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Sample records for methanol yeast candida

  1. A new methanol assimilating yeast, Ogataea parapolymorpha, the ascosporic state of Candida parapolymorpha.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2011-10-01

    Ogataea parapolymorpha sp. n. (NRRL YB-1982, CBS 12304, type strain), the ascosporic state of Candida parapolymorpha, is described. The species appears homothallic, assimilates methanol as is typical of most Ogataea species and forms hat-shaped ascospores in asci that become deliquescent. O. parapolymorpha is closely related to Ogataea angusta and Ogataea polymorpha. The three species can be resolved from gene sequence analyses but are unresolved from fermentation and growth reactions that are typically used for yeast identification. On the basis of multiple isolates, O. angusta is known only from California, USA, in association with Drosophila and Aulacigaster flies, O. parapolymorpha is predominantly associated with insect frass from trees in the eastern USA but O. polymorpha has been isolated from various substrates in the USA, Brazil, Spain and Costa Rica. PMID:21671193

  2. A new methanol assimilating yeast, Ogataea parapolymorpha, the ascosporic state of Candida parapolymorpha

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ogataea parapolymorpha sp. n. (NRRL YB-1982, CBS 12304, type strain), the ascosporic state of Candida parapolymorpha, is described. The species appears homothallic, assimilates methanol as is typical of most Ogataea species and forms hat-shaped ascospores in asci that become deliquescent. Ogataea pa...

  3. Production of formaldehyde by detergent-treated cells of a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii S2 mutant strain AOU-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.; Tani, Y.

    1988-02-01

    Treatment of cells of a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii, with the cationic detergent cetyldimethylbenzyl-ammonium chloride (cation M2) improved the production of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde production was improved twofold with respect to the initial amount of formaldehyde and 1.61-fold with respect to the final amount of formaldehyde after a 12-h reaction under optimized detergent treatment conditions. The treatment caused formaldehyde and formate dehydrogenases to leak out of the cells more rapidly than catalase, but there was no leakage of alcohol oxidase. The improvement in formaldehyde production was considered to be due to the increased permeability of yeast cell membranes and to lower activities of formaldehyde and formate dehydrogenases in Cation M2-treated cells than in intact cells. Changes in the ultrastructure of the cells were observed upon Cation M2 treatment. Several developed peroxisomes were observed in intact cells. After Cation M2 treatment, the cells were obviously damaged, and several peroxisomes seemed to have fused with each other.

  4. Characterization of a flavinogenic mutant of methanol yeast Candida boidinii and its extracellular secretion of riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Suryadi, H; Yoshida, N; Yamada-Onodera, K; Katsuragi, T; Tani, Y

    2000-01-01

    A flavinogenic mutant was derived from Candida boidinii by mutagenesis. The mutant was smaller than the wild type, did not grow on a minimal medium, and required l-tryptophan, l-leucine, inositol, and nicotinate for growth. The mutant was defective in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, lacking glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. The specific activities of the transaldolase and transketolase of the mutant were higher than those of the wild type. These high activities might direct the flux of the carbon source to the nonoxidative pathway with formation of a large amount of pentose phosphates, increasing riboflavin synthesis. Under microaerobic conditions at 25 degrees C, 90 mg/l riboflavin was obtained. PMID:16232817

  5. Unique C-terminal region of Hap3 is required for methanol-regulated gene expression in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii.

    PubMed

    Oda, Saori; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Nitta, Nobuhisa; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    The Hap complex of the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii was found to be required for methanol-regulated gene expression. In this study, we performed functional characterization of CbHap3p, one of the Hap complex components in C. boidinii. Sequence alignment of Hap3 proteins revealed the presence of a unique extended C-terminal region, which is not present in Hap3p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScHap3p), but is found in Hap3p proteins of methylotrophic yeasts. Deletion of the C-terminal region of CbHap3p (Δ256-292 or Δ107-237) diminished activation of methanol-regulated genes and abolished the ability to grow on methanol, but did not affect nuclear localization or DNA-binding ability. However, deletion of the N-terminal region of CbHap3p (Δ1-20) led to not only a growth defect on methanol and a decreased level of methanol-regulated gene expression, but also impaired nuclear localization and binding to methanol-regulated gene promoters. We also revealed that CbHap3p could complement the growth defect of the Schap3Δ strain on glycerol, although ScHap3p could not complement the growth defect of a Cbhap3Δ strain on methanol. We conclude that the unique C-terminal region of CbHap3p contributes to maximum activation of methanol-regulated genes, whilst the N-terminal region is required for nuclear localization and binding to DNA. PMID:26963751

  6. Isolation and characterization of a catabolite repression-insensitive mutant of a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii A5, producing alcohol oxidase in glucose-containing medium

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.; Sawai, T.; Tani, Y.

    1987-08-01

    Mutants exhibiting alcohol oxidase activity when grown on glucose in the presence of methanol were found among 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants derived from a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii A5. One of these mutants, strain ADU-15, showed the highest alcohol oxidase activity in glucose-containing medium. The growth characteristics and also the induction and degradation of alcohol oxidase were compared with the parent strain and mutant strain ADU-15. In the parent strain, initiation of alcohol oxidase synthesis was delayed by the addition of 0.5% glucose to the methanol medium, whereas it was not delayed in mutant strain ADU-15. This showed that alcohol oxidase underwent repression by glucose. On the other hand, degradation of alcohol oxidase after transfer of the cells from methanol to glucose medium (catabolite inactivation) was observed to proceed at similar rates in parent and mutant strains. The results of immunochemical titration experiments suggests that catabolite inactivation of alcohol oxidase is coupled with a quantitative change in the enzyme. Mutant strain ADU-15 was proved to be a catabolite repression-insensitive mutant and to produce alcohol oxidase in the presence of glucose. However, it was not an overproducer of alcohol oxidase and, in both the parent and mutant strains, alcohol oxidase was completely repressed by ethanol.

  7. Description of Kuraishia piskuri f.a., sp. nov., a new methanol assimilating yeast and transfer of phylogenetically related Candida species to the genera Kuraishia and Nakazawaea as new combinations.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2014-11-01

    The new anamorphic yeast Kuraishia piskuri, f.a., sp. nov. is described for three strains that were isolated from insect frass from trees growing in Florida, USA (type strain, NRRL YB-2544, CBS 13714). Species placement was based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domains of large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α, and subunits B1 and B2 of RNA polymerase II B. From this analysis, the anamorphic species Candida borneana, Candida cidri, Candida floccosa, Candida hungarica, and Candida ogatae were transferred to the genus Kuraishia as new combinations and Candida anatomiae, Candida ernobii, Candida ishiwadae, Candida laoshanensis, Candida molendini-olei, Candida peltata, Candida pomicola, Candida populi, Candida wickerhamii, and Candida wyomingensis were transferred to the genus Nakazawaea. PMID:25132542

  8. Regulation of methanol utilisation pathway genes in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

    2006-01-01

    Methylotrophic yeasts such as Candida boidinii, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia methanolica and Pichia pastoris are an emerging group of eukaryotic hosts for recombinant protein production with an ever increasing number of applications during the last 30 years. Their applications are linked to the use of strong methanol-inducible promoters derived from genes of the methanol utilisation pathway. These promoters are tightly regulated, highly repressed in presence of non-limiting concentrations of glucose in the medium and strongly induced if methanol is used as carbon source. Several factors involved in this tight control and their regulatory effects have been described so far. This review summarises available data about the regulation of promoters from methanol utilisation pathway genes. Furthermore, the role of cis and trans acting factors (e.g. transcription factors, glucose processing enzymes) in the expression of methanol utilisation pathway genes is reviewed both in the context of the native cell environment as well as in heterologous hosts. PMID:17169150

  9. Use of CHROMagar Candida medium for isolation of yeasts from dental samples.

    PubMed Central

    Beighton, D; Ludford, R; Clark, D T; Brailsford, S R; Pankhurst, C L; Tinsley, G F; Fiske, J; Lewis, D; Daly, B; Khalifa, N

    1995-01-01

    A new differential medium, CHROMagar Candida, for the isolation of clinically important yeasts was investigated to determine its usefulness in facilitating the study of oral yeasts. The recovery of yeasts on the medium was not significantly different from the recovery on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The identities of 450 green colonies on CHROMagar Candida, presumptively identified as Candida albicans on the basis of the manufacturer's instructions, were confirmed by testing for beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Candida tropicalis also formed distinctive colonies, and other yeasts including Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, Candida Parapsilosis, Candida Magnoliae, Candida lusitaniae, Candida Famata, Candida kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were readily distinguished from C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates. CHROMagar Candida is a very useful medium, and its use will facilitate the study of yeasts associated with dental diseases. PMID:8576366

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Candida albicans and Its Closely Related Yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana▿

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples. PMID:18987171

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Candida albicans and its closely related yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples. PMID:18987171

  12. Candida pseudorugosa sp. nov., a Novel Yeast Species from Sputum▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Xu, Ying-Chun; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2006-01-01

    Two yeast strains, strains XH 1026 and XH 1164, isolated from the sputum of an intensive care unit patient with acute pneumonia, were originally identified as Candida albicans and C. tropicalis, respectively. Sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the two strains represent a novel yeast species closely related to C. rogusa. The name Candida pseudorugosa sp. nov. is therefore proposed (type strain, AS 2.3107 [CBS 10433]). The new species is able to grow at 42°C and is resistant or insusceptible to amphotericin B (MIC, 2 μg/ml), caspofungin (MIC, 64 μg/ml), itraconazole (MIC, 1 μg/ml), and nystatin (MIC, 16 μg/ml); dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole (MIC, 16 μg/ml); and susceptible to flucytosine (MIC, 0.125 μg/ml) and voriconazole (MIC, 0.125 to 0.25 μg/ml). The code for C. pseudorugosa sp. nov. provided by the API 20C AUX system is identical to that for C. rugosa. The colonies of the new species on CHROMagar Candida appear blue-green, similar to those of C. albicans. In addition to the molecular method based on D1/D2 domain or ITS region sequencing, use of the combination of the API system and CHROMagar Candida is helpful for the correct identification of C. pseudorugosa sp. nov. PMID:17021068

  13. Candida bituminiphila, a novel anamorphic species of yeast.

    PubMed

    Robert, V; Bonjean, B; Karutz, M; Paschold, H; Peeters, W; Wubbolts, M G

    2001-11-01

    A novel anamorphic species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida was isolated from tar in Canada. Morphological and physiological observations, as well as phylogenetic analyses, were performed. Conidiophores were produced, were usually short and had sympodial growth, numerous bud scars and a rachis-like structure. They bore one or more conidia. Pseudomycelium was scarcely produced and true mycelium was sparse. No sexual reproduction was observed on corn meal, malt, Gorodkowa, Dextrose Yeast Peptone or V8 agars. Zygoascus hellenicus was physiologically the most closely related species, but it differed from the novel species by its ability to assimilate D-galacturonate and L-rhamnose, ferment sucrose and grow at 37 degrees C. From sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 region, Z. hellenicus and Candida bertae var. bertae were the closest species with 54 and 56 bp substitutions, respectively. Similar results have been obtained from analysis of the 18S rDNA. All these data support the hypothesis that the yeast, named Candida bituminiphila, is a novel species closely related to Z. hellenicus. The holotype and only isolate of C. bituminiphila is strain CBS 8813T (= MUCL 41424T). PMID:11760960

  14. Repeat-Associated Fission Yeast-Like Regional Centromeres in the Ascomycetous Budding Yeast Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Gautam; Sankaranarayanan, Sundar Ram; Guin, Krishnendu; Thattikota, Yogitha; Padmanabhan, Sreedevi; Siddharthan, Rahul; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2016-02-01

    The centromere, on which kinetochore proteins assemble, ensures precise chromosome segregation. Centromeres are largely specified by the histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as Cse4 in yeasts). Structurally, centromere DNA sequences are highly diverse in nature. However, the evolutionary consequence of these structural diversities on de novo CENP-A chromatin formation remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of centromeres, as the binding sites of four evolutionarily conserved kinetochore proteins, in the human pathogenic budding yeast Candida tropicalis. Each of the seven centromeres comprises a 2 to 5 kb non-repetitive mid core flanked by 2 to 5 kb inverted repeats. The repeat-associated centromeres of C. tropicalis all share a high degree of sequence conservation with each other and are strikingly diverged from the unique and mostly non-repetitive centromeres of related Candida species--Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida lusitaniae. Using a plasmid-based assay, we further demonstrate that pericentric inverted repeats and the underlying DNA sequence provide a structural determinant in CENP-A recruitment in C. tropicalis, as opposed to epigenetically regulated CENP-A loading at centromeres in C. albicans. Thus, the centromere structure and its influence on de novo CENP-A recruitment has been significantly rewired in closely related Candida species. Strikingly, the centromere structural properties along with role of pericentric repeats in de novo CENP-A loading in C. tropicalis are more reminiscent to those of the distantly related fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, fission yeast-like repeat-associated centromeres in an ascomycetous budding yeast. PMID:26845548

  15. Repeat-Associated Fission Yeast-Like Regional Centromeres in the Ascomycetous Budding Yeast Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Gautam; Sankaranarayanan, Sundar Ram; Guin, Krishnendu; Thattikota, Yogitha; Padmanabhan, Sreedevi; Siddharthan, Rahul; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2016-01-01

    The centromere, on which kinetochore proteins assemble, ensures precise chromosome segregation. Centromeres are largely specified by the histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as Cse4 in yeasts). Structurally, centromere DNA sequences are highly diverse in nature. However, the evolutionary consequence of these structural diversities on de novo CENP-A chromatin formation remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of centromeres, as the binding sites of four evolutionarily conserved kinetochore proteins, in the human pathogenic budding yeast Candida tropicalis. Each of the seven centromeres comprises a 2 to 5 kb non-repetitive mid core flanked by 2 to 5 kb inverted repeats. The repeat-associated centromeres of C. tropicalis all share a high degree of sequence conservation with each other and are strikingly diverged from the unique and mostly non-repetitive centromeres of related Candida species—Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida lusitaniae. Using a plasmid-based assay, we further demonstrate that pericentric inverted repeats and the underlying DNA sequence provide a structural determinant in CENP-A recruitment in C. tropicalis, as opposed to epigenetically regulated CENP-A loading at centromeres in C. albicans. Thus, the centromere structure and its influence on de novo CENP-A recruitment has been significantly rewired in closely related Candida species. Strikingly, the centromere structural properties along with role of pericentric repeats in de novo CENP-A loading in C. tropicalis are more reminiscent to those of the distantly related fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, fission yeast-like repeat-associated centromeres in an ascomycetous budding yeast. PMID:26845548

  16. Recent Taxonomic Developments with Candida and Other Opportunistic Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in susceptible patient populations and advances in identification methods have resulted in the continued recognition of novel yeasts as agents of human infection. Most of these agents are members of the well-recognized genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Rhodotorula. Some of these agents are “cryptic species,” members of species complexes, and may not be detectable using classical carbohydrate assimilation-based methods of yeast identification. Such species require DNA- or MALDI-based methods for correct identification, although sporadic isolates may not routinely require delineation to the individual species level. The coming end of the fungal taxonomy rules requiring separate names for sexual and asexual forms of the same fungus will hopefully allow greater clarity, as names for medically important yeast can now be based on the needs of the medical mycology community and the common goal of better communication between laboratory and clinician. PMID:26526658

  17. Anti-Candida activity and biofilm inhibitory effects of secreted products of tropical environmental yeasts.

    PubMed

    Tan, H W; Tay, S T

    2011-04-01

    This study describes the killer phenotypes of tropical environmental yeasts and the inhibition effects of the culture filtrates on the biofilm of Candida albicans. A total of 26 (10.5%) of 258 yeast isolates obtained from an environmental sampling study demonstrated killer activity to Candida species. The killer yeasts were identified as species belonging to the genus Aureobasidium, Pseudozyma, Ustilago and Candida based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the yeasts. Pseudozyma showed the broadest killing effects against sensitive strains of Candida. New species of Ustilago and Pseudozyma demonstrating killer phenotypes were identified in this study. Interestingly, more than 50% reduction in the metabolic activity of Candida albicans biofilm was noted after exposure to the culture filtrates of the nine killer yeasts. Purification and characterization of toxin and metabolites are essential for understanding the yeast killing effects. PMID:21602784

  18. Oxygen requirements of yeasts. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida tropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, W.; Scheffers, W.A.; Batenburg-Van Der Vegte, W.H.; Van Dijken, J.P. )

    1990-12-01

    Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly ({mu}{sub max}, 0.03 and 0.05 h{sup {minus}1}, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth.

  19. Persistence of Pigment Production by Yeast Isolates Grown on CHROMagar Candida Medium

    PubMed Central

    Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Green, Judith A.; Dooley, David P.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the persistence of pigmentation in yeast isolates grown on the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida over 7 days. Candida, Cryptococcus, and Trichosporon isolates were inoculated alone or mixed onto duplicate sets of plates and incubated at 30 and 35°C. Candida albicans and Candida krusei were readily identified throughout the reading period, but Candida glabrata was difficult to differentiate from other species until the 3- or 4-day time point. Candida tropicalis produced colonies similar to those of rare Cryptococcus and Trichosporon species, and mixed cultures were often difficult to identify as such. PMID:12454192

  20. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  1. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov., two ascosporic yeast species isolated from the gut of beetles.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Xu, Long-Long; Zhang, Lin; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-10-01

    Four yeast strains were isolated from the gut of beetles collected on Baotianman Mountain and People's Park of Nanyang in Henan Province, China. These strains produced unconjugated asci with one or two ellipsoidal to elongate ascospores in a persistent ascus. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates represent two novel sexual species in the Candida/Lodderomyces clade. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. was located in a statistically well-supported branch together with Candida maltosa. Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. formed a subclade with its closest relative Candida viswanathii supported by a strong bootstrap value. The two novel species were distinguished from their most closely related described species, Candida maltosa and Candida viswanathii, in the D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and in phenotypic traits. The type strain of Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14719T ( = CBS 13915T = CICC 33052T), and the type strain of Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. is NYNU 14772T ( = CBS 13916T = CICC 33053T). The MycoBank numbers for Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. are MB 812621 and MB 812622. PMID:26297152

  2. Description of Kuraishia piskuri f.a., sp. nov., a new methanol assimilating yeast and transfer of phylogenetically related Candida species to the genera Kuraishia and Nakazawaea as new combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new anamorphic yeast Kuraishia piskuri, f.a., sp. nov. is described for three strains that were isolated from insect frass from trees growing in Florida, USA (type strain, NRRL YB-2544, CBS 13714). Species placement was based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domai...

  3. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T). PMID:16627669

  4. Regulation of nitrate and methylamine metabolism by multiple nitrogen sources in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kosuke; Oku, Masahide; Uchida, Daichi; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii, which is capable of growth on methanol as a sole carbon source, can proliferate on the leaf surface of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, we demonstrated that adaptation to a change in the major available nitrogen source from nitrate to methylamine during the host plant aging was crucial for yeast survival on the leaf environment. In this report, we investigated the regulatory profile of nitrate and methylamine metabolism in the presence of multiple nitrogen sources in C. boidinii. The transcript level of nitrate reductase (Ynr1) gene was induced by nitrate and nitrite, and was not repressed by the coexistence with other nitrogen sources. In contrast, the transcript level of amine oxidase (Amo1) gene, which was induced by methylamine, was significantly repressed by the coexistence with ammonium or glutamine. In addition, we investigated the intracellular dynamics of Ynr1 during the nitrogen source shift from nitrate to other compounds. Under these tested conditions, Ynr1 was effectively transported to the vacuole via selective autophagy only during the shift from nitrate to methylamine. Moreover, Ynr1 was subject to degradation after the shift from nitrate to nitrate plus methylamine medium even though nitrate was still available. These regulatory profiles may reflect life style of nitrogen utilization in this yeast living in the phyllosphere. PMID:26377403

  5. Production of flavin mononucleotide by metabolically engineered yeast Candida famata.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshyn, Valentyna Y; Ishchuk, Olena P; Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Fedorovych, Daria V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2009-05-01

    Recombinant strains of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata able to overproduce flavin mononucleotide (FMN) that contain FMN1 gene encoding riboflavin (RF) kinase driven by the strong constitutive promoter TEF1 (translation elongation factor 1alpha) were constructed. Transformation of these strains with the additional plasmid containing the FMN1 gene under the TEF1 promoter resulted in the 200-fold increase in the riboflavin kinase activity and 100-fold increase in FMN production as compared to the wild-type strain (last feature was found only in iron-deficient medium). Overexpression of the FMN1 gene in the mutant that has deregulated riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and high level of riboflavin production in iron-sufficient medium led to the 30-fold increase in the riboflavin kinase activity and 400-fold increase in FMN production of the resulted transformants. The obtained C. famata recombinant strains can be used for the further construction of improved FMN overproducers. PMID:19558965

  6. Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, southern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Mohamed E.; Assiry, Mohammed M.; Joseph, Martin R.; Haimour, Waleed O.; Abdelrahim, Ihab M.; Al-Abed, Fatin; Fadul, Abdalla N.; Al-Hakami, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To isolate, identify, and determine the prevalence of Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving retrospective analysis of 6100 samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia between 2011 and 2012, and prospective isolation and identification of 84 isolates recovered from various clinical specimens presented to the Microbiology Laboratory between 2012 and 2013 using the classic morphological schemes and the Vitek 2 automated system. Results: The results of the retrospective analysis (2011-2012) indicated that of the 6100 various clinical specimens submitted to the routine microbiology analysis, 143 (2.35%) revealed the presence of Candida spp. The distribution of the 143 Candida spp. according to specimens was as follows: urine 72%, sputum 10.5%, endotracheal tube 7%, blood 4.2%, catheter tip 2.1%, throat swab 2.1%, eye swab 0.7%, wound exudates 0.7%, and cerebrospinal fluid 0.7%. The results of the prospective study (2012-2013), which involved the identification of yeast recovered from 84 specimens indicated that Candida albicans 28.6% was the predominant species, followed by Candida parapsilosis 21.4%, Candida tropicalis 14.3%, and Candida lusitaniae 9.5%. Conclusions: Along with the commonly encountered Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida lusitaniae were detected with significant rates. Many other Candida species and some other pathogenic yeasts have been detected for the first time in the region. Urinary tract samples were the main source of Candida species. PMID:25316465

  7. Species identification of invasive yeasts including Candida in Pakistan: limitations of phenotypic methods

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Joveria; Jabeen, Kauser; Saeed, Noureen; Zafar, Afia; Brandt, Mary Eleanor; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare phenotypic and genotypic methods of yeast identification. Methods The in-vitro cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2009. Invasive yeasts isolated at the clinical microbiology laboratory at the Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan, were identified. Speciation by phenotypic and molecular methods was compared. All yeasts isolated during the study period from blood and other invasive sites were identified using standard methods. Isolates were shipped to Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, for identification by Luminex flow cytometric multianalyte profiling (xMAP) system. Ribosomal ITS2 DNA sequencing was performed on isolates not identified by Luminex. Result Of the 214 invasive yeasts evaluated, Candida species were 209 (97.7%) while the frequency of non-Candida species was 5 (2.3%). Overall agreement between phenotypic and molecular identification was 81.3%, 90.3% amongst the more common Candida species, and only 38.8% amongst the uncommon yeasts. Conclusion Phenotypic methods of identification proved adequate for common Candida species, but were deficient in recognising rare Candida and non-Candida yeasts, highlighting the importance of molecular methods for identification. PMID:23866432

  8. Alcoholic fermentation of d-xylose by yeasts. [Brettanomyces naardenensis; Candida shehatae; Candida tenuis; Pachysolen tannaphilus, Pichia segobiensis; Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Toivola, A.; Yarrow, D.; van den Bosch, E.; van Dijken, J.P.; Scheffers, W.A.

    1984-06-01

    Type strains of 200 species of yeasts able to ferment glucose and grow on xylose were screened for fermentation of D-xylose. In most of the strains tested, ethanol production was negligible. Nineteen were found to produce between 0.1 and 1.0 g of ethanol per liter. Strains of the following species produce more than 1 g of ethanol per liter in the fermentation test with 2% xylose: Brettanomyces naardenensis, Candida shehatae, Candida tenuis, Pachysolen tannophilus, Pichia segobiensis, and Pichia stipitis. Subsequent screening of these yeasts for their capacity to ferment D-cellobiose revealed that only Candida tenuis CBS 4435 was a good fermenter of both xylose and cellobiose under the test conditions used.

  9. Rapid Identification of Candida Species and Other Clinically Important Yeast Species by Flow Cytometry†

    PubMed Central

    Page, Brent T.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.

