Science.gov

Sample records for methyl alcohol ethyl

  1. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  2. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  3. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  4. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  5. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  6. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  7. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  8. Fatal ethyl and methyl alcohol-related poisoning in Ankara: A retrospective analysis of 10,720 cases between 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Celik, Safa; Karapirli, Mustafa; Kandemir, Eyup; Ucar, Fatma; Kantarcı, Muhammed Nabi; Gurler, Mukaddes; Akyol, Omer

    2013-04-01

    Methyl and ethyl alcohol poisoning are still responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine ethyl and methyl alcohol poisoning related deaths in Ankara and surrounding cities between 2001 and 2011 and compare them with previous studied conducted in Turkey and other countries. For this purpose, 10,720 medico-legal autopsy cases performed in Ankara Branch of the Council of Forensic Medicine were reviewed in terms of alcohol poisonings. The deaths due to methanol and ethanol poisoning were 74 (0.69% of all medico-legal autopsies performed) and the distribution among them was 35 (47.3%) for methanol poisoning and 39 (52.7%) for ethanol poisoning. Overwhelming majority of the cases were male (n = 67, 90.5%). The mean age of the victims was 44.9 ± 10.9 years and ranging from 21 to 92 years. The age group of 35-49 years was the mostly affected. Most of the cases were seen in 2004 (n = 12, 16.2%). The levels of postmortem blood alcohol levels were available for all cases and the mean alcohol levels were 322.8 ± 155.5 mg/dL ranging from 74 to 602 mg/dL for methanol and 396.8 ± 87.1 mg/dL and ranging from 136 to 608 mg/dL for ethanol. Early diagnosis is essential for successful treatment in methanol and ethanol poisoning. Besides increased awareness, more sensitive/specific diagnostic tools, and the prompt approach to the poisoned individual should be implemented in the hospitals. PMID:23472793

  9. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and....1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH. (b) The ingredient meets...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  14. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  15. Striations in an ethyl alcohol glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, P. G.; Gómez, A.; Torres, C.; Martínez, H.; Castillo, F.; Vergara, J.

    2015-03-01

    This research shows the behavior of striations in glow discharge generated with high purity ethyl alcohol at a pressure of 0.6 Torr. This paper present the number of striations as a function of the of current and voltage discharge.

  16. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  17. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  18. A morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Raut, Jayant S; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Regulation of morphogenesis through the production of chemical signalling molecules such as isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 1-dodecanol, E-nerolidol and farnesol is reported in Candida albicans. The present study focuses on the effect of ethyl alcohol on C. albicans dimorphism and biofilm development. Ethyl alcohol inhibited germ tube formation induced by the four standard inducers in a concentration-dependent manner. The germ tube inhibitory concentration (4%) did not have any effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans cells. Ethyl alcohol also inhibited the elongation of germ tubes. Four percentage of ethyl alcohol significantly inhibited biofilm development on polystyrene and silicone surfaces. We suggest a potential morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol, which may influence dissemination, virulence and establishment of infection. PMID:21605190

  19. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-01

    A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

  20. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  1. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  2. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.2700 Methyl ethyl ketoxime. (a) Identification of test substance. (1... signs of cytotoxicity (e.g., a change in the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes)...

  3. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.2700 Methyl ethyl ketoxime. (a) Identification of test substance. (1... signs of cytotoxicity (e.g., a change in the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes)...

  4. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl ethyl ketoxime. 799.2700 Section 799.2700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.2700...

  5. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  6. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  7. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  8. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  9. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and...

  10. Reactions of methyl and ethyl radicals with uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, John L.; Laguna, Glenn

    1985-01-01

    We have measured the rates of reaction of both methyl and ethyl radicals with uranium hexafluoride (UF6) in the gas phase. The method we used was to photolyze samples of UF6 in the presence of either methane or ethane. The radicals produced by reaction of fluorine atoms with these species then react with either themselves or with UF6. We inferred the rate constants from ratios of the reaction products and the published rate constants for radical recombination. The diagnostic technique was gas chromatography. The resulting rate constants for reaction with UF6 were (1.6±0.8)×10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for methyl radicals and (4±2)×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for ethyl radicals.

  11. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the number of methyl groups and y is the number of ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the average... the dry sample. (2) The viscosity of an aqueous solution, 2.5 grams of the material in 100...

  12. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the number of methyl groups and y is the number of ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the average... the dry sample. (2) The viscosity of an aqueous solution, 2.5 grams of the material in 100...

  13. GENOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC ACID, METHYL ACRYLATE, ETHYL ACRYLATE, METHYL METHACRYLATE, AND ETHYL METHACRYLATE IN L5178Y MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of monomeric acrylate/methacrylate esters (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and ethyl methacrylate) as well as acrylic acid were examined for genotoxic activity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells without exogenous activation. All five compounds induced c...

  14. Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

  15. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L. E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  16. 21 CFR 173.250 - Methyl alcohol residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol residues. 173.250 Section 173.250... and Related Substances § 173.250 Methyl alcohol residues. Methyl alcohol may be present in the... specifies the presence of methyl alcohol and provides for the use of the hops extract only as prescribed...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  3. Micellar phase boundaries under the influence of ethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Denis E

    2016-03-01

    The Compton spectrum quenching technique is used to monitor the effect of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) additions on phase boundaries in two systems. In toluenic solutions of the nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, EtOH shifts the boundary separating the first clear phase from the first turbid phase to higher water:surfactant ratios. In a commonly used scintillant, Ultima Gold AB, the critical micelle concentration is not shifted. The molecular interactions behind the observations and implications for liquid scintillation counting are discussed. PMID:26585642

  4. Ethyl alcohol boiling heat transfer on multilayer meshed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dåbek, Lidia; Kapjor, Andrej; Orman, Łukasz J.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the problem of heat transfer enhancement with the application of multilayer metal mesh structures during boiling of ethyl alcohol at ambient pressure. The preparation of samples involved sintering fine copper meshes with the copper base in the reduction atmosphere in order to prevent oxidation of the samples. The experiments included testing up to 4 layers of copper meshes. Significant augmentation of boiling heat transfer is possible, however, considerable number of meshes actually hinders heat transfer conditions and leads to the reduction in the heat flux transferred from the heater surface.

  5. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm-2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2) × 1015 cm-2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work was also based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month...

  7. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  8. PERSISTENCE OF METHYL AND ETHYL PARATHION FOLLOWING SPILLAGE ON CONCRETE SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tests were carried out to determine the potential hazard of spillage of the pesticides, methyl parathion and ethyl parathion, on concrete surfaces. Results indicated that although a toxic hazard exists, especially for potential contamination of foodstuff, when liquid concentrates...

  9. 21 CFR 173.250 - Methyl alcohol residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol residues. 173.250 Section 173.250... CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.250 Methyl alcohol residues. Methyl alcohol may be present in the following foods under the conditions specified: (a) In...

  10. 21 CFR 173.250 - Methyl alcohol residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl alcohol residues. 173.250 Section 173.250... CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.250 Methyl alcohol residues. Methyl alcohol may be present in the following foods under the conditions specified: (a) In...

  11. 21 CFR 173.250 - Methyl alcohol residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl alcohol residues. 173.250 Section 173.250... CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.250 Methyl alcohol residues. Methyl alcohol may be present in the following foods under the conditions specified: (a) In...

  12. 21 CFR 173.250 - Methyl alcohol residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl alcohol residues. 173.250 Section 173.250... CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.250 Methyl alcohol residues. Methyl alcohol may be present in the following foods under the conditions specified: (a) In...

  13. Controlled Degradation of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate-Co-Methyl Methacrylate)(PECA-Co-PMMA) Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for modifying poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) in order to control the degradation and the stability as well as the glass transition temperatures. Copolymers of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PECA-co-PMMA) with various compositions were synthesized by free ...

  14. Blood kinetics of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate in heavy drinkers during alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Morini, Luca; Polettini, Aldo; Christophersen, Asbjørg; Mørland, Jørg

    2009-07-01

    Studies of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) blood kinetics have so far been performed on healthy volunteers with ingestion of low to moderate doses of ethanol. These data are not necessarily transferable to heavy drinkers where the consumed doses of ethanol are much higher. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of EtG and ethyl sulphate (EtS) in blood in heavy drinkers after termination of alcohol ingestion. Sixteen patients from an alcohol withdrawal clinic were included directly after admission. Time of end of drinking, estimated daily intake of ethanol (EDI) and medical history were recorded. Three to five blood samples over 20-43 h were collected from each patient subsequent to admission. The median EDI was 172 g (range 60-564). The first sample was collected median 2.5 h after end of drinking (range 0.5-23.5). Two patients had levels of EtG and EtS below LOQ in all samples, the first collected 19.25 and 23.5 h after cessation of drinking, respectively. Of the remaining 14 patients, one subject, suffering from both renal and hepatic disease, showed concentrations of EtG and EtS substantially higher than the rest of the material. This patient's initial value of EtG was 17.9 mg/L and of EtS 5.9 mg/L, with terminal elimination half lives of 11.9 h for EtG and 12.5 h for EtS. Among the remaining 13 patients, the initial median values were 0.7 g/L (range 0-3.7) for ethanol, 1.7 mg/L (range 0.1-5.9) for EtG and 0.9 mg/L (range 0.1-1.9) for EtS. Elimination occurred with a median half-life of 3.3 h for EtG (range 2.6-4.3) and 3.6 h for EtS (range 2.7-5.4). In conclusion, elimination of EtG in heavy drinkers did not significantly differ from healthy volunteers, and EtS appeared to have similar elimination rate. In the present work, there was one exception to this, and we propose that this could be explained by the patient's renal disease, which would delay excretion of these conjugated metabolites. PMID:19395207

