phase process for the co-production of methanol and isobutanol

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Liquid phase co-production of methanol and isobutanol (LPIBOH) was de, demonstrated at DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Methanol and isobutanol are key intermediates in a synthesis gas-based route to methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The technology was demonstrated in a new 18 in. slurry bubble-column reactor that was designed to demonstrate higher pressures and temperatures,higher gas superficial velocities, and lower gas hourly space velocities--all of which are conducive to obtaining optimal isobutanol yield. The integration of the new reactor into the AFDU included the addition of a high-pressure synthesis gas compressor, a high-pressure hydrogen feed source, and a closed-loop methanol- solvent absorption system to remove CO{sub 2} from the unconverted synthesis gas. These modifications were completed in January 1994. The LPIBOH run followed after a short turnaround. It employed a cesium- promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories and subsequently scaled up to a production- sized batch. Over a thirteen day campaign on simulated Shell gasifier gas, the catalyst and reactor system were tested at a matrix of pressures (750, 1300, 1735 psig) and space velocities (3000, 5000, 8200 sL/kg-hr), representing numerous first-of-a-kind run conditions for the AFDU. Inlet gas superficial velocities spanned an impressive 0.16 to 1.0 ft/sec. Stable reactor performance for a full twelve-hour data period at 1.0 ft/sec was another significant milestone for the liquid phase technology program. Apart from the catalyst deactivation, the run successfully demonstrated mixed alcohol synthesis in a slurry bubble-column reactor, as well as all of the new equipment installed for the trial. Although the full capabilities of the new oxygenates system will not be tested until future runs, the design objectives for the modifications were met with respect to the LPIBOH run.

  2. Methane reforming in a temperature-controlled DBD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2015-09-01

    Methane and carbon dioxide are among the main products of human activity. Therefore, they are considered among greenhouse gases, which may cause the global warming. On the other hand, methane is widely used in everyday life as an energy source and in industry for the synthesis of different chemicals. In order to utilize greenhouse gases or to generate chemicals from methane, one needs first to dissociate it. Then, this gas converts into desired products such as methanol, gasoline, syn-gas etc. Nowadays, there are several methods for CH4 conversion. Steam reforming, partial oxidation, thermal and non-thermal plasmas are among them. During the last decades, the use of non-thermal plasma for methane reforming attracts more and more attention. This is caused by the possibility to control the process of methane conversion as well as the gas component content at the reactor outlet. In addition, the use of non-thermal plasma facilitates the control of reactor start up. The goal of the present work is the deep understanding of the plasma chemical processes accompanying the methane-air conversion in a temperature-controlled DBD reactor. To do this, we have developed the kinetic mechanism of CH4/N2/O2 conversion for the gas temperature range 300-800 K and applied it to the global model.

  3. Structure and energetics of hydrogen-bonded networks of methanol on close packed transition metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Colin J.; Carrasco, Javier; Lawton, Timothy J.; Liriano, Melissa L.; Baber, Ashleigh E.; Lewis, Emily A.; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2014-07-01

    Methanol is a versatile chemical feedstock, fuel source, and energy storage material. Many reactions involving methanol are catalyzed by transition metal surfaces, on which hydrogen-bonded methanol overlayers form. As with water, the structure of these overlayers is expected to depend on a delicate balance of hydrogen bonding and adsorbate-substrate bonding. In contrast to water, however, relatively little is known about the structures methanol overlayers form and how these vary from one substrate to another. To address this issue, herein we analyze the hydrogen bonded networks that methanol forms as a function of coverage on three catalytically important surfaces, Au(111), Cu(111), and Pt(111), using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory. We investigate the effect of intermolecular interactions, surface coverage, and adsorption energies on molecular assembly and compare the results to more widely studied water networks on the same surfaces. Two main factors are shown to direct the structure of methanol on the surfaces studied: the surface coverage and the competition between the methanol-methanol and methanol-surface interactions. Additionally, we report a new chiral form of buckled hexamer formed by surface bound methanol that maximizes the interactions between methanol monomers by sacrificing interactions with the surface. These results serve as a direct comparison of interaction strength, assembly, and chirality of methanol networks on Au(111), Cu(111), and Pt(111) which are catalytically relevant for methanol oxidation, steam reforming, and direct methanol fuel cells.

  4. Methanol production method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Michael J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  5. Reformer Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  6. Methanol production from fermentor off-gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, B. E.; Moreira, A. R.

    The off gases from an acetone butanol fermentation facility are composed mainly of CO2 and H2. Such a gas stream is an ideal candidate as a feed to a methanol synthesis plant utilizing modern technology recently developed and known as the CDH-methanol process. A detailed economic analysis for the incremental cost of a methanol synthesis plant utilizing the off gases from an acetone butanol fermentation indicates a profitable rate of return of 25 to 30% under the most likely production conditions. Bench scale studies at different fermentor mixing rates indicate that the volume of gases released during the fermentation is a strong function of the agitation rate and point to a potential interaction between the volume of H2 evolved and the levels of butanol present in the final fermented broth. Such interaction may require establishing optimum operating conditions for an integrated butanol fermentation methanol synthesis plant.

  7. Single-Pass Catalytic Conversion of Syngas into Olefins via Methanol.

    PubMed

    Olsbye, Unni

    2016-06-20

    All together now: Combination in a single reactor of the catalysts for converting syngas into methanol and methanol into olefins was recently reported by Cheng et al. This approach considerably simplifies the catalytic conversion of natural gas. PMID:27213983

  8. Direct and Highly Selective Conversion of Synthesis Gas into Lower Olefins: Design of a Bifunctional Catalyst Combining Methanol Synthesis and Carbon-Carbon Coupling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kang; Gu, Bang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Kang, Jincan; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2016-04-01

    The direct synthesis of lower (C2 to C4) olefins, key building-block chemicals, from syngas (H2/CO), which can be derived from various nonpetroleum carbon resources, is highly attractive, but the selectivity for lower olefins is low because of the limitation of the Anderson-Schulz-Flory distribution. We report that the coupling of methanol-synthesis and methanol-to-olefins reactions with a bifunctional catalyst can realize the direct conversion of syngas to lower olefins with exceptionally high selectivity. We demonstrate that the choice of two active components and the integration manner of the components are crucial to lower olefin selectivity. The combination of a Zr-Zn binary oxide, which alone shows higher selectivity for methanol and dimethyl ether even at 673 K, and SAPO-34 with decreased acidity offers around 70% selectivity for C2-C4 olefins at about 10% CO conversion. The micro- to nanoscale proximity of the components favors the lower olefin selectivity. PMID:26961855

  9. First methanol-to-gasoline plant nears startup in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J.

    1985-03-25

    Sometime during the summer 1985, New Zealand Synthetic Fuels Co. was scheduled to begin operating its new plant at Motunui, New Zealand. It marks the first commercial application of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Moreover, as the result of a modular approach directed by Bechtel Corp. personnel, the plant represents a major construction success. It is also the first example of a new technology that may seriously challenge traditional Fischer-Tropsch chemistry as a route to synthetic fuels and organic feedstocks. The MTG plant will produce 14,000 barrels per day of gasoline with an octane number rating of 92 to 94 (according to research results). This amount is about one third of present New Zealand demand. The gasoline will be made by catalytic conversion of methanol coming from two plants, each producing about 220 metric tons per day for the single-train MTG plant. The methanol, in turn, is derived from reforming of natural gas from offshore fields in the Tasman Sea.

  10. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) over nickel catalysts supported on cationic surfactant-templated mesoporous aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Park, Sunyoung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Pil; Chung, Jin Suk; Song, In Kyu

    Two types of mesoporous γ-aluminas (denoted as A-A and A-S) are prepared by a hydrothermal method under different basic conditions using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as a templating agent. A-A and A-S are synthesized in a medium of ammonia solution and sodium hydroxide solution, respectively. Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts (Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S) are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of a mesoporous γ-Al 2O 3 support on the catalytic performance of Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 is investigated. The identity of basic solution strongly affects the physical properties of the A-A and A-S supports. The high surface-area of the mesoporous γ-aluminas and the strong metal-support interaction of supported catalysts greatly enhance the dispersion of nickel species on the catalyst surface. The well-developed mesopores of the Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts prohibit the polymerization of carbon species on the catalyst surface during the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, both Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts give better catalytic performance than the nickel catalyst supported on commercial γ-Al 2O 3 (Ni/A-C). In addition, the Ni/A-A catalyst is superior to the Ni/A-S catalyst. The relatively strong metal-support interaction of Ni/A-A catalyst effectively suppresses the sintering of metallic nickel and the carbon deposition in the steam reforming of LNG. The large pores of the Ni/A-A catalyst also play an important role in enhancing internal mass transfer during the reaction.

  11. Hydrogen production by reforming of simulated hot coke oven gas over nickel catalysts promoted with lanthanum and cerium in a membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hongwei Cheng; Xionggang Lu; Yuwen Zhang; Weizhong Ding

    2009-05-15

    Catalysts of Ni/Mg(Al)O promoted with lanthanum and cerium were tested in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor by catalytic partial oxidation of simulated hot coke oven gas (COG) with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. Analysis of the catalysts suggested that the hydrotalcite precursor after thermal treatment lead to a good dispersion of nickel forming the solid solution NiO-MgO and spinel (Ni,Mg)Al{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The promoted catalysts had higher oxygen permeation flux, better catalytic activity, and better resistance to carbon formation, which will be promising catalysts in the catalytic partial oxidation reforming of hot COG. 29 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Biofiltration of methanol vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Shareefdeen, Z.; Baltzis, B.C. ); Oh, Youngsook; Bartha, R. )

    1993-03-05

    Biofiltration of solvent and fuel vapors may offer a cost-effective way to comply with increasingly strict air emission standards. An important step in the development of this technology is to derive and validate mathematical models of the biofiltration process for predictive and scaleup calculations. For the study of methanol vapor biofiltration, an 8-membered bacterial consortium was obtained from methanol-exposed soil. The bacteria were immobilized on solid support and packed into a 5-cm diameter, 60-cm-high column provided with appropriate flowmeters and sampling ports. The solid support was prepared by mixing two volumes of peat with three volumes of perlite particles. Two series of experiments were performed. In the first, the inlet methanol concentration was kept constant while the superficial air velocity was varied from run to run. In the second series, the air flow rate (velocity) was kept constant while the inlet methanol concentration was varied. The unit proved effective in removing methanol at rates up to 112.8 g h[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]3] packing. A mathematical model has been derived and validated. The model described and predicted experimental results closely. Both experimental data and model predictions suggest that the methanol biofiltration process was limited by oxygen diffusion and methanol degradation kinetics.

  13. Microfluidic distillation chip for methanol concentration detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Liu, Chan-Chiung; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2016-03-17

    An integrated microfluidic distillation system is proposed for separating a mixed ethanol-methanol-water solution into its constituent components. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using a CO2 laser system and comprises a serpentine channel, a boiling zone, a heating zone, and a cooled collection chamber filled with de-ionized (DI) water. In the proposed device, the ethanol-methanol-water solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and driven through the serpentine channel and into the collection chamber by means of a nitrogen carrier gas. Following the distillation process, the ethanol-methanol vapor flows into the collection chamber and condenses into the DI water. The resulting solution is removed from the collection tank and reacted with a mixed indicator. Finally, the methanol concentration is inversely derived from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show the proposed microfluidic system achieves an average methanol distillation efficiency of 97%. The practicality of the proposed device is demonstrated by detecting the methanol concentrations of two commercial fruit wines. It is shown that the measured concentration values deviate by no more than 3% from those obtained using a conventional bench top system. PMID:26920777

  14. Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R.; Sederquist, R.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plants are being developed for transit bus and passenger car applications that use methanol as the on-board fuel. Commodity methanol by itself contains very little sulfur; however, it may occasionally be contaminated with up to about 1% diesel fuel or gasoline in current liquid-fuel distribution systems, leading to the presence of sulfur in the methanol fuel. This sulfur must be removed because of its deleterious effect on the reforming catalysts. International Fuel Cells has set the allowable sulfur limit in the methanol fuel at less than 1 ppm. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess the feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon adsorber for the removal of sulfur from transportation fuel cell systems.

  15. The Methanol Multibeam Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James A.; Cohen, R. J.; Caswell, J. L.; Fuller, G. A.; Brooks, K.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.; Diamond, P. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Gray, M. D.; Hoare, M. G.; Masheder, M. R. W.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; Pestalozzi, M.; Phillips, C.; Quinn, L.; Thompson, M. A.; Voronkov, M.; Walsh, A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Wong-McSweeney, D.; Yates, J. A.; Cox, J.

    2007-03-01

    A new 7-beam methanol multibeam receiver is being used to survey the Galaxy for newly forming massive stars, that are pinpointed by strong methanol maser emission at 6.668 GHz. The receiver, jointly constructed by Jodrell Bank Observatory (JBO) and the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), was successfully commissioned at Parkes in January 2006. The Parkes-Jodrell survey of the Milky Way for methanol masers is two orders of magnitude faster than previous systematic surveys using 30-m class dishes, and is the first systematic survey of the entire Galactic plane. The first 53 days of observations with the Parkes telescope have yielded 518 methanol sources, of which 218 are new discoveries. We present the survey methodology as well as preliminary results and analysis.

  16. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  17. Biological Methanol Production by a Type II Methanotroph Methylocystis bryophila.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kim, In-Won

    2016-04-28

    Methane (CH₄) is the most abundant component in natural gas. To reduce its harmful environmental effect as a greenhouse gas, CH₄ can be utilized as a low-cost feed for the synthesis of methanol by methanotrophs. In this study, several methanotrophs were examined for their ability to produce methanol from CH₄; including Methylocella silvestris, Methylocystis bryophila, Methyloferula stellata, and Methylomonas methanica. Among these methanotrophs, M. bryophila exhibited the highest methanol production. The optimum process parameters aided in significant enhancement of methanol production up to 4.63 mM. Maximum methanol production was observed at pH 6.8, 30°C, 175 rpm, 100 mM phosphate buffer, 50 mM MgCl₂ as a methanol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 50% CH₄ concentration, 24 h of incubation, and 9 mg of dry cell mass ml(-1) inoculum load, respectively. Optimization of the process parameters, screening of methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors, and supplementation with formate resulted in significant improvements in methanol production using M. bryophila. This report suggests, for the first time, the potential of using M. bryophila for industrial methanol production from CH₄. PMID:26838340

  18. The Asian methanol market

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-12-31

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of SI Engine Operation Supplemented by Hydrogen Rich Gas from a Compact Plasma Boosted Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    J. B. Green, Jr.; N. Domingo; J. M. E. Storey; R.M. Wagner; J.S. Armfield; L. Bromberg; D. R. Cohn; A. Rabinovich; N. Alexeev

    2000-06-19

    It is well known that hydrogen addition to spark-ignited (SI) engines can reduce exhaust emissions and increase efficiency. Micro plasmatron fuel converters can be used for onboard generation of hydrogen-rich gas by partial oxidation of a wide range of fuels. These plasma-boosted microreformers are compact, rugged, and provide rapid response. With hydrogen supplement to the main fuel, SI engines can run very lean resulting in a large reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions relative to stoichiometric combustion without a catalytic converter. This paper presents experimental results from a microplasmatron fuel converter operating under variable oxygen to carbon ratios. Tests have also been carried out to evaluate the effect of the addition of a microplasmatron fuel converter generated gas in a 1995 2.3-L four-cylinder SI production engine. The tests were performed with and without hydrogen-rich gas produced by the plasma boosted fuel converter with gasoline. A one hundred fold reduction in NO x due to very lean operation was obtained under certain conditions. An advantage of onboard plasma-boosted generation of hydrogen-rich gas is that it is used only when required and can be readily turned on and off. Substantial NO x reduction should also be obtainable by heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) facilitated by use of hydrogen-rich gas with stoichiometric operation.

  20. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  1. Methanol as a gasoline extender: a critique.

    PubMed

    Wigg, E E

    1974-11-29

    The tests conducted with the three vehicles at different emission control levels suggest that, in the area of fuel economy and emissions, potential benefits with methanol blends are related to carburetion and are only significant in the case of the rich-operating cars built before emission control standards were imposed. Theoretical considerations related to methanol's leaning effect on carburetion support this conclusion. Potential advantages for methanol in these areas are therefore continuously diminishing as the older cars leave the roads. At present, these older cars use only about one-fourth of the totalc motor gasoline consumed and, before methanol could be used on a large scale, this fraction would be much smaller. The use of methanol in gasoline would almost certainly create severe product quality problems. Water contamination could lead to phase separation in the distribution system and possibly in the car tank as well, and this would require additional investment in fuel handling and blending equipment. Excess fuel volatility in hot weather may also have adverse effects on car performance if the methanol blends include typical concentrations of butanes and pentanes. Removal of these light hydrocarbon components would detract from methanol's role as a gasoline extender and if current fuel volatility specifications were maintained, its use could lead to a net loss in the total available energy for use in motor fuels. Car performance problems associated with excessively lean operation would also be expected in the case of a significant proportion of late-model cars which are adjusted to operate on lean fuel-air mixtures. If methanol does become available in large quantities, these factors suggest that it would be more practical to use it for purposes other than those related to the extending of motor gasoline, such as for gas turbines used for electric power generation. In this case, the "pure" methanol would act as a cleanburning fuel, having none of the

  2. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  3. Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

  4. A passive fuel delivery system for portable direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z.; Cao, Y.

    A passive device is utilized for transferring methanol into water through a wick material. The wick material preferentially has a higher wicking capability with respect to methanol than water, and operates in a siphon fashion with the intake end in contact with methanol and the discharge end in contact with water. Due to the difference of wicking capabilities, a net amount of methanol is pumped into water. The device described above is used as a fuel delivery component for a liquid-feed fuel cell system, such as a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), which directly utilizes a liquid fuel without an intermediate reforming process. In the present experimental study, methanol and water are stored separately in two containers and a wick is positioned between the containers as a siphon, with the aqueous methanol solution communicating with the anode of the DMFC. Methanol is siphoned from the methanol container to the water container in situ when the methanol in the water is consumed during the operation of the fuel cell. Through a proper selection of the wick and the containers, the methanol concentration near the anode of the DMFC was maintained within a preferred range.

  5. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  6. Methanol synthesis studies using in situ FTIR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    Future demand for methanol could expand multifold as coal assumes a greater proportion of energy needs. Although methanol is presently economically unattractive as a substitute for gasoline, the State of California has begun a program to operate 550 vehicles with methanol because it produces fewer pollutants than gasoline. More than 300 privately-owned vehicles, converted by Future Fuels of America, Inc., are running on methanol in the Sacramento, San Francisco, and Los Angeles areas. Even if gasoline remains the major automotive fuel into the next century, methanol production could increase significantly if technology such as Mobil Oil's M-Gasoline process is used to produce gasoline. This process uses a zeolite catalyst (ZSM-5) to convert methanol into a blend of paraffins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics with a research octane number of 93, i.e., an unleaded premium gasoline. New Zealand will use this technology to convert natural gas into approximately 12,500 bbl/d of gasoline. Utilities using coal gasification technology for power generation will probably also manufacture methanol. During off-peak hours, part of the syngas would be converted to methanol and stored; during peak hours, the methanol would be used as fuel in gas turbines to meet the high electrical demand. And finally, there is great potential for future development of methanol as a primary feedstock in the chemical industry, especially as supplies of ethylene and propylene decrease. An example is the manufacture of acetic acid, where methanol has replaced ethylene as the primary feedstock in new technologies by BASF and Monsanto.

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary J.; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  8. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents a portion of the work performed Multi-fuel Reformers for Fuel Cells Used in Transportation. One objective for development is to develop advanced fuel processing systems to reform methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and other hydrocarbons into hydrogen for use in transportation fuel cell systems, while a second objective is to develop better systems for on-board hydrogen storage. This report examines techniques and technology available for storage of pure hydrogen on board a vehicle as pure hydrogen of hydrides. The report focuses separately on near- and far-term technologies, with particular emphasis on the former. Development of lighter, more compact near-term storage systems is recommended to enhance competitiveness and simplify fuel cell design. The far-term storage technologies require substantial applied research in order to become serious contenders.

  9. Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived hydrocarbons in liquid water.

    PubMed

    Cortright, R D; Davda, R R; Dumesic, J A

    2002-08-29

    Concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make hydrogen an attractive alternative energy source. Hydrogen is currently derived from nonrenewable natural gas and petroleum, but could in principle be generated from renewable resources such as biomass or water. However, efficient hydrogen production from water remains difficult and technologies for generating hydrogen from biomass, such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars, steam-reforming of bio-oils and gasification, suffer from low hydrogen production rates and/or complex processing requirements. Here we demonstrate that hydrogen can be produced from sugars and alcohols at temperatures near 500 K in a single-reactor aqueous-phase reforming process using a platinum-based catalyst. We are able to convert glucose -- which makes up the major energy reserves in plants and animals -- to hydrogen and gaseous alkanes, with hydrogen constituting 50% of the products. We find that the selectivity for hydrogen production increases when we use molecules that are more reduced than sugars, with ethylene glycol and methanol being almost completely converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. These findings suggest that catalytic aqueous-phase reforming might prove useful for the generation of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from carbohydrates extracted from renewable biomass and biomass waste streams. PMID:12198544

  10. Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived hydrocarbons in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortright, R. D.; Davda, R. R.; Dumesic, J. A.

    2002-08-01

    Concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make hydrogen an attractive alternative energy source. Hydrogen is currently derived from nonrenewable natural gas and petroleum, but could in principle be generated from renewable resources such as biomass or water. However, efficient hydrogen production from water remains difficult and technologies for generating hydrogen from biomass, such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars, steam-reforming of bio-oils and gasification, suffer from low hydrogen production rates and/or complex processing requirements. Here we demonstrate that hydrogen can be produced from sugars and alcohols at temperatures near 500K in a single-reactor aqueous-phase reforming process using a platinum-based catalyst. We are able to convert glucose-which makes up the major energy reserves in plants and animals-to hydrogen and gaseous alkanes, with hydrogen constituting 50% of the products. We find that the selectivity for hydrogen production increases when we use molecules that are more reduced than sugars, with ethylene glycol and methanol being almost completely converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. These findings suggest that catalytic aqueous-phase reforming might prove useful for the generation of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from carbohydrates extracted from renewable biomass and biomass waste streams.

  11. Methanol from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Economic feasibility of methanol or methyl fuel produced from coal using existing technology is discussed. Other factors considered include environmental, safety, toxicity, transportation, so storage, ease of burning, and retrofitting of present boilers. Demonstrations of its uses as a boiler fuel and as a turbine fuel are cited.

  12. Comparison of Bond Scission Sequence of Methanol on Tungsten Monocarbide and Pt-Modified Tungsten Monocarbide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.; Stottlemyer, A.L.; Chen, J.G.

    2010-09-14

    The ability to control the bond scission sequence of O-H, C-H, and C-O bonds is of critical importance in the effective utilization of oxygenate molecules, such as in reforming reactions and in alcohol fuel cells. In the current study, we use methanol as a probe molecule to demonstrate the possibility to control the decomposition pathways by supporting monolayer coverage of Pt on a tungsten monocarbide (WC) surface. Density functional theory (DFT) results reveal that on the WC and Pt/WC surfaces CH{sub 3}OH decomposes via O-H bond scission to form the methoxy (*CH{sub 3} O) intermediate. The subsequent decomposition of methoxy on the WC surface occurs through the C-O bond scission to form *CH{sub 3}, which reacts with surface *H to produce CH{sub 4}. In contrast, the decomposition of methoxy on the Pt/WC surface favors the C-H bond scission to produce *CH{sub 2} O, which prevents the formation of the *CH{sub 3} species and leads to the formation of a *CO intermediate through subsequent deprotonation steps. The DFT predictions are validated using temperature programmed desorption to quantify the gas-phase product yields and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy to determine the surface intermediates from methanol decomposition on Pt, WC, and Pt/WC surfaces.

