Science.gov

Sample records for methods issues opportunities

  1. Mixed-Methods Research in Language Teaching and Learning: Opportunities, Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi; Candlin, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art paper foregrounds mixed-methods research (MMR) in language teaching and learning by discussing and critically reviewing issues related to this newly developed research paradigm. The paper has six sections. The first provides a context for the discussion of MMR through an introductory review of quantitative and qualitative…

  2. Household Waste. Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Andy; And Others

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide citizens with information about household waste and to indicate how they can contribute to its reduction. Information indicates how each individual can reduce waste by adopting new habits, making informed choices, and becoming involved in community action. Discussed are: (1) specific issues of general and…

  3. Issues and opportunities in exotic hadrons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Briceno, Raul A.; Cohen, Thomas D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; et al

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. Consequently, it is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimentalmore » and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.« less

  4. Issues and Opportunities in Exotic Hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, R. A.; Cohen, T. D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, J. J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; Krein, G.; Lebed, R. F.; Machado, F. A.; Mitchell, R. E.; Morningstar, C. J.; Peardon, M.; Pennington, M. R.; Peters, K.; Richard, J. M.; Shen, C. P.; Shepherd, M. R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Swanson, E. S.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Yuan, C. Z.

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. It is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy (Cohen); the Institute of Modern Physics and Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract Y104160YQ0 and agreement No. 2015-BH-02 (Coito); the U.S. Department of Energy, for grant DE-AC05-06OR23177, under which Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, manages and operates Jefferson Laboratory and DE-SC0006765, Early Career award (Dudek); Fermilab, operated by the Fermi Research Alliance under contract number DEAC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy (Eichten); BMBF, under contract No. 06GI7121, and the DAAD under contract No. 56889822 and by the Helmholtz International Center for FAIR within the LOEWE program of the State of Hesse (Fischer); the German Research Foundation DFG under contract number Collaborative Research Centre CRC-1044 (Gradl); the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, Grant No. 305894/2009-9 and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP, Grant No. 2013/01907-0 (Krein); U.S. National Science Foundation, under grants PHY-1068286 and PHY-1403891 (Lebed); the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development under grant CNPq/CAPES-208188/2014-2 (Machado); U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-05ER41374

  5. Opportunities and Issues in Computer Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Dexter

    1984-01-01

    Although many people in education are intimidated by the use of computer-based instruction (CBI), others are committed to exploiting the opportunities it provides. Three areas comprise CBI: instruction about computers, instruction by computers, and instruction using computers; the first two areas have received the most attention. (1) Attention to…

  6. Issues and opportunities in space photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Robert W.; Somerville, W. A.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    Space power sources are becoming a central focus for determining man's potential and schedule for exploring and utilizing the benefits of space. The ability to search, probe, survey, and communicate throughout the universe will depend on providing adequate power to the instruments to do these jobs. Power requirements for space platforms are increasing and will continue to increase into the 21st century. Photovoltaics have been a dependable power source for space for the last 30 years and have served as the primary source of power on virtually all DOD and NASA satellites. The performance of silicon (Si) solar cells has increased from 10 percent air mass zero (AM0) solar energy conversion efficiency in the early 60's to almost 15 percent on today's spacecraft. Some technologists even think that the potential for solar photovoltaics has reached a plateau. However, present and near-future Air Force and NASA requirements show needs that, if the problems are looked upon as opportunities, can elevate the photovoltaic power source scientist and array structure engineer into the next technological photovoltaic growth curve.

  7. Wound Care Nursing: Professional Issues and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Lisa Q.

    2012-01-01

    As the field of wound care advances and seeks validity as a distinctive healthcare specialty, it becomes imperative to define practice competencies for all related professionals in the arena. As such, the myriad nurses practicing wound care in settings across the continuum should be understood for their unique contribution to the wound care team. Furthermore, the hierarchy of wound care nursing with varying levels of licensure, certification, and scope of practice can be clarified to delineate leadership and reimbursement issues to meet current health care challenges. A review of the role of nursing in wound care from a historical and evolutionary perspective helps to characterize the trend towards advanced practice nursing in the wound care specialty. PMID:24527304

  8. Wound Care Nursing: Professional Issues and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Lisa Q

    2012-10-01

    As the field of wound care advances and seeks validity as a distinctive healthcare specialty, it becomes imperative to define practice competencies for all related professionals in the arena. As such, the myriad nurses practicing wound care in settings across the continuum should be understood for their unique contribution to the wound care team. Furthermore, the hierarchy of wound care nursing with varying levels of licensure, certification, and scope of practice can be clarified to delineate leadership and reimbursement issues to meet current health care challenges. A review of the role of nursing in wound care from a historical and evolutionary perspective helps to characterize the trend towards advanced practice nursing in the wound care specialty. PMID:24527304

  9. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan; Griffin, Mr. Bob; Wright, Anthony L

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  10. Evaluating Broader Impacts: Issues and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elthon, D.

    2010-12-01

    The NSF expects that funded projects will include activities that have intrinsic Intellectual Merit and that promote the Broader Impacts (BI) of this work to those outside the immediate research community. These BI activities take many forms, but often involve collaborations with schools, informal science centers, and media developers in efforts to promote the public understanding of science, encourage a talented and diverse pool of students to pursue careers in science, and illustrate the benefits society derives from scientific discoveries. A critical question is how to evaluate individual BI activities and the overall portfolio of BI activities. What are the metrics for success? How can evaluation results be used to improve the BI portfolio? Evaluation of BI activities is complicated by several factors, including: [1] The scope of BI activities is highly variable across different types of NSF-funded projects. Individual research projects typically have limited BI activities, with only modest funding (<10%) designated for these efforts, and evaluation efforts are rare. On the other hand, large projects such as research centers and major facilities typically have dedicated BI/education specialists and formal evaluation expertise. An additional complication is that many BI activities are unique or have novel aspects that reflect the local circumstances and opportunities, but make it difficult to develop broadly-applicable evaluation instruments;[2] There is not consensus on the perspective from which the evaluation should be conducted. Scientists, participants (teachers, students, museum/aquarium personnel), and the funding agencies typically have differing objectives and metrics for BI projects. [3] The timeframe for conducting any evaluation is frequently limited to a few years, placing limitations on the scope of the evaluation effort. Long-term learning, career impacts, and changes in cultural attitudes or perceptions are difficult to assess under this

  11. Evaluating food stamp nutrition education: issues and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Stommes, Eileen; Voichick, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE) is an optional component of the Food Stamp Program aimed at improving food choices of program participants. The last decade has seen a dramatic expansion in FSNE, accompanied by increased interest in FSNE evaluation. The Society for Nutrition Education, as a leader in nutrition education research, has worked collaboratively with federal partners to improve FSNE evaluation. This is the first in a 3-part series of papers presented in this issue of the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. The series reviews the issues, priority needs, and opportunities identified through this process; explains our current focus on the development of a brief measure assessing FSNE-relevant dietary behaviors; and describes plans for measurement development. PMID:16595272

  12. The geologist and public policy issues, opportunities and obligations

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W. )

    1993-03-01

    Historically, geologists have been perceived by the public as solely involved in resource exploration and production or geologic hazards mitigation. This generally included mining, oil drilling, landslide or earthquake (after the fact) comments, and rock or mineral collecting. These operations have come to be associated with land exploitation involving extraction of non-renewable resources, and often, in consequence, pollution. These generic activities may not currently be considered environmentally sound or politically correct. Because of the high visibility of environmental issues in recent years, geologists now have an opportunity to offer necessary input contributing to solutions for many of these problems. Indeed, geologists must be thought of as part of the solution, and thus alter public perception that geologists are facilitators of environmental damage. After all, who may better protect and conserve the earth and its environments than people trained in the Earth Sciences Governmental and industry or consulting geologists are now involved in a wide range of interpretative geologic decisions regarding a cross-section of activities aimed at development and conservation of lands and natural resources. These can be grouped in generalized categories including: waste disposal issues, water resources issues, land-use planning and zoning issues, and resource conservation or regulation requirements.

  13. The Data Issue: Opportunities and Challenges for Scientific Publishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Using the recent report for the 'Opportunities in Data Exchange' Project produced by - and for - researchers, libraries/data centres and publishers (and which is based on a broad range of studies, questionnaires and evidence) we have defined current practices and expectations, and the gaps and dilemmas involved in producing data and datasets, and then analysed their relationship to formal publications. As a result, we identified potential opportunities to evolve scientific insights to be more useful and re-useful: with consequent implications for custodianship and long-term data management. We also defined a number of key incentives and barriers towards achieving these objectives. As a case study, the earth and environmental sciences have come under particularly close scrutiny with respect to data-ownership and -sharing arrangements, sometimes with damaging results to the discipline's reputation. These issues, along with considerable technological challenges, have to be handled effectively in order to best support all the users along the data chain. To that end, we show that key stakeholders - among them scientific publishers - need to have a clear idea of how to progress data-intensive derived information, which we demonstrate is often not the case. Towards bridging this knowledge gap, we have compiled a roadmap of next steps and key issues to be acknowledged and addressed by the scientific publishing community. These include: engaging directly with researchers, policy-makers, funding bodies and direct competitors to build innovative partnerships and enhance impact; providing technological and training investment and developing alongside the emerging discipline of 'data scientist': the 'data publisher'. This individual/company will need to combine a close understanding of researchers' priorities, together with market, legal and technical opportunities and restrictions.

  14. Professional Development Opportunities for Two-Year College Geoscience Faculty: Issues, Opportunities, and Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, E. M.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.; Granshaw, F. D.; Wenner, J. M.; Hodder, J.; van der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Filson, R. H.; Guertin, L. A.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Two-year colleges (2YCs) play a critical role in geoscience education in the United States. Nearly half of the undergraduate students who take introductory geoscience do so at a 2YC. With awide reach and diverse student populations, 2YCs may be key to producing a well-trained, diverse and sufficiently large geoscience workforce. However, faculty at 2YCs often face many barriers to professional development including lack of financial resources, heavy and inflexible teaching loads, lack of awareness of opportunities, and few professional development resources/events targeted at their needs. As an example, at the 2009 GSA meeting in Portland, fewer than 80 of the 6500 attendees were from community colleges, although this was more than twice the 2YC faculty attendance the previous year. Other issues include the isolation described by many 2YC geoscience faculty who may be the only full time geoscientist on a campus and challenges faced by adjunct faculty who may have even fewer opportunities for professional development and networking with other geoscience faculty. Over the past three years we have convened several workshops and events for 2YC geoscience faculty including technical sessions and a workshop on funding opportunities for 2YC faculty at GSA annual meetings, a field trip and networking event at the fall AGU meeting, a planning workshop that examined the role of 2YCs in geoscience education and in broadening participation in the geosciences, two workshops supporting use of the 'Math You Need, When You Need It' educational materials that included a majority of 2YC faculty, and marine science summer institutes offered by COSEE-Pacific Partnerships for 2YC faculty. Our experience indicates that 2YC faculty desire professional development opportunities when the experience is tailored to the needs and character of their students, programs, and institutions. The content of the professional development opportunity must be useful to 2YC faculty -workshops and

  15. Virtual Environments: Issues and Opportunities for Researching Inclusive Educational Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehy, Kieron

    This chapter argues that virtual environments offer new research areas for those concerned with inclusive education. Further, it proposes that they also present opportunities for developing increasingly inclusive research processes. This chapter considers how researchers might approach researching some of these affordances. It discusses the relationship between specific features of inclusive pedagogy, derived from an international systematic literature review, and the affordances of different forms of virtual characters and environments. Examples are drawn from research in Second LifeTM (SL), virtual tutors and augmented reality. In doing this, the chapter challenges a simplistic notion of isolated physical and virtual worlds and, in the context of inclusion, between the practice of research and the research topic itself. There are a growing number of virtual worlds in which identified educational activities are taking place, or whose activities are being noted for their educational merit. These encompasses non-themed worlds such as SL and Active Worlds, game based worlds such as World of Warcraft and Runescape, and even Club Penguin, a themed virtual where younger players interact through a variety of Penguin themed environments and activities. It has been argued that these spaces, outside traditional education, are able to offer pedagogical insights (Twining 2009) i.e. that these global virtual communities have been identified as being useful as creative educational environments (Delwiche 2006; Sheehy 2009). This chapter will explore how researchers might use these spaces to investigative and create inclusive educational experiences for learners. In order to do this the chapter considers three interrelated issues: What is inclusive education?; How might inclusive education influence virtual world research? And, what might inclusive education look like in virtual worlds?

  16. Issues in electric power in India: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongia, Rahul

    This dissertation provides an examination of three facets of the Indian power program. The first issue we analyze is the current regulatory environment and guidelines in place for independent power producers and other generators, focusing on possible tradeoffs between prices and investor returns. The analysis shows that investor rates of return are significantly higher than the nominal 16% as stipulated by the Central Electricity Authority guidelines, and an uncertainty analysis reveals the relative importance of various input and project parameters. We discuss problems with the existing guidelines, and provide options for changes in policy. Adoption of modified guidelines that are more transparent and do not focus on project capital structures are likely to result in more affordable tariffs, less delays in project completion and yet provide adequate rates of return for investors. India's nuclear power program is based on indigenous materials and technology, with the potential for providing energy security for many decades. We examine the technical validity of this plan, especially the role of fast breeder reactors for extending the domestic uranium supplies. The analysis shows that breeding is unlikely to occur at anywhere near the rates envisioned, leading to a slow growth of fast breeder reactors. In addition, domestic uranium reserves restrict growth of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors, which are likely to be the main contributors to nuclear capacity in the short term. To increase the share of nuclear power in the coming decades, India should consider the construction of a number of large thermal reactors based on indigenous and imported uranium. We also present policy options for such changes to India's nuclear power program. This dissertation examines in detail the policy, technology, and economics of an overland pipeline supplying natural gas to India and Pakistan. Such a pipeline would be shared by both countries, and would be a strong confidence building

  17. Transformative research issues and opportunities in energy efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article presents a summary of research opportunities in energy efficiency identified in a workshop by a panel of experts assembled for the Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation Division of the U.S. National Science Foundation. The workshop and article are restricted to two areas – red...

  18. Reducing Dropout Rates through Expanded Learning Opportunities. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Laura; Princiotta, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Expanded learning opportunities (ELOs), which include afterschool, summer learning, and extended day and extended year programs, can help states reduce dropout rates and increase graduation rates. Effective elementary, middle, and high school ELOs support academic rigor, boost student engagement, and provide students with supportive relationships.…

  19. Health Issues at Work: Opportunities for Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses why health issues should be addressed, and why industrial/organizational psychologists should address these issues in the workplace. Presents five models for addressing health at work. Explores health-related criteria as sources for studying and developing programs concerning health. Discusses responses to health at work on an individual…

  20. An Issues-Driven Approach to Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Neil D.

    2001-01-01

    An active participant in Indiana's and Washington's school-finance-reform process explains why one-size solutions pinch hardest on urban schools and how an issues-driven approach can keep states from being prematurely pushed to the "solution stage" of their deliberations. Child-centered approaches generally trump standards-based regimens. (MLH)

  1. Tufts Health Sciences Database: Lessons, Issues, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mary Y.; Albright, Susan A.; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A.; Wang, Paul J.; Eaton, Elizabeth K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database, a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. Identifies major effects on teaching and learning. Also addresses issues of faculty development, copyright and…

  2. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-05-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Abuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.

  3. Gas sensor arrays for olfactory analysis: Issues and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    There have been many approaches to the development of gas sensor arrays for use in gas detection instruments and devices. Various techniques have been proposed to handle the signal processing and pattern recognition required to convert the outputs of these arrays into useful information such as the identities and concentrations of particular chemical species. In general, the pattern recognition techniques have not been developed as fully as have the sensor arrays. Materials issues, like sensor aging and drift, power requirements, and packaging are also problems that must be solved before gas sensor arrays can be incorporated into instruments for industrial and consumer markets. This paper describes significant thrusts in the areas of metal-oxide gas sensor array design and construction, related signature analysis and deconvolution, and materials issues. Recommendations are offered for future developments.

  4. Transformative research issues and opportunities in alternative energy generation and storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, A.; Chung, Y. W.; Blaschek, H.; Butterfield, S.; Chance, R. R.; Ferekides, C.; Robinson, M.; Snyder, S. W; Thackeray, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a summary of research issues and opportunities in alternative energy source research identified by panels of experts assembled by the Engineering Directorate of the US National Science Foundation. The objective was to identify transformative research issues and opportunities to make alternative energy sources viable. The article presents motivations for energy research, grand challenges, and specific challenges in the research areas covered. The grand challenges identified for the United States include supplying 30% of US electricity from photovoltaics by 2030, supplying 25% of US electricity from wind by 2025, displacing 30% of US hydrocarbon use by 2030 with bio-based products, and providing a practical 250-300 W h/kg energy storage system by 2025. Similar challenges could be outlined along the same lines for the remainder of the world. Examples of specific areas of research focus identified as promising include high performance p-type transparent conductors, multijunction thin-film photovoltaic devices, defects in chalcogenide semiconductors, experimental study and numerical modeling of the fluid mechanics of airflow as applied to wind turbines, improved materials for wind turbines, methods for creating high energy density transportable biological feedstocks, biorefinery processes yielding infrastructure-compatible biofuels and biochemicals directly, and improved electrodes and electrolytes for Li ion batteries. Arguments for each of these as research priorities are given.

  5. Using Statistics to Explore Cross-Curricular and Social Issues Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    The area of statistics is one in which teachers may be encouraged to make important links to other curriculum areas and social issues. Statistical literacy is a key component of being numerate and living as an informed citizen. The teaching of statistics provides an opportunity to inform and educate students about social issues and moral…

  6. Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Challenges and Opportunities for Education About Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences workshop was held to engage the life sciences community on the particular security issues related to research with dual use potential. More than 60 participants from almost 30 countries took part and included practicing life scientists, bioethics and…

  7. Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition: Opportunities, Options, and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.

    1999-07-17

    The end of the Cold War has created a legacy of surplus fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) in the United States (U.S.) and the former Soviet Union. These materials pose a danger to national and international security. During the past few years, the U.S. and Russia have engaged in an ongoing dialog concerning the safe storage and disposition of surplus fissile material stockpiles. In January 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced the U. S. would pursue a dual track approach to rendering approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons. One track involves immobilizing the plutonium by combining it with high-level radioactive waste in glass or ceramic ''logs''. The other method, referred to as reactor-based disposition, converts plutonium into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors. The U.S. and Russia are moving ahead rapidly to develop and demonstrate the technology required to implement the MOX option in their respective countries. U.S. MOX fuel research and development activities were started in the 1950s, with irradiation of MOX fuel rods in commercial light water reactors (LWR) from the 1960s--1980s. In all, a few thousand MOX fuel rods were successfully irradiated. Though much of this work was performed with weapons-grade or ''near'' weapons-grade plutonium--and favorable fuel performance was observed--the applicability of this data for licensing and use of weapons-grade MOX fuel manufactured with modern fuel fabrication processes is somewhat limited. The U.S. and Russia are currently engaged in an intensive research, development, and demonstration program to support implementation of the MOX option in our two countries. This paper focuses on work performed in the U.S. and provides a brief summary of joint U.S./Russian work currently underway.