  15. Gauche Ethyl Alcohol: Laboratory Assignments and Interstellar Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.

    1997-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is known to possess a pair of closely spaced excited torsional substates (gauche+, gauche-) at an energy of approximately 57 K above the ground (trans) torsional substate. We report an extended analysis of some gauche - gauche+ Q-branch ((Delta)J = 0) transitions with a three-substate fixed frame axis method (FFAM) Hamiltonian. Our approach accounts for complex trans-gauche interactions for the first time. In addition, we are able to obtain intensities for perturbed rotational transitions, and to determine the trans to gauche+ separation to be 1185399.1 MHz. A complete ground state rotational-torsional partition function accounting for the previously neglected gauche substates is presented. Based on our analysis, a total of 14 U lines obtained towards Orion KL can now be assigned to gauche substates of ethanol. Analysis of these lines yields a rotational temperature of 223 K and a total (trans + gauche) column density of 7.0 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm. The column density is in reasonable agreement with the recent value of 2-3 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm based on observations of trans-ethanol by Ohishi et al., although there is some disparity in the rotational temperatures. Eight additional U lines in the literature are assigned to transitions of gauche ethanol.

  16. Brewing industry potential for the immediate and near-term production of fuel-grade ethyl alcohol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mulloney, J.A. Jr.

    1980-04-15

    The brewing industry is described as it relates to productive facilities and potential for fuel grade ethyl alcohol production. The brewing process is compared to the fuel grade ethyl alcohol process in a brewery. A description is given for retrofitting a brewery as a distilled spirits plant. The following are included: estimated capital requirements and alcohol costs, targets of opportunity, barriers and actions affecting brewery production of ethyl alcohol, suggested action programs, and recommended program activities. (MHR)

  17. Coulometric generation of hydrogen ions by oxidation of mercury in methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and cyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    Mihajlović, R P; Joksimović, V M; Mihajlović, Lj V

    2003-11-01

    Mercury(II)-chloride reacts with anhydrous methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and cyclohexanone in a precise stoichiometry ratio (1:2), and weakly ionized compounds of mercury with ketones are formed and equivalent quantity of HCl is released. The application of a mercury anode for the quantitative generation of H(+) ions in 0.25 M sodium perchlorate in anhydrous methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and cyclohexanone has been investigated. Current/potentials curves for the solvents, titrated bases, indicator and mercury showed that in these solvents mercury is oxidized at potentials much more negative than those for the titrated bases and other components present in the solution. The protons generated in this way have been used for the titration of some organic bases, with either visual or potentiometric end-point detection. The oxidation of mercury in methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and cyclohexanone and the reaction of mercury ions with these solvents have been found to proceed with 100% current efficiency. PMID:18969192

  18. Lignin biodegradation and the production of ethyl alcohol from cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    During the last few years our group has been engaged in developing a biochemical process for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethyl alcohol. Lignin is a barrier to complete cellulose saccharification in this process, but chemical and physical delignification steps are too expensive to be used at the present time. An enzymatic delignification process might be attractive for several reasons: little energy would be expected to be needed, enzymes could be recovered and reused, and useful chemicals might be produced from dissolved lignin. A number of thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi were examined for the ability to rapidly degrade lignocellulose in order to find an organism whcih produced an active lignin-degrading enzyme system. Chryosporium pruinosum and Sporotrichum pulverulentum were found to be active lignocellulose degraders, and C. pruinosum was chosen for further study. Lignin and carbohydrate were degraded when the substrate remained moistened by, but not submerged in, the liquid medium. Attempts were made to demonstrate a cell-free lignin degrading system by both extraction and pressing of cultures grown on moist lignocellulose. Carbohydrate-degrading activity was found but not lignin-degrading activity. This led us to ask whether diffusible lignin-degrading activity could be demonstrated in this organism. The data indicate that the lignin degradation system, or one or more of its components, produced by this organism is either unstable, non-diffusible, or inactive at small distances (about 1 mm) from growing hyphae. At present, studies are being conducted using diffusion cultures to select mutants of C. pruinosum that do produce a diffusible lignin degradation system. We are also examining a number of mesophilic lignin-degrading molds for this ability.

  19. 40 CFR 180.483 - O-[2-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-5-pyrimidinyl] O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues. 180.483 Section 180.483 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.483...

  20. Investigation of ethyl carbamate levels in some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M J; Howarth, N; Key, P E; Pointer, M; Massey, R C

    1989-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of ethyl carbamate in fermented foodstuffs and alcoholic beverages. Concentrations were generally below the 1-5 micrograms/kg detection limit in bread, cheese, yoghurt, beer, gin and vodka. Higher concentrations were found in the other alcoholic beverages examined, which included whisky, fruit brandy, liqueur, wine, sherry and port. PMID:2721787

  1. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  2. Microwave Spectroscopy of Trans-Ethyl Methyl Ether in the Torsionally Excited State 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Murata, Keigo; Tsunekawa, Shozo; Ohashi, Nobukimi

    2010-06-01

    The trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) has two methyl group internal rotors which are equivalent to the two vibrational motions, ν28 and ν29. There is another low-lying torsional motion which is a skeltal torsion (ν30) and does not cause splitting. The microwave spectra of the trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule in the ν28 = 1, ν29 = 1, and ν30 = 1 have been studied and interactions between these states were discussed. In this paper we report results on the ν30 = 2, and 3 state. The analysis based on Hougen's tunneling matrix formulation considering two methyl groups are used. We try to interpret tunneling parameters obtained in the present analysis quantitatively from the viewpoint of torsion-torsion interaction.

  3. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  4. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  5. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  6. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  8. Persistence of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and halosulfuron-methyl in aqueous solutions: Comparing hydrolytic dissipation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and halosulfuron-methyl are two new highly active sulfonylurea herbicides that have been widely used for weed control in many crops. Chemical hydrolysis is a primary process to determine the environmental fates of this group of pesticides. The hydrolytic dissipation of two herbi...

  9. Transformation kinetics and mechanism of the sulfonylurea herbicides pyrazosulfuron ethyl and halosulfuron methyl in aqueous solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrazosulfuron ethyl (PE) and halosulfuron methyl (HM) are two new highly active sulfonylurea herbicides which have been widely used for weed control in a variety of vegetables and other crops. These two herbicides have similar molecular structure, differing only in the substitutions on the pyrazole...

  10. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method). PMID:20457499

  11. Contents of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl- and benzylparaben in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S C; Schouten, A; de Kruijf, N; Weijland, J W

    1995-01-01

    The contents of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl- and benzylparaben in 215 cosmetic products have been determined to elucidate the concentration and frequency of use of these parabens in cosmetic products, and to monitor whether the products complied with the Danish and EEC regulations. The results showed that 77% of the products investigated contained 0.01%-0.87% parabens. Nearly all (99%) of the leave-on cosmetics and 77% of rinse-off cosmetics were found to contain parabens. A maximum of 0.32% methyl- and propylparaben, 0.19% ethylparaben, and 0.07% butyl- and benzylparaben were present in paraben-positive cosmetics. A preferential use of methyl-/ethyl-/propyl-/butyl-/benzylparaben in various groups of cosmetic products was revealed. PMID:7720367

  12. Effect of ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl ethyl ketone on butanol oxidase activity in rat lung and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Tha ability of the rat liver to oxidize 2-butanol via a cytochrome P-450-mediated mixed-function oxidase reaction is well known. The purpose of this study was to examine this microsomal alcohol oxidizing system in rat lung and determine if it could be altered by treatments that inhibit or induce this activity. 2-Butanol was incubated with microsomal preparations from male rats, and methyl ethyl ketone production was measured by gas chromatography. The rate was six to eight times lower in lung than in liver. Administration of low doses of ethanol (0.5 ml/kg and 1.0 ml/kg) ip for 7 d did not alter activity in the liver but was inhibitory in the lung, as was a high dose of 3.0 ml/kg in the liver. Carbon tetrachloride (1.0 ml/kg, ip) decreased activity in both tissues, especially the lung. The effects of the two inhibitors were not additive. Methyl ethyl ketone induced 2-butanol oxidation in both tissues. The lung possesses butanol oxidase activity that is alterable by both inhibitors and inducers.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for quantitative detection of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danting; Zhou, Haibo; Ying, Yibin; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Ethyl carbamate, a by-product of fermentation and storage with widespread occurrence in fermented food and alcoholic beverages, is a compound potentially toxic to humans. In this work, a new approach for quantitative detection of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages, based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), is reported. Individual silver-coated gold nanoparticle colloids are used as SERS amplifiers, yielding high Raman enhancement of ethyl carbamate in three kinds of alcoholic beverages (vodka, Obstler, and white rum). The characteristic band at 1,003 cm(-1), which is the strongest and best reproducible peak in the SERS spectra, was used for quantitative evaluation of ethyl carbamate. The limit of detection, which corresponds to a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, was 9.0 × 10(-9) M (0.8 μg · L(-1)), 1.3 × 10(-7) M (11.6 μg · L(-1)), and 7.8 × 10(-8) M (6.9 μg · L(-1)), respectively. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy offers great practical potential for the in situ assessment and identification of ethyl carbamate in the alcoholic beverage industry. PMID:24154926