  13. Comparison of bond scission sequence of methanol on tungsten monocarbide and Pt-modified tungsten monocarbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottlemyer, Alan Lee; Liu, Ping; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2010-09-01

    The ability to control the bond scission sequence of OH, CH, and CO bonds is of critical importance in the effective utilization of oxygenate molecules, such as in reforming reactions and in alcohol fuel cells. In the current study, we use methanol as a probe molecule to demonstrate the possibility to control the decomposition pathways by supporting monolayer coverage of Pt on a tungsten monocarbide (WC) surface. Density functional theory (DFT) results reveal that on the WC and Pt/WC surfaces CH3OH decomposes via OH bond scission to form the methoxy (C∗H3 O) intermediate. The subsequent decomposition of methoxy on the WC surface occurs through the CO bond scission to form C∗H3, which reacts with surface H∗ to produce CH4. In contrast, the decomposition of methoxy on the Pt/WC surface favors the CH bond scission to produce C∗H2 O, which prevents the formation of the C∗H3 species and leads to the formation of a C∗O intermediate through subsequent deprotonation steps. The DFT predictions are validated using temperature programmed desorption to quantify the gas-phase product yields and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy to determine the surface intermediates from methanol decomposition on Pt, WC, and Pt/WC surfaces.

  14. A techno-economic & environmental analysis of a novel technology utilizing an internal combustion engine as a compact, inexpensive micro-reformer for a distributed gas-to-liquids system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Joshua B.

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) contribute to global warming, and must be mitigated. With GHG mitigation as an overarching goal, this research aims to study the potential for newfound and abundant sources of natural gas to play a role as part of a GHG mitigation strategy. However, recent work suggests that methane leakage in the current natural gas system may inhibit end-use natural gas as a robust mitigation strategy, but that natural gas as a feedstock for other forms of energy, such as electricity generation or liquid fuels, may support natural-gas based mitigation efforts. Flaring of uneconomic natural gas, or outright loss of natural gas to the atmosphere results in greenhouse gas emissions that could be avoided and which today are very large in aggregate. A central part of this study is to look at a new technology for converting natural gas into methanol at a unit scale that is matched to the size of individual natural gas wells. The goal is to convert stranded or otherwise flared natural gas into a commercially valuable product and thereby avoid any unnecessary emission to the atmosphere. A major part of this study is to contribute to the development of a novel approach for converting natural gas into methanol and to assess the environmental impact (for better or for worse) of this new technology. This Ph. D. research contributes to the development of such a system and provides a comprehensive techno-economic and environmental assessment of this technology. Recognizing the distributed nature of methane leakage associated with the natural gas system, this work is also intended to advance previous research at the Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy that aims to show that small, modular energy systems can be made economic. This thesis contributes to and analyzes the development of a small-scale gas-to-liquids (GTL) system aimed at addressing flared natural gas from gas and oil wells. This thesis includes system engineering around a design that

  15. A techno-economic & environmental analysis of a novel technology utilizing an internal combustion engine as a compact, inexpensive micro-reformer for a distributed gas-to-liquids system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Joshua B.

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) contribute to global warming, and must be mitigated. With GHG mitigation as an overarching goal, this research aims to study the potential for newfound and abundant sources of natural gas to play a role as part of a GHG mitigation strategy. However, recent work suggests that methane leakage in the current natural gas system may inhibit end-use natural gas as a robust mitigation strategy, but that natural gas as a feedstock for other forms of energy, such as electricity generation or liquid fuels, may support natural-gas based mitigation efforts. Flaring of uneconomic natural gas, or outright loss of natural gas to the atmosphere results in greenhouse gas emissions that could be avoided and which today are very large in aggregate. A central part of this study is to look at a new technology for converting natural gas into methanol at a unit scale that is matched to the size of individual natural gas wells. The goal is to convert stranded or otherwise flared natural gas into a commercially valuable product and thereby avoid any unnecessary emission to the atmosphere. A major part of this study is to contribute to the development of a novel approach for converting natural gas into methanol and to assess the environmental impact (for better or for worse) of this new technology. This Ph. D. research contributes to the development of such a system and provides a comprehensive techno-economic and environmental assessment of this technology. Recognizing the distributed nature of methane leakage associated with the natural gas system, this work is also intended to advance previous research at the Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy that aims to show that small, modular energy systems can be made economic. This thesis contributes to and analyzes the development of a small-scale gas-to-liquids (GTL) system aimed at addressing flared natural gas from gas and oil wells. This thesis includes system engineering around a design that

  16. What Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    A teacher explores the recent educational reform movement and discusses the studies of schools done by Sociologist Christopher Jencks in the 1970s. An important idea that can be extrapolated from Jencks' studies is that schools should function more like families than factories. This would empower teachers and make schooling more equitable,…

  17. Rethinking Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, James C.

    2010-01-01

    As president of Miami University of Ohio from 1996 until 2006, James C. Garland redefined the public institution as a "semi-private" university by implementing the same tuition for both in-state and out-of-state students. Students from Ohio with need received large scholarships--but those who could afford to pay more did so. The reform, which…

  18. Toothless Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2010-01-01

    To many education reformers, the passage of the federal government's massive stimulus plan, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), appeared to be a final bright star falling into alignment. The ARRA seemed to complete the constellation: an astounding $100 billion of new federal funds--nearly twice the annual budget of the U.S.…

  19. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect

    Spiewak, I.; Tyner, C.E.; Langnickel, U.

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  20. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  1. A molecular beam scattering investigation of methanol-noble gas complexes: Characterization of the isotropic potential and insights into the nature of the interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelletti, D.; Candori, P.; Falcinelli, S.; Albertí, M.; Pirani, F.

    2012-08-01

    Integral cross section experiments involving rotationally hot CH3OH projectiles and noble gas (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) targets are reported for the first time. Measured data have been exploited to characterize the phenomenological radial interaction in the CH3OH-Ng weakly bound complexes. Potential energy surfaces for all the systems have been formulated on the basis of a pairwise additive multicenter model. The comparison of model predictions with the most relevant experimental findings suggests that in CH3OH-Ng complexes, at variance with the behavior of the analogous complexes involving water or ammonia, the interaction is mainly due to van der Waals and induction components.

  2. Competitive adsorption-driven separation of water/methanol mixtures using hydrogen as a third competitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Yu, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kew-Ho

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we report competitive adsorption-driven separation of a water/methanol mixture in Pd-deposited silica membranes, which is induced by introducing hydrogen carrier gas as a third competitor. After replacing helium carrier gas by hydrogen carrier gas, water vapor permeance showed a slight decrease, whereas methanol vapor permeance significantly decreased. The water/methanol separation factor remarkably increased from 1.7-16.5 to 6.8-58.2 in the feed water content of 5.8-83.0 wt.%. From single vapor permeation tests in the presence of carrier gas (hydrogen or helium), it was confirmed that those permeation behavior was derived from stronger effect of the competitive adsorption between hydrogen and methanol vapor than that between hydrogen and water vapor. That is, hydrogen carrier gas dominantly inhibits adsorption of methanol vapor on the membrane surface, and the partial pressure of methanol on the membrane surface decreases, which leads to a decrease in methanol permeance with reduced driving force. In addition, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) results of water and methanol from Pd/silica particles also demonstrated that hydrogen carrier gas suppresses methanol adsorption on Pd/silica surface more dominantly than water adsorption. PMID:19772967

  3. Teaching Reform and Union Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles T.; Mitchell, Douglas E.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews present labor statutes and examines three alternatives to current practices; proposes that teaching, by its nature, is not well administered by industrial standards or well adjudicated through industrial unionism. Suggests "professional unionism" as a means of effecting educational reform. (DR)

  4. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen in aqueous methanol.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhasish K; Chakraborty, Savitri; Bhattacharyya, Anjan; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2013-01-01

    Photolysis of oxyfluorfen, an herbicide of the nitrodiphenyl ether class, was studied in aqueous methanol under UV and sunlight. UV irradiation was carried out in a borosilicate glass photoreactor (containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol) equipped with a quartz filter and 125 watt mercury lamp (maximum output 254 nm) at 25 ± 1°C. Sunlight irradiation was conducted at 28 ± 1°C in borosilicate Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol. The samples from both the irradiated conditions were withdrawn at a definite time interval and extracted to measure oxyfluorfen content by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for rate study. The half-life values were 20 hours and 2.7 days under UV and sunlight exposure, respectively. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen yielded 13 photoproducts of which three were characterized by infrared spectrophotometer and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The rest of the photoproducts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). An ionization potential 70 eV was used for electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) and methane was used as reagent gas for chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (CI-MS). Two of the photoproducts were also synthesized for comparison. The main phototransformation pathways of oxyfluorfen involved nitro reduction, dechlorination, and hydrolysis as well as nucleophiles displacement reaction. PMID:23998303

  5. Atmospheric deposition of methanol over the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingxi; Nightingale, Philip D.; Beale, Rachael; Liss, Peter S.; Blomquist, Byron; Fairall, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In the troposphere, methanol (CH3OH) is present ubiquitously and second in abundance among organic gases after methane. In the surface ocean, methanol represents a supply of energy and carbon for marine microbes. Here we report direct measurements of air–sea methanol transfer along a ∼10,000-km north–south transect of the Atlantic. The flux of methanol was consistently from the atmosphere to the ocean. Constrained by the aerodynamic limit and measured rate of air–sea sensible heat exchange, methanol transfer resembles a one-way depositional process, which suggests dissolved methanol concentrations near the water surface that are lower than what were measured at ∼5 m depth, for reasons currently unknown. We estimate the global oceanic uptake of methanol and examine the lifetimes of this compound in the lower atmosphere and upper ocean with respect to gas exchange. We also constrain the molecular diffusional resistance above the ocean surface—an important term for improving air–sea gas exchange models. PMID:24277830

  6. California methanol assessment. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R.; Dutzi, E.; Gershman, R.; Heft, R.; Kalema, W.; Maynard, D.

    1983-01-01

    Energy feedstock sources for methanol; methanol and other synfuels; transport, storage, and distribution; air quality impact of methanol use in vehicles, chemical methanol production and use; methanol utilization in vehicles; methanol utilization in stationary applications; and environmental and regulatory constraints are discussed.

  7. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-04-01

    The authors report observations, for the first time, of the 20 - 10A+ and E, 2-1 - 1-1 E, and 10 - 00A+ lines of methanol (CH3OH) in three dark cold clouds, TMC 1, L 134N, and B 335. The CH3OH emission is extended in these clouds and shows a complex velocity structure. Clear indications of non LTE excitation are observed in TMC 1. Estimated column densities are a few×1013cm-2. Although less abundant than formaldehyde (H2CO), methanol is almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), in these clouds. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134N, to an upper limit of 4×1012cm-2 (3σ). Implications for dark cloud excitation and chemistry are discussed.

  8. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  9. Methanol sensing characteristics of conducting polypyrrole-silver nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, S. K.

    2012-05-01

    Methanol sensing characteristics of conducting polypyrrole-silver nanocomposites are reported here. The nanocomposites are synthesized by wet chemical technique with different amount of silver loadings (5-15 mol%). The sensitivity of the nanocomposites upon exposure to gas molecules is critically dependent on the silver loadings and the concentration of the exposed gas. This is possibly instigated by the modified metal-polymer interface and the polar nature of the constituent metal and the exposed gas. Interaction of the alcohol gas with the polypyrrole chains in the presence of silver effectively determines the change in resistance and hence the sensitivity of the nanocomposites upon exposure to methanol. The adsorption of methanol molecules within the nanocomposites and the subsequent chemical reactions are studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  10. The toxicity of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Tephly, T.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Methanol toxicity in humans and monkeys is characterized by a latent period of many hours followed by a metabolic acidosis and ocular toxicity. This is not observed in most lower animals. The metabolic acidosis and blindness is apparently due to formic acid accumulation in humans and monkeys, a feature not seen in lower animals. The accumulation of formate is due to a deficiency in formate metabolism which is, in turn, related, in part, to low hepatic tetrahydrofolate (H{sub 4}folate). An excellent correlation between hepatic H{sub 4} folate and formate oxidation rates has been shown within and across species. Thus, humans and monkeys possess low hepatic H{sub 4}folate levels, low rates of formate oxidation and accumulation of formate after methanol. Formate, itself, produces blindness in monkeys in the absence of metabolic acidosis. In addition to low hepatic H{sub 4}folate concentrations, monkeys and humans also have low hepatic 10-formyl H{sub 4}folate dehydrogenase levels, the enzyme which is the ultimate catalyst for conversion of formate to carbon dioxide. This review presents the basis for the role of folic acid-dependent reactions in the regulation of methanol toxicity.

  11. A novel process for methanol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1991-01-01

    A bench-scale reactor is being used to conduct studies of the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol by a novel process. In previous reports, we provided evidence for a two step reaction in series, the carbonylation reaction mainly taking place in a non-equilibrium region in the vicinity of the Cu-chromite surface, and the hydrogenolysis reaction taking place on the surface of the Cu-chromite. The synergism between the two catalysts enhances the rate of methanol formation. In this quarter, we studied the effect of pressure and temperature on the rate of MeOH synthesis. We also compared the reaction rate of a syngas feed simulated for an H{sub 2}/CO ratio from a Texaco gasifier with a methanol balanced syngas feed (H{sub 2}/CO=2). Atomic absorption analysis of solid and liquid samples for the KOMe/Cu-chromite runs was undertaken to identify the distribution of potassium at the end of the methanol synthesis runs. Modelling studies were initiated with emphasis on both kinetic and process behavior. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Approach to the Treatment of Methanol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2016-07-01

    Methanol intoxication is an uncommon but serious poisoning. Its adverse effects are due primarily to the impact of its major metabolite formic acid and lactic acid resulting from cellular hypoxia. Symptoms including abdominal pain and loss of vision can appear a few hours to a few days after exposure, reflecting the time necessary for accumulation of the toxic byproducts. In addition to a history of exposure, increases in serum osmolal and anion gaps can be clues to its presence. However, increments in both parameters can be absent depending on the nature of the toxic alcohol, time of exposure, and coingestion of ethanol. Definitive diagnosis requires measurement with gas or liquid chromatography, which are laborious and expensive procedures. Tests under study to detect methanol or its metabolite formate might facilitate the diagnosis of this poisoning. Treatment can include administration of ethanol or fomepizole, both inhibitors of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent formation of its metabolites, and hemodialysis to remove methanol and formate. In this Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case, a patient with methanol intoxication due to ingestion of model airplane fuel is described, and the value and limitations of current and new diagnostic and treatment measures are discussed. PMID:27180631

  13. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOEpatents

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  14. Development incentives for fossil fuel subsidy reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Michael; Chen, Claudine; Fuss, Sabine; Marxen, Annika; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-08-01

    Reforming fossil fuel subsidies could free up enough funds to finance universal access to water, sanitation, and electricity in many countries, as well as helping to cut global greenhouse-gas emissions.

  15. Effects of fuel cell anode recycle on catalytic fuel reforming

    SciTech Connect

    shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Gardner, T.; Haynes, D.; Spivey, J.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of steam in the reactant gas of a catalytic fuel reformer decreases the formation of carbon, minimizing catalyst deactivation. However, the operation of the reformer without supplemental water reduces the size, weight, cost, and overall complexity of the system. The work presented here examines experimentally two options for adding steam to the reformer inlet: (I) recycle of a simulated fuel cell anode exit gas (comprised of mainly CO2, H2O, and N2 and some H2 and CO) and (II) recycle of the reformate from the reformer exit back to the reformer inlet (mainly comprised of H2, CO, and N2 and some H2O and CO2). As expected, anode gas recycle reduced the carbon formation and increased the hydrogen concentration in the reformate. However, reformer recycle was not as effective due principally to the lower water content in the reformate compared to the anode gas. In fact, reformate recycle showed slightly increased carbon formation compared to no recycle. In an attempt to understand the effects of individual gases in these recycle streams (H2, CO, CO2, N2, and H2O), individual gas species were independently introduced to the reformer feed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of Fuel Cell Anode Recycle on Catalytic Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, D.A.; Gardner, T.H.; Haynes, D.J.; Spivey, J.J.

    2007-06-01

    The presence of steam in the reactant gas of a catalytic fuel reformer decreases the formation of carbon, minimizing catalyst deactivation. However, the operation of the reformer without supplemental water reduces the size, weight, cost, and overall complexity of the system. The work presented here examines experimentally two options for adding steam to the reformer inlet: (I) recycle of a simulated fuel cell anode exit gas (comprised of mainly CO2, H2O, and N2 and some H2 and CO) and (II) recycle of the reformate from the reformer exit back to the reformer inlet (mainly comprised of H2, CO, and N2 and some H2O and CO2). As expected, anode gas recycle reduced the carbon formation and increased the hydrogen concentration in the reformate. However, reformer recycle was not as effective due principally to the lower water content in the reformate compared to the anode gas. In fact, reformate recycle showed slightly increased carbon formation compared to no recycle. In an attempt to understand the effects of individual gases in these recycle streams (H2, CO, CO2, N2, and H2O), individual gas species were independently introduced to the reformer feed.

  17. A novel process for manufacture of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-scale reactor is being used to conduct studies of the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol by a novel process. During the last quarter, the effect of potassium methoxide and Cu-chromite loading on the MeOH formation rate was investigated. The rate obtained with Cu-chromite was compared to that using Cu-ZnO as catalyst. Work also continued on the modification of the experimental equipment to permit on-line monitoring of liquid and gas compositions.

  18. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what

  19. Swarm intelligence for multi-objective optimization of synthesis gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, T.; Vasant, P.; Elamvazuthi, I.; Ku Shaari, Ku Zilati

    2012-11-01

    In the chemical industry, the production of methanol, ammonia, hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons require synthesis gas (or syn gas). The main three syn gas production methods are carbon dioxide reforming (CRM), steam reforming (SRM) and partial-oxidation of methane (POM). In this work, multi-objective (MO) optimization of the combined CRM and POM was carried out. The empirical model and the MO problem formulation for this combined process were obtained from previous works. The central objectives considered in this problem are methane conversion, carbon monoxide selectivity and the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio. The MO nature of the problem was tackled using the Normal Boundary Intersection (NBI) method. Two techniques (Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)) were then applied in conjunction with the NBI method. The performance of the two algorithms and the quality of the solutions were gauged by using two performance metrics. Comparative studies and results analysis were then carried out on the optimization results.

  20. Reforming Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

  1. Studies of the effects of the reformer in an internal-reforming molten carbonate fuel cell by mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Ye-Ro; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Chung, Gui-Yung; Nam, Suk-Woo; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Lim, Tae-Hoon; Lim, Hee-Chun

    The effects of the reformer in an internal-reforming molten carbonate fuel cell (IR-MCFC) are studied by mathematical modeling. Temperature distributions, conversion of methane and compositions of gases are analyzed through mathematical modeling of the reformer and the cell. In the reformer, the methane-reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction occur simultaneously and the conversion of methane to hydrogen, calculated including the thermodynamic equilibrium of the reaction, reaches 99%. Additionally, the endothermic-reforming reaction contributes to a uniform temperature distribution. The voltage and the power of the IR-MCFC are similar to those of an external-reforming molten carbonate fuel cell (ER-MCFC), when the compositions at the inlet of the ER-MCFC are set as those at the outlet of the reformer in IR-MCFC. As the molar ratio of methane to water-gas decreases at a fixed total flow rate, the working voltage decreases.

  2. Hydrogen production by partial oxidation of methanol over gold supported on Fe2O3.

    PubMed

    Roselin, L Selva; Liao, Li-Mei; Ou, You-Chen; Chang, Feg-Wen

    2014-09-01

    Partial oxidation of methanol (POM) to produce hydrogen was investigated over Au/Fe2O3 catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by inverse co-precipitation method. The influence of catalyst synthesis parameters such as precipitant, gold loading, calcination temperature and reaction parameter such as reaction temperature on POM reaction to produce hydrogen were investigated. The catalysts have been characterized by means of TGA, BET, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDS and XPS analyses. TGA and DTGA profiles clearly indicate that minimum decomposition temperature required to obtain Fe2O3 in Au/Fe2O3 catalysts is 660 K. SEM-EDS analysis confirms that Au and Fe in Au/Fe2O3 are homogeneously distributed over the agglomerate. A detailed microstuctural characterization of Au/Fe2O3 sample by XRD, TEM and XPS analyses has shown that nanometer sized gold particles with oxidized gold species is in predominant amount in the uncalcined catalysts sample. The mean particle size and metallic state of gold particles increase with increasing calcination temperature. A highly active Au/Fe2O3 catalyst is obtained by using Na2CO3 as precipitant with lower gold loading and calcination at 673 K. The catalytic behavior of the Au/Fe2O3 catalyst is related not only to the gold but also to the chemical state of the support. The effect of reaction temperature on the catalytic performance of the Au/Fe2O3 catalysts was studied in the temperature range of 423 to 523 K. Oxygen conversion was complete through out the examined temperature range. Methanol conversion increased with rise in temperature and attains 100% at 503 K; Hydrogen selectivity increased with rise in reaction temperature up to 523 K and then dropped off. The overall reactions involved are methanol combustion, partial oxidation, steam reforming and decomposition. CO produced by methanol decomposition and/or by reverse water gas shift is subsequently transformed into CO2 and H2 by the water gas shift and/or CO oxidation. PMID:25924393

  3. Sulfur removal from diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. H. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2002-03-01

    Methanol is considered to be a potential on-board fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles. In current distribution systems for liquid fuels used in the transportation sector, commodity methanol can occasionally become contaminated with the sulfur in diesel fuel or gasoline. This sulfur would poison the catalytic materials used in fuel reformers for fuel cells. We tested the removal of this sulfur by means of ten activated carbons (AC) that are commercially available. Tests were conducted with methanol doped with 1 vol.% grade D-2 diesel fuel containing 0.29% sulfur, which was present essentially as 33-35 wt.% benzothiophenes (BTs) and 65-67 wt.% dibenzothiophenes (DBT). In general, coconut shell-based carbons activated by high-temperature steam were more effective at sulfur removal than coal-based carbons. Equilibrium sorption data showed linear increase in sulfur capture with the increase of sulfur concentration in methanol. Both types of carbons had similar breakthrough characteristics, with the dynamic sorption capacity of each being about one-third of its equilibrium sorption capacity. Results of this study suggest that a fixed-bed sorber of granular AC can be used, such as in refueling stations, for the removal of sulfur in diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

  4. Evaluation of the feasibility of ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, S.; Passalacqua, E.; Maggio, G.; Patti, A.; Freni, S.