    2005-01-01

    Two rapid diagnostic assays, utilizing two different Luminex flow cytometry methods, were developed for identification of clinically important ascomycetous yeast species. Direct hybridization and allele-specific primer extension methods were both successful in establishing a DNA-based assay that can rapidly and accurately identify Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis as well as other clinical species. The direct hybridization assay was designed to identify a total of 19 ascomycetous yeast species, and the allele-specific primer extension assay was designed to identify a total of 34 species. Probes were validated against 438 strains representing 303 species. From culture to identification, the allele-specific primer extension method takes 8 h and the direct hybridization method takes less than 5 h to complete. These assays represent comprehensive, rapid tests that are well suited for the clinical laboratory. PMID:16145099

  10. Three novel species of the anamorphic yeast genus Candida in the Candida intermedia clade found in Japan, Thailand and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Takashi; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Am-In, Somit; Lee, Ching-Fu; Imanishi, Yumi; Limtong, Savitree

    2011-01-01

    Four strains of yeasts isolated in Japan, Thailand and Taiwan were found to represent three novel species of the genus Candida. The three species are located in a clade including Candida tsuchiyae, Candida thailandica and Candida akabanensis in a tree based on the D1/D2 domain sequences of the large subunit rRNA genes but clearly differentiated from these relative species. Three novel species are proposed for these strains, i. e., Candida berkhoutiae sp. nov., for strains ST-49(T) (=BCC 7749(T)=NBRC 106733(T)=CBS 11722(T)) isolated from insect frass in Thailand and SA13S01 (=NBRC 106053) isolated from soil in Taiwan, Candida ezoensis sp. nov., for strain Y07-1601-2(T) (=NBRC 105019(T)=CBS 11753(T)) isolated from forest soil in Japan, and Candida inulinophila sp. nov., for ST-369(T) (=BCC 15081(T)=NBRC 106735(T)=CBS 11725(T)) isolated from an unidentified wild mushroom from Thailand. PMID:21606608

  11. Use of immunoblotting to identify antigenic differences between the yeast and mycelial phases of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Burnie, J P; Matthews, R C; Fox, A; Tabaqchali, S

    1985-01-01

    Western blotting was applied to the analysis of Candida albicans in the yeast and mycelial phases in an attempt to recognise mycelial specific antigens which might be of serodiagnostic value. The antisera were prepared in rabbits by immunising them with pressates of C albicans type A NCTC 3153 in the yeast phase or the mycelial phase. These were blotted against C albicans in the yeast and mycelial phases and the yeast phase of C parapsilosis, C krusei, C tropicalis, and Torulopsis glabrata. Cross reactivity was greatest against C parapsilosis. One yeast specific mannoprotein was identified with a molecular weight of 49 000. No mycelial specific antigens could be identified. Images PMID:3891792

  12. A novel flucytosine-resistant yeast species, Candida pseudoaaseri, causes disease in a cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Pfüller, Roland; Gräser, Yvonne; Erhard, Marcel; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2011-12-01

    Some members of the genus Candida are among the most common human fungal pathogens and cause serious diseases especially in immunocompromised people. A yeast was isolated from a blood culture from an immunocompromised cancer patient who suffered from acute pneumonia. The growth characteristics of the yeast on CHROMagar Candida were similar to those of Candida tropicalis, whereas the API ID 32C system identified the yeast as Candida silvicola. On the basis of the nucleotide divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S nuclear rRNA (nrRNA) gene, as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain of the nrRNA gene region, a new species, Candida pseudoaaseri sp. nov. with type strain VK065094 (CBS 11170(T)), which was found to be closely related to Candida aaseri, is proposed. While C. aaseri strains were susceptible to all tested antifungals, the new species is resistant to flucytosine and may also be distinguished from C. aaseri by its ability to assimilate l-rhamnose, whereas its colony morphology on CHROMagar Candida may be helpful for differentiation. PMID:21976765

  13. A Novel Flucytosine-Resistant Yeast Species, Candida pseudoaaseri, Causes Disease in a Cancer Patient ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pfüller, Roland; Gräser, Yvonne; Erhard, Marcel; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2011-01-01

    Some members of the genus Candida are among the most common human fungal pathogens and cause serious diseases especially in immunocompromised people. A yeast was isolated from a blood culture from an immunocompromised cancer patient who suffered from acute pneumonia. The growth characteristics of the yeast on CHROMagar Candida were similar to those of Candida tropicalis, whereas the API ID 32C system identified the yeast as Candida silvicola. On the basis of the nucleotide divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S nuclear rRNA (nrRNA) gene, as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain of the nrRNA gene region, a new species, Candida pseudoaaseri sp. nov. with type strain VK065094 (CBS 11170T), which was found to be closely related to Candida aaseri, is proposed. While C. aaseri strains were susceptible to all tested antifungals, the new species is resistant to flucytosine and may also be distinguished from C. aaseri by its ability to assimilate l-rhamnose, whereas its colony morphology on CHROMagar Candida may be helpful for differentiation. PMID:21976765

  14. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Yücesoy, Mine; Marol, Serhat

    2003-01-01

    Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar. PMID:14613587

  15. Development of two molecular approaches for differentiation of clinically relevant yeast species closely related to Candida guilliermondii and Candida famata.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobo; Wu, Jingsong; Ling, Bo; Yang, Xianwei; Liao, Wanqing; Pan, Weihua; Yao, Zhirong

    2014-09-01

    The emerging pathogens Candida palmioleophila, Candida fermentati, and Debaryomyces nepalensis are often misidentified as Candida guilliermondii or Candida famata in the clinical laboratory. Due to the significant differences in antifungal susceptibilities and epidemiologies among these closely related species, a lot of studies have focused on the identification of these emerging yeast species in clinical specimens. Nevertheless, limited tools are currently available for their discrimination. Here, two new molecular approaches were established to distinguish these closely related species. The first approach differentiates these species by use of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of partial internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and large subunit ribosomal DNA with the enzymes BsaHI and XbaI in a double digestion. The second method involves a multiplex PCR based on the intron size differences of RPL18, a gene coding for a protein component of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit, and species-specific amplification. These two methods worked well in differentiation of these closely related yeast species and have the potential to serve as effective molecular tools suitable for laboratory diagnoses and epidemiological studies. PMID:24951804

  16. Synthesis, morphology and antifungal activity of nano-particulated amphotericin-B, ketoconazole and thymoquinone against Candida albicans yeasts and Candida biofilm.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Mohammad A; Gondal, Mohammed A; Al-Zahrani, Al-Hosain J; Rashid, Siddique G; Ali, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, nano-particulated drugs-Amphotericin-B, Ketoconazole and Thymoquinone (an active ingredient of Nigella sativa)-were prepared using the ball milling technique, and their particle sizes were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and using a particle size analyzer. The grain sizes of the prepared compounds were found in between 5 to 20 nm, and exhibited quasi-spherical morphology. The antifungal activity of each nano-particulated drug was investigated in vitro against Candida albicans yeasts and Candida biofilm, and compared with their micro-structured conventional forms. Nano-sized drugs were found to be two to four times more effective in disinfecting both the Candida yeasts and Candida biofilm. The study is a first of its kind as nano-forms of drugs have not been studied against Candida and Candida biofilm before. Further investigations are required for the determination of the clinical significance of the nano-formulation of antifungal substances. PMID:25560257

  17. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Dos Santos, Leandro Vieira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  18. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; dos Santos, Leandro Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  19. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and cell dimorphism in Candida albicans cells exposed to methanol and different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Romandini, P; Bonotto, C; Bertoloni, G; Beltramini, M; Salvato, B

    1994-05-01

    The combined effects of methanol and different temperatures on Candida albicans were studied. Growth curve, cell morphology, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity levels have been determined. Cell growth in each medium was comparable to 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The growth rate was not affected by methanol, in the presence of glucose, while it was much lower in the absence of sugar. Cell dimorphism appeared after thermic stress and it was also dependent on the medium composition. In all media, both SOD and catalase levels were much higher at 37 degrees C. The presence of methanol per se did not affect the enzymatic levels, while the absence of glucose gave higher SOD levels. PMID:8061958

  20. Component from the cell surface of the hydrocarbon-utilizing yeast Candida tropicalis with possible relation to hydrocarbon transport.

    PubMed Central

    Käppeli, O; Fiechter, A

    1977-01-01

    A polysaccharide-fatty acid complex was isolated from the cell surface of Candida tropicalis growing on alkanes. This complex was solubilized by Pronase treatment of whole cells. A decrease in alkane-binding affinity was observed after Pronase treatment, resulting in 10 to 12% of the yeast dry cell weight being released as polysaccharide. The isolated polysaccharide contained 2.5% fatty acids. C. tropicalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown with glucose contained only traces of fatty acids in the corresponding polysaccharide fraction. The fatty acids were not removed from the polysaccharide moiety by gel filtration. Extraction of the polysaccharide with chloroform-methanol showed that fatty acids were covalently bound to the polysaccharide. The amphipathic nature of the isolated polysaccharide and the hydrocarbon-induced formation suggest a possible role in alkane metabolism. PMID:893347

  1. Metabolism of alkenes and ketones by Candida maltosa and related yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge is scarce about the degradation of ketones in yeasts. For bacteria a subterminal degradation of alkanes to ketones and their further metabolization has been described which always involved Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs). In addition, the question has to be clarified whether alkenes are converted to ketones, in particular for the oil degrading yeast Candida maltosa little is known. In this study we show the degradation of the aliphatic ketone dodecane-2-one by Candida maltosa and the related yeasts Candida tropicalis, Candida catenulata and Candida albicans as well as Trichosporon asahii and Yarrowia lipolytica. One pathway is initiated by the formation of decyl acetate, resulting from a Baeyer-Villiger-oxidation of this ketone. Beyond this, an initial reduction to dodecane-2-ol by a keto reductase was clearly shown. In addition, two different ways to metabolize dodec-1-ene were proposed. One involved the formation of dodecane-2-one and the other one a conversion leading to carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. Furthermore the induction of ketone degrading enzymes by dodecane-2-one and dodec-1-ene was shown. Interestingly, with dodecane no subterminal degradation products were detected and it did not induce any enzymes to convert dodecane-2-one. PMID:25309846

  2. Killer toxin from several food-derived Debaryomyces hansenii strains effective against pathogenic Candida yeasts.

    PubMed

    Banjara, Nabaraj; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Suhr, Mallory J; Hallen-Adams, Heather E

    2016-04-01

    Candida yeasts are the dominant fungi in the healthy human microbiome, but are well-known for causing disease following a variety of perturbations. Evaluation of fungal populations from the healthy human gut revealed a significant negative correlation between the foodborne yeast, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Candida species. D. hansenii is reported to produce killer toxins (mycocins) effective against other yeast species. In order to better understand this phenomenon, a collection of 42 D. hansenii isolates was obtained from 22 cheeses and evaluated for killer activity against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis over a range of temperatures and pH values. Twenty three strains demonstrated killer activity against both C. albicans and C. tropicalis, which was pH- and temperature-dependent, with no killer activity observed for any strain at pH6.5 or higher, or at ≥35°C (physiological conditions in the human gastrointestinal tract). A cell-free mycocin preparation showed transient killer activity against C. albicans at 35°C and a cheese sample containing a killer D. hansenii strain demonstrated sustained killer activity against both C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Together, these observations raise the possibility that D. hansenii could influence Candida populations in the gut. PMID:26828815

  3. Production of sophorolipids biosurfactants by multiple species of the Starmerella (Candida) bombicola yeast clade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sophorolipid production was tested for 26 strains representing 19 species of the Starmerella yeast clade, including S. bombicola and Candida apicola, which were previously reported to produce sophorolipids. Five of the 19 species tested showed significant production of sophorolipids: S. bombicola, ...

  4. Candida patagonica sp. nov., a new species of yeast from cellar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sangorrín, Marcela P; Lopes, Christian A; Belloch, Carmela; Querol, Amparo; Caballero, Adriana C

    2007-07-01

    A novel anamorphic yeast species belonging to the genus Candida has been isolated from cellar surfaces in North Patagonia. Morphological and physiological observation and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Pseudomycelium was plentifully produced. No sexual reproduction was observed. From sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 region, Candida bituminiphila and Zygoascus hellenicus were the closest species with 40 and 79 bp substitutions, respectively. C. bituminiphila differed physiologically from the novel species in its ability to assimilate sucrose and erythritol, in not fermenting any sugars, in growing without some vitamin compounds, and in growing at 40 degrees C. All these data support the hypothesis that the new yeast, named Candida patagonica, is a novel species related to C. bituminiphila. The type strain is UNCOMA 159.5 (= CECT 12029 = CBS 10443). PMID:17265102

  5. CHROMagar Candida Medium for Direct Susceptibility Testing of Yeast from Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Grace L.; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation was performed on 95 blood cultures positive for Candida spp. to determine the correlation of direct susceptibility testing of fluconazole versus both standardized disk diffusion and MIC methods. For direct testing, an aliquot taken from BD BACTEC Plus and/or BD BACTEC Lytic/10 bottles (Becton Dickinson [BD], Sparks, MD) positive by gram stain for yeast was subcultured to CHROMagar Candida (BD), and a 25-μg fluconazole disk (BD) was placed on the plate. The area of growth inhibition surrounding the disk was measured at 24 and 48 h. In addition, a subculture of the isolate was tested by a microdilution MIC using YeastOne (TREK Diagnostics Systems Inc., OH) and disk diffusion (NCCLS M44-A) using a standardized inoculum plated onto CHROMagar Candida as well as Mueller-Hinton agar to which 2% glucose and 0.5 μg/ml methylene blue dye was added (MH-GMB). The categorical interpretation derived from the MIC was used as the reference to which the disk diffusion results were compared. There were a total of 41 Candida albicans, 23 Candida glabrata, 20 Candida parapsilosis, 9 Candida tropicalis, and 1 each of Candida krusei and Candida lusitaniae tested. At 24 h there was full agreement among the methods for all C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, and C. krusei isolates. For the C. parapsilosis isolates at 24 h there was one very major discrepancy using the direct CHROMagar and one major error with the standardized MH-GMB. The majority of the errors were seen at 24 h with the C. glabrata isolates. Of the 23 C. glabrata isolates at 24 h by direct CHROMagar, there were 10 minor and 1 very major error; by MH-GMB there were 12 minor and 2 very major errors; and by standardized CHROMagar Candida there were 13 minor and 2 major errors. There were no very major errors with C. glabrata when all plates were read at 48 h. At 24 h by the direct and standardized CHROMagar the majority of C. glabrata isolates were more resistant, whereas by MH-GMB they were more

  6. Fluorescence assay for the detection of adherent Candida yeasts to target cells in microtest plates.

    PubMed

    Borg-von Zepelin, M; Wagner, T

    1995-01-01

    We describe an assay based on photometric analysis for the measurement of adherence of Candida species to epithelial target cells (Vero cell line). Adherent Candida cells were detected by staining the cells with the fluorescent dye Calcofluor white (CFW), which binds to chitin and glucan in the yeasts. The tests were performed on microtest plates, which were analysed automatically by fluorescence plate readers. The assay is based on the following steps: (i) coating of the microtest plates with target cells (e.g. Vero cells); (ii) infection with Candida: (iii) staining of Candida with CFW; (iv) rinsing to remove non-adherent Candida cells and unbound dye; (v) detection of adherent fluorescent Candida cells. The test was able to detect 4 x 10(4) cells ml-1. The standard deviation was +/- 8%. Day-to-day variation was +/- 10% at most. The adherence of strains of different Candida species was assayed by a standard procedure. The results confirmed the order of adherence, with C. albicans ranking first, followed by C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata. PMID:8569807

  7. Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles. PMID:24833856

  8. Candida materiae sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from rotting wood in the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Anne C; Cadete, Raquel M; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species, Candida materiae sp. nov., were isolated from rotting wood in an Atlantic rain forest site in Brazil. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA showed that this species belonged to the Spathaspora clade and was related to Candida jeffriesii and Spathaspora passalidarum. Unlike C. jeffriesii and S. passalidarum, C. materiae sp. nov. did not ferment xylose. The type strain of C. materiae sp. nov. is UFMG-07-C15.1BT (=CBS 10975T=CBMAI 956T). PMID:19605715

  9. Candida wangnamkhiaoensis sp. nov., an anamorphic yeast species in the Hyphopichia clade isolated in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Kaewwichian, Rungluk; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Nakase, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Two strains representing a single novel yeast species were isolated from a flower of Calycoopteris floribunda Lame (SK170(T)) and insect frass (ST-122) collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region, the two strains were assigned as a single novel Candida species in the Hyphopichia clade for which the name Candida wangnamkhiaoensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SK170(T)=BCC 39604(T)=NBRC 106724(T)=CBS 11695(T)). PMID:22331449

  10. Early differential molecular response of a macrophage cell line to yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, E; Pitzurra, L; Puliti, M; Lanfrancone, L; Bistoni, F

    1992-01-01

    The dimorphic transition of Candida albicans from the yeast (Y-Candida) to the hyphal (H-Candida) form is a complex event; the relevance of this transition in fungal pathogenicity is still poorly understood. By using a cloned macrophage cell line (ANA-1), we questioned whether the interaction between macrophages and Y-Candida or H-Candida could affect specific cell functions, i.e., tumor necrosis factor and lysozyme production. We found that ANA-1 macrophages selectively responded to H-Candida with increased tumor necrosis factor and downregulated lysozyme, as assessed by measurement of relative mRNA levels and secreted biological activities. The H-Candida-mediated effects were (i) dependent upon the ratio between ANA-1 macrophages and H-Candida, (ii) detectable after 1 h of coincubation, and (iii) accomplished without fungal ingestion. Conversely, Y-Candida, which was found inside the ANA-1 macrophages, did not affect tumor necrosis factor and lysozyme production, nor did it prevent the macrophage response to other stimuli. Overall, these results indicate that a macrophage can distinguish between Y-Candida and H-Candida and that only the latter is able to modulate specific functions. H-Candida is recognized and probably processed as an extracellular target. The possible implication of macrophages as autocrine and paracrine regulatory cells during Candida infections is discussed. Images PMID:1541557

  11. Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nagendra Nath; Prasad, Tulika; Sharma, Neeraj; Payasi, Anurag; Prasad, Rajendra; Gupta, Dwijendra K; Singh, Randhir

    2007-09-01

    Pathogenic yeasts from the genus Candida can cause serious infection in humans particularly, in immunocompromised patients and are now recognized as major agents of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. In the recent years, there has been a marked increase in the incidence of treatment failures in candidiasis patients receiving long-term antifungal therapy, which has posed a serious problem in its successful use in chemotherapy. Candida cells acquire drug resistance (MDR) during the course of the treatment. The mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents have been elucidated in Candida species and can be mainly categorized as (i) changes in the cell wall or plasma membrane, which lead to impaired drug (azole) uptake; (ii) alterations in the affinity of the drug target Erg11p (lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase) especially to azoles or in the cellular content of Erg11p due to target site mutation or overexpression of the ERG11 gene; and (iii) the efflux of drugs mediated by membrane transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, namely CDR1 and CDR2 or to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter, CaMDR1. Many such manifestations are associated with the formation of Candida biofilms including those occurring on devices like indwelling intravascular catheters. Biofilm-associated Candida show uniform resistance to a wide spectrum of antifungal drugs. A combination of different resistance mechanisms is responsible for drug resistance in clinical isolates of Candida species. PMID:17896473

  12. Candida funiuensi sp. nov., a cellobiose-fermenting yeast species isolated from rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Ren, Yong-Cheng; Zhang, Zheng-Tian; Wu, Fu-Hua; Ke, Tao; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-06-01

    Two strains of an asexual cellobiose-fermenting yeast species were isolated from rotten wood samples collected in Funiu Mountain Nature Reserve in Henan Province, central China. Molecular phylogenetic analysis that included the nearly complete small subunit (SSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rDNA showed that these strains belonged to the Candida kruisii clade, with Candida kruisii and Candida cretensis as their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The nucleotide differences between the novel strains and the type strains of C. kruisii and C. cretensis were 30 and 36 substitutions, respectively, in the D1/D2 LSU rDNA, 40 and 44 substitutions, respectively, in the ITS region and 19 and 23 substitutions, respectively, in the SSU rDNA. The novel strains can also be distinguished from their closest described species, C. kruisii and C. cretensis, by a number of physiological characteristics, and represent a novel species of the genus Candida, for which the name Candida funiuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NYNU 14625T ( = CICC 33050T = CBS 13911T). The Mycobank number is MB 811503. PMID:25740930

  13. Differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts by analysis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled polypeptide profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, H.D.; Choo, K.B.; Tsai, W.C.; Jen, T.M.; Yeh, J.Y.; Han, S.H.

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes a scheme for differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts based on autoradiographic analysis of protein profiles of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled cellular proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using ATCC strains as references, protein profile analysis showed that different Candida and other yeast species produced distinctively different patterns. Good agreement in results obtained with this approach and with other conventional systems was observed. Being accurate and reproducible, this approach provides a basis for the development of an alternative method for the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens.

  14. Direct identification and recognition of yeast species from clinical material by using albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida plates.

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, C; Freydiere, A M; Gille, Y

    1996-01-01

    Two chromogenic media, Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates, were compared with a reference medium, Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar, and standard methods for the identification of yeast species. This study involved 951 clinical specimens. The detection rates for the two chromogenic media for polymicrobial specimens were 20% higher than that for the Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar plates. The rates of identification of Candida albicans for Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates were, respectively, 37.0 and 6.0% after 24 h of incubation and 93.6 and 92.2% after 72 h of incubation, with specificities of 99.8 and 100%. Furthermore, CHROMagar Candida plates identified 13 of 14 Candida tropicalis and 9 of 12 Candida krusei strains after 48 h of incubation. PMID:8789038

  15. Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Food-Yeast Candida utilis

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Yasuyuki; Ikeo, Kazuho; Tamakawa, Hideyuki; Gojobori, Takashi; Ikushima, Shigehito

    2012-01-01

    The industrially important food-yeast Candida utilis is a Crabtree effect-negative yeast used to produce valuable chemicals and recombinant proteins. In the present study, we conducted whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. utilis, which showed that this yeast diverged long before the formation of the CUG and Saccharomyces/Kluyveromyces clades. In addition, we performed comparative genome and transcriptome analyses using next-generation sequencing, which resulted in the identification of genes important for characteristic phenotypes of C. utilis such as those involved in nitrate assimilation, in addition to the gene encoding the functional hexose transporter. We also found that an antisense transcript of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene, which in silico analysis did not predict to be a functional gene, was transcribed in the stationary-phase, suggesting a novel system of repression of ethanol production. These findings should facilitate the development of more sophisticated systems for the production of useful reagents using C. utilis. PMID:22629373

  16. Mechanism of iron uptake by the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, A.

    1986-01-01

    C. albicans requires iron for growth and phenotypic development. When deprived of iron, mycelium and bud formation was suppressed. Survival of the organism was also reduced under iron-limiting conditions. The combination of elevated temperature and iron-deprivation further reduced phenotypic development and survival of the yeast. The combination of elevated temperature and iron starvation resulted in a decrease in both the growth rate and siderophore production. However, with time, the cells were able to show partial recovery in the growth rate which occurred concomitantly with an increase in siderophore production. In order for siderophores to be utilized, ferri-siderophore receptors must be produced. The receptor was shown to be located in the plasma membrane of the yeast. Scatchard analysis of the binding of ferri-siderophores to plasma membrane receptors showed an increase in receptor affinity and number of binding sites in iron-starved cells when compared to control cells. Autoradiograms of the /sup 58/Fe-siderophore-protein complex following SDS-PAGE separation of candidal proteins revealed the presence of a ferri-siderophore receptor of approximately 10,000 daltons. C. albicans strains which lacked the ability to synthesize phenolate siderophore maintained a phenolate receptor and bound candidal phenolate siderophore better than non-candidal phenolate siderophores.

  17. Aging and Cell Death in the Other Yeasts, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Su-Ju; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2013-01-01

    How do cells age and die? For the past twenty years, the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used as a model organism to uncover the genes that regulate lifespan and cell death. More recently, investigators have begun to interrogate the other yeasts, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, to determine if similar longevity and cell death pathways exist in these organisms. After summarizing the longevity and cell death phenotypes in S. cerevisiae, this mini-review surveys the progress made in the study of both aging and programmed cell death (PCD) in the yeast models, with a focus on the biology of S. pombe and C. albicans. Particular emphasis is placed on the similarities and differences between the two types of aging, replicative aging and chronological aging, and between the three types of cell death, intrinsic apoptosis, autophagic cell death, and regulated necrosis, found in these yeasts. The development of the additional microbial models for aging and PCD in the other yeasts may help further elucidate the mechanisms of longevity and cell death regulation in eukaryotes. PMID:24205865

  18. Ogataea saltuana sp. nov., a novel methanol-assimilating yeast species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four ascosporulating strains of an undescribed methanol-assimilating yeast species were isolated from forest habitats in Hungary. Three of them were recovered from rotten wood and one from leaves of a sessile oak. A closely related, but somewhat divergent strain was recovered from insect frass in a ...

  19. Candida albicans--adriamycin interactions: ultrastructural and spectrofluorometric study of whole yeasts and spheroplasts.

    PubMed

    Bobichon, H; Bussy, V; Angiboust, J F; Manfait, M; Bouchet, P; Jardillier, J C

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of candidiasis in cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy requires the interrelation of Candida albicans and the antimitotic drug Adriamycin (ADM) which is well known as an intercalating agent. The whole yeasts were not affected by 2 h of contact with the drug at 10(-4) M neither for their growth curve nor for their ultrastructure, despite the presence of free ADM on their surface. Spheroplasts displayed a delay in their growth and exhibited altered nucleoli with segregation of their granular and fibrillar components. The modified emission spectrum of ADM, determined by spectrofluorometry, corresponded neither to the free ADM nor to the DNA-bound drug, but it could be related to a metabolite of the drug. The cell wall appeared to be one of the main sites for ADM resistance of Candida albicans in vitro. PMID:2085691

  20. [Detection and kinetic characterization of Candida tropicalis contamination during fodder yeast production].

    PubMed

    García Gutiérrez, Roxana; Otero Rambla, Miguel Angel; Fundora Toucet, Norka; Martínez Sánchez, Aidín; Saura Lauria, Gustavo; Casalot, Laurence

    2006-06-01

    Candida tropicalis was identified as the etiologic agent of a severe contamination detected on an industrial fodder yeast production at the Cuban eastern region. After a detailed diagnostic task on raw material carried out on different factory sections, protocols to identify the contamination source and to isolate the microorganism were proposed. The identification was by comparison of the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4 from 5.8S ribosomal DNA nucleotide sequences. In parallel, propagation of production strain, Candida utilis NRRL Y-660, at lab scale (2.5 l) was performed. Similar results to those observed in the factory concerning to its kinetic behavior in aerobic propagation with contaminated molasses, were detected at this level. The identification and primary kinetic characterization led to the implementation of sanitary and technological measures to bring production at its normal operational conditions as well as the application of prophylactic surveillance methodologies to avoid future contaminations. PMID:16854184

  1. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov., Candida taylorii sp. nov. and Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov., novel yeasts from mangrove and coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W

    2010-08-01

    Three species of yeasts are taxonomically described for strains isolated from marine environments. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10894T =NRRL Y-48663T) and Candida taylorii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8508T =NRRL Y-27213T) are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts in a phylogenetic cluster of marine yeasts in the Debaryomyces/Lodderomyces clade of the Saccharomycetales. The two species were isolated from multiple locations among coral reefs and mangrove habitats. Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8380T =NRRL Y-17380T) is an anamorphic basidiomycete that is related to the smut fungi of the genus Ustilago in the Ustilaginales. P. abaconensis was collected from waters adjacent to a coral reef. PMID:19783617

  2. Stress tolerance and biocontrol performance of the yeast antagonist, Candida diversa, change with morphology transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangkun; Chi, Mengshan; Chen, Huizhen; Sui, Yuan; Li, Yan; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiaojing; Sun, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guoqing; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jia

    2016-02-01

    As an eco-friendly management method, biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing antagonistic yeasts, is a research topic receiving considerable attention. Detailed knowledge on the biology of yeast antagonists is crucial when considering their potential application and development as biocontrol products. Changes in the growth form, such as single-cell to pseudohyphae, have been associated with the mode of action in postharvest biocontrol yeasts. In this study, the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa, reversibly shifted from a single-cell morphology on yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) medium with 2 % agar to a pseudohyphal morphology on YPD with 0.3 % agar. The tolerance of the pseudohyphal form to heat and oxidative stresses, as well as the biocontrol efficacy against Botrytis cinerea on apple and kiwifruit stored at 25 and 4 °C, was significantly higher as compared to the single-cell form. This study provides new information on the ability of C. diversa to change its morphology and the impact of the morphology shift on stress tolerance and biocontrol performance. PMID:26637302

  3. [Construction of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata strains with high riboflavin kinase activity using gene engineering].

    PubMed

    Ishchuk, O P; Iatsyshyn, V Iu; Dmytruk, K V; Voronovs'kyĭ, A Ia; Fedorovych, D V; Sybirnyĭ, A A

    2006-01-01

    The recombinant strains of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata, which contain the DNA fragment consisting of the FMN1 gene (encoding the riboflavin kinase, enzyme that converts riboflavin to flavinmononucleotide) driven by the strong promoters (the regulated RIB1 or constitutive TEF1 promoter) were isolated. Riboflavin kinase activity in the isolated transformants was tested. The 6-8-fold increase of the riboflavin kinase activity was shown in the recombinant strains containing the integrated Debaryomyces hansenii FMN1 gene under the strong constitutive TEF1 promoter. The recombinant strains can be used for the following construction of flavinmononucleotide overproducers. PMID:17290783

  4. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic. PMID:26404657

  5. RAPD with microsatellite as a tool for differentiation of Candida genus yeasts isolated in brewing.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Ewa; Czaplińska, Anna; Barszczewski, Wojciech; Wilgosz, Maciej; Wojtatowicz, Maria; Robak, Małgorzata

    2007-05-01

    Fifteen wild yeast strains were isolated in two factories of a lager brewing company in Poland. Their identification with API 32C system showed mainly the presence of Candida sake species (7/15). To differentiate the isolates, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with (GTG)(5), (GAC)(5), (GACA)(4) microsatellite primers and M13 core sequence (5'-GAG GGT GGC GGT TCT-3') were chosen. The results of patterns similarity are presented as dendrograms for each RAPD analysis and for overall patterns. On the overall patterns, all isolates identified as C. sake, except Strain No. 1, were regrouped in one cluster. Collection strain C. sake CBS 617 was similar in 46% to the cluster with six isolates (Strain Nos. 3, 6, 8, 11, 13, 14). The second reference strain C. sake CBS 159 and the Strain No. 1 were regrouped with other Candida species (collection strains) showing, respectively, only 20% and 42% of similarity to other C. sake strains. The similarity based on the overall dendrogram between isolate Nos. 3, 6, 8, 11, 13, 14 and C. sake CBS 617 was 49%. Between those strains and other Candida, the similarity was only 37%. PMID:17188210

  6. Farnesol and Cyclic AMP Signaling Effects on the Hypha-to-Yeast Transition in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Allia K.; Deveau, Aurélie; Piispanen, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans, a fungal pathogen of humans, regulates its morphology in response to many environmental cues and this morphological plasticity contributes to virulence. Farnesol, an autoregulatory molecule produced by C. albicans, inhibits the induction of hyphal growth by inhibiting adenylate cyclase (Cyr1). The role of farnesol and Cyr1 in controlling the maintenance of hyphal growth has been less clear. Here, we demonstrate that preformed hyphae transition to growth as yeast in response to farnesol and that strains with increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling exhibit more resistance to farnesol. Exogenous farnesol did not induce the hypha-to-yeast transition in mutants lacking the Tup1 or Nrg1 transcriptional repressors in embedded conditions. Although body temperature is not required for embedded hyphal growth, we found that the effect of farnesol on the hypha-to-yeast transition varies inversely with temperature. Our model of Cyr1 activity being required for filamentation is also supported by our liquid assay data, which show increased yeast formation when preformed filaments are treated with farnesol. Together, these data suggest that farnesol can modulate morphology in preformed hyphal cells and that the repression of hyphal growth maintenance likely occurs through the inhibition of cAMP signaling. PMID:22886999

  7. Candida utilis and Cyberlindnera (Pichia) jadinii: yeast relatives with expanding applications.

    PubMed

    Buerth, Christoph; Tielker, Denis; Ernst, Joachim F

    2016-08-01

    The yeast Candida utilis is used as a food additive and as a host for heterologous gene expression to produce various metabolites and proteins. Reliable protocols for intracellular production of recombinant proteins are available for C. utilis and have now been expanded to secrete proteins into the growth medium or to achieve surface display by linkage to a cell wall protein. A recombinant C. utilis strain was recently shown to induce oral tolerance in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis suggesting future applications in autoimmune therapy. Whole genome sequencing of C. utilis and its presumed parent Cyberlindnera (Pichia) jadinii demonstrated different ploidy but high sequence identity, consistent with identical recombinant technologies for both yeasts. C. jadinii was recently described as an antagonist to the important human fungal pathogen Candida albicans suggesting its use as a probiotic agent. The review summarizes the status of recombinant protein production in C. utilis, as well as current and future biotechnological and medical applications of C. utilis and C. jadinii. PMID:27357226

  8. Decolorization of a recalcitrant organic compound (Melanoidin) by a novel thermotolerant yeast, Candida tropicalis RG-9

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane distilleries use molasses for ethanol production and generate large volume of effluent containing high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) along with melanoidin pigment. Melanoidin is a recalcitrant compound that causes several toxic effects on living system, therefore, may be treated before disposal. The aim of this study was to isolate a potential thermotolerant melanoidin decolorizing yeast from natural resources, and optimized different physico-chemical and nutritional parameters. Results Total 24 yeasts were isolated from the soil samples of near by distillery site, in which isolate Y-9 showed maximum decolorization and identified as Candida tropicalis by Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) Chandigarh, India. The decolorization yield was expressed as the decrease in the absorbance at 475 nm against initial absorbance at the same wavelength. Uninoculated medium served as control. Yeast showed maximum decolorization (75%) at 45°C using 0.2%, glucose; 0.2%, peptone; 0.05%, MgSO4; 0.01%, KH2PO4; pH-5.5 within 24 h of incubation under static condition. Decolorizing ability of yeast was also confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Conclusion The yeast strain efficiently decolorized melanoidin pigment of distillery effluent at higher temperature than the other earlier reported strains of yeast, therefore, this strain could also be used at industrial level for melanoidin decolorization as it tolerated a wide range of temperature and pH with very small amount of carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:22708874

  9. Metabolic engineering and classic selection of the yeast Candida famata (Candida flareri) for construction of strains with enhanced riboflavin production.