  14. Fumigation of wheat using liquid ethyl formate plus methyl isothiocyanate in 50-tonne farm bins.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yonglin; Lee, Byungho; Mahon, Daphne; Xin, Ni; Head, Matthew; Reid, Robin

    2008-04-01

    Australian Standard White wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (a marketing grade with mixed grain hardness),with a moisture content of 12.5% was fumigated with a new ethyl formate formulation (95% ethyl formate plus 5% methyl isothiocyanate) identified and developed by Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Entomology, Canberra, Australia. Wheat was fumigated with the formulation at a calculated application rate of 80 g/m3 in two 50-tonne sealed metal vertical silos located at Fisherman Islands, Queensland, Australia. Access was gained through the top of the silo where the application of the formulation was completed within a few minutes by pouring it onto the top of the wheat. After 2 h of recirculation, using a 0.5-kW fan, the in-bin concentrations of ethyl formate achieved equilibrium with a concentration variation < 7%. The ethyl formate concentration, in both silos 1 and 2, during the first day's exposure period remained above 10 g/m3. The concentration of ethyl formate by time product achieved was 790 and 650 g h/m3 in silos 1 and 2, respectively. In silo 1, the formulation was sufficient to kill all life stages of mixed age cultures of Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). In silo 2, control was 100% for R. dominica and T. castaneum and 99.4% for S. oryzae. After 5 d fumigation, the silo top-hatch was opened but no forced aeration was initiated. The in-bin concentration of ethyl formate was lower than the Australian experimental threshold limit value of 100 ppm. The ethyl formate and methyl isothiocyanate residues in the grain had declined to below the Australian experimental maximum residue limit of 0.2 and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. The workspace and environmental levels of ethyl formate and methyl isothiocyanate were less than the detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The treatment with ethyl formate formulation had no affect on the wheat germination and seed color compared with untreated controls. PMID

  15. Detection of acetaldehyde derived N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine in human leukocyte DNA following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Mistry, Yogita; Cordell, Rebecca; Juren, Tina; Segerbäck, Dan; Farmer, Peter B

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and increased cancer risk. The effect of alcohol consumption on the levels and persistence of N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG) formed by acetaldehyde, the oxidative metabolite of ethanol, in human leukocyte DNA was investigated. DNA was isolated from venous blood samples obtained from 30 male non-smoking individuals before consumption of alcohol (0h) and subsequently at 3-5h following the consumption of 150mL of vodka (containing 42% pure ethanol). Additional samples were collected 24h and 48h post-alcohol consumption. The levels of N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethyl-dG) in the DNA were determined following reduction of N(2)-ethylidene-dG with sodium cyanoborohydride using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry selected reaction monitoring method. A slight time-dependent trend showing an increase and decrease in the levels of N(2)-ethyl-dG was observed following consumption of alcohol compared to time 0h, however, the differences were not statistically significant. The average levels of N(2)-ethyl-dG observed at 0h, 3-5h, 24h and 48h time points following ingestion of alcohol were 34.6±21.9, 35.1±21.0, 36.8±20.7 and 35.6±21.1 per 10(8) 2'-deoxynucleosides, respectively. In conclusion, alcohol consumption that could be encountered under social drinking conditions, does not significantly alter the levels of the acetaldehyde derived DNA adduct, N(2)-ethyl-dG in human leukocyte DNA from healthy individuals. PMID:22824164

  16. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  17. Detection and quantitative determination of diethylene glycol in ethyl alcohol using gamma- ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Udagani, Chikkappa; Ramesh, Thimmasandra Narayan

    2015-08-01

    Determination of the toxic diethylene glycol contamination in ethyl alcohol demands a rapid, accurate and reliable method. Diethylene glycol (DEG) ingestion, accidental or intentional, can lead to death. Clinical and analytical methods used to detect diethylene glycol in alcohol require several hours to days due to tedious instrument handling and measurements. Enzymatic assays face difficulty due to analytic problems. As an alternative method of data analysis, we have used γ-ray spectroscopic method to estimate the diethylene glycol contamination in alcohol by monitoring the variation in the linear and mass attenuation coefficients. This method is simple, robust, portable and can provide reliable and quantitative information about the ethyl alcohol adulterated with diethylene glycol which is of broader interest to society. PMID:26243958

  18. Biodegradation of the gasoline oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, and tert-amyl methyl ether by propane-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Steffan, R J; McClay, K; Vainberg, S; Condee, C W; Zhang, D

    1997-01-01

    Several propane-oxidizing bacteria were tested for their ability to degrade gasoline oxygenates, including methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). Both a laboratory strain and natural isolates were able to degrade each compound after growth on propane. When propane-grown strain ENV425 was incubated with 20 mg of uniformly labeled [14C]MTBE per liter, the strain converted > 60% of the added MTBE to 14CO2 in < 30 h. The initial oxidation of MTBE and ETBE resulted in the production of nearly stoichiometric amounts of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), while the initial oxidation of TAME resulted in the production of tert-amyl alcohol. The methoxy methyl group of MTBE was oxidized to formaldehyde and ultimately to CO2. TBA was further oxidized to 2-methyl-2-hydroxy-1-propanol and then 2-hydroxy isobutyric acid; however, neither of these degradation products was an effective growth substrate for the propane oxidizers. Analysis of cell extracts of ENV425 and experiments with enzyme inhibitors implicated a soluble P-450 enzyme in the oxidation of both MTBE and TBA. MTBE was oxidized to TBA by camphor-grown Pseudomonas putida CAM, which produces the well-characterized P-450cam, but not by Rhodococcus rhodochrous 116, which produces two P-450 enzymes. Rates of MTBE degradation by propane-oxidizing strains ranged from 3.9 to 9.2 nmol/min/mg of cell protein at 28 degrees C, whereas TBA was oxidized at a rate of only 1.8 to 2.4 nmol/min/mg of cell protein at the same temperature. PMID:9361407

  19. Poly[1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium [tri-μ-chlorido-chromate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Danford, James J.; Arif, Atta M.; Berreau, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, {(C6H11N2)[CrCl3]}n, was generated via mixing of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium chloride with CrCl2 in ethanol. Crystals were obtained by a diffusion method. In the crystal structure, the anion forms one-dimensional chains of chloride-bridged Jahn–Teller distorted chromium(II) centers extending along the [100] direction. The imidazolium cations are positioned between these chains. PMID:21581818

  20. Laser output of nile blue A sulfate-xanthene in ethyl alcohol under coaxial flashlamp pumping*

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fugeng; Yu Chunlian

    1988-03-01

    Experimental results of laser output of nile blue A sulfate-xanthene in ethyl alcohol under coaxial flashlamp pumping are reported. Owing to the sensitization effect of rhodamine 6G the laser conversion efficiency of nile blue sulfate has been increased by 80%.

  1. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and published its most recent previous determination for the 2010 amount in the Federal Register of December 23, 2009 (74 FR 68282). The Commission uses official statistics... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United...

  2. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... its notice instituting this investigation in the Federal Register of March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and..., 2010 (75 FR 82069). By order of the Commission. James R. Holbein, Secretary. BILLING CODE 7020-02-P ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  8. Practical use of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in postmortem cases as markers of antemortem alcohol ingestion.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjørg; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-03-01

    In postmortem toxicology, it could be difficult to determine whether a positive blood ethanol concentration reflects antemortem ingestion or postmortem synthesis of alcohol. Measurement of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been suggested as a marker of antemortem ingestion of alcohol, but EtG might degrade postmortem which could make interpretation difficult. So far, the published articles concern EtG only. Another nonoxidative metabolite, ethyl sulfate (EtS), which is more stable, has therefore been included in this study. We present a material of 36 deaths where postmortem formation of ethanol was suspected and where both EtG and EtS were measured in blood and urine to assist the interpretation. In 19 cases, EtG and EtS were positive in the body fluids analyzed. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in blood was 0.4 (range 0.1-23.2) and 0.9 mg/L (range 0.04-7.9), respectively. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in urine was 35.9 (range 1.0-182) and 8.5 mg/L (range 0.3-99), respectively. In another 16 cases, there was no trace of EtG or EtS in the specimens analyzed. In one case, there was inconsistency between the results of EtG and EtS; they were both positive in urine, while only EtS was positive in blood. This study showed that, out of 36 cases, antemortem ingestion of alcohol was very likely in 19 and unlikely in 16, according to EtG and EtS results. In the last case, the interpretation was more difficult. One possible explanation would be postmortem degradation of EtG in blood. PMID:19937334

  9. Identification of 2-ethyl-4-methyl-3-thiazoline and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-3-thiazoline for the first time in nature by the comprehensive analysis of sesame seed oil.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, David; Bardsley, Kathryn; Brown, Sharon; Kraut, Kenneth; Psota-Kelty, Linda; Trinnaman, Laurence