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) utilizing traditional fuels represent a suitable technological progress in comparison with pure hydrogen-fed MCFCs. The more investigated fuel for such an application is the methane, which has the advantages of low cost and large availability; besides, several authors demonstrated the feasibility of a methane based MCFC. In particular, the methane steam-reforming allows the conversion of the fuel in hydrogen also inside the cell (internal reforming configuration), utilizing the excess heat to compensate the reaction endothermicity. In this case, however, both the catalyst and the cell materials are subjected to thermal stresses due to the cold spots arising near to the reaction sites MCFC. An alternative, in accordance with the recent proposals of other authors, may be to produce hydrogen from methane by the partial oxidation reaction, rather than by steam reforming. This reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H{degrees}=-19.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2}) and it needs to verify the possibility to obtain an acceptable distribution of the temperature inside the cell. The alcohols and, in particular, methanol shows the gas reformed compositions as a function of the steam/ethanol molar ratio, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The hydrogen production enhances with this ratio, but it presents a maximum at S/EtOH of about 2.0. Otherwise, the increase of S/EtOH depresses the production of CO and CH{sub 4}, and ethanol may be a further solution for the hydrogen production inside a MCFC. In this case, also, the reaction in cell is less endothermic compared with the methane steam reforming with the additional advantage of a liquid fuel more easily storable and transportable. Aim of the present work is to perform a comparative evaluation of the different solutions, with particular reference to the use of ethanol.

  5. Methane or methanol via catalytic gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. A 5 cm diameter reactor has been used to determine the desired catalysts and operating temperature. A process development unit (PDU) has demonstrated steam gasification of biomass with catalysts at rates up to 35 kg per hour. Methane yields of 0.28 nm/sup 3/ per kg of dry wood were produced in the small laboratory reactor. Further methanation of the product gas mixture can increase methane yields to 0.33 nm/sup 3//kg. The catalyst system is nickel and silica-alumina. The preferred reactor operating temperature is 500 to 550/sup 0/C. Tests have been at atmospheric pressure. The PDU performance has confirmed results obtained in the laboratory. Methanol synthesis gas can be produced in a single stage reactor at 750 to 850/sup 0/C by steam gasification of wood with silica-alumina and nickel catalysts present. From this gas, up to 0.6 kg of methanol can be produced per kg of wood. Gasification of the wood to produce synthesis gas has been demonstrated in the laboratory scale reactor, but remains to be successfully done using the PDU. Catalyst deactivation rates and regeneration schemes must be determined in order to determine the economic feasibility of wood to methane or methanol processes. Some advantages of catalytic steam gasification of biomass over steam-oxygen gasification are: no oxygen is required for methane or methanol synthesis gas, therefore, no oxygen plant is needed; little or no tar is produced resulting in simpler gas cleaning equipment; no shift reactor is required for methanol synthesis; methanation requirements are low resulting in high conversion efficiency; and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification.

  6. A miniature fuel reformer system for portable power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Belavič, Darko; Hrovat, Marko; Hočevar, Stanko; Pohar, Andrej; Petrovčič, Janko; Musizza, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    A miniature methanol reformer system has been designed and built to technology readiness level exceeding a laboratory prototype. It is intended to feed fuel cells with electric power up to 100 W and contains a complete setup of the technological elements: catalytic reforming and PROX reactors, a combustor, evaporators, actuation and sensing elements, and a control unit. The system is engineered not only for performance and quality of the reformate, but also for its lightweight and compact design, seamless integration of elements, low internal electric consumption, and safety. In the paper, the design of the system is presented by focussing on its miniaturisation, integration, and process control.

  7. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Shockling, Larry A.; George, Raymond A.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  8. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  9. Soil moisture by extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merek, E. L.; Carle, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    To determine moisture content of soils rapidly and conveniently extract moisture with methanol and determine water content of methanol extract by gas chromatography. Moisture content of sample is calculated from weight of water and methanol in aliquot and weight of methanol added to sample.

  10. Depolymerization of polyethylene terephthalate in supercritical methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Motonobu; Koyamoto, Hiroshi; Kodama, Akio; Hirose, Tsutomu; Nagaoka, Shoji

    2002-11-01

    The degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in supercritical methanol was investigated with the aim of developing a process for chemical recycling of waste plastics. A batch reactor was used at temperatures of 573-623 K under an estimated pressure of 20 MPa for a reaction time of 2-120 min. PET was decomposed to its monomers, dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol, by methanolysis in supercritical methanol. The reaction products were analysed using size-exclusion chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The molecular weight distribution of the products was obtained as a function of reaction time. The yields of monomer components of the decomposition products including by-products were measured. Continuous kinetics analysis was performed on the experimental data.

  11. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Mincer, Tracy J.; Aicher, Athena C.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8–13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09–0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world’s oceans. PMID:26963515

  12. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Mincer, Tracy J; Aicher, Athena C

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans. PMID:26963515

  13. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Parent, Yves O.; Magrini, Kim; Landin, Steven M.; Ritland, Marcus A.

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  14. Methanol shutdowns cause anxiety

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-10-23

    European methanol players face an anxious few weeks as unscheduled outages combine with planned turnarounds to make an increasingly tight market. Global markets are also described as tightening, with production problems widely reported in North America. Several European producers were in the middle of shutdown periods when problems at Condea`s 400,000-m.t./year unit at Wesseling, Germany reportedly caused production to run at only 50% of capacity. In addition, the methanol plant at the Leuna refinery is said to be operating at only 60% of capacity, and one producer has had to extend a turnaround period. River levels in Germany are also low, putting pressure on shipments from Rotterdam. {open_quotes}This is a very difficult situation and we`re living hand to mouth,{close_quotes} says one producer. Producer sources report bids from consumers up to DM280/m.t. T2 fob Rotterdam, but they are unable to obtain extra product. Derivatives makers may also face problems: One methyl tert-butyl ether producer predicts prices {open_quotes}may hit the roof{close_quotes} once feedstock sourcing problems hit home.

  15. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, T; Allen, Lloyd; Irving, Patricia M.

    2002-12-01

    has developed a proprietary catalyst formulation for the fuel processor that is being developed for use with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The catalyst has been tested for the steam reforming of various hydrocarbons such as natural gas, iso-octane, retail gasoline, and hexadecane. A 300h continuous test has shown that the catalyst has very stable performance for steam reforming of iso-octane at 800?C with a steam/C ratio of 3.6. The same catalyst was also tested for steam reforming hexadecane (a surrogate of diesel) for 73h as well as natural gas for over 150h continuously, without deactivation or carbon deposition. Sulfur tolerance of the catalyst was tested using iso-octane containing various concentrations of sulfur. There was no catalyst deactivation after a 220h continuous test using iso-octane with 100ppm sulfur. For comparison, a nickel catalyst (12wt.% Ni/Al2O3) was also tested using different levels of sulfur in iso-octane. The results indicated that the InnovaTek catalyst has a substantially improved sulfur resistance compared to the nickel catalysts currently used for steam reforming. In addition, a variation of the catalyst was also used to reduce CO concentration to < 1% by water gas shift reaction.

  17. [Curricular reform].

    PubMed

    Fraga Filho, C; Rosa, A R

    1980-01-01

    Advocating the thesis that the planning of medical education must be oriented toward the articulastion of instruction with care, the authors note that the curricular reforms of the last 25 years, though reflected in the teaching-learning process, have led to no improvement in medical practice or in the health of the population. This failing, they assert, stems from the fact that these reforms begin and end within the educational institution itself, and ignore the interrelations between the education system and the user of the professional, and results in the production of physicians who are individualistic and of narrow vision. The article refers to the slight importance attached to the complementarity and interdependence of teaching and care work, and to the restriction of teaching to episodic contacts between specialized professors and groups of anonymous students, each in the limited confines of his own discipline, and the relegation of the student to the status of spectator and possible assistant in care work entrusted to him without any responsibility. PMID:7398573

  18. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst. PMID:27483798

  19. Development of methanol evaporation plate to reduce methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruiming

    This research focuses on methanol crossover reduction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) through separating the methanol vapor from its liquid phase and feeding the vapor passively at low temperature range. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by using commercial available membrane with different thickness at different anode catalyst loading levels, and tested under the operating conditions below 100°C in cell temperature and cathode exit open to ambient pressure. Liquid methanol transport from the anode through the membrane into cathode ("methanol crossover") is identified as one of the major efficiency losses in a DMFC. It is known that the methanol crossover rate in the vapor phase is much lower than in liquid phase. Vapor feed can be achieved by heating the liquid methanol to elevated temperatures (>100°C), but other issues limit the performance of the cell when operating above 100°C. High temperature membranes and much more active cathode catalyst structures are required, and a complex temperature control system must be employed. However, methanol vapor feed can also occur at a lower temperature range (<100°C) by separating its vapor from the liquid phase by evaporation through a porous body. The methanol crossover with this vapor feed mode is lower compared with the direct liquid methanol feed. A new method of using a methanol evaporation plate (MEP) to separate the vapor from its liquid phase to reduce the liquid methanol crossover at low temperature range is developed. A MEP plays the roles of liquid/vapor methanol phase separation and evaporation in a DMFC. The goal of this study is to develop a MEP with the proper properties to achieve high methanol phase separation efficiency and fast methanol evaporation rate over a wide range of temperature, i.e., from room temperature up to near boiling temperature (100°C). MEP materials were selected and characterized. MEPs made from three different types were tested extensively with different

  20. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOEpatents

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  1. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Michael S.; Painter, Corning F.; Pastore, Steven P.; Roth, Gary S.; Winchester, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  2. Reforming Again: Now Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

  3. California methanol assessment. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R.; Dutzi, E.; Gershman, R.; Heft, R.; Kalema, W.; Maynard, D.

    1983-01-01

    The near term methanol industry, the competitive environment, long term methanol market, the transition period, air quality impacts of methanol, roles of the public and private sectors are considered.

  4. ISOBUTANOL-METHANOL MIXTURES FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Enrique Iglesia

    1998-09-01

    Isobutanol is potential as a fuel additive or precursor to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Alkali-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} materials have been found to catalyze the formation of isobutanol from CO and H{sub 2} at temperatures (573-623 K) that allow their use in slurry reactors. Our studies focus on the mechanism and structural requirements for selective isobutanol synthesis on these types of catalysts. Alkali promoted Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2}, Cu/MgO/ZnO, and CuZnAlO{sub x} materials and their individual components Cu/MgO, MgO/CeO{sub 2}, MgO and CeO{sub 2} have been prepared for the use in kinetic studies of alcohol coupling reactions, in identification of reaction intermediates, and in isobutanol synthesis at high pressures. These samples were prepared by coprecipitation of mixed nitrate solutions with an aqueous solution of KOH (2M) and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (1M) at 338 K at a constant pH of 9, except for Cs-Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a pH of 7, in a well-stirred thermostated container. The precipitate was filtered, washed thoroughly with dioinized water at 303 K in order to remove residual K ions, and dried at 353 K overnight. Dried samples were calcined at 723 K, except for Cs-Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 623 K, for 4 h in order to form the corresponding mixed oxides. Alkali addition (K or Cs) was performed by incipient wetness using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (0.25 M) and CH{sub 3}COOCs (0.25 M) aqueous solutions. The crystallinity and phase structures of resulting materials were analyzed by powered X-ray diffraction.

  5. Class i Methanol Maser Conditions Near SNRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Bridget C.; Pihlström, Ylva M.; Sjouwerman, Loránt O.

    2015-06-01

    We present results from calculations of the physical conditions necessary for the occurrence of 36.169 (4-1-30 E), 44.070 (70-61 A^+), 84.521 (5-1-40 E), and 95.169 (80-71 A^+) GHz methanol (CH_3OH) maser emission lines near supernova remnants (SNRs), using the MOLPOP-CEP program. The calculations show that given a sufficient methanol abundance, methanol maser emission arises over a wide range of densities and temperatures, with optimal conditions at n˜ 10^4-10^6 cm-3 and T>60 K. The 36~GHz and 44~GHz transitions display more significant maser optical depths compared to the 84~GHz and 95~GHz transitions over the majority of physical conditions. It is also shown that line ratios are an important and applicable probe of the gas conditions. The line ratio changes are largely a result of the E-type transitions becoming quenched faster at increasing densities. The modeling results will be discussed using recent observations of CH_3OH masers near the SNRs G1.4-0.1, W28, and Sgr A East and used as a diagnostic tool to estimate densities and temperatures of the regions in which the CH_3OH masers are observed.

  6. Torsion-rotation intensities in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John

    Methanol exists in numerous kinds of astronomical objects featuring a wide range of local conditions. The light nature of the molecule coupled with the internal rotation of the methyl group with respect to the hydroxyl group results in a rich, strong spectrum that spans the entire far-infrared region. As a result, any modest size observational window will have a number of strong methanol transitions. This has made it the gas of choice for testing THz receivers and to extract the local physical conditions from observations covering small frequency windows. The latter has caused methanol to be dubbed the Swiss army knife of astrophysics. Methanol has been increasingly used in this capacity and will be used even more for subsequent investigations into the Herschel archive, and with SOFIA and ALMA. Interpreting physical conditions on the basis of a few methanol lines requires that the molecular data, line positions, intensities, and collision rates, be complete, consistent and accurate to a much higher level than previously required for astrophysics. The need for highly reliable data is even more critical for modeling the two classes of widespread maser action and many examples of optical pumping through the torsional bands. Observation of the torsional bands in the infrared will be a unique opportunity to directly connect JWST observations with those of Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. The theory for the intensities of torsion-rotation transitions in a molecule featuring a single internally rotating methyl group is well developed after 70 years of research. However, other than a recent very preliminary and not completely satisfactory investigation of a few CH3OH torsional bands, this theory has never been experimentally tested for any C3V internal rotor. More alarming is a set of recent intensity calibrated microwave measurements that showed deviations relative to calculations of up to 50% in some ground state rotational transitions commonly used by astronomers to extract

  7. Discovery of Methanol in a Planetary Birthplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has recently revealed the first detection of gas-phase methanol, a derivative of methane, in a protoplanetary disk. This milestone discovery is an important step in understanding the conditions for planet formation that can lead to life-supporting planets like Earth.Planetary ChemistryOne major goal in the study of exoplanets is to find planets that orbit in their host stars habitable zones, a measure that determines whether the planet receives the right amount of sunlight to support liquid water. But theres another crucial element in the formation of a life-supporting planet: chemistry.To understand the chemistry of newly born planets, we need to study protoplanetary disks because its from these that young planets form. The elements and molecules contained in these dusty disks are what initially make up the atmospheres of planets forming within the disks.The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array under the southern sky. [ESO/B. Tafreshi]The Hunt for ComplexityThe detection of complex molecules in protoplanetary disks is an important milestone, because complex molecules are necessary to build the correct chemistry to support life. Unfortunately, detecting these molecules is very difficult, requiring observations with both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Thus far, though weve observed elements and simple molecules in protoplanetary disks, detections of complex molecules have been elusive with only one success before now.Luckily, we now have an observatory up to the challenge! ALMAs unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity has recently allowed a team of scientists led by Catherine Walsh (Leiden University) to observe gas-phase methanol in a protoplanetary disk for the first time. This detection was made in the disk around the young star TW Hya, and it represents one of the largest molecules that has ever been observed in a disk to date.Locating IcesThe model (purple line

  8. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  9. Structures of protonated methanol clusters and temperature effects.

    PubMed

    Fifen, Jean Jules; Nsangou, Mama; Dhaouadi, Zoubeida; Motapon, Ousmanou; Jaidane, Nejm-Eddine

    2013-05-14

    The accurate evaluation of pKa's, or solvation energies of the proton in methanol at a given temperature is subject to the determination of the most favored structures of various isomers of protonated (H(+)(MeOH)n) and neutral ((MeOH)n) methanol clusters in the gas phase and in methanol at that temperature. Solvation energies of the proton in a given medium, at a given temperature may help in the determination of proton affinities and proton dissociation energies related to the deprotonation process in that medium and at that temperature. pKa's are related to numerous properties of drugs. In this work, we were interested in the determination of the most favored structures of various isomers of protonated methanol clusters in the gas phase and in methanol, at a given temperature. For this aim, the M062X/6-31++G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) levels of theory were used to perform geometries optimizations and frequency calculations on various isomers of (H(+)(MeOH)n) in both phases. Thermal effects were retrieved using our homemade FORTRAN code. Thus, we accessed the relative populations of various isomers of protonated methanol clusters, in both phases for temperatures ranging from 0 to 400 K. As results, in the gas phase, linear structures are entropically more favorable at high temperatures, while more compact ones are energetically more favorable at lower temperatures. The trend is somewhat different when bulk effects are taken into account. At high temperatures, the linear structure only dominates the population for n ≤ 6, while it is dominated by the cyclic structure for larger cluster sizes. At lower temperatures, compact structures still dominate the population, but with an order different from the one established in the gas phase. Hence, temperature effects dominate solvent effects in small cluster sizes (n ≤ 6), while the reverse trend is noted for larger cluster sizes. PMID:23676038

  10. SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer

    2003-12-01

    New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell

  11. S. 625: Natural Gas Regulatory Reform Act of 1989. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, March 16, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    S. 625 would eliminate artificial distortions in the natural gas marketplace to promote competition in the natural gas industry. It would do this by amending certain sections of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Title I: Decontrol of Natural Gas describes provisions for elimination of wellhead price controls; coordination with the Natural Gas Act; application to first sales; technical and conforming amendments; effective date (January 1, 1993). Title II: Transitional Provisions describes the decontrol of natural gas subject to a newly executed contract, a renegotiated contract, a terminated contract, or to a contract which expires; coordination with the Natural Gas Act; and effective date (enactment of this bill).

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of carbon formation boundary and reforming performance for steam reforming of dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Kikuchi, Ryuji; Eguchi, Koichi

    Thermodynamic analysis of dimethyl ether steam reforming (DME SR) was investigated for carbon formation boundary, DME conversion, and hydrogen yield for fuel cell application. The equilibrium calculation employing Gibbs free minimization was performed to figure out the required steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C = 0-5) and reforming temperature (25-1000 °C) where coke formation was thermodynamically unfavorable. S/C, reforming temperature and product species strongly contributed to the coke formation and product composition. When chemical species DME, methanol, CO 2, CO, H 2, H 2O and coke were considered, complete conversion of DME and hydrogen yield above 78% without coke formation were achieved at the normal operating temperatures of molten carbonate fuel cell (600 °C) and solid oxide fuel cell (900 °C), when S/C was at or above 2.5. When CH 4 was favorable, production of coke and that of hydrogen were significantly suppressed.

  13. Methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cell systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, B. S.; Bender, G.; Davey, J. R.; Zelenay, P.

    2003-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are currently being investigated for a number of different applications from several milliwatts to near kilowatt size scales (cell phones, laptops, auxiliary power units, etc .). Because methanol has a very high energy density, over 6000 W hr/kg, a DMFC can possibly have greatly extended lifetimes compared to the batteries, doesn't present the storage problems associated with hydrogen fuel cells and can possibly operate more efficiently and cleanly than internal combustion engines.

  14. 25 GHz methanol masers in regions of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Tui R.; Voronkov, Maxim A.

    2012-07-01

    The bright 25 GHz series of methanol masers is formed in highly energetic regions of massive star formation and provides a natural signpost of shocked gas surrounding newly forming stars. A systematic survey for the 25 GHz masers has only recently been carried out. We present the preliminary results from the interferometric follow up of 51 masers at 25 GHz in the southern sky.

  15. Infrared Spectrum of Methanol: A First-Year Student Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Garth; Dwyer, Mark

    1981-01-01

    Describes an experiment providing an experimental introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and experience in using an elementary vacuum line. The experiment, using a gas cell charged with methanol, is completed in a three-hour laboratory period and is directed toward understanding vibrational spectroscopy rather than the diagnostic value of the…

  16. Methanol Oxidation on Pt3Sn(111) for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Methanol Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoqing; Deng, Zhigang; Guo, Chen; Wang, Weili; Wei, Shuxian; Ng, Siu-Pang; Chen, Xiangfeng; Ding, Ning; Guo, Wenyue; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence

    2016-05-18

    PtSn alloy, which is a potential material for use in direct methanol fuel cells, can efficiently promote methanol oxidation and alleviate the CO poisoning problem. Herein, methanol decomposition on Pt3Sn(111) was systematically investigated using periodic density functional theory and microkinetic modeling. The geometries and energies of all of the involved species were analyzed, and the decomposition network was mapped out to elaborate the reaction mechanisms. Our results indicated that methanol and formaldehyde were weakly adsorbed, and the other derivatives (CHxOHy, x = 1-3, y = 0-1) were strongly adsorbed and preferred decomposition rather than desorption on Pt3Sn(111). The competitive methanol decomposition started with the initial O-H bond scission followed by successive C-H bond scissions, (i.e., CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO). The Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations and energy barrier decomposition analyses identified the C-H and O-H bond scissions as being more competitive than the C-O bond scission. Microkinetic modeling confirmed that the vast majority of the intermediates and products from methanol decomposition would escape from the Pt3Sn(111) surface at a relatively low temperature, and the coverage of the CO residue decreased with an increase in the temperature and decrease in partial methanol pressure. PMID:27119198

  17. Solubility of methanol in low-temperature aqueous sulfuric acid and implications for atmospheric particle composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using traditional Knudsen cell techniques, we find well-behaved Henry's law uptake of methanol in aqueous 45 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions at temperatures between 197 and 231 K. Solubility of methanol increases with decreasing temperature and increasing acidity, with an effective Henry's law coefficient ranging from 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 8) M/atm. Equilibrium uptake of methanol into sulfuric acid aerosol particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere will not appreciably alter gas-phase concentrations of methanol. The observed room temperature reaction between methanol and sulfuric acid is too slow to provide a sink for gaseous methanol at the temperatures of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is also too slow to produce sufficient quantities of soluble reaction products to explain the large amount of unidentified organic material seen in particles of the upper troposphere.

  18. Batch conversion of methane to methanol using Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Yeub; Hur, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Chang-Ho; Chang, In Seop; Lee, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-03-01

    Recently, methane has attracted much attention as an alternative carbon feedstock since it is the major component of abundant shale and natural gas. In this work, we produced methanol from methane using whole cells of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as the biocatalyst. M. trichosporium OB3b was cultured on NMS medium with a supply of 7:3 air/methane ratio at 30°C. The optimal concentrations of various methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors such as potassium phosphate and EDTA were determined to be 100 and 0.5 mM, respectively, for an efficient production of methanol. Sodium formate (40 mM) as a reducing power source was added to enhance the conversion efficiency. A productivity of 49.0 mg/l·h, titer of 0.393 g methanol/l, and conversion of 73.8% (mol methanol/mol methane) were obtained under the optimized batch condition. PMID:25563419

  19. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  20. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  1. Reform before NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    The author compared NCLB-prompted standards-based reforms with earlier reforms and found that earlier manifestations of standards-based reforms may have been more productive and constructive. NCLB, with its emphasis on accountability through high-stakes testing, has produced many perverse results alongside documented achievement gains, the author…

  2. Sputnik Reform Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    Educational reforms being called for in the 1980's are compared to reforms of the 1950's. The Sputnik-inspired quest for quality called for reform in the content and structure of basic subjects. Current reports say that what educators are doing in the basic subjects is ok, but they need to do more. (RM)

  3. Reforming Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishkin, Anne S.; Sullivan, Michael

    This paper describes education reform as an integrated effort to modify not only the structure and elements of the education system but also the culture or belief structure of that system. Central to any discussion of school reform are the elements of restructuring, empowerment, and change. Current reform efforts in restructuring revolve around a…

  4. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  5. Beyond Reform: Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jill

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) is not a reform movement. To reform is to make a thing again; reformation implies a stasis that doesn't deliver enough for the educational future. This issue of Horace demonstrates that Essential schools and the districts and networks that support them are at various points in the journey of transformation,…

  6. Methanol masers and millimetre lines : a common origin in protostellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torstensson, Karl Johan Erik

    2011-12-01

    In this thesis we study the earliest stages of high-mass star formation. Class II methanol masers are only associated with massive star formation and are a unique probe of these environments. Through observations we have studied where and when the methanol maser emission occur in relation to the protostar. We have found that for a fair fraction of the sources the methanol masers appear on size scales of ca. 1000 AU, in the equatorial region of the massive protostar. It appears that infall, rather than rotation, is the dominant motion. We propose that the maser emission occur close to or in a shock interface, possibly related to the accretion flow of the more extended gas in the protostellar envelope onto an accretion disk. The morphology and kinematics of the thermal methanol gas support the hypothesis that the maser region is also the region where the methanol molecules are released from the icy mantles of the du st grains. We have also estimated the temperature and column density of the methanol gas in the outflows and find evidence for radiative excitation of the methanol gas at the location of the maser emission.