  8. Education Issues Raised by S.744: The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the requirements for undocumented immigrants set forth by the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744). Assuming that S.744 will move forward in Congress, the report also examines issues having to do with certain language, civics and government, and education/training provisions…

  9. Issues and Methods for Standard-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others

    Issues involved in standard setting along with methods for standard setting are reviewed, with specific reference to their relevance for criterion referenced testing. Definitions are given of continuum and state models, and traditional and normative standard setting procedures. Since continuum models are considered more appropriate for criterion…

  10. Assessing Institutional Effectiveness: Issues, Methods, and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers was presented at a 1987 conference at which speakers presented personal perspectives on institutional effectiveness. Papers are organized under three major headings: "Managing Quality: Methods and Outcomes,""Institutional Response," and "Special Issues." Titles include: (1) "Managing the Meaning of Institutional…

  11. Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estkowski, Terri

    2008-01-01

    In life, each person is offered opportunities, one after the other, until life ceases. For the author, one of those opportunities was to attend the Kalamazoo Area Mathematics and Science Center (KAMSC), an NCSSSMST school. While attending KAMSC as a member of its inaugural class required a bit of imagination regarding the opportunity at hand, and…

  12. Epidemiologic methods in analysis of scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, Linda S.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of human populations provide much of the information that is used to evaluate compensation cases for hearing loss, including rates of hearing loss by age, and dose-response relationships. The reference data used to make decisions regarding workman's compensation is based on epidemiologic studies of cohorts of workers exposed to various noise levels. Epidemiology and its methods can be used in other ways in the courtroom; to assess the merits of a complaint, to support Daubert criteria, and to explain scientific issues to the trier of fact, generally a layperson. Using examples other than occupational noise induced hearing loss, these methods will be applied to respond to a complaint that hearing loss followed exposure to a sudden noise, a medication, or an occupational chemical, and thus was caused by said exposure. The standard criteria for assessing the weight of the evidence, and epidemiologic criteria for causality show the limits of such anecdotal data and incorporate quantitative and temporal issues. Reports of clusters of cases are also intuitively convincing to juries. Epidemiologic methods provide a scientific approach to assess whether rates of the outcome are indeed increased, and the extent to which increased rates provide evidence for causality.

  13. Teaching Climate Change Science in Senior Secondary School: Issues, Barriers and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunten, Rod; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite its difficulties, climate change can (and perhaps needs to) be taught rigorously to students by enquiry rather than through transmission and that such a method will enable students to make judgments on other issues of scientific controversy. It examines the issues and barriers to the teaching of climate change,…

  14. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  15. Abortion law reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: issue networks and opportunity contexts.

    PubMed

    Reuterswärd, Camilla; Zetterberg, Pär; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Molyneux, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun's (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes. PMID:22069803

  16. Emerging technologies and web accessibility: research challenges and opportunities focussing on vision issues.

    PubMed

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    2012-01-01

    This is a technological review paper focussed on identifying both the research challenges and opportunities for further investigation arising from emerging technologies, and it does not aim to propose any recommendation or standard. It is focussed on blind and partially sighted World Wide Web (Web) users along with others who use assistive technologies. The Web is a fast moving interdisciplinary domain in which new technologies, techniques and research is in perpetual development. It is often difficult to maintain a holistic view of new developments within the multiple domains which together make up the Web. This suggests that knowledge of the current developments and predictions of future developments are additionally important for the accessibility community. Web accessibility has previously been characterised by the correction of our past mistakes to make the current Web fulfil the original vision of access for all. New technologies were not designed with accessibility in mind and technologies that could be useful for addressing accessibility issues were not identified or adopted by the accessibility community. We wish to enable the research community to undertake preventative measures and proactively address challenges, while recognising opportunities, before they become unpreventable or require retrospective technological enhancement. This article then reviews emerging trends within the Web and Web Accessibility domains. PMID:21184625

  17. Measuring and mapping threats to forests: issues and opportunities with an empirical study from Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Spatially explicit tools for prioritizing conservation and land-use in human dominated landscapes are becoming common in recent years. Such efforts are also efficient in minimizing management costs and to provide future possible scenarios to aid management decisions. We propose and develop a spatially explicit framework and novel tool - Future Forest - for simulating scenarios for future forest management actions. We integrate both forest/vegetation characteristics, selected ecosystem services provided by corresponding forest/vegetation and nineteen possible threats and/or disturbances to forests that are either anthropogenic or occurring naturally, and may influence forest/vegetation characteristics and expected outcomes from forests. Our modelling framework provides options for necessary future actions either from conservation or from production forestry perspectives, and to ensure sustainable forest management in an area. In addition to that our threat assessment and mapping tool are useful in indentifying vulnerable zone of forests to specific anthropogenic, natural or other threats, and to take precautionary actions against each identified threats. We applied our modelling framework and spatial tool for measuring and mapping threats to a Bangladesh forest, with recommended actions to ensure sustainable forest management and to spatially prioritize zones for special management needs. We finally discuss issues and opportunities that our spatially explicit framework and novel tool may offer.

  18. Ending College Remediation: Consequences for Access and Opportunity. Policy Brief. ASHE/Lumina Fellows Series. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tara L.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent does eliminating remedial education impede or facilitate the opportunity to earn bachelor's degrees for underprepared students? Educating underprepared students is often viewed as one of the most challenging and complex issues facing higher education today. Recent policy decisions to end remedial education, however, signify a much…

  19. Learning from Harvey Milk: The Limits and Opportunities of One Hero to Teach about LGBTQ People and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting a hero is a common response to including the history of marginalized people in the curriculum. Harvey Milk is becoming that hero as social studies curriculum responds to calls for including LGBTQ people. By studying Milk, what might young people learn about LGBTQ people, issues, and movements? What opportunities and limitations exist…

  20. A survey on "Trojan Horse" peptides: opportunities, issues and controlled entry to "Troy".

    PubMed

    Shi, Nian-Qiu; Qi, Xian-Rong; Xiang, Bai; Zhang, Yong

    2014-11-28

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), often vividly termed as the "Trojan Horse" peptides, have attracted considerable interest for the intracellular delivery of a wide range of cargoes, such as small molecules, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, contrast agents, nanocarriers and so on. Some preclinical and clinical developments of CPP conjugates demonstrate their promise as therapeutic agents for drug discovery. There is increasing evidence to suggest that CPPs have the potential to cross several bio-barriers (e.g., blood-brain barriers, intestinal mucosa, nasal mucosa and skin barriers). Despite revolutionary process in many aspects, there are a lot of basic issues unclear for these entities, such as internalization mechanisms, translocation efficiency, translocation kinetics, metabolic degradation, toxicity, side effect, distribution and non-specificity. Among them, non-specificity remains a major drawback for the in vivo application of CPPs in the targeted delivery of cargoes. So far, diverse organelle-specific CPPs or controlled delivery strategies have emerged and improved their specificity. In this review, we will look at the opportunities of CPPs in clinical development, bio-barriers penetration and nanocarriers delivery. Then, a series of basic problems of CPPs will be discussed. Finally, this paper will highlight the use of various controlled strategies in the organelle-specific delivery and targeted delivery of CPPs. The purpose of this review will be to emphasize most influential advance in this field and present a fundamental understanding for challenges and utilizations of CPPs. This will accelerate their translation as efficient vectors from the in vitro setting into the clinic arena, and retrieve the entry art to "Troy". PMID:25151981

  1. Considering the issue of dual use in veterans affairs patients: implications & opportunities for improved communication & counseling.

    PubMed

    Howren, M Bryant; Cozad, Ashley J; Kaboli, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain perceptions of communication responsibility in veterans identified as using more than one health care system, otherwise known as dual users. Three hundred and fifteen veterans identified as dual users completed a telephone-based survey including questions about their perspectives regarding communication in the context of dual use. Nearly half (47.3%) indicated that that they believed it was primarily their responsibility to either directly communicate or facilitate communication between their Veterans Affairs (VA) and non-VA providers. Only 11.3% reported that it should be the responsibility of their VA provider, 19.6% believed that their non-VA provider should be responsible, and 7.3% believed both should be involved. Finally, 14.4% believed another person was responsible, such as a system administrator or patient representative. Of those patients indicating that it was their responsibility, a majority (61.7%) indicated that they preferred active involvement in their health care. Patient-centered care allows patients the opportunity to help facilitate communication between multiple health care systems, such as when using VA and non-VA providers, if they so choose. However, given that patient preferences for involvement vary considerably, it is likely that a multifaceted approach to this problem is necessary, involving patients, providers, and other system-level stakeholders. These data suggest a need to inquire about preferred patient roles and counsel patients regarding methods of communication that may serve to decrease fragmentation of care. PMID:25010429

  2. Predictive Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Irradiation Embrittlement Models: Issues and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, George Robert; Nanstad, Randy K

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension to 80 years will require accurate predictions of neutron irradiation-induced increases in the ductile-brittle transition temperature ( T) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels at high fluence conditions that are far outside the existing database. Remarkable progress in mechanistic understanding of irradiation embrittlement has led to physically motivated T correlation models that provide excellent statistical fi ts to the existing surveillance database. However, an important challenge is developing advanced embrittlement models for low fl ux-high fl uence conditions pertinent to extended life. These new models must also provide better treatment of key variables and variable combinations and account for possible delayed formation of late blooming phases in low copper steels. Other issues include uncertainties in the compositions of actual vessel steels, methods to predict T attenuation away from the reactor core, verifi cation of the master curve method to directly measure the fracture toughness with small specimens and predicting T for vessel annealing remediation and re-irradiation cycles.

  3. The Capstone Course: Origins, Goals, Methods, and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Agnes; Weld, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    In this introduction to the Special Issue on Capstone Courses we describe a range of models for the capstone course, common goals for these different courses, popular teaching methods, the use of capstone courses in program assessment, and issues related to course maintenance and faculty development.

  4. An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method. PMID:16849979

  5. Helical Tomotherapy in Children and Adolescents: Dosimetric Comparisons, Opportunities and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Mascarin, Maurizio; Giugliano, Francesca Maria; Coassin, Elisa; Drigo, Annalisa; Chiovati, Paola; Dassie, Andrea; Franchin, Giovanni; Minatel, Emilio; Trovò, Mauro Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Helical Tomotherapy (HT) is a highly conformal image-guided radiation technique, introduced into clinical routine in 2006 at the Centro di Riferimento Oncologico Aviano (Italy). With this new technology, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is delivered using a helicoidal method. Here we present our dosimetric experiences using HT in 100 children, adolescents and young adults treated from May 2006 to February 2011. The median age of the patients was 13 years (range 1–24). The most common treated site was the central nervous system (50; of these, 24 were craniospinal irradiations), followed by thorax (22), head and neck (10), abdomen and pelvis (11), and limbs (7). The use of HT was calculated in accordance to the target dose conformation, the target size and shape, the dose to critical organs adjacent to the target, simultaneous treatment of multiple targets, and re-irradiation. HT has demonstrated to improve target volume dose homogeneity and the sparing of critical structures, when compared to 3D Linac-based radiotherapy (RT). In standard cases this technique represented a comparable alternative to IMRT delivered with conventional linear accelerator. In certain cases (e.g., craniospinal and pleural treatments) only HT generated adequate treatment plans with good target volume coverage. However, the gain in target conformality should be balanced with the spread of low-doses to distant areas. This remains an open issue for the potential risk of secondary malignancies (SMNs) and longer follow-up is mandatory. PMID:24213120

  6. Social Issues and Problem-Based Learning in Sociology: Opportunities and Challenges in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglitis, Daina S.; Buntman, Fran L.; Alexander, Dameon V.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of problem-based learning (PBL) in the undergraduate sociology classroom. PBL shifts students from the role of passive listeners and learners to active knowledge builders and communicators through the use of concise and engaging social problem cases. PBL creates opportunities for building substantive area knowledge,…

  7. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda; Harris, Linda; Bird, Kisha

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) created the Forward Promise initiative within its Vulnerable Populations Portfolio to place a strategic emphasis on the needs of middle school- and high school-aged young men of color. RWJF's goal is to strengthen educational opportunities, pathways to employment, and health outcomes for these…

  8. Disability as an Equal Opportunity Issue within Nurse Education in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullion, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Nursing education does not adequately address discrimination experienced by people with disabilities in health services. The nursing profession should promote social justice by influencing perceptions of disability, including it in equal opportunity policies, and ensuring its place in the nursing curriculum. (SK)

  9. Preface to the Focus Issue: Chaos Detection Methods and Predictability

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Skokos, Charalampos

    2014-06-01

    This Focus Issue presents a collection of papers originating from the workshop Methods of Chaos Detection and Predictability: Theory and Applications held at the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden, June 17–21, 2013. The main aim of this interdisciplinary workshop was to review comprehensively the theory and numerical implementation of the existing methods of chaos detection and predictability, as well as to report recent applications of these techniques to different scientific fields. The collection of twelve papers in this Focus Issue represents the wide range of applications, spanning mathematics, physics, astronomy, particle accelerator physics, meteorology and medical research. This Preface surveys the papers of this Issue.

  10. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  11. Enhancing U.S. competitiveness through federal scientific and technical information - Issues and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using federally funded scientific and technical information (STI) to increase U.S. industrial innovation and productivity is discussed. The history of federally funded research and development in the fields of agriculture and aviation is reviewed as an example of successful government-sponsored research. Issues related to the production and utilization of information are considered and federal STI policy is outlined. Issues related to the transfer of knowledge between government agencies and industry are examined and a model depicting the transfer of STI in aerospace research and development is presented. Also, consideration is given to the problem of open communication versus restricted access to STI.

  12. Enhancing US competitiveness through Federal scientific and technical information: Issues and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using Federally funded scientific and technical information (STI) to increase U.S. industrial innovation and productivity is discussed. The history of Federally funded research and development in the fields of agriculture and aviation is reviewed as an example of successful government-sponsored research. Issues related to the production and utilization of information are considered and Federal STI policy is outlined. Issues related to the transfer of knowledge between government agencies and industry are examined and a model depicting the transfer of STI in aerospace research and development is presented. Also, consideration is given to the problem of open communication versus restricted access to STI.

  13. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Horgan, S.A.; Eyer, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This analysis will provide estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies, wind, photovoltaics and solar thermal, are matched to their most viable regional resources. The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which will be instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity will be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for later use. Results are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 10% of electric load). For each renewable technology national and regional totals will be developed for maximum hydrogen production per year and ranges of hydrogen storage capacity needed in each year (hydroelectric case excluded). The sensitivity of the answers to the fraction of peak load to be served and the land area dedicated for renewable resources are investigated. These analyses can serve as a starting point for projecting the market opportunity for hydrogen storage and distribution technologies. Sensitivities will be performed for hydrogen production, conversion. and storage efficiencies representing current and near-term hydrogen technologies.

  14. Space Station Freedom Workshop Opportunities for Commercial Users and Providers: Issues and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The responses to issues and questions raised at the Space Station Freedom Workshops are compiled. The findings are presented under broad divisions of general, materials processing in space, commercial earth and ocean observations, life sciences, infrastructure services, and infrastructure policy. The responses represent the best answers available at this time and future modifications may be expected. Contact names, telephone numbers, and organizations are included.

  15. Sustainability issues and opportunities in the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum...

  16. Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special research topic eBOOK contains six review articles, three mini reviews and four original research articles. It opens up exciting perspectives on global health issues related to aflatoxins in the food chain and on the development of suitable strategies for preventing toxigenic fungal grow...

  17. Changes in Coverage of Sun Protection in the News: Threats and Opportunities from Emerging Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012.…

  18. Islamic Education, Possibilities, Opportunities and Tensions: Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    If Islam continues to evoke skepticism, as it has done most intensely since 9/11, then it stands to reason that its tenets and education are viewed with equal mistrust, and as will be highlighted in this special issue, equal misunderstanding. The intention of this special edition is neither to counter the accusations Islam stands accused of, nor…

  19. Environmental Management Accounting in the Taiwanese Higher Education Sector: Issues and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Huei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of managing the major environmental costs from an accounting perspective. The current state of practices for managing the costs associated with the consumption of electricity, water and paper, as well as the generation of wastes within three universities in Taiwan, was investigated. The…

  20. The Virtual University & Educational Opportunity. Issues of Equity and Access for the Next Generation. Policy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladieux, Lawrence E.; Swail, Watson Scott

    This report addresses issues concerned with educational programs provided through the Internet, the "virtual university" and their possible impacts on traditional higher education. It concludes that the new technologies may have the effect of deepening the divide between educational haves and have-nots and that public policy must intervene to…

  1. Report of the Energy Field Institute V on western energy opportunities, problems, and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, J.C.; Foss, M.M.

    1982-12-01

    The fifth Energy and Minerals Field Institute program for Washington, D.C. Congressional and Executive Aides was held during August 15-21, 1982. The five-and-one-half day program was conducted through Wyoming, Colorado and Utah and consisted of visits to: an R and D tertiary petroleum production facility; an historic oil field entering secondary production; a surface uranium mine; a petroleum exploration drilling rig; a surface coal mine; an air cooled, coal-fired power plant; an oil shale site; a geothermal-electrical generating facility; and open pit copper mine and associated smelter and refinery; a petroleum refinery and an oil shale semi-works retort. During the field program, participants had opportunities to view communities affected by these activities, such as Wright City and Gillette, Wyoming, Parachute, Colorado and Milford and Cedar City, Utah. Throughout the program, aides met with local, state and industry officials and citizen leaders during bus rides, meals and site visits.