    PubMed

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Yatsyshyn, Valentyna Y; Sybirna, Natalia O; Fedorovych, Daria V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the mutant of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata dep8 isolated by classic mutagenesis and selection is used for industrial riboflavin production. Here we report on construction of a riboflavin overproducing strain of C. famata using a combination of random mutagenesis based on the selection of mutants resistant to different antimetabolites as well as rational approaches of metabolic engineering. The conventional mutagenesis involved consecutive selection for resistance to riboflavin structural analog 7-methyl-8-trifluoromethyl-10-(1'-d-ribityl)isoalloxazine), 8-azaguanine, 6-azauracil, 2-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine and guanosine as well as screening for yellow colonies at high pH. The metabolic engineering approaches involved introduction of additional copies of transcription factor SEF1 and IMH3 (coding for IMP dehydrogenase) orthologs from Debaryomyces hansenii, and the homologous genes RIB1 and RIB7, encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II and riboflavin synthetase, the first and the last enzymes of riboflavin biosynthesis pathway, respectively. Overexpression of the aforementioned genes in riboflavin overproducer AF-4 obtained by classical selection resulted in a 4.1-fold increase in riboflavin production in shake-flask experiments. D. hansenii IMH3 and modified ARO4 genes conferring resistance to mycophenolic acid and fluorophenylalanine, respectively, were successfully used as new dominant selection markers for C. famata. PMID:21040798

  10. RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA ALBICANS DIRECTLY FROM YEAST POSITIVE BLOOD CULTURE BOTTLES BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION USING PNA PROBES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Candida albicans directly from yeast-positive blood culture bottles is described. The test (C. albicans PNA FISH) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe targeting C. albicans 26...

  11. On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other anamorphic ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multigene phylogenies have been instrumental in revising the classification of ascosporic (teleomorph) yeasts in a natural system based on lines of decent. Although many taxonomic changes have already been implemented for teleomorph taxa, this is not yet the case for the large genus Candida and smal...

  12. Isolation of the alkane inducible cytochrome P450 (P450alk) gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a λgt11 library. Isolation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. Transcripts of this gene were i...

  13. ISOLATION OF THE ALKANE INDUCIBLE CYTOCHROME P450 (P450ALK) GENE FROM THE YEAST CANDIDA TROPICALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a gtll library. solation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. ranscripts of this gene were indu...

  14. Exceptional hexose-fermenting ability of the xylitol-producing yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Horemans, Spencer K C; Sooksawat, Najjapak; Harner, Nicole K; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Yuan, Zhirun; Lee, Hung

    2016-06-01

    The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 is well-known for its ability to produce xylitol from xylose. Recently, this strain was found to produce greater than 5% (w/v) ethanol from glucose. This level of ethanol is typically not exceeded by wild-type strains of other native pentose-fermenting yeasts. This prompted the current study to examine the ability of C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 to utilize and ferment high concentrations of each of the hexoses commonly found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In defined media, FTI 20037 fermented 14.4%-25.9% (w/v) of glucose, mannose or galactose individually to ethanol in concentrations ranging from 6% to 9.3% (w/v). Fermentation was completed within 36 h (for glucose) to 100 h (for galactose). In 25.9% (w/v) glucose, FTI 20037 produced 9.3% (w/v) ethanol within 40 h. FTI 20037 produced xylitol exclusively when xylose was given as the sole carbon source. The strain utilized arabinose poorly. Under the same fermentation conditions, an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain produced slightly higher levels of ethanol [9.9% (w/v)] from 25.0% (w/v) glucose. Another pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus also fermented high concentrations of glucose and mannose to produce relatively high peak ethanol concentrations; however, this yeast required considerably longer to completely consume these hexoses. The ability of FTI 20037 to produce high level of ethanol rapidly from glucose is remarkable. To our knowledge, this is the first known instance of a non-modified native xylose-fermenting yeast strain able to produce such high levels of ethanol from glucose as rapidly as S. cerevisiae in a defined medium. PMID:26596373

  15. Marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a potential immunostimulant in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Babu, Divya T; Antony, Swapna P; Joseph, Simi P; Bright, Ann Rose; Philip, Rosamma

    2013-03-01

    A marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a source of immunostimulant in Penaeus monodon was studied. Yeast diet was prepared by incorporating 10% C. aquaetextoris S527 biomass into a standard shrimp diet and administered in P. monodon at different frequencies (daily, once in three days, once in seven days and once in ten days) followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Immune parameters such as total protein, total hemocyte count, pro-phenoloxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, alkaline phosphatase activity and acid phosphatase activity were tested. Expression profile of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5; immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, peroxinectin, prophenol oxidase (proPO) and transglutaminase, and WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, ribonucleotide reductase, thymidine kinase and VP28 were analyzed. The study demonstrated that marine yeast diet administered once every seven days conferred better protection to P. monodon against WSSV infection, supported by the hematological and immune gene expression profiles analyzed. PMID:23262396

  16. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on Candida albicans pre-treated by fluconazole delayed yeast inactivation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luis Rodolfo; Sousa, Aline Silva; Alvarenga, Letícia Heineck; Deana, Alessandro Melo; de Santi, Maria Eugênia Onofre Simões; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Leal, Cintia Raquel Lima; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Prates, Renato Araujo

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDI) has been used to treat localized infection and the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of APDI combined with fluconazole in suspension of Candida albicans. C. albicans ATCC90028 was subcultured onto Sabouraud agar and inocula were prepared at yeast density of 1×10(6)CFU/mL. Methylene blue (MB) was used with concentration of 100mM. Yeast cells were incubated for 30min in 24-well plate and then irradiated by LED (660nm; 690mW; A=2.7cm(2); I=250mW/cm(2)) with radiant exposure of 30, 60, and 120J/cm(2). The same APDI setup was used with 2h fluconazole (0.5μg/mL) incubation. A UV-vis optical absorption spectroscopy was achieved following fractionated irradiation up to 960s. There were substantial differences in the killing effect following MB-mediated APDI and C. albicans was eradicated in the both APDI groups. The fluconazole combined to APDI delayed the complete inactivation of the yeast (p<0.05). Spectroscopy showed a decrease in absorption following irradiation for all absorption peaks. APDI presented an antagonist effect in the presence of fluconazole. PMID:27179711

  17. [Cloning of structural genes involved in riboflavin synthesis of the yeast Candida famata].

    PubMed

    Dmytruk, K V; Abbas, C A; Voronovsky, A Y; Kshanovska, B V; Sybirna, K A; Sybirny, A A

    2004-01-01

    The riboflavin overproducing mutants of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata isolated by conventional selection methods are used for the industrial production of vitamin B2. Recently, a transformation system was developed for C. famata using the leu2 mutant as a recipient strain and Saccharomyces cerevislae LEU2 gene as a selective marker. In this paper the cloning of C. famata genes for riboflavin synthesis on the basis of developed transformation system for this yeast species is described. Riboflavin autotrophic mutants were isolated from a previously selected C. famata leu2 strain. C. famata genomic DNA library was constructed and used for cloning of the corresponding structural genes for riboflavin synthesis by complementation of the growth defects on a medium without leucine and riboflavin. As a result, the DNA fragments harboring genes RIB1, RIB2, RIB5, RIB6 and RIB7 encoding GTP cyclohydrolase, reductase, dimethylribityllumazine synthase, dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase and riboflavin synthase, were isolated and subsequently subcloned to the smallest possible fragments. The plasmids with these genes successfully complemented riboflavin auxotrophies of the corresponding mutants of another flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii. This suggested that C. famata structural genes for riboflavin synthesis and not some of the supressor genes were cloned. PMID:15909421

  18. Genome sequence of Candida versatilis and comparative analysis with other yeast.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lihua; Guo, Lin; Wang, Chunling; Wang, Cong

    2016-08-01

    The genome of Candida versatilis was sequenced to understand its characteristics in soy sauce fermentation. The genome size of C. versatilis was 9.7 Mb, the content of G + C was 39.74 %, scaffolds of N50 were 1,229,640 bp in length, containing 4711 gene. There were predicted 269 tRNA genes and 2201 proteins with clear function. Moreover, the genome information of C. versatilis was compared with another salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. C. versatilis and Z. rouxii genome size was close and both smaller than 12.1 for the Mb of S. cerevisiae. Using the OrthoMCL protein, three genomes were divided into 4663 groups. There were about 3326 homologous proteins in C. versatilis, Z. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. PMID:27234221

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel electricity-producing yeast, Candida sp. IR11.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae Gwan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-09-01

    A novel iron-reducing yeast, Candida sp. IR11, was isolated from an anodic biofilm in a MFC reactor fed glucose as a feedstock. 200-250 mV of voltage was produced in the air-cathode MFC inoculated with a pure culture of the strain IR11 where glucose was supplied as a feedstock. When the strain IR11 was inoculated into a conventional MFC treating rejected wastewater from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, maximum power density and coulombic efficiency were enhanced from 15.2 ± 0.36 to 20.6 ± 1.52 mW m(-2) and from 14.4 ± 0.45% to 21.9 ± 0.71%, respectively. In addition, the inoculation with IR11 improved COD removal from 79.1 ± 1.53% to 91.3 ± 5.29%. The quantitative PCR results showed that the strain IR11 successfully attached the anodic biofilm of the MFC reactors. These results indicate that Candida sp. IR11 is a promising biocatalyst for the enhancement of MFC performance. PMID:26092068

  20. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Y.; Cabelli D.; Stich, T.A.; Barnese, K.; Gralla, E.B.; Cascio, D.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2011-12-28

    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}). This behavior limits the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced at high [O{sub 2}{sup -}]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy, and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O{sub 2}{sup -}], the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn{sup 3+} species in yeast Mn{sup 3+}SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn{sup 3+} species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O{sub 2}{sup -}].

  1. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yuewei; Stich, Troy A.; Barnese, Kevin; Gralla, Edith B.; Cascio, Duilio; Britt, R. David; Cabelli, Diane E.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    2011-01-01

    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O2−). This behavior limits the amount of H2O2 produced at high [O2−]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H2O2 in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O2−] the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn3+ species in yeast Mn3+SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn3+ species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn3+ species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O2−]. PMID:22077216

  2. Candida species and other yeasts in the oral cavities of type 2 diabetic patients in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, María Inés; de Bernal, Matilde; Collazos, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida species and to study factors associated to oral cavity colonization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 107 diabetics were classified into controlled and uncontrolled according to glycosylated hemoglobin values. Each patient was assessed for stimulated salivary flow rates, pH, and an oral rinse to search for yeast. The study also determined the state of oral health via Klein and Palmer CPO indexes for permanent dentition, dental plaque by O'Leary, and a periodontal chart. Results: We found yeasts in 74.8% of the patients. A total of 36 of the 52 subjects with controlled diabetes presented yeasts and 44 in the uncontrolled; no significant differences (p = 0.2) were noted among the presence of yeasts and the control of blood glucose. The largest number of isolates corresponded to C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis. Uncontrolled individuals presented a significantly higher percentage of yeast different from C. albicans (p = 0.049). Conclusions: We found a high percentage of Candida colonization and uncontrolled individuals had greater diversity of species. The wide range of CFU/mL found both in patients with oral candidiasis, as well as in those without it did not permit distinguishing between colonization and disease. We only found association between isolation of yeasts and the low rate of salivary flow. PMID:24892318

  3. Candida queiroziae sp. nov., a cellobiose-fermenting yeast species isolated from rotting wood in Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Santos, Renata O; Cadete, Raquel M; Badotti, Fernanda; Mouro, Adriane; Wallheim, Daniela O; Gomes, Fátima C O; Stambuk, Boris U; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2011-03-01

    Eight strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from rotting wood and wood-boring insects in Atlantic Rain Forest ecosystems in Brazil. Sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that the yeast belongs to the Scheffersomyces clade and that it is related to Candida lignicola and Candida coipomoensis. The new species was isolated from rotting wood of three different localities and a wood-boring insect suggesting that these substrates are its ecological niche. This new yeast species is able to assimilate cellobiose and other compounds related to rotting wood. Strong fermentation of cellobiose in Durham tubes was observed for the strains of this new yeast. The new species produced an intracellular β-glucosidase responsible for cellobiose hydrolysis. The novel species, Candida queiroziae sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of C. queiroziae is UFMG-CLM 5.1(T) (=CBS 11853(T) = NRRL Y-48722(T)). PMID:21136162

  4. Endocytotic uptake of FITC-labeled anti-H. pylori egg yolk immunoglobulin Y in Candida yeast for detection of intracellular H. pylori

    PubMed Central

    Saniee, Parastoo; Siavoshi, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular life of Helicobacter pylori inside Candida yeast vacuole describes the establishment of H. pylori in yeast as a pre-adaptation to life in human epithelial cells. IgY-Hp conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) has been previously used for identification and localization of H. pylori inside the yeast vacuole. Here we examined whether FITC-IgY-Hp internalization into yeast follows the endocytosis pathway in yeast. Fluorescent microscopy was used to examine the entry of FITC-IgY-Hp into Candida yeast cells at different time intervals. The effect of low temperature, H2O2 or acetic acid on the internalization of labeled antibody was also examined. FITC-IgY-Hp internalization initiated within 0–5 min in 5–10% of yeast cells, increased to 20–40% after 30 min–1 h and reached >70% before 2 h. FITC-IgY-Hp traversed the pores of Candida yeast cell wall and reached the vacuole where it bound with H. pylori antigens. Internalization of FITC-IgY-Hp was inhibited by low temperature, H2O2 or acetic acid. It was concluded that internalization of FITC-IgY-Hp into yeast cell is a vital phenomenon and follows the endocytosis pathway. Furthermore, it was proposed that FITC-IgY-Hp internalization could be recruited for localization and identification of H. pylori inside the vacuole of Candida yeast. PMID:25852651

  5. The yeast Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) shows high genetic diversity in winemaking environments.

    PubMed

    Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle; Juquin, Elodie; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Renault, Philippe; Laizet, Yec'han; Salin, Franck; Alexandre, Hervé; Capozzi, Vittorio; Cocolin, Luca; Colonna-Ceccaldi, Benoit; Englezos, Vasileios; Girard, Patrick; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Lucas, Patrick; Mas, Albert; Nisiotou, Aspasia; Sipiczki, Matthias; Spano, Giuseppe; Tassou, Chrysoula; Bely, Marina; Albertin, Warren

    2015-08-01

    The yeast Candida zemplinina (Starmerella bacillaris) is frequently isolated from grape and wine environments. Its enological use in mixed fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively investigated these last few years, and several interesting features including low ethanol production, fructophily, glycerol and other metabolites production, have been described. In addition, molecular tools allowing the characterization of yeast populations have been developed, both at the inter- and intraspecific levels. However, most of these fingerprinting methods are not compatible with population genetics or ecological studies. In this work, we developed 10 microsatellite markers for the C. zemplinina species that were used for the genotyping of 163 strains from nature or various enological regions (28 vineyards/wineries from seven countries). We show that the genetic diversity of C. zemplinina is shaped by geographical localization. Populations isolated from winemaking environments are quite diverse at the genetic level: neither clonal-like behaviour nor specific genetic signature were associated with the different vineyards/wineries. Altogether, these results suggest that C. zemplinina is not under selective pressure in winemaking environments. PMID:26071435

  6. Development of a transformation system for the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata.

    PubMed

    Voronovsky, Andriy A; Abbas, Charles A; Fayura, Lyubov R; Kshanovska, Barbara V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sybirna, Kateryna A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2002-08-01

    Riboflavin-overproducing mutants of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata are used for industrial riboflavin production. This paper describes the development of an efficient transformation system for this species. Leucine-deficient mutants have been isolated from C. famata VKM Y-9 wild-type strain. Among them leu2 mutants were identified by transformation to leucine prototrophy with plasmids YEp13 and PRpL2 carrying the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEU2 gene. DNA fragments (called CfARSs) conferring increased transformation frequencies and extrachromosomal replication were isolated from a C. famata gene library constructed on the integrative vector containing the S. cerevisiae LEU2 gene as a selective marker. The smallest cloned fragment (CfARS16) has been sequenced. This one had high adenine plus thymine (A+T) base pair content and a sequence homologous to the S. cerevisiae ARS Consensus Sequence. Methods for spheroplast transformation and electrotransformation of the yeast C. famata were optimized. They conferred high transformation frequencies (up to 10(5) transformants per microg DNA) with a C. famata leu2 mutant using replicative plasmids containing the S. cerevisiae LEU2 gene as a selective marker. Riboflavin-deficient mutants were isolated from the C. famata leu2 strain and their biochemical identification was carried out. Using the developed transformation system, several C. famata genomic fragments complementing mutations of structural genes for riboflavin biosynthesis (coding for GTP cyclohydrolase, reductase, dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase and riboflavin synthase, respectively) have been cloned. PMID:12702288

  7. Insertion mutagenesis of the yeast Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii) by random integration of linear DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2006-09-01

    The feasibility of using random insertional mutagenesis to isolate mutants of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata was explored. Mutagenesis was performed by transformation of the yeast with an integrative plasmid containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEU2 gene as a selective marker. The addition of restriction enzyme together with the plasmid (restriction enzyme-mediated integration, REMI) increased the transformation frequency only slightly. Integration of the linearized plasmid occurred randomly in the C. famata genome. To investigate the potential of insertional mutagenesis, it was used for tagging genes involved in positive regulation of riboflavin synthesis in C. famata. Partial DNA sequencing of tagged genes showed that they were homologous to the S. cerevisiae genes RIB1, MET2, and SEF1. Intact orthologs of these genes isolated from Debaryomyces hansenii restored the wild phenotype of the corresponding mutants, i.e., the ability to overproduce riboflavin under iron limitation. The Staphylococcus aureus ble gene conferring resistance to phleomycin was used successfully in the study as a dominant selection marker for C. famata. The results obtained indicate that insertional mutagenesis is a powerful tool for tagging genes in C. famata. PMID:16770625

  8. Exploratory study on the clinical and mycological effectiveness of a herbal medicinal product from Solanum chrysotrichum in patients with Candida yeast-associated vaginal infection.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Martínez-Rivera, María de los Angeles; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica; Herrera-Alvarez, Sara; Salas-Andonaegui, María Luisa; Nava-Xalpa, María Yemina; Méndez-Salas, Ansberto; Tortoriello, Jaime

    2009-04-01

    Mexican traditional medicine uses Solanum chrysotrichum to treat fungi-associated dermal and mucosal illness; its methanolic extract is active against dermatophytes and yeasts. Different spirostanic saponins (SC-2-SC-6) were identified as the active molecules; SC-2 was the most active in demonstrating a fungicidal effect against Candida albicans and non-albicans strains. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical (elimination of signs and symptoms) and mycological effectiveness (negative mycological studies) of an S. chrysotrichum herbal medicinal product (Sc-hmp), standardized in 1.89 mg of SC-2, against ketoconazole (400 mg) in the topical treatment of cervical and/or vaginal infection by Candida. Both treatments (vaginal suppositories) were administered daily during 7 continuous nights. The study included 101 women (49 in the experimental group) with a confirmed clinical condition and positive mycological studies (direct examination and/or culture) of Candida infection. Basal conditions did not show differences between the groups; a moderate clinical picture was present in 62% of the cases, direct examination was positive in 69%, and the culture was positive with C. albicans predominating (65%). At the end of the administration period, both treatments demonstrated 100% tolerability, and clinical cure in 57.14% of S. chrysotrichum-treated cases and in 72.5% of ketoconazole-treated cases (p = 0.16), as well as 62.8% and 97.5% of mycological effectiveness, respectively (p = 0.0 001). We conclude that, at the doses used, Sc-hmp exhibits the same clinical effectiveness as ketoconazole, but with lower percentages of mycological eradication. Additional clinical studies with Sc-hmp are necessary, with increasing doses of SC-2, for improving the clinical and mycological effectiveness. PMID:19189246

  9. Candida pruni sp. nov. is a new yeast species with antagonistic potential against brown rot of peaches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dian-peng; Lu, Cai-ge; Zhang, Tao-tao; Spadaro, Davide; Liu, De-wen; Liu, Wei-cheng

    2014-07-01

    Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is among the most important postharvest diseases of commercially grown stone fruits, and application of antagonistic yeasts to control brown rot is one promising strategy alternative to chemical fungicides. In this research, new yeast strains were isolated and tested for their activity against peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Three yeast strains were originally isolated from the surface of plums (cv Chinese Angelino) collected in the north of China. In artificially wounded inoculation tests, the yeast reduced the brown rot incidence to 20 %. The population of the yeast within inoculated wounds on peaches significantly increased at 25 °C from an initial level of 5.0×10(6) to 4.45×10(7) CFU per wound after 1 day. The antagonistic strains were belonging to a new species of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26 S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region. The strains are most closely related to C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus on the basis of the phylogenetic trees based on the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. However, the strains are notably different from C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus, in morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the name Candida pruni is proposed for the novel species, with sp-Quan (=CBS12814T=KCTC 27526T=GCMC 6582T) as the type strain. Our study showed that Candida pruni is a novel yeast species with potential biocontrol against brown rot caused by M. fructicola on peaches. PMID:24908073

  10. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov. and Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeasts from flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Anne C; Morais, Camila G; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Luiz H; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated from nectar of flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae) collected in a Cerrado ecosystem in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov., which is closely related to Candida jalapaonensis, is heterothallic and produces one spheroid ascospore per ascus. Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov. belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and its nearest relative is Candida ubatubensis, but the sequence identity (%) in the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene is low. The type strain of W. pagnoccae is UFMG-F18C1(T) ( = CBS 12178(T) = NRRL Y-48735(T)) and the type strain of C. tocantinsensis is UFMG-F16D1(T) ( = CBS 12177(T) = NRRL Y-48734(T)). PMID:21478396

  11. Methanol regulated yeast promoters: production vehicles and toolbox for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Brigitte; Steiger, Matthias G; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2015-01-01

    Promoters are indispensable elements of a standardized parts collection for synthetic biology. Regulated promoters of a wide variety of well-defined induction ratios and expression strengths are highly interesting for many applications. Exemplarily, we discuss the application of published genome scale transcriptomics data for the primary selection of methanol inducible promoters of the yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella sp.). Such a promoter collection can serve as an excellent toolbox for cell and metabolic engineering, and for gene expression to produce heterologous proteins. PMID:26627685

  12. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Baharuddin, Nur Saeida; Abdullah, Hasmah; Abdul Wahab, Wan Nor Amilah Wan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the two-fold serial dilution technique of concentrations ranging from 16 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. After 24 h, the minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined by subculturing the wells, which showed no turbidity on the agar plate. Potential phytochemical group in the crude extracts was screened by phytochemical qualitative tests and subsequently subjected to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Both methanol and aqueous extracts displayed substantial anti-Candida activity and pyrogallol was the major component of both crude extracts. Conclusions: Data from current study suggested that Q. infectoria gall extracts are a potential source to be developed as anti-candidiasis. PMID:25709331

  13. Spectrophotometric evaluation of selenium binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeast.

    PubMed

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Płaczek, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the ability of selenium binding the biomas of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 was investigated. Sodium selenite(IV) salts were added to the experimental media at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 60mg Se(4+) L(-1). In the tested concentration range, one concentration reported a significant reduction in the biomass yield of both yeast strains. Intense growth was observed for C. utilis yeast, which reached the highest biomass yield of 15gd.w.L(-1) after 24h cultivation in the presence of 10mg Se(4+) L(-1). Based on the use of spectrophotometric method for the determination of selenium content by using Variamine Blue as a chromogenic agent, efficient accumulation of this element in the biomass of the investigated yeast was observed. The highest amount of selenium, that is, 5.64mg Se(4+)gd.w.(-1), was bound from the environment by S. cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 cultured in the presence of 60mg Se(4+) L(-1) medium 72h Slightly less amount, 5.47mg Se(4+) gd.w.(-1), was absorbed by C. utilis ATCC 9950 during similar cultural conditions. Based on the results of the biomass yield and the use of selenium from the medium, it can be observed that yeasts of the genus Candida are more efficient in binding this element, and this property finds practical application in the production of selenium-enriched yeast. PMID:27049131

  14. New anamorphic yeast species: Candida infanticola sp. nov., Candida polysorbophila sp. nov., Candida transvaalensis sp. nov., and Trigonopsis californica sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Candida and a new species of Trigonopsis are described based on their recognition from phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from large subunit ribosomal RNA, ITS1/ITS2 rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II. Candida infanticola sp. nov. (type strain...

  15. Four novel yeasts species from decaying organic matter: Blastobotrys robertii sp. nov., Candida cretensis sp. nov., Candida scorzettiae sp. nov. and Candida vadensis sp. nov

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four novel Candida species are described, two from decaying mushrooms, viz. Candida cretensis and C. vadensis, and two from rotten wood, viz. C. robertii and C. scorzettiae. Accession numbers for the CBS and ARS culture collections, and GenBank accession numbers for the D1/D2 region of the large su...