  7. Combining steam-methane reforming, water-gas shift, and CO{sub 2} removal in a single-step process for hydrogen production. Final report for period March 15, 1997 - December 14, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Alejandro Lopez Ortiz; Bhaskar Balasubramanian; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-02-01

    The objective of the research project was to determine the feasibility of a simpler, more energy-efficient process for the production of 95+% H{sub 2} from natural gas, and to collect sufficient experimental data on the effect of reaction parameters to guide additional larger-scale process development. The overall objectives were accomplished. 95+% H{sub 2} was produced in a single reaction step by adding a calcium-based CO{sub 2} acceptor to standard Ni-based reforming catalyst. The spent acceptor was successfully regenerated and used in a number of reaction steps with only moderate loss in activity as the number of cycles increased. Sufficient experimental data were collected to guide further larger-scale experimental work designed to investigate the economic feasibility of the process.

  8. Solubility of carbon dioxide in methyldiethanolamine + methanol + water

    SciTech Connect

    Henni, A.; Mather, A.E.

    1995-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) are attractive solvents for the selective removal of H{sub 2}S from process stream containing CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons. The solubility of CO{sub 2} in a mixed nonaqueous solvent of methyldiethanolamine MDEA and methanol has been measured at 40 C. The results are compared with the solubility of CO{sub 2} in pure methanol. The solubility of CO{sub 2} has also been obtained at 40 and 100 C in an aqueous mixed solvent consisting of methanol (40 mass %), MDEA (40 mass %), and water (20 mass %) at partial pressures of the acid gas up to 7.04 MPa. The solubility results are compared with the nonaqueous mixed solvent results and previously reported data for aqueous methyldiethanolamine.

  9. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  10. Physical characteristics of bright Class I methanol masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leurini, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Class I methanol masers are thought to be tracers of interstellar shock waves. However, they have received relatively little attention mostly as a consequence of their low luminosities compared to other maser transitions. This situation has changed recently and Class I methanol masers are now routinely used as signposts of outflow activity especially in high extinction regions. The recent detection of polarisation in Class I lines now makes it possible to obtain direct observational information about magnetic fields in interstellar shocks. Aims: We make use of newly calculated collisional rate coefficients for methanol to investigate the excitation of Class I methanol masers and to reconcile the observed Class I methanol maser properties with model results. Methods: We performed large velocity gradient calculations with a plane-parallel slab geometry appropriate for shocks to compute the pump and loss rates which regulate the interactions of the different maser systems with the maser reservoir. We study the dependence of the pump rate coefficient, the maser loss rate, and the inversion efficiency of the pumping scheme of several Class I masers on the physics of the emitting gas. Results: We predict inversion in all transitions where maser emission is observed. Bright Class I methanol masers are mainly high-temperature (>100 K) high-density (n(H2) ~ 107-108 cm-3) structures with methanol maser emission measures, ξ, corresponding to high methanol abundances close to the limits set by collisional quenching. Our model predictions reproduce reasonably well most of the observed properties of Class I methanol masers. Class I masers in the 25 GHz series are the most sensitive to the density of the medium and mase at higher densities than other lines. Moreover, even at high density and high methanol abundances, their luminosity is predicted to be lower than that of the 44 GHz and 36 GHz masers. Our model predictions also reflect the observational result that the

  11. Printable enzyme-embedded materials for methane to methanol conversion.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Craig D; Knipe, Jennifer M; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; DeOtte, Joshua R; Oakdale, James S; Maiti, Amitesh; Lenhardt, Jeremy M; Sirajuddin, Sarah; Rosenzweig, Amy C; Baker, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    An industrial process for the selective activation of methane under mild conditions would be highly valuable for controlling emissions to the environment and for utilizing vast new sources of natural gas. The only selective catalysts for methane activation and conversion to methanol under mild conditions are methane monooxygenases (MMOs) found in methanotrophic bacteria; however, these enzymes are not amenable to standard enzyme immobilization approaches. Using particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), we create a biocatalytic polymer material that converts methane to methanol. We demonstrate embedding the material within a silicone lattice to create mechanically robust, gas-permeable membranes, and direct printing of micron-scale structures with controlled geometry. Remarkably, the enzymes retain up to 100% activity in the polymer construct. The printed enzyme-embedded polymer motif is highly flexible for future development and should be useful in a wide range of applications, especially those involving gas-liquid reactions. PMID:27301270

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES USING METHANOL AND METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDED FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions were examined from vehicles fueled with methanol or a gasoline-methanol blend. Regulated automobile pollutants, as well as detailed hydrocarbons, methanol, and aldehydes were measured, and exhaust emission trends were obtained for vehicle operati...

  13. Conceptual process design and economics for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Humbird, David; Schaidle, Joshua; Biddy, Mary

    2015-10-28

    This paper describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas via indirect gasification, gas clean-up via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and the homologation of DME over a zeolite catalyst to high-octane gasoline-range hydrocarbon products. The current process configuration has similarities to conventional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies, but there are key distinctions, specifically regarding the product slate, catalysts, and reactor conditions. A techno-economic analysis is performed to investigate the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock. The design features a processing daily capacity of 2000 tonnes (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The process yields 271 liters of liquid fuel per dry tonne of biomass (65 gal/dry ton), for an annual fuel production rate of 178 million liters (47 MM gal) at 90% on-stream time. The estimated total capital investment for an nth-plant is $438 million. The resulting minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) is $0.86 per liter or $3.25 per gallon in 2011 US dollars. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance. Sustainability metrics for the conversion process are quantified and assessed. The potential premium value of the high-octane gasoline blendstock is examined and found to be at least as competitive as fossil-derived blendstocks. A simple blending strategy is proposed to demonstrate the potential for blending the biomass-derived blendstock with petroleum-derived intermediates. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Industrial Chemistry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Conceptual process design and economics for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Humbird, David; Schaidle, Joshua; Biddy, Mary

    2015-10-28

    This paper describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas via indirect gasification, gas clean-up via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and the homologation of DME over a zeolite catalyst to high-octane gasoline-range hydrocarbon products. The current process configuration has similarities to conventional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies, but there are key distinctions, specifically regarding the product slate, catalysts, and reactor conditions. A techno-economicmore » analysis is performed to investigate the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock. The design features a processing daily capacity of 2000 tonnes (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The process yields 271 liters of liquid fuel per dry tonne of biomass (65 gal/dry ton), for an annual fuel production rate of 178 million liters (47 MM gal) at 90% on-stream time. The estimated total capital investment for an nth-plant is $438 million. The resulting minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) is $0.86 per liter or $3.25 per gallon in 2011 US dollars. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance. Sustainability metrics for the conversion process are quantified and assessed. The potential premium value of the high-octane gasoline blendstock is examined and found to be at least as competitive as fossil-derived blendstocks. A simple blending strategy is proposed to demonstrate the potential for blending the biomass-derived blendstock with petroleum-derived intermediates. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Industrial Chemistry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.« less

  15. The gas conversion of methane with oxygen at atmospheric pressure using a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Tom; Petrovic, Dragana; de Bie, Christophe; Bogaerts, Annemie; Brok, Wouter; van Dijk, Jan

    2008-10-01

    The conversion of methane to useful chemicals and liquid fuels currently requires steam reforming, which requires great amounts of energy input. We are currently investigating the possibilities of using a plasma activated system for this gas conversion. Due to the pulsed nature and the low operating temperature capabilities, we have chosen the atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge as a setup to investigate whether it can be used as a more efficient gas conversion reactor. For this purpose we have developed a CH4/O2 chemical reaction set and used it in a 2D fluid model of a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge, in which we also incorporate the influence of the gas flow. In this way we investigate whether we can optimize the production of methanol or formaldehyde. The parameters under study are the CH4/O2 ratio, the applied voltage characteristics, the gap width and the gas flow rate.

  16. AC plasma torch with a H2O/CO2/CH4 mix as the working gas for methane reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutberg, Ph G.; Nakonechny, Gh V.; Pavlov, A. V.; Popov, S. D.; Serba, E. O.; Surov, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents results of investigations implemented during construction of the three-phase ac plasma torch working on a mixture of steam with carbon dioxide and methane (H2O/CO2/CH4) with power upto 120 kW. Such thermal plasma generators are needed in industrial technologies for methane reforming with the aim of producing the syngas comprising of the hydrogen and carbon mono-oxide (H2/CO). It was shown that during plasma torch work there are two character parts of the high-voltage arc. In these parts, the arc column has a different diameter and temperature about (8.5  -  8.3) · 103 K and (10.5  -  10.0) · 103 K, respectively. The plasma torch output characteristics have been obtained for working regimes with various flow rates of the methane (0.0-0.8 g s-1) in the plasma-forming mix and constant flow rates of the carbon dioxide and water steam (each of 3.0 g s-1). For the mentioned mix of gases, the unit generates plasma with the mass-average temperature ~(3.2-3.3) · 103K and the thermal efficiency ~94-96%. This provides effective reforming of methane.

  17. Negligible photodesorption of methanol ice and active photon-induced desorption of its irradiation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Martín-Doménech, R.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Chen, Y.-J.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Methanol is a common component of interstellar and circumstellar ice mantles and is often used as an evolution indicator in star-forming regions. The observations of gas-phase methanol in the interiors of dense molecular clouds at temperatures as low as 10 K suggest that non-thermal ice desorption must be active. Ice photodesorption has been proposed to explain the abundances of gas-phase molecules toward the coldest regions. Aims: Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the potential photodesorption of methanol toward the coldest regions. Methods: Solid methanol was deposited at 8 K and UV-irradiated at various temperatures starting from 8 K. The irradiation of the ice was monitored by means of infrared spectroscopy and the molecules in the gas phase were detected using quadrupole mass spectroscopy. Fully deuterated methanol was used for confirmation of the results. Results: The photodesorption of methanol to the gas phase was not observed in the mass spectra at different irradiation temperatures. We estimate an upper limit of 3 × 10-5 molecules per incident photon. On the other hand, photon-induced desorption of the main photoproducts was clearly observed. Conclusions: The negligible photodesorption of methanol could be explained by the ability of UV-photons in the 114-180 nm (10.87-6.88 eV) range to dissociate this molecule efficiently. Therefore, the presence of gas-phase methanol in the absence of thermal desorption remains unexplained. On the other hand, we find CH4 to desorb from irradiated methanol ice, which was not found to desorb in the pure CH4 ice irradiation experiments.

  18. Results from the second year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.H.; McGill ); Hillis, S.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has completed its second year of operation of ten vehicles for the Federal Methanol Fleet Project; five of the vehicles are fueled with methanol. Over 56,000 miles were accumulated on the vehicles in the second year bringing the total to over 152,000 miles. Energy consumption for the methanol cars was slightly higher than that of the gasoline cars again this year, most likely as a result of shorter average trip lengths for the methanol gas. Iron and lead have accumulated at greater rates in the lubricating oil of the methanol cars. Driver's ratings of vehicles reflected some dissatisfaction with the cold-weather performance of the methanol cars, but the cars have no special provisions for cold weather starting, and the fuel vapor pressure has not been tailored to the season as at other test sites. Otherwise, drivers' opinions of the methanol cars have been favorable. 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Building carbon-carbon bonds using a biocatalytic methanol condensation cycle.

    PubMed

    Bogorad, Igor W; Chen, Chang-Ting; Theisen, Matthew K; Wu, Tung-Yun; Schlenz, Alicia R; Lam, Albert T; Liao, James C

    2014-11-11

    Methanol is an important intermediate in the utilization of natural gas for synthesizing other feedstock chemicals. Typically, chemical approaches for building C-C bonds from methanol require high temperature and pressure. Biological conversion of methanol to longer carbon chain compounds is feasible; however, the natural biological pathways for methanol utilization involve carbon dioxide loss or ATP expenditure. Here we demonstrated a biocatalytic pathway, termed the methanol condensation cycle (MCC), by combining the nonoxidative glycolysis with the ribulose monophosphate pathway to convert methanol to higher-chain alcohols or other acetyl-CoA derivatives using enzymatic reactions in a carbon-conserved and ATP-independent system. We investigated the robustness of MCC and identified operational regions. We confirmed that the pathway forms a catalytic cycle through (13)C-carbon labeling. With a cell-free system, we demonstrated the conversion of methanol to ethanol or n-butanol. The high carbon efficiency and low operating temperature are attractive for transforming natural gas-derived methanol to longer-chain liquid fuels and other chemical derivatives. PMID:25355907

  20. Building carbon–carbon bonds using a biocatalytic methanol condensation cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bogorad, Igor W.; Chen, Chang-Ting; Theisen, Matthew K.; Wu, Tung-Yun; Schlenz, Alicia R.; Lam, Albert T.; Liao, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is an important intermediate in the utilization of natural gas for synthesizing other feedstock chemicals. Typically, chemical approaches for building C–C bonds from methanol require high temperature and pressure. Biological conversion of methanol to longer carbon chain compounds is feasible; however, the natural biological pathways for methanol utilization involve carbon dioxide loss or ATP expenditure. Here we demonstrated a biocatalytic pathway, termed the methanol condensation cycle (MCC), by combining the nonoxidative glycolysis with the ribulose monophosphate pathway to convert methanol to higher-chain alcohols or other acetyl-CoA derivatives using enzymatic reactions in a carbon-conserved and ATP-independent system. We investigated the robustness of MCC and identified operational regions. We confirmed that the pathway forms a catalytic cycle through 13C-carbon labeling. With a cell-free system, we demonstrated the conversion of methanol to ethanol or n-butanol. The high carbon efficiency and low operating temperature are attractive for transforming natural gas-derived methanol to longer-chain liquid fuels and other chemical derivatives. PMID:25355907

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  2. Catalytic decomposition of methanol for onboard hydrogen generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T.

    1978-01-01

    The steam reformation of an equimolar mixture of methanol and water on a copper chromite catalyst was studied at three furnace temperatures and at feed space velocities from 800 to 2600 per hour. The hydrogen space velocity could be related to the reactor temperature by the equation Sv = A exp (-omega T), where A and omega are constants determined for each value of alpha and T is temperature. At a methanol conversion of 0.87 and a reactor temperature of 589 K, the extrapolated value of the hydrogen space velocity was 9400 per hour. This velocity was used to estimate the size of an onboard hydrogen reactor for automotive applications. Such a reactor would need only about 0.8 liter of catalyst to produce 7630 STP liters (1.5 lb) of hydrogen per hour. This quantity of catalyst would fit into nine tubes 17.8 centimeters along and 2.54 centimeters in inside diameter, which is smaller than most mufflers. The reactor products would contain 12 to 13 percent more chemical energy than the incoming methanol and water.

  3. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOEpatents

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  4. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  5. Photoionization of methanol and formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warneck, P.

    1971-01-01

    Photoions produced in methanol and formaldehyde by radiation in the spectral region 450-1150 A were analyzed mass spectrometrically, and their relative yields were determined as a function of wavelength. First ionization potentials were determined, and the ion yield curves were interpreted in terms of ionization processes in conjunction with other data. Fragment ions were detected on mass numbers of 31, 30, 29, 15, and 14 for methanol, and 29, 2, and 1 for formaldehyde. The associated appearance potentials were determined and were used to calculate heats of formation of the ions CH2OH(+) and HCO(+), and the radicals CH3, CH2, and HCO.

  6. X-ray photodesorption from methanol ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, D. P. P.; Rocco, M. L. M.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.

    2010-12-01

    The abundances of molecules and ions depend on the mechanisms of their formation and destruction that can occur both in the gas phase and in the condensed phase on grain surfaces. Photodesorption of grain surface species may explain the relative high abundances of gaseous neutral or ionic species detected in cold environments. X-ray photons from young stars are able to penetrate cold and dense regions inside protoplanetary discs, leading to molecular dissociation and desorption of photo-products from icy molecules on grain mantles. This paper aims to experimentally investigate the contribution of ion desorption from methanol ice stimulated by soft X-rays for producing chemically active ions in protoplanetary discs. The measurements were carried out at the Brazilian synchrotron light source (LNLS), using X-ray photons at the methanol O1s resonance energy (537 eV). Some possible pathways for the H- and O- formation from singly charged desorbed ions are suggested. The photodesorption yields for positive and negative ions were determined and compared with previous results obtained using different ionization agents, such as electrons, heavy ions and photons at different energies. We also correlate our results to the ion production in protoplanetary discs.

  7. Compatibility of selected ceramics with steam-methane reformer environments

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Howell, M.; Williams, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.A.

    1996-04-01

    Conventional steam reforming of methane to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) hasa conversion efficiency of about 85%. Replacement of metal tubes in the reformer with ceramic tubes offers the potential for operation at temperatures high enough to increase the efficiency to 98-99%. However, the two candidate ceramic materials being given strongest consideration, sintered alpha Si carbide and Si carbide particulate-strengthened alumina, have been shown to react with components of the reformer environment. Extent of degradation as a function of steam partial pressure and exposure time has been studied, and results suggest limits under which these structural ceramics can be used in advanced steam-methane reformers.

  8. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOEpatents

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  9. ACUTE METHANOL TOXICITY IN MINIPIGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pig hos been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its reported low liver tetrahydro folate levels and therefore, slower formate metabolism as compared to humans. o determine the validity of the animal model, min...

  10. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  11. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  12. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  13. Production of methanol from heat-stressed pepper and corn leaf disks

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.A. . Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture)

    1994-05-01

    Early Calwonder'' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Jubilee'' corn (Zea mays L.) leaf disks exposed to high temperature stress produced ethylene, ethane, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethanol based on comparison of retention times during gas chromatography to authentic standards. Methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde were also identified by mass spectroscopy. Corn leaf disks produced lower levels of ethylene, ethane, and methanol, but more acetaldehyde and ethanol than pepper. Production of ethane, a by-product of lipid peroxidation, coincided with an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) in pepper but not in corn. Compared with controls, pepper leaf disks infiltrated with linolenic acid evolved significantly greater amounts of ethane, acetaldehyde, and methanol and similar levels of ethanol. EL and volatile hydrocarbon production were not affected by fatty acid infiltration in corn. Infiltration of pepper leaves with buffers increasing in pH from 5.5 to 9.5 increased methanol production.

  14. Renewable hydrogen by aqueous-phase reforming of glucose.

    PubMed

    Davda, Rupali R; Dumesic, James A

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from aqueous solutions containing 10 wt% glucose with high selectivities through the combined use of a hydrogenation reactor for conversion of glucose to sorbitol, followed by a reforming reactor for conversion of sorbitol to H(2) and CO(2) and then a gas-liquid separator for the removal of high-pressure H(2)-rich reformate gas, ready for use in a fuel cell. PMID:14737320

  15. On-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol for high temperature PEM fuel cells: Comparison of autothermal reforming and steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stefan; Wörner, Antje

    2011-03-01

    In the 21st century biofuels will play an important role as alternative fuels in the transportation sector. In this paper different reforming options (steam reforming (SR) and autothermal reforming (ATR)) for the on-board conversion of bioethanol and biodiesel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells are investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. Special emphasis is placed on thermal heat integration. Methyl-oleate (C19H36O2) is chosen as reference substance for biodiesel. Bioethanol is represented by ethanol (C2H5OH). For the steam reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 75.6% (76.3%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 3. For the autothermal reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 74.1% (75.1%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 2 and λ = 0.36 (0.35). Taking into account the better dynamic behaviour and lower system complexity of the reforming concept based on ATR, autothermal reforming in combination with a water gas shift reactor is considered as the preferred option for on-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the simulation results optimum operating conditions for a novel 5 kW biofuel processor are derived.

  16. Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    2003-12-30

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass, and mixtures with natural gas, were compared with natural gas reformates from low temperature partial oxidation or steam reforming. The properties of such reformates were based on computations of gas properties using the ChemCAD computational tools and energy inputs derived from known engine parameters. In general, the biomass derived fuels compare well with reformates, so far as can be judged without engine testing. Mild reforming has potential to produce a more uniform quality of fuel gas from very variable qualities of natural gas, and could possibly be applied to gas from biomass to eliminate organic gases and condensibles other than methane.

  17. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  18. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  19. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  20. Printable enzyme-embedded materials for methane to methanol conversion

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Craig D.; Knipe, Jennifer M.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; DeOtte, Joshua R.; Oakdale, James S.; Maiti, Amitesh; Lenhardt, Jeremy M.; Sirajuddin, Sarah; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Baker, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    An industrial process for the selective activation of methane under mild conditions would be highly valuable for controlling emissions to the environment and for utilizing vast new sources of natural gas. The only selective catalysts for methane activation and conversion to methanol under mild conditions are methane monooxygenases (MMOs) found in methanotrophic bacteria; however, these enzymes are not amenable to standard enzyme immobilization approaches. Using particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), we create a biocatalytic polymer material that converts methane to methanol. We demonstrate embedding the material within a silicone lattice to create mechanically robust, gas-permeable membranes, and direct printing of micron-scale structures with controlled geometry. Remarkably, the enzymes retain up to 100% activity in the polymer construct. The printed enzyme-embedded polymer motif is highly flexible for future development and should be useful in a wide range of applications, especially those involving gas–liquid reactions. PMID:27301270

  1. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2001-10-02

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  2. Optimization of manifold design for 1 kW-class flat-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack operating on reformed natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Kashif; Dong, Sang Keun; Khan, Rashid Ali; Park, Seung Hwan

    2016-09-01

    This study focuses on optimizing the manifold design for a 1 kW-class flat-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack by performing extensive three-dimensional numerical simulations on numerous manifold designs. The stack flow uniformity and the standard flow deviation indexes are implemented to characterize the flow distributions in the stack and among the channels of FT-SOFC's, respectively. The results of the CFD calculations demonstrate that the remodeled manifold without diffuser inlets and 6 mm diffuser front is the best among investigated designs with uniformity index of 0.996 and maximum standard flow deviation of 0.423%. To understand the effect of manifold design on the performance of stack, both generic and developed manifold designs are investigated by applying electrochemical and internal reforming reactions modeling. The simulation results of the stack with generic manifold are validated using experimental data and then validated models are adopted to simulate the stack with the developed manifold design. The results reveal that the stack with developed manifold design achieves more uniform distribution of species, temperature, and current density with comparatively lower system pressure drop. In addition, the results also showed ∼8% increase in the maximum output power due to the implementation of uniform fuel velocity distributions in the cells.