  2. Small scale hydroelectric development and the environment: issues, challenge, and opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    A small scale hydroelectric (SSH) facility is defined as an existing dam that can be retrofitted to produce 25 MW or less capacity. An estimate of the total SSH potential in the United States indicates there are 4979 sites with 8775 MW capacity and 25,126 GWh average annual energy. This represents approximately 1% of existing total installed electrical capacity from all sources in the US. Some of the major environmental issues that must be analyzed to determine potential for adverse impact at SSH sites include dredging, fish passage, water level fluctuation, and instream (minimum) flow. Each of these issues is discussed. It is concluded that development of the SSH resource represents a good energy investment and that the attributes of renewable energy and the emphasis on existing dams as opposed to new dam construction are positive features from the environmental standpoint. (LCL)

  3. Preface to the Focus Issue: chaos detection methods and predictability.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, Georg A; Skokos, Charalampos

    2014-06-01

    This Focus Issue presents a collection of papers originating from the workshop Methods of Chaos Detection and Predictability: Theory and Applications held at the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden, June 17-21, 2013. The main aim of this interdisciplinary workshop was to review comprehensively the theory and numerical implementation of the existing methods of chaos detection and predictability, as well as to report recent applications of these techniques to different scientific fields. The collection of twelve papers in this Focus Issue represents the wide range of applications, spanning mathematics, physics, astronomy, particle accelerator physics, meteorology and medical research. This Preface surveys the papers of this Issue. PMID:24985454

  4. Intent, Capability and Opportunity: A Holistic Approach to Addressing Proliferation as a Risk Management Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Amanda Rynes; Trond Bjornard

    2011-07-01

    Currently, proliferation risk assessment models are designed to evaluate only a portion of the overall risk, focusing exclusively on either technological or social factors to determine the extent of a threat. Many of these models are intended to act as a means of predicting proliferation potential rather than assessing the system as a whole, ignoring the ability to enhance mitigating factors and manage, rather just establish the presence of, the threat. While the information garnered through these forms of analysis is necessary, it remains incomplete. By incorporating political, social, economic and technical capabilities as well as human factors such as intent into a single, multi-faceted risk management model, proliferation risk can be evaluated more effectively. Framing this information around how to improve and expand the Regime already in place and establishing where there are gaps in the system allows for a more complete approach to risk management, mitigation and resource allocation. The research conducted here seeks to combine all three elements (intent, capability and opportunity) in a comprehensive evaluation which incorporates an assessment of state-level variables, possible proliferation pathways and technical capability. Each portion of the analysis is carried out independently then combined to illustrate the full scope of a State's nuclear infrastructure while showing areas of weakness in the institutional framework.

  5. Cross-border issues in the development of medical tourism in Malaysia: legal challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nemie, Puteri; Kassim, Jahn

    2009-08-01

    Strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Malaysia has become one of the key players in the fast-growing and lucrative market for health care services in Asia. Medical travel across international boundaries has been made possible through affordable airfares and the favourable exchange rates of the Malaysian ringgit has contributed to the rise of the "medical tourism phenomenon" where medical travel is combined with visiting popular tourist destinations in Malaysia. Further, competitive medical fees and modern medical facilities have also made Malaysia a popular destination for medical tourists. Nevertheless, the increased number of foreign patients has opened up possibilities of Malaysian health care providers being subjected to malpractice claims and triggering a myriad of cross-border legal issues. Presently, there is no internationally accepted legal framework to regulate medical tourism and issues of legal redress in relation to unsatisfactory provision of treatment across international boundaries. The economic benefits of medical tourism must be based upon a solid legal regulatory framework and strong ethical standards as well as upon high-quality medical and health care services. It is therefore important to assess the existing legal framework affecting the development of medical tourism in Malaysia in order to explore the gaps, deficiencies and possibilities for legal and regulatory reform. PMID:19771987

  6. E-Health Interventions for Eating Disorders: Emerging Findings, Issues, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Aardoom, Jiska J; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Van Furth, Eric F

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to review the emerging findings regarding E-health interventions for eating disorders and to critically discuss emerging issues as well as challenges for future research. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy and guided self-help have demonstrated promising results in terms of reducing eating disorder psychopathology. Emerging findings also suggest that E-health interventions reach an underserved population and improve access to care. The use of smartphone applications is becoming increasingly popular and has much potential although their clinical utility and effectiveness is presently unknown and requires investigation. Important challenges include the diagnostic process in E-health interventions, the optimization of E-health within existing health care models, and the investigation and implementation of blended care. More high-quality research is needed to bring the field forward and to determine the place for E-health in our health care service delivery systems. PMID:26946513

  7. Cardiovascular function in nonclinical drug safety assessment: current issues and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sarazan, R Dustan; Mittelstadt, Scott; Guth, Brian; Koerner, John; Zhang, Joanne; Pettit, Syril

    2011-05-01

    There are several recent examples where clinically significant, safety-related, drug effects on hemodynamics or cardiac function were not apparent until large clinical trials were completed or the drugs entered the consumer market. Such late-stage safety issues can have significant impact on patient health and consumer confidence, as well as ramifications for the regulatory, pharmaceutical, and financial communities. This manuscript provides recommendations that evolved from a 2009 HESI workshop on the need for improved translation of nonclinical cardiovascular effects to the clinical arena. The authors conclude that expanded and improved efforts to perform sensitive yet specific evaluations of functional cardiovascular parameters in nonclinical studies will allow pharmaceutical companies to identify suspect drugs early in the discovery and development process while allowing promising drugs to proceed into clinical development. PMID:21527643

  8. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  9. [Methods, challenges and opportunities for big data analyses of microbiome].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Hua-Fang; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Microbiome is a novel research field related with a variety of chronic inflamatory diseases. Technically, there are two major approaches to analysis of microbiome: metataxonome by sequencing the 16S rRNA variable tags, and metagenome by shot-gun sequencing of the total microbial (mainly bacterial) genome mixture. The 16S rRNA sequencing analyses pipeline includes sequence quality control, diversity analyses, taxonomy and statistics; metagenome analyses further includes gene annotation and functional analyses. With the development of the sequencing techniques, the cost of sequencing will decrease, and big data analyses will become the central task. Data standardization, accumulation, modeling and disease prediction are crucial for future exploit of these data. Meanwhile, the information property in these data, and the functional verification with culture-dependent and culture-independent experiments remain the focus in future research. Studies of human microbiome will bring a better understanding of the relations between the human body and the microbiome, especially in the context of disease diagnosis and therapy, which promise rich research opportunities. PMID:26198938

  10. Health services research in workers' compensation medical care: policy issues and research opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Buchanan, J L; Dembe, A E; Stevens, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe some of the unique aspects of medical care offered under workers' compensation insurance systems and discuss the major policy considerations relevant to health services researchers undertaking investigations in this area. BACKGROUND AND FINDINGS: State-based workers' compensation (WC) insurance systems requiring employers to pay for medical care and wage replacement for workplace injuries and illnesses were first developed between 1910 and 1920 in the United States. Employers are generally required to purchase state-regulated workers' compensation insurance that includes first-dollar payment for all medical and rehabilitative services and payment of lost wages to workers with work-related illness or injury. Injured workers have variable but usually limited latitude in choosing their health care provider. Employers and workers' compensation insurers have incentives for controlling both the cost of medical care and lost wages. CONCLUSION: The major policy issues in WC medical care--the effect of patient choice of provider and delivery system structure, the ensuring of high-quality care, the effect of integrating benefits, and investigation of the interrelationships between work, health, and productivity--can be informed by current studies in health services research and by targeted future studies of workers' compensation populations. These studies must consider the extent of patient choice of physician, the regulatory environment, the unique role of the workplace as a risk and modifying factor, and the complex interaction between health and disability insurance benefits. PMID:10199686

  11. New Methods for New Questions: Obstacles and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Two forces motivate this special section, "New Methods for New Questions in Developmental Psychology." First are recent developments in social science methodology and the increasing availability of those methods in common software packages. Second, at the same time psychologists' understanding of developmental phenomena has continued to grow. At…

  12. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  13. Race and method of suicide: culture and opportunity.

    PubMed

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2005-01-01

    The present study assesses the link between choice of violent methods of suicide and race from the standpoint of two perspectives: differential socio-acceptability and differential availability. To the extent that African Americans form a subculture of violence, and are more exposed to violence, we would expect them to choose violent methods of suicide. Data are from the 1990 mortality detail file of the U.S. Public Health Service and correspond to 19,580 male suicides. The results of a multivariate logistic regression analysis indicate that African Americans are 2.24 times more likely than Caucasians to choose violent methods of suicide. Although they are less likely to own firearms, African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to choose violent methods of suicide. PMID:16040580

  14. Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities in Geoscience Education and Broadening Participation in the Geosciences at Two-year Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Guertin, L. A.; Filson, R. H.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    A workshop on The Role of Two-Year Colleges in Geoscience Education and Broadening Participation in the Geosciences was held at Northern Virginia Community College in June 2010 to identify issues, challenges, and opportunities for geoscience faculty and students in two-year colleges (2YC) and to make recommendations for strengthening this component of the geoscience community. Given the wide diversity of 2YC students, a long term goal for this workshop was to work toward broadening the participation of underrepresented students to the geosciences. The workshop included sessions on strategies for supporting all students to be successful, the role of 2YC in broadening participation in the geosciences, and preparing geoscience students for the future (recruiting and retaining students in the geosciences, career preparation and workforce development, and transfer and 2YC and 4YC partnerships). Conversations between participants and professional organizations and societies focused on how increased communication with 2YC faculty could support faculty and students from two-year colleges. Participants considered strategies for addressing isolation and building community including interdisciplinary collaborations, scholarly practices, using Web 2.0, and working with adjunct faculty. Working groups addressed the following topics: establishment of a geoscience 2YC community, best practices for geoscience 2YC programs, faculty professional development, recruitment and retention of students, diversity in the geosciences, the role of 2YC in K-12 teacher preparation, and ocean science education in 2YC. Recommendations included the need to collect and disseminate information about 2YC including demographic information and best practices of 2YC geoscience programs, the desire to establish an organization for 2YC geoscience faculty, more opportunities to communicate (workshops and electronic communications), and other approaches for supporting 2YC students, faculty, and programs

  15. Issues in methods and measurement of thermodilution cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Sommers, M S; Woods, S L; Courtade, M A

    1993-01-01

    Criterion-related validity of the thermodilution cardiac output technique for cardiac output measurement has to have a high correlation (r = .91 to .98) with the direct Fick method, the gold standard of cardiac output measurement. Issues that can affect validity of the measurements include the position of the pulmonary artery catheter, the rate of injection of the indicator solution, the volume and temperature of the injectate, the timing of the injection of indicator solution during the respiratory cycle, the position of the subject, and the presence of concomitant infusions. Variation in measurement can be limited by considering the delivery system for the indicator solution, by recording time-temperature cardiac output curves, and by considering normal biologic variations. PMID:8337161

  16. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area.

  17. The Role of the Department of Health and Other Key Institutions in the Promotion of Equal Opportunities, Multi-Cultural and Anti-Racist Issues in Nurse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foolchand, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    The role of Britain's Department of Health, the United Kingdom Central Council, and the English National Board in implementing equal opportunity, multicultural, and antiracist policies in nursing education was reviewed. Major policies have neglected or marginalized equity and racism issues. Ideologies underlying social and health policies are…

  18. Hawaiian temples and their orientations: issues of method and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural

  19. FOREWORD: Special issue on Statistical and Probabilistic Methods for Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Walter; Cox, Maurice G.

    2006-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia is the first that is not devoted to units, or constants, or measurement techniques in some specific field of metrology, but to the generic topic of statistical and probabilistic methods for metrology. The number of papers on this subject in measurement journals, and in Metrologia in particular, has continued to increase over the years, driven by the publication of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] and the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the CIPM [2]. The former stimulated metrologists to think in greater depth about the appropriate modelling of their measurements, in order to provide uncertainty evaluations associated with measurement results. The latter obliged the metrological community to investigate reliable measures for assessing the calibration and measurement capabilities declared by the national metrology institutes (NMIs). Furthermore, statistical analysis of measurement data became even more important than hitherto, with the need, on the one hand, to treat the greater quantities of data provided by sophisticated measurement systems, and, on the other, to deal appropriately with relatively small sets of data that are difficult or expensive to obtain. The importance of supporting the GUM and extending its provisions was recognized by the formation in the year 2000 of Working Group 1, Measurement uncertainty, of the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology. The need to provide guidance on key comparison data evaluation was recognized by the formation in the year 2001 of the BIPM Director's Advisory Group on Uncertainty. A further international initiative was the revision, in the year 2004, of the remit and title of a working group of ISO/TC 69, Application of Statistical Methods, to reflect the need to concentrate more on statistical methods to support measurement uncertainty evaluation. These international activities are supplemented by national programmes such as the Software Support

  20. Method for Analyzing District Level IAI Data Bases to Identify Learning Opportunity Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milazzo, Patricia; And Others

    A learning opportunity risk is defined as an absence of instruction or insufficient attention to proficiency at an early grade of instruction in a subject matter which will generate serious learning problems in later grades. A method for identifying such risks has been derived from analysis of district-level Instructional Accomplishment…

  1. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and the Opportunity. Issue Brief: Focus on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kisha; Bryant, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief was prepared for the "Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity" briefing held in June 2014 that was co-sponsored by National Council of La Raza, PolicyLink, the Executive Alliance to Expand Opportunities for Boys and Young Men of Color, and the Institute for Black Male Achievement. The…

  2. Efficiency and concordance of alternative methods for minimizing opportunity costs in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Susan E; Williams, Kristen J; Mitchell, David K

    2008-08-01

    Scarce resources and competing land-use goals necessitate efficient biodiversity conservation. Combining multicriteria analysis with conservation decision-support tools improves efficiency of conservation planning by maximizing outcomes for biodiversity while minimizing opportunity costs to society. An opportunity cost is the benefit that could have been received by taking an alternative course of action (i.e., costs to society of protecting an area for biodiversity rather than developing it for some other use). Although different ways of integrating multiple opportunity costs into conservation planning have been suggested, there have been no tests as to which method is most efficient. We compared the relative efficiency of 3 such procedures(Faith & Walker [1996], Sarkar et al. [2004], and a procedure of our own design) in a systematic conservation-planning framework for the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. We devised 14 opportunity costs and assigned these to 3 scenarios representing different conservation planning concerns: food security, macro-economic development, and biodiversity persistence. For each scenario, we compared the efficiency of the 3 methods in terms of amount of biodiversity protected relative to total expenditure for each opportunity cost. All 3 methods captured similar amounts of biodiversity, but differed in total cost. Our method had the least overall cost and was therefore most efficient. Nevertheless, there was a high correlation and geographical concordance among all 3 methods, indicating a high degree of spatial overlap. This suggests that choosing an appropriate approach may often depend on contextual factors related to the design of the planning question, rather than efficiency alone. PMID:18637906

  3. Replacement of in vivo acute oral toxicity studies by in vitro cytotoxicity methods: opportunities, limits and regulatory status.

    PubMed

    Ukelis, Ute; Kramer, Peter-Jürgen; Olejniczak, Klaus; Mueller, Stefan O

    2008-06-01

    The development of a new medicinal product is a long and costly process in particular due to the regulatory requirements for quality, safety and efficacy. There is a common interest to increase the efficiency of drug development and to provide new, better quality medicinal products much faster to the public. One possible way to economize time and costs, as well as to consider animal protection issues, is to introduce new alternative methods into non-clinical toxicity testing. Currently, animal tests are mandatory for the evaluation of acute toxicity of chemicals and new drugs. The replacement of the in vivo tests by alternative in vitro assays would offer the opportunity to screen and assess numerous compounds at the same time, to predict acute oral toxicity and thus accelerate drug development. Moreover, the substitution of in vivo tests by in vitro methods shows a proactive pursuit of ethical and animal welfare issues. Importantly, the implementation of in vitro assays for acute oral toxicity would require the establishment of common test guidelines across the EU, USA and Japan, i.e., the regions of ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use). Presently, alternative in vitro tests are being investigated internationally. Yet, in order to achieve regulatory acceptance and implementation of in vitro assays, convincing results from validation studies are required. In this review, we discuss the current regulatory status of acute oral toxicity testing and point out achievements of alternative methods. We describe the application of in vitro tests, correlating in vitro with in vivo data. The use of in vitro data to predict in vivo acute oral toxicity is analyzed using the Registry of Cytotoxicity, an official independent database. We have then analyzed opportunities and drawbacks for future implementation of in vitro test methods, with particular focus on industrial use. PMID:18362045

  4. Career Issues and Laboratory Climates: Different Challenges and Opportunities for Women Engineers and Scientists (survey of Fiscal Year 1997 Powre Awardees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.; Zieseniss, Mireille

    A survey of fiscal year 1997 POWRE (Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education) awardees from the National Science Foundation revealed that women engineers and scientists face similar issues, challenges, and opportunities and think that the laboratory climate has similar impacts on their careers. Separating responses of women scientists from those of women engineers revealed that 70% of both groups listed balancing work with family responsibilities as the most difficult issue. Discrepancies in percentages of women, coupled with differences among disciplinary and subdisciplinary cultures within science, engineering, mathematics, and technology fields, complicate work climates and their impact on women's careers. More frequently than women scientists, women engineers listed issues such as (a) low numbers of women leading to isolation, (b) lack of camaraderie and mentoring, (c) gaining credibility/respect from peers and administrators, (d) time management, (e) prioritizing responsibilities due to disproportionate demands, and (f) learning the rules of the game to survive in a male-dominated environment. Women engineers also listed two positive issues more frequently than women scientists: active recruitment/more opportunities for women and impact of successful women in the profession. The small number of women engineers may explain these results and suggests that it may be inappropriate to group them with other women scientists for analysis, programs, and policies.

  5. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  6. The dating of ore genesis with using of sulfides: new opportunities of Sm-Nd method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekimova, N.; Serov, P.; Bayanova, T.

    2012-04-01

    Within the Fennoscandian Shield only on the surface there are hundreds of mafic-ultramafic intrusions, and on geophysical data - more than a thousand. Existing estimates of the ore potential related to the very costly and time-consuming drilling and analytical work (Mitrofanov, 2006). One of the express-and relatively inexpensive methods is a Sm-Nd dating of rocks and minerals. Feature of the Sm-Nd method is that it allows to use rock-forming minerals for the dating process. Our studies have shown that along with rock-forming, ore minerals (sulfides) can be used to determine the ore genesis time of industrially important geological sites, since exactly with the sulfides the industry Pt-Pd mineralization is closely connected. Age determination on sulphides is a direct method, since in this case the time of mineralization is determined directly, which can consist with the time of crystallization of the parent magma (syngenetic ores), and do not match - epigenetic, redeposited ore. Within Fennoscandia the both types of syngenetic and epigenetic manifestation of ore are known and setting of milestones mineralization is essential for understanding the evolution of ore-bearing magmatic sources and assess the prospects for PGE of many mafic massifs. Studies have shown that Sm-Nd dating method is applicable to both types of ore and dates obtained agree well with the known U-Pb ages of zircon or with key scenes of Svekofennian metamorphic events (eg, Sm-Nd age of the redeposited ores Ahmavaary - about 1900 Ma). One of the problems of Sm-Nd systematics of sulfides is the question of internal inclusions with high contents of REE. In this case, obtained isotope-geochronological features may not correspond to real geological events. To address this issue, the study of internal structure of sulfide minerals was carried out by CL high-local equipment - a scanning electron microscope LEO 1450 with cathodoluminescent attachment PanaCL. Studies have shown that these inclusions are

  7. Needs and Opportunities for Uncertainty-Based Multidisciplinary Design Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Kenny, Sean P; Luckring, James M.; Maghami, Peiman; Padula, Sharon L.; Stroud, W. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    This report consists of a survey of the state of the art in uncertainty-based design together with recommendations for a Base research activity in this area for the NASA Langley Research Center. This report identifies the needs and opportunities for computational and experimental methods that provide accurate, efficient solutions to nondeterministic multidisciplinary aerospace vehicle design problems. Barriers to the adoption of uncertainty-based design methods are identified. and the benefits of the use of such methods are explained. Particular research needs are listed.