    2011-04-01

    Toasted sesame seed oil was comprehensively analyzed. It was extracted using the SAFE (Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation) technique. The extract was analyzed by GC and GC-MS on 2 phases and a total of 87 components were identified, confirmed, and are presented in this paper. The major components were methylpyrazine; 2,5-dimethylpyrazine; 2,6-dimethylpyrazine; 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine; furfuryl alcohol; and guaiacol. In addition, as part of this analysis, 2-ethyl-4-methyl-3-thiazoline and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-3-thiazoline were confirmed as being present in a natural product for the first time. Their identification, confirmation, and sensory evaluation have been documented here. PMID:21535804

  10. A Simple and Fast Method for the Production and Characterization of Methylic and Ethylic Biodiesels from Tucum Oil via an Alkaline Route

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Firmino; Vieira, Andressa Tironi; Batista, Antônio Carlos Ferreira; Rodrigues, Hugo de Souza; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2011-01-01

    A simple, fast, and complete route for the production of methylic and ethylic biodiesel from tucum oil is described. Aliquots of the oil obtained directly from pressed tucum (pulp and almonds) were treated with potassium methoxide or ethoxide at 40°C for 40 min. The biodiesel form was removed from the reactor and washed with 0.1 M HCl aqueous solution. A simple distillation at 100°C was carried out in order to remove water and alcohol species from the biodiesel. The oxidative stability index was obtained for the tucum oil as well as the methylic and ethylic biodiesel at 6.13, 2.90, and 2.80 h, for storage times higher than 8 days. Quality control of the original oil and of the methylic and ethylic biodiesels, such as the amount of glycerin produced during the transesterification process, was accomplished by the TLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques. The results obtained in this study indicate a potential biofuel production by simple treatment of tucum, an important Amazonian fruit. PMID:21629751

  11. A simple and fast method for the production and characterization of methylic and ethylic biodiesels from tucum oil via an alkaline route.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Firmino; Vieira, Andressa Tironi; Batista, Antônio Carlos Ferreira; de Souza Rodrigues, Hugo; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2011-01-01

    A simple, fast, and complete route for the production of methylic and ethylic biodiesel from tucum oil is described. Aliquots of the oil obtained directly from pressed tucum (pulp and almonds) were treated with potassium methoxide or ethoxide at 40°C for 40 min. The biodiesel form was removed from the reactor and washed with 0.1 M HCl aqueous solution. A simple distillation at 100°C was carried out in order to remove water and alcohol species from the biodiesel. The oxidative stability index was obtained for the tucum oil as well as the methylic and ethylic biodiesel at 6.13, 2.90, and 2.80 h, for storage times higher than 8 days. Quality control of the original oil and of the methylic and ethylic biodiesels, such as the amount of glycerin produced during the transesterification process, was accomplished by the TLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques. The results obtained in this study indicate a potential biofuel production by simple treatment of tucum, an important Amazonian fruit. PMID:21629751

  12. Effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate on Liver Injury Due to Acute Ethyl Alcohol Intoxication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Durgun, HM; Ozhasenekler, A; Dursun, R; Basarali, MK; Turkcu, G; Orak, M; Ustundag, M; Guloglu, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Ethyl alcohol is a substance that is widely used worldwide and known to exert toxic effects on liver. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA) on the toxicity of a single dose of ethyl alcohol in rats. Subjects and Method: We used 32 randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g. The rats were grouped into four groups with each group containing eight rats: Group 1: the control group, Group 2: the ethyl alcohol group, Group 3: the LOLA group and Group 4: the ethyl alcohol+LOLA group. Ethyl alcohol was administered orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 6 g/kg after diluting with distilled water. One hour after ethyl alcohol administration, LOLA was administered to pre-specified groups orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 200 mg/kg after diluting with distilled water. Liver tissue and blood samples were obtained from all rats 24 hours later to study total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels in liver samples, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), TAC, TOS and OSI levels in blood samples. Results: Serum TAC, TOS and OSI levels were higher in the groups that were administered ethyl alcohol. In addition, tissue TAC level was higher and TOS and OSI levels were lower in groups that were given ethyl alcohol. No significant changes were observed in serum and tissue TAC, TOS, OSI, ALT and AST levels in the LOLA administered groups. Conclusion: This study showed that LOLA was not biochemically effective and exerts no oxidative stress reducing activity in liver injury due to acute ethyl alcohol toxicity. PMID:26426168

  13. Placental Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Elevated with Maternal Alcohol Use in Pregnancies Complicated by Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Theresa W.; Mohan, Sowmya S.; Gross, Teresa S.; Harris, Frank L.; Guidot, David M.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium of term newborns has been described as one potential biomarker of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. FAEEs accumulate in multiple alcohol-exposed fetal tissues and in the placenta. Limited research has focused on the identification of the premature newborn exposed to alcohol in utero. We hypothesized that maternal alcohol use occurs in a significant proportion of premature deliveries and that this exposure can be detected as elevated placental FAEEs. The goals of this study were to 1) determine the prevalence of maternal alcohol use in the premature newborn and 2) investigate whether placental FAEEs could identify those newborns with fetal alcohol exposure. This prospective observational study evaluated 80 placentas from 80 women after premature delivery. Subjects were interviewed for alcohol intake and placental FAEEs were quantified via GC/MS. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curves were generated to evaluate the ability of placental FAEEs to predict maternal drinking during pregnancy. Adjusted ROC curves were generated to adjust for gestational age, maternal smoking, and illicit drug use. 30% of the subjects admitted to drinking alcohol during pregnancy and approximately 14% answered questions indicative of problem drinking (designated AUDIT+). The specific FAEEs ethyl stearate and linoleate, as well as combinations of oleate + linoleate + linolenate (OLL) and of OLL + stearate, were significantly (p<0.05) elevated in placentas from AUDIT+ pregnancies. Adjusted ROC Curves generated areas under the curve ranging from 88–93% with negative predictive values of 97% for AUDIT+ pregnancies. We conclude that nearly one third of premature pregnancies were alcohol-exposed, and that elevated placental FAEEs hold great promise to accurately determine maternal alcohol use, particularly heavy use, in pregnancies complicated by premature delivery. PMID:25978403

  14. Effects on wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  15. Effects of wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California USA rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  16. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  17. Curative effect of lauromacrogol and absolute ethyl alcohol injection guided by ultrasound on simplex hepatic cyst.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jie; Geng, Xianhui

    2015-03-01

    This research aims to analyze the curative effect and security of lauromacrogol injection and absolute ethyl alcohol treating simplex hepatic cyst respectively. The simplex hepatic cyst patients were divided into lauromacrogol group (86 cases, research group) and absolute ethyl alcohol group (80 cases, control group). Both two groups received sclerotherapy of thoracic drainage under ultrasonic guidance and the curative effect and untoward effect were observed. The result showed there was no hemorrhage or infection within two groups. During the therapeutic process, 45 patients (56.3%) suffered from pain at different degrees and 23 cases were found with symptom of drunkenness in control group, while the patients in the research group were found with no obvious discomfort. A week after treatment, 23 patients (25.0%) in control group still remained to have swelling pain at upper right stomach, while there were only 9 in treatment group (10.5%), and the difference was of statistical significance (X(2)=6.037, P<0.05). through 6 months of follow-up visit after the operation, we found the cure rate of lauromacrogol group was 94.6% and absolute ethyl alcohol was 92.6%, and the difference between these two groups was of no statistical significance (P>0.05). The results showed that, in the treatment of cystosclerosis with absolute ethyl alcohol injection under ultrasonic guidance, some patients suffered pain and the symptom of drunkenness at different degrees, whereas, lauromacrogol was effective with no untoward effects, therefore it is worthy of clinical popularization and application. PMID:25796160

  18. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. PMID:25137651

  19. The use of potassium dichromate and ethyl alcohol as blood preservatives for analysis of organochlorine contaminants.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Malisch, Rainer

    2004-10-01

    The "gold standard" for preserving and shipping of human tissue samples for analysis of organochlorine contaminants is freezing. This method can be difficult, costly if using heavy dry ice for shipping, and often unfeasible, especially in less developed countries where electricity and dry ice are frequently rare or absent. Therefore, it is essential that more convenient and practical methods for preservation of blood samples are found. As an alternative to freezing, there have been studies employing potassium dichromate as a preservative for human or cow's milk or ethyl alcohol preservation of blood for dioxin analysis. In this study, four methods were compared to investigate the effectiveness of ethyl alcohol and potassium dichromate as blood preservatives for analysis of dioxins, dibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Samples of whole blood from a Dallas, Texas hospital were collected and pooled. Freezing, ethyl alcohol in two concentrations (20% and 40% per volume of sample), and potassium dichromate were used for blood preservation. The blood samples containing potassium dichromate or ethyl alcohol were stored and sent to ERGO laboratory for dioxin analysis and comparison with results from the frozen sample, which was kept frozen at all times until analyzed. This study suggests that potassium dichromate is a suitable alternative to freezing for preservation of whole blood for dioxin, dibenzofuran, and PCB measurements when either lipid or wet weight based results are reported. Potassium dichromate tablets were very easy and convenient to use--two 100 mg tablets (with a dichromate content of about 33 mg each) were added to each bottle containing 65 ml of blood. However, ethyl alcohol at 20% and 40% concentration under the conditions of this pilot study and the analytical method employed did not appear to provide satisfactory preservation when lipid based results are given or when the fat content has to be determined (wet or whole weight

  20. Consecutive radical S-adenosylmethionine methylations form the ethyl side chain in thienamycin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Marous, Daniel R; Lloyd, Evan P; Buller, Andrew R; Moshos, Kristos A; Grove, Tyler L; Blaszczyk, Anthony J; Booker, Squire J; Townsend, Craig A