  3. A bottom-up perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of global eddy covariance flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Amelynck, Crist; Ammann, Christof; Arneth, Almut; Bamberger, Ines; Goldstein, Allen; Hansel, Armin; Heinesch, Bernhard; Holst, Thomas; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Karl, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; McKinney, Karena; Munger, William; Schade, Gunnar; Schoon, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Methanol (CH3OH) is, after methane, the second most abundant VOC in the troposphere and globally represents nearly 20% of the total biospheric VOC emissions. With typical concentrations of 1-10 ppb in the continental boundary layer, methanol plays a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry, which needs to be evaluated in the light of ongoing changes in land use and climate. Previous global methanol budgets have approached the net land flux by summing up the various emission terms (namely primary biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, plant decay and biomass burning) and by subtracting dry and wet deposition, resulting in a net land flux in the range of 75-245 Tg y-1. The data underlying these budget calculations largely stem from small-scale leaf gas exchange measurements and while recently column-integrated remotely sensed methanol concentrations have become available for constraining budget calculations, there have been few attempts to contrast model calculations with direct net ecosystem-scale methanol flux measurements. Here we use eddy covariance methanol flux measurements from 8 sites in Europe and North America to study the magnitude of and controls on the diurnal and seasonal variability in the net ecosystem methanol flux. In correspondence with leaf-level literature, our data show that methanol emission and its strong environmental and biotic control (by temperature and stomatal conductance) prevailed at the more productive (agricultural) sites and at a perturbed forest site. In contrast, at more natural, less productive sites substantial deposition of methanol occurred, in particular during periods of surface wetness. These deposition processes are poorly represented by currently available temperature/light and/or production-driven modelling algorithms. A new framework for modelling the bi-directional land-atmosphere methanol exchange is proposed which accounts for the production of methanol in leaves, the regulation of leaf methanol emission by stomatal

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of the methanol cation and its methylene-oxonium isomer

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, J. D.; Young, J. W.; Duncan, M. A. E-mail: maduncan@uga.edu; Huang, M.; McCoy, A. B. E-mail: maduncan@uga.edu

    2015-03-21

    The carbenium ion with nominal formula [C,H{sub 4},O]{sup +} is produced from methanol or ethylene glycol in a pulsed-discharge supersonic expansion source. The ion is mass selected, and its infrared spectrum is measured from 2000 to 4000 cm{sup −1} using laser photodissociation spectroscopy and the method of rare gas atom tagging. Computational chemistry predicts two isomers, the methanol and methylene-oxonium cations. Predicted vibrational spectra based on scaled harmonic and reduced dimensional treatments are compared to the experimental spectra. The methanol cation is the only isomer produced when methanol is used as a precursor. When ethylene glycol is used as the precursor, methylene-oxonium is produced in addition to the methanol cation. Theoretical results at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level show that methylene-oxonium is lower in energy than methanol cation by 6.4 kcal/mol, and is in fact the global minimum isomer on the [C,H{sub 4},O]{sup +} potential surface. Methanol cation is trapped behind an isomerization barrier in our source, providing a convenient method to produce and characterize this transient species. Analysis of the spectrum of the methanol cation provides evidence for strong CH stretch vibration/torsion coupling in this molecular ion.

  5. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A.; Alexeev, N.

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  6. Analysis of an active tubular liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Faghri, Amir

    2011-08-01

    A two-dimensional, two-phase, non-isothermal model was developed for an active, tubular, liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The liquid-gas, two-phase mass transport in the porous anode and cathode was formulated based on the multi-fluid approach in the porous media. The two-phase mass transport in the anode and cathode channels was modeled using the drift-flux and the homogeneous mist-flow models, respectively. Water and methanol crossovers through the membrane were considered due to the effects of diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and convection. The model enabled a numerical investigation of the effects of various operating parameters, such as current density, methanol flow rate, and oxygen flow rate, on the mass and heat transport characteristics in the tubular DMFC. It was shown that by choosing a proper tube radius and distance between the adjacent cells, a tubular DMFC stack can achieve a much higher energy density compared to its planar counterpart. The results also showed that a large anode flow rate is needed in order to avoid severe blockage of liquid methanol to the anode electrode due to the gas accumulation in the channel. Besides, lowering the flow rate of either the methanol solution or air can lead to a temperature increase along the flow channel. The methanol and water crossovers are nearly independent of the methanol flow rate and the air flow rate.

  7. Biocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol as a key step for development of methane-based biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Yeub; Lee, Seung Hwan; Choi, Yoo Seong; Park, Si Jae; Na, Jeong Geol; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Choongik; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-12-28

    Methane is considered as a next-generation carbon feedstock owing to the vast reserves of natural and shale gas. Methane can be converted to methanol by various methods, which in turn can be used as a starting chemical for the production of value-added chemicals using existing chemical conversion processes. Methane monooxygenase is the key enzyme that catalyzes the addition of oxygen to methane. Methanotrophic bacteria can transform methane to methanol by inhibiting methanol dehydrogenase. In this paper, we review the recent progress made on the biocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol as a key step for methane-based refinery systems and discuss future prospects for this technology. PMID:25223329

  8. The direct methanol fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Halpert, G.; Narayanan, S.R.; Frank, H.

    1995-08-01

    This presentation describes the approach and progress in the ARPA-sponsored effort to develop a Direct Methanol, Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell (DMLFFC) with a solid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) for battery replacement in small portable applications. Using Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) developed by JPL and Giner, significant voltage was demonstrated at relatively high current densities. The DMLFFC utilizes a 3 percent aqueous solution of methanol that is oxidized directly in the anode (fuel) chamber and oxygen (air) in the cathode chamber to produce water and significant power. The only products are water and CO{sub 2}. The ARPA effort is aimed at replacing the battery in the BA 5590 military radio.

  9. Stevioside methanol tetra-solvate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunshan; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; McChesney, James D; Avery, Mitchell A

    2013-03-01

    Stevioside is a naturally occurring diterpenoid glycoside in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The title compound, C38H60O18·4CH3OH, crystallized as its methanol tetrasolvate. Stevioside consists of an aglycone steviol (a tetra-cyclic diterpene in which the four-fused-ring system consists of three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring) and a sugar part (three glucose units). A weak intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, the methanol mol-ecules participate in a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network parallel to b axis with the sugars and together they form a hydrophilic tunnel which encloses the lipophilic part of the molecule. PMID:23476589

  10. Molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol with a flexible three-site model

    SciTech Connect

    Palinkas, G.; Hawlicka, E.; Heinzinger, K.

    1987-07-30

    A new potential is presented which describes the methanol-methanol interactions on the basis of a flexible three-site model. The intramolecular part of the potential has been derived from spectroscopic data. A molecular dynamics study has been performed with this potential at 286 K. The structural properties of liquid methanol calculated from the simulations are in good agreement with X-ray measurements. The average geometrical arrangement of nearest neighbors and their hydrogen bonding are discussed. The potential describes correctly the gas-liquid frequency shifts of the intramolecular vibrations. Several thermodynamic properties calculated from the simulation compare favorably with experimental results.

  11. Effects of fuel evaporation on the octane number of methanol-gasoline blended fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    A procedure is described to estimate the influence of end-gas temperature on Octane Number. Blending methanol with gasoline is known to cause a disproportionate increase in Research Octane Number, and this is found to correlate well with the evaporative cooling characteristics of these blends. The Motor Octane Number test eliminates evaporative effects, and the difference between the two test methods is evaluated in terms of evaporative cooling. It is concluded that the high heat of vaporization of methanol is largely responsible for the excellent RON performance of methanol-gasoline blended fuels. 17 refs., 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Kavet, R.; Nauss, K.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor.117 references.

  13. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors.

    PubMed

    Kavet, R; Nauss, K M

    1990-01-01

    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor. PMID:2264926

  14. A survey of 44-GHz Class I methanol masers toward High Mass Protostellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenice Rodríguez Garza, Carolina; Kurtz, Stan

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results of 44-GHz Class I methanol maser observations made with the Very Large Array toward a sample of 55 High Mass Protostellar Objects. We found a 44% detection rate of methanol maser emission. We present a statistical description of our results, along with a comparison of the location of the 44-GHz masers with respect to shocked gas, traced by Extended Green Objects seen in the Spitzer/IRAC bands.

  15. The shock sensitivity of nitromethane/methanol mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartram, Brian; Dattelbaum, Dana; Sheffield, Steve; Gibson, Lee

    2013-06-01

    The dilution of liquid explosives has multiple effects on detonation properties including an increase in critical diameter, spatiotemporal lengthening of the chemical reaction zone, and the development of propagating wave instabilities. Earlier detonation studies of NM/methanol mixtures have shown several effects of increasing dilution, including: 1) a continual increase in the critical diameter, 2) lowering of the Chapman-Jouguet detonation pressure, and 3) slowing of the steady detonation velocity (Koldunov et al., Comb. Expl. Shock Waves). Here, we present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate-impact experiments to study the shock-to-detonation transition in NM/methanol mixtures. Embedded electromagnetic gauges were used to obtain in situ particle velocity wave profiles at multiple Lagrangian positions in the initiating explosive mixture. From the wave profiles obtained in each experiment, an unreacted Hugoniot locus, the initiation mechanism, and the overtake-time-to-detonation were obtained as a function of shock input condition for mixture concentrations from 100% NM to 50 wt%/50 wt% NM/methanol. Desensitization with dilution is less than expected. For example, little change in overtake time occurs in 80 wt%/20 wt% NM/methanol when compared with neat NM. Furthermore, the shock wave profiles from the gauges indicate that wave instabilities grow in as the overdriven detonation wave settles down following the shock-to-detonation transition.

  16. Romania program targets methanol and Fischer-Tropsch research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Currently, the chemical organic industry, the petrochemical and engine fuels industry in Romania are entirely based on hydrocarbons from oil. To reduce the oil dependence of this sector and to ensure the stipulated growth rate of 8-9%, research and development programs have been set up with a view to the diversification of raw materials. In research on hydrocarbons from alcohol conversion, three process variants are known, i.e. olefins from methanol, gasolines from methanol and a combined gasolines and aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol. The Romanian process of methanol conversion to hydrocarbons is very flexible, with all the variants mentioned being carried out in the same plant by modifying the catalysts. In research on hydrocarbons from synthesis gas a modern process is being developed for gasification of brown coal in a fluidized bed, under pressure, in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. In the field of carbon oxide hydrogenation, studies have been carried out on selective Fischer-Tropsch processes in which the reaction products are high value hydrocarbon fractions.

  17. Methanol along the path from envelope to protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria; Van Dishoeck, Ewine; Walsh, Catherine; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel

    Interstellar methanol is considered a parent species of larger, more complex organic molecules. In this work a 2D physicochemical simulation of infalling parcels of matter is performed for a low-mass star-forming system to trace the chemical evolution from cloud to disk. Full continuum radiative transfer and a comprehensive gas-grain chemistry network are included. With this set up, two sets of collapse models are studied. Various disk zones are delineated for both, based upon their methanol budget. Some zones retain prestellar origins upon readsorption, while others are enhanced en route in the envelope. Under the right conditions, even further enrichment can occur in the disk itself. It is the infall paths that determine the zonal divisions for complex organic molecules in the disk, highlighting that the history of the material influences the disk composition. A comparison to cometary abundances is also performed. Critical chemical processes and parameters for the methanol chemistry under different physical conditions are identified. The exact abundance and distribution of methanol is important for the budget of complex organic molecules in the disk, which will be incorporated into forming planetary system objects such as protoplanets and comets.

  18. Educational Reform in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Bertha Orozco; Elizando Y Carr, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Since the 1970s, each presidential regime has presented an educational modernization reform program for Mexico. Although the various reforms have widened educational opportunities, the quality of education has continued to deteriorate because of student and teacher desertion, a low scholastic progress index, accessibility problems, lack of an…

  19. Small Schools Reform Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…

  20. Orthographic Reform in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John M.

    The role of local attitudes in recent orthographic reform in Kope is examined. The previous Kope orthographic tradition is outlined, and two areas apparently requiring reform (nasal/fricative variation and vowel clusters versus semivowels). The concerns and the greater awareness among the locals regarding these orthographic changes are explored.…

  1. Educational Reform in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butorac, Marylin M.; First, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    Oklahoma's answer to the cry for reform and involvement in education emerged as House Bill 1017, a comprehensive $223 million school reform and tax act. This article reviews the HR 1017 story, focusing on its legislative enactment history and offering a content analysis of mandated changes in finance, personnel, governance, student assessment,…

  2. Reform: To What End?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

  3. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru; Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T cell) of 750 °C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T ref) with various fuel utilizations (U f) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO 2 concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T cell is higher than T ref. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U f decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell.

  4. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF 12.2 GHz METHANOL MASERS ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L. J.; Avison, A.

    2011-06-01

    We present definitive detection statistics for 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward a complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey south of declination -20{sup 0}. In total, we detect 250 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward 580 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This equates to a detection rate of 43.1%, which is lower than that of previous significant searches of comparable sensitivity. Both the velocity ranges and the flux densities of the target 6.7 GHz sources surpass that of their 12.2 GHz companion in almost all cases. Eighty percent of the detected 12.2 GHz methanol maser peaks are coincident in velocity with the 6.7 GHz maser peak. Our data support an evolutionary scenario whereby the 12.2 GHz sources are associated with a somewhat later evolutionary stage than the 6.7 GHz sources devoid of this transition. Furthermore, we find that the 6.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz methanol sources increase in luminosity as they evolve. In addition to this, evidence for an increase in velocity range with evolution is presented. This implies that it is not only the luminosity but also the volume of gas conducive to the different maser transitions that increases as the sources evolve. Comparison with GLIMPSE mid-infrared sources has revealed a coincidence rate between the locations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and GLIMPSE point sources similar to that achieved in previous studies. Overall, the properties of the GLIMPSE sources with and without 12.2 GHz counterparts are similar. There is a higher 12.2 GHz detection rate toward those 6.7 GHz methanol masers that are coincident with extended green objects.

  5. Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

    1983-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  6. A novel process for methanol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1992-01-01

    A bench-scale reactor is being used to study the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol (MeOH) by a novel process. In previous reports, we provided evidence that the reaction takes place in two steps. A molecule of MeOH is first carbonylated to form methyl formate (MeF) which then reacts with H{sub 2} to form two molecules of MeOH. The second reaction occurs on the surface of a heterogeneous catalyst such as copper chromite, while the first reaction requires a homegenous catalyst such as potassium methoxide (KOMe) and takes place in a non-equilibrium region in the vicinity of the heterogeneous catalyst. A synergism between the two catalysts enhances the rate of MeOH formation. In this quarter, we studied the effect of reaction conditions on the rate of formation of MeF and the effect of CO{sub 2} concentration in the feed gas on the rate of MeOH synthesis. Kinetic studies were also initiated and rate expressions were examined.

  7. Metabolic methanol: molecular pathways and physiological roles.

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, Yuri L; Shindyapina, Anastasia V; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V; Komarova, Tatiana V

    2015-04-01

    Methanol has been historically considered an exogenous product that leads only to pathological changes in the human body when consumed. However, in normal, healthy individuals, methanol and its short-lived oxidized product, formaldehyde, are naturally occurring compounds whose functions and origins have received limited attention. There are several sources of human physiological methanol. Fruits, vegetables, and alcoholic beverages are likely the main sources of exogenous methanol in the healthy human body. Metabolic methanol may occur as a result of fermentation by gut bacteria and metabolic processes involving S-adenosyl methionine. Regardless of its source, low levels of methanol in the body are maintained by physiological and metabolic clearance mechanisms. Although human blood contains small amounts of methanol and formaldehyde, the content of these molecules increases sharply after receiving even methanol-free ethanol, indicating an endogenous source of the metabolic methanol present at low levels in the blood regulated by a cluster of genes. Recent studies of the pathogenesis of neurological disorders indicate metabolic formaldehyde as a putative causative agent. The detection of increased formaldehyde content in the blood of both neurological patients and the elderly indicates the important role of genetic and biochemical mechanisms of maintaining low levels of methanol and formaldehyde. PMID:25834233

  8. On the Road to Reform: A Sociocultural Interpretation of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I…

  9. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  10. Reforming Educational Reform: A Democratic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.

    2005-05-01

    This essay examines the status of educational reform in the United States as represented by the current Bush administration's program titled "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Employing the techniques of critical theory and logical analysis, contemporary reform efforts are compared with other, more progressive, educational reform movements in an effort to gain perspective and conceptual "traction" as it were, in differentiating such movements. Criteria are established for the assessment and evaluation of reform movements. These are employed in judging the efficacy of NCLB's aim, content, and methods, as well as the results of its program following four years of implementation. The merits of the centrality of standardized testing, pre-ordained curricular content, and exclusively didactic teaching methodologies are criticized, along with the extra-school societal forces which ordain these and determine their prominence in the NCLB program. The essentialism adopted by NCLB is, moreover, evaluated in the light of pragmatic, phenomenological, and postmodern educational theory. Arguing that the school is always and inevitably an instrument of societal forces, interests, and groups, it is contended that these not only be acknowledged, but that avenues be formalized for a thorough going and continuous educational "conversation," to borrow Rorty's term, for an amicable resolution of the issues of education's aim(s), content, and methods.

  11. Recent Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, the effects of methanol crossover and airflow rates on the cathode potential of an operating direct methanol fuel cell are explored. Techniques for quantifying methanol crossover in a fuel cell and for separating the electrical performance of each electrode in a fuel cell are discussed. The effect of methanol concentration on cathode potential has been determined to be significant. The cathode is found to be mass transfer limited when operating on low flow rate air and high concentrations of methanol. Improvements in cathode structure and operation at low methanol concentration have been shown to result in improved cell performance.

  12. Improvement in methanol oxidation in a centrifugal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Scott, K.

    Oxidation of methanol at a Pt-Ru/Ti mini-mesh anode has been investigated. The oxidation is efficient giving low anode potential, e.g. 520 mV versus RHE at a current density of 200 mA cm -2. The potentials were lower than that obtained at catalysed carbon cloth anode and at catalysed Teflon-bonded gas diffusion anode, under similar conditions. An outstanding performance was demonstrated by subjecting the electrolytic cell, including the electrolytes, to centrifugal force to enhance mass transfer and to accelerate gas bubble disengagement from the electrode surfaces, the electrolytes and the membrane. The acceleration field caused a significant reduction in the anode potential (up to 500 mV at 300 mA cm -2), compared with a static cell, and increased current density greatly by up to 250 mA cm -2 at 500 mV versus RHE, at a relative acceleration rate of 190 and at 80 °C. Increasing the methanol concentration and the electrolyte temperature increased the rate of methanol oxidation. An increase in the concentration of the electrolyte led to a reduction in the cell resistance. These improvements in anode potential were improved further in a centrifugal field, compared to a gravitational field.

  13. First Detection of Methanol in a Class O Protostellar Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, William D.; Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of emission from methanol in a compact source coincident with the position of the L1157 infrared source, which we attribute to molecules in the disk surrounding this young, Class O protostellar object. In addition, we identify a spectral feature in the outflow corresponding to an ethanol transition. Using the Caltech Owens Valley Millimeter Array with a synthesized beam size of 2", we detect spatially unresolved methanol in the 2(sub k) - 1(sub k) transitions at 3mm, which is coincident in position with the peak of the continuum emission. The gas phase methanol could be located in the central region (< 100 AU radius) of a flat disk, or in an extended heated surface layer (approx. 200 AU radius) of a flared disk. The fractional abundance of methanol X(CH3OH) is approx. 2 x l0(exp -8) in the flat disk model, and 3 x l0(exp -7) for the flared disk. The fractional abundance is small in the disk as a whole, but considerably larger in the warm portions. This difference indicates that substantial chemical processing probably takes place in the disk via depletion and desorption. The methanol desorbed from the grains in the warm surface layers returns to the icy grain mantles in the cooler interior of the disk, where it is available to become part of the composition of solar system-like bodies, such as comets, formed in the outer circumstellar region. This first millimeter-wavelength detection of a complex organic molecule in a young protostellar disk has implications for disk structure and chemical evolution and for potential use as a temperature probe. The research of TV and WL was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology with support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. Chicago School Reform as History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between Chicago's school reform and history, noting implications for current reform: (1) origins of bureaucracy and ascendance of experts and professionals; (2) educational reform as a social movement; (3) race and ethnicity; (4) revitalization of the public sphere; and (5) limits of educational reform. (SM)

  15. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  16. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  17. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  18. Once-through methanol project support study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, L.E.; Kelly, D.A.

    1987-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a gas characterization study conducted at TVA's 200 tons of coal per day Ammonia From Coal facility under EPRI contract RP2563-3 (TV-50942A, subagreement No. 27). The main thrust of the study was to determine the levels of trace components that are potentially harmful to a methanol catalyst in unshifted synthesis gas from a partial-oxidation gasifier. The study also included an evaluation of the performance of gas cleanup equipment while using unshifted gas. Data were gathered during operation with three different coals: Utah, Illinois No. 6, and Pittsburgh No. 8. Additional data were gathered during an environmental characterization study using a western Maryland coal. 3 refs., 9 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. Formaldehyde-methanol, metallic-oxide agents head scavengers list

    SciTech Connect

    Schaack, J.P.; Chan, F.

    1989-01-23

    Use of batch-operated chemical H/sub 2/S scavengers as an inexpensive gas-sweetening process may be an attractive alternative for moderately sour gas wells with small production remote from a gas-processing plant. This article begins a four-part series describing the most common H/sub 2/S scavengers available to the natural gas-producing industry. Advantages, disadvantages, health and safety aspects, case histories, design guidelines, and economics of these scavengers will be addressed. Currently available, nonregenerative scavengers for small-plant H/sub 2/S removal may be categorized into four groups: Formaldehyde-methanol-based, metallic oxide-based, caustic-based, and other processes.

  20. Interstellar Methanol from the Lab to Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria; Walsh, Catherine; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar methanol is considered to be a parent species of larger, more complex organic molecules. It holds a central role in many astrochemical models [e.g. 1]. Methanol has also been the focus of several laboratory studies [e.g. 2, 3] in an effort to gain insight into grain-surface chemistry, which potentially builds chemical complexity already in the cold, dark phases of protostellar evolution. The case of methanol is a prime example of experimental work having implications on astronomical scales. For this meeting, I would like to highlight how physical and chemical models can be unified to simulate infalling material during the birth of a low-mass protostar. An axisymmetric 2D semi-analytic collapse model [4], wavelength-dependent radiative transfer calculations with RADMC3D [5] and a comprehensive gas-grain chemical network [6] are used to study two physical scenarios. In the first case, the dominant disc growth mechanism is viscous spreading, while in the second, continuous infall of matter prevails. The results show that the infall path influences the abundance of methanol entering each type of disk, ranging from complete loss of methanol to an enhancement by a factor of >1 relative to the prestellar phase [7]. This work illustrates how the experimentally verified hydrogenation sequence of carbon monoxide leading to methanol influences the delivery of methanol ice to the planet- and comet-forming zones of protoplanetary disks. Such intriguing links will soon be tested by upcoming cometary data from the Rosetta mission and ALMA observations.[1] Garrod R. T., Herbst E., 2006, A&A, 457, 927[2] Watanabe N., Nagaoka A., Shiraki T., Kouchi A., 2004, ApJ, 616, 638[3] Fuchs G. W., Cuppen H. M., Ioppolo S., Romanzin C., Bisschop S. E., Andersson S., van Dishoeck E. F., Linnartz H., 2009, A&A, 505, 629[4] Visser R., van Dishoeck E. F., Doty S. D., Dullemond C. P., 2009, A&A, 495, 881[5] Dullemond C. P., Dominik C., 2004, A&A, 417, 159[6] Walsh C., Millar T. J

  1. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  2. Compact direct methanol fuel cells for portable application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icardi, U. A.; Specchia, S.; Fontana, G. J. R.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, V.