  16. The Evaluation of the Distribution of Yeast like Fungi 'Candida Species' at a Tertiary Care Center in Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ece, Gulfem; Samlioglu, Pinar; Akkoclu, Gulgun; Atalay, Sabri; Kose, Sukran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Candida infections have increased due to transplant patients, prolonged ICU stay and invasive procedures. The most common isolated strain is C. albicans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida isolates at Tepecik Education and Research Hospital. Materials and Methods: Yeast like fungi were isolated between 13.01.2010 and 19.08.2011 at Mycology Laboratory. The identification was done by conventional methods and carbohydrate assimilation profile using the ID32C identification system (Biomerieux, France). Results: Yeast like fungi were isolated from 337 clinical specimens. They consisted of urine, blood culture, respiratory specimen and wound. The most isolated yeast strains were C.albicans (38.6%), C.tropicalis (13.9%), C. parapsilosis (28.4%), C.glabrata (7.4%), C.krusei (3.8%). Conclusion: Recently there is an increment in Candida infections. In this study the most common strain was C.albicans and the rate C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates were lower than expected. C. parapsilosis was the most isolated strain in blood cultures and this may be due to invasive procedures and the use of indwelling catheters. PMID:23028245

  17. Isolation and characterization of Candida membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie W14-3, a novel riboflavin-producing marine yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Chi, Zhenmin; Wang, Xianghong; Ju, Liang; Chi, Zhe; Guo, Ning

    2008-01-01

    We found that the marine yeast strain W14-3 isolated from seawater of China Eastern Sea could produce riboflavin. It is interesting to observe that the marine yeast strain produced a large amount of riboflavin in the medium containing xylose, sucrose, galactose and maltose under the conditions of vigorous shaking. The yeast strain was found to belong to Candida membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie based on the results of routine and molecular identification. The protein sequences deduced from the partial genes encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase in the yeast exhibited high identity with those of the corresponding enzymes for riboflavin biosynthesis in other yeasts. Fe(3+) available in the medium repressed riboflavin production and expression of the genes responsible for riboflavin biosynthesis in the yeast. The results have evidenced that a riboflavin synthesis pathway indeed existed in the yeast. This is the first study to report that C. membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie W14-3 from the marine environment could produce riboflavin. PMID:18262398

  18. Presence of two transcribed malate synthase genes in an n-alkane-utilizing yeast, Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Hikida, M; Atomi, H; Fukuda, Y; Aoki, A; Hishida, T; Teranishi, Y; Ueda, M; Tanaka, A

    1991-12-01

    The presence of two genomic DNA regions encoding malate synthase (MS) was shown by Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNA from an n-alkane-assimilating yeast, Candida tropicalis, using a partial MS cDNA probe, in accordance with the fact that two types of partial MS cDNAs have previously been isolated. This was also confirmed by the restriction mapping of the two genes screened from the yeast lambda EMBL library. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the respective genomic DNAs, named MS-1 gene and MS-2 gene, revealed that both regions encoding MS had the same length of 1,653 base pairs, corresponding to 551 amino acids (molecular mass of MS-1, 62,448 Da; MS-2, 62,421 Da). Although 29 nucleotide pairs differed in the sequences of the coding regions, the number of amino acid replacements was only one: 159Asn (MS-1)----159Ser (MS-2). In the 5'-flanking regions, there were replacements of four nucleotide pairs, deletion of one pair, and insertion of four pairs. In spite of the fact that two genomic genes were present and transcribed, RNA blot analysis demonstrated that only one band (about 2 kb) was observable even when the carbon sources in the cultivation medium were changed. A comparison of the amino acid sequences was made with MSs of rape (Brassica napus L.), cucumber seed, pumpkin seed, Escherichia coli, and Hansenula polymorpha. A high homology was observed among these enzymes, the results indicating that the protein structure was relatively well conserved through the evolution of the molecule.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1794980

  19. Metabolic and bioprocess engineering of the yeast Candida famata for FAD production.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshyn, Valentyna Y; Fedorovych, Dariya V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2014-05-01

    Flavins in the form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) play an important role in metabolism as cofactors for oxidoreductases and other enzymes. Flavin nucleotides have applications in the food industry and medicine; FAD supplements have been efficiently used for treatment of some inheritable diseases. FAD is produced biotechnologically; however, this compound is much more expensive than riboflavin. Flavinogenic yeast Candida famata synthesizes FAD from FMN and ATP in the reaction catalyzed by FAD synthetase, a product of the FAD1 gene. Expression of FAD1 from the strong constitutive promoter TEF1 resulted in 7- to 15-fold increase in FAD synthetase activity, FAD overproduction, and secretion to the culture medium. The effectiveness of FAD production under different growth conditions by one of these recombinant strains, C. famata T-FD-FM 27, was evaluated. First, the two-level Plackett-Burman design was performed to screen medium components that significantly influence FAD production. Second, central composite design was adopted to investigate the optimum value of the selected factors for achieving maximum FAD yield. FAD production varied most significantly in response to concentrations of adenine, KH2PO4, glycine, and (NH4)2SO4. Implementation of these optimization strategies resulted in 65-fold increase in FAD production when compared to the non-optimized control conditions. Recombinant strain that has been cultivated for 40 h under optimized conditions achieved a FAD accumulation of 451 mg/l. So, for the first time yeast strains overproducing FAD were obtained, and the growth media composition for maximum production of this nucleotide was designed. PMID:24595668

  20. Iron-depletion promotes mitophagy to maintain mitochondrial integrity in pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Nagi, Minoru; Tanabe, Koichi; Nakayama, Hironobu; Ueno, Keigo; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Umeyama, Takashi; Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-08-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid budding yeast, is the cause of severe systemic infections in immune-compromised hosts. The amount of free iron supplied to C. glabrata cells during systemic infections is severely limited by iron-chelating proteins such as transferrin. Thus, the iron-deficiency response in C. glabrata cells is thought to play important roles in their survival inside the host's body. In this study, we found that mitophagy was induced under iron-depleted conditions, and that the disruption of a gene homologous to ATG32, which is responsible for mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, blocked mitophagy in C. glabrata. The mitophagic activity in C. glabrata cells was not detected on short-period exposure to nitrogen-starved conditions, which is a mitophagy-inducing condition used in S. cerevisiae. The mitophagy-deficient atg32Δ mutant of C. glabrata also exhibited decreased longevity under iron-deficient conditions. The mitochondrial membrane potential in Cgatg32Δ cells was significantly lower than that in wild-type cells under iron-depleted conditions. In a mouse model of disseminated infection, the Cgatg32Δ strain resulted in significantly decreased kidney and spleen fungal burdens compared with the wild-type strain. These results indicate that mitophagy in C. glabrata occurs in an iron-poor host tissue environment, and it may contribute to the longevity of cells, mitochondrial quality control, and pathogenesis. PMID:27347716

  1. Disentangling metabolic pathways involved in copper resistance in Candida fukuyamaensis RCL-3 indigenous yeast.

    PubMed

    Irazusta, Verónica; Michel, Lucas; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2016-07-01

    Candida fukuyamaensis RCL-3 yeast strain isolated from a copper filter plant is able to lower copper concentration in culture medium. In the present study, effect of copper in proteins expression and mechanisms involved in copper resistance were explored using comparative proteomics. Mono-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed differential band expressions between cells grown with or without copper. 2-DE analysis of C. fukuyamaensis RCL-3 revealed that copper exposure produced at least an over-expression of 40 proteins. Sixteen proteins were identified and grouped in four categories according to their functions: glycolysis and ATP production, synthesis of proteins, oxidative stress response, and processing and transport of proteins. Integral membrane proteins and membrane-associated proteins were analyzed, showing nine protein bands over-expressed in Cu-supplemented medium. Four proteins were identified, namely nucleoporin pom152, elongation factor 2, copper chaperone Sod1 Ccs1, and eiosome component Lsp1. The proteomic analysis performed allowed the identification of different metabolic pathways and certain proteins involved in metal input and storage related to cell ability to bioremediate copper. These proteins and mechanisms could be used for future applications of C. fukuyamaensis RCL-3 in biotechnological processes such as remediation of heavy metals. PMID:26568043

  2. Iron-depletion promotes mitophagy to maintain mitochondrial integrity in pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, Minoru; Tanabe, Koichi; Nakayama, Hironobu; Ueno, Keigo; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Umeyama, Takashi; Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida glabrata, a haploid budding yeast, is the cause of severe systemic infections in immune-compromised hosts. The amount of free iron supplied to C. glabrata cells during systemic infections is severely limited by iron-chelating proteins such as transferrin. Thus, the iron-deficiency response in C. glabrata cells is thought to play important roles in their survival inside the host's body. In this study, we found that mitophagy was induced under iron-depleted conditions, and that the disruption of a gene homologous to ATG32, which is responsible for mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, blocked mitophagy in C. glabrata. The mitophagic activity in C. glabrata cells was not detected on short-period exposure to nitrogen-starved conditions, which is a mitophagy-inducing condition used in S. cerevisiae. The mitophagy-deficient atg32Δ mutant of C. glabrata also exhibited decreased longevity under iron-deficient conditions. The mitochondrial membrane potential in Cgatg32Δ cells was significantly lower than that in wild-type cells under iron-depleted conditions. In a mouse model of disseminated infection, the Cgatg32Δ strain resulted in significantly decreased kidney and spleen fungal burdens compared with the wild-type strain. These results indicate that mitophagy in C. glabrata occurs in an iron-poor host tissue environment, and it may contribute to the longevity of cells, mitochondrial quality control, and pathogenesis. PMID:27347716

  3. Dual crosslinked iminoboronate-chitosan hydrogels with strong antifungal activity against Candida planktonic yeasts and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ailincai, Daniela; Marin, Luminita; Morariu, Simona; Mares, Mihai; Bostanaru, Andra-Cristina; Pinteala, Mariana; Simionescu, Bogdan C; Barboiu, Mihai

    2016-11-01

    Chitosan based hydrogels are a class of cross-linked materials intensely studied for their biomedical, industrial and environmental application, but their biomedical use is limited because of the toxicity of different organic crosslinkers. To overcome this disadvantage, a new strategy to produce supramolecular chitosan hydrogels using low molecular weight compounds able to form covalent linkages and H-bonds to give a dual crosslinking is proposed. For this purpose we used 2-formylphenylboronic acid, which brings the advantage of imine stabilization via iminoboronate formation and potential antifungal activity due to the presence of boric acid residue. FTIR and NMR spectroscopy indicated that the gelling process took place by chemo-physical crosslinking forming a dual iminoboronate-chitosan network. Further, X-ray diffraction demonstrated a three-dimensional nanostructuring of the iminoboronate network with consequences on the micrometer-scale morphology and on the improvement of mechanical properties, as demonstrated by SEM and rheological investigation. The hydrogels proved strong antifungal activity against Candida planktonic yeasts and biofilms, promising to be a friendly treatment of the recurrent vulvovaginitis infections. PMID:27516277

  4. Novel Structural Features in Candida albicans Hyphal Glucan Provide a Basis for Differential Innate Immune Recognition of Hyphae Versus Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Lowman, Douglas W.; Greene, Rachel R.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Kruppa, Michael D.; Pottier, Max; Monteiro, Mario A.; Soldatov, Dmitriy V.; Ensley, Harry E.; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Netea, Mihai G.; Williams, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system differentially recognizes Candida albicans yeast and hyphae. It is not clear how the innate immune system effectively discriminates between yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans. Glucans are major components of the fungal cell wall and key fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C. albicans yeast glucan has been characterized; however, little is known about glucan structure in C. albicans hyphae. Using an extraction procedure that minimizes degradation of the native structure, we extracted glucans from C. albicans hyphal cell walls. 1H NMR data analysis revealed that, when compared with reference (1→3,1→6) β-linked glucans and C. albicans yeast glucan, hyphal glucan has a unique cyclical or “closed chain” structure that is not found in yeast glucan. GC/MS analyses showed a high abundance of 3- and 6-linked glucose units when compared with yeast β-glucan. In addition to the expected (1→3), (1→6), and 3,6 linkages, we also identified a 2,3 linkage that has not been reported previously in C. albicans. Hyphal glucan induced robust immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages via a Dectin-1-dependent mechanism. In contrast, C. albicans yeast glucan was a much less potent stimulus. We also demonstrated the capacity of C. albicans hyphal glucan, but not yeast glucan, to induce IL-1β processing and secretion. This finding provides important evidence for understanding the immune discrimination between colonization and invasion at the mucosal level. When taken together, these data provide a structural basis for differential innate immune recognition of C. albicans yeast versus hyphae. PMID:24344127

  5. Using ammonium-tolerant yeast isolates: Candida halophila and Rhodotorula glutinis to treat high strength fermentative wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Yang, M; Hei, L; Zheng, S

    2003-03-01

    Two ammonium-tolerant yeast strains were isolated from sludge samples contaminated with monosodium glutamate manufacturing wastewater and were identified as Candida haplophila and Rhodotorula glutinis. The tolerance of the two yeast isolates to ammonia and their chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal perfomances were evaluated under batch and bench-scale conditions. The mixture of the two isolates was found to grow well in an artificial medium containing 25% (NH4)2SO4 and could effectively remove COD from monosodium glutamate wastewater even when the concentrations of NH4+-N and free NH3-N reached as high as 18,977 and 879 mg l(-1) respectively. A fixed-bed yeast reactor, which was initially inoculated with the yeast mixture, permitted a constant COD removal rate of over 80% during a period of near 2-month continuous running even when the influent COD was increased from 8,000 to 25,000 mg l(-1). The effluent was accompanied with suspended solids (SS) of over 4,500 mg l(-1), which was mainly composed of yeast cells and could be considered as a source of animal forage additive. The residual COD of effluents from the yeast reactor could be further reduced to under 500 mg l(-1) by a combination process of activated sludge treatment and coagulation technologies. PMID:12703863

  6. Candida digboiensis sp. nov., a novel anamorphic yeast species from an acidic tar sludge-contaminated oilfield.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G S; Mayilraj, S; Sood, Nitu; Singh, Vijeyta; Biswas, Kakoli; Lal, Banwari

    2005-03-01

    Two strains (TERI-6(T) and TERI-7) of a novel yeast species were isolated from acidic tar sludge-contaminated soil samples collected from Digboi Refinery, Assam, India. These two yeast strains were morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically identical to each other. No sexual reproduction was observed on corn meal, malt, Gorodkowa, YM or V8 agars. Physiologically, the novel isolates were most closely related to Candida blankii, but differed in eight physiological tests. The prominent differences were the ability of the isolates to assimilate melibiose and inulin and their inability to assimilate d-glucuronate, succinate and citrate. Phylogenetic analysis using the D1/D2 variable domain showed that the closest relative of these strains is C. blankii (2.8 % divergence). Other related species are Zygoascus hellenicus and Candida bituminiphila. The isolates differed from C. blankii by 11 base substitutions in the 18S rRNA gene sequence and by 58 base substitutions in the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The physiological, biochemical and molecular data support the contention that strains TERI-6(T) and TERI-7 represent a novel species, for which the name Candida digboiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TERI-6(T) (=MTCC 4371(T)=CBS 9800(T)=JCM 12300(T)). PMID:15774693

  7. Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407...

  8. Evaluation of PNA FISH® Yeast Traffic Light in identification of Candida species from blood and non-blood culture specimens.

    PubMed

    Radic, Marina; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Tonkic, Marija

    2016-08-01

    PNA FISH(®) (peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization) Yeast Traffic Light (PNA FISH(®) YTL) assay is a commercially avaliable method for rapid identification of Candida spp. directly from positive blood cultures. This report provides a one-year experience in identification of yeasts from 25 specimens (15 positive blood cultures and 10 other clinically significant specimens) using PNA FISH(®) YTL and comparing it to VITEK 2 System. Overall, assay identification compatibility with VITEK 2 System was found among 21/25 (84%) isolates tested. Only 3/25 (12%) of the isolates were not identified, and one isolate was misidentified by the PNA FISH(®) YTL assay. Our results show that the assay is a reliable method in identification of Candida spp. not only from blood cultures, but even from other clinically significant specimens (urine cultures, catheter tip cultures, peritoneal fluid cultures) when compared to automated method like VITEK 2 System. This novel application of the PNA FISH(®) YTL assay could therefore contribute to cost savings and significant benefit to patients, as rapid information about isolated yeast species is provided. PMID:27067303

  9. Selective Advantages of a Parasexual Cycle for the Yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningxin; Magee, Beatrice B; Magee, Paul T; Holland, Barbara R; Rodrigues, Ely; Holmes, Ann R; Cannon, Richard D; Schmid, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The yeast Candida albicans can mate. However, in the natural environment mating may generate progeny (fusants) fitter than clonal lineages too rarely to render mating biologically significant: C. albicans has never been observed to mate in its natural environment, the human host, and the population structure of the species is largely clonal. It seems incapable of meiosis, and most isolates are diploid and carry both mating-type-like (MTL) locus alleles, preventing mating. Only chromosome loss or localized loss of heterozygosity can generate mating-competent cells, and recombination of parental alleles is limited. To determine if mating is a biologically significant process, we investigated if mating is under selection. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations in mating genes and the frequency of mutations abolishing mating indicated that mating is under selection. The MTL locus is located on chromosome 5, and when we induced chromosome 5 loss in 10 clinical isolates, most of the resulting MTL-homozygotes could mate with each other, producing fusants. In laboratory culture, a novel environment favoring novel genotypes, some fusants grew faster than their parents, in which loss of heterozygosity had reduced growth rates, and also faster than their MTL-heterozygous ancestors-albeit often only after serial propagation. In a small number of experiments in which co-inoculation of an oral colonization model with MTL-homozygotes yielded small numbers of fusants, their numbers declined over time relative to those of the parents. Overall, our results indicate that mating generates genotypes superior to existing MTL-heterozygotes often enough to be under selection. PMID:26063661

  10. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... these infections are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like fungus, although other species of Candida are ... in some cases. Teenaged girls who develop a yeast infection of the vagina and the surrounding area ...

  11. Candida lignophila sp. nov., a new basidiomycetous yeast anamorph from rotting wood of Drimys winteri.

    PubMed

    Dill, I; Ramírez, C; González, A

    1984-01-01

    Two strains of an undescribed Candida species were isolated from samples of a rotting trunk of Drimys winteri collected on the isle of Chiloé in South Chile. A description of the new species Candida lignophila is given and its relationship to other species is discussed with particular emphasis on its typical basidiomycetous properties as well as on its ecological habitat. PMID:6541456

  12. Ogataea saltuana sp. nov., a novel methanol-assimilating yeast species.

    PubMed

    Péter, Gábor; Dlauchy, Dénes; Tornai-Lehoczki, Judit; Gouliamova, Dilnora; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2011-10-01

    Four ascosporulating strains of an undescribed methanol-assimilating yeast species were isolated from forest habitats in Hungary. Three were recovered from rotten wood and one from leaves of a sessile oak (Quercus petraea). An additional isolate of the undescribed species sharing similar phenotypic characters with the above-noted strains was recovered from the gut of an unidentified beetle collected from under the bark of a coniferous tree in Bulgaria. A closely related, but somewhat divergent strain was recovered from insect frass in a Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) collected in New Mexico, USA. Analysis of the D1/D2 sequences of the LSU rRNA gene placed the new species in the Ogataea clade. The ITS and the D1/D2 LSU sequences of the rRNA gene repeats were compared for the above-noted strains and that of the type strain of Ogataea zsoltii, the closest neighbour among currently recognized Ogataea species. Their relatedness was investigated by parsimony network analysis as well. As a result of the sequence analysis, it was concluded that the six strains isolated from tree associated habitats represent a single new yeast species. Ogataea saltuana sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain NCAIM Y.01833(T) (CBS 10795(T), NRRL Y-48448(T)) was recovered from rotten wood of Scotch pine (Pinus silvestris) in Hungary. The GenBank accession number for the D1/D2 domain nuclear large subunit rRNA gene sequence of strain NCAIM Y.01833(T) (CBS 10795(T), NRRL Y-48448(T)) is EU327033. The MycoBank number of the new species is MB 519966. PMID:21618050

  13. Candida duobushaemulonii: an emerging rare pathogenic yeast isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Boatto, Humberto Fabio; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Del Negro, Gilda MB; Girão, Manoel João BC; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Ishida, Kelly; Gompertz, Olga Fischman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Candida species isolated from women diagnosed with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and their partners; and to evaluate the fluconazole (FLZ) susceptibility of the isolates. In a period of six years, among 172 patients diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis, 13 women that presented RVVC and their partners were selected for this investigation. The isolates were obtained using Chromagar Candida medium, the species identification was performed by phenotypic and molecular methods and FLZ susceptibility was evaluated by E-test. Among 26 strains we identified 14Candida albicans, six Candida duobushaemulonii, four Candida glabrata, and twoCandida tropicalis. Agreement of the isolated species occurred in 100% of the couples. FLZ low susceptibility was observed for all isolates of C. duobushaemulonii (minimal inhibitory concentration values from 8-> 64 µg/mL), two C. glabrataisolates were FLZ-resistant and all C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates were FLZ-susceptible. This report emphasises the importance of accurate identification of the fungal agents by a reliable molecular technique in RVVC episodes besides the lower antifungal susceptibility profile of this rare pathogen C. duobushaemulonii to FLZ. PMID:27304096

  14. Candida duobushaemulonii: an emerging rare pathogenic yeast isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boatto, Humberto Fabio; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Del Negro, Gilda Mb; Girão, Manoel João Bc; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Ishida, Kelly; Gompertz, Olga Fischman

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Candida species isolated from women diagnosed with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and their partners; and to evaluate the fluconazole (FLZ) susceptibility of the isolates. In a period of six years, among 172 patients diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis, 13 women that presented RVVC and their partners were selected for this investigation. The isolates were obtained using Chromagar Candida medium, the species identification was performed by phenotypic and molecular methods and FLZ susceptibility was evaluated by E-test. Among 26 strains we identified 14 Candida albicans, six Candida duobushaemulonii, four Candida glabrata, and two Candida tropicalis. Agreement of the isolated species occurred in 100% of the couples. FLZ low susceptibility was observed for all isolates of C. duobushaemulonii (minimal inhibitory concentration values from 8-> 64 µg/mL), two C. glabrata isolates were FLZ-resistant and all C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates were FLZ-susceptible. This report emphasises the importance of accurate identification of the fungal agents by a reliable molecular technique in RVVC episodes besides the lower antifungal susceptibility profile of this rare pathogen C. duobushaemulonii to FLZ. PMID:27304096

  15. Comparative Study of the New Colorimetric VITEK 2 Yeast Identification Card versus the Older Fluorometric Card and of CHROMagar Candida as a Source Medium with the New Card

    PubMed Central

    Aubertine, C. L.; Rivera, M.; Rohan, S. M.; Larone, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    The new VITEK 2 colorimetric card was compared to the previous fluorometric card for identification of yeast. API 20C was considered the “gold standard.” The new card consistently performed better than the older card. Isolates from CHROMagar Candida plates were identified equally as well as those from Sabouraud dextrose agar. PMID:16390976

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALKANE-INDUCIBLE CYTOCHROME P450 (P450ALK) GENE FROM THE YEAST CANDIDA TROPICALIS: IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW P450 GENE FAMILY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The P450ALK gene, which is inducible by the assimilation of alkane in Candida tropicalis, was sequenced and characterized. tructural features described in promoter and terminator regions of Saccharomyces yeast genes are present in the P450alk gene and some particular structures a...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALKANE-INDUCIBLE CYTOCHROME P450 (P450ALK) GENE FROM THE YEAST CANDIDA TROPICALIS: IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW P450 FAMILY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The P450alk gene, which is inducible by the assimilation of alkane in Candida tropicalis, was sequenced and characterized. Structural features described in promoter and terminator regions of Saccharomyces yeast genes are present in the P450alk gene and some particular structures ...

  18. [The cellular acid phosphatase activity in yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida exposed to ultrasound, polyene antibiotics and dyes].

    PubMed

    Sergeev, P V; Romanenko, I M; Ukhina, T V

    1993-09-01

    The activity of one of the lysosomal membrane marker enzymes--acid phosphatase from the Candida yeast fungi on their exposure to ultrasound (US), polyenic antibiotics (amphotericin B and nystatin) dye antiseptics (ethacridine lactate, methylene blue), and their combinations was assayed. The impact of US and the drugs, in particular their combination, was found to be followed by activation of the fungal lysosomal apparatus function and increases in their catabolic processes. The highest rise in lysosomal catabolic activity was found when the polyenic antibiotics were used in combination with US, which reflects the higher damaging effect of this combination against Candida lysosomal membranes than the dyes and of these antibiotics and US alone. The studies provide strong evidence for the preference of the combined use of US and the polyenic antibiotics in candidiasis as a factor enhancing their fungicidal effect against Candida yeast fungi. PMID:8118000

  19. Methanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methanol ; CASRN 67 - 56 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  20. Action of Chlorhexidine Digluconate against Yeast and Filamentous Forms in an Early-Stage Candida albicans Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Suci, Peter A.; Tyler, Bonnie J.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ method for sensitive detection of differences in the action of chlorhexidine against subpopulations of cells in Candida albicans biofilms is described. Detection relies on monitoring the kinetics of propidium iodide (PI) penetration into the cytoplasm of individual cells during dosing with chlorhexidine. Accurate estimation of the time for delivery of the dosing concentration to the substratum was facilitated by using a flow cell system for which transport to the interfacial region was previously characterized. A model was developed to quantify rates of PI penetration based on the shape of the kinetic data curves. Yeast were seeded onto the substratum, and biofilm formation was monitored microscopically for 3 h. During this period a portion of the yeast germinated, producing filamentous forms (both hyphae and pseudohyphae). When the population was subdivided on the basis of cell morphology, rates of PI penetration into filamentous forms appeared to be substantially higher than for yeast forms. Based on the model, rates of penetration were assigned to individual cells. These data indicated that the difference in rates between the two subpopulations was statistically significant (unpaired t test, P < 0.0001). A histogram of rates and analysis of variance indicated that rates were approximately equally distributed among different filamentous forms and between apical and subapical segments of filamentous forms. PMID:12384360

  1. Suppressive-subtractive cDNA analysis indicates that elevated yeast antioxidant gene expression is associated with increased stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy in the antagonistic yeast, Candida Oleophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several yeast species have been used as biocontrol agents against postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables. The objectives of the current study are to develop a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in relation to viability and biocontrol activity of Candida oleophi...

  2. Scanning electron microscopy as a tool for the analysis of colony architecture produced by phenotypic switching of a human pathogenic yeast Candida tropicalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlaneto, M. C.; Andrade, C. G. T. J.; Aragão, P. H. A.; França, E. J. G.; Moralez, A. T. P.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

    2012-07-01

    Candida tropicalis has been identified as one of the most prevalent pathogenic yeast species of the Candida-non-albicans group. Phenotypic switching is a biological phenomenon related to the occurrence of spontaneous emergence of colonies with different morphologies that provides variability within colonizing populations in order to adapt to different environments. Currently, studies of the microstructure of switching variant colonies are not subject of extensive research. SEM analysis was used to verify the architecture of whole Candida colonies. The strain 49/07 exhibited a hemispherical shape character, while the strain 335/07 showed a volcano shape with mycelated-edge colony. The ring switch variant is characterized by a highly wrinkled centre and an irregular periphery. The rough phenotype exhibited a three-dimensional architecture and was characterized by the presence of deep central and peripheral depressions areas. The ultrastructural analysis also allowed the observation of the arrangement of individual cells within the colonies. The whole smooth colony consisted entirely of yeast cells. Differently, aerial filaments were found all around the colony periphery of the volcano shape colony. For this colony type the mycelated-edge consisted mainly of hyphae, although yeast cells are also seen. The ring and rough colonies phenotypes comprised mainly yeast cells with the presence of extracellular material connecting neighbouring cells. This study has shown that SEM can be used effectively to examine the microarchitecture of colonies morphotypes of the yeast C. tropicalis and further our understanding of switching event in this pathogen.

  3. Candida famata (Candida flareri).

    PubMed

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2012-11-01

    Candida famata (Candida flareri) belongs to the group of so-called 'flavinogenic yeasts', capable of riboflavin oversynthesis under condition of iron starvation. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known and were used for industrial production of riboflavin for a long time in the USA. C. famata is characterized by high salt tolerance, growing at NaCl concentrations of up to 2.5  M. Development of basic tools for the metabolic engineering of C. famata, such as a transformation system, selective markers, insertional mutagenesis, a reporter system and others, are described. The developed tools were used for cloning and identification of structural and regulatory genes of riboflavin synthesis. The construction of improved yeast strains producing riboflavin, FMN and FAD, based on the industrial riboflavin-producing strain dep8 and its non-reverting analogue AF4, is also described. PMID:23108915

  4. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics, it can multiply and cause an infection. Yeast infections affect different parts of the body in different ways: Thrush is a yeast infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida ...

  5. Effects of Selenium on Morphological Changes in Candida utilis ATCC 9950 Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna; Kurcz, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results of microscopic examinations of the yeast cells cultured in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) media supplemented with sodium selenite(IV). The analysis of the morphological changes in yeast cells aimed to determine whether the selected selenium doses and culturing time may affect this element accumulation in yeast cell structures in a form of inorganic or organic compounds, as a result of detoxification processes. The range of characteristic morphological changes in yeasts cultivated in experimental media with sodium selenite(IV) was observed, including cell shrinkage and cytoplasm thickening of the changes within vacuole structure. The processes of vacuole disintegration were observed in aging yeast cells in culturing medium, which may indicate the presence of so-called ghost cells lacking intracellular organelles The changes occurring in the morphology of yeasts cultured in media supplemented with sodium selenite were typical for stationary phase of yeast growth. From detailed microscopic observations, larger surface area of the cell (6.03 μm(2)) and yeast vacuole (2.17 μm(2)) were noticed after 24-h culturing in the medium with selenium of 20 mg Se(4+)/L. The coefficient of shape of the yeast cells cultured in media enriched with sodium selenite as well as in the control YPD medium ranged from 1.02 to 1.22. Elongation of cultivation time (up to 48 and 72 h) in the media supplemented with sodium selenite caused a reduction in the surface area of the yeast cell and vacuole due to detoxification processes. PMID:26166197

  6. Utilization of xylan by yeasts and its conversion to ethanol by Pichia stipitis strains. [Cryptococcus; Pichia stipitis; Candida shehatae

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Biely, P.; Latta, R.K.; Barbosa, M.F.S.; Schneider, H.