  8. Older LGBT adult training panels: an opportunity to educate about issues faced by the older LGBT community.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anissa; Rebbe, Rebecca; Gardella, Chanel; Worlein, Mary; Chamberlin, Mya

    2013-01-01

    Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults face unique issues that can impede their well-being. Although many advances have helped address these issues, there is a need for education efforts that raise awareness of service providers about these issues. This study explores evaluation data of training panels provided by older LGBT adults and the views of training participants on issues faced by the older LGBT community after attending the panels. Participants were 605 students and professionals from over 34 education and communication settings. Implications for trainings on participants and older LGBT trainers are discussed. PMID:23905835

  9. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings. PMID:24722814

  10. Measuring Opportunity to Learn and Achievement Growth: Key Research Issues with Implications for the Effective Education of All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The related constructs of opportunity to learn (OTL) and achievement growth are fundamental aspects of the current large-scale assessment and accountability system in operation in the United States. For purposes of this article, OTL is defined as the degree to which a teacher dedicates instructional time and content coverage to the intended…

  11. Universal Design and LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Transgender, Bisexual, and Queer) Issues: Creating Equal Access and Opportunities for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Jennifer R.; Geiger, Tracy J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors extend the ideals set forth by the universal design (UD) framework seeking to include the unique needs of students in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community. Universal design is a philosophy that, when applied to higher education, constitutes acceptance of, equal access for, and equal opportunities for…

  12. Coarse-grained computer simulation of dynamics in thylakoid membranes: methods and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Anna R.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2013-01-01

    Coarse-grained simulation is a powerful and well-established suite of computational methods for studying structure and dynamics in nanoscale biophysical systems. As our understanding of the plant photosynthetic apparatus has become increasingly nuanced, opportunities have arisen for coarse-grained simulation to complement experiment by testing hypotheses and making predictions. Here, we give an overview of best practices in coarse-grained simulation, with a focus on techniques and results that are applicable to the plant thylakoid membrane–protein system. We also discuss current research topics for which coarse-grained simulation has the potential to play a key role in advancing the field. PMID:24478781

  13. Learning through Expeditions: The Need for Method as Well as Opportunity--A Response to Allison and Von Wald (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Mark; Collins, Dave; Hathaway, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Allison and Von Wald (2010) highlight the substantial opportunities presented by expeditions to address the crucial topic of personal and social development. The present paper wishes to address the apparent oversight of transfer within such learning experiences. Issues that need to be addressed if the impact of transfer is to be optimised are…

  14. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  15. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  16. Workplace Demographics and Technology: Challenges and Opportunities to the Campus Mission Including the Top Facilities Issues. APPA Thought Leaders 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 2011

    2011-01-01

    It is not unusual in higher education circles to talk about issues affecting the campus. Experts might write about how shifting demographics are changing the campus, or say technology is becoming more pervasive on campus. The campus itself evolves alongside pedagogical practices, technological innovations, student needs, and the mission of the…

  17. The Pathways to Advancement Project: How States Can Expand Postsecondary Educational Opportunities for Working Adults. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Christopher; Strawn, Julie; Roberts, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    The Pathways to Advancement initiative was launched by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) to help governors and their policy advisors examine options and develop strategies for expanding working adults' access to and completion of postsecondary education. In September 2003, the NGA Center issued a request for…

  18. Labor Laws and Issues: A Guide for Planning and Implementing Work-Based Learning Opportunities for Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, James W.

    The focus of this publication is to maximize the ability of business, education, and community partners to access information relating to legal issues and minor labor laws that have implications for school-based and work-based learning experiences. Each section is intended to provide the most applicable legal and labor law information. Since…

  19. Why, When, and How To Use Evaluation: Experts Speak Out. Issues and Opportunities in Out-of-School Time Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Heather B.; Little, Priscilla M. D.

    Noting that the disappointing findings of the first-year evaluation of the 21st-Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) after-school program were offered as a rationale for a requested decrease in funding in President Bush's fiscal year 2004 education budget, this report compiles expert commentary on methodological issues in that evaluation…

  20. E-waste: a problem or an opportunity? Review of issues, challenges and solutions in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Herat, Sunil; Agamuthu, P

    2012-11-01

    Safe management of electronic and electrical waste (e-waste/WEEE) is becoming a major problem for many countries around the world. In particular, developing countries face a number of issues with the generation, transboundary movement and management of e-waste. It is estimated that the world generates around 20-50 million tonnes of e-waste annually, most of it from Asian countries. Improper handling of e-waste can cause harm to the environment and human health because of its toxic components. Several countries around the world are now struggling to deal with this emerging threat. Although the current emphasis is on end-of-life management of e-waste activities, such as reuse, servicing, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal, upstream reduction of e-waste generation through green design and cleaner production is gaining much attention. Environmentally sound management (ESM) of e-waste in developing countries is absent or very limited. Transboundary movement of e-waste is a major issue throughout the region. Dealing with the informal recycling sector is a complex social and environmental issue. There are significant numbers of such challenges faced by these countries in achieving ESM of e-waste. This article aims to present a review of challenges and issues faced by Asian countries in managing their e-waste in a sustainable way. PMID:22851536

  1. Video Games in Volcanic Hazard Communications: Methods & Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul; Stewart, Iain

    2016-04-01

    eruptions (1902 &1979), which are reproduced based on historical data and personal accounts of the eruptions. Through a series of interactive scenes, each of the principal hazardous phenomena associated with La Soufriere - pyroclastic flows & surges, ash fall and lahars - are visualised and explained. The game concludes with a quiz in which players are required to answer questions are based on information provided throughout the game. The St. Vincent's Volcano game was trialled in St. Vincent during a volcano awareness education week in April 2015. The presentation will share reflections on how this type of interactive tool can be tested and implemented, and explore the issues and challenges with using video games in a dynamic environment.

  2. California Energy Incentive Programs: An Annual Update on Key Energy Issues and Financial Opportunities for Federal Sites in California

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    A spate of recently enacted energy legislation and associated program changes is providing numerous opportunities to help California federal energy managers cut costs and meet their renewables, energy efficiency and GHG emissions goals. In April 2011, Governor Jerry Brown approved the nation’s most ambitious renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which requires 33% of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Policy changes that will support the RPS include expanded eligibility rules that fill previous gaps in incentives for certain sizes of on-site renewable energy systems. Program updates described in this document include: $200 million more in funding for California Solar Initiative rebates to commercial and industrial customers; an increase in the eligible system size for the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) from 1.5MW to 3MW; and pending changes that may allow customer-side systems to sell tradable renewable energy credits (TRECs) to entities with RPS compliance obligations in California.

  3. The Natural Gas Dilemma in New England's Electricity Sector: Experts' Perspectives on Long Term Climate Issues and Policy Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Steven

    This thesis is an interpretive analysis of experts' perspectives on the climate implications of New England's reliance on natural gas for electricity generation. Specifically, this research, conducted through interviews and literature review, examines experts' opinions on the desired role of natural gas within the regional electricity sector, alternative energy resources, and state and regional policy opportunities toward the achievement of New England's ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Experts expressed concern about the climate dilemma posed by a dependence on natural gas. However, interviews revealed that short-term reliability and cost considerations are paramount for many experts, and therefore a reliance on natural gas is the existing reality. To incentivize renewable generation technologies for the purposes of long-term climate stabilization, experts advocated for the expanded implementation of renewable portfolio standard, net metering, and feed-in tariff policies. More broadly, interviewees expressed the need for an array of complementary state and regional policies.

  4. Analysis of time-series gene expression data: methods, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Androulakis, I P; Yang, E; Almon, R R

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring the change in expression patterns over time provides the distinct possibility of unraveling the mechanistic drivers characterizing cellular responses. Gene arrays measuring the level of mRNA expression of thousands of genes simultaneously provide a method of high-throughput data collection necessary for obtaining the scope of data required for understanding the complexities of living organisms. Unraveling the coherent complex structures of transcriptional dynamics is the goal of a large family of computational methods aiming at upgrading the information content of time-course gene expression data. In this review, we summarize the qualitative characteristics of these approaches, discuss the main challenges that this type of complex data present, and, finally, explore the opportunities in the context of developing mechanistic models of cellular response. PMID:17341157

  5. Random Sampling of Quantum States: a Survey of Methods. And Some Issues Regarding the Overparametrized Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed.

  6. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  7. Brokered dialogue: A new research method for controversial health and social issues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dialogue is a foundational feature of social life and an important way in which we come to understand one another. In situations of controversy dialogue is often absent because of a range of social barriers. We have developed a new film-based qualitative research method for studying controversial issues in healthcare and social policy. We call this method Brokered Dialogue. Theoretically informed by the traditions in narrative inquiry and visual anthropology, the method is premised on the idea that dialogue possesses features making it unique as a generator of new knowledge and opportunities for social intervention. Film is not only an extraordinarily rich data source, but an excellent medium for knowledge transfer and dissemination. Discussion The paper introduces the Brokered Dialogue method. We outline its critical steps, including the procedures for sampling, data collection and data analysis of both textual and visual data. Participants in a Brokered Dialogue engage in filmed interviews that capture their perspectives on a given topic; they then share their perspectives with, and pose questions of, one another through the medium of film. Using a participatory editing process, only footage that participants feel comfortable showing to others is incorporated. This technique offers participants a ‘safe’ space for respectful interaction. The editing process itself is analytic, and the final assembly of footage approximates a dialogue on the topic at hand. A link to a film produced from a project piloting the method is provided to demonstrate its real world application. Summary Brokered Dialogue is a method for promoting respectful interactions among those with seemingly divergent views on a controversial topic and for discovering critical points of divergence that may represent pathways for improvement. While the end product is a ‘film’, the goal is to have these films used as catalysts for ongoing respectful dialogue and problem

  8. Editors' Introduction to the Thematic Issue: Mad about Methods? Teaching Research Methods in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adriaensen, Johan; Kerremans, Bart; Slootmaeckers, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The contributors to this special issue all seek to address the challenge of teaching research methods to political science students. This introduction aims to provide a concise framework for the various innovations presented throughout this issue, situating them in the wider literature. Particular emphasis is placed on the factors that distinguish…

  9. A Critical Commentary on Combined Methods Approach to Researching Educational and Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudzor, Hope Pius

    2009-01-01

    One major issue social science research is faced with concerns the methodological schism and internecine "warfare" that divides the field. This paper examines critically what is referred to as combined methods research, and the claim that this is the best methodology for addressing complex social issues. The paper discredits this claim on the…

  10. Applying the 5-Step Method to Children and Affected Family Members: Opportunities and Challenges within Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwin, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to consider how the 5-Step Method could be developed to meet the needs of affected family members (AFMs) with children under the age of 18. This would be an entirely new development. This article examines opportunities and challenges within practice and policy and makes suggestions on how the Method could be taken…

  11. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  12. Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Mahbubur Rahman, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of advanced distance education delivers academic courses across time and distance, allowing educators and students to participate in a convenient learning method. "Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions" demonstrates communication technologies, intelligent…

  13. Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Study Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the study methods used for the "Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho" report. The purpose of this study was to describe how Title I 1003(g) School Improvement Grants awarded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) in the 2010-11…

  14. Operational Issues for Further Study in the Implementation of the Policy of the State Board of Education for Providing Equitable Opportunities for an Essential Education for All Students in Nebraska Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This "Operational Issues" document is intended to accompany the State Board of Education?s policy recommendations for providing equitable opportunities for all Nebraska students to receive an essential education. The Essential Education Policy will serve as the foundation document to guide immediate and long-range planning to achieve the equitable…

  15. Placebo HAART Regimen as a Method for Teaching Medication Adherence Issues to Students

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Eliza L; Transue, Emily R; Comes E, Susan; Paauw, Douglas S

    2005-01-01

    Placebo medication regimens may help educate students about adherence issues. In this randomized trial, 23 third-year medical students took a 2-week placebo regimen mimicking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during their medicine clerkship; 15 students served as controls. Although no effect was demonstrated from this intervention on an evaluation instrument examining attitudes and beliefs about medication nonadherence, all 23 student-subjects agreed in postintervention interviews that the experience was useful and had learning value. Representative comments from the 19 subjects who expanded their interview responses portray this intervention as an eye-opening and unique method for teaching students about medication adherence issues. PMID:15987331

  16. Safety issues and new rapid detection methods in traditional Chinese medicinal materials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua; Han, Jianping; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    The safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a major strategic issue that involves human health. With the continuous improvement in disease prevention and treatment, the export of TCM and its related products has increased dramatically in China. However, the frequent safety issues of Chinese medicine have become the ‘bottleneck’ impeding the modernization of TCM. It was proved that mycotoxins seriously affect TCM safety; the pesticide residues of TCM are a key problem in TCM international trade; adulterants have also been detected, which is related to market circulation. These three factors have greatly affected TCM safety. In this study, fast, highly effective, economically-feasible and accurate detection methods concerning TCM safety issues were reviewed, especially on the authenticity, mycotoxins and pesticide residues of medicinal materials. PMID:26579423

  17. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  18. Meaning in the Method: Pretesting Methods for a Diverse Population. Issue Brief. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprachman, Susan; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Aikens, Nikki; Caspe, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    A child's ability to develop relationships and connections with others, a sense of who he or she is in the world, and an ability to control impulses and emotions are at the core of social-emotional development. In early childhood, parent reports are one of the most common methods for assessing this type of development. However, parents from…

  19. School-to-Work Opportunities for All Youth: Intermediary Organizations and Expanding Options. School-to-Work Intermediary Project. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spera, Vincent; Williams, Andra

    The School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994 requires that all young people, including young people with disabilities and out-of-school youth, have equal opportunities to participate in the activities funded by it. Local intermediary organizations that provide a critical convening role and offer services to core education and business partners can…

  20. The Increasing Availability of Official Datasets: Methods, Limitations and Opportunities for Studies of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The re-use of existing and official data has a very long and largely honourable history in education and social science. The principal change in the 60 years since the first issue of the "British Journal of Educational Studies" has been the increasing range, availability and quality of existing numeric datasets. New and valuable fields of…

  1. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  2. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  3. Forensic psychiatric evaluations: an overview of methods, ethical issues, and criminal and civil assessments.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Forensic psychiatry is frequently defined as the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law. Psychiatrists are called on by the legal system to provide testimony in a wide variety of cases, criminal and civil. In criminal cases, forensic psychiatrists may be asked to comment on the competence of a person to make decisions throughout all the phases of criminal investigation, trial, and punishment. These include the competence to stand trial, to plead guilty, to be sentenced, to waive appeal, and to be executed. In civil cases, forensic psychiatric experts are asked to evaluate a number of civil competences, including competence to make a will or contract or to make decisions about one's person and property. Psychiatrists are also called on to testify about many other issues related to civil cases. Forensic psychiatrists who work with children and adolescents are frequently involved in evaluations and testimonies concerning juvenile delinquency, child custody, termination of parental rights, and other issues. As such, forensic psychiatric experts have now developed into a reputable and well-known group of professionals. Forensic evaluation methods, ethical issues related to forensic psychiatric practice, and some common criminal and civil forensic psychiatric evaluations are discussed in this overview. PMID:25411982

  4. Life-cycle impact assessment: A conceptual framework, key issues, and summary of existing methods

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a holistic concept and approach for evaluating the environmental and human health impacts associated with a product, process, or activity. A complete LCA looks upstream and down stream, identifies inputs and outputs, and assesses the potential effects of those inputs and outputs on ecosystems, human health, and natural resoures. This report presents a conceptual framework for conducting a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), discusses major issues, and summarizes existing methods. It also identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of various methods.

  5. INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM OFFICE EQUIPMENT: TEST METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development and evaluation of a large chamber test method for measuring emissions from dry-process photocopiers. The test method was developed in two phases. Phase 1 was a single-laboratory evaluation at Research Triangle Institute (RTI) using four, mid-r...

  6. Signal-to-noise issues in measuring nitrous oxide fluxes by the eddy covariance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicholas; Levy, Peter; Langford, Ben; Skiba, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Recently-developed fast-response gas analysers capable of measuring atmospheric N2O with high precision (< 50 ppt) at a rate of 10 Hz are becoming more widely available. These instruments are capable of measuring N2O fluxes using the eddy covariance method, with significantly less effort and uncertainty than previous instruments have allowed. However, there are still many issues to overcome in order to obtain accurate and reliable flux data. The signal-to-noise ratio of N2O measured using these instruments is still two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of CO2. The low signal-to-noise ratio can lead to systematic uncertainties, in the eddy covariance method, the most significant being in the calculation of the time lag between gas analyser and anemometer by maximisation of covariance (Langford et al., 2015). When signal-to-noise ratio is relatively low, as it is with many N2O measurements, the maximisation of covariance method can systematically overestimate fluxes. However, if constant time lags are assumed, then fluxes will be underestimated. This presents a major issue for N2O eddy covariance measurements. In this presentation we will focus on the signal to noise ratio for an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL). Eddy covariance flux measurements from multiple agricultural sites across the UK were investigated for potential uncertainties. Our presentation highlights some of these uncertainties when analysing eddy covariance data and offers suggestions as to how these issues may be minimised. Langford, B., Acton, W., Ammann, C., Valach, A. and Nemitz, E.: Eddy-covariance data with low signal-to-noise ratio: time-lag determination, uncertainties and limit of detection, Atmos Meas Tech, 8(10), 4197-4213, doi:10.5194/amt-8-4197-2015, 2015.