    Consumers' demand for portable audio/video/ICT products has driven the development of advanced power technologies in recent years. Fuel cells are a clean technology with low emissions levels, suitable for operation with renewable fuels and capable, in a next future, of replacing conventional power systems meeting the targets of the Kyoto Protocol for a society based on sustainable energy systems. Within such a perspective, the objective of the European project MOREPOWER (compact direct methanol fuel cells for portable applications) is the development of a low-cost, low temperature, portable direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC; nominal power 250 W) with compact construction and modular design for the potential market area of weather stations, medical devices, signal units, gas sensors and security cameras. This investigation is focused on a conceptual study of the DMFC system carried out in the Matlab/Simulink ® platform: the proposed scheme arrangements lead to a simple equipment architecture and a efficient process.

  3. Solar photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Prairie, M.R.; Assink, R.A.

    1997-02-01

    This report summarizes the three-year LDRD program directed at developing catalysts based on metalloporphyrins to reduce carbon dioxide. Ultimately it was envisioned that such catalysts could be made part of a solar-driven photoredox cycle by coupling metalloporphyrins with semiconductor systems. Such a system would provide the energy required for CO{sub 2} reduction to methanol, which is an uphill 6-electron reduction. Molecular modeling and design capabilities were used to engineer metalloporphyrin catalysts for converting CO{sub 2} to CO and higher carbon reduction products like formaldehyde, formate, and methanol. Gas-diffusion electrochemical cells were developed to carry out these reactions. A tin-porphyrin/alumina photocatalyst system was partially developed to couple solar energy to this reduction process.

  4. A validated near-infrared spectroscopic method for methanol detection in biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Andrea; Bräuer, Bastian; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Ent, Hugo; Bremser, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel quality control is a relevant issue as biodiesel properties influence diesel engine performance and integrity. Within the European metrology research program (EMRP) ENG09 project ‘Metrology for Biofuels’, an on-line/at-site suitable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method has been developed in parallel with an improved EN14110 headspace gas chromatography (GC) analysis method for methanol in biodiesel. Both methods have been optimized for a methanol content of 0.2 mass% as this represents the maximum limit of methanol content in FAME according to EN 14214:2009. The NIRS method is based on a mobile NIR spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic coupled probe. Due to the high volatility of methanol, a tailored air-tight adaptor was constructed to prevent methanol evaporation during measurement. The methanol content of biodiesel was determined from evaluation of NIRS spectra by partial least squares regression (PLS). Both GC analysis and NIRS exhibited a significant dependence on biodiesel feedstock. The NIRS method is applicable to a content range of 0.1% (m/m) to 0.4% (m/m) of methanol with uncertainties at around 6% relative for the different feedstocks. A direct comparison of headspace GC and NIRS for samples of FAMEs yielded that the results of both methods are fully compatible within their stated uncertainties.

  5. Test method for the measurement of methanol emissions from stationary sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, B.A.; Peterson, M.R.; Rickman, E.E.; Jayanty, R.K.M.

    1994-05-01

    Methanol was designated under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as a pollutant to be regulated. A test method has been developed for the measurement of methanol emissions from stationary sources. The methanol sampling train (MST) consists of a glass-lined heated probe, two condensate knockout traps, and three sorbent cartridges packed with Anasorb 747. The Anasorb samples were desorbed with a 1:1 mixture of carbon disulfide and N,N-dimethylformamide. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Following laboratory testing, field tests of the MST and the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) sampling method for methanol were conducted at two pulp and paper mills. In accordance with EPA Methol 301, two pairs of trains were run in parallel for six runs, collecting a total of 24 samples by each method. During each run, half of the trains were spiked with a known amount of methanol. The sampling location at the first test was an inlet vent to a softwood bleach plant scrubber where the methanol concentration was about 30 ppm. A second field test was conducted at the vent of a black liquor oxidation tank where the methanol concentration was about 350 ppm. Samples were shown to be stable for at least 2 weeks after collection.

  6. Convenient quantification of methanol concentration detection utilizing an integrated microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Ju, Wei-Jhong; Wu, Ming-Chang; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and simple technique is proposed for methanol concentration detection using a PMMA (Polymethyl-Methacrylate) microfluidic chip patterned using a commercially available CO2 laser scriber. In the proposed device, methanol and methanol oxidase (MOX) are injected into a three-dimensional circular chamber and are mixed via a vortex stirring effect. The mixture is heated to prompt the formation of formaldehyde and is flowed into a rectangular chamber, to which fuchsin-sulphurous acid is then added. Finally, the microchip is transferred to a UV spectrophotometer for methanol detection purposes. The experimental results show that a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.9940 is obtained when plotting the optical density against the methanol concentration for samples and an accuracy as high as 93.1% are compared with the determined by the high quality gas chromatography with concentrations in the range of 2 ∼ 100 ppm. The methanol concentrations of four commercial red wines are successfully detected using the developed device. Overall, the results show that the proposed device provides a rapid and accurate means of detecting the methanol concentration for a variety of applications in the alcoholic beverage inspection and control field. PMID:23940501

  7. Methanol optic neuropathy: a histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, J A; Hostovsky, M; Bilbao, J M; Rewcastle, N B

    1982-10-01

    The histopathologic effects of methanol on the optic nerve were studied in four patients. Circumscribed myelin damage occurred behind the lamina cribrosa in each nerve. Axons were preserved. Demyelination also occurred in cerebral hemispheric white matter in one patient. This selective myelinoclastic effect of methanol metabolism is probably caused by histotoxic anoxia in watershed areas of the cerebral and distal optic nerve circulations. Juxtabulbar demyelination may cause optic disk edema in methanol poisoning by compressive obstruction of orthograde axoplasmic flow. Visual loss may be due to disruption of saltatory conduction. Retrolaminar demyelinating optic neuropathy is an early morphologic correlate of visual loss in methanol intoxication. PMID:6889696

  8. Focus on Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes principal-initiated reform efforts at Alton Elementary School in downtown Memphis, Tennessee, that improved teacher performance and student reading scores. Alton is a K-4 school with a 100 percent African-American student population. (PKP)

  9. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  10. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-27

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  11. The degree and effect of methanol crossover in the direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, John; Scott, Keith

    A simple model is presented to describe the permeation of methanol from the anode to the cathode in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Measured permeation rates of water and methanol through Nafion ® 117 under varied pressure differentials across the membrane are used to determine key parameters in the model. This model is able to explain the effect of oxygen pressure at the cathode and methanol concentration at the anode on the measured cell voltage-current response of the DMFC.

  12. Recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and derived products - closing the loop.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Jones, John-Paul; Surya Prakash, G K; Olah, George A

    2014-12-01

    Starting with coal, followed by petroleum oil and natural gas, the utilization of fossil fuels has allowed the fast and unprecedented development of human society. However, the burning of these resources in ever increasing pace is accompanied by large amounts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, which are outpacing the natural carbon cycle, causing adverse global environmental changes, the full extent of which is still unclear. Even through fossil fuels are still abundant, they are nevertheless limited and will, in time, be depleted. Chemical recycling of CO2 to renewable fuels and materials, primarily methanol, offers a powerful alternative to tackle both issues, that is, global climate change and fossil fuel depletion. The energy needed for the reduction of CO2 can come from any renewable energy source such as solar and wind. Methanol, the simplest C1 liquid product that can be easily obtained from any carbon source, including biomass and CO2, has been proposed as a key component of such an anthropogenic carbon cycle in the framework of a "Methanol Economy". Methanol itself is an excellent fuel for internal combustion engines, fuel cells, stoves, etc. It's dehydration product, dimethyl ether, is a diesel fuel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) substitute. Furthermore, methanol can be transformed to ethylene, propylene and most of the petrochemical products currently obtained from fossil fuels. The conversion of CO2 to methanol is discussed in detail in this review. PMID:24935751

  13. Biogeochemical Cycle of Methanol in Anoxic Deep-Sea Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Tani, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naoya; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Kano, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Ryo; Suzuki, Yohey

    2016-01-01

    The biological flux and lifetime of methanol in anoxic marine sediments are largely unknown. We herein reported, for the first time, quantitative methanol removal rates in subsurface sediments. Anaerobic incubation experiments with radiotracers showed high rates of microbial methanol consumption. Notably, methanol oxidation to CO2 surpassed methanol assimilation and methanogenesis from CO2/H2 and methanol. Nevertheless, a significant decrease in methanol was not observed after the incubation, and this was attributed to the microbial production of methanol in parallel with its consumption. These results suggest that microbial reactions play an important role in the sources and sinks of methanol in subseafloor sediments. PMID:27301420

  14. Development of direct methanol alkaline fuel cells using anion exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Eileen Hao; Scott, Keith

    Research into the development of direct methanol alkaline fuel cell (DMAFC) using an anion exchange polymer electrolyte membrane is described. The commercial membrane used had a higher electric resistance, but a lower methanol diffusion coefficient than Nafion ® membranes. Fuel cell tests were performed using carbon supported Pt catalyst, and the effect of temperature, methanol concentration, methanol flow rate, air pressure and Pt loading were investigated. It was found that the cell performance improved drastically with a membrane assembly electrode (MEA) which did not include the gas diffusion layer on the anode, because of lower reactant mass transfer resistance. To give suitable cathode performance, humidification of the air and a subtle balance between the air pressure and water transport is required.

  15. Can methanol be synthesized from CO by direct hydrogenation over Cu/ZnO catalysts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhi-Jun; Han, Pei-De; Li, Zhe; Hu, Jian-Shui; Huang, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Methanol synthesis from CO by direct hydrogenation has been studied using the density-functional theory (DFT). The charge of Cu has been found to be transferred to the ZnO carrier having low Cu cover. Due to the electron-charge transfer between the metallic Cu and the ZnO carrier, the Cu valency is greater than zero and less than one. Consideration of the water-gas-shift reaction and hydrogenation of CO2 to CHOO and COOH, the result shows that the active sites for the synthesis of methanol from CO2 and CO are different. Methanol is synthesized from CO by direct hydrogenation over Cuδ+ (0 < δ < 1) species through the intermediates CHO, CH2O, and CH3O, and the rate-limiting step is the hydrogenation of CHO, indicating that the Cuδ+ (0 < δ < 1) species comprise the active sites for the synthesis of methanol from CO by direct hydrogenation.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of a Micro Methanol Sensor Using the CMOS-MEMS Technique.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chien-Fu; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2015-01-01

    A methanol microsensor integrated with a micro heater manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technique was presented. The sensor has a capability of detecting low concentration methanol gas. Structure of the sensor is composed of interdigitated electrodes, a sensitive film and a heater. The heater located under the interdigitated electrodes is utilized to provide a working temperature to the sensitive film. The sensitive film prepared by the sol-gel method is tin dioxide doped cadmium sulfide, which is deposited on the interdigitated electrodes. To obtain the suspended structure and deposit the sensitive film, the sensor needs a post-CMOS process to etch the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer and silicon substrate. The methanol senor is a resistive type. A readout circuit converts the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experimental results show that the methanol sensor has a sensitivity of 0.18 V/ppm. PMID:26512671

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of a Micro Methanol Sensor Using the CMOS-MEMS Technique

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Chien-Fu; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2015-01-01

    A methanol microsensor integrated with a micro heater manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technique was presented. The sensor has a capability of detecting low concentration methanol gas. Structure of the sensor is composed of interdigitated electrodes, a sensitive film and a heater. The heater located under the interdigitated electrodes is utilized to provide a working temperature to the sensitive film. The sensitive film prepared by the sol-gel method is tin dioxide doped cadmium sulfide, which is deposited on the interdigitated electrodes. To obtain the suspended structure and deposit the sensitive film, the sensor needs a post-CMOS process to etch the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer and silicon substrate. The methanol senor is a resistive type. A readout circuit converts the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experimental results show that the methanol sensor has a sensitivity of 0.18 V/ppm. PMID:26512671

  18. Methanol tailgas combustor control method

    DOEpatents

    Hart-Predmore, David J.; Pettit, William H.

    2002-01-01

    A method for controlling the power and temperature and fuel source of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to supply heat to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual fuel inlet streams including a first fuel stream, and a second fuel stream of anode effluent from the fuel cell and reformate from the fuel processor. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is determined by regulating the amount of the first and/or second fuel streams and the quantity of the first air flow stream to support fuel processor power requirements.

  19. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    An overview of a study to retrofit the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant with Solar Central Receiver Technology is presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system will displace natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber.

  20. On the road to reform: a sociocultural interpretation of reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-09-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I address some familiar areas that must be considered when teachers undertake curriculum reform and how science educators may fulfill the role of facilitator and advocate in the support of teachers on the road to reform. The commentary focuses on how Barma retells the story through the lens of activity theory.

  1. THE ROLE OF METHANOL IN THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF TITAN'S PRIMORDIAL OCEAN

    SciTech Connect

    Deschamps, Frederic; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2010-12-01

    A key parameter that controls the crystallization of primordial oceans in large icy moons is the presence of anti-freeze compounds, which may have maintained primordial oceans over the age of the solar system. Here we investigate the influence of methanol, a possible anti-freeze candidate, on the crystallization of Titan's primordial ocean. Using a thermodynamic model of the solar nebula and assuming a plausible composition of its initial gas phase, we first calculate the condensation sequence of ices in Saturn's feeding zone, and show that in Titan's building blocks methanol can have a mass fraction of {approx}4 wt% relative to water, i.e., methanol can be up to four times more abundant than ammonia. We then combine available data on the phase diagram of the water-methanol system and scaling laws derived from thermal convection to estimate the influence of methanol on the dynamics of the outer ice I shell and on the heat transfer through this layer. For a fraction of methanol consistent with the building blocks composition we determined, the vigor of convection in the ice I shell is strongly reduced. The effect of 5 wt% methanol is equivalent to that of 3 wt% ammonia. Thus, if methanol is present in the primordial ocean of Titan, the crystallization may stop, and a sub-surface ocean may be maintained between the ice I and high-pressure ice layers. A preliminary estimate indicates that the presence of 4 wt% methanol and 1 wt% ammonia may result in an ocean of thickness at least 90 km.

  2. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  3. Alternative resources for the methanol economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reschetilowski, W.

    2013-07-01

    Generally, methanol produced for chemical applications is made predominantly via fossil resources. But it can also be obtained from any carbon-containing feedstock, including biomass, biogas, forest residues, and municipal or other waste products. Perspective viewing and critical assessment show the possibilities and constraints of such alternative resources for the realization of the methanol economy with high sustainability. The bibliography includes 57 references.

  4. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology of Methanol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanol is a high production volume chemical used as a feedstock for chemical syntheses and as a solvent and fuel additive. Methanol is acutely toxic to humans, causing acidosis, blindness in death at high dosages, but its developmental and reproductive toxicity in humans is poo...

  5. The effect of PdZn particle size on reverse-water-gas-shift reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Datye, A. K.; Wang, Yong

    2010-05-15

    The effect of PdZn particle size on the catalytic activity of Pd/ZnO catalysts for the reverse-water-gas-shift (RWGS) reaction was studied. The PdZn particle size was varied by adjusting Pd loading and reducing the catalysts at different temperatures. XRD and IR spectroscopy characterization confirmed the absence of metallic Pd on the catalyst surface. Consequently, the effect of PdZn alloy particle size on the RWGS reaction can be unambiguously studied without the complication of reactions catalyzed by metallic Pd. The results indicated that the turnover frequency increases as the PdZn crystallite size decreases. Interestingly, this structure relationship between PdZn particle size and RWGS activity is consistent with that previously observed for the steam reforming of methanol, i.e., higher CO selectivity on smaller PdZn particles. Thus, RWGS has been identified as a likely potential reaction pathway to undesired CO formation in methanol steam reforming on Pd/ZnO catalysts for hydrogen production.

  6. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  7. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  8. The detection of extragalactic methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, C.; Jacq, T.; Mauersberger, R.; Menten, K. M.; Steppe, H.

    1987-12-01

    The detection of emission in the 96 GHz 2(kappa)-1(kappa) lines of methanol is reported toward the central regions of NGC253 and IC342. A possible detection is also obtained toward NGC6946, while no emission is seen toward M82. (CH3OH)/(H2) abundance ratios appear to be consistent with those determined for galactic sources. The strength of the CH3OH emission, however, is not found to be correlated with infrared or CO luminosities. Toward NGC253, two distinct clouds are identified. One of these appears to be directly associated with the nucleus and remains spatially unresolved. The recently detected H2O maser at 100-150 km/s does not originate from this centrally located cloud.

  9. Identification of interstellar methanol lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, E. C.; Herbst, Eric

    1988-10-01

    The extended internal axis method Hamiltonian of Herbst et al. has been employed to study the rotational spectrum of methanol out to high values of the rotational quantum number J. For 12CH3OH the available laboratory data, consisting of 783 lines out to J = 22, have been fitted with a Hamiltonian containing 32 free parameters. For 13CH3OH a Hamiltonian with 23 free parameters is sufficient for fitting 455 lines, also out to J = 22. Frequency predictions based on these fits have permitted the identification of a number of previously unidentified interstellar lines from OMC-1. The majority of these are b-type R-branch transitions of 12CH3OH.

  10. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOEpatents

    Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Hager, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

  11. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOEpatents

    Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

    1998-03-31

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

  12. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970’s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcohols over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.

  13. Verrucomicrobia and their role in soil methanol consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierer, N.

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria belonging to the phylum Verrucomicrobia are far more ubiquitous and abundant in soil than previous work would suggest. In many soils, a relatively small number of verrucomicrobial phylotypes or 'species' can represent more than 25% of the bacterial cells in soil. Since these phylotypes are not closely related to any known cultured isolates or any strains for which we have whole-genome data, we have limited information on what these bacteria are actually doing in soil, their metabolic capabilities, or the niches they inhabit. We have recently assembled the genomes of these dominant Verrucomicrobia from soil metagenomic data and found that these taxa appear to be oligotrophs that specialize in methanol oxidation. This is important because we have found in previous work that methanol likely represents an important source of labile organic carbon to soil microbes in many ecosystems with methanol fluxes likely representing an important, but under-studied, mechanism by which organic carbon is transferred from surface litter layers to mineral soils. Ongoing work has focused on using high-throughput cultivation methods to study soil Verrucomicrobia in vitro and better understand their controls on soil carbon dynamics. Together this work demonstrates how we can leverage recent methodological advances in metagenomics, high-throughput cultivation, and soil trace gas analyses to understand the biogeochemical relevance of an abundant, but mysterious, group of soil microorganisms.

  14. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes. PMID:22611652

  15. Surface-Bound Intermediates in Low-Temperature Methanol Synthesis on Copper. Participants and Spectators

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles H.F.; Campbell, Charles T.; Mims, Charles A.

    2015-11-03

    The reactivity of surface adsorbed species present on copper catalysts during methanol synthesis at low temperatures was studied by simultaneous infrared spectroscopy (IR) and mass spectroscopy (MS) measurements during “titration” (transient surface reaction) experiments with isotopic tracing. The results show that adsorbed formate is a major bystander species present on the surface under steady-state methanol synthesis reaction conditions, but it cannot be converted to methanol by reaction with pure H2, nor with H2 plus added water. Formate-containing surface adlayers for these experiments were produced during steady state catalysis in (a) H2:CO2 (with substantial formate coverage) and (b) moist H2:CO (with no IR visible formate species). Both these reaction conditions produce methanol at steady state with relatively high rates. Adlayers containing formate were also produced by (c) formic acid adsorption. Various "titration" gases were used to probe these adlayers at modest temperatures (T = 410-450K) and 6 bar total pressure. Methanol gas (up to ~1% monolayer equivalent) was produced in "titration" from the H2:CO2 catalytic adlayers by H2 plus water, but not by dry hydrogen. The decay in the formate IR features accelerated in the presence of added water vapor. The H2:CO:H2O catalytic adlayer produced similar methanol titration yields in H2 plus water but showed no surface formate features in IR (less than 0.2% monolayer coverage). Finally, formate from formic acid chemisorption produced no methanol under any titration conditions. Even under (H2:CO2) catalytic reaction conditions, isotope tracing showed that pre-adsorbed formate from formic acid did not contribute to the methanol produced. Although non-formate intermediates exist during low temperature methanol synthesis on copper which can be converted to methanol gas

  16. Properties of a soft-core model of methanol: An integral equation theory and computer simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Huš, Matej; Urbic, Tomaz; Munaò, Gianmarco

    2014-10-28

    Thermodynamic and structural properties of a coarse-grained model of methanol are examined by Monte Carlo simulations and reference interaction site model (RISM) integral equation theory. Methanol particles are described as dimers formed from an apolar Lennard-Jones sphere, mimicking the methyl group, and a sphere with a core-softened potential as the hydroxyl group. Different closure approximations of the RISM theory are compared and discussed. The liquid structure of methanol is investigated by calculating site-site radial distribution functions and static structure factors for a wide range of temperatures and densities. Results obtained show a good agreement between RISM and Monte Carlo simulations. The phase behavior of methanol is investigated by employing different thermodynamic routes for the calculation of the RISM free energy, drawing gas-liquid coexistence curves that match the simulation data. Preliminary indications for a putative second critical point between two different liquid phases of methanol are also discussed.

  17. Properties of a soft-core model of methanol: An integral equation theory and computer simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Huš, Matej; Munaò, Gianmarco; Urbic, Tomaz

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and structural properties of a coarse-grained model of methanol are examined by Monte Carlo simulations and reference interaction site model (RISM) integral equation theory. Methanol particles are described as dimers formed from an apolar Lennard-Jones sphere, mimicking the methyl group, and a sphere with a core-softened potential as the hydroxyl group. Different closure approximations of the RISM theory are compared and discussed. The liquid structure of methanol is investigated by calculating site-site radial distribution functions and static structure factors for a wide range of temperatures and densities. Results obtained show a good agreement between RISM and Monte Carlo simulations. The phase behavior of methanol is investigated by employing different thermodynamic routes for the calculation of the RISM free energy, drawing gas-liquid coexistence curves that match the simulation data. Preliminary indications for a putative second critical point between two different liquid phases of methanol are also discussed. PMID:25362323

  18. 97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio

  19. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Grohse, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  20. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  1. Progress toward the Hercules coke-to-methanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.; Chiramoute, J.; Pack, G.E.; Patterson, J.

    1983-08-01

    A progress report is given on the Hercules coke-to-methanol plant. The plant gasifies petroleum coke in a fluidized bed to produce syngas for the methanol plant already on site and fuel gas for a combined cycle. The plant will produce 24,000 gallons of chemical grade methanol per day and will cogenerate electricity at about 10 MWe. The coke that is used as the raw feed stock is from a local refinery's fluid coker unit and is sized at minus 6 mm (0.25 inches) and has a heating value of 31 MJ/kg (14,700 Btu/lb). The coke, which is 90% carbon, is relatively unreactive, but can be economically gasified with a catalyst using TOSCO's coke gasification process at 650-850/sup 0/ C (1200-1500/sup 0/ F). This process is unique in that a catalyst reduces the gasification temperature which in turn lowers the oxygen requirements. This lower temperature prevents a slagging ash problem, so typical in other gasification processes. The process also uses less steam than other non-catalytic fluid-bed gasification processes. The capital cost of the plant is 24.2 million dollars and the operating cost is 5.24 million dollars per year. Low interest (8.8%) State of California loans for methanol production are used as well as the alcohol tax credit. The energy cost was found to be around $5/MMBtu for a 20 cent/gal tax credit and a coke feed at $20/ton.