    1986-08-01

    Yeasts able to grow on D-xylose were screened for the ability to hydrolyze xylan. Xylanase activity was found to be rare; a total of only 19 of more than 250 strains yielded a positive test result. The activity was localized largely in the genus Cryptococcus and in Pichia stipitis and its anamorph Candida shehatae. The ability to hydrolyze xylan was generally uncoupled from that to hydrolyze cellulose; only three of the xylan-positive strains also yielded a positive test for cellulolytic activity. Of the 19 xylanolytic strains. 2. P. stipitis CBS 5773 and CBS 5775, converted xylan into ethanol, with about 60% of a theoretical yield computed on the basis of the amount of D-xylose present originally that could be released by acid hydrolysis.

  7. Two glucose/xylose transporter genes from the yeast Candida intermedia: first molecular characterization of a yeast xylose–H+ symporter

    PubMed Central

    Leandro, Maria José; Gonçalves, Paula; Spencer-Martins, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Candida intermedia PYCC 4715 was previously shown to grow well on xylose and to transport this sugar by two different transport systems: high-capacity and low-affinity facilitated diffusion and a high-affinity xylose–proton symporter, both of which accept glucose as a substrate. Here we report the isolation of genes encoding both transporters, designated GXF1 (glucose/xylose facilitator 1) and GXS1 (glucose/xylose symporter 1) respectively. Although GXF1 was isolated by functional complementation of an HXT-null (where Hxt refers to hexose transporters) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, isolation of the GXS1 cDNA required partial purification and micro-sequencing of the transporter, identified by its relative abundance in cells grown on low xylose concentrations. Both genes were expressed in S. cerevisiae and the kinetic parameters of glucose and xylose transport were determined. Gxs1 is the first yeast xylose/glucose–H+ symporter to be characterized at the molecular level. Comparison of its amino acid sequence with available sequence data revealed the existence of a family of putative monosaccharide–H+ symporters encompassing proteins from several yeasts and filamentous fungi. PMID:16402921

  8. Genome-scale metabolic modeling and in silico analysis of lipid accumulating yeast Candida tropicalis for dicarboxylic acid production.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pranjul; Park, Gyu-Yeon; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Lee, Hee-Seok; Lee, Hongweon; Chang, Matthew Wook; Ching, Chi Bun; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the bio-production of α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has gained significant attention, which potentially leads to the replacement of the conventional petroleum-based products. In this regard, the lipid accumulating yeast Candida tropicalis, has been recognized as a promising microbial host for DCA biosynthesis: it possess the unique ω-oxidation pathway where the terminal carbon of α-fatty acids is oxidized to form DCAs with varying chain lengths. However, despite such industrial importance, its cellular physiology and lipid accumulation capability remain largely uncharacterized. Thus, it is imperative to better understand the metabolic behavior of this lipogenic yeast, which could be achieved by a systems biological approach. To this end, herein, we reconstructed the genome-scale metabolic model of C. tropicalis, iCT646, accounting for 646 unique genes, 945 metabolic reactions, and 712 metabolites. Initially, the comparative network analysis of iCT646 with other yeasts revealed several distinctive metabolic reactions, mainly within the amino acid and lipid metabolism including the ω-oxidation pathway. Constraints-based flux analysis was, then, employed to predict the in silico growth rates of C. tropicalis which are highly consistent with the cellular phenotype observed in glucose and xylose minimal media chemostat cultures. Subsequently, the lipid accumulation capability of C. tropicalis was explored in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating that the formation of "citrate pyruvate cycle" is essential to the lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts. The in silico flux analysis also highlighted the enhanced ability of pentose phosphate pathway as NADPH source rather than malic enzyme during lipogenesis. Finally, iCT646 was successfully utilized to highlight the key directions of C. tropicalis strain design for the whole cell biotransformation application to produce long-chain DCAs from alkanes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1993-2004.

  9. Candida kuoi sp. nov., a new anamorphic species of the Starmerella yeast clade that synthesizes sophorolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candida kuoii sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27208T, CBS 7267T, type strain) is described from a strain isolated from concentrated grape juice in Cape Province, South Africa. Analysis of sequences from the D1/D2 domains of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene separated the proposed new species from Starmerella bom...

  10. Scheffersomyces parashehatae f.a., sp. nov., Scheffersomyces xylosifermentans f.a., sp. nov., Candida broadrunensis sp. nov. and Candida manassasensis sp. nov., novel yeasts associated with wood-ingesting insects, and their ecological and biofuel implications.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Houseknecht, Janice L; Gujjari, Pushpa; Zhou, Jianlong J

    2013-11-01

    During a survey of yeasts associated with wood-ingesting insects, 69 strains in the Scheffersomyces clade and related taxa were isolated from passalid and tenebrionid beetles and the decayed wood inhabited by them. The majority of these yeasts was found to be capable of fermenting xylose, and was recognized as Scheffersomyces stipitis or its close relative Scheffersomyces illinoinensis, which are known to be associated with wood-decaying beetles and rotten wood. Yeasts in 'Scheffersomyces' ( = Candida) ergatensis and 'Scheffersomyces' ( = Candida) coipomoensis were also frequently isolated. The remaining six strains were identified as representing four novel species in the genera Scheffersomyces and Candida based on multilocus sequence analyses of nuclear rRNA genes and four protein-coding genes, as well as other taxonomic characteristics. Two xylose-fermenting species, Scheffersomyces parashehatae f.a., sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4653(T) = CBS 12535(T) = EH045(T); MycoBank MB805440) and Scheffersomyces xylosifermentans f.a., sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4859(T) = CBS 12540(T) = MY10-052(T); MycoBank MB805441), formed a clade with Scheffersomyces shehatae and related Scheffersomyces species. Interestingly, S. xylosifermentans can survive at 40 °C, which is a rare property among xylose-fermenting yeasts. Candida broadrunensis sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4650(T) = CBS 11838(T) = EH019(T); MycoBank MB805442) is a sister taxon of C. ergatensis, while Candida manassasensis sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4652(T) = CBS 12534(T) = EH030(T); MycoBank MB805443) is closely related to Candida palmioleophila in the Candida glaebosa clade. The multilocus DNA sequence comparisons in this study suggest that the genus Scheffersomyces needs to be circumscribed to the species near S. stipitis (type species) and S. shehatae that can be characterized by the ability to ferment xylose. PMID:24014624

  11. Fermentation of soybean oil deodorizer distillate with Candida tropicalis to concentrate phytosterols and to produce sterols-rich yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoqun; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Lihua

    2014-03-01

    Phytosterols have been recovered from the deodorizer distillate produced in the final deodorization step of vegetable oil refining by various processes. The deodorizer distillate contains mainly free fatty acids (FFAs), phytosterols, and tocopherols. The presence of FFAs hinders recovery of phytosterols. In this study, fermentation of soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) with Candida tropicalis 1253 was carried out. FFAs were utilized as carbon source and converted into cellular components as the yeast cells grew. Phytosterols concentration in SODD increased from 15.2 to 28.43 % after fermentation. No significant loss of phytosterols was observed during the process. Microbial fermentation of SODD is a potential approach to concentrate phytosterols before the recovery of phytosterols from SODD. During SODD fermentation, sterols-rich yeast cells were produced and the content of total sterols was as high as 6.96 %, but its major sterol was not ergosterol, which is the major sterol encountered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Except ergosterol, other sterols synthesized in the cells need to be identified. PMID:24297326

  12. Integrative expression vectors for overexpression of xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2) in Osmotolerant yeast, Candida glycerinogenes WL2002-5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Zong, Hong; Zhuge, Bin; Lu, Xinyao; Fang, Huiying; Zhuge, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts are excellent hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. Candida glycerinogenes WL2002-5, an osmotolerant yeast with extremely high glycerol productivity, provides an attractive eukaryotic expression platform. The integrative vectors PURGAP-gfp and PURGPD-gfp harbouring phleomycin-resistance coding sequence and GFP coding sequence with PCgGAP, PCgGPD promoter, respectively, were constructed. The recombinant plasmid PURPpGAP-gfp with the promoter PPpGAP based on the sequence of Pichia pastoris GAPDH gene and the plasmid PURScGAP-gfp with the promoter PScGAP from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were constructed. After transformation, the copy number of gfp gene, which determined using fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (FQ-RTPCR) in genome of C. glycerinogenes is 1. Expressions of gfp at different levels were conducted using different promoters by osmotic stress containing NaCl or glucose for the recombinant strains. In this study, C. glycerinogenes WL2002-5, expressing xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2) gene from Pichia stipitis, has the ability to produce glycerol from xylose entered into pentose phosphate pathway. Two recombinant strains of PURGAPX, PURGPDX with XYL2 overexpression were constructed to ferment a mixture of glucose and xylose simultaneously in batch fermentation. Compared to C. glycerinogenes WL2002-5 strain, glycerol production from xylose in strains PURGAPX, PURGPDX were increased by 95.9 and 121.1 %, respectively. PMID:25363139

  13. Metabolic gene clusters encoding the enzymes of two branches of the 3-oxoadipate pathway in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gérecová, Gabriela; Neboháčová, Martina; Zeman, Igor; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Tomáška, Ľubomír; Gabaldón, Toni; Nosek, Jozef

    2015-05-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans utilizes hydroxyderivatives of benzene via the catechol and hydroxyhydroquinone branches of the 3-oxoadipate pathway. The genetic basis and evolutionary origin of this catabolic pathway in yeasts are unknown. In this study, we identified C. albicans genes encoding the enzymes involved in the degradation of hydroxybenzenes. We found that the genes coding for core components of the 3-oxoadipate pathway are arranged into two metabolic gene clusters. Our results demonstrate that C. albicans cells cultivated in media containing hydroxybenzene substrates highly induce the transcription of these genes as well as the corresponding enzymatic activities. We also found that C. albicans cells assimilating hydroxybenzenes cope with the oxidative stress by upregulation of cellular antioxidant systems such as alternative oxidase and catalase. Moreover, we investigated the evolution of the enzymes encoded by these clusters and found that most of them share a particularly sparse phylogenetic distribution among Saccharomycotina, which is likely to have been caused by extensive gene loss. We exploited this fact to find co-evolving proteins that are suitable candidates for the missing enzymes of the pathway. PMID:25743787

  14. High Prevalence of Candida Yeast in Milk Samples from Cows Suffering from Mastitis in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bozena; Krutkiewicz, Alicja; Szopa, Daniel; Kleczkowski, Miroslaw; Biegańska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis is an economically important disease in which fungi belonging to the genus Candida may participate as etiological agents. This study focused on determining the frequency of fungal isolation and differentiation of fungal species isolated from milk of mastitic cows. Sixty-six milk samples from mastitic cows were studied, and 55 strains of fungi were isolated. Seven different species classified as Candida were identified basing on phenotypic properties, and the dominating species was C. parapsilosis. Genomic DNA was isolated and amplified in PCR with ITS1 and NL2 primers. Amplification products were digested with restriction enzymes HpaII and EcoRI. Amplification of DNA with ITS1 and NL2 primers resulted in products of different sizes. Comparison of product sizes in restriction fragment PCR REA confirmed differences among species. Strains grouped together on the basis of phenotype characteristics differed in restriction fragment profiles. None of the investigated species showed similar genetic profiles. PMID:22619625

  15. Effects of Magnolol and Honokiol on Adhesion, Yeast-Hyphal Transition, and Formation of Biofilm by Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lingmei; Liao, Kai; Wang, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    Background The first step in infection by Candida albicans is adhesion to host cells or implanted medical devices and this followed by hyphal growth and biofilm formation. Yeast-to-hyphal transition has long been identified as a key factor in fungal virulence. Following biofilm formation, C. albicans is usually less sensitive or insensitive to antifungals. Therefore, development of new antifungals with inhibitory action on adhesion, yeast-hyphal transition and biofilm formation by C. albicans is very necessary. Methods The effects of magnolol and honokiol on hypha growth were investigated using different induction media. Their inhibitory effects were determined using the 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5- carboxanilide assay, and biofilm thickness and viability were observed by a confocal scanning laser microscope. Mammalian cells were used in adhesion assays. Genes related to hyphae development and cell adhesions were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The exogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate was used to determine the mechanisms of action of magnolol and honokiol. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo model to estimate the antifungal activities of magnolol and honokiol. Results and conclusions Magnolol and honokiol inhibited adhesion, the transition from yeast to hypha, and biofilm formation by C. albicans through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Moreover, magnolol and honokiol prolonged the survival of nematodes infected by C. albicans. Magnolol and honokiol have potential inhibitory effects against biofilm formation by C. albicans. General Significance This study provides useful information towards the development of new strategies to reduce the incidence of C. albicans biofilm-associated infection. PMID:25710475

  16. Candida Berkhout (1923)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the 314 species assigned to the genus Candida and is to be published in the Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. Ascomycete yeasts that do not form ascosporic state are assigned to the genus Candida, which is a highly polyphyletic taxonomic form genus. Assigned species in...

  17. Gene engineering in yeast for biodegradation: Immunological cross-reactivity among cytochrome p-450 system proteins of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida tropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Loper, J.C.; Chen, C.; Dey, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms whose cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase systems may be amenable to genetic engineering for the hydroxylation and detoxication of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The molecular genetic properties of strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and an n-alkane utilizing yeast, Candida tropicalis ATCC750 are examined. Standard methods were used to purify cytochrome P-450 and NADPH-cytochrome c (P-450) reductase proteins from cells cultured by semi-anaerobic glucose fermentation (S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis) and by growth on tetradecane (C. tropicalis). Polyvalent antisera prepared in rabbits to some of these proteins were used in tests of immunological relatedness among the purified proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose filter immunoblots. The results provide evidence for gene relationships which should prove useful in gene isolation and subsequent engineering of P-450 enzyme systems in yeast.

  18. Study on the substituents' effects of a series of synthetic chalcones against the yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Batovska, D; Parushev, St; Slavova, A; Bankova, V; Tsvetkova, I; Ninova, M; Najdenski, H

    2007-01-01

    A large series of chalcones were synthesized and studied for activity against Candida albicans. The SAR analysis showed that the antifungal activity was highly dependent on the substitution pattern of the aryl rings and correlated to a large extent with the ability of compounds to interact with sulfhydryl groups. The most active were the hydroxylated chalcones as their activity related to the location of the phenolic group in the aryl ring B as follows: o-OH>p-OH approximately 3,4-di-OH>m-OH. These and other correlations obtained strongly contribute to the knowledge for design of anticandidal chalcones. PMID:17007965

  19. Structural characterization of novel sophorolipid biosurfactants from a newly-identified species of Candida yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sophorolipids are a group of O-acylsophorose-based biosurfactants produced by several yeasts of the Starmerella clade. The known sophorolipids are typically partially acetylated 2-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose (sophorose) ß-O-glycosidically-linked to 17-L-hydroxy-delta-9-octadecenoic aci...

  20. Activity of Isavuconazole and Other Azoles against Candida Clinical Isolates and Yeast Model Systems with Known Azole Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Alix T.

    2015-01-01

    Isavuconazole is a novel, broad-spectrum, antifungal azole. In order to evaluate its interactions with known azole resistance mechanisms, isavuconazole susceptibility among different yeast models and clinical isolates expressing characterized azole resistance mechanisms was tested and compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the Candida albicans and C. glabrata ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (CDR1, CDR2, and CgCDR1), major facilitator (MDR1), and lanosterol 14-α-sterol-demethylase (ERG11) alleles with mutations were used. In addition, pairs of C. albicans and C. glabrata strains from matched clinical isolates with known azole resistance mechanisms were investigated. The expression of ABC transporters increased all azole MICs, suggesting that all azoles tested were substrates of ABC transporters. The expression of MDR1 did not increase posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole MICs. Relative increases of azole MICs (from 4- to 32-fold) were observed for fluconazole, voriconazole, and isavuconazole when at least two mutations were present in the same ERG11 allele. Upon MIC testing of azoles with clinical C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates with known resistance mechanisms, the MIC90s of C. albicans for fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole were 128, 2, 1, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively, while in C. glabrata they were 128, 2, 4, 4, and 16 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the effects of azole resistance mechanisms on isavuconazole did not differ significantly from those of other azoles. Resistance mechanisms in yeasts involving ABC transporters and ERG11 decreased the activity of isavuconazole, while MDR1 had limited effect. PMID:26482310

  1. Activity of Isavuconazole and Other Azoles against Candida Clinical Isolates and Yeast Model Systems with Known Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sanglard, Dominique; Coste, Alix T

    2016-01-01

    Isavuconazole is a novel, broad-spectrum, antifungal azole. In order to evaluate its interactions with known azole resistance mechanisms, isavuconazole susceptibility among different yeast models and clinical isolates expressing characterized azole resistance mechanisms was tested and compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the Candida albicans and C. glabrata ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (CDR1, CDR2, and CgCDR1), major facilitator (MDR1), and lanosterol 14-α-sterol-demethylase (ERG11) alleles with mutations were used. In addition, pairs of C. albicans and C. glabrata strains from matched clinical isolates with known azole resistance mechanisms were investigated. The expression of ABC transporters increased all azole MICs, suggesting that all azoles tested were substrates of ABC transporters. The expression of MDR1 did not increase posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole MICs. Relative increases of azole MICs (from 4- to 32-fold) were observed for fluconazole, voriconazole, and isavuconazole when at least two mutations were present in the same ERG11 allele. Upon MIC testing of azoles with clinical C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates with known resistance mechanisms, the MIC90s of C. albicans for fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole were 128, 2, 1, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively, while in C. glabrata they were 128, 2, 4, 4, and 16 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the effects of azole resistance mechanisms on isavuconazole did not differ significantly from those of other azoles. Resistance mechanisms in yeasts involving ABC transporters and ERG11 decreased the activity of isavuconazole, while MDR1 had limited effect. PMID:26482310

  2. Roles of Zinc-responsive transcription factor Csr1 in filamentous growth of the pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kil, Minkwang; Jung, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Jinmi

    2008-02-01

    In the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the yeast-to-hyphal transition occurs in response to a broad range of environmental stimuli and is considered to be a major virulence factor. To address whether the zinc homeostasis affects the growth or pathogenicity of C. albicans, we functionally characterized the zinc-finger protein Csr1 during filamentation. The deduced amino acid sequence of Csr1 showed a 49% similarity to the zinc-specific transcription factor, Zap1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sequential disruptions of CSR1 were carried out in diploid C. albicans. The csr1/csr1 mutant strain showed severe growth defects under zinc-limited growth conditions and the filamentation defect under hyphainducing media. The colony morphology and the germ-tube formation were significantly affected by the csr1 mutation. The expression of the hyphae-specific gene HWP1 was also impaired in csr1/csr1 cells. The C. albicans homologs of ZRT1 and ZRT2, which are zinc-transporter genes in S. cerevisiae, were isolated. High-copy number plasmids of these genes suppressed the filamentation defect of the csr1/csr1 mutant strain. We propose that the filamentation phenotype of C. albicans is closely associated with the zinc homeostasis in the cells and that Csr1 plays a critical role in this regulation. PMID:18309267

  3. Cytochrome P450 complement (CYPome) of Candida oregonensis, a gut-associated yeast of bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Fabiola; Briones-Roblero, Carlos Iván; Nelson, David R; Rivera-Orduña, Flor Nohemí; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and associated microorganisms must overcome a complex tree's defence system, which includes toxic monoterpenes, to successfully complete their life cycle. A number of studies have suggested these microorganisms could have ecological roles related with the nutrition, detoxification, and semiochemical production. In particular, in filamentous fungi symbionts, cytochrome P450 (CYP) have been involved with terpenoid detoxification and biotransformation processes. Candida oregonensis has been isolated from the gut, ovaries, and frass of different bark beetle species, and it is a dominant species in the Dendroctonus rhizophagus gut. In this study, we identify, characterise, and infer the phylogenetic relationships of C. oregonensis CYP genes. The results indicate that the cytochrome P450 complement (CYPome) is composed of nine genes (CYP51F1, CYP61A1, CYP56D1, CYP52A59, CYP52A60, CYP52A61, CYP52A62, CYP5217A8, and CYP5217B1), which might participate in primary metabolic reactions such as sterol biosynthesis, biodegradation of xenobiotic, and resistance to environmental stress. The prediction of the cellular location suggests that these CYPs to be anchored to the plasma membrane, membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. These findings lay the foundation for future studies about the functional role of P450s, not only for yeasts, but also for the insects with which they interact. PMID:27567714

  4. The Effect of Created Local Hyperosmotic Microenvironment in Microcapsule for the Growth and Metabolism of Osmotolerant Yeast Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; Yao, Shanjing

    2013-01-01

    Candida krusei is osmotolerant yeast used for the production of glycerol. Addition of osmolyte such as NaCl into culture medium can increase the production of glycerol from glucose, but osmolytes may burden the glycerol separation. A coencapsulation method was suggested to create local extracellular hyperosmotic stress for glycerol accumulation. Firstly, the influence of osmotic stress induced by the addition of PEG4000 on growth and metabolism of free cell was studied in detail. Glycerol accumulation could be improved by employing PEG4000 as osmoregulator. Secondly, cells and PEG4000 were coentrapped in NaCS/PDMDAAC capsules to create local hyperosmotic stress. The effects of local hyperosmotic microenvironment on the cell growth and metabolism were studied. The coentrapment method increased the glycerol concentration by 25%, and the glycerol concentration attained 50 gL−1 with productivity of 18.8 gL−1Day−1 in shake flask. More importantly, the glycerol could be directly separated from the encapsulated cells. The entrapped cells containing PEG4000 were also cultivated for 15 days in an airlift reactor. The yield and productivity were ca. 35% and 21 gL−1Day−1, respectively. PMID:24294610

  5. Atomic structure of the nuclear pore complex targeting domain of a Nup116 homologue from the yeast, Candida glabrata

    SciTech Connect

    Sampathkumar, Parthasarathy; Kim, Seung Joong; Manglicmot, Danalyn; Bain, Kevin T.; Gilmore, Jeremiah; Gheyi, Tarun; Phillips, Jeremy; Pieper, Ursula; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Franke, Josef D.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Tsuruta, Hiro; Atwell, Shane; Thompson, Devon A.; Emtage, J. Spencer; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Rout, Michael P.; Sali, Andrej; Sauder, J. Michael; Almo, Steven C.; Burley, Stephen K.

    2012-10-23

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC), embedded in the nuclear envelope, is a large, dynamic molecular assembly that facilitates exchange of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The yeast NPC is an eightfold symmetric annular structure composed of {approx}456 polypeptide chains contributed by {approx}30 distinct proteins termed nucleoporins. Nup116, identified only in fungi, plays a central role in both protein import and mRNA export through the NPC. Nup116 is a modular protein with N-terminal 'FG' repeats containing a Gle2p-binding sequence motif and a NPC targeting domain at its C-terminus. We report the crystal structure of the NPC targeting domain of Candida glabrata Nup116, consisting of residues 882-1034 [CgNup116(882-1034)], at 1.94 {angstrom} resolution. The X-ray structure of CgNup116(882-1034) is consistent with the molecular envelope determined in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering. Structural similarities of CgNup116(882-1034) with homologous domains from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nup116, S. cerevisiae Nup145N, and human Nup98 are discussed.

  6. Detoxification of Eucheuma spinosum Hydrolysates with Activated Carbon for Ethanol Production by the Salt-Tolerant Yeast Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jung, Jang Hyun; Sunwoo, In Young; Kang, Chang Han; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the slurry contents and salt concentrations for ethanol production from hydrolysates of the seaweed Eucheuma spinosum. A monosaccharide concentration of 44.2 g/l as 49.6% conversion of total carbohydrate of 89.1 g/l was obtained from 120 g dw/l seaweed slurry. Monosaccharides from E. spinosum slurry were obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Addition of activated carbon at 2.5% (w/v) and the adsorption time of 2 min were used in subsequent adsorption treatments to prevent the inhibitory effect of HMF. The adsorption surface area of the activated carbon powder was 1,400-1,600 m(2)/g and showed selectivity to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) from monosaccharides. Candida tropicalis KCTC 7212 was cultured in yeast extract, peptone, glucose, and high-salt medium, and exposed to 80, 90, 100, and 110 practical salinity unit (psu) salt concentrations in the lysates. The 100 psu salt concentration showed maximum cell growth and ethanol production. The ethanol fermentations with activated carbon treatment and use of C. tropicalis acclimated to a high salt concentration of 100 psu produced 17.9 g/l of ethanol with a yield (YEtOH) of 0.40 from E. spinosum seaweed. PMID:25649983

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Candida tsukubaensis alpha-glucosidase gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, B T; Larkin, A; Bolton, M; Cantwell, B A

    1991-07-01

    The molecular cloning of an alpha-glucosidase gene isolated from a Candida tsukubaensis (CBS 6389) genomic library in Saccharomyces cervisiae is reported. The cloned gene is contained within a 6.2 kb Sau3A DNA fragment and directs the synthesis and secretion of an amylolytic enzyme into the extracellular medium of the recombinant host, S. cerevisiae. The cloned enzyme was found to have an unusually broad substrate specificity and is capable of hydrolysing alpha-1,2, alpha-1,3, alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 linked, as well as aryl and alkyl, D-glucosides. On the basis of its substrate specificity profile, the cloned enzyme was classified as an alpha-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20). It has a pH optimum in the range 4.2-4.6, a temperature optimum of 58 degrees C and is readily inactivated at pasteurization temperature (60 degrees C). Southern blot analysis failed to reveal any homology between the cloned gene and genomic DNA isolated from other well characterized amylolytic yeasts. A rapid plate-assay, based on the utilization of a chromogenic substrate X-alpha-D-glucoside to detect the expression of the cloned alpha-glucosidase in S. cerevisiae transformants, was developed. PMID:1934116

  8. Modeling of local dynamic behavior of phenol degradation in an internal loop airlift bioreactor by yeast Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Wen, Jianping; Liu, Cuiyun; Yuan, Qing; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Sun, Yan

    2007-06-01

    A coupled computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model, combining hydrodynamics with biochemical reactions, was developed to simulate the local transient flow patterns and the dynamic behaviors of cell growth and phenol biodegradation by yeast Candida tropicalis in an internal loop airlift reactor (ILALR). To validate this proposed model effectively, the simulated local hydrodynamic characteristics of the gas-mineral salt medium solution (gas-liquid) two-phase system, at a phenol concentration of 1,200 mg L(-1) and no presence of cells, was experimentally investigated in the ILALR using laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements and conductivity probe. Furthermore, the validation of the simulated phenol biodegradation behavior by C. tropicalis at different initial concentrations of phenol and cell was also carried out in the ILALR. The time-averaged and transient results of the model simulations illustrated a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Finally, the local instantaneous flow and phenol biodegradation features, including gas holdup, gas velocity, liquid velocity, cell concentration, and phenol concentration inside the ILALR were successfully predicted by the proposed model. PMID:17013942

  9. Genome-Wide Chromatin Immunoprecipitation in Candida albicans and Other Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Matthew B.; Kongsomboonvech, Pisiwat; Madrigal, Maria; Hernday, Aaron D.; Nobile, Clarissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments are critical to investigating the interactions between DNA and a wide range of nuclear proteins within a cell or biological sample. In this chapter we outline an optimized protocol for genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation that has been used successfully for several distinct morphological forms of numerous yeast species, and include an optimized method for amplification of chromatin immunoprecipitated DNA samples and hybridization to a high-density oligonucleotide tiling microarray. We also provide detailed suggestions on how to analyze the complex data obtained from these experiments. PMID:26483022

  10. Genome-Wide Chromatin Immunoprecipitation in Candida albicans and Other Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Matthew B; Kongsomboonvech, Pisiwat; Madrigal, Maria; Hernday, Aaron D; Nobile, Clarissa J

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments are critical to investigating the interactions between DNA and a wide range of nuclear proteins within a cell or biological sample. In this chapter we outline an optimized protocol for genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation that has been used successfully for several distinct morphological forms of numerous yeast species, and include an optimized method for amplification of chromatin immunoprecipitated DNA samples and hybridization to a high-density oligonucleotide tiling microarray. We also provide detailed suggestions on how to analyze the complex data obtained from these experiments. PMID:26483022

  11. Serological differences between the multiple amine oxidases of yeasts and comparison of the specificities of the purified enzymes from Candida utilis and Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Haywood, G W; Large, P J

    1983-01-01

    1. Antiserum to purified methylamine oxidase of Candida boidinii formed precipitin lines (with spurs) in double-diffusion tests with crude extracts of methylamine-grown cells of the following yeast species: Candida nagoyaensis, Candida nemodendra, Hansenula minuta, Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pinus. No cross-reaction was observed with extracts of Candida lipolytica, Candida steatolytica, Candida tropicalis, Candida utilis, Pichia pastoris, Sporobolomyces albo-rubescens, Sporopachydermia cereana or Trigonopsis variabilis. Quantitative enzyme assays enabled the relative titre of antiserum against the various methylamine oxidases to be determined. 2. The amine oxidases from two non-cross-reacting species, C. utilis and P. pastoris, were purified to near homogeneity. 3. The methylamine oxidases, despite their serological non-similarity, showed very similar catalytic properties to methylamine oxidase from C. boidinii. Their heat-stability, pH optima, molecular weights, substrate specificities and sensitivity to inhibitors are reported. 4. The benzylamine oxidases of C. utilis and P. pastoris both oxidized putrescine, and the latter enzyme failed to show any cross-reaction with antibody to C. boidinii methylamine oxidase. Benzylamine oxidase from C. boidinii itself also did not cross-react with antibody to methylamine oxidase. The heat-stability, molecular weights, substrate specificities and sensitivity to inhibitors of the benzylamine/putrescine oxidases are reported. 5. The benzylamine/putrescine oxidase of C. utilis differed only slightly from that of C. boidinii. 6. Benzylamine/putrescine oxidase from P. pastoris differed from the Candida enzymes in heat-stability, subunit molecular weight and substrate specificity. In particular it catalysed the oxidation of the primary amino groups of spermine, spermidine, lysine, ornithine and 1,2-diaminoethane, which are not substrates for either of the Candida benzylamine oxidases that have been purified. 7. Spermine and

  12. pCal, a highly unusual Ty1/copia retrotransposon from the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G D; Goodwin, T J; Butler, M I; Berryman, T A; Poulter, R T

    1997-01-01

    Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements. They can transpose via the reverse transcription of mRNA into double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) followed by the insertion of this dsDNA into new sites within the host genome. The unintegrated, linear, dsDNA form of retrotransposons is usually very rare. We report here the isolation of a retrotransposon from Candida albicans which is unusual in this respect. This element, which we have named pCal, was first identified as a distinct band when uncut C. albicans DNA was examined on an agarose gel. Sequence analysis of the cloned element revealed that it is a retrotransposon belonging to the Ty1/copia group. It is estimated that pCal produces 50 to 100 free, linear, dsDNA copies of itself per cell. This is a much higher level of expression than even that of the system in which Ty1 is expressed behind the highly active GAL1 promoter on a high-copy-number plasmid (about 10 copies per cell). Another unusual feature of pCal is that its Pol enzymes are likely to be expressed via the pseudoknot-assisted suppression of an upstream, in-phase stop codon, as has been shown for Moloney murine leukemia virus. PMID:9371461

  13. Systematics of Methanol Assimilating Yeasts and Neighboring Taxa from Multigene Sequence Analysis and the Proposal of Peterozyma gen. nov., a New Member of the Saccharomycetales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylogenetic relationships among methanol assimilating yeasts and neighboring taxa were determined from analysis of gene sequences for nuclear large and small subunit rRNAs, translation elongation factor-1a and mitochondrial small subunit rRNA. On the basis of these analyses, seven species of Pichi...