  7. Equality in the Workplace. An Equal Opportunities Handbook for Trainers. Human Resource Management in Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Helen

    This workbook, which is intended as a practical guide for human resource managers, trainers, and others concerned with developing and implementing equal opportunities training programs in British workplaces, examines issues in and methods for equal opportunities training. The introduction gives an overview of current training trends and issues.…

  8. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals - opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the 'method of choice' for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  9. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T.; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  10. Opportunities and limitations of molecular methods for quantifying microbial compliance parameters in EU bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Porter, Jonathan; Fleming, Lora E; Kinzelman, Julie L; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; McPhail, Calum; Rahman, Amanna; Thairs, Ted; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Hanley, Nick D; Dunhill, Ian; Globevnik, Lidija; Harwood, Valerie J; Hodgson, Chris J; Lees, David N; Nichols, Gordon L; Nocker, Andreas; Schets, Ciska; Quilliam, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    The debate over the suitability of molecular biological methods for the enumeration of regulatory microbial parameters (e.g. Faecal Indicator Organisms [FIOs]) in bathing waters versus the use of traditional culture-based methods is of current interest to regulators and the science community. Culture-based methods require a 24-48hour turn-around time from receipt at the laboratory to reporting, whilst quantitative molecular tools provide a more rapid assay (approximately 2-3h). Traditional culturing methods are therefore often viewed as slow and 'out-dated', although they still deliver an internationally 'accepted' evidence-base. In contrast, molecular tools have the potential for rapid analysis and their operational utility and associated limitations and uncertainties should be assessed in light of their use for regulatory monitoring. Here we report on the recommendations from a series of international workshops, chaired by a UK Working Group (WG) comprised of scientists, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders, which explored and interrogated both molecular (principally quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]) and culture-based tools for FIO monitoring under the European Bathing Water Directive. Through detailed analysis of policy implications, regulatory barriers, stakeholder engagement, and the needs of the end-user, the WG identified a series of key concerns that require critical appraisal before a potential shift from culture-based approaches to the employment of molecular biological methods for bathing water regulation could be justified. PMID:24394589

  11. Investigation of opportunities of the optical non-invasive diagnostics method for the blood sugar control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovskaia, Elena A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The relevance of noninvasive method for determining the blood sugar is caused by necessity of regular monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients blood. Traditional invasive method is painful, because it requires a finger pricking. Despite the active studies in the field of non-invasive medical diagnostics, to date the painless and inexpensive instrument for blood sugar control for personal use doesn't exist. It's possible to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood with help of spectrophotometry method. It consists of registering and analyzing the spectral characteristics of the radiation which missed, reflected or absorbed by the object. The authors proposed a measuring scheme for studying the spectral characteristics of the radiation, missed by earlobe. Ultra-violet, visible and near infrared spectral ranges are considered. The paper presents the description of construction and working principles of the proposed special retaining clip and results of experiment with real patient.

  12. A NEW LOG EVALUATION METHOD TO APPRAISE MESAVERDE RE-COMPLETION OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Greer

    2003-09-11

    Artificial intelligence tools, fuzzy logic and neural networks were used to evaluate the potential of the behind pipe Mesaverde formation in BMG's Mancos formation wells. A fractal geostatistical mapping algorithm was also used to predict Mesaverde production. Additionally, a conventional geological study was conducted. To date one Mesaverde completion has been performed. The Janet No.3 Mesaverde completion was non-economic. Both the AI method and the geostatistical methods predicted the failure of the Janet No.3. The Gavilan No.1 in the Mesaverde was completed during the course of the study and was an extremely good well. This well was not included in the statistical dataset. The AI method predicted very good production while the fractal map predicted a poor producer.

  13. Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China. PMID:17599276

  14. Peculiarities of enhancing resistant starch in ruminants using chemical methods: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-06-01

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants. PMID:23736826

  15. Peculiarities of Enhancing Resistant Starch in Ruminants Using Chemical Methods: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants. PMID:23736826

  16. Methods and opportunities in the recycling of rare earth based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.; Jones, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    Rare Earth based materials are increasingly being utilized in industrial and commercial practice. Large volume production of permanent magnet materials, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, SmCo{sub 5}, Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}, and rechargeable Ni/Metal Hydride batteries, LaNi{sub 5}, has increased the amount of rare earth based materials in the waste stream. Both for economic and environmental reasons, recycling and reuse of all materials is desirable. Unfortunately, the recycling methodology for these materials is in its infancy. In this paper the present {open_quotes}state of the art{close_quotes}, in recycling of rare earth based materials will be discussed. Additionally, new methods which alleviate many of the concerns of present aqueous based recycling technology will be presented.

  17. [OPPORTUNITIES OF HIFU TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT FIBROIDS DISEASES SUCH AS NON-INVASIVE AND ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Gincheva, D; Gorchev, G; Tomov, S

    2015-01-01

    Concepts of medical treatment are constantly evolving and improving. This opportunity provides treatment with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). In Europe and Asia more than 10,000 patients with uterine fibroids have been successfully treated with HIFU technology until now. This is completely innovative technology for non-invasive extracorporeal treatment of benign and malignant tumors. Neighboring healthy tissue is not damaged. The main indication in HIFU-Center in Pleven is uterine fibroid. It is the most common solid tumor in the female pelvis and is the leading cause of hysterectomy. The methods of treatment are hysterectomy, myomectomy or embolization of uterine arteries. HIFU-methodology allows non-invasive treatment of fibroids disease. PMID:27025105

  18. The detection and discovery of glycan motifs in biological samples using lectins and antibodies: new methods and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huiyuan; Hsueh, Peter; Kletter, Doron; Bern, Marshall; Haab, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent research is uncovering unexpected ways that glycans contribute to biology, as well as new strategies for combatting disease using approaches involving glycans. To make full use of glycans for clinical applications, we need more detailed information on the location, nature, and dynamics of glycan expression in vivo. Such studies require the use of specimens acquired directly from patients. Effective studies of clinical specimens require low-volume assays, high precision measurements, and the ability to process many samples. Assays using affinity reagents—lectins and glycan-binding antibodies—can meet these requirements, but further developments are needed to make the methods routine and effective. Recent advances in the use of glycan-binding proteins could meet that need. The advances involve improved determination of specificity using glycan arrays; the availability of databases for mining and analyzing glycan array data; lectin engineering methods; and the ability to quantitatively interpret lectin measurements. Here we describe many of the challenges and opportunities involved in the application of these new approaches to the study of biological samples. The new tools hold promise for developing methods to improve the outcomes of patients afflicted with diseases characterized by aberrant glycan expression. PMID:25727148

  19. Analysis of utility acid rain compliance plans: A discussion of issues and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brick, S.

    1993-07-01

    Utility acid rain compliance plans have begun to roll into public utility commissions around the eastern half of the country. These plans typically represent the combined effort of utility staff and consultants, and have evolved since early drafts of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) began to circulate, several years back. The filings themselves often consist of many volumes of technical analysis, supporting documentation, and accompanying testimony. Hundreds of computer simulations are often presented and these, in turn, are underlain by hundreds of assumptions covering a staggering range of variables. Commissions usually have little time and few external resources with which to review and in some cases, preapprove proposed utility actions. There may be a tendency among commissions to forego a comprehensive review, approve utility plans as filed, and hope for the best. There are at least three important reasons, however, why this should not occur: (1) The magnitude of planned CAAA expenditures is large. (2) Preapproval, either formal or de facto, is becoming increasingly common. Although the approval of specific actions is certainly one outcome of the preapproval process, it should not be the sole or even principal outcome. The main focus of preapproval should involve defining an economic and institutional framework for how utilities, with input from regulators and the public, can best meet future customer needs. Done correctly, the preapproval process provides a meaningful, preexisting context which can be used to analyze outcomes. (3) Without adequate review market opportunities may be ignored and compliance costs increased unnecessarily. This article discusses the following topics in detail: CAAA Compliance Plan Review framework; Emission Reduction Alternatives: How Much is Enough?; Assumptions, Analytical Methods, and Evaluation Criteria of compliance plans; CAAA compliance costs and IRP. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Monitoring rationale, strategy, issues, and methods: UMRR-EMP LTRMP fish component

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ickes, Brian S.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Rogala, James T.

    2014-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP), an element of the multiagency partnership Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program, has been monitoring fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) for over two decades, using scientific and highly standardized methods. Today, the LTRMP’s data assets represent one of the world’s largest and most extensive datasets on a great river. Methods and procedures used over the past two decades have been documented and have proven a key tool towards gaining data that are (a) scientifically valid, (b) comparable over time, and (c) comparable over space. These procedures manuals coordinate and standardize methods, procedures, and field behaviors in the execution of long-term monitoring, permitting the informed management and control of important sources of error actually under program control. As LTRMP databases have matured in scope and accumulated more years' worth of data, their utility in research and management in the UMRS basin has increased notably. To maximize their utility, data users need not only be aware of “how the data were collected,” as portrayed in the procedures manuals, but also “why the data were collected in the way they were, at the scales they were, and in the manner that they were.” Whereas the procedures manuals contribute information as to the “how” the data were gained, this document seeks to contribute information as to the “why.” As such, this document is intended to be a companion document to the procedures manuals. Herein, we present information on the rationale for monitoring nearly one-fifth of the entire North American freshwater fish fauna (representing the greatest freshwater fish diversity on the planet at temperate latitudes); strategies employed and their reasoning; and discussions on issues associated with the sampling design itself, data arising therefrom, and uses of those data in different contexts.

  1. Bringing new HIV infections to zero - opportunities and challenges offered by antiretroviral-based prevention in Asia, the Pacific and beyond: An overview of this special issue.

    PubMed

    Zablotska, Iryna B; Whittaker, Bill; de Wit, John; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wright, Edwina; Poynten, Isobel Mary; Mayer, Kenneth

    2014-07-01

    This editorial to the special issue of Sexual Health on antiretroviral-based prevention of HIV infection is dedicated to showcasing research and practice in this area. It aims to promote debate regarding the potential of new antiretroviral-based prevention approaches and the challenges encountered in moving prevention innovations into the community. This special issue covers the breadth of innovative HIV prevention research, including that undertaken in the fields of epidemiology, clinical research, social and behavioural science, public health and policy analysis, and with special emphasis on Asia and the Pacific region. Most importantly, it provides an indication of how the region is progressing towards embracing new prevention approaches to combat HIV epidemics across the region. PMID:25017549

  2. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    SciTech Connect

    Payer, Joe H.; Scully, John R.

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments and with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca-Mountain-Project specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  3. Fatigue life calculation of desuperheater for solving pipe cracking issue using finite element method (FEM) software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aravinda; Singh, Jeetendra Kumar; Mohan, K.

    2012-06-01

    Desuperheater assembly experiences thermal cycling in operation by design. During power plant's start up, load change and shut down, thermal gradient is highest. Desuperheater should be able to handle rapid ramp up or ramp down of temperature in these operations. With "hump style" two nozzle desuperheater, cracks were appearing in the pipe after only few cycles of operation. From the field data, it was clear that desuperheater is not able to handle disproportionate thermal expansion happening in the assembly during temperature ramp up and ramp down in operation and leading to cracks appearing in the piping. Growth of thermal fatigue crack is influenced by several factors including geometry, severity of thermal stress and applied mechanical load. This paper seeks to determine cause of failure of two nozzle "hump style" desuperheater using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation technique. Thermal stress simulation and fatigue life calculation were performed using commercial FEA software "ANSYS" [from Ansys Inc, USA]. Simulation result showed that very high thermal stress is developing in the region where cracks are seen in the field. From simulation results, it is also clear that variable thermal expansion of two nozzle studs is creating high stress at the water manifold junction. A simple and viable solution is suggested by increasing the length of the manifold which solved the cracking issues in the pipe.

  4. Methods and Materials for Infusing Aging Issues into the Rehabilitation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.; Harley, Debra A.; Wadsworth, John S.; Smith, S. Mae

    2007-01-01

    In order to better prepare rehabilitation counselors to meet the needs of older workers, Kampfe, Wadsworth, Smith, and Harley (2005) suggested that aging issues can be infused into the curriculum of rehabilitation education programs. This article is a follow-up to the earlier publication that called for infusion of aging issues into the…

  5. Ethical Issues of Ethnography Method: A Comparative Approach to Subaltern, Self, and the Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeyemi, Christo

    2013-01-01

    Using urban and rural community settings, this review article focuses on ethical issues associated with ethnographer-participant interaction and draws from the ethnographic accounts of Bronislaw Malinowski and Susan Krieger. As such, the following sections intend to illuminate the issue of ethics in ethnography research. As case studies, the…

  6. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

  7. Seizing Opportunity: "Opportunity as Transformation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael; Muller, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Opportunity creates conditions for achievement. We learn daily of the success of others that resulted from conditions they created through opportunity. Often these conditions of opportunity are the product of a compelling vision of a future steeped in possibility and rich in reward. These visions, however, must be operationalized in order to be…

  8. Health Services Research and Data Linkages: Issues, Methods, and Directions for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Cathy J; Penberthy, Lynne; Devers, Kelly J; Holden, Debra J

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on pressing health services and policy issues requires access to complete, accurate, and timely patient and organizational data. Aim This paper describes how administrative and health records (including electronic medical records) can be linked for comparative effectiveness and health services research. Materials and Methods We categorize the major agents (i.e., who owns and controls data and who carries out the data linkage) into three areas: (1) individual investigators; (2) government sponsored linked data bases; and (3) public–private partnerships that facilitate linkage of data owned by private organizations. We describe challenges that may be encountered in the linkage process, and the benefits of combining secondary databases with primary qualitative and quantitative sources. We use cancer care research to illustrate our points. Results To fill the gaps in the existing data infrastructure, additional steps are required to foster collaboration among institutions, researchers, and public and private components of the health care sector. Without such effort, independent researchers, governmental agencies, and nonprofit organizations are likely to continue building upon a fragmented and costly system with limited access. Discussion Without the development and support for emerging information technologies across multiple health care settings, the potential for data collected for clinical and transactional purposes to benefit the research community and, ultimately, the patient population may go unrealized. Conclusion The current environment is characterized by budget and technical challenges, but investments in data infrastructure are arguably cost-effective given the need to reform our health care system and to monitor the impact of health reform initiatives. PMID:21054367

  9. Issues and methods in incorporating environmental externalities into the integrated resource planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1994-11-01

    This report is a review of current practices and policies in considering environmental externalities in the integrated resource planning and performance based regulation (IRP/PBR) process. The following issues are presented and examined: What are the pros and cons of treating environmental externalities in the IRP process? How are potential future environmental regulations being treated? Are externalities being qualitatively or quantitatively considered, or monetized? Are offsets being allowed? How are externality policies being coordinated among different levels and branches of governments? Should environmental externalities be considered in dispatching a utility`s existing resources? What are the procedures for addressing uncertainty in incorporating environmental externalities into IRP? How are externalities valued? What are other approaches to addressing environmental externalities. This report describes seven major approaches for addressing environmental externalities in the IRP process: qualitative treatment, weighting and ranking, cost of control, damage function, percentage adders, monetization by emission, and multiattribute trade-off analysis. The discussion includes a taxonomy of the full range of alternative methods for addressing environmental externalities, a summary of state PUC actions, the role of state laws, the debate on environmental adders, and the choice of methodologies. In addition, this report characterizes the interests of stakeholders such as the electric industry, fuel suppliers, energy consumers, governmental agencies, public interest groups, consultants, and others. It appears that the views, positions, and interests of these stakeholders are affected by their perceptions of the potential impacts on their economic interests or the viability of their position on environmental policy, by the societal perspective they take, and by the orientation of the analysts toward market competition and their respective accumulated expertise.

  10. Using Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Issues, Methods and Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background International data on child maltreatment are largely derived from child protection agencies, and predominantly report only substantiated cases of child maltreatment. This approach underestimates the incidence of maltreatment and makes inter-jurisdictional comparisons difficult. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of health professionals in identifying, documenting and reporting suspected child maltreatment. This study aimed to describe the issues around case identification using coded morbidity data, outline methods for selecting and grouping relevant codes, and illustrate patterns of maltreatment identified. Methods A comprehensive review of the ICD-10-AM classification system was undertaken, including review of index terms, a free text search of tabular volumes, and a review of coding standards pertaining to child maltreatment coding. Identified codes were further categorised into maltreatment types including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Using these code groupings, one year of Australian hospitalisation data for children under 18 years of age was examined to quantify the proportion of patients identified and to explore the characteristics of cases assigned maltreatment-related codes. Results Less than 0.5% of children hospitalised in Australia between 2005 and 2006 had a maltreatment code assigned, almost 4% of children with a principal diagnosis of a mental and behavioural disorder and over 1% of children with an injury or poisoning as the principal diagnosis had a maltreatment code assigned. The patterns of children assigned with definitive T74 codes varied by sex and age group. For males selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, physical abuse was most commonly coded (62.6% of maltreatment cases) while for females selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, sexual abuse was the most commonly assigned form of maltreatment (52.9% of maltreatment cases

  11. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  12. Digital Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2006-01-01

    This article details the content of a recently released report from the Children's Partnership titled "Measuring Digital Opportunity for America's Children: Where We Stand and Where We Go From Here". On the basis of 40 indicators, the report's Digital Opportunity Measuring Stick showed how U.S. children and young adults use information and…

  13. Growth opportunity.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Frances

    2014-06-10

    As a career development opportunity, RCN congress is unparalleled. Debates, fringe meetings, seminars, start-up events for new specialties and interest groups, product launches and networking opportunities for nurses to learn about developments in other workplaces all take place against a backdrop of one of the largest exhibitions at any conference. PMID:24894258

  14. [Nurses and research: contents and methods. Premise and guide to the use of this issue. 1. Why a special issue for research].

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    For the first time in its history, this journal assumes the unusual form of a monograph: the issue is dedicated to the problems of research methodology, as it applies to the nursing context and activities. The purpose and the contents which are developed along the eight "chapters" can be summarised as follows: 1. It is widely recognised that health care systems are undergoing a profound and rapid transformation phase, which is obviously affecting the nursing profession and roles. To minimize the very real risk of being passive observers of the changes, a propositive strategy based on diffuse and intense research activities (aiming at describing, anticipating, assessing, experimenting changes and hypotheses) appears to be a priority choice (besides the more classical and needed institutional battles and arrangements). 2. Since its very beginning (back 15 years ago), this journal had adopted among its main objectives and distinctive features, the promotion of a research oriented mentality in a profession which (mainly, but not exclusively in Italy) has been characterised more in terms of executive and basically dependent tasks. The key thesis all over the years has been that, to be relevant for the whole profession, research should not be conceived as a separate or élite area of interest but it should be as close as possible (in its scope and methods), to the routine activities of the majority of the nurses. 3. The years long experience has produced (both through the materials which have been published, and the training initiatives which the Rdl has promoted) an important body of concepts and suggestions, which appear to be possibly useful to integrate the existing standard literature dedicated to research methods and designs. 4. The structure chosen for the overall organisation of the issue tries to comply to this "experimental" background: after a first part focused on the close articulation between the conceptual and historical specificities of nursing research

  15. A critical review on the bio-removal of hazardous heavy metals from contaminated soils: issues, progress, eco-environmental concerns and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Kang, Hubiao; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shao, Hongbo; Chu, Liye; Ruan, Chengjiang

    2010-02-15

    Mechanism of four methods for removing hazardous heavy metal are detailed and compared-chemical/physical remediation, animal remediation, phytoremediation and microremediation with emphasis on bio-removal aspects. The latter two, namely the use of plants and microbes, are preferred because of their cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness and fewer side effects. Also the obvious disadvantages of other alternatives are listed. In the future the application of genetic engineering or cell engineering to create an expected and ideal species would become popular and necessary. However, a concomitant and latent danger of genetic pollution is realized by a few persons. To cope with this potential harm, several suggestions are put forward including choosing self-pollinated plants, creating infertile polyploid species and carefully selecting easy-controlled microbe species. Bravely, the authors point out that current investigation of noncrop hyperaccumulators is of little significance in application. Pragmatic development in the future should be crop hyperaccumulators (newly termed as "cropaccumulators") by transgenic or symbiotic approach. Considering no effective plan has been put forward by others about concrete steps of applying a hyperaccumulator to practice, the authors bring forward a set of universal procedures, which is novel, tentative and adaptive to evaluate hyperaccumulators' feasibility before large-scale commercialization. PMID:19864055

  16. Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    The Water Power Program focuses on technological development, and deployment of innovative technologies capable of generating electricity from water. The program funds research and development activities through competitive solicitations. Financial opportunities are avaliable here.