  2. Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

  3. On-board hydrogen generation for transport applications: the HotSpot™ methanol processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Neil; Ellis, Suzanne R.; Frost, Jonathan C.; Golunski, Stanislaw E.; van Keulen, Arjan N. J.; Lindewald, Nicklas G.; Reinkingh, Jessica G.

    In the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure, development of effective on-board fuel processors is likely to be critical to the commercialisation of fuel-cell cars. The HotSpot™ reactor converts methanol, water and air in a single compact catalyst bed into a reformate containing mainly CO2 and hydrogen (and unreacted nitrogen). The process occurs by a combination of exothermic partial oxidation and endothermic steam reforming of methanol, to produce 750 l of hydrogen per hour from a 245-cm3 reactor. The relative contribution of each reaction can be tuned to match the system requirements at a given time. Scale-up is achieved by the parallel combination of the required number of individual HotSpot reactors, which are fed from a central manifold. Using this modular design, the start-up and transient characteristics of a large fuel-processor are identical to that of a single reactor. When vaporised liquid feed and air are introduced into cold reactors, 100% output is achieved in 50 s; subsequent changes in throughput result in instantaneous changes in output. Surplus energy within the fuel-cell powertrain can be directed to the manifold, where it can be used to vaporise the liquid feeds and so promote steam reforming, resulting in high system efficiency. The small amount of CO that is produced by the HotSpot reactions is attenuated to <10 ppm by a catalytic clean-up unit. The HotSpot concept and CO clean-up strategy are not limited to the processing of methanol, but are being applied to other organic fuels.

  4. Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

    2004-12-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends. PMID:15288277

  5. Panama coal to methanol project. Phase I. Feasibility Study. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    This Technical Progress Report contains the results of the investigations performed for the Panama Coal to Methanol Project: Technical efforts associated with the gasification technology evaluation; evaluation of other related process technologies; results of the venture analyses, including the efforts made for structuring the project; results of the ongoing financial analyses and cost projections, including potential and use applications of methanol in Japan primarily for combustion turbine-combined cycle steam/electric utilization. At this time, and for the next few years, the Panama-based methanol fuel is more expensive than oil. However, when measured in terms of KWH production cost in Japan, the use of methanol fuel in combustion turbine, combined-cycle operations appears to create less expensive electric power than that produced from conventional coal direct fired operations using imported coal. This cost advantage arises from significantly lower capital costs and enhanced performance efficiencies associated with combined cycle power generators as contrasted with conventional coal plants equipped with scrubbers. Environmental and social land-use benefits are also much greater for the methanol fuel plant. The cost of electricity from a methanol-fueled combined cycle plant is also expected to compare favorably in Japan with electrical costs from a future liquefied natural gas fired plant.

  6. Energy balances in the production and end-use of methanol derived from coal

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-10

    Analysis is performed for three combinations of fuels, specifically: net petroleum gain (petroleum only); net premium fuel gain (natural gas and petroleum); and net energy gain (includes all fuels; does not include free energy from sun). The base case selected for evaluation was that of an energy-efficient coal-to-methanol plant located in Montana/Wyoming and using the Lurgi conversion process. The following variations of the base coal-methanol case are also analyzed: gasoline from coal with methanol as an intermediate step (Mobil-M); and methanol from coal (Texaco gasification process). For each process, computations are made for the product methanol as a replacement for unleaded gasoline in a conventional spark ignition engine and as a chemical feedstock. For the purpose of the energy analysis, computations are made for three situations regarding mileage of methanol/ gasoline compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline: mileage of the two fuels equal, mileage 4 percent better with gasohol, and mileage 4 percent worse with gasohol. The standard methodology described for the base case applies to all of the variations.

  7. An Experiment on the Methane-Methanol-Iodo-methane Cycle to Produce Nuclear Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Youngjoon, Shin; Wonjae, Lee; Kiyoung, Lee; Jonghwa, Chang; Sangbong, Lee

    2006-07-01

    Steam reforming is a mature and well-established technology on an industrial scale, and its research and development have focused on a high efficiency and low cost through the use of a cheaper material and production methods. However the new task presented due to the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in December 1997 is how to overcome the carbon dioxide generation problem in this technology. One of several CO{sub 2}-free alternatives based on a steam reforming of methane were introduced conceptually, named as the closed Methane-Methanol-Iodo-methane (MMI) cycle. We have calculated the thermodynamic properties as a function of the temperature on the chemical reactions that are supporting this CO{sub 2}- free process and evaluated theoretically the realization of each chemical reaction step. By analyzing the Gibbs free energy change, it has been found that most reactions are available within the temperature range of 298 K - 1,298 K except for the conversion of methanol to methyl iodide. In order to obtain methyl iodide from methanol to satisfy the closed MMI cycle, a SO{sub 2}-catalytic chemical reaction pathway during the step of an iodizing of methanol is possible. The experimental confirmation has been performed in an I{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}OH-SO{sub 2} system. The sulfuric acid produced as a byproduct can be thermally decomposed to SO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and then the H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} are recycled in the MMI cycle, respectively. The productivity of methyl iodide has been confirmed at up to 86% for a typical chemical reaction condition. (authors)

  8. The Effects of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Giron, Graciela; De-La-Luz-Arellano, Ivan; Ayon-Bañuelos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform implies questions of social production and of state regulation that are the key words in educational reform, education and educational policies. These reforms are always on the political agenda of countries and involve international organisms, since education is a vehicle of development for social progress. A point of departure…

  9. Teacher Education Reforms in Albania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Drawing on insights from Albanian teacher educators and government representatives, this paper examines processes of change and types of reform (modernization, structural, and systemic reform) in Albania. It also discusses the initial implementation of one of the reforms, which was directed at the balance and role of school experiences, analyzing…

  10. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  11. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  12. Prospects for Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    This editorial reviews areas of health care reform including managed health care, diagnosis-related groups, and the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for physician services. Relevance of such reforms to people with developmental disabilities is considered. Much needed insurance reform is not thought to be likely, however. (DB)

  13. Cobalt catalysts for the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons and for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mauldin, C.H.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a catalyst useful for the conversion at reaction conditions of methanol or synthesis gas to hydrocarbons by contact with a catalyst. The catalyst cobalt and thorium in catalytically active amounts, and rhenium, composited with an inorganic oxide support in weight ratio of rhenium:cobalt ranging from about 0.025:1 to about 0.10:1.

  14. OXIDATION OF METHANOL USING OZONE ON TITANIA-SUPPORTED VANADIUM CATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic ozone decomposition of methanol has been conducted at mild temperatures of 100 to 250°C using V2O5/TiO2 catalyst prepared by either sol-gel or wet impregnation methods. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, surface area measurements, and desorption of CH3OH. Gas p...

  15. Base-free hydrogen generation from methanol using a bi-catalytic system.

    PubMed

    Monney, Angèle; Barsch, Enrico; Sponholz, Peter; Junge, Henrik; Ludwig, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2014-01-21

    A bi-catalytic system, in which Ru-MACHO-BH and Ru(H)2(dppe)2 interact in a synergistic manner, was developed for the base-free dehydrogenation of methanol. A total TON > 4200 was obtained with only trace amounts of CO contamination (<8 ppm) in the produced gas. PMID:24288039

  16. Deuterated methanol in the pre-stellar core L1544

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzocchi, L.; Caselli, P.; Spezzano, S.; Leonardo, E.

    2014-09-01

    Context. High methanol (CH3OH) deuteration has been revealed in Class 0 protostars with the detection of singly, doubly, and even triply D-substituted forms. Methanol is believed to form during the pre-collapse phase via gas-grain chemistry and then eventually injected into the gas when the heating produced by the newly formed protostar sublimates the grain mantles. The molecular deuterium fraction of the warm gas is thus a relic of the cold pre-stellar era and provides hints of the past history of the protostars. Aims: Pre-stellar cores represent the preceding stages in the process of star formation. We aim at measuring methanol deuteration in L1544, a prototypical dense and cold core on the verge of gravitational collapse. The aim is to probe the deuterium fractionation process while the "frozen" molecular reservoir is accumulated onto dust grains. Methods: Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we mapped the methanol emission in the pre-stellar core L1544 and observed singly deuterated methanol (CH2DOH and CH3OD) towards the dust peak of L1544. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelling was performed on three CH3OH emissions lines at 96.7 GHz, using a Bonnor-Ebert sphere as a model for the source. We have also assumed a centrally decreasing abundance profile to take the molecule freeze-out in the inner core into account. The column density of CH2DOH was derived assuming LTE excitation and optically thin emission. Results: The CH3OH emission has a highly asymmetric morphology, resembling a non-uniform ring surrounding the dust peak, where CO is mainly frozen onto dust grains. The observations provide an accurate measure of methanol deuteration in the cold pre-stellar gas. The derived abundance ratio is [CH2DOH]/[CH3OH] = 0.10 ± 0.03, which is significantly smaller than the ones found in low-mass Class 0 protostars and smaller than the deuterium fraction measured in other molecules towards L1544. The singly-deuterated form CH3OD was not detected at 3σ sensitivity of 7 mK km s

  17. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOEpatents

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  18. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    SciTech Connect

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  19. Reforming the Undergraduate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderPol, Diane; Brown, Jeanne M.; Iannuzzi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The higher education literature abounds with reports and studies calling for reform in undergraduate education. An alphabet soup of higher education associations creates or advocates desired learning outcomes for postsecondary education and endorses approaches for student learning. This article shows connections between some of the major…

  20. Reforming Teacher Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Susan Freeman; Gardner, Catherine D.

    2010-01-01

    A recent Google search for information regarding performance pay in education produced 6.1 million results. This number should come as no surprise given the current level of interest in incentives as a popular reform option in public education. Supporters believe pay-for-performance programs encourage less effective teachers to improve and will…

  1. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  2. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  3. The Reform Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kelli

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of welfare reform in Ohio's 29 Appalachian counties surveyed human services agencies, county commissioners, poor families, and employers and found that rural barriers to employment included lack of jobs, lack of child care, poor health, lack of education and job skills, and transportation problems. Many former welfare recipients…

  4. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  5. Examining Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K., Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Urban school reformers for decades have tried to improve educational outcomes for underserved and disadvantaged students, with the assistance of constantly evolving federal and state policies. In recent years, education policies have shifted from targeting individual students to developing universal standards for teaching and learning, and…

  6. Accomplishing Districtwide Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharratt, Lyn; Fullan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This is a mystery story. It is about a district that apparently did the right things but seemed not to get commensurate results across all classrooms and schools. In this article, we look closely at the details and discover an important lesson about districtwide reform. The district is York Region District School Board, which is a large…

  7. Reform on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

  8. Welfare Reform Briefing Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This report presents information on the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in light of efforts at welfare reform. Following a listing of whom to call at the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) regarding various welfare issues, the report's first section, "Basic Facts on Welfare," presents information on the AFDC in a…

  9. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  10. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  11. Reforming Underperforming High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  12. Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide school leaders with guidance in determining how to choose and implement the schoolwide program that is best for their school. American Institutes for Research's "An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform" provides educators with comprehensive profiles and evaluations of 24 of the leading schoolwide…

  13. Natural Gas Pipeline Permitting Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Pompeo, Mike [R-KS-4

    2013-05-09

    12/09/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Control of autothermal reforming reactor of diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Pregelj, Boštjan; Petrovčič, Janko; Pasel, Joachim; Kolb, Gunther

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a control system for autothermal reforming reactor for diesel fuel is presented. Autothermal reforming reactors and the pertaining purification reactors are used to convert diesel fuel into hydrogen-rich reformate gas, which is then converted into electricity by the fuel cell. The purpose of the presented control system is to control the hydrogen production rate and the temperature of the autothermal reforming reactor. The system is designed in such a way that the two control loops do not interact, which is required for stable operation of the fuel cell. The presented control system is a part of the complete control system of the diesel fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU).

  15. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  16. Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. B.; Lerner, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the large-scale production and use of methanol as a substitute for the diminishing reserves of low-cost petroleum resources. Describes the manufacturing process and advantages of the versatile fuel. (JR)

  17. Ethanol reforming on Co(0001) surfaces: a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuguang; Hernández, Liliana; Guadarrama-Pérez, Carlos; Balbuena, Perla B

    2012-02-01

    A computational study using density functional theory is carried out to investigate the reaction mechanism of ethanol steam reforming on Co(0001) surfaces. The adsorption properties of the reactant, possible intermediates, and products are carefully examined. The reaction pathway and related transition states are also analyzed. According to our calculations, the reforming mechanism primarily consisting of dehydrogenation steps of ethanol, ethoxy, methanol, methoxy, and formic acid, is feasible on Co(0001) surfaces. It is also found that the reaction of formaldehyde yielding formic acid and hydrogen may not be an elementary reaction. The dehydrogenation of ethoxy possesses the highest barrier and is accordingly identified as the rate-determining step. PMID:22250968

  18. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  19. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  20. Methanol and methyl fuel catalysts. Final technical report, September 1980-August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Simmons, G.W.

    1983-12-01

    Copper-based catalysts for alcohol synthesis were prepared, tested for catalytic activity and selectivity, and characterized. These catalysts include Cu/ZnO, Cu/Co/ZnO, Cu/Co/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cu/Co/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3//K/sub 2/O, and Cu/ZnO/KOH. The chromia-containing catalysts exhibited a low activity and selectivity, while the Cu/ZnO catalyst was verified to be a very active and selective methanol synthesis catalyst. Cobalt imparted a methanation function to the catalysts, while potassium suppressed the activity and the selectivity. Over the quaternary catalyst, higher pressure and lower GHSV enhanced the selectivity to higher alcohols. Low concentrations of carbon dioxide in H/sub 2//CO synthesis gas over Cu/ZnO catalysts promote methanol synthesis, while at high concentrations it behaves as a retardant of the synthesis. The water gas shift reaction readily proceeds over the Cu/ZnO catalyst. Analogous to the CO/sub 2/ effect, the presence of water in the synthesis gas has a profound effect on the synthesis of methanol. The Cu/ZnO catalyst is a good hydrogenation catalyst. Olefins, aldehydes, and acids are hydrogenated at a faster rate than CO is hydrogenated to methanol, but aromatics are hydrogenated at slower rates. Chemical trapping of the intermediates on these surface sites with amines demonstrates that a kinetically significant intermediate in methanol synthesis is a surface formyl or hydroxycarbene species. These species can be formed from synthesis gas or by alcohols in the reactant stream, and they readily alkylate amines in the reactant gas stream. Over an Fe/Cu/ZnO catalyst, amines inhibit the production of alcohols by trapping the precursor intermediates, while changing the hydrocarbon selectivity from paraffins to predominantly olefins. 68 references, 9 figures, 25 tables.

  1. In situ XPS and MS study of methanol decomposition and oxidation on Pd(111) under millibar pressure range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaichev, V. V.; Miller, A. V.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.

    2012-02-01

    The methanol decomposition and oxidation on a Pd(111) single crystal have been investigated in situ using ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and mass-spectrometry (MS) in the temperature range of 300-600 K. It was found that even in the oxygen presence the methanol decomposition on palladium proceeds through two competitive routes: fast dehydrogenation to CO and H2, and slow decomposition of methanol via the C-O bond scission. The rate of the second route is significant even in the millibar pressure range, which leads to a blocking of the palladium surface by carbon and to a prevention of the further methanol conversion. As a result, no gas phase products of methanol decomposition were detected by mass-spectrometry at 0.1 mbar CH3OH in the whole temperature range. The methanol C-O bond scission produces CHx species, which fast dehydrogenate to atomic carbon even at room temperature and further partially dissolve in the palladium bulk at 400 K with the formation of the PdCx phase. According to in situ XPS data, the PdCx phase forms even in the oxygen excess. The application of an in situ XPS-MS technique unambiguously shows a good correlation between a decrease in the surface concentration of all carbon-containing species and the rate of methanol conversion. Since these carbon species have a high reactivity towards oxygen, heating of Pd(111) above 450 K in a methanol-oxygen mixture yields CO, CO2, and water. The product distribution indicates that the main route of methanol conversion is the dehydrogenation of methanol to CO and hydrogen. However, under the experimental conditions used, hydrogen is completely oxidized to water, while CO is partially oxidized to CO2. No palladium oxide was detected by XPS in these conditions.

  2. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  3. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Zhiwen; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan; Novacco, Lawrence J.

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  4. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

  5. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOEpatents

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-04-27

    A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

  6. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  7. Woody biomass and RPF gasification using reforming catalyst and calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Fukushima, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Shingo

    2011-05-01

    This study focused on steam gasification and reforming of waste biomass using a reforming catalyst. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the durability of a commercial Ni reforming catalyst and the effect of CaO on the reforming behavior, and to clarify detailed factors of catalytic performance, as well as the effect of operating parameters on the characteristics of produced gas composition. Moreover, catalyst regeneration was carried out and the behavior of catalytic activity based on gas composition was investigated. Using a fluidized bed gasifier and a fixed bed reformer, gasification and reforming of waste biomass were carried out. Commercial Ni-based catalyst and calcined limestone (CaO) were applied to the reforming reaction. Temperature of the gasifier and reformer was almost 1023K. Ratio of steam to carbon in the feedstock [molmol(-1)] and equivalence ratio (i.e., ratio of actual to theoretical amount of oxygen) [-] were set at about 2 and 0.3, respectively. The feed rate of the feedstock into the bench-scale gasifier was almost 15kgh(-1). The results of waste biomass gasification confirmed the improvement in H(2) composition by the CO(2) absorption reaction using the reforming catalyst and CaO. In addition, CaO proved to be especially effective in decreasing the tar concentration in the case of woody biomass gasification. Catalytic activity was maintained by means of catalyst regeneration processing by hydrogen reduction after air oxidation when woody biomass was used as feedstock. PMID:21459406

  8. U-GAS process for chemical manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.; Leppin, D.; Patel, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of two important industrial chemicals, methanol and ammonia, are described. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of manufacture of methanol and ammonia are presented.

  9. Physical Conditions around 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers. I. Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, J. D.; Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M.

    2012-07-01

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are known to be tracers of high-mass star formation in our Galaxy. In this paper, we study the large-scale physical conditions in the star-forming clumps/cores associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers using observations of the (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) inversion transitions of ammonia with the Effelsberg telescope. The gas kinetic temperature is found to be higher than in infrared dark clouds, highlighting the relatively evolved nature of the maser sources. Other than a weak correlation between maser luminosity and the ammonia line width, we do not find any differences between low- and high-luminosity methanol masers.

  10. Methanol ice VUV photoprocessing: GC-MS analysis of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Mrad, Ninette; Duvernay, Fabrice; Chiavassa, Thierry; Danger, Grégoire

    2016-05-01

    Next to water, methanol is one of the most abundant molecules in astrophysical ices. A new experimental approach is presented here for the direct monitoring via gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of a sublimating photoprocessed pure methanol ice. Unprecedentedly, in a same analysis, compelling evidences for the formation of 33 volatile organic compounds are provided. The latter are C1-C6 products including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers and carboxylic acids. Few C3 and all C4 detected compounds have been identified for the first time. Tentative detections of few C5 and C6 compounds are also presented. GC-MS allows for the first time the direct quantification of C2-C4 photoproducts and shows that their abundances decrease with the increase of their carbon chain length. These qualitative and quantitative measurements provide important complementary results to previous experiments, and present interesting similarities with observations of sources rich in methanol.

  11. Quantifying the promotion of Cu catalysts by ZnO for methanol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kuld, Sebastian; Thorhauge, Max; Falsig, Hanne; Elkjær, Christian F; Helveg, Stig; Chorkendorff, Ib; Sehested, Jens

    2016-05-20

    Promoter elements enhance the activity and selectivity of heterogeneous catalysts. Here, we show how methanol synthesis from synthesis gas over copper (Cu) nanoparticles is boosted by zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. By combining surface area titration, electron microscopy, activity measurement, density functional theory calculations, and modeling, we show that the promotion is related to Zn atoms migrating in the Cu surface. The Zn coverage is quantitatively described as a function of the methanol synthesis conditions and of the size-dependent thermodynamic activities of the Cu and ZnO nanoparticles. Moreover, experimental data reveal a strong interdependency of the methanol synthesis activity and the Zn coverage. These results demonstrate the size-dependent activities of nanoparticles as a general means to design synergetic functionality in binary nanoparticle systems. PMID:27199425

  12. Antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of tualang honey on human keloid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Keloid is a type of scar which extends beyond the boundaries of the original wound. It can spread to the surrounding skin by invasion. The use of Tualang honey is a possible approach for keloid treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of Tualang honey to primary human keloid fibroblasts and to identify the volatile compounds in methanol extraction of Tualang honey. Methods Crude Tualang honey was extracted with methanol and then dried using rota vapor to remove remaining methanol from honey. Normal and keloid fibroblasts were verified and treated with the extracted honey. Cell proliferation was tested with [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yi)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt] (MTS) assay. Extraction of Tualang honey using methanol was carried out and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The result was analysed using SPSS and tested with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Methanolic extraction of honey has positive anti proliferative effect on keloid fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of fatty acids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and octadecanoic acid may contribute to the anti-proliferative effect in keloid fibroblasts. Conclusions The methanolic honey extraction has an antiproliferative effect on keloid fibroblasts and a range of volatile compounds has been identified from Tualang honey. The antiproliferative effect of keloid fibroblasts towards Tualang honey may involve cell signaling pathway. Identifying other volatile compounds from different organic solvents should be carried out in future. PMID:21943200

  13. Fuel cell hydrogen production by catalytic ethanol-steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Amphlett, J.C.; Leclerc, S.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R.

    1998-07-01

    It is clear that the reaction network that results from catalytic reaction of ethanol, with and without steam, is very complex and involves over a dozen potential products. Reactions to avoid are any that lead to CP{sub 4} species and ethylene, the former representing a more difficult challenge for subsequent steam reforming and the latter providing what is probably the major route to carbon production and coking of the catalyst. Dehydration reactions, therefore, should generally be avoided. Dehydrogenation catalysts would seem to be most appropriate, especially since the production of hydrogen is the main goal. Copper-based catalysts have been long-established for this function so that they are commercially available and therefore lower cost. CuO/ZnO, CuO/SiO{sub 2}, CuO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} or CuO/NiO/SiO{sub 2} may be the best catalyst candidates. Reaction pressures should be relatively low (1 to a few atm) and the best reaction temperature could be in the range 350 to 450 C. Insufficient experimental work has been reported to give a clear idea of the required water-to-ethanol mole ratio. The stoichiometric value of this ratio is three and it is likely that excess water, although presenting some process complications, will be necessary to minimize yields of CO and CH{sub 4}. A major new aspect of catalyst selection and operation, when comparing ethanol to methanol steam reforming, will be catalyst deactivation due to temperature. The methanol process works well on CuO/ZnO around 250 to 260 C, just on the threshold of fairly rapid catalyst deactivation. If the ethanol process is to work at or above 300 C, the present CuO/ZnO catalysts will be operating at an activity well below that obtainable in methanol-steam reformers. This means that larger reformers (i.e. more catalyst) will be necessary or that Cu-based (or other) catalysts with slower deactivation in the 300 C-plus range will have to be developed.