  14. CHROMagar Candida as the Sole Primary Medium for Isolation of Yeasts and as a Source Medium for the Rapid-Assimilation-of-Trehalose Test

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Melissa P.; Zinchuk, Riva; Larone, Davise H.

    2005-01-01

    The chromogenic medium BBL CHROMagar Candida (CAC) was evaluated as a sole primary medium for the isolation of yeasts from clinical specimens in which yeasts are the primary concern. Additionally, the reliability of the rapid-assimilation-of-trehalose (RAT) test in yielding correct results with isolates taken from CAC was assessed. A total of 270 throat, urine, and genital (TUG) specimens were streaked onto CAC, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and Mycosel (MYC). A total of 69 blood culture broths that were smear positive for yeast were streaked onto CAC and SDA. A 1-h RAT test (NCCLS M35-A) was performed simultaneously on isolates from CAC and SDA. A total of 112 TUG specimens yielded yeast colonies (CAC, 111 colonies; IMA, 105; SDA, 103; MYC, 91). The 69 blood culture yeasts grew on both CAC and SDA. Mixed cultures of yeasts were detected on 11 CAC plates but were unrecognized on other media. Colonies suspected of being C. glabrata on 32 CAC plates were all RAT test positive and confirmed to be C. glabrata; of 59 colonies with various characteristics of color and morphology on CAC, none were RAT positive, and all were conventionally identified as yeasts other than C. glabrata (sensitivity and specificity, 100%). The same isolates from SDA tested for RAT produced six false negatives and no false positives (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 100%). The results show that CAC can be used as the sole primary medium for recovery of yeasts from clinical specimens. Additionally, isolates grown on CAC yield excellent results with the RAT test utilized in this study. PMID:15750085

  15. Kinetics of phenol biodegradation at high concentration by a metabolically versatile isolated yeast Candida tropicalis PHB5.

    PubMed

    Basak, Bikram; Bhunia, Biswanath; Dutta, Subhasish; Chakraborty, Samayita; Dey, Apurba

    2014-01-01

    A highly tolerant phenol-degrading yeast strain PHB5 was isolated from wastewater effluent of a coke oven plant and identified as Candida tropicalis based on phylogenetic analysis. Biodegradation experiments with C. tropicalis PHB5 showed that the strain was able to utilize 99.4% of 2,400 mg l(-1) phenol as sole source of carbon and energy within 48 h. Strain PHB5 was also observed to grow on 18 various aromatic hydrocarbons. Haldane model was used to fit the exponential growth data and the following kinetic parameters were obtained: μ max = 0.3407 h(-1), K S = 15.81 mg l(-1), K i = 169.0 mg l(-1) (R (2) = 0.9886). The true specific growth rate, calculated from μ max, was 0.2113. A volumetric phenol degradation rate (V max) was calculated by fitting the phenol consumption data with Gompertz model and specific degradation rate (q) was calculated from V max. The q values were fitted with Haldane model, yielding following parameters: q max = 0.2766 g g(-1) h(-1), K S ' = 2.819 mg l(-1), K i ' = 2,093 (R (2) = 0.8176). The yield factor (Y X/S ) varied between 0.185 to 0.96 g g(-1) for different initial phenol concentrations. Phenol degradation by the strain proceeded through a pathway involving production of intermediates such as catechol and cis,cis-muconic acid which were identified by enzymatic assays and HPLC analysis. PMID:23917743

  16. Candida albicans cell shaving uncovers new proteins involved in cell wall integrity, yeast to hypha transition, stress response and host-pathogen interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hernáez, María Luisa; Reales-Calderon, Jose Antonio; Solis, Norma V.; Filler, Scott G.; Monteoliva, Lucia; Gil, Concha

    2015-01-01

    The ability to switch from yeast to hyphal growth is essential for virulence in Candida albicans. The cell surface is the initial point of contact between the fungus and the host. In this work, a free-gel proteomic strategy based on tryptic digestion of live yeast and hyphae cells and protein identification using LC-MS/MS methodology was used to identify cell surface proteins. Using this strategy, a total of 943 proteins were identified, of which 438 were in yeast and 928 were in hyphae. Of these proteins, 79 were closely related to the organization and biogenesis of the cell wall, including 28 GPI-anchored proteins, such as Hyr1 and Sod5 which were detected exclusively in hyphae, and Als2 and Sap10which were detected only in yeast. A group of 17 proteins of unknown function were subsequently studied by analysis of the corresponding deletion mutants. We found that four new proteins, Pst3, Tos1, Orf19.3060 and Orf19.5352 are involved in cell wall integrity and in C. albicans’ engulfment by macrophages. Moreover, the putative NADH-ubiquinone-related proteins, Ali1, Mci4, Orf19.287 and Orf19.7590, are also involved in osmotic and oxidative resistance, yeast to hypha transition and the ability to damage and invade oral epithelial cells. PMID:26087349

  17. Fermentation and aerobic metabolism of cellodextrins by yeasts. [Candida wickerhamii; C. guiliermondii; C. molischiana; Debaryomyces polymorphus; Pichia guilliermondii; Clavispora lusitaniae; Kluyveromyces lactis; Brettanomyces claussenii; Rhodotorula minuta; Dekkera intermedia

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, S.N. )

    1991-03-01

    The fermentation and aerobic metabolism of cellodextrins by 14 yeast species or strains was monitored. When grown aerobically, Candida wickerhamii, C. guilliermondii, and C. molischiana metabolized cellodextrins of degree of polymerization 3 to 6. C. wicherhamii and C. molischiana also fermented these substrates, while C. guilliermondii fermented only cellodextrins of degree of polymerization {<=} 3. Debaryomyces polymorphus, Pichia guilliermondii, Clavispora lusitaniae, and one of two strains of Kluyveromyces lactis metabolized glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose when grown aerobically. These yeasts also fermented these substrates, except for K. lactis, which fermented only glucose and cellobiose. The remaining species/strains tested, K. lactis, Brettanomyces claussenii, Brettanomyces anomalus, Kluyveromyces dobzhanskii, Rhodotorula minuta, and Dekkera intermedia, both fermented and aerobically metabolized glucose and cellobiose. Crude enzyme preparations from all 14 yeast species or strains were tested for ability to hydrolyze cellotriose and cellotretose. Most of the yeasts produced an enzyme(s) capable of hydrolyzing cellotriose. However, with two exceptions, R. minuta and P. guilliermondii, only the yeasts that metabolized cellodextrins of degree of polymerization >3 produced an enzyme(s) that hydrolyzed cellotretose.

  18. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G

    1983-01-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections. Images PMID:6227630

  19. Displaying Lipase B from Candida antarctica in Pichia pastoris Using the Yeast Surface Display Approach: Prospection of a New Anchor and Characterization of the Whole Cell Biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Marcelo Victor Holanda; da Silva, Giulia Pontes; Machado, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2015-01-01

    Yeast Surface Display (YSD) is a strategy to anchor proteins on the yeast cell wall which has been employed to increase enzyme stability thus decreasing production costs. Lipase B from Candida antarctica (LipB) is one of the most studied enzymes in the context of industrial biotechnology. This study aimed to assess the biochemical features of this important biocatalyst when immobilized on the cell surface of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris using the YSD approach. For that purpose, two anchors were tested. The first (Flo9) was identified after a prospection of the P. pastoris genome being related to the family of flocculins similar to Flo1 but significantly smaller. The second is the Protein with Internal Repeats (Pir1) from P. pastoris. An immunolocalization assay showed that both anchor proteins were able to display the reporter protein EGFP in the yeast outer cell wall. LipB was expressed in P. pastoris fused either to Flo9 (FLOLIPB) or Pir1 (PIRLIPB). Both constructions showed hydrolytic activity towards tributyrin (>100 U/mgdcw and >80 U/mgdcw, respectively), optimal hydrolytic activity around 45°C and pH 7.0, higher thermostability at 45°C and stability in organic solvents when compared to a free lipase. PMID:26510006

  20. Production of Candida antaractica Lipase B Gene Open Reading Frame using Automated PCR Gene Assembly Protocol on Robotic Workcell & Expression in Ethanologenic Yeast for use as Resin-Bound Biocatalyst in Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A synthetic Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) gene open reading frame (ORF) for expression in yeast was produced using an automated PCR assembly and DNA purification protocol on an integrated robotic workcell. The lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1) C3 variant gene ORF was added in-frame with the CALB ORF to pote...

  1. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the vagina , ...

  2. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  3. Antifungal Activity of Phlorotannins against Dermatophytes and Yeasts: Approaches to the Mechanism of Action and Influence on Candida albicans Virulence Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Graciliana; Pinto, Eugénia; Andrade, Paula B.; Valentão, Patrícia

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades, fungal infections, particularly nosocomial, increased all around the world. This increment stimulated the search for new antifungal agents, especially those derived from nature. Among natural products, those from marine sources have gained prominence in the last years. Purified phlorotannins extracts from three brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus) were screened for their antifungal activity against human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi. The purified phlorotannins extracts from the studied seaweeds displayed fungistatic and fungicidal activity against yeast and dermatophytes, respectively, pointing to their interest as anti-dermatophyte agent. C. albicans ATCC 10231 was the most susceptible among yeast, while Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton rubrum were the most susceptible among dermatophytes. Since the antifungal mechanism constitutes an important strategy for limiting the emergence of resistance to the commercially available agents, the mechanism of action of purified phlorotannins extracts was approached. C. nodicaulis and C. usneoides seem to act by affecting the ergosterol composition of the cell membrane of yeast and dermatophyte, respectively. F. spiralis influenced the dermatophyte cell wall composition by reducing the levels of chitin. Phlorotannins also seem to affect the respiratory chain function, as all of the studied species significantly increased the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases and increased the incorporation of rhodamine 123 by yeast cells. Phlorotannins from F. spiralis inhibited the dimorphic transition of Candida albicans, leading to the formation of pseudohyphae with diminished capacity to adhere to epithelial cells. This finding is associated with a decrease of C. albicans virulence and capacity to invade host cells and can be potentially interesting for combined antifungal therapy, namely for

  4. The Candida albicans HYR1 gene, which is activated in response to hyphal development, belongs to a gene family encoding yeast cell wall proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, D A; Feldmann, P J; Bovey, M; Gow, N A; Brown, A J

    1996-01-01

    A hyphally regulated gene (HYR1) from the dimorphic human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was isolated and characterized. Northern (RNA) analyses showed that the HYR1 mRNA was induced specifically in response to hyphal development when morphogenesis was stimulated by serum addition and temperature elevation, increases in both culture pH and temperature, or N-acetylglucosamine addition. The HYR1 gene sequence revealed a 937-codon open reading frame capable of encoding a protein with an N-terminal signal sequence, a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchoring domain, 17 potential N glycosylation sites, and a large domain rich in serine and threonine (51% of 230 residues). These features are observed in many yeast cell wall proteins, but no homologs are present in the databases. In addition, Hyr1p contained a second domain rich in glycine, serine, and asparagine (79% of 239 residues). The HYR1 locus in C. albicans CAI4 was disrupted by "Ura-blasting," but the resulting homozygous delta hyr1/delta hyr1 null mutant displayed no obvious morphological phenotype. The growth rates for yeast cells and hyphae and the kinetics of germ tube formation in the null mutant were unaffected. Aberrant expression of HYR1 in yeast cells, when an ADH1-HYR1 fusion was used, did not stimulate hyphal formation in C. albicans or pseudohyphal growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HYR1 appears to encode a nonessential component of the hyphal cell wall. PMID:8808922

  5. A Fox2-dependent fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway coexists both in peroxisomes and mitochondria of the ascomycete yeast Candida lusitaniae.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Frédéric; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Salin, Bénédicte; Lucas-Guérin, Marine; Manon, Stephen; Dementhon, Karine; Noël, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    It is generally admitted that the ascomycete yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina possess a single fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway located exclusively in peroxisomes, and that they lost mitochondrial ß-oxidation early during evolution. In this work, we showed that mutants of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae which lack the multifunctional enzyme Fox2p, a key enzyme of the ß-oxidation pathway, were still able to grow on fatty acids as the sole carbon source, suggesting that C. lusitaniae harbored an alternative pathway for fatty acid catabolism. By assaying 14Cα-palmitoyl-CoA consumption, we demonstrated that fatty acid catabolism takes place in both peroxisomal and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. We then observed that a fox2Δ null mutant was unable to catabolize fatty acids in the mitochondrial fraction, thus indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was Fox2p-dependent. This finding was confirmed by the immunodetection of Fox2p in protein extracts obtained from purified peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Finally, immunoelectron microscopy provided evidence that Fox2p was localized in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the existence of a Fox2p-dependent mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway in an ascomycetous yeast, C. lusitaniae. It also points to the existence of an alternative fatty acid catabolism pathway, probably located in peroxisomes, and functioning in a Fox2p-independent manner. PMID:25486052

  6. Occurrence and diversity of Candida genus in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Chi, Zhenming; Yue, Lixi; Chi, Zhe; Zhang, Dechao

    2008-11-01

    A total of 317 yeast isolates from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, guts of marine fishes and marine algae were obtained. The results of routine identification and molecular characterization showed that six isolates among these marine yeasts belonged to Candida genus as Candida intermedia for YA01a, Candida parapsilosis for 3eA2, Candida quercitrusa for JHSb, Candia rugosa for wl8, Candida zeylanoides for TJY13a, and Candida membranifaciens for W14-3. Isolates YA01a ( Candida intermedia), wl8 ( Candida rugosa), 3eA2 ( Candida parapsilosis), and JHSb ( Candida quercitrusa) were found producing cell-bound lipase, while isolate W14-3 ( Candida membranifaciens) producing riboflavin. These marine yeast Candida spp. seem to have wide potential applications in biotechnology.

  7. Multicenter Study of Epidemiological Cutoff Values and Detection of Resistance in Candida spp. to Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin Using the Sensititre YeastOne Colorimetric Method

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Fernandez, M.; Cantón, E.; Carver, P. L.; Chen, S. C.-A.; Eschenauer, G.; Getsinger, D. L.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Govender, N. P.; Grancini, A.; Hanson, K. E.; Kidd, S. E.; Klinker, K.; Kubin, C. J.; Kus, J. V.; Lockhart, S. R.; Meletiadis, J.; Morris, A. J.; Pelaez, T.; Quindós, G.; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M.; Sánchez-Reus, F.; Shoham, S.; Wengenack, N. L.; Borrell Solé, N.; Echeverria, J.; Esperalba, J.; Gómez-G. de la Pedrosa, E.; García García, I.; Linares, M. J.; Marco, F.; Merino, P.; Pemán, J.; Pérez del Molino, L.; Roselló Mayans, E.; Rubio Calvo, C.; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M.; Yagüe, G.; Garcia-Effron, G.; Guinea, J.; Perlin, D. S.; Sanguinetti, M.; Shields, R.; Turnidge, J.

    2015-01-01

    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended. PMID:26282428

  8. Multicenter study of epidemiological cutoff values and detection of resistance in Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin using the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Alvarez-Fernandez, M; Cantón, E; Carver, P L; Chen, S C-A; Eschenauer, G; Getsinger, D L; Gonzalez, G M; Govender, N P; Grancini, A; Hanson, K E; Kidd, S E; Klinker, K; Kubin, C J; Kus, J V; Lockhart, S R; Meletiadis, J; Morris, A J; Pelaez, T; Quindós, G; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M; Sánchez-Reus, F; Shoham, S; Wengenack, N L; Borrell Solé, N; Echeverria, J; Esperalba, J; Gómez-G de la Pedrosa, E; García García, I; Linares, M J; Marco, F; Merino, P; Pemán, J; Pérez Del Molino, L; Roselló Mayans, E; Rubio Calvo, C; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M; Yagüe, G; Garcia-Effron, G; Guinea, J; Perlin, D S; Sanguinetti, M; Shields, R; Turnidge, J

    2015-11-01

    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended. PMID:26282428

  9. Effects of female sex hormones on adhesion of Candida albicans yeast-like fungi to the buccal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, E G; Anokhina, I V; Rybas, Ya A; Sachivkina, N P; Ermolaev, A V; Brodskaya, S B

    2014-06-01

    Hormonal regulation of receptor expression and glycogen concentrations in the epithelial cells of the oral cavity remains poorly studied. Adhesion of microorganisms to the vaginal epithelium correlates with their adhesion to the buccal epithelium. Analysis of the correlation between Candida adhesion to the vaginal and buccal epithelium depending on the hormonal status has demonstrated that activity of Candida albicans strains in the buccal epithelium correlates with their adhesion activity in the vaginal epithelium, with the coefficient of correlations (r) reaching 0.76. PMID:24958376

  10. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense. Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001). PMID:27021328

  11. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Nobre Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001). PMID:27021328

  12. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  13. Methanol-inducible promoter of thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Ogataea thermomethanolica BCC16875 potential for production of heterologous protein at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Promdonkoy, Peerada; Tirasophon, Witoon; Roongsawang, Niran; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa

    2014-08-01

    Methanol-utilizing metabolism is generally found in methylotrophic yeasts. Several potential promoters regulating enzymes in this pathway have been extensively studied, especially alcohol oxidase. Here, we characterized the alcohol oxidase gene promoter from thermotolerant Ogataea thermomethanolica (OthAOX). This promoter can be induced by methanol, and was shown to regulate expression of phytase up to 45 °C. The pattern of heterologous phytase N-glycosylation depends on the induction temperature. Unlike the AOX promoter from Pichia pastoris, this OthAOX initially turns on the expression of the heterologous protein at the de-repression stage in the presence of glycerol. Full induction of protein is observed when methanol is present. With this methanol-inducible promoter, target protein can be initially produced prior to the induction phase, which would help shorten the time for protein production. Being able to drive protein expression at various temperatures prompts this newly identified AOX promoter to be potential tool for heterologous protein production in high temperature conditions. PMID:24671405

  14. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p < 0.001) than non-albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. PMID:27020154

  15. Pretreatment of the yeast antagonist, Candida oleophila with glycine betaine increases oxidative stress tolerance in the microenvironment of apple wounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to wounding, harvested fruit tissues of apple and citrus exhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production is greater when yeast antagonists used as biocontrol agents are applied in the wounds. These phenomena result in an oxidative stress environment for the yeas...

  16. Exploring ecological modelling to investigate factors governing the colonization success in nosocomial environment of Candida albicans and other pathogenic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Corte, Laura; Roscini, Luca; Colabella, Claudia; Tascini, Carlo; Leonildi, Alessandro; Sozio, Emanuela; Menichetti, Francesco; Merelli, Maria; Scarparo, Claudio; Meyer, Wieland; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Bassetti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred seventy seven strains from eleven opportunistic species of the genus Candida, isolated from two Italian hospitals, were identified and analyzed for their ability to form biofilm in laboratory conditions. The majority of Candida albicans strains formed biofilm while among the NCAC species there were different level of biofilm forming ability, in accordance with the current literature. The relation between the variables considered, i.e. the departments and the hospitals or the species and their ability to form biofilm, was tested with the assessment of the probability associated to each combination. Species and biofilm forming ability appeared to be distributed almost randomly, although some combinations suggest a potential preference of some species or of biofilm forming strains for specific wards. On the contrary, the relation between biofilm formation and species isolation frequency was highly significant (R(2) around 0.98). Interestingly, the regression analyses carried out on the data of the two hospitals separately were rather different and the analysis on the data merged together gave a much lower correlation. These findings suggest that, harsh environments shape the composition of microbial species significantly and that each environment should be considered per se to avoid less significant statistical treatments. PMID:27246511

  17. Exploring ecological modelling to investigate factors governing the colonization success in nosocomial environment of Candida albicans and other pathogenic yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Laura; Roscini, Luca; Colabella, Claudia; Tascini, Carlo; Leonildi, Alessandro; Sozio, Emanuela; Menichetti, Francesco; Merelli, Maria; Scarparo, Claudio; Meyer, Wieland; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Bassetti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred seventy seven strains from eleven opportunistic species of the genus Candida, isolated from two Italian hospitals, were identified and analyzed for their ability to form biofilm in laboratory conditions. The majority of Candida albicans strains formed biofilm while among the NCAC species there were different level of biofilm forming ability, in accordance with the current literature. The relation between the variables considered, i.e. the departments and the hospitals or the species and their ability to form biofilm, was tested with the assessment of the probability associated to each combination. Species and biofilm forming ability appeared to be distributed almost randomly, although some combinations suggest a potential preference of some species or of biofilm forming strains for specific wards. On the contrary, the relation between biofilm formation and species isolation frequency was highly significant (R2 around 0.98). Interestingly, the regression analyses carried out on the data of the two hospitals separately were rather different and the analysis on the data merged together gave a much lower correlation. These findings suggest that, harsh environments shape the composition of microbial species significantly and that each environment should be considered per se to avoid less significant statistical treatments. PMID:27246511

  18. Silica sol-gel encapsulated methylotrophic yeast as filling of biofilters for the removal of methanol from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kamanina, Olga A; Lavrova, Daria G; Arlyapov, Viacheslav A; Alferov, Valeriy A; Ponamoreva, Olga N

    2016-10-01

    This research suggests the use of new hybrid biomaterials based on methylotrophic yeast cells covered by an alkyl-modified silica shell as biocatalysts. The hybrid biomaterials are produced by sol-gel chemistry from silane precursors. The shell protects microbial cells from harmful effects of acidic environment. Potential use of the hybrid biomaterials based on methylotrophic yeast Ogataea polymorpha VKM Y-2559 encapsulated into alkyl-modified silica matrix for biofilters is represented for the first time. Organo-silica shells covering yeast cells effectively protect them from exposure to harmful factors, including extreme values of pH. The biofilter based on the organic silica matrix encapsulated in the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea polymorpha BKM Y-2559 has an oxidizing power of 3 times more than the capacity of the aeration tanks used at the chemical plants during methyl alcohol production. This may lead to the development of new and effective industrial wastewater treatment technologies. PMID:27542749

  19. In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Dabbagh, Muhammad Ali; Fouladi, Zahra

    2007-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss known as Avishan Shirazi (in Iran) is one of the valuable Iranian medicinal plants. The aim of study was to evaluate anti-Candida activity of Z. multiflora against different species of Candida in vitro. Anti-Candida activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss was studied in vitro. Anti-Candida activity against Candida species was done using serial dilutions of extracts in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanolic and ethanolic extracts was 70.7 and 127 mg l−1, respectively. Aqueous extract showed no remarkable activity against Candida species. We conclude that methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss has more anti-Candida effect at 70.7 mg l−1 compared to ethanolic extract 127 mg l−1. In addition, the isolates of Candida parapsilosis were more susceptible to methanolic extract than other tested species. PMID:17965766

  20. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y; Goh, T K; Tani, Y

    1993-06-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as in monomeric forms in C. boidinii cells. The C. boidinii URA3 gene was overexpressed in C. boidinii on these CARS vectors. CARS1 and CARS2 were found to function as an autonomous replicating element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well. Different portions of the CARS1 sequence were needed for autonomous replicating activity in C. boidinii and S. cerevisiae. C. boidinii could also be transformed with vectors harboring a CARS fragment and the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene. PMID:8501059

  1. Vasorelaxant Effect of 5'-Methylthioadenosine Obtained from Candida utilis Yeast Extract through the Suppression of Intracellular Ca(2+) Concentration in Isolated Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Akiyama, Sayaka; Saiki, Tomomi; Omae, Masato; Hamasawa, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-05-01

    Our study is the first to demonstrate the vasorelaxant effect of Candida utilis yeast extract on rat aorta (EC50 of 7.2 ± 3.2 mg/mL). Among five identified compounds, 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) exhibited comparable vasorelaxant effect (EC50 of 190 ± 40 μM) with adenosine, a known vasodilator, on 1 μM phenylephrine (PE)-contracted Sprague-Dawley rat aortic rings. MTA induced vasorelaxation in an endothelium-independent manner and independent of the adenosine receptors. MTA reduced a CaCl2-induced vasocontraction stimulated by 1 μM PE, whereas the effect was abolished in a 60 mM KCl-induced vasocontraction. This indicates that MTA was not involved in the suppression of extracellular Ca(2+) influx. MTA significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated the PE-induced activation of calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMK II) in aortic rings and inhibited the phosphorylation of L-type Ca(2+) channel (VDCC). In conclusion, the underlying mechanism(s) of MTA-induced vasorelaxation involves the inhibition of Ca(2+)/CaMK II/VDCC phosphorylation pathway, resulting in the suppression of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in aortic rings. PMID:27066696

  2. Adherence ability of Candida africana: a comparative study with Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; De Leo, Filomena; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we compared the adherence ability to human Hela cells and biofilm formation of three closely related Candida yeast. In our experiments, Candida africana showed poor adhesion ability to human Hela cells and the absence of biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride strips. Conversely, Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis formed mature biofilms and stable attachment to Hela cells. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study reporting data on biofilm formation and adherence to human Hela cells by C. africana. PMID:20202113

  3. A Versatile Overexpression Strategy in the Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans: Identification of Regulators of Morphogenesis and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Vitor; Znaidi, Sadri; Goyard, Sophie; Bachellier-Bassi, Sophie; Firon, Arnaud; Legrand, Mélanie; Diogo, Dorothée; Naulleau, Claire; Rossignol, Tristan; d’Enfert, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered human fungal pathogen, causing both superficial infections and life-threatening systemic diseases. Functional genomic studies performed in this organism have mainly used knock-out mutants and extensive collections of overexpression mutants are still lacking. Here, we report the development of a first generation C. albicans ORFeome, the improvement of overexpression systems and the construction of two new libraries of C. albicans strains overexpressing genes for components of signaling networks, in particular protein kinases, protein phosphatases and transcription factors. As a proof of concept, we screened these collections for genes whose overexpression impacts morphogenesis or growth rates in C. albicans. Our screens identified genes previously described for their role in these biological processes, demonstrating the functionality of our strategy, as well as genes that have not been previously associated to these processes. This article emphasizes the potential of systematic overexpression strategies to improve our knowledge of regulatory networks in C. albicans. The C. albicans plasmid and strain collections described here are available at the Fungal Genetics Stock Center. Their extension to a genome-wide scale will represent important resources for the C. albicans community. PMID:23049891

  4. Metabolic flux analysis model for optimizing xylose conversion into ethanol by the natural C5-fermenting yeast Candida shehatae.