  17. Olivocochlear efferent function: issues regarding methods and the interpretation of results

    PubMed Central

    Guinan Jr., John J.

    2014-01-01

    As studies of the olivocochlear (OC) efferent system have matured, issues have been identified that need to be taken into account in the design of new studies and in the interpretation of existing work. The need for high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), multiple alternations of conditions, and avoiding middle-ear-muscle activation have been previously highlighted. Less well-known issues include: Contralateral medial OC (MOC) effects may not be good proxies for ipsilateral (ipsi) MOC effects; MOC-induced changes in otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) may not accurately show MOC-induced changes in auditory-nerve (AN) responses; measuring OAE differences from before to after psychophysical trials yields the transient OAE change but not tonic MOC activation; tonic MOC activation may be measurable by several techniques including by OAE differences in trials in which the subject’s judgment was correct vs. trials that were incorrect; SNRs can be preserved by Bootstrap statistical tests; differences in task difficulty may outweigh differences in subject attention; lateral efferent effects are little understood and may be tied to MOC effects; to assess whether MOC strength predicts protection from acoustic trauma, prospective tests in humans are needed. PMID:25161612

  18. Using qualitative methods for attribute development for discrete choice experiments: issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Coast, Joanna; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Sutton, Eileen J; Horrocks, Susan A; Vosper, A Jane; Swancutt, Dawn R; Flynn, Terry N

    2012-06-01

    Attribute generation for discrete choice experiments (DCEs) is often poorly reported, and it is unclear whether this element of research is conducted rigorously. This paper explores issues associated with developing attributes for DCEs and contrasts different qualitative approaches. The paper draws on eight studies, four developed attributes for measures, and four developed attributes for more ad hoc policy questions. Issues that have become apparent through these studies include the following: the theoretical framework for random utility theory and the need for attributes that are neither too close to the latent construct nor too intrinsic to people's personality; the need to think about attribute development as a two-stage process involving conceptual development followed by refinement of language to convey the intended meaning; and the difficulty in resolving tensions inherent in the reductiveness of condensing complex and nuanced qualitative findings into precise terms. The comparison of alternative qualitative approaches suggests that the nature of data collection will depend both on the characteristics of the question (its sensitivity, for example) and the availability of existing qualitative information. An iterative, constant comparative approach to analysis is recommended. Finally, the paper provides a series of recommendations for improving the reporting of this element of DCE studies. PMID:21557381

  19. Children and Technology: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on children's use of computers and the Internet, educational benefits of information technology, problems with using technology with young children, and teachers' adoption and use of technology. Identifies Internet sites that provide guidelines for sensible Internet use and lists children-appropriate, instructional, and…

  20. Desktop Computing Power--Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Therese A.; Porter, James H.

    1991-01-01

    This article explores the thesis that colleges and universities can leverage desktop computing power to address campus administration needs. It describes a study of administrative computing needs at the University of Chicago; identifies roadblocks to effective use of desktop computing, such as inadequate computing knowledge; and gives…

  1. Adaptive structures - Challenges, issues, and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Alok; Rao, S. V.; Wada, Ben K.; Obal, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Because of the precise pointing/shape control needs of future space systems coupled with a 10-20-year life requirement and very stringent limitations on system weight, a new approach to their control system design was developed. This approach, adaptive structures, exploits recent breakthroughs in advanced composite materials, sensors and actuators, and intelligent control concepts to provide an integrated structure/controller. Ground experiments, the focus of which to demonstrate and evaluate the emerging control hardware and methodologies on realistic three-dimensional testbeds, are also discussed.

  2. Marketing Across Cultures: Issues, Problems and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdrabboh, Bob

    Now more than ever, a clear knowledge and understanding of languages, cultures, and customs is essential to successfully marketing products and services around the world. Barriers to competition may occur in differences in language, technology levels, conceptions of authority, environmental perceptions, contexting, and social organization. In…

  3. Nonprescription Drug Therapy: Issues and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Tim R.

    2006-01-01

    Nonprescription drug therapy is tightly woven into the fabric of American health care. Market forces are expected to contribute to significant expansion of nonprescription drug use. Consumers place high value on nonprescription drug therapy; however, self-medicating patients frequently need assistance from a learned intermediary to assure optimal integration of nonprescription drug therapy into the total care regimen. Pharmacist-assisted self-care holds vast potential to serve the public interest, but this expanded practice role will require higher levels of professional practice commitment by American pharmacy. That commitment must be supported by practice-relevant, competency-based, patient-centered college and school of pharmacy curricula and continuing education that assures perpetual intellectual proficiency in nonprescription drug pharmacotherapy. That knowledge and competency must be integrated holistically into the total mix of patient comorbidity and polypharmacy. The pharmacist-assisted self-care business and professional practice model must be further facilitated by state and national pharmacy organizations, chain and independent community pharmacy, pharmacy wholesalers, and others. Consumers await expanded and differentiated pharmacy-based, pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services focused on the safe, appropriate, and effective selection, use, and monitoring of nonprescription drugs therapy. PMID:17332863

  4. INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL DATA: EVALUATION OF METHODS BASED ON DATA ISSUES AND ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Program has focused initially on the synthesis of existing data. We have used the same set of spatial data and synthesized these data using a total of 11 existing and newly developed integration methods. These methods were evaluated ...

  5. THE ONTARIO HYDRO METHOD FOR SPECIATED MERCURY MEASUREMENTS: ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ontario Hydro (OH) method has been developed for the measurement of total and speciated mercury emissions from coal-fired combustion sources. The OH method was initially developed to support EPA's information collection request to characterize and inventory mercury emissions ...

  6. Did I Tell You That? Ethical Issues Related to Using Computational Methods to Discover Non-Disclosed Patient Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cato, Kenrick D; Bockting, Walter; Larson, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    Widespread availability of electronic health records coupled with sophisticated statistical methods offer great potential for a variety of applications for health and disease surveillance, developing predictive models and advancing decision support for clinicians. However, use of "big data" mining and discovery techniques has also raised ethical issues such as how to balance privacy and autonomy with the wider public benefits of data sharing. Furthermore, electronic data are being increasingly used to identify individual characteristics, which can be useful for clinical prediction and management, but were not previously disclosed to a clinician. This process in computer parlance is called electronic phenotyping, and has a number of ethical implications. Using the Belmont Report's principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as a framework, we examined the ethical issues posed by electronic phenotyping. Ethical issues identified include the ability of the patient to consent for the use of their information, the ability to suppress pediatric information, ensuring that the potential benefits justify the risks of harm to patients, and acknowledging that the clinician's biases or stereotypes, conscious or unintended, may become a factor in the therapeutic interaction. We illustrate these issues with two vignettes, using the person characteristic of gender minority status (i.e., transgender identity) and health history characteristic of substance abuse. Data mining has the potential to uncover patient characteristics previously obscured, which can provide clinicians with beneficial clinical information. Hence, ethical guidelines must be updated to ensure that electronic phenotyping supports the principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. PMID:27534587

  7. INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL DATA: METHODS EVALUATION WITH REGARD TO DATA ISSUES AND ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities at a regional scale. An initial effort within this research program has been to develop and evaluate methods to synthesize ...

  8. Considering Fees in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: Opportunities for Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stewart S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The topic of money is ubiquitous to psychodynamic therapy work, yet often neglected in residency training programs. Residency allows a unique opportunity to address issues pertaining to money and their impact on therapy. METHOD: Through the experience of the author, the need for a more explicit and systematic consideration within…

  9. Opportunity's Travels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overview map made from Mars Orbiter camera images illustrates the path that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has taken from its first sol on the red planet through its 87th sol. After thoroughly examining its 'Eagle Crater' landing-site, the rover moved onto the plains of Meridiani Planum, stopping to examine a curious trough and a target within it called 'Anatolia.' Following that, Opportunity approached and remotely studied the rocky dish called 'Fram Crater.' As of its 91st sol (April 26, 2004), the rover sits 160 meters (about 525 feet) from the rim of 'Endurance Crater.'

  10. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  11. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  12. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. II. Sampling method affects ectoparasite studies.

    PubMed

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-08-31

    In this study, we assessed the impact of sampling method on the results of fish ectoparasite studies. Common roach Rutilus rutilus were sampled from the same gravel pit in the River Dyje flood plain (Czech Republic) using 3 different sampling methods, i.e. electrofishing, beach seining and gill-netting, and were examined for ectoparasites. Not only did fish caught by electrofishing have more of the most abundant parasites (Trichodina spp., Gyrodactylus spp.) than those caught by beach seining or gill-netting, they also had relatively rich parasite infracommunities, resulting in a significantly different assemblage composition, presumably as parasites were lost through handling and 'manipulation' in the net. Based on this, we recommend electrofishing as the most suitable method to sample fish for parasite community studies, as data from fish caught with gill-nets and beach seines will provide a biased picture of the ectoparasite community, underestimating ectoparasite abundance and infracommunity species richness. PMID:27596860

  13. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  14. The Enterococcus QPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Testing Background, Performance and Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently accepted culture-based monitoring methods for fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters take at least 24 hr to determine if unacceptable levels of fecal pollution have reached our recreational beaches. During this waiting period changing water conditions may result eit...

  15. Mathematical, Logical, and Formal Methods in Information Retrieval: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crestani, Fabio; Dominich, Sandor; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Cornelis Joost

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of research on the use of mathematical, logical, and formal methods in information retrieval to help enhance retrieval effectiveness and clarify underlying concepts of information retrieval. Highlights include logic; probability; spaces; and future research needs. (Author/LRW)

  16. Asking Difficult Questions: Exploring Research Methods with Children on Painful Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Assumptions about a child's competence to voice an opinion often inhibit efforts to find effective methods for participation. Answers to questions are sought from the significant adults who surround a child [Morris, J. 2003. "Including All Children: Finding Out about the Experiences of Children with Communication and/or Cognitive…

  17. Perceptions of the Willingness of Part-Time Instructors in Community Colleges in the U.S. to Engage in Professional Development Opportunities and the Best Method(s) of Delivering These Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Brian A.; Dainty, Julie D.; Belcher, Gregory G.; Frisbee, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of occupational education officers concerning the willingness of part-time instructors in community colleges in the United States to attend professional development opportunities and the best methods and times to deliver these activities. The findings indicate that community colleges should…

  18. Creating Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In this age of greater accountability, local school districts within the USA increasingly use summer school programs as an intervention service to provide students who have failed to meet classroom, district, or state performance requirements with the opportunity to "catch up." Although such programs attempt to provide varying types of…

  19. Environmental issues in China

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Soil Water Content Assessment: Critical Issues Concerning the Operational Application of the Triangle Method

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  1. Soil water content assessment: critical issues concerning the operational application of the triangle method.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  2. Escherichia coli inactivation by pressurized CO2 treatment methods at room temperature: Critical issues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongji; Huang, Doudou; Zhou, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to increase the inactivation efficiency of CO2 against Escherichia coli under mild conditions to facilitate the application of pressurized CO2 technology in water disinfection. Based on an aerating-cycling apparatus, three different treatment methods (continuous aeration, continuous reflux, and simultaneous aeration and reflux) were compared for the same temperature, pressure (0.3-0.7MPa), initial concentration, and exposure time (25min). The simultaneous aeration and reflux treatment (combined method) was shown to be the best method under optimum conditions, which were determined to be 0.7MPa, room temperature, and an exposure time of 10min. This treatment achieved 5.1-log reduction after 25min of treatment at the pressure of 0.3MPa and 5.73-log reduction after 10min at 0.7MPa. Log reductions of 4.4 and 5.0 occurred at the end of continuous aeration and continuous reflux treatments at 0.7MPa, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggested that cells were ruptured after the simultaneous aeration and reflux treatment and the continuous reflux treatment. The increase of the solubilization rate of CO2 due to intense hydraulic conditions led to a rapid inactivation effect. It was found that the reduction of intracellular pH caused by CO2 led to a more lethal bactericidal effect. PMID:27155435

  3. Gulliver's Eggs: Why Methods are not an Issue of Qualitative Research in Cultural Psychology.

    PubMed

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The future of qualitative methods regards the kind of object cultural psychology is interested and the kind of questions it can ask. I propose that the object should be experiencing, understood as a complex whole, consisting of lived-by action and counter-action, that is contextual inter-action with the world in the form of an experiencing subject and otherness. The kind of questions cultural psychology can ask is instead related to the epistemological status attributed to both researcher and participant. Probably few scholars such as Vygotsky, Piaget and Lewin understood to what extent experiencing is always changing, because the relationship between mind, alterity and culture is co-generative. This also implies a relativization and a decentralization of the psychology's perspective. Finally, I provide some examples from the history of psychology and some suggestions to work at the level of such complexity by using methods that can work with complex objects such as products of human activity (e.g., art, literature, architecture, etc.). PMID:25633519

  4. Using Dialogue between Researcher and Participants as a Method of Coping with Issues of Credibility in Translation of Hispanics' Professional Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Norma Landa

    This paper contrasts Edward Hall's microcultural analysis method of teaching members of different cultures how to interact with the others, with Norma Flores' macrocultural Intercultural Assessment of Communication Competency and English Speaking Skills (I ACCESS) method of giving members of different cultures an opportunity to collaborate with…

  5. Estimating Right Atrial Pressure Using Ultrasounds: An Old Issue Revisited With New Methods.

    PubMed

    De Vecchis, Renato; Baldi, Cesare; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Giasi, Anna; Cioppa, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of the right atrial pressure (RAP) values is critical to ascertain the existence of a state of hemodynamic congestion, irrespective of the possible presence of signs and symptoms of clinical congestion and cardiac overload that can be lacking in some conditions of concealed or clinically misleading cardiac decompensation. In addition, a more reliable estimate of RAP would make it possible to determine more accurately also the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure with the only echocardiographic methods. The authors briefly illustrate some of the criteria that have been implemented to obtain a non-invasive RAP estimate, some of which have been approved by current guidelines and others are still awaiting official endorsement from the Scientific Societies of Cardiology. There is a representation of the sometimes opposing views of researchers who have studied the problem, and the prospects for development of new diagnostic criteria are outlined, in particular those derived from the matched use of two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic parameters. PMID:27429676

  6. Estimating Right Atrial Pressure Using Ultrasounds: An Old Issue Revisited With New Methods

    PubMed Central

    De Vecchis, Renato; Baldi, Cesare; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Giasi, Anna; Cioppa, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the right atrial pressure (RAP) values is critical to ascertain the existence of a state of hemodynamic congestion, irrespective of the possible presence of signs and symptoms of clinical congestion and cardiac overload that can be lacking in some conditions of concealed or clinically misleading cardiac decompensation. In addition, a more reliable estimate of RAP would make it possible to determine more accurately also the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure with the only echocardiographic methods. The authors briefly illustrate some of the criteria that have been implemented to obtain a non-invasive RAP estimate, some of which have been approved by current guidelines and others are still awaiting official endorsement from the Scientific Societies of Cardiology. There is a representation of the sometimes opposing views of researchers who have studied the problem, and the prospects for development of new diagnostic criteria are outlined, in particular those derived from the matched use of two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic parameters. PMID:27429676

  7. Modelling climate impact on water in Australia: issues, methods and uncertainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiew, F. H.

    2010-12-01

    Australia is going through a significant period of water reform. The increasing demand for water for cities, industries, irrigation and the environment, and the current prolonged drought in southern Australia and predictions of a drier future are putting immense pressure on water resources. The management challenge in Australia is compounded by the low runoff coefficient and high river flow variability in Australia compared to elsewhere in the world. To underpin water planning and management, several large modelling studies to assess historical and future water availability were recently completed. This paper will discuss the different methods that can be used to estimate future water availability. Simple rules of thumb based on climate elasticities of streamflow and Budyko-type energy and water balance equations can be used for data limited regions or where only mean annual estimates are required. More detailed studies will combine projections from global and regional climate models, methods to downscale climate model projections to catchment-scale climate series and hydrological models that properly consider potential changes in dominant hydrological processes in a warmer, drier and higher CO2 environment. This paper will show that the largest uncertainty in predicting future water availability is in the projections of regional climate, in particular rainfall. For example, there is little agreement between the different global climate models on the direction of change in rainfall in the northern half of continental Australia. However, over the highly populated and important agricultural regions of south-eastern Australia, a large majority of climate models indicate a drier future. The median result from hydrological modelling with future climate projections from more than 20 global climate models indicate that averaged across south-eastern Australia, there will be 10 percent less water (range of result from -30 percent to +10 percent) for a 1oC global warming

  8. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    In the design of a new space suit it is necessary to have requirements that define what mobility space suit joints should be capable of achieving in both a system and at the component level. NASA elected to divide mobility into its constituent parts-range of motion (ROM) and torque- in an effort to develop clean design requirements that limit subject performance bias and are easily verified. Unfortunately, the measurement of mobility can be difficult to obtain. Current technologies, such as the Vicon motion capture system, allow for the relatively easy benchmarking of range of motion (ROM) for a wide array of space suit systems. The ROM evaluations require subjects in the suit to accurately evaluate the ranges humans can achieve in the suit. However, when it comes to torque, there are significant challenges for both benchmarking current performance and writing requirements for future suits. This is reflected in the fact that torque definitions have been applied to very few types of space suits and with limited success in defining all the joints accurately. This paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages to historical joint torque evaluation methods, describes more recent efforts directed at benchmarking joint torques of prototype space suits, and provides an outline for how NASA intends to address joint torque in design requirements for the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS).