    2015-08-18

    Despite their broad anti-infective utility, the biosynthesis of the paradigm carbapenem antibiotic, thienamycin, remains largely unknown. Apart from the first two steps shared with a simple carbapenem, the pathway sharply diverges to the more structurally complex members of this class of β-lactam antibiotics, such as thienamycin. Existing evidence points to three putative cobalamin-dependent radical S-adenosylmethionine (RS) enzymes, ThnK, ThnL, and ThnP, as potentially being responsible for assembly of the ethyl side chain at C6, bridgehead epimerization at C5, installation of the C2-thioether side chain, and C2/3 desaturation. The C2 substituent has been demonstrated to be derived by stepwise truncation of CoA, but the timing of these events with respect to C2-S bond formation is not known. We show that ThnK of the three apparent cobalamin-dependent RS enzymes performs sequential methylations to build out the C6-ethyl side chain in a stereocontrolled manner. This enzymatic reaction was found to produce expected RS methylase coproducts S-adenosylhomocysteine and 5'-deoxyadenosine, and to require cobalamin. For double methylation to occur, the carbapenam substrate must bear a CoA-derived C2-thioether side chain, implying the activity of a previous sulfur insertion by an as-yet unidentified enzyme. These insights allow refinement of the central steps in complex carbapenem biosynthesis. PMID:26240322

  1. Consecutive radical S-adenosylmethionine methylations form the ethyl side chain in thienamycin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marous, Daniel R.; Lloyd, Evan P.; Buller, Andrew R.; Moshos, Kristos A.; Grove, Tyler L.; Blaszczyk, Anthony J.; Booker, Squire J.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their broad anti-infective utility, the biosynthesis of the paradigm carbapenem antibiotic, thienamycin, remains largely unknown. Apart from the first two steps shared with a simple carbapenem, the pathway sharply diverges to the more structurally complex members of this class of β-lactam antibiotics, such as thienamycin. Existing evidence points to three putative cobalamin-dependent radical S-adenosylmethionine (RS) enzymes, ThnK, ThnL, and ThnP, as potentially being responsible for assembly of the ethyl side chain at C6, bridgehead epimerization at C5, installation of the C2-thioether side chain, and C2/3 desaturation. The C2 substituent has been demonstrated to be derived by stepwise truncation of CoA, but the timing of these events with respect to C2–S bond formation is not known. We show that ThnK of the three apparent cobalamin-dependent RS enzymes performs sequential methylations to build out the C6-ethyl side chain in a stereocontrolled manner. This enzymatic reaction was found to produce expected RS methylase coproducts S-adenosylhomocysteine and 5′-deoxyadenosine, and to require cobalamin. For double methylation to occur, the carbapenam substrate must bear a CoA-derived C2-thioether side chain, implying the activity of a previous sulfur insertion by an as-yet unidentified enzyme. These insights allow refinement of the central steps in complex carbapenem biosynthesis. PMID:26240322

  2. Crystal structure of the tetra-gonal polymorph of bis-(1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium) tetra-bromido-cadmate.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Tamara; Gerger, Sabrina; Karanović, Ljiljana

    2016-07-01

    Both unique Cd atoms in the tetra-gonal polymorph of bis-(1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium) tetra-bromido-cadmate, (C6H11N2)2[CdBr4], occupy special positions (site symmetry -4). The crystal structure consists of isolated tetra-hedral [CdBr4](2-) anions which are surrounded by 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cations. The methyl and ethyl side chains of the cations show positional disorder in a 0.590 (11):0.410 (11) ratio. In the crystal, (C6H11N2)(+) cations display three weak C-H⋯Br hydrogen-bond inter-actions through the imidazolium ring H atoms with the Br(-) ligands of the surrounding complex anions. The alkyl groups of the side chains are not involved in hydrogen bonding. PMID:27555953

  3. Microwave Spectroscopy of Trans-Ethyl Methyl Ether in the Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Sakai, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shozo; Miyamoto, Taihei; Fujitake, Masaharu; Ohashi, Nobukimi

    2013-06-01

    The trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) has two inequivalent methyl group internal rotors which corresponds to the two vibrational motions, ν_{28} and ν_{29}. Due to these internal rotations, a rotational transition could be split into maximum five components. The skeletal torsion (ν_{30}) is another low-lying state (ν_{30}) that interacts with the ν_{28} and ν_{29} modes. The microwave spectra of the trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule in the ν_{28} = 1, ν_{29} = 1, and ν_{30} = 1, 2 and 3 have been extensively studied by using Hougen's tunneling matrix formalism. The microwave spectroscopy in the ground state was studied by several groups. The splitting due to the ν_{28} mode (C-CH_3 internal rotation) is small in the ground state and was not fully resolved in most of the previous studied rotational transitions. In this paper, we report the results of the pulsed nozzle-jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy so as to measure the fully resolved spectra. The submillmeter wave spectroscopy was also carried out. Our analysis including the previously reported transitions would be useful for astronomical observations. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, N. Mori, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc. {269}, 242 2011. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc. {255}, 164 2009. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, N. Mori, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc.{251}, 301 2008. K. Kobayashi, K. Murata, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi Int. Symposium on Mol. Spectrosc., 65th Meeting TH15 2010.} M. Hayashi, and K. Kuwada J. Mol. Structure {28}, 147 1975. M. Hayashi, and M. Adachi J. Mol. Structure {78}, 53 1982. S. Tsunekawa, Y. Kinai, Y. Kondo, H. Odashima, and K. Takagi Molecules {8}, 103 2003. U. Fuchs, G. Winnewisser, P. Groner, F. C. De Lucia, and E. Herbst Astrophys. J. Suppl. {144}, 277 2003.

  4. Ultrasound-Guided 50% Ethyl Alcohol Injection for Patients With Malleolar and Olecranon Bursitis: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Seong; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effect of ultrasound-guided ethyl alcohol injection on malleolar and olecranon synovial proliferative bursitis. Methods Twenty-four patients received ultrasound-guided 50% diluted ethyl alcohol injection at the site of synovial proliferative bursitis after aspiration of the free fluid. Results Swelling and symptoms significantly decreased in 13 of the 24 patients without any complications. Eleven patients had partial improvement in swelling and symptoms. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided alcohol injection could be an alternative therapeutic option before surgery in patients with chronic intractable malleolar and olecranon synovial proliferative bursitis. PMID:27152282

  5. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  6. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  7. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  8. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  9. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  10. Cutoff in potency implicates alcohol inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1995-01-01

    As the number of carbon atoms in an aliphatic n-alcohol is increased from one to five, intoxicating potency, lipid solubility, and membrane lipid disordering potency all increase in a similar exponential manner. However, the potency of aliphatic n-alcohols for producing intoxication reaches a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then decreases. The molecular basis of this "cutoff" effect is not understood, as it is not correlated with either the lipid solubility or the membrane disordering potency of the alcohols, which continue to increase exponentially. Since it has been suggested that inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by alcohols may play a role in alcohol intoxication, we investigated whether a series of aliphatic n-alcohols would exhibit a cutoff in potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors. We found that although potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors increased exponentially for alcohols with one to five carbon atoms, potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors reached a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then abruptly disappeared. This cutoff for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors is consistent with an interaction of the alcohols with a hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. In addition, the similarity of the cutoffs for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors and alcohol intoxication suggests that the cutoff for NMDA receptor inhibition may contribute to the cutoff for alcohol intoxication, which is consistent with an important role of NMDA receptors in alcohol intoxication. PMID:7708732

  11. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: a controlled alcohol-dosing study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    L Crunelle, Cleo; Cappelle, Delphine; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2016-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor phase II metabolite of alcohol that accumulates in hair. It has been established as a sensitive marker to assess the retrospective consumption of alcohol over recent months using a cut-off of ≥7 pg/mg hair to assess repeated alcohol consumption. The primary aim was to assess whether amounts of alcohol consumed correlated with EtG concentrations in hair. Additionally, we investigated whether the current applied cut-off value of 7 pg/mg hair was adequate to assess the regular consumption of low-to-moderate amounts of alcohol. A prospective controlled alcohol-dosing study in 30 healthy individuals matched on age and gender. Individuals were instructed to drink no alcohol (N = 10), 100 g alcohol per week (N = 10) or 150 g alcohol per week (N = 10) for 12 consecutive weeks, before and after which hair was collected. Throughout the study, compliance to daily alcohol consumption was assessed by analyzing urine EtG three times weekly. Participants in the non-drinking group had median EtG concentrations of 0.5 pg/mg hair (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 pg/mg; range < 0.21-4.5 pg/mg). Participants consuming 100 and 150 g alcohol per week showed median EtG concentrations of 5.6 pg/mg hair (IQR 4.7 pg/mg; range 2.0-9.8 pg/mg) and 11.3 pg/mg hair (IQR 5.0 pg/mg; range 7.7-38.9 pg/mg), respectively. Hair EtG concentrations between the three study groups differed significantly from one another (p < 0.001). Hair EtG concentrations can be used to differentiate between repeated (low-to-moderate) amounts of alcohol consumed over a long time period. For the assessment of repeated alcohol use, we propose that the current cut-off of 7 pg/mg could be re-evaluated. PMID:26549114

  12. Effect of Ionization on Infrared and Electronic Absorption Spectra of Methyl and Ethyl Formate in the Gas Phase and in Astrophysical H2O Ice: A Computational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganathappa, Mahadevappa; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2011-04-01

    This work reports infrared and electronic absorption spectra of trans and gauche conformers of neutral ethyl formate, trans and cis conformers of neutral methyl formate, their ions in the gas phase, and neutral ethyl and methyl formate in astrophysical H2O ice. The second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) method with TZVP basis set has been used to obtain ground-state geometries. An influence of ice on vibrational frequencies of neutral ethyl and methyl formate was obtained using integral equation formalism polarizable continnum model (IEFPCM). Significant shift in vibrational frequencies for neutral methyl and ethyl formate when studied in H2O ice and upon ionization is observed. Rotational and distortion constants for neutral ethyl and methyl formate from this work are in excellent agreement with the available experimental values. Electronic absorption spectra of conformers of ethyl and methyl formate and their ions are obtained using time-dependent density functional method (TDDFT). The nature of electronic transitions is also identified. We suggested lines especially good to detect these molecules in interstellar medium. Using these lines, we can identify the conformers of ethyl and methyl formate in gas phase and H2O ice in interstellar medium. This comparative study should provide useful guidelines to detect conformers of ethyl and methyl formate and their ions in gas phase and neutral molecules in H2O ice in different astronomical environment.