    PubMed

    Bideaux, Carine; Montheard, Julie; Cameleyre, Xavier; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Alfenore, Sandrine

    2016-02-01

    A metabolic flux analysis (MFA) model was developed to optimize the xylose conversion into ethanol using Candida shehatae strain. This metabolic model was compartmented and constructed with xylose as carbon substrate integrating the enzymatic duality of the first step of xylose degradation via an algebraic coefficient. The model included the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, synthesis of major metabolites like ethanol, acetic acid and glycerol, the tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as the respiratory chain, the cofactor balance, and the maintenance. The biomass composition and thus production were integrated considering the major biochemical synthesis reactions from monomers to each constitutive macromolecule (i.e., proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, nucleic acids). The construction of the model resulted into a 122-linear equation system to be resolved. A first experiment allowed was to verify the accuracy of the model by comparing calculated and experimental data. The metabolic model was utilized to determine the theoretical yield taking into account oxido-reductive balance and to optimize ethanol production. The maximal theoretical yield was calculated at 0.62 Cmolethanol/Cmolxylose for an oxygen requirement of 0.33 moloxygen/molxylose linked to the cofactors of the xylose reductase. Cultivations in chemostat mode allowed the fine tuning of both xylose and oxygen uptakes and showed that lower was the oxygen/xylose ratio, higher was the ethanol production yield. The best experimental ethanol production yield (0.51 Cmolethanol/Cmolxylose) was obtained for an oxygen supply of 0.47 moloxygen/molxylose. PMID:26536879

  5. N-Acetylglucosamine-Induced Cell Death in Candida albicans and Its Implications for Adaptive Mechanisms of Nutrient Sensing in Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Du, Han; Guan, Guobo; Li, Xiaoling; Gulati, Megha; Tao, Li; Cao, Chengjun; Johnson, Alexander D.; Nobile, Clarissa J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Single-celled organisms have different strategies to sense and utilize nutrients in their ever-changing environments. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a common member of the human microbiota, especially that of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. An important question concerns how C. albicans gained a competitive advantage over other microbes to become a successful commensal and opportunistic pathogen. Here, we report that C. albicans uses N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), an abundant carbon source present in the GI tract, as a signal for nutrient availability. When placed in water, C. albicans cells normally enter the G0 phase and remain viable for weeks. However, they quickly lose viability when cultured in water containing only GlcNAc. We term this phenomenon GlcNAc-induced cell death (GICD). GlcNAc triggers the upregulation of ribosomal biogenesis genes, alterations of mitochondrial metabolism, and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), followed by rapid cell death via both apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms. Multiple pathways, including the conserved cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling and GlcNAc catabolic pathways, are involved in GICD. GlcNAc acts as a signaling molecule to regulate multiple cellular programs in a coordinated manner and therefore maximizes the efficiency of nutrient use. This adaptive behavior allows C. albicans’ more efficient colonization of the gut. PMID:26350972

  6. New and emerging yeast pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, K C

    1995-01-01

    The most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease are Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The incidence of infections by other yeasts has increased during the past decade. The most evident emerging pathogens are Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula species, Hansenula anomala, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida krusei. Organisms once considered environmental contaminants or only industrially important, such as Candida utilis and Candida lipolytica, have now been implicated as agents of fungemia, onychomycosis, and systemic disease. The unusual yeasts primarily infect immunocompromised patients, newborns, and the elderly. The role of central venous catheter removal and antifungal therapy in patient management is controversial. The antibiograms of the unusual yeasts range from resistant to the most recent azoles and amphotericin B to highly susceptible to all antifungal agents. Current routine methods for yeast identification may be insufficient to identify the unusual yeasts within 2 days after isolation. The recognition of unusual yeasts as agents of sometimes life-threatening infection and their unpredictable antifungal susceptibilities increase the burden on the clinical mycology laboratory to pursue complete species identification and MIC determinations. Given the current and evolving medical practices for management of seriously ill patients, further evaluations of the clinically important data about these yeasts are needed. PMID:8665465

  7. Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole for Six Candida Species as Determined by the Colorimetric Sensititre YeastOne Method

    PubMed Central

    Pemán, Javier; Iñiguez, Carmen; Hervás, David; Lopez-Hontangas, Jose L.; Pina-Vaz, Cidalia; Camarena, Juan J.; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; García-García, Inmaculada; García-Tapia, Ana M.; Guna, Remedios; Merino, Paloma; Pérez del Molino, Luisa; Rubio, Carmen; Suárez, Anabel

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of clinical breakpoints (CBP), epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are useful to separate wild-type (WT) isolates (without mechanisms of resistance) from non-WT isolates (those that can harbor some resistance mechanisms), which is the goal of susceptibility tests. Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) is a widely used method to determine susceptibility of Candida spp. to antifungal agents. The CLSI CBP have been established, but not for the SYO method. The ECVs for four azoles, obtained using MIC distributions determined by the SYO method, were calculated via five methods (three statistical methods and based on the MIC50 and modal MIC). Respectively, the median ECVs (in mg/liter) of the five methods for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole (in parentheses: the percentage of isolates inhibited by MICs equal to or less than the ECVs; the number of isolates tested) were as follows: 2 (94.4%; 944), 0.5 (96.7%; 942), 0.25 (97.6%; 673), and 0.06 (96.7%; 849) for Candida albicans; 4 (86.1%; 642), 0.5 (99.4%; 642), 0.12 (93.9%; 392), and 0.06 (86.9%; 559) for C. parapsilosis; 8 (94.9%; 175), 1 (93.7%; 175), 2 (93.6%; 125), and 0.25 (90.4%; 167) for C. tropicalis; 128 (98.6%; 212), 4 (95.8%; 212), 4 (96.0%; 173), and 2 (98.5; 205) for C. glabrata; 256 (100%; 53), 1 (98.1%; 53), 1 (100%; 33), and 1 (97.9%; 48) for C. krusei; 4 (89.2%; 93), 0.5 (100%; 93), 0.25 (100%; 33), and 0.06 (87.7%; 73) for C. orthopsilosis. All methods included ≥94% of isolates and yielded similar ECVs (within 1 dilution). These ECVs would be suitable for monitoring emergence of isolates with reduced susceptibility by using the SYO method. PMID:23761155

  8. Inactivation of the Antifungal and Immunomodulatory Properties of Human Cathelicidin LL-37 by Aspartic Proteases Produced by the Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Bochenska, Oliwia; Zawrotniak, Marcin; Wolak, Natalia; Trebacz, Grzegorz; Gogol, Mariusz; Ostrowska, Dominika; Aoki, Wataru; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Kozik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Constant cross talk between Candida albicans yeast cells and their human host determines the outcome of fungal colonization and, eventually, the progress of infectious disease (candidiasis). An effective weapon used by C. albicans to cope with the host defense system is the release of 10 distinct secreted aspartic proteases (SAPs). Here, we validate a hypothesis that neutrophils and epithelial cells use the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 to inactivate C. albicans at sites of candidal infection and that C. albicans uses SAPs to effectively degrade LL-37. LL-37 is cleaved into multiple products by SAP1 to -4, SAP8, and SAP9, and this proteolytic processing is correlated with the gradual decrease in the antifungal activity of LL-37. Moreover, a major intermediate of LL-37 cleavage—the LL-25 peptide—is antifungal but devoid of the immunomodulatory properties of LL-37. In contrast to LL-37, LL-25 did not affect the generation of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils upon treatment with phorbol esters. Stimulating neutrophils with LL-25 (rather than LL-37) significantly decreased calcium flux and interleukin-8 production, resulting in lower chemotactic activity of the peptide against neutrophils, which may decrease the recruitment of neutrophils to infection foci. LL-25 also lost the function of LL-37 as an inhibitor of neutrophil apoptosis, thereby reducing the life span of these defense cells. This study indicates that C. albicans can effectively use aspartic proteases to destroy the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties of LL-37, thus enabling the pathogen to survive and propagate. PMID:25847962

  9. A Coordinated Interdependent Protein Circuitry Stabilizes the Kinetochore Ensemble to Protect CENP-A in the Human Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Jitendra; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most eukaryotes, a kinetochore is fully assembled early in the cell cycle in budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. These kinetochores are clustered together throughout the cell cycle. Kinetochore assembly on point centromeres of S. cerevisiae is considered to be a step-wise process that initiates with binding of inner kinetochore proteins on specific centromere DNA sequence motifs. In contrast, kinetochore formation in C. albicans, that carries regional centromeres of 3–5 kb long, has been shown to be a sequence independent but an epigenetically regulated event. In this study, we investigated the process of kinetochore assembly/disassembly in C. albicans. Localization dependence of various kinetochore proteins studied by confocal microscopy and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that assembly of a kinetochore is a highly coordinated and interdependent event. Partial depletion of an essential kinetochore protein affects integrity of the kinetochore cluster. Further protein depletion results in complete collapse of the kinetochore architecture. In addition, GFP-tagged kinetochore proteins confirmed similar time-dependent disintegration upon gradual depletion of an outer kinetochore protein (Dam1). The loss of integrity of a kinetochore formed on centromeric chromatin was demonstrated by reduced binding of CENP-A and CENP-C at the centromeres. Most strikingly, Western blot analysis revealed that gradual depletion of any of these essential kinetochore proteins results in concomitant reduction in cellular protein levels of CENP-A. We further demonstrated that centromere bound CENP-A is protected from the proteosomal mediated degradation. Based on these results, we propose that a coordinated interdependent circuitry of several evolutionarily conserved essential kinetochore proteins ensures integrity of a kinetochore formed on the foundation of CENP-A containing centromeric chromatin. PMID:22536162

  10. Production of Xylitol from D-Xylose by Overexpression of Xylose Reductase in Osmotolerant Yeast Candida glycerinogenes WL2002-5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Zong, Hong; Zhuge, Bin; Lu, Xinyao; Fang, Huiying; Zhuge, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Efficient bioconversion of D-xylose into various biochemicals is critical for the developing lignocelluloses application. In this study, we compared D-xylose utilization in Candida glycerinogenes WL2002-5 transformants expressing xylose reductase (XYL1) in D-xylose metabolism. C. glycerinogenes WL2002-5 expressing XYL1 from Schefferomyces stipitis can produce xylitol. Xylitol production by the recombinant strains was evaluated using a xylitol fermentation medium with glucose as a co-substrate. As glucose was found to be an insufficient co-substrate, various carbon sources were screened for efficient cofactor regeneration, and glycerol was found to be the best co-substrate. The effects of glycerol on the xylitol production rate by a xylose reductase gene (XYL1)-overexpressed mutant of C. glycerinogenes WL2002-5 were investigated. The XYL1-overexpressed mutant produced xylitol from D-xylose using glycerol as a co-substrate for cell growth and NAD (P) H regeneration: 100 g/L D-xylose was completely converted into xylitol when at least 20 g/L glycerol was used as a co-substrate. XYL1 overexpressed mutant grown on glycerol as co-substrate accumulated 2.1-fold increased xylitol concentration over those cells grown on glucose as co-substrate. XYL1 overexpressed mutant produced xylitol with a volumetric productivity of 0.83 g/L/h, and a xylitol yield of 98 % xylose. Recombinant yeast strains obtained in this study are promising candidates for xylitol production. This is the first report of XYL1 gene overexpression of C. glycerinogenes WL2002-5 for enhancing the efficiency of xylitol production. PMID:26018342

  11. Direct Isolation of Candida spp. from Blood Cultures on the Chromogenic Medium CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Lynn L.; Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.; Dooley, David P.

    2003-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a selective and differential chromogenic medium that has been shown to be useful for identification of Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. Colony morphology and color have been well defined when CHROMagar Candida has been used to isolate yeast directly from clinical specimens, including stool, urine, respiratory, vaginal, oropharyngeal, and esophageal sources. Direct isolation of yeast on CHROMagar Candida from blood cultures has not been evaluated. We evaluated whether the color and colony characteristics produced by Candida spp. on CHROMagar Candida were altered when yeasts were isolated directly from blood cultures. Fifty clinical isolates of Candida were inoculated into aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles and incubated at 35°C in an automated blood culture system. When growth was detected, an aliquot was removed and plated onto CHROMagar Candida. As a control, CHROMagar Candida plates were inoculated with the same isolate of yeast grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar simultaneously. No significant difference was detected in color or colony morphology between the blood and control isolates in any of the tested organisms. All C. albicans (n = 12), C. tropicalis (n = 12), C. glabrata (n = 9), and C. krusei (n = 5) isolates exhibited the expected species-specific colony characteristics and color, whether isolated directly from blood or from control cultures. CHROMagar Candida can be reliably used for direct isolation of yeast from blood cultures. Direct isolation could allow mycology laboratories to more rapidly identify Candida spp., enable clinicians to more quickly make antifungal agent selections, and potentially decrease patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:12791890

  12. Candida bracarensis Detected Among Isolates of Candida glabrata by Petide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence in Situ Hybirdization: Susceptibility Data and Documentation of Presumed Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular taxonomic studies have revealed new yeast (Candida) species among phenotypically-delineated species: the best example being Candida dubliniensis. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of two new molecularly-defined species, Candida bracarensis and Candida nivariensis, which ...

  13. GENE ENGINEERING IN YEAST FOR BIODEGRADATION: IMMUNOLOGICAL CROSS-REACTIVITY AMONG CYTOCHROME P-450 SYSTEM PROTEINS OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND CANDIDA TROPICALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms whose cytochrome P-450 monoxygenase systems may be amenable to genetic engineering for the hydroxylation and detoxication of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. e are examining the molecular genetic properties of strains of bakers yeast, Sa...

  14. Detection of amphotericin B resistance in Candida haemulonii and closely related species by use of the Etest, Vitek-2 yeast susceptibility system, and CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Jang, Sook Jin; Ju, Min Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2012-06-01

    The emerging fungal pathogens Candida haemulonii and Candida pseudohaemulonii often show high-level resistance to amphotericin B (AMB). We compared the utilities of five antifungal susceptibility testing methods, i.e., the Etest using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with glucose and methylene blue (Etest-MH), the Etest using RPMI agar supplemented with glucose (Etest-RPG), the Vitek-2 yeast susceptibility system, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) broth microdilution methods, for the detection of AMB-resistant isolates of C. haemulonii and closely related species. Thirty-eight clinical isolates (8 C. haemulonii, 10 C. pseudohaemulonii, and 20 Candida auris isolates) were analyzed. Of the 18 C. haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii isolates, 18, 15, 18, 10, and 9 exhibited AMB MICs of >1 μg/ml by the Etest-MH, Etest-RPG, Vitek-2, CLSI, and EUCAST methods, respectively. All 20 C. auris isolates showed AMB MICs of ≤1 μg/ml by all five methods. Of the methods, the Etest-MH generated the broadest distribution of AMB MICs for all 38 isolates and showed the best discrimination between the C. haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii isolates (4 to 32 μg/ml) and those of C. auris (0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml). Taking the Etest-MH as the reference method, the essential agreements (within two dilutions) for the Etest-RPG, Vitek-2, CLSI, and EUCAST methods were 84, 92, 55, and 55%, respectively; the categorical agreements were 92, 92, 79, and 76%, respectively. This study provides the first data on the efficacy of the Etest-MH and its excellent agreement with Vitek-2 for discriminating AMB-resistant from AMB-susceptible isolates of these Candida species. PMID:22442324

  15. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  16. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  17. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  18. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida...

  19. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  20. Production of Candida antarctica lipase B gene open reading frame using automated PCR gene assembly protocol on robotic workcell and expression in an ethanologenic yeast for use as resin-bound biocatalyst in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephen R; Moser, Bryan R; Harmsen, Amanda J; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Jones, Marjorie A; Pinkelman, Rebecca; Bang, Sookie S; Tasaki, Ken; Doll, Kenneth M; Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C; Liu, Siqing; Jackson, John S; Robinson, Samantha; Cotta, Michael C; Rich, Joseph O; Caimi, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    A synthetic Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) gene open reading frame (ORF) for expression in yeast was constructed, and the lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1) C3 variant gene ORF, potentially to improve the availability of the active enzyme at the surface of the yeast cell, was added in frame with the CALB ORF using an automated PCR assembly and DNA purification protocol on an integrated robotic workcell. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing CALB protein or CALB Lyt-1 fusion protein were first grown on 2% (w/v) glucose, producing 9.3 g/L ethanol during fermentation. The carbon source was switched to galactose for GAL1-driven expression, and the CALB and CALB Lyt-1 enzymes expressed were tested for fatty acid ethyl ester (biodiesel) production. The synthetic enzymes catalyzed the formation of fatty acid ethyl esters from ethanol and either corn or soybean oil. It was further demonstrated that a one-step-charging resin, specifically selected for binding to lipase, was capable of covalent attachment of the CALB Lyt-1 enzyme, and that the resin-bound enzyme catalyzed the production of biodiesel. High-level expression of lipase in an ethanologenic yeast strain has the potential to increase the profitability of an integrated biorefinery by combining bioethanol production with coproduction of a low-cost biocatalyst that converts corn oil to biodiesel. PMID:21609683

  1. Candida osteomyelitis in a gelding

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Aimie; López, Alfonso; Pack, LeeAnn; Muckle, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old gelding was referred for evaluation of severe right forelimb lameness. The horse was grade 4/5 lame on the right forelimb. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings were consistent with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Due to poor prognosis the owner elected euthanasia. Histopathology confirmed chronic arthritis and osteomyelitis with intralesional yeast (Candida species). PMID:23904643

  2. Candida Parapsilosis and Candida Guillermondii: Emerging Pathogens in Nail Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fich, Felix; Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Pérez, Mario; Nauhm, Yalile; León, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails). Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%). Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%). While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%), those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%), those of spp. were 20 (4.3%) and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%). Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1%) were men and 331 (70,9%) were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of the

  3. Copper adaptation and methylotrophic metabolism in Candida boidinii.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Gianfranco; Salvato, Benedetto; Manzano, Marisa; Beltramini, Mariano

    2002-05-01

    The importance of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the metabolic switch from normotrophic to methylotrophic conditions was studied in the facultative methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii. Copper adaptation was performed to qualify C. boidinii as a suitable cellular system to study the effect of induction of CuZnSOD, and other biochemical components along the copper detoxification system, on methanol adaptation. Copper adaptation results in the induction of CuZnSOD peroxidase activity as well as of glutathione. The effects at the metabolic level of exposure to both copper and methanol were also studied: the results suggest that the effect on antioxidant enzyme levels as a function of the change of trophic condition are predominant with respect to the effects of copper administration. Thus, the methanol-dependent induction of such enzymes is likely to provide a sufficient protection for the cells against toxic effects depending on copper administration. Administration of copper under methylotrophic conditions decreases the growth rate in spite of the high levels of antioxidant enzymes that are elicited by copper treatment. The adaptation to methanol metabolism was studied alsoafter methanol-independent induction of CuZnSOD, glutathione and catalase levels, obtained by exposure to high copper concentrations in glucose-containing medium. The metabolic changes induced by copper are persistent over several re-inoculations in normo-cupric glucose medium, thus allowing the study of the glucose-to-methanol switch on cells exhibiting high levels of antioxidant enzyme activities. Under such conditions the lag time observed during the transition from normotrophic to methylotrophic conditions is strongly reduced. PMID:11967833

  4. Malassezia and Candida colonisation on glans penis of circumcised men.

    PubMed

    Aridoğan, I Atilla; Ilkit, Macit; Izol, Volkan; Ates, Aylin

    2005-09-01

    The Malassezia yeast are members of the normal human cutaneous flora in adults. They also are reported as part of the microflora of the male genital region in mostly uncircumcised males. It has been reported that Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia globosa are the most frequent yeast belonging to the resident microflora of the penis as in other human skin areas. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of Malassezia and Candida yeast colonisation on the glans penis of circumcised males. Impression preparations were made on modified Dixon agar. The isolates were identified by morphological and physiological characteristics. A total of 245 circumcised males were included in the study. Of the 245 patients examined, 55 (22.4%) were found to have a mycologically proven yeast fungi on their glans penis. In 17 (30.9%) Malassezia, in 36 (65.5%) Candida, in one (1.8%) Malassezia and Candida, and in one (1.8%) Saccharomyces strains were detected. Malassezia furfur (66.7%) was the most common species among the lipophilic yeast, followed by Malassezia globosa (11.1%), Malassezia obtusa (11.1%) and Malassezia slooffiae (11.1%). Candida albicans was the most common non-lipophilic yeast (46.0%), that was isolated among the other yeast, followed by unidentified Candida strains (18.9%), Candida tropicalis (8.1%), Candida glabrata (8.1%), Candida parapsilosis (8.1%), Candida zeylanoides (5.4%), Candida guilliermondii (2.7%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.7%). The results of this study showed that Malassezia species were also colonised like Candida on the glans penis of circumcised males. PMID:16115108

  5. Description of Diutina gen. nov., Diutina siamensis, f.a. sp. nov., and reassignment of Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida ranongensis, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae to the genus Diutina.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Lachance, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Three strains (DMKU-RE28, DMKU-RE43T and DMKU-RE123) of a novel anamorphic yeast species were isolated from rice leaf tissue collected in Thailand. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the species forms a sister pair with Candida ranongensis CBS 10861T but differs by 24-30 substitutions in the LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 domains and 30-35 substitutions in the ITS region. A phylogenetic analysis based on both the small and the large rRNA gene subunits confirmed this connection and demonstrated the presence of a clade that also includes Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae. The clade is not closely affiliated to any known teleomorphic genus, and forms a well-separated lineage from currently recognized genera of the Saccharomycetales. Hence, the genus Diutina gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate members of the clade, including Diutina siamensis f.a. sp. nov. and the preceding seven Candida species. The type strain is DMKU-RE43T ( = CBS 13388T = BCC 61183T = NBRC 109695T). PMID:26410375

  6. Isoflavone formononetin from red propolis acts as a fungicide against Candida sp

    PubMed Central

    das Neves, Michelline Viviane Marques; da Silva, Tânia Maria Sarmento; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; da Cunha, Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão; Oliveira, Eduardo de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of two samples of Brazilian red propolis (from Igarassu, PE, Brazil, hereinafter propolis 1 and 2) was conducted in order to determine the components responsible for its antimicrobial activity, especially against Candida spp. Samples of both the crude powdered resin and the crude ethanolic extract of propolis from both locations inhibited the growth of all 12 tested Candida strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 256 μg/mL. The hexane, acetate and methanol fractions of propolis 1 also inhibited all strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 μg/mL for the six bacteria tested and from 32 to 1024 μg/mL for the yeasts. Similarly, hexane and acetate fractions of propolis sample 2 inhibited all microorganisms tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 512 μg/mL for bacteria and 32 μg/mL for yeasts. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC and their phenolic profile allowed us to identify and quantitate one phenolic acid and seven flavonoids in the crude ethanolic extract. Formononetin and pinocembrin were the major constituents amongst the identified compounds. Formononetin was detected in all extracts and fractions tested, except for the methanolic fraction of sample 2. The isolated isoflavone formononetin inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 μg/mL for the six bacteria strains tested and 25 μg/mL for the six yeasts. Formononetin also exhibited fungicidal activity against five of the six yeasts tested. Taken together our results demonstrate that the isoflavone formononetin is implicated in the reported antimicrobial activity of red propolis. PMID:26887239

  7. Candida albicans, plasticity and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The yeast Candida albicans has emerged as a major public health problem during the past two decades. The spectrum of diseases caused by this species ranges from vaginal infections, which affect up to 75% of the women at least once in their lifetime, to deep infections in hospitalized patients which lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. Candida albicans may also play a role in the persistence or worsening of some chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Active research is now improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and genetic factors in the yeast and its host which influence the development of disease. Despite these advances and the availability of a more extensive therapeutic arsenal, current progress in the control of nosocomial infections due to Candida remains limited, mainly due to the difficulties in diagnosing these infections. The biologist has a key role to play in establishing a dialogue with the clinician in order to identify the saprophyte/pathogen transition in patients as early as possible. This review provides a quick synopsis of the modern concepts of Candida pathogenesis with some representative examples illustrating the specifics traits of this yeast in terms of pathogenic adaptation. PMID:23962107

  8. YEASTS FROM THE NORTH SEA AND AMOCO CADIZ OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The species and densities of yeasts isolated from North Sea waters before and after the production of oil were compared. Debaryomyces hansenii was the predominant species, but after oil production, Candida guillieromondii, a hydrocarbonoclastic yeast, was more commonly isolated a...

  9. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51), but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS) which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy)-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene) (WSP1267) had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a) loss of cell wall integrity, (b) detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c) accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d) presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e) significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new antifungal drugs. PMID

  10. Evaluation of a Reformulated CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Brenner, Troy M.; Romagnoli, Mark; Baqui, A. A. M. A.; Merz, William G.; Falkler, William A.; Meiller, Timothy F.

    2001-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a differential culture medium for the isolation and presumptive identification of clinically important yeasts. Recently the medium was reformulated by Becton Dickinson. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the new formula of CHROMagar against the original CHROMagar Candida for recovery, growth, and colony color with stock cultures and with direct plating of clinical specimens. A total of 90 stock yeast isolates representing nine yeast species, including Candida dubliniensis, as well as 522 clinical specimens were included in this study. No major differences were noted in growth rate or colony size between the two media for most of the species. However, all 10 Candida albicans isolates evaluated consistently gave a lighter shade of green on the new CHROMagar formulation. In contrast, all 26 C. dubliniensis isolates gave the same typical dark green color on both media. A total of 173 of the 522 clinical specimens were positive for yeast, with eight yeast species recovered. The recovery rates for each species were equivalent on both media, with no consistent species-associated differences in colony size or color. Although both media were comparable in performance, the lighter green colonies of C. albicans isolates on the new CHROMagar made it easier to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolates. In conclusion, the newly formulated Becton Dickinson CHROMagar Candida medium is as equally suited as a differential medium for the presumptive identification of yeast species and for the detection of multiple yeast species in clinical specimens as the original CHROMagar Candida medium. PMID:11326038

  11. n-alkanes as a substratum for riboflavin production. I. Investigations of the dynamics of the flavinogenesis in chosen yeasts of the genus candida.

    PubMed

    Olczyk, C

    1978-01-01

    For the first time the flavinogenic abilities of Candida flareri on a simple, fully defined medium with hydrocarbons were demonstrated. C flareri and C. guilliermondi on a synthetic medium with biotin and n-alkanes (n-decane and hexadecane) overproduce riboflavin with a considerable but varying efficiency. Among the two hydrocarbons examined n-hexadecane proved to be a more favourable source of carbon for the biosynthesis of this vitamin than n-decane. The quantities of riboflavin accumulated by C. flareri in an aerated culture are twice higher than those for C. guilliermondii (50.5 microgram/ml on hexadecane) in analogous conditions. PMID:643742

  12. “In vitro” antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil on yeasts from onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Guerrer, L.V.; Cunha, K. C.; Nogueira, M. C. L.; Cardoso, C. C.; Soares, M. M. C. N.; Almeida, M. T. G.