  14. Biotechnological production of methanol from waste biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, R.; Morris, D.

    1995-12-01

    The production of methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) from waste biomass is possible through the use of genetically modified bacteria. The biomass to methanol conversion process makes use of a naturally occurring, direct aerobic enzymatic system referred to as oxidative demethylation. Methoxy groups are stripped off of lignin and lignin like plant substances (approximately fifty percent of all plant biomass) and hydrolyzed to form methanol. Since the biotech process is stoichiometric, potentially every methoxy group in the lignin feedstock can be converted to methanol fuel. Approximately 30-35% of lignin is a methoxy compound that can be converted. Biotechnological conversion could produce up to 100 gallons/ton or 20 billion gallons a year of methanol from waste biomass. Current work has focused on the genetic modification of the enzymatic conversion process to reach commercial production. The goals of this research are; increase product yields, implement an operon {open_quotes}switch{close_quotes} mechanism to exploit multiple feedstocks, and produce environmentally safe by-products. Progress on these topics will be reported.

  15. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2/H2/H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, Charles T.

    2013-02-01

    The low temperature (403 – 453K) conversions of CO:hydrogen and CO2:hydrogen mixtures (6 bar total pressure) to methanol over copper catalysts are both assisted by the presence of small amounts of water (mole fraction ~0.04%-0.5%). For CO2:hydrogen reaction mixtures, the water product from both methanol synthesis and reverse water gas shift serves to initiate both reactions in an autocatalytic manner. In the case of CO:D2 mixtures, very little methanol is produced until small amounts of water are added. The effect of water on methanol production is more immediate than in CO2:D2, yet the steady state rates are similar. Tracer experiments in 13CO:12CO2:hydrogen (with or without added water), show that the dominant source of C in the methanol product gradually shifts from CO2 to CO as the temperature is lowered. Cu-bound formate, the major IR visible surface species under CO2:hydrogen, is not visible in CO:moist hydrogen. Though formate is visible in the tracer experiments, the symmetric stretch is absent. These results, in conjunction with recent DFT calculations on Cu(111), point to carboxyl as a common intermediate for both methanol synthesis and reverse water gas shift, with formate playing a spectator co-adsorbate role.

  16. Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The United States has vast natural gas reserves which could contribute significantly to our energy security if economical technologies for conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals were developed. Many of these reserves are small scale or in remote locations and of little value unless they can be transported to consumers. Transportation is economically performed via pipeline, but this route is usually unavailable in remote locations. Another option is to convert the methane in the gas to liquid hydrocarbons, such as methanol, which can easily and economically be transported by truck. Therefore, the conversion of methane to liquid hydrocarbons has the potential to decrease our dependence upon oil imports by opening new markets for natural gas and increasing its use in the transportation and chemical sectors of the economy. In this project, we are attempting to develop, and explore new catalysts capable of direct oxidation of methane to methanol. The specific objectives of this work are discussed.

  17. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Bergin, E. A.; Crockett, N. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Pearson, J. C.; Schilke, P.; Bell, T. A.; Comito, C.; Blake, G. A.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gupta, H.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. B.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pérault, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Plume, R.; Qin, S.-L.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2011-03-01

    We have examined methanol emission from Orion KL withthe Herschel/HIFI instrument, and detected two methanol bands centered at 524 GHz and 1061 GHz. The 524 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 1a) is dominated by the isolated ΔJ = 0, K = -4 → -3, vt = 0 Q branch, and includes 25 E-type and 2 A-type transitions. The 1061 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 4b) is dominated by the ΔJ = 0, K = 7 → 6, vt = 0 Q branch transitions which are mostly blended. We have used the isolated E-type vt = 0 methanol transitions to explore the physical conditions in the molecular gas. With HIFI's high velocity resolution, the methanol emission contributed by different spatial components along the line of sight toward Orion KL (hot core, low velocity flow, and compact ridge) can be distinguished and studied separately. The isolated transitions detected in these bands cover a broad energy range (upper state energy ranging from 80 K to 900 K), which provides a unique probe of the thermal structure in each spatial component. The observations further show that the compact ridge is externally heated. These observations demonstrate the power of methanol lines as probes of the physical conditions in warm regions in close proximity to young stars. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. WIDESPREAD METHANOL EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC CENTER: THE ROLE OF COSMIC RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M.; Cotton, W.; Viti, S.; Wardle, M.

    2013-02-20

    We report the discovery of a widespread population of collisionally excited methanol J = 4{sub -1} to 3{sub 0} E sources at 36.2 GHz from the inner 66' Multiplication-Sign 18' (160 Multiplication-Sign 43 pc) of the Galactic center. This spectral feature was imaged with a spectral resolution of 16.6 km s{sup -1} taken from 41 channels of a Very Large Array continuum survey of the Galactic center region. The revelation of 356 methanol sources, most of which are maser candidates, suggests a large abundance of methanol in the gas phase in the Galactic center region. There is also spatial and kinematic correlation between SiO (2-1) and CH{sub 3}OH emission from four Galactic center clouds: the +50 and +20 km s{sup -1} clouds and G0.13-0.13 and G0.25 + 0.01. The enhanced abundance of methanol is accounted for in terms of induced photodesorption by cosmic rays as they travel through a molecular core, collide, dissociate, ionize, and excite Lyman Werner transitions of H{sub 2}. A time-dependent chemical model in which cosmic rays drive the chemistry of the gas predicts CH{sub 3}OH abundance of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -7} on a chemical timescale of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} years. The average methanol abundance produced by the release of methanol from grain surfaces is consistent with the available data.

  19. GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC

    PubMed Central

    Kanthal, Lakshmi Kanta; Dey, Akalanka; Satyavathi, K.; Bhojaraju, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae). Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC. Objective: The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co.) Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. Results: The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. PMID:24497744

  20. Preparation and performance of a Nafion ®/montmorillonite nanocomposite membrane for direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, D. H.; Cho, S. Y.; Peck, D. H.; Shin, D. R.; Kim, J. S.

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) have major technical problems, e.g. slow methanol oxidation kinetics and high methanol crossover, to use as power sources for several applications. To overcome these problems it has been proposed to increase the fuel cell operating temperature to over 100-150 °C and to reduce the methanol permeability. In this work, we made Nafion ®/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposite membranes and carried out diverse tests. The nanocomposite membranes were produced by direct melt intercalation of perfluorosulfonylfluoride copolymer resin (Nafion ® resin) into the montmorillonite and modified montmorillonite (m-MMT) which was organized by dodecylamine. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) has been made using a hot pressing method and the electrode prepared using PtRu black and Pt black catalysts for anode and cathode, respectively. The morphology of the nanocomposite membranes has been investigated using SEM and TEM. The nanocomposite membranes and MMT and m-MMT were analyzed using by FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal and mechanical properties of those membranes were also investigated and the methanol permeability was measured by gas chromatography (GC). The performance of the MEA using the nanocomposite membrane was evaluated by single cell test. The results show that the performance of the MEA using the nanocomposite membrane was higher than that of a commercial Nafion ® membrane at high operating temperature.

  1. Vapor permeation-stepwise injection simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol in biodiesel with voltammetric detection.

    PubMed

    Shishov, Andrey; Penkova, Anastasia; Zabrodin, Andrey; Nikolaev, Konstantin; Dmitrenko, Maria; Ermakov, Sergey; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    A novel vapor permeation-stepwise injection (VP-SWI) method for the determination of methanol and ethanol in biodiesel samples is discussed. In the current study, stepwise injection analysis was successfully combined with voltammetric detection and vapor permeation. This method is based on the separation of methanol and ethanol from a sample using a vapor permeation module (VPM) with a selective polymer membrane based on poly(phenylene isophtalamide) (PA) containing high amounts of a residual solvent. After the evaporation into the headspace of the VPM, methanol and ethanol were transported, by gas bubbling, through a PA membrane to a mixing chamber equipped with a voltammetric detector. Ethanol was selectively detected at +0.19 V, and both compounds were detected at +1.20 V. Current subtractions (using a correction factor) were used for the selective determination of methanol. A linear range between 0.05 and 0.5% (m/m) was established for each analyte. The limits of detection were estimated at 0.02% (m/m) for ethanol and methanol. The sample throughput was 5 samples h(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biodiesel samples. PMID:26653499

  2. Methanol as an alternative automotive fuel: CMC's approach and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, P.M.; McCurdy, G.; Osler, C.F.

    1983-08-01

    This paper highlights experiences of Canadian Methanol Canadien (CMC) in demonstration of both methanol fuel and methanol-gasoline blends in Winnipeg since 1980 and describes CMC's commercial and technical approach to development of methanol as an alternative automotive fuel. CMC's marketing approach is to equip existing retail service station outlets with the capability to dispense a full slate of fuels (methanol, methanol containing gasolines, as well as conventional fuels) with fuel blending occurring at the service station location. In this way, the fuel distribution infrastructure can be put in place to service simultaneously both existing vehicles (with a range of methyl gasoline blends) and new methanol fuelled vehicles while assuming a high degree of blended fuel quality in a cost-effective manner. It is concluded that methanol and methanol containing gasolines are excellent transportation fuels for Canada and elsewhere, and can be readily integrated into existing transport fuel retail infrastructure.

  3. Methanol-use options study: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    This volume contains data on the transportation and distribution of methanol fuels and end uses of methanol. Appendix D describes the transportation and distribution of pure methanol and methanol-gasoline blend fuels from production facilities to bulk terminals. It includes both the technical and commercial aspects of the distribution system. It indicates that the particular properties of methanol require slightly different technology than petroleum products for bulk distribution. Likewise, the adaptation of pure methanol and blends into the present petroleum products distribution system will require slight changes, both technical and commercial. Appendix E examines the use of methanol fuels in the transportation sector in terms of: (1) impacts on engine performance and engine design as well as passenger safety and health; (2) the implications for methanol fuels of government regulations and policies in the area of transportation; and finally, (3) the costs of methanol utilization in transportation for both the consumer and the manufacturer.

  4. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  5. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  6. Electricity reform and sustainable development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James H.; Kahrl, Fredrich

    2008-10-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of supplying electricity is a key to China's sustainable development, and a focus of both domestic and international concerns with greenhouse gas emissions. The environmental performance of the electricity sector is strongly affected by its institutional arrangements: regulatory frameworks, wholesale markets, pricing mechanisms, planning and coordination, and enforcement and incentive mechanisms. These arrangements are set to change as electricity reforms inaugurated in 2002, but sidetracked by several years of supply shortages, are being resumed. In this paper we examine the impact of electricity reform on environmental sustainability by analyzing case studies of four environmental initiatives in the electricity sector: retirement of inefficient generators, installation of pollution control equipment, renewable energy development, and efforts to promote energy efficiency. We find that implementation of these policies falls short of objectives for two main underlying reasons: conflicting priorities between central and provincial governments, and ineffective regulation. Sustainability will be best served not by redoubling short-term supply-oriented, market-based reforms, but by better aligning central and provincial government incentives, and by developing competent, independent regulation at the provincial level. China's central government and sub-national governments in industrialized countries can both contribute to the latter goal.

  7. Methanol and the productivity of tropical crops

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, T.U.

    1995-12-31

    Studies are being conducted in Trinidad and Tobago, St. Lucia and St. Kitts/Nevis to determine the effect of aqueous solutions of methanol on the growth and yield of a wide range of vegetable, field and perennial crops. The paper presents a summary of results to data for ten of the crops studied. Six of these crops, lettuce, sweet pepper, tomato, mango and breadfruit, have shown significant increases in growth or yield with methanol application, while others such as pigeon pea, rice, banana and cocoa have shown more limited responses. There appears to be some potential for the use of methanol in tropical crop production but further studies are required before this apparent potential can be harnessed.

  8. Efficient green methanol synthesis from glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Muhammad H.; Dummer, Nicholas F.; Knight, David W.; Jenkins, Robert L.; Howard, Mark; Moulijn, Jacob; Taylor, Stuart H.; Hutchings, Graham J.

    2015-12-01

    The production of biodiesel from the transesterification of plant-derived triglycerides with methanol has been commercialized extensively. Impure glycerol is obtained as a by-product at roughly one-tenth the mass of the biodiesel. Utilization of this crude glycerol is important in improving the viability of the overall process. Here we show that crude glycerol can be reacted with water over very simple basic or redox oxide catalysts to produce methanol in high yields, together with other useful chemicals, in a one-step low-pressure process. Our discovery opens up the possibility of recycling the crude glycerol produced during biodiesel manufacture. Furthermore, we show that molecules containing at least two hydroxyl groups can be converted into methanol, which demonstrates some aspects of the generality of this new chemistry.

  9. Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

  10. Acute toxicity of methanol to mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Helmstetter, A.; Gamerdinger, A.P.; Pruell, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Methanol is being promoted as an alternative fuel because of the clean air benefits of reduced carbon monoxide and other by-product emissions. In the event of an accidental spill or leakage from a storage tank, there is limited data available on the impact of alternative fuels on marine ecosystems. Before considering the impact of methanol on ecosystem processes, it is necessary to establish the acute toxicity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was selected for study because of its use as an indicator species of marine ecosystem health (Widdows and Donkin 1992). Our primary objective was to determine the LC-50 value of methanol to adult Mytilus edulis. We also not sublethal effects that were observed during the course of the 96-hr exposure. 16 refs., 1 fig. 3 tabs.

  11. Interstellar A-type methanol masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Q.; Lou, G. F.

    1990-02-01

    The formation conditions for A-type methanol masers are discussed. The correlation between A-type masers and external radiation fields is determined, with emphasis on the energy levels of A-type methanol and brightness temperature. Radiative transfer equations and statistical equilibrium are solved using a large velocity gradient model and the escape probability model. It is demonstrated that the 9(2)-10(1)A+ emission in W3(OH) and 7(0)-6(1)A in SgrB2 are masers, as discovered previously. The formation of the first type of masers requires pumping from an external radiation field, while the second type might be excited in the absence of an external radiation field. It is also pointed out that according to calculations there are A-type maser series similar to E-type methanol maser series of J2-J1E.

  12. Dynamic signature of molecular association in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, C. E.; Self, J. L.; Copley, J. R. D.; Faraone, A.

    2016-07-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements and molecular dynamics simulations were combined to investigate the collective dynamics of deuterated methanol, CD3OD. In the experimentally determined dynamic structure factor, a slow, non-Fickian mode was observed in addition to the standard density-fluctuation heat mode. The simulation results indicate that the slow dynamical process originates from the hydrogen bonding of methanol molecules. The qualitative behavior of this mode is similar to the previously observed α-relaxation in supercooled water [M. C. Bellissent-Funel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3644 (2000)] which also originates from the formation and dissolution of hydrogen-bonded associates (supramolecular clusters). In methanol, however, this mode is distinguishable well above the freezing transition. This finding indicates that an emergent slow mode is not unique to supercooled water, but may instead be a general feature of hydrogen-bonding liquids and associating molecular liquids.

  13. Dynamic signature of molecular association in methanol.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, C E; Self, J L; Copley, J R D; Faraone, A

    2016-07-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements and molecular dynamics simulations were combined to investigate the collective dynamics of deuterated methanol, CD3OD. In the experimentally determined dynamic structure factor, a slow, non-Fickian mode was observed in addition to the standard density-fluctuation heat mode. The simulation results indicate that the slow dynamical process originates from the hydrogen bonding of methanol molecules. The qualitative behavior of this mode is similar to the previously observed α-relaxation in supercooled water [M. C. Bellissent-Funel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3644 (2000)] which also originates from the formation and dissolution of hydrogen-bonded associates (supramolecular clusters). In methanol, however, this mode is distinguishable well above the freezing transition. This finding indicates that an emergent slow mode is not unique to supercooled water, but may instead be a general feature of hydrogen-bonding liquids and associating molecular liquids. PMID:27394112

  14. Olefins from methanol by modified zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, T.; Takegami, Y.

    1982-11-01

    Compares the effects of modified catalysts (ZSM-34 and ZSM-5 class zeolites) on methanol conversion to olefins (MTO) with regard to olefin selectivity and cost. Presents tables with prices of olefins in the US and Japan; comparison of methanol-cracking with naphtha cracking; methanol conversion data for Type-1, Type-II and reference catalysts; hydrocarbon distribution from MTO processes; and speculative economics for MTO processes of Concept-1 and 2. Diagrams the proposed MTO process scheme. Scanning electron micrographs of the zeolite catalysts are shown. Graphs indicate the change of ethylene prices in the US since 1978 and forecast ethylene prices in several countries. Concludes that the prices of ethylene for both MTO processes examined compare favorably with products of conventional processes.

  15. Photocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.; D`Este, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    A long-term goal of our research group is the exploration of novel pathways for the direct oxidation of methane to liquid fuels, chemicals, and intermediates. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol is attractive. The products of reaction, methanol and hydrogen, are both commercially desirable, methanol being used as is or converted to a variety of other chemicals, and the hydrogen could be utilized in petroleum and/or chemical manufacturing. Methane is produced as a by-product of coal gasification. Depending upon reactor design and operating conditions, up to 18% of total gasifier product may be methane. In addition, there are vast proven reserves of geologic methane in the world. Unfortunately, a large fraction of these reserves are in regions where there is little local demand for methane and it is not economically feasible to transport it to a market. There is a global research effort under way in academia, industry, and government to find methods to convert methane to useful, more readily transportable and storable materials. Methanol, the initial product of methane oxidation, is a desirable product of conversion because it retains much of the original energy of the methane while satisfying transportation and storage requirements. Investigation of direct conversion of methane to transportation fuels has been an ongoing effort at PETC for over 10 years. One of the current areas of research is the conversion of methane to methanol, under mild conditions, using light, water, and a semiconductor photocatalyst. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol, is attractive. Research in the laboratory is directed toward applying the techniques developed for the photocatalytic splitting of the water and the photochemical conversion of methane.

  16. Neuromuscular Functions on Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Ali Reşat; Çankayalı, İlkin; Sergin, Demet; Boyacılar, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of accidental or suicidal ingestion of methyl alcohol is high and methyl alcohol intoxication has high mortality. Methyl alcohol intoxication causes severe neurological sequelae and appears to be a significant problem. Methyl alcohol causes acute metabolic acidosis, optic neuropathy leading to permanent blindness, respiratory failure, circulatory failure and death. It is metabolised in the liver, and its metabolite formic acid has direct toxic effects, causing oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and increased lipid peroxidation associated with the mechanism of neurotoxicity. Methanol is known to cause acute toxicity of the central nervous system; however, the effects on peripheral neuromuscular transmission are unknown. In our study, we aimed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of experimentally induced acute methanol intoxication on neuromuscular transmission in the early period (first 24 h). Methods After approval by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Ege University, the study was carried out on 10 Wistar rats, each weighing about 200 g. During electrophysiological recordings and orogastric tube insertion, the rats were anaesthetised using intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of ketamine 100 mg kg−1 and IP injection of xylazine 10 mg kg−1. The rats were given 3 g kg−1 methyl alcohol by the orogastric tube. Electrophysiological measurements from the gastrocnemius muscle were compared with baseline. Results Latency measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 0.81±0.11 ms and 0.76±0.12 ms, respectively. CMAP amplitude measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.85±0.98 mV and 9.99±0.40 mV, respectively. CMAP duration measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.86±0.03 ms and 9.86±0.045 ms, respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that experimental methanol intoxication in the acute phase (first 24 h) did not affect neuromuscular function. PMID:27366524

  17. Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation by Methanosarcina barkeri during Methanogenesis from Acetate, Methanol, or Carbon Dioxide-Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Krzycki, J. A.; Kenealy, W. R.; DeNiro, M. J.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Methanosarcina barkeri was cultured on methanol, H2-CO2, and acetate, and the 13C/12C ratios of the substrates and the methane produced from them were determined. The discrimination against 13C in methane relative to substrate decreased in the order methanol > CO2 > acetate. The isotopic fractionation for methane derived from acetate was only one-third of that observed with methanol as the substrate. The data presented indicate that the last enzyme of methanogenesis, methylreductase, is not the primary site of isotopic discrimination during methanogenesis from methanol or CO2. These results also support biogeochemical interpretations that gas produced in environments in which acetate is the primary methane precursor will have higher 13C/12C ratios than those from environments where other substrates predominate. PMID:16347476

  18. Synthetic methylotrophy: engineering the production of biofuels and chemicals based on the biology of aerobic methanol utilization.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, William B; Sandoval, Nicholas R; Bennett, Robert K; Fast, Alan G; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic methylotrophy is the development of non-native methylotrophs that can utilize methane and methanol as sole carbon and energy sources or as co-substrates with carbohydrates to produce metabolites as biofuels and chemicals. The availability of methane (from natural gas) and its oxidation product, methanol, has been increasing, while prices have been decreasing, thus rendering them as attractive fermentation substrates. As they are more reduced than most carbohydrates, methane and methanol, as co-substrates, can enhance the yields of biologically produced metabolites. Here we discuss synthetic biology and metabolic engineering strategies based on the native biology of aerobic methylotrophs for developing synthetic strains grown on methanol, with Escherichia coli as the prototype. PMID:25796071

  19. A self-sustained, complete and miniaturized methanol fuel processor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei; Jiao, Fengjun; Li, Shulian; Li, Hengqiang; Chen, Guangwen

    2015-08-01

    A self-sustained, complete and miniaturized methanol fuel processor has been developed based on modular integration and microreactor technology. The fuel processor is comprised of one methanol oxidative reformer, one methanol combustor and one two-stage CO preferential oxidation unit. Microchannel heat exchanger is employed to recover heat from hot stream, miniaturize system size and thus achieve high energy utilization efficiency. By optimized thermal management and proper operation parameter control, the fuel processor can start up in 10 min at room temperature without external heating. A self-sustained state is achieved with H2 production rate of 0.99 Nm3 h-1 and extremely low CO content below 25 ppm. This amount of H2 is sufficient to supply a 1 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The corresponding thermal efficiency of whole processor is higher than 86%. The size and weight of the assembled reactors integrated with microchannel heat exchangers are 1.4 L and 5.3 kg, respectively, demonstrating a very compact construction of the fuel processor.

  20. Development of a Soldier-Portable Fuel Cell Power System, Part I: A Bread-Board Methanol Fuel Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Daniel R.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.; Rozmiarek, Robert T.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Wang, Yong; Hu, Jianli; Chin, Ya-Huei; Dagle, Robert A.; Baker, Eddie G.

    2002-06-01

    A 15-We portable power system is being developed for the US Army, comprised of a hydrogen-generating fuel reformer coupled to a hydrogen-converting fuel cell. As a first phase of this project, a methanol steam reformer system was developed and demonstrated. The reformer system included a combustor, two vaporizers, and a steam-reforming reactor. The device was demonstrated as a thermally independent unit over the range of 14 to 80 Wt output. Assuming a 14-day mission life and an ultimate 1-kg fuel processor/fuel cell assembly, a base case was chosen to illustrate the expected system performance. Operating at 13 We, the system yielded a fuel processor efficiency of 45% (LHV of H2 out/LHV of fuel in) and an estimated net efficiency of 22% (assuming a fuel cell efficiency of 48%). The resulting energy density of 720 W-hr/kg is several times the energy density of the best lithium-ion batteries. Some immediate areas of improvement in thermal management also have been identified and an integrated fuel processor is under development. The final system will be a hybrid, containing a fuel reformer, fuel cell, and rechargeable battery. The battery will provide power for startup and added capacity for times of peak power demand.