  13. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8450 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester, (PMN P-90-333) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. Vibrational spectroscopic studies and computational study of ethyl methyl ketone thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoop, M. R.; Binil, P. S.; Suma, S.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Y, Sheena Mary.; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Panicker, C. Yohannan

    2010-04-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of ethyl methyl ketone thiosemicarbazone were recorded and analyzed. The crystal structure is also described. The vibrational wavenumbers were computed using HF/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-31G(d) basis sets and are assigned with the aid of MOLEKEL program. The first hyperpolarizability, infrared intensities and Raman activities are also reported. The calculated first hyperpolarizability is comparable with the reported values of similar derivatives and is an attractive molecule for future applications in non-linear optics. The geometrical parameters of the title compound obtained from XRD studies are in agreement with the calculated values. The red shift of the NH stretching wavenumber in the infrared spectrum compared to the computed wavenumber indicates the weakening of the N-H bond resulting in proton transfer to the neighbouring sulfur atom.

  15. Interactions in 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ion pair: Spectroscopic and density functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, James X; Lee, Anita S; Kitchin, John R; Nulwala, Hunaid B; Luebke, David R; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-04-24

    Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -}). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -} ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.

  16. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  17. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  18. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL★,★★

    PubMed Central

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm−2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 1015 cm−2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. PMID:26869726

  19. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.61 Section 63.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity... pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the...

  1. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.61 Section 63.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  2. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.61 Section 63.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  3. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.61 Section 63.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  4. Detection of adulteration in hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel using infrared spectroscopy and supervised pattern recognition methods.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adenilton Camilo; Pontes, Liliana Fátima Bezerra Lira; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pontes, Márcio José Coelho

    2012-05-15

    This paper proposes an analytical method to detect adulteration of hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel based on near infrared (NIR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectroscopies associated with supervised pattern recognition methods. For this purpose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to build a classification model on the basis of a reduced subset of wavenumbers. For variable selection, three techniques are considered, namely the successive projection algorithm (SPA), the genetic algorithm (GA) and a stepwise formulation (SW). For comparison, models based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were also employed using full-spectrum. The method was validated in a case study involving the classification of 181 hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel samples, which were divided into three different classes: (1) authentic samples; (2) samples adulterated with water and (3) samples contaminated with methanol. LDA/GA and PLS-DA models were found to be the best methods for classifying the spectral data obtained in NIR region, which achieved a correct prediction rate of 100% in the test set, while the LDA/SPA and LDA/SW were correctly classified at 84.4% and 97.8%, respectively. For MIR data, all models (PLS-DA and LDA coupled with the SW, SPA and GA) employed in this study correctly classified all samples in the test set. PMID:22483888

  5. Evaluation of smoking on olfactory thresholds of phenyl ethyl alcohol and n-butanol.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J E; Jinks, A L

    2012-09-10

    The effect of smoking on the sense of smell remains inconclusive. Previous research suggests that this is due to idiosyncratic acuity dependent on the odorants used in testing. Specifically, it appears that smokers have reduced olfactory acuity to odorants found within cigarettes compared with odorants not within cigarettes. Given that some of these odorants are used in tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, an in-depth understanding of this phenomenon in smoking individuals is crucial. This study assesses the variation of olfactory thresholds in smokers based on selective impairment to two odors commonly used in olfactory testing - n-butanol and phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA). We presented to 46 participants an 18 step, forced choice, three choice ascending staircase method sniff bottle threshold test using n-butanol and PEA. PEA is present in cigarettes while n-butanol is not. Therefore n-butanol is used as a covariate to control for variance explained by any general olfactory dysfunction. Using this method, we can focus solely on selective impairment. We discovered that n-butanol threshold scores were significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers. In addition, after using n-butanol as covariate, phenyl ethyl alcohol scores remained significantly different between groups. This data suggests that there is an extended impairment to odors within tobacco and this may explain a cause of the inconclusiveness of past research. PMID:22776624

  6. Determination of enthalpy of formation of methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lapuerta, Magín; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; Oliva, Fermín

    2010-02-01

    Biofuels composed by fatty acid methyl esters are widely used as partly substituting fuels for diesel fossil fuels. Additionally, it is expected that the diesel biofuel norms will be extended to ethyl esters produced from bioethanol in the upcoming years. A precise knowledge of the standard enthalpy of formation is necessary for the calculation of some parameters useful for the analysis of the combustion process and emissions of a diesel engine operating with different fuels, such as the heating value, the adiabatic flame temperature or the kinetic mechanisms. However, experimental data for this property are scarce, and only available for short-chain, saturated methyl esters. In this work, four estimation methods for the calculation of the enthalpy of formation are examined and compared. Three of them are simple methods based on groups or bonds contribution, and another one is a computational method (with Gaussian 03 software). After presenting the implementation rules for each of them, conclusions are stated based on the results attained. Gaussian and Benson-Groups methods seem to be more accurate in predicting the actual values of the enthalpy of formation, both methods considering the separation between double bonds and the edge effects in the molecule. However, only the Gaussian method considers the effect of the position of the double bond in the molecule for all the unsaturated esters. PMID:19917272

  7. Flexural properties of ethyl or methyl methacrylate-UDMA blend polymers.

    PubMed

    Kanie, Takahito; Kadokawa, Akihiko; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Koichi; Ban, Seiji

    2010-10-01

    Light-curing polyethyl methacrylate (PEMA)-urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) resins and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-UDMA resins were prepared by two processes. For first step, PEMA or PMMA powders were fully dissolved in ethyl methacrylate (EMA) or methyl methacrylate (MMA) and then the PEMA-EMA/PMMA-MMA mixtures were mixed with UDMA. The flexural properties of cured PEMA-UDMA and PMMA-UDMA polymers were measured using two PEMA (Mw: 300,000-400,000 and 650,000-1,000,000) and three PMMA (Mw: 30,000-60,000, 350,000 and 650,000-1,000,000) powders with different molecular weight, four mixing ratios of PMMA-MMA, and three mixing ratios of PMMA-MMA mixture and UDMA oligomer. Polymers with PMMA(Mw: 350,000) MMA=25/50, and with PMMA(Mw: 350,000)-MMA/UDMA=1/2 and =1/1, showed no-fracture in a flexural test at 1 mm/min and flexural strength and flexural modulus showed no significant difference compared with those of commercially available heat- and self-curing acrylic resins (p>0.01). Within limitation of this investigation, methyl methacrylate-UDMA blend polymer of this composition is available for denture base resin. PMID:20733259

  8. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair to assess excessive alcohol consumption in a student population.

    PubMed

    Oppolzer, David; Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was used to evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption amongst the Portuguese university student population. A total of 975 samples were analysed. For data interpretation, the 2014 guidelines from the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) for the use of alcohol markers in hair for the assessment of both abstinence and chronic excessive alcohol consumption were considered. EtG concentrations were significantly higher in the male population. The effect of hair products and cosmetics was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and significant lower concentrations were obtained when conditioner or hair mask was used or when hair was dyed. Based on the analytical data and information obtained in the questionnaires from the participants, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed in order to determine the ideal cut-offs for our study population. Optimal cut-off values were estimated at 7.3 pg/mg for abstinence or rare occasional drinking control and 29.8 pg/mg for excessive consumption. These values are very close to the values suggested by the SoHT, proving their adequacy to the studied population. Overall, the obtained EtG concentrations demonstrate that participants are usually well aware of their consumption pattern, correlating with the self-reported consumed alcohol quantity, consumption habits and excessive consumption close to the time of hair sampling. PMID:26537927

  9. Immunoassay for ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor: a new tool for postmortem diagnostics of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rainio, Juha; Kultti, Johanna; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Tuomi, Heidi; Ahola, Sanna; Karhunen, Pekka J; Helander, Anders; Niemelä, Onni