    2012-01-01

    The “in vitro” antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil®) was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporon asahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii. PMID:24031958

  13. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Lakshman

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast. PMID:20690497

  14. The influence of chemical composition of commercial lemon essential oils on the growth of Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Białoń, M; Krzyśko-Łupicka, T; Koszałkowska, M; Wieczorek, P P

    2014-02-01

    Candida yeasts are saprophytes naturally present in the environment and forming colonies on human mucous membranes and skin. They are opportunistic fungi that cause severe and even fatal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Several essential oils, including eucalyptus, pine, cinnamon and lemon, have been shown to be effective against Candida strains. This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial lemon essential oils and their antifungal potential against selected Candida yeast strains. Antifungal potential and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for six commercial lemon essential oils against five Candida yeast strains (Candida albicans 31, Candida tropicalis 32, Candida glabrata 33, Candida glabrata 35 and Candida glabrata 38). On the basis of the GCMS analysis, it was found that the tested lemon essential oils had different chemical compositions, but mostly, they contained almost exclusively terpenes and oxygenated terpenes. The tests show that antifungal potential of lemon essential oils against Candida yeast strains was related to the high content of monoterpenoids and the type of Candida strains. From six tested commercial oils, only four (ETJA, Vera-Nord, Avicenna-Oil and Aromatic Art) shows antifungal potential against three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata). Vera-Nord and Avicenna-Oil show the best activity and effectively inhibit the growth of the C. albicans strain across the full range of the concentrations used. Our study characterises lemon essential oils, which could be used as very effective natural remedies against candidiasis caused by C. albicans. PMID:24436010

  15. Pathogenesis of Candida vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Sobel, J D

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of candida vulvovaginitis (CVV) has been estimated based on statistical data from Great Britain to be an increase to 200/100,000 over 10 years to 1984. CVV in the US is the 2nd commonest cause of vaginal infection, with bacterial vaginosis occurring twice as often. 85-90% of the yeasts isolated from the vagina are candida albicans, based on biotyping rather that the newer methods of DNA hybridization. The pathogenesis of CVV is discussed in terms of the microbiology (virulence factors, adherence, germ tube and mycelium formation, proteinase secretion, and switching colonies), asymptomatic vaginal colonization, transformation to symptomatic vaginitis, host predisposing factors (pregnancy, oral contraceptives, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobes, and other), vaginal defense mechanisms (humoral system, phagocytic system, cell mediated immunity, vaginal flora, other), and pathogenesis of recurrent and chronic CVV (internal reservoir, sexual transmission, vaginal relapse, and experimental models) The discussion of the development of virulent symptoms is capsuled in the following comments. Vaginal cell receptivity varies among individuals, but all strains of C. Albicans adhere to both exfoliated vaginal and buccal epithelial cells, or mucosal surfaces, through the yeast surface mannoprotein. It is suggested from in vitro studies that germ tube and mycelium formation facilitates vaginal mucosal invasion. Exogenous and endogenous factors may enhance germination and precipitate symptomatic vaginitis, or inhibit germination. Increased proteinase secretion may be a result of the transformation from the blastoconidium/colonization phase to the germinated invasive vaginitis stage or an independent virulence factor. It is reported that hereditable spontaneous switching may occur spontaneously in vivo also. Colonizing yeasts with a change in environment can transform to a more virulent phase. Colonization rates vary from 10-25%, and the critical issue is understanding

  16. Application of CHROMagar Candida for rapid screening of clinical specimens for Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M A; Houston, A; Coffmann, S

    1996-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a new differential culture medium that allows selective isolation of yeasts and simultaneously identifies colonies of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. We evaluated the use of this medium with 316 yeast isolates including 247 isolated directly on CHROMagar from clinical material. Over 95% of stock and clinical isolates of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei were correctly identified on the basis of colony morphology and pigmentation on CHROMagar. Additionally, CHROMagar also allowed the identification of C. (Torulopsis) glabrata at a similar level of accuracy. The overall agreement between two observers in reading the CHROMagar plates was 95%. Growth of Candida sp. isolates on CHROMagar had no adverse effect on antifungal MICs or Vitek identification results. In parallel, cultures of 548 stool and rectal swab specimens set up on CHROMagar and Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA) were positive in 234 instances. CHROMagar was positive and SGA was negative for 11 specimens, and CHROMagar was negative and SGA was positive for 18 specimens. A single yeast species was isolated on both media from 162 specimens, and in 146 (90%) of these specimens the same species was detected on both CHROMagar and SGA. A total of 43 of the 234 positive cultures contained mixtures of yeast species. Twenty (47%) of these mixed cultures were detected only on CHROMagar. CHROMagar is extremely useful in making a rapid presumptive identification of common yeast species. This capability plus the ability to detect mixed cultures of Candida spp. promises to improve and streamline the work flow in the mycology and clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:8748273

  17. Production and characterization of an extracellular lipase from Candida guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Anne Caroline Defranceschi; Fernandes, Maria Luiza; Mariano, André Bellin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular lipases from the endophytic yeast Candida guilliermondii isolated from castor leaves (Ricinus communis L.) were produced using low-cost raw materials such as agro-industrial residues and applying them in the esterification of oleic acid for evaluating their potential use in biodiesel production. After partial purification using ammonium sulfate, the enzyme was characterized and presented higher activity (26.8 ± 1.5 U mL(-1)) in the presence of 5 mmol L(-1) NaCl at 30 °C and pH 6.5. The production through submerged fermentation was formerly performed in 150 mL erlenmeyer flasks and, once the enzyme production was verified, assays in a 14 L bioreactor were conducted, obtaining 18 ± 1.4 U mL(-1). The produced enzyme was applied in the oleic acid esterification under different solvents: hexane, cyclohexane or cyclohexanone) and different acid:alcohol molar ratios. Higher ester conversion rate (81%) was obtained using hexane and the molar ratio of 1:9 was the best conditions using methanol. The results suggest the potential for development of endophytic yeast in the production of biocatalyst through submerged fermentation using agroindustrial residues as culture medium. PMID:25763060

  18. Production and characterization of an extracellular lipase from Candida guilliermondii

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Anne Caroline Defranceschi; Fernandes, Maria Luiza; Mariano, André Bellin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular lipases from the endophytic yeast Candida guilliermondii isolated from castor leaves (Ricinus communis L.) were produced using low-cost raw materials such as agro-industrial residues and applying them in the esterification of oleic acid for evaluating their potential use in biodiesel production. After partial purification using ammonium sulfate, the enzyme was characterized and presented higher activity (26.8 ± 1.5 U mL−1) in the presence of 5 mmol L−1 NaCl at 30 °C and pH 6.5. The production through submerged fermentation was formerly performed in 150 mL erlenmeyer flasks and, once the enzyme production was verified, assays in a 14 L bioreactor were conducted, obtaining 18 ± 1.4 U mL−1. The produced enzyme was applied in the oleic acid esterification under different solvents: hexane, cyclohexane or cyclohexanone) and different acid:alcohol molar ratios. Higher ester conversion rate (81%) was obtained using hexane and the molar ratio of 1:9 was the best conditions using methanol. The results suggest the potential for development of endophytic yeast in the production of biocatalyst through submerged fermentation using agroindustrial residues as culture medium. PMID:25763060

  19. Non-targeted metabolomic reveals the effect of salt stress on global metabolite of halotolerant yeast Candida versatilis and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Ling; Hou, Li-Hua; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-10-01

    As one of the major microbes in the soy sauce fermentation, Candida versatilis enriches the flavor and improves the quality of soy sauce. In this study, a combination of five different GC-MS and LC-MS-based metabolome analytical approaches was used to analyze the intracellular, extracellular and whole metabolites of C. versatilis. Our results found out that a total of 132, 244 and 267 different metabolites were detectable from the intracellular, extracellular and whole part, respectively. When exposed to 0. 9 and 18 % salt, respectively, 114, 123 and 129 different intracellular metabolites, 184, 200 and 178 extracellular metabolites and 177, 188 and 186 whole metabolites were detected, respectively. Our data showed that salt enhances the metabolic capacity of C. versatilis, especially its amino acid and enhances the synthesis and secretion of some metabolites of C. versatilis, especially the aldehydes and phenols, such as vanillin, guaiacol and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Our data also showed that special attention has to be paid to the generation of biogenic amines when C. versatilis was treated with salt. PMID:25085740

  20. Comparison of Three Statistical Methods for Establishing Tentative Wild-Type Population and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Echinocandins, Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, and Six Candida Species as Determined by the Colorimetric Sensititre YeastOne Method

    PubMed Central

    Pemán, Javier; Hervás, David; Iñiguez, Carmen; Navarro, David; Echeverría, Julia; Martínez-Alarcón, José; Fontanals, Dionisia; Gomila-Sard, Bárbara; Buendía, Buenaventura; Torroba, Luis; Ayats, Josefina; Bratos, Angel; Sánchez-Reus, Ferran; Fernández-Natal, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) method is a widely used method to determine the susceptibility of Candida spp. to antifungal agents. CLSI clinical breakpoints (CBP) have been reported for antifungals, but not using this method. In the absence of CBP, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are useful to separate wild-type (WT) isolates (those without mechanisms of resistance) from non-WT isolates (those that can harbor some resistance mechanisms), which is the goal of any susceptibility test. The ECVs for five agents, obtained using the MIC distributions determined by the SYO test, were calculated and contrasted with those for three statistical methods and the MIC50 and modal MIC, both plus 2-fold dilutions. The median ECVs (in mg/liter) (% of isolates inhibited by MICs equal to or less than the ECV; number of isolates tested) of the five methods for anidulafungin, micafungin, caspofungin, amphotericin B, and flucytosine, respectively, were as follows: 0.25 (98.5%; 656), 0.06 (95.1%; 659), 0.25 (98.7%; 747), 2 (100%; 923), and 1 (98.5%; 915) for Candida albicans; 8 (100%; 352), 4 (99.2%; 392), 2 (99.2%; 480), 1 (99.8%; 603), and 0.5 (97.9%; 635) for C. parapsilosis; 1 (99.2%; 123), 0.12 (99.2%; 121), 0.25 (99.2%; 138), 2 (100%; 171), and 0.5 (97.2%; 175) for C. tropicalis; 0.12 (96.6%; 174), 0.06 (96%; 176), 0.25 (98.4%; 188), 2 (100%; 209), and 0.25 (97.6%; 208) for C. glabrata; 0.25 (97%; 33), 0.5 (93.9%; 33), 1 (91.9%; 37), 4 (100%; 51), and 32 (100%; 53) for C. krusei; and 4 (100%; 33), 2 (100%; 33), 2 (100%; 54), 1 (100%; 90), and 0.25 (93.4%; 91) for C. orthopsilosis. The three statistical methods gave similar ECVs (within one dilution) and included ≥95% of isolates. These tentative ECVs would be useful for monitoring the emergence of isolates with reduced susceptibility by use of the SYO method. PMID:23015676

  1. Candida africana and its closest relatives.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Candida africana is a recently described opportunistic yeast pathogen that has been linked to vaginal candidiasis. This yeast was first described, in 1995, as atypical chlamydospore-negative Candida albicans strain, and subsequently proposed as a new Candida species on the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics clearly different from those of typical C. albicans isolates. Phylogenetic studies based on the comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences demonstrated that C. africana and C. albicans isolates are too closely related to draw any conclusions regarding the status of a new species. Therefore, on the basis of these studies, some authors considered C. africana as a biovar of C. albicans even if genetic differences may be found if additional regions of genomic DNA are sequenced. The taxonomic situation of C. africana and its phylogenetic relationship with other Candida species is still controversial and remains, at present, a matter of debate. Our goal is to review the current knowledge about C. africana and highlight the development of rapid and accurate tests for its discrimination from C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida stellatoidea. Furthermore, through the analysis of literature data, we have found that C. africana has a worldwide distribution and a considerable number of features making its study particularly interesting. PMID:20667001

  2. Heterogeneous activity of immature and mature cells of the murine monocyte-macrophage lineage derived from different anatomical districts against yeast-phase Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Decker, T; Lohmann-Matthes, M L; Baccarini, M

    1986-01-01

    Mature mononuclear phagocytes have been receiving much attention as effectors of spontaneous candidacidal activity, although with controversial results due to differences in the effector populations and the methods used in different laboratories. We here systematically compare the fungistatic activity of immature and mature cells of the murine macrophage series. The results show that nonadherent, nonphagocytic precursor cells (isolated either [90% purity] from bone marrow liquid cultures or from the organs of mice in which inflammatory conditions had been elicited in vivo) exerted a strong extracellular candidastatic activity. In contrast, mature macrophages, either obtained from different anatomical areas (spleen, liver, lung, peritoneal cavity) or matured in vitro from the precursor populations, displayed striking heterogeneity in their ability to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, depending on the anatomical site they were derived from. Lymphokine activation did not alter the fungistatic pattern of the untreated cells. The different macrophage populations behaved very differently also in the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in response to phagocytosis of C. albicans. The amounts of ROI generated, however, showed no correlation with candidastatic ability. Low levels of candidastatic activity exerted by resident peritoneal macrophages (good ROI producers) were inhibited by catalase, whereas high levels of growth inhibition by Kupffer cells (poor ROI producers) after 8 h of assay were hardly influenced by the enzyme. Our data suggest the existence of two different effector mechanisms in macrophage-mediated C. albicans growth inhibition, a rather inefficient ROI-dependent one, and a second, very efficient oxygen-independent mechanism. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:3533781

  3. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  4. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity

    PubMed Central

    Runyoro, Deborah KB; Matee, Mecky IN; Ngassapa, Olipa D; Joseph, Cosam C; Mbwambo, Zakaria H

    2006-01-01

    Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay method, using a standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Results Twenty- seven (48%) out of the 56 plants were found to be active. Extracts of the root barks of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca, and roots of Plectranthus barbatus showed strong activity. Conclusion The extracts that showed strong anti-Candida activity are worth of further investigation in order to isolate and identify the active compounds. PMID:16571139

  5. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients. PMID:21483597

  6. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis. PMID:25480879

  7. Presence of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of heart transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Patrícia Monteiro; BACAL, Fernando; KOGA-ITO, Cristiane Yumi; JUNQUEIRA, Juliana Campos; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Candida spp. can lead to infections or even fungal sepsis particularly among immunocompromized individuals. Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze the presence of Candida spp. among patients subjected to orthotopic heart transplantation. Material and Methods Oral rinses from 50 patients subjected to orthotopic heart transplantation, aged 13 to 70 years, 40 males and 10 females, were examined. Sexage-oral conditions matched-control included 50 individuals who were not subjected to any kind of transplantation and were not immunocompromized for any other reason. Counts of yeasts were expressed as median values of logarithm of cfu/mL and were statistically compared by Mann-Whitney’s test. The heart transplant and control groups were compared for the presence of Candida spp. by chi-square test (p<0.05). Results The results showed statistically significant difference (p=0.001) in the prevalence of Candida spp. between the transplantation and control groups. Counts of yeasts (cfu/mL) in the transplanted group were significantly higher than in the control group (p=0.005). Candida albicans was the most prevalent species isolated from both groups. Conclusion It was concluded that Candida yeast counts were higher in the heart transplant recipients than in the controls. There was higher variation of Candida species among the heart transplant patients and the most frequently isolated samples were: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. Isolates of Candida dubliniensis was not found in either of the groups. PMID:21437462

  8. Conversion of pentoses by yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.S.; Claypool, T.A.; Maun, C.M.; Mccracken, L.D.; Tsao, G.T.; Ueng, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization and conversion of D-xylose, D-xyulose, L-arabinose, and xylitol by yeast strains have been investigated with the following results: 1) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylose and produce polyols, ethanol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products formed varies with the yeast strains used. The most commonly detected product is xylitol. 2) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylulose aerobically and fermentatively to produce ethanol, xylitol D-arabitol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products varies depending upon the yeast strains used. 3) Xylitol is a poor carbon and energy source for most yeasts tested. Some yeast strains produce small amounts of ethanol from xylitol. 4) Most yeast strains utilize L-arabinose, and L-arabitol is the common product. Small amounts of ethanol are also produced by some yeast strains. 5) Of the four substrates examined, D-xylulose was the preferred substrate, followed by D-xylose, L-arabinose, and xylitol. 6) Mutant yeast strains that exhibit different metabolic product patterns can be induced and isolated from Candida sp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and other yeasts. These mutant strains can be used for ethanol production from D-xylose as well as for the study of metabolic regulation of pentose utilization in yeasts.

  9. GENE ENGINEERING OF YEASTS FOR THE DEGRADATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research examined the structure and function of cytochrome P-450 genes in yeast as a model for gene engineering such as eukaryotic P-450 enzymes for biodegradation of hazardous waste by yeasts. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis are two yeasts known to produce ma...

  10. Use of Autobac 1 for rapid assimilation testing of Candida and Torulopsis species.

    PubMed Central

    Ngui Yen, J H; Smith, J A

    1978-01-01

    We devised a system of presumptive identification of some yeasts that uses the Autobac 1 (Pfizer Inc.) instrument to detect carbon assimilation by 218 strains of Candida and Torulopsis. This system compared favorably with a conventional system of yeast identification and also with the Uni-Yeast-Tek (Corning Medical) and API (Analytab Products Inc.) methods. PMID:344333

  11. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract.

    PubMed

    Sahgal, G; Ramanathan, S; Sasidharan, S; Mordi, M N; Ismail, S; Mansor, S M

    2009-12-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. The antimicrobial activity of the oily extract against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, yeast and fungus strains was evaluated based on the inhibition zone using disc diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. The crude extract was subjected to various phytochemicals analysis. The demonstrated qualitative phytochemical tests exhibited the presences of common phytocompounds including alkaloids, terpenoids, antraquinones, cardiac glycosides, saponins, and volatile oils as major active constituents. The SMCM seed extract had inhibitory effects on the growth of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Streptococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabillase and illustrated MIC and MBC values ranging from 25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml. PMID:20237441

  12. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue. PMID:26781374

  13. Evaluation of CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Koc, Ayse Nedret; Sav, Hafize; Aydemir, Gonca

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare conventional methods, CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST card and VITEK®MS system for the identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures. Fifty-four strains were identified according to conventional methods, CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST card and VITEK®MS. Sequencing was used as the reference method. The 54 strains included 32 Candida parapsilosis, 19 Candida albicans, 1 Candida glabrata and 2 Candida tropicalis according to the reference method. One C. albicans and one C. glabrata isolate were misidentified as C. parapsilosis by CHROMagar Candida. Two C. parapsilosis and three C. albicans isolates were misidentified by VITEK2 YST card. CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST card and VITEK®MS identified correctly 96.2%, 90.7% and 100% of all strains, respectively. We found that the CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST card and VITEK®MS system are easy, rapid and accurate alternative methods for the identification of yeast species in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:26700081

  14. Saliva promotes survival and even proliferation of Candida species in tap water.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Vanessa; Migeot, Virginie; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Deborde, Marie; Imbert, Christine

    2011-11-01

    Candida yeasts colonize the human oral cavity as commensals or opportunistic pathogens. They may be isolated from water circulating in dental unit waterlines mixed with traces of saliva mainly because of the dysfunction of antiretraction valves. This study deals with the growth ability of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis in tap water with saliva (0-20% v/v). Results show that C. glabrata is the most susceptible species in tap water. Furthermore, saliva promotes both survival and proliferation of the three studied Candida species in tap water. PMID:22092759

  15. [Useful phenotypic characteristics for presumptive identification of Candida guilliermondii].

    PubMed

    Pinoni, M V; Castán, V; Maegli, M I; Lorenzo, J; Frizzera, F; Jewtuchowicz, V; Mujica, M T

    2007-01-01

    Candida guilliermondii developed a pink-purplish colony on CHROMagar Candida. In the micromorphology in milk-tween 80 1% agar at 28 degrees C after 48 h of incubation C. guilliermondii showed small (3-5 microm), spherical yeasts without pseudohyphaes. This Candida species presented a characteristic cluster of blastospores with pseudohyphaes radiating from the centre at 96 h. The trehalose-sucrose assimilation assay was applied to the C. guilliermondii isolates which proved negative for trehalose and positive for sucrose. These results allowed for the presumptive identification of C. guilliermondii. The results were concordant in 100% of the isolates with the identification of the C. guilliermondii species by the ID 32C and Vitek YBC methods. Such automated methods offered Candida famata as a second option, with a reliability percentage of 10%. Micromorphological studies increase yeast identification reliability, especially among species presenting similar biochemical profiles. PMID:17702251

  16. [Fructose transporter in yeasts].

    PubMed

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Dobrowolski, Adam; Robak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Study of hexoses transporter started with discovery of galactose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose, fructose and mannose assimilation is assumed by numerous proteins encoded by different genes. To date over 20 hexoses transporters, belonging to Sugar Porter family and to Major Facilitator Superfamily, were known. Genome sequence analysis of Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, S. cerevisaie and Debaryomyces hansenii reveled potential presence of 17-48 sugar porter proteins. Glucose transporters in S. cerevisiae have been already characterized. In this paper, hexoses transporters, responsible for assimilation of fructose by cells, are presented and compared. Fructose specific transporter are described for yeasts: Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces bailli, K. lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus, S. cerevisiae winemaking strain and for fungus Botritys cinerea and human (Glut5p). Among six yeasts transporters, five are fructose specific, acting by facilitated diffusion or proton symport. Yeasts monosaccharides transporter studies allow understanding of sugars uptake and metabolism important aspects, even in higher eukaryotes cells. PMID:25033548

  17. Experimental evidence for the role of lipids in adherence of Candida spp. to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, M A; Burns, G R; Elteen, K A; Radwan, S S

    1986-01-01

    Lipids extracted from Candida albicans and C. tropicalis, but not from the weakly adherent C. pseudotropicalis, significantly blocked in vitro adherence of the respective yeast cells to buccal epithelial cells. The percentage of reduction from control values ranged between 16.4 and 42.1%, depending on the species, the strain, and the solvent used for lipid extraction. The constituent lipid classes of both the acetone and chloroform-methanol extracts of C. albicans ATCC 10231 were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The individual classes were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography and then tested for their effects on the adherence of this strain to buccal epithelial cells. Individual phospholipids, sterols, and steryl esters blocked adherence significantly (between 15.5 and 55.7% reduction). Triacylglycerols and free fatty acids showed no effect whatsoever. The same results were obtained when standard lipid samples were investigated. Images PMID:3759234

  18. THE UPTAKE OF AROMATIC AND BRANCHED CHAIN HYDROCARBONS BY YEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of the hydrocarbon utilizing yeasts, Candida maltosa and C. lipolytica, have shown that both were capable of reducing recoverable amounts of branched chain and aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture of naphthalene, tetradecane, hexadecane, pristane (tetra-methylpentadecane). ...

  19. Description of Martiniozyma gen. nov. and transfer of seven Candida species to Saturnispora as new combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA sequence analysis has shown Candida abiesophila (NRRL Y-11514T, CBS 5366T) and Candida asiatica (NRRL Y-63747T, CBS 10863T) to be members of a small clade that is phylogenetically separate from other yeasts. In view of their isolation from neighboring genera, such as Pichia and Saturnispora, the...

  20. CHROMagar Candida, a new differential isolation medium for presumptive identification of clinically important Candida species.

    PubMed Central

    Odds, F C; Bernaerts, R

    1994-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a novel, differential culture medium that is claimed to facilitate the isolation and presumptive identification of some clinically important yeast species. We evaluated the use of this medium with 726 yeast isolates, including 82 isolated directly on the medium from clinical material. After 2 days of incubation at 37 degrees C, 285 C. albicans isolates gave distinctive green colonies that were not seen with any of 441 other yeast isolates representing 21 different species. A total of 54 C. tropicalis isolates also developed distinctive dark blue-gray colonies with a halo of dark brownish purple in the surrounding agar. C. krusei isolates (n = 43) also formed highly characteristic rough, spreading colonies with pale pink centers and a white edge that was otherwise encountered only rarely with isolates of C. norvegensis. Trichosporon spp. (n = 34) formed small, pale colonies that became larger and characteristically rough with prolonged incubation. Most of the other 310 yeasts studied formed colonies with a color that ranged from white to pink to purple with a brownish tint. The only exceptions were found among isolates identified as Geotrichum sp. or Pichia sp., some of which formed colonies with a gray to blue color and which in two instances formed a green pigment or a dark halo in the agar. The specificity and sensitivity of the new medium for the presumptive identification of C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis exceeded 99% for all three species. A blinded reading test involving four personnel and 57 yeast isolates representing nine clinically important species confirmed that colonial appearance after 48 h of incubation on CHROMagar Candida afforded the correct presumptive recognition of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C, krusei, and Trichosporon spp. None of nine bacterial isolates grew on CHROMagar Candida within 72 h, and bacteria (Escherichia coli) grew from only 4 of 104 vaginal, 100 oral, and 99 anorectal swabs. The new medium

  1. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  2. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  3. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. PMID:27395023

  4. Yeasts Associated with Culex pipiens and Culex theileri Mosquito Larvae and the Effect of Selected Yeast Strains on the Ontogeny of Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Steyn, A; Roets, F; Botha, A

    2016-04-01

    The success of mosquitoes in nature has been linked to their microbiota and bacteria in particular. Yet, knowledge on their symbioses with yeasts is lacking. To explore possible associations, culturable yeasts were isolated from wild larvae of Culex pipiens and Culex theileri. These yeasts were classified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses and identified by sequencing the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. Representative strains of Candida, Cryptococcus, Galactomyces, Hannaella, Meyerozyma, Pichia, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Wickerhamomyces were isolated. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first records of the yeast microbiota from wild mosquito larvae and show that they may harbour potential clinically relevant yeast species, including the well-known opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans. Also, diminished numbers of yeast isolates originating from adults, compared to larvae, support the hypothesis of microbial reduction/elimination during adult emergence and extend it to include yeasts. In addition, strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida pseudolambica, Cryptococcus gattii, Metschnikowia bicuspidata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were tested as sole feed during a 21-day feeding experiment wherein cumulative larval growth, survival and pupation of Cx. pipiens were recorded. Although most yeasts supported larval growth in a similar manner to the positive control S. cerevisiae strain, the different yeast strains impacted differently on Culex pipiens ontogeny. Notably, survival and pupation of larvae were negatively impacted by a representative strain of the primary pathogen C. gattii - signifying some yeasts to be natural antagonists of mosquitoes. PMID:26573833

  5. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. We developed a duplex PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of C. albicans from C. dubliniensis for resource-poor settings equipped with basic PCR technology and compared its performance with three phenotypic methods. Methods Duplex PCR was performed on 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species previously identified by assimilation profiles on Vitek 2 ID-YST system. Typical morphologic characteristics on simplified sunflower seed agar (SSA), and reaction with a commercial (Bichro-Dubli) latex agglutination test were also performed. The assay was further applied on 239 clinical yeast and yeast-like fungi and results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. Results The results of duplex PCR assay for 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species were comparable to their identification by Vitek 2 ID-YST system, colony characteristics on SSA and latex agglutination test. Application of duplex PCR also correctly identified all 148 C. albicans and 50 C. dubliniensis strains among 239 yeast-like fungi. Conclusions The data show that both, duplex PCR and Bichro-Dubli are reliable tests for rapid (within few hours) identification of clinical yeast isolates as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans. However, duplex PCR may be applied directly on clinical yeast isolates for their identification as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans as it does not require prior testing for germ tube

  6. Oxygen requirements of yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

    1990-01-01

    Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. Images PMID:2082825

  7. Yeasts in spa establishments.

    PubMed

    Svorcová, L

    1982-05-01

    It was investigated occurrence of yeasts on bathsurfaces, in sauna rooms, in swimming and therapeutic pool water. The number of yeasts decreased depending on patients age, if the rooms were furnished with bath. The lowest contamination was found after bath of 40-60 years-old women. In the saunas were yeasts not found on the upper benches with temperature above 55 degrees C. Much higher counts on lower benches and wood mats with temperature 35-40 degrees C, on basin walls and bottom-up to 10(4)-10(6)/100 cm2. It was isolated 172 yeast strains. The occurrence of some selected strains is given in Table 7, with the toxic effect of disinfectants. The most strains were resistant to Peracetic acid and Chloramin B. Since most of the isolated and determinated strains were found in contaminated environment or during various diseases, the yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus, Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis and Metschnikowia should not occur in bath establishment, and should be classified among indicators of contamination of environment including water. PMID:7124167

  8. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterisation of the first Italian Candida africana isolate.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    One atypical isolate of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans was isolated from an Italian patient with vulvovaginitis. The strain, germ tube positive and chlamydospore-negative showed white-thin turquoise colonies on Candida ID 2 medium. The yeast was identified as Candida africana by using morphological and biochemical tests. On the basis of the molecular results obtained in this study as well as in other studies, C. africana cannot be yet considered as a new species of Candida. It is possible that C. africana represents a new variant of C. albicans like the well-known Candida stellatoidea. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of C. africana in Italy. PMID:18983430

  9. Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

    2001-11-01

    Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:11746838

  10. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Robl, D.; Thimoteo, S.S.; de Souza, G.C.C.F.; Beux, M.R.; Dalzoto, P.R.; Pinheiro, R.L.; Pimentel, I.C.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil. PMID:24948920