  9. Interconnected but underprotected? Parents' methods and motivations for information seeking on digital safety issues.

    PubMed

    Davis, Vauna

    2012-12-01

    Parents need information and skills to meet the demands of mediating connected technology in their homes. Parents' methods and motivations for learning to protect children from digital risks were reported through a survey. This study explores relationships between information seeking, parents' concerns, risks children have experienced, and access to connected devices, in addition to the use and satisfaction of various digital safety resources. Three types of information-seeking behavior were identified: (a) protective information seeking, to protect children from being confronted with harmful content; (b) problem-solving information seeking, to help children who have been negatively affected by connected technology; and (c) attentive learning, by attending to media resources passively encountered on this topic. Friends and family are the dominant source of digital safety information, followed by presentations and the Internet. Parents' top concerns for their children using connected technology were accidental exposure to pornography, and sexual content in Internet-based entertainment. Higher numbers of risks experienced by children were positively associated with parents' problem-solving information seeking and level of attentive learning. Parents who were more concerned exhibited more problem-solving information seeking; but despite the high level of concern for children's safety online, 65 percent of parents seek information on this subject less than twice per year. Children have access to a mean of five connected devices at home; a higher number of devices was correlated with increased risks experienced by children, but was not associated with increased concern or information seeking from parents. PMID:23098226

  10. Opportunity's Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Long Term Planning graphic was created from a mosaic of navigation camera images overlain by a polar coordinate grid with the center point as Opportunity's original landing site. The blue dots represent the rover position at various locations.

    The red dots represent the center points of the target areas for the instruments on the rover mast (the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer). Opportunity visited Stone Mountain on Feb. 5. Stone Mountain was named after the southernmost point of the Appalachian Mountains outside of Atlanta, Ga. On Earth, Stone Mountain is the last big mountain before the Piedmont flatlands, and on Mars, Stone Mountain is at one end of Opportunity Ledge. El Capitan is a target of interest on Mars named after the second highest peak in Texas in Guadaloupe National Park, which is one of the most visited outcrops in the United States by geologists. It has been a training ground for students and professional geologists to understand what the layering means in relation to the formation of Earth, and scientists will study this prominent point of Opportunity Ledge to understand what the layering means on Mars.

    The yellow lines show the midpoint where the panoramic camera has swept and will sweep a 120-degree area from the three waypoints on the tour of the outcrop. Imagine a fan-shaped wedge from left to right of the yellow line.

    The white contour lines are one meter apart, and each drive has been roughly about 2-3 meters in length over the last few sols. The large white blocks are dropouts in the navigation camera data.

    Opportunity is driving along and taking a photographic panorama of the entire outcrop. Scientists will stitch together these images and use the new mosaic as a 'base map' to decide on geology targets of interest for a more detailed study of the outcrop using the instruments on the robotic arm. Once scientists choose their targets of interest, they plan to study the outcrop for roughly five to

  11. Decision making under uncertainty: An investigation into the application of formal decision-making methods to safety issue decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M P

    1992-12-01

    As part of the NRC-sponsored program to study the implications of Generic Issue 57, Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment,'' a subtask was performed to evaluate the applicability of formal decision analysis methods to generic issues cost/benefit-type decisions and to apply these methods to the GI-57 results. In this report, the numerical results obtained from the analysis of three plants (two PWRs and one BWR) as developed in the technical resolution program for GI-57 were studied. For each plant, these results included a calculation of the person-REM averted due to various accident scenarios and various proposed modifications to mitigate the accident scenarios identified. These results were recomputed to break out the benefit in terms of contributions due to random event scenarios, fire event scenarios, and seismic event scenarios. Furthermore, the benefits associated with risk (in terms of person-REM) averted from earthquakes at three different seismic ground motion levels were separately considered. Given this data, formal decision methodologies involving decision trees, value functions, and utility functions were applied to this basic data. It is shown that the formal decision methodology can be applied at several different levels. Examples are given in which the decision between several retrofits is changed from that resulting from a simple cost/benefit-ratio criterion by virtue of the decision-makinger's expressed (and assumed) preferences.

  12. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  13. Technology, Pedagogy, and Epistemology: Opportunities and Challenges of Using Computer Modeling and Simulation Tools in Elementary Science Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Christina V.; Meyer, Jason; Sharma, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    This study infused computer modeling and simulation tools in a 1-semester undergraduate elementary science methods course to advance preservice teachers' understandings of computer software use in science teaching and to help them learn important aspects of pedagogy and epistemology. Preservice teachers used computer modeling and simulation tools…

  14. Two Methods for Classifying Jobs into Equal Employment Opportunity Categories. Working Paper 83/84-4-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Penny F.; Graham-Moore, Brian E.

    Most organizations planning to assess adverse impact or perform a stock analysis for affirmative action planning must correctly classify their jobs into appropriate occupational categories. Two methods of job classification were assessed in a combination archival and field study. Classification results from expert judgment of functional job…

  15. Methods of Selecting Industries for Depressed Areas--An Introduction to Feasibility Studies. Developing Job Opportunities 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaassen, Leo H.

    This report presents severl alternative methods which may be employed by local authorities in identifying likely prospects for local industrialization, and describes a specialized input-output technique to define inter-industry relations and inter-regional relations of industries. This technique is applied, for illustrative purposes, to three…

  16. Methods and Issues for the Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data: Results of a NEA International Collaborative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD) established a Subgroup (called “Subgroup 33”) in 2009 on “Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data.” The first stage was devoted to producing the description of different adjustment methodologies and assessing their merits. A detailed document related to this first stage has been issued. Nine leading organizations (often with a long and recognized expertise in the field) have contributed: ANL, CEA, INL, IPPE, JAEA, JSI, NRG, IRSN and ORNL. In the second stage a practical benchmark exercise was defined in order to test the reliability of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. A comparison of the results obtained by the participants and major lessons learned in the exercise are discussed in the present paper that summarizes individual contributions which often include several original developments not reported separately. The paper provides the analysis of the most important results of the adjustment of the main nuclear data of 11 major isotopes in a 33-group energy structure. This benchmark exercise was based on a set of 20 well defined integral parameters from 7 fast assembly experiments. The exercise showed that using a common shared set of integral experiments but different starting evaluated libraries and/or different covariance matrices, there is a good convergence of trends for adjustments. Moreover, a significant reduction of the original uncertainties is often observed. Using the a–posteriori covariance data, there is a strong reduction of the uncertainties of integral parameters for reference reactor designs, mainly due to the new correlations in the a–posteriori covariance matrix. Furthermore, criteria have been proposed and applied to verify the consistency of differential and integral data used in the adjustment. Finally, recommendations are given

  17. Methods and Issues for the Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data: Results of a NEA International Collaborative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.; Aliberti, G.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Dupont, E.; Herman, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Ivanova, T.; Ivanov, E.; Kim, S.-J.; Kodeli, I.; Manturov, G.; McKnight, R.; Pelloni, S.; Perfetti, C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rearden, B. T.; Rochman, D.; Sugino, K.; Trkov, A.; Wang, W.; Wu, H.; Yang, W.-S.

    2014-04-01

    The Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD) established a Subgroup (called "Subgroup 33") in 2009 on "Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data." The first stage was devoted to producing the description of different adjustment methodologies and assessing their merits. A detailed document related to this first stage has been issued. Nine leading organizations (often with a long and recognized expertise in the field) have contributed: ANL, CEA, INL, IPPE, JAEA, JSI, NRG, IRSN and ORNL. In the second stage a practical benchmark exercise was defined in order to test the reliability of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. A comparison of the results obtained by the participants and major lessons learned in the exercise are discussed in the present paper that summarizes individual contributions which often include several original developments not reported separately. The paper provides the analysis of the most important results of the adjustment of the main nuclear data of 11 major isotopes in a 33-group energy structure. This benchmark exercise was based on a set of 20 well defined integral parameters from 7 fast assembly experiments. The exercise showed that using a common shared set of integral experiments but different starting evaluated libraries and/or different covariance matrices, there is a good convergence of trends for adjustments. Moreover, a significant reduction of the original uncertainties is often observed. Using the a-posteriori covariance data, there is a strong reduction of the uncertainties of integral parameters for reference reactor designs, mainly due to the new correlations in the a-posteriori covariance matrix. Furthermore, criteria have been proposed and applied to verify the consistency of differential and integral data used in the adjustment. Finally, recommendations are given for an

  18. Opportunity emerges

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, S.

    1995-01-01

    Indian is one of the largest potential markets for private power. Shri P.V. Rangayya Naidu, Minister of State for Power, details the opportunities his country offers. Electricity plays a key role in the Indian economy, and its consumption is an indicator of productivity and growth. Development in the power sector has been given a high priority. Despite remarkable growth, India still faces power shortages. After rigorous review of the power sector the Government of India (GOI) is doubtful of reaching new capacity goals. It has therefore become imperature to accelerate capacity growth. To bridge the power gap the GOI is encouraging private participation. In 1991 the GOI had opened its doors to both foreign and domestic investors. Since then the legal, financial, and administrative framework has been modified to suit investors and developers. The present economic reforms pave the way for a smooth transition.

  19. The World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance: Methods, Challenges, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Guthold, Regina; Cowan, Melanie; Savin, Stefan; Bhatti, Lubna; Armstrong, Timothy; Bonita, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to outline the framework and methods used by the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach to noncommunicable disease (NCD) surveillance (STEPS), describe the development and current status, and discuss strengths, limitations, and future directions of STEPS surveillance. Methods. STEPS is a WHO-developed, standardized but flexible framework for countries to monitor the main NCD risk factors through questionnaire assessment and physical and biochemical measurements. It is coordinated by national authorities of the implementing country. The STEPS surveys are generally household-based and interviewer-administered, with scientifically selected samples of around 5000 participants. Results. To date, 122 countries across all 6 WHO regions have completed data collection for STEPS or STEPS-aligned surveys. Conclusions. STEPS data are being used to inform NCD policies and track risk-factor trends. Future priorities include strengthening these linkages from data to action on NCDs at the country level, and continuing to develop STEPS’ capacities to enable a regular and continuous cycle of risk-factor surveillance worldwide. PMID:26696288

  20. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  1. Development of a national Flash flood warning system in France using the AIGA method: first results and main issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Demargne, Julie; de Saint-Aubin, Céline; Garandeau, Léa; Janet, Bruno; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Fouchier, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Developing a national flash flood (FF) warning system is an ambitious and difficult task. On one hand it rises huge expectations from exposed populations and authorities since induced damages are considerable (ie 20 casualties in the recent October 2015 flood at the French Riviera). But on the other hand, many practical and scientific issues have to be addressed and limitations should be clearly stated. The FF warning system to be implemented by 2016 in France by the SCHAPI (French national service in charge of flood forecasting) will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014). The AIGA method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr). It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km² resolution to reference flood quantiles of different return periods, at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France. Model calibration was based on ~700 hydrometric stations over the 2002-2015 period and then hourly discharges were computed at ~76 000 catchment outlets, with areas ranging from 10 to 3 500 km², over the last 19 years. This product makes it possible to calculate reference flood quantiles at each outlet. The on-going evaluation of the FF warnings is currently made at two levels: in a 'classical' way, using discharges available at the hydrometric stations, but also in a more 'exploratory' way, by comparing past flood reports and warnings issued by the system over the 76 000 catchment outlets. The interest of the last method is that it better fit the system objectives since it is designed to monitor small ungauged catchments. Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D, .Pansu, J, .Arnaud, P. (2014). Evaluating flash-flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system

  2. Methodological Issues in Mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (mCSCL): What Methods, What to Measure and When to Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate (1) methods utilized in mobile computer-supported collaborative learning (mCSCL) research which focuses on studying, learning and collaboration mediated by mobile devices; (2) whether these methods have examined mCSCL effectively; (3) when the methods are administered; and (4) what methodological issues exist in…

  3. Changes in nurses’ work associated with computerised information systems: Opportunities for international comparative studies using the revised Work Observation Method By Activity Timing (WOMBAT)

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Creswick, Nerida J.; Duffield, Christine; Li, Ling; Dunsmuir, William T. M.

    2012-01-01

    An important step in advancing global health through informatics is to understand how systems support health professionals to deliver improved services to patients. Studies in several countries have highlighted the potential for clinical information systems to change patterns of work and communication, and in particular have raised concerns that they reduce nurses’ time in direct care. However measuring the effects of systems on work is challenging and comparisons across studies have been hindered by a lack of standardised definitions and measurement tools. This paper describes the Work Observation Method by Activity Time (WOMBAT) technique version 1.0 and the ways in which the data generated can describe different aspects of health professionals’ work. In 2011 a revised WOMBAT version 2.0 was developed specifically to facilitate its use by research teams in different countries. The new features provide opportunities for international comparative studies of nurses’ work to be conducted. PMID:24199139

  4. Focal Plant Observations as a Standardised Method for Pollinator Monitoring: Opportunities and Limitations for Mass Participation Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E.; Baxter, Elizabeth; Saunders, Aoine; Pocock, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently there has been increasing focus on monitoring pollinating insects, due to concerns about their declines, and interest in the role of volunteers in monitoring pollinators, particularly bumblebees, via citizen science. Methodology / Principal Findings The Big Bumblebee Discovery was a one-year citizen science project run by a partnership of EDF Energy, the British Science Association and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology which sought to assess the influence of the landscape at multiple scales on the diversity and abundance of bumblebees. Timed counts of bumblebees (Bombus spp.; identified to six colour groups) visiting focal plants of lavender (Lavendula spp.) were carried out by about 13 000 primary school children (7–11 years old) from over 4000 schools across the UK. 3948 reports were received totalling 26 868 bumblebees. We found that while the wider landscape type had no significant effect on reported bumblebee abundance, the local proximity to flowers had a significant effect (fewer bumblebees where other flowers were reported to be >5m away from the focal plant). However, the rate of mis-identifcation, revealed by photographs uploaded by participants and a photo-based quiz, was high. Conclusions / Significance Our citizen science results support recent research on the importance of local flocal resources on pollinator abundance. Timed counts of insects visiting a lure plant is potentially an effective approach for standardised pollinator monitoring, engaging a large number of participants with a simple protocol. However, the relatively high rate of mis-identifications (compared to reports from previous pollinator citizen science projects) highlights the importance of investing in resources to train volunteers. Also, to be a scientifically valid method for enquiry, citizen science data needs to be sufficiently high quality, so receiving supporting evidence (such as photographs) would allow this to be tested and for records to be verified

  5. A correlation method to predict the surface pressure distribution on an infinite plate from which a jet is issuing. [effects of a lifting jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, S. C., Jr.; Menhall, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    A correlation method to predict pressures induced on an infinite plate by a jet issuing from the plate into a subsonic free stream was developed. The complete method consists of an analytical method which models the blockage and entrainment properties of the jet and a correlation which accounts for the effects of separation. The method was developed for jet velocity ratios up to ten and for radial distances up to five diameters from the jet. Correlation curves and data comparisons are presented for jets issuing normally from a flat plate with velocity ratios one to twelve. Also, a list of references which deal with jets in a crossflow is presented.

  6. EDITORIAL: Introduction to the special issue on electromagnetic inverse problems: emerging methods and novel applications Introduction to the special issue on electromagnetic inverse problems: emerging methods and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, O.; Lesselier, D.

    2010-07-01

    Inverse problems in electromagnetics have a long history and have stimulated exciting research over many decades. New applications and solution methods are still emerging, providing a rich source of challenging topics for further investigation. The purpose of this special issue is to combine descriptions of several such developments that are expected to have the potential to fundamentally fuel new research, and to provide an overview of novel methods and applications for electromagnetic inverse problems. There have been several special sections published in Inverse Problems over the last decade addressing fully, or partly, electromagnetic inverse problems. Examples are: Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and T Habashy) October 2000 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data (Guest Editors: K Belkebir and M Saillard) December 2001 Electromagnetic and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and J Bowler) December 2002 Electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and W C Chew) December 2004 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data: inhomogeneous targets (Guest Editors: K Belkebir and M Saillard) December 2005 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data: 3D targets (Guest Editors: A Litman and L Crocco) February 2009 In a certain sense, the current issue can be understood as a continuation of this series of special sections on electromagnetic inverse problems. On the other hand, its focus is intended to be more general than previous ones. Instead of trying to cover a well-defined, somewhat specialized research topic as completely as possible, this issue aims to show the broad range of techniques and applications that are relevant to electromagnetic imaging nowadays, which may serve as a source of inspiration and encouragement for all those entering this active and rapidly developing research area. Also, the

  7. Equal Educational Opportunity Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Since theory and practice of equal educational opportunity is an issue which is currently confronting decisionmakers at all levels of American education, this handbook presents key federal regulations and Oregon statutes, and administrative rules which provide for equality in employment and in the delivery of educational services. Sources of…

  8. Learning Opportunities for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeracher, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    The author summarizes a conference on learning opportunities for older people by discussing six issues: (1) perspectives of older people and service providers; (2) categorization of older learners; (3) learning needs of older people; (4) participation rates; (5) government policies; and (6) curriculum concerns. (SK)

  9. Teaching design in the first years of a traditional mechanical engineering degree: methods, issues and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Arlindo; Fontul, Mihail; Henriques, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design is known as an answer to an ill-defined problem. As any answer to an ill-defined problem, it can never be completely right or absolutely wrong. The methods that universities use to teach engineering design, as a consequence of this, suffer from the same fate. However, the accumulated experience with the 'chalk and talk' teaching tradition has led to a reality in which the employers of fresh graduates are not happy with the engineers they are getting. Part of their complaints are related with the inability of recently graduate engineers to work in problems where the boundaries are not well defined, are interdisciplinary, require the use of effective communication and integrate non-technical issues. These skills are mostly absent from traditional engineering curricula. This paper demonstrates the implementation of engineering design perspectives enhancing some of the aforementioned skills in a traditional mechanical engineering curriculum. It emphasises in particular a design project that is tackled in a sequence of conventional courses with a focus that depends on the course objectives and disciplinary domain. This transdisciplinary design project conveys the idea (and effectively implements it concurrently) that design is multidisciplinary.