    2013-03-10

    Although excessive alcohol consumption plays a major role in fatal events, the role of alcohol use as a possible contributing factor at the time of death is not easy to establish due to lack of suitable biomarkers for postmortem analyses. We used an immunological approach to measure ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations from vitreous humor (VH) and serum from 58 individuals representing a forensic autopsy population of cases with either a well-documented history of excessive alcohol use (n=37) or cases without such history (n=21), according to medical and police records and blood alcohol determinations (BAC). The immunoassay was based on the Microgenics DRI-EtG EIA reagents applied on an automated Abbott Architect c8000 clinical chemistry analyzer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) was used as a reference method. At a cut-off of 0.3mg/l for VH-EtG, the immunoassay correctly identified 92% of the cases with a history of excessive alcohol use, whereas the BAC was positive (cut-off 10mg/dl) in 68% of the cases. A significant correlation emerged between VH-EtG and serum EtG (r=0.77, p<0.001) and between VH-EtG and BAC (r=0.62, p<0.001), although VH-EtG was frequently elevated also in cases with no detectable BAC. The EtG immunoassay showed a strong correlation with the LC-MS/MS reference method (r=0.94, p<0.001) and there was 100% agreement in the frequency of marker positive and negative findings between the immunoassay EtG results and the LC-MS/MS analysis of EtG and EtS. The present data indicate that the immunoassay for VH-EtG is a useful forensic tool for screening of antemortem alcohol use. PMID:23415594

  10. Catalytic purification of wastewaters containing formaldehyde, methyl alcohol, and acetone

    SciTech Connect

    Rachkovskaya, L.N.; Anisiforov, G.I.; Levitskii, E.A.; Kundo, N.N.

    1982-01-10

    A catalytic method for purification of wastewaters containing alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones is described in the literature. A current of steam containing gaseous organic compounds is passed over a complete-oxidation catalyst at temperatures of 250-700/sup 0/C. The organic compounds are oxidized to carbon dioxide. The main drawback of this method is that the wastewater must be evaporated and the vapor heated to high temperatures, involving a high consumption of fuel. Methods of liquid-phase catalytic oxidation under pressure are free from this drawback. A patent describes liquid-phase oxidation of phenol, analine, nitrobenzene, glycol, and dimethylformamide at temperatures of 275-300/sup 0/C under air pressures up to 100 atm in presence of oxides of copper, chromium, and zinc; a metallic catalyst consisting of copper, chromium, and manganese; copper oxide deposited on magnesium silicate. In a contact time of 8-10 min the degree of oxidation is 90-99%. It is known that liquid-phase oxidation of formaldehyde without a catalyst at 200/sup 0/C and 120 atm with a contact time of 4 h results in 80% oxidation of formaldehyde to methyl formate undergoes 10% conversion into acetic acid, while methyl alcohol is not oxidized at all. In this communication we describe liquid-phase catalytic oxidation of model wastewater containing formaldehyde, methyl alcohol, and acetone at temperatures up to 250/sup 0/C and oxygen pressures up to 20 atm.

  11. Determining Ethyl Glucuronide Cutoffs When Detecting Self-Reported Alcohol Use In Addiction Treatment Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Jessica M.; McDonell, Michael G.; Leickly, Emily; Angelo, Frank A.; Vilardaga, Roger; McPherson, Sterling; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John; Ries, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is an alcohol biomarker with potential utility as a clinical research and alcohol treatment outcome. Debate exists regarding the appropriate cutoff level for determining alcohol use, particularly with the EtG immunoassay. This study determined the EtG immunoassay cutoff levels that most closely correspond to self-reported drinking in alcohol dependent outpatients. Methods Eighty adults with alcohol dependence and mental illness, taking part in an alcohol treatment study, provided urine samples three times per week for up to 16-weeks (1589 samples). Self-reported drinking during 120 hours prior to each sample collection was assessed. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were conducted to assess the ability of the EtG immunoassay to detect self-reported alcohol use across 24–120 hour time periods. Sensitivity and specificity of EtG immunoassay cutoff levels was compared in 100 ng/mL increments (100 ng/mL–500 ng/mL) across 24–120 hours. Results Over half (57%) of the 1589 samples indicated recent alcohol consumption. The EtG immunoassay closely corresponded to self-reported drinking from 24 (AUC=0.90, 95% CI:0.88, 0.92) to 120 hours (AUC=0.88, 95% CI:0.87, 0.90). When cutoff levels were compared across 24–120 hours, 100 ng/mL had the highest sensitivity (0.93–0.78) and lowest specificity (0.67–0.85). Relative to 100 ng/mL, the 200 ng/mL cutoff demonstrated a reduction in sensitivity (0.89–0.67), but improved specificity (0.78–0.94). The 300 ng/mL, 400 ng/mL, and 500 ng/mL cutoffs demonstrated the lowest sensitivity (0.86 to 0.33) and highest specificity (0.86–0.97) over 24 to 120 hours. Conclusions For detecting alcohol use for greater than 24 hours, the 200 ng/mL cutoff level is recommended for use as a research and clinical outcome. PMID:25866234

  12. Ethyl-alcohol-fuel production from the Jerusalem artichoke. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, P.R.

    1983-03-01

    The project objective is to evaluate the commercial feasibility for production of fuel alcohol by fermentation of the carbohydrates in the tops of the Jerusalem artichoke. The maximum top biomass yields of the mammoth French white variety of Jerusalem artichoke was obtained at 119 days after plant emergence and maximum fresh weight of the tops was 31.6 tons per acre. During rapid growth the fresh stalks had 2% to 4% carbohydrate. After the plant reached a maximum height of 168 inches, and started to bud the stalk had a maximum of 4% carbohydrate. During blossoming the stalk carbohydrates rapidly translocated to the tuber. Single versus multiple cuttings demonstrated the maximum carbohydrate was obtained with a single harvest of the mature plants immediately following bud formation. The total carbohydrate yield from the top biomass was 1.26 tons per acre. The equivalent yield of fermentation alcohol is 180.6 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. The tuber yield at both Mesa and Toppenish, WA, was 14 to 15 tons of fresh tubers with 18% total carbohydrates. The carbohydrate yield was 2.52 tons per acre. This is equivalent to a yield of 360 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. Commercial scale fuel alcohol equipment was used to hammer mill and batch ferment tops and tubers. The steps for commercial processing of the biomass tops and tubers was discussed including extracting and fermentation of the carbohydrates to ethanol and their concentration by distillation and dehydration by molecular sieves to anhydrous fuel alcohol. The use of molecular sieves reduced the energy for dehydration of 95% ethanol to 5000 Btu per gallon. The economic feasibility and energy requirement for commercial processing was discussed.

  13. Ethyl glucuronide in hair - A highly effective test for the monitoring of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-05-10

    In Germany drink driving offenders lose their license and must prove abstinence for one year in order to regain it. In this paper we assess the newly introduced ethyl glucuronide (EtG) tests in urine and hair in this alcohol abstinence monitoring. 20% (80 out of 386) of the 3cm long hair samples were tested positive for EtG in hair, compared to only 2% (92 out of 4248 samples) in urine in the same time period. Additionally 50% of the samples positive for EtG in hair had EtG values greater than 30pg/mg hair, indicating chronic alcohol consumption in the last three months. This study shows that four EtG tests in 3cm hair lengths reveal a significantly higher percentage of drink driving offenders who fail to be sober in the rehabilitation period, than do six random EtG tests in urine. Presumably, the hair test is more adequate to monitor long term alcohol abstinence than the urine test as defined by the new driving license re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) in Germany. PMID:22019393

  14. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium from newborns for detection of alcohol abuse in a maternal health evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Burger, Pascal; Goecke, Tamme W; Fasching, Peter A; Reulbach, Udo; Bleich, Stefan; Hastedt, Martin; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2010-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) were determined in 602 meconium samples in a maternal health evaluation study for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated headspace solid phase microextraction method in combination with GC-MS was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 500 ng/g was applied for interpretation. A new and simple method was developed and validated for quantification of EtG from 10-20 mg meconium with D(5)-EtG as internal standard consisting of 30 min. extraction with methanol/water (1:1, v/v), evaporation of methanol, filtration of the aqueous solution through a cellulose filter and injection into LC-MS-MS. The limits of detection and quantification for EtG were 10 and 30 ng/g, the recovery 86.6 to 106.4% and the standard deviation of the concentrations ranged from 13% at 37 ng/g to 5% at 46,700 ng/g (N = 6). FAEE above the cut-off were found in 43 cases (7.1%) with cumulative concentrations between 507 and 22,580 ng/g and with one outlier of about 150,000 ng/g (EtG not detected). EtG was detected in 97 cases (16.3%) and concentrations between LOD and 10,200 ng/g with another outlier of 82,000 ng/g (FAEE 10,500 ng/g). Optimal agreement between the two markers was obtained with a cut-off for EtG of 274 ng/g and 547 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-negative, 33 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-positive, nine cases with FAEE-positive and EtG-negative, and seven cases with FAEE-negative and EtG-positive. Differences in physical, chemical, and biochemical properties and in the pharmacokinetic behavior are discussed as reasons for the deviating cases. In none of the 602 cases, serious alcohol consumption was reported by the mothers and no evidence for gestational ethanol exposure was observed in the medical investigation of the newborns. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG in meconium as markers for fetal

  15. Mouse Pig-a and micronucleus assays respond to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, and ethyl carbamate, but not pyrene or methyl carbamate.