  10. Problems and Issues for the Classroom: What Works in Generating Class Discussions Using the Method of Shared Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Potential extinction of the human smallpox virus lies in the hands of a few scientists and policymakers. Whether this decision should be made can serve as an excellent issue for extended, focused classroom discussion. Outlines the history of smallpox, illustrates the debate, and describes preparation needed before discussing the issue. Also…

  11. Assistive Technologies, Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wobschall, Rachel, Ed.; Lakin, Charlie, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This feature issue of a newsletter on community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities considers the role of assistive technologies. It describes efforts to utilize consumer direction, public policy, creativity, energy, and professional know-how in the pursuit of technology-based opportunities to enhance community inclusion,…

  12. National Issues Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Demonstrating an appreciation for the perspectives of others is now recognized as one of the single most important learning outcomes of a college education. This skill, fundamental to democracy and civic engagement, is honed in college by institutions that provide opportunities for students to interact with their peers and others on issues that…

  13. Understanding the Korean Peninsula in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part II, U.S. and Japanese Relations with the Korean Peninsula: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Cheng, Amy; Amar, Jasmine; Donahue, Dave; Fisher, Grace; Klein, Emily; Lee, Joanne

    This curriculum unit is part two of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to challenges and opportunities presented by policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with the Korean Peninsula at the turn of the…

  14. Postsecondary Education Opportunity. The Mortenson Report on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education. 1992-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the first 18 issues of a newsletter on public policy and postsecondary education opportunity trends. Each monthly issue contains one or two main articles providing an analysis of research on trends in postsecondary education. The major articles in these issues are: (1) "Equity of Higher Education Opportunity:…

  15. To twist or poke? A method for identifying usability issues with the rotary controller and touch screen for control of in-vehicle information systems.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Catherine; Stanton, Neville A; Pickering, Carl A; McDonald, Mike; Zheng, Pengjun

    2011-07-01

    In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) can be controlled by the user via direct or indirect input devices. In order to develop the next generation of usable IVIS, designers need to be able to evaluate and understand the usability issues associated with these two input types. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a set of empirical usability evaluation methods for identifying important usability issues and distinguishing between the IVIS input devices. A number of usability issues were identified and their causal factors have been explored. These were related to the input type, the structure of the menu/tasks and hardware issues. In particular, the translation between inputs and on-screen actions and a lack of visual feedback for menu navigation resulted in lower levels of usability for the indirect device. This information will be useful in informing the design of new IVIS, with improved usability. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper examines the use of empirical methods for distinguishing between direct and indirect IVIS input devices and identifying usability issues. Results have shown that the characteristics of indirect input devices produce more serious usability issues, compared with direct devices and can have a negative effect on the driver-vehicle interaction. PMID:21770749

  16. Making the case for STEM integration at the upper elementary level: A mixed methods exploration of opportunity to learn math and science, teachers' efficacy and students' attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brianna M.

    Student achievement in science and math has been linked to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth propagating the belief that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is an important factor in economic prosperity. However, The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), favors math over science, positioning the subjects as competitors rather than collaborators. Additionally, NCLB focuses almost exclusively on the cognitive outcome of students' achievement with the affective outcome of students' attitudes being nearly ignored. Positive attitudes toward science and math early on are essential for subsequent and cumulative decisions students make in taking courses, choosing majors, and pursuing careers. Positioning students' attitudes as a desirable educational outcome comparable to students' achievement is an emerging goal in the literature. Using the case of one school district in south-central Pennsylvania with three elementary schools, 15 upper elementary teachers, and 361 students, the purpose of this study was to better understand influences on upper elementary students' attitudes toward STEM (SA) subjects and careers. The study aimed to explore two influences on SA, opportunity to learn (OTL) and teacher's efficacy (TE), in the comparative contexts of math and science. The studied employed a mixed methods convergent design in which five data sets from four sources were collected over three phases to triangulate three constructs: OTL, TE, and SA. The goal of the study was to offer recommendations to the case school district for enhancing OTL, TE, and thus SA. Findings regarding OTL revealed that the opportunity to learn science was lower than math. Finding regarding TE revealed that outcome expectancy was lower than personal teaching efficacy in both science and math; and, teachers had low STEM career awareness, STEM integration, and technology use. Findings regarding SA revealed a lower perceived usefulness of science compared to math

  17. Postsecondary Education Opportunity. The Mortenson Report on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education. 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a collection of 12 issues of a monthly newsletter on public policy and postsecondary education opportunity trends. Each issue contains one or two main articles providing an analysis of research on trends in postsecondary education. The major articles in these issues are: (1) "Children, Family Income and College Affordability"; (2)…

  18. Quantitative Method To Determine Sporicidal Decontamination of Building Surfaces by Gaseous Fumigants, and Issues Related to Laboratory-Scale Studies▿

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vipin K.; Wallace, Lalena; Smith, Lisa S.; Ryan, Shawn P.; Martin, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide gas and vaporous hydrogen peroxide sterilant have been used in the cleanup of building interiors contaminated with spores of Bacillus anthracis. A systematic study, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was jointly undertaken by the U.S. Army-Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to determine the sporicidal efficacies of these two fumigants on six building structural materials: carpet, ceiling tile, unpainted cinder block, painted I-beam steel, painted wallboard, and unpainted pinewood. Critical issues related to high-throughput sample processing and spore recovery from porous and nonporous surfaces included (i) the extraction of spores from complex building materials, (ii) the effects of titer challenge levels on fumigant efficacy, and (iii) the impact of bioburden inclusion on spore recovery from surfaces and spore inactivation. Small pieces (1.3 by 1.3 cm of carpet, ceiling tile, wallboard, I-beam steel, and pinewood and 2.5 by 1.3 cm for cinder block) of the materials were inoculated with an aliquot of 50 μl containing the target number (1 × 106, 1 × 107, or 1 × 108) of avirulent spores of B. anthracis NNR1Δ1. The aliquot was dried overnight in a biosafety cabinet, and the spores were extracted by a combination of a 10-min sonication and a 2-min vortexing using 0.5% buffered peptone water as the recovery medium. No statistically significant drop in the kill efficacies of the fumigants was observed when the spore challenge level was increased from 6 log units to 8 log units, even though a general trend toward inhibition of fumigant efficacy was evident. The organic burden (0 to 5%) in the spore inoculum resulted in a statistically significant drop in spore recovery (at the 2 or 5% level). The effect on spore killing was a function of the organic bioburden amount and the material type. In summary, a high-throughput quantitative method was developed for determining the efficacies of fumigants, and the spore recoveries

  19. ERCMExpress. Volume 3, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Mary Frances; McDonald, Dale

    2007-01-01

    The Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" is a newsletter that provides comprehensive information on key issues in school emergency management. This issue, entitled "Emergency Management Opportunities and Challenges for Non-Public Schools," examines integrating non-public schools into emergency…

  20. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Charrles; Kampfe, Charlene

    This chapter examines issues related to working with diverse populations with addictions. A brief history of multiculturalism and multicultural counseling is presented. Issues particular to the treatment of people with addictions are examined, as well as prevention and assessment issues. Substance abuse issues among people in the gay male and…

  1. Women in the Work Force: Supreme Court Issues. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1986

    This U.S. Congressional hearing, chaired by Representative Matthew G. Martinez (California), focuses on women in the work force. Issues, such as equal participation, pay, and advancement, along with sex discrimination and sexual harassment, are addressed. Testimony and written statements were presented by representatives from District of Columbia…

  2. The Contribution of Qualitative Research Towards the Issues Affecting Female Undergraduate Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Louise Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of qualitative research methods towards our understanding of the issues affecting female undergraduate engineers. As outlined in this article female engineering students face many challenges during their undergraduate studies. Qualitative research methods provide an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the…

  3. 75 FR 52956 - Funding Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Older Americans Act (OAA), Title VI, Part A... funding opportunity. Funding Opportunity Number: Program Announcement No. is HHS-2011-...

  4. Issues in Selecting Methods of Evaluating Clinical Competence in the Health Professions: Implications for Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlemas, David A.; Hensal, Carleton

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine methods used to evaluate the clinical competence and proficiency of students in medicine and allied health professions. To identify factors that would be valuable to educators in athletic training and other medical and allied health professions in the development and use of clinical assessment methods. Data Sources: We…

  5. Interfaces - Weak Links, Yet Great Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin; Chupp, Raymond E.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate turbomachine interface design can rapidly degrade system performance, yet provide great opportunity for improvements. Engineered coatings of seals and bearing interfaces are major issues in the operational life of power systems. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining component life. Interface coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial for the benefit of the component. Bearing and sealing surfaces are routinely protected by tribologically paired coatings such as silicon diamond like coatings (SiDLC) in combination with an oil lubricated wave bearing that prolongs bearing operational life. Likewise, of several methods used or researched for detecting interface failures, dopants within coatings show failures in functionally graded ceramic coatings. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) materials models and quantum mechanical tools, employed in interface design, are discussed.

  6. Scaling Issues and Spatio-Temporal Variability in Ecohydrological Modeling on Mountain Topography: Methods and Future of the VELMA Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, K.; Bond, B. J.; McKane, R.; Abdelnour, A. G.; Stieglitz, M.

    2010-12-01

    The interactions between vegetation and hydrology in mountainous terrain are difficult to represent in mathematical models. There are at least three primary reasons for this difficulty. First, expanding plot-scale measurements to the watershed scale requires finding the balance between computational intensity and physical significance. Second, parameters that affect soil, plant and hydrologic processes are distributed heterogeneously across mountain landscapes, and these patterns and processes may be spatially connected. Third, temporal variation in water availability (particularly in seasonal rainfall climates) may involve a “topographical memory” that may be expressed as “lags” between biological and hydrological processes. A unique opportunity for examining the implications of scaling and spatio-temporal variability on ecohydrological models exists at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA) in Blue River, Oregon. HJA is a National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, and has been monitoring climate, stream, and vegetation characteristics of small watersheds for more than 50 years. A recent LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) reconnaissance has produced watershed scale estimations of vegetation and soil surface parameters at a very high spatial resolution, allowing spatially-explicit expansion of long-term data. An ecohydrological model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessments (VELMA) developed by the Stieglitz lab at Georgia Tech in collaboration with EPA has also been calibrated specifically for watershed topographies in HJA. VELMA is a coupled ecohydrological model that simulates the cycling and transport of water and nutrients in three dimensions by specific parameterization of hydrological and biogeochemical functions. It contains submodels for plant, soil, and water processes including surface and sub-surface flow on a daily time step. We are using the VELMA model to explore three sequential and fundamental

  7. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  8. Opportunities Center. Concept Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimeldorf, Martin

    The opportunities center is a new school service concept that can help students find opportunities related to their talents and interests in work, education, leisure, small business, or community service. The opportunities center model expands the career center model into an information search center offering multiple services that link academic…

  9. Teaching Design in the First Years of a Traditional Mechanical Engineering Degree: Methods, Issues and Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Arlindo; Fontul, Mihail; Henriques, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design is known as an answer to an ill-defined problem. As any answer to an ill-defined problem, it can never be completely right or absolutely wrong. The methods that universities use to teach engineering design, as a consequence of this, suffer from the same fate. However, the accumulated experience with the "chalk and…

  10. METHODS DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE LOW-LEVEL PERCHLORATE DETECTION IN DRINKING WATER BY CONDUCTIVITY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY - ISSUES AND IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research is to develop a USEPA method for the determination of sub-ppb concentrations of the perchlorate anion in ground and surface drinking waters. To date, ion chromatography using a KOH mobile phase, electrolytic conductivity suppression and electrospray ion...

  11. Issues Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sando, Joe S.

    A program for teaching techniques of critical thinking on issues concerning American Indians was developed for students at Albuquerque Indian School. It was designed to include not only the students but also their families with learning activities that required consultation in search of answers or understanding. The first issue presented sought to…

  12. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  13. Quantifying temporal change in biodiversity: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Dornelas, Maria; Magurran, Anne E.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Chao, Anne; Chazdon, Robin L.; Colwell, Robert K.; Curtis, Tom; Gaston, Kevin J.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Kosnik, Matthew A.; McGill, Brian; McCune, Jenny L.; Morlon, Hélène; Mumby, Peter J.; Øvreås, Lise; Studeny, Angelika; Vellend, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Growing concern about biodiversity loss underscores the need to quantify and understand temporal change. Here, we review the opportunities presented by biodiversity time series, and address three related issues: (i) recognizing the characteristics of temporal data; (ii) selecting appropriate statistical procedures for analysing temporal data; and (iii) inferring and forecasting biodiversity change. With regard to the first issue, we draw attention to defining characteristics of biodiversity time series—lack of physical boundaries, uni-dimensionality, autocorrelation and directionality—that inform the choice of analytic methods. Second, we explore methods of quantifying change in biodiversity at different timescales, noting that autocorrelation can be viewed as a feature that sheds light on the underlying structure of temporal change. Finally, we address the transition from inferring to forecasting biodiversity change, highlighting potential pitfalls associated with phase-shifts and novel conditions. PMID:23097514

  14. Opportunity at the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took images during the rover's 285th martian day (Nov. 11, 2004) that are combined into this panorama. Opportunity had reached the base of 'Burns Cliff,' a portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' This view shows rock layers in the wall, with a portion of Opportunity's solar array visible at the bottom right.

  15. Formal Training in Women's Issues in Psychiatry: A Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Liza H.; Epstein, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the availability of formal residency training opportunities in women's issues in psychiatry and explore the potential relationships between the availability of training and characteristics of residency programs. Method: The authors surveyed psychiatry residency training directors to identify program characteristics…

  16. Career Opportunities in Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Examines the areas that the field of telecommunications encompasses, technological advances in the field, employment projections, career opportunities, educational requirements, and evolution of the telecommunications industry. (CT)

  17. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  18. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  19. Exploring the Realities of Curriculum-by-Random-Opportunity: The Case of Geriatrics on the Internal Medicine Clerkship Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Diachun, Laura; Charise, Andrea; Goldszmidt, Mark; Hui, Yin; Lingard, Lorelei

    2014-01-01

    Background While major clerkship blocks may have objectives related to specialized areas such as geriatrics, gay and lesbian bisexual transgender health, and palliative care, there is concern that teaching activities may not attend sufficiently to these objectives. Rather, these objectives are assumed to be met “by random opportunity”.(1) This study explored the case of geriatric learning opportunities on internal medicine clinical teaching units, to better understand the affordances and limitations of curriculum by random opportunity. Methods Using audio-recordings of morning case review discussions of 13 patients > 65 years old and the Canadian geriatric core competencies for medical students, we conducted a content analysis of each case for potential geriatric and non-geriatric learning opportunities. These learning opportunities were compared with attendings’ case review teaching discussions. The 13 cases contained 40 geriatric-related and 110 non-geriatric-related issues. While many of the geriatric issues (e.g., delirium, falls) were directly relevant to the presenting illness, attendings’ teaching discussions focused almost exclusively on non-geriatric medical issues, such as management of diabetes and anemia, many of which were less directly relevant to the reason for presenting to hospital. Results The authors found that the general medicine rotation provides opportunities to acquire geriatric competencies. However, the rare uptake of opportunities in this study suggests that, in curriculum-by-random-opportunity, presence of an opportunity does not justify the assumption that learning objectives will be met. Conclusions More studies are required to investigate whether these findings are transferrable to other vulnerable populations about which undergraduate students are expected to learn through curriculum by random opportunity. PMID:25452825

  20. Key Issues in Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Capstick; et. Al.

    2000-12-01

    A group of fifty physicists met in Duck, NC, Nov. 6-9 to discuss the current status and future goals of hadronic physics. The main purpose of the meeting was to define the field by identifying its key issues, challenges, and opportunities. The conclusions, incorporating considerable input from the community at large, are presented in this white paper.

  1. ERCMExpress. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" promotes emergency exercises as an effective way to validate school safety plans. Simulations of emergency situations, or emergency exercises, are integral to a sound school safety plan. They offer opportunities for district and schools to…

  2. Demographics and Issues of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education academicians are concerned with issues of enrollment management; distance education; virtual classrooms; international education; and diversity. However, in this new society, producing quality students remains the central focus. To fulfill this responsibility, the university must: Provide students with opportunities that encourage…

  3. Self-Determination. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IMPACT, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the relevance of self-determination for persons with developmental disabilities across the life span, ways in which it is or can be expressed, and obstacles to its exercise. The articles show the futility of enhancing self-determination by teaching choice-making skills if environments offer no opportunities to exercise…

  4. Framing a National Agenda on Women's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didion, Catherine Jay

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the functions of the Working Group on Career Issues for Women Scientists. Functions include developing opportunities and support for the recruitment, retention, reentry, and advancement of women in biomedical careers. (DDR)

  5. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine

  6. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  7. Pitfalls and opportunities for environmental marketers.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, R J

    1992-01-01

    Issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, insufficient landfill capacity, and excess packaging are foremost on the minds of consumers. Companies face a myriad of environmental challenges, but they also recognize the opportunities to be gained by implementing responsible marketing action plans. PMID:10120306

  8. Disaster Research: A Nursing Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jane; Barcelona-deMendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily W.

    2013-01-01

    Nurses working or living near a community disaster have the opportunity to study health-related consequences to disaster or disaster recovery. In such a situation, the researchers need to deal with the conceptual and methodological issues unique to post-disaster research and know what resources are available to guide them, even if they have no specialized training or previous experience in disaster research. The purpose of this article is to review issues and challenges associated with conducting post-disaster research and encourage nurses to seek resources and seize opportunities to conduct research should the situation arise. Current disaster studies and the authors’ personal experiences conducting maternal-child research in post-Katrina New Orleans (2005–2013) provide real-life examples of how health professionals and nurses faced the challenges of doing post-disaster research. After catastrophic events, nurses need to step forward to conduct disaster research that informs and improves future disaster planning and health care responses. PMID:23899191

  9. Opportunity Tracks Seen from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed on the red planet a year ago. This enhanced-resolution image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter is the only picture obtained thus far (by Jan. 24, 2005) that shows the tracks made by Opportunity.

    The image was acquired on April 26, 2004, during Opportunity's 91st martian day, or sol. That was the first day of Opportunity's extended mission, and the rover had recently completed exploration of small 'Fram Crater' on the route from its landing site toward 'Endurance Crater,' where it would eventually spend six months. The rover itself can be seen in this image -- an amazing accomplishment, considering that the orbiter was nearly 400 kilometers (nearly 250 miles) away at the time! Also visible and labeled on this image are the spacecraft's lander, backshell, parachute and heat shield, plus effects of its landing rockets.

    The camera captured this image with use of a technique called compensated pitch and roll targeted observation. In this method, the entire spacecraft rolls as it passes over the target area so the camera can scan in a way that sees details at three times higher resolution than the camera's normal high-resolution capability.

    The tracks made by Opportunity on the sandy surface of Meridiani Planum are not quite as visible from orbit as are the tracks made in Gusev Crater by the other Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. A dustier surface at the Spirit site increases contrast between the tracks and the surrounding surfaces. Indeed, some parts of the track made by Opportunity are not visible in this image. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left. North is toward the top of the image. The 100-meter scale bar is 109 yards long.

  10. Student Success: Challenges & Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Community colleges are a crucial source of educational opportunity for millions of Americans, making fundamental contributions to state and national economies. While community colleges should be proud of their role in providing access to higher education and the opportunity to obtain better quality jobs for their students, there is much more to…