    PubMed

    Labash, Carson; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Carlson, Kristine; Berg, Ariel; Torous, Dorothea K; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; MacGregor, James T; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    This laboratory previously described a method for scoring the incidence of peripheral blood Pig-a mutant phenotype rat erythrocytes using immunomagnetic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). The current work extends the method to mouse blood, using the frequency of CD24-negative reticulocytes (RET(CD24-)) and erythrocytes (RBC(CD24-)) as phenotypic reporters of Pig-a gene mutation. Following assay optimization, reconstruction experiments demonstrated the ability of the methodology to return expected values. Subsequently, the responsiveness of the assay to the genotoxic carcinogens N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, and ethyl carbamate was studied in male CD-1 mice exposed for 3 days to several dose levels via oral gavage. Blood samples were collected on Day 4 for micronucleated reticulocyte analyses, and on Days 15 and 30 for determination of RET(CD24-) and RBC(CD24-) frequencies. The same design was used to study pyrene, with benzo[a]pyrene as a concurrent positive control, and methyl carbamate, with ethyl carbamate as a concurrent positive control. The three genotoxicants produced marked dose-related increases in the frequencies of Pig-a mutant phenotype cells and micronucleated reticulocytes. Ethyl carbamate exposure resulted in moderately higher micronucleated reticulocyte frequencies relative to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea or benzo[a]pyrene (mean ± SEM = 3.0 ± 0.36, 2.3 ± 0.17, and 2.3 ± 0.49%, respectively, vs. an aggregate vehicle control frequency of 0.18 ± 0.01%). However, it was considerably less effective at inducing Pig-a mutant cells (e.g., Day 15 mean no. RET(CD24-) per 1 million reticulocytes = 7.6 ± 3, 150 ± 9, and 152 ± 43 × 10(-6), respectively, vs. an aggregate vehicle control frequency of 0.6 ± 0.13 × 10(-6)). Pyrene and methyl carbamate, tested to maximum tolerated dose or limit dose levels, had no effect on mutant cell or micronucleated reticulocyte frequencies. Collectively, these results

  16. Analysis Of The Different Zones Of Glow Discharge Of Ethyl Alcohol (C2H6O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, C.; Reyes, P. G.; Mulia, J.; Castillo, F.; Martínez, H.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the emission spectroscopy of ethyl alcohol in some regions, also is determine the result elements of the glow discharge, the spectrums were observed in a range of 200 at 1100 nm in the different zones inside of the tube at different distances of 20 and 30 cm. The elements are: in anode region C6H5 (483.02nm), CHO (519.56nm) and H2 (560.47nm), in the positive column CO2+ (315.52 y 337.00nm), O+ (357.48nm), CH+ (380.61nm) and CO+ (399.73nm); in the cathode region we observed O+ (391.19nm), CHOCHO (428.00nm), CO+ (471.12nm) and H2 (656.52nm). C6H5, CHO y H2 species occurring in all regions analyzed varying the glow discharge emission intensity.

  17. Study of thermal decomposition of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide using DSC and simulation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Jo-Ming; Chang, Ying-Yu; Su, Teh-Sheng; Shu, Chi-Min

    2007-04-11

    Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) is a typical organic peroxide with thermally unstable nature that has been broadly employed in the manufacturing process of acrylic resins, as a hardening agent for fiberglass-reinforced plastics, and as a curing agent for unsaturated polyester resins. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of MEKPO 31 wt.% while mixing with contaminants, such as H(2)SO(4), HCl, and NaCl under runaway conditions. To acquire the thermal runaway data, DSC and a simulation were used for thermal analysis. The results showed that the thermal decomposition of MEKPO and MEKPO+H(2)SO(4) follows two stages. The first one can be modeled by using an empirical nth order rate equation. The second stage can be modeled as autocatalytic. MEKPO+HCl and MEKPO+NaCl included two independent autocatalytic reactions. The decomposition of MEKPO in the presence of Cl- ions (added in MEKPO either in the form of HCl or NaCl) follows a significantly different path, an earlier decomposition "onset" temperature, higher amount of generated thermal power and smaller temperature of no return (T(NR)) and time to maximum rate (TMR) values. Simulations based on experimental data indicated that the effect of H(2)SO(4) was the most dangerous contaminant on MEKPO 31 wt.%. However, the impact of Cl ions was also important. It is therefore recommended that the means of fire fighting employed for this substance to be free of Cl-. PMID:16905247

  18. Diffusion of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate in glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose solutions.

    PubMed

    Ries, Michael E; Radhi, Asanah; Keating, Alice S; Parker, Owen; Budtova, Tatiana

    2014-02-10

    Solutions of glucose, cellobiose and microcrystalline cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C2mim][OAc]) have been examined using pulsed-field gradient (1)H NMR. Diffusion coefficients of the cation and anion across the temperature range 20-70 °C have been determined for a range of concentrations (0-15% w/w) of each carbohydrate in [C2mim][OAc]. These systems behave as an "ideal mixture" of free ions and ions that are associated with the carbohydrate molecules. The molar ratio of carbohydrate OH groups to ionic liquid molecules, α, is the key parameter in determining the diffusion coefficients of the ions. Master curves for the diffusion coefficients of cation, anion and their activation energies are generated upon which all our data collapses when plotted against α. Diffusion coefficients are found to follow an Arrhenius type behavior and the difference in translational activation energy between free and associated ions is determined to be 9.3 ± 0.9 kJ/mol. PMID:24405090

  19. Diffusion of 1-Ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Acetate in Glucose, Cellobiose, and Cellulose Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Solutions of glucose, cellobiose and microcrystalline cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C2mim][OAc]) have been examined using pulsed-field gradient 1H NMR. Diffusion coefficients of the cation and anion across the temperature range 20–70 °C have been determined for a range of concentrations (0–15% w/w) of each carbohydrate in [C2mim][OAc]. These systems behave as an “ideal mixture” of free ions and ions that are associated with the carbohydrate molecules. The molar ratio of carbohydrate OH groups to ionic liquid molecules, α, is the key parameter in determining the diffusion coefficients of the ions. Master curves for the diffusion coefficients of cation, anion and their activation energies are generated upon which all our data collapses when plotted against α. Diffusion coefficients are found to follow an Arrhenius type behavior and the difference in translational activation energy between free and associated ions is determined to be 9.3 ± 0.9 kJ/mol. PMID:24405090

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  1. Leaf uptake of methyl ethyl ketone and croton aldehyde by Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Akira; Tobe, Seita; Shimizu, Sachie

    2013-05-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is an abundant ketone in the urban atmosphere and croton aldehyde (CA) is a strong irritant to eye, nose, and throat. The use of plants able to absorb these compounds is one suggested mitigation method. In order to investigate this method, we determined the uptake rate of these compounds by leaves of two tree species, Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum var. awabuki. Using a flow-through chamber method, we found that these species were capable of absorbing both compounds. We also confirmed that the uptake rate of these compounds normalized to the fumigated concentration (AN) was higher at higher light intensities and that there was a linear relationship between AN and stomatal conductance (gS) for both tree species. In concentration-varying experiments, the uptake of MEK and CA seemed to be restricted by partitioning of MEK between leaf water and air. The ratio of the intercellular VOC concentration (Ci) to the fumigated concentration (Ca) for CA was zero, and the ratio ranged from 0.63 to 0.76 for MEK. The more efficient CA uptake ability may be the result of higher partitioning of CA into leaf water. Our present and previous results also suggest that plant MEK uptake ability was different across plant species, depending on the VOC conversion speed inside leaves.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Noha M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M; Algandaby, Mardi M; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. PMID:22842335

  3. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Estimation of alcohol consumption during "Fallas" festivity in the wastewater of Valencia city (Spain) using ethyl sulfate as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Escrivá, Úrsula; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-15

    Alcohol consumption has been increasing in the last years and it has become a sociological problem due its derived health and safety problems. Ethyl sulfate is a secondary metabolite of the alcohol degradation that is excreted through the urine (0.010-0.016%) after alcohol ingestion and it is quite stable in water. In this study, a new methodology to determine ethyl sulfate by ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Different ion-pairs and additives were tested directly in the sample extracts or in the mobile phase. The best ion-pair was set up adding 0.5M of tributylamine and 0.1% of formic acid to the sample. The limit of quantification was 0.3 μg L(-1) and the intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were ≤ 2.8 and ≤ 3.0%, respectively. Good linearity (r(2)<0.999) and low matrix effect (<30% corrected by using internal isotopically labelled internal standard) were achieved. The sampling campaign was from 4th to 20th March of 2014 covering the festivity of Fallas (15th to 19th March). Ethyl sulfate was determined in all influents of the 3 wastewater treatment plants (Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger) belonging to Valencia and surrounding area. Ethyl sulfate concentrations ranged from 1.46 to 19.85 μg L(-1) and alcohol consumption ranged from 1.07 to 56.11 mL day(-1) inhab(-1), being the highest value of alcohol consumption determined during Fallas. This study presents a reliable and alternative method to traditional ones to determine alcohol consumption by population that provides real-time information of alcohol consumption. PMID:26439652

  5. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  6. Crystal structure of (eth­oxy­ethyl­idene)di­methyl­aza­nium ethyl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Tiritiris, Ioannis; Saur, Stefan; Kantlehner, Willi

    2015-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H14NO+·C2H5SO4 −, the C—N bond lengths in the cation are 1.2981 (14), 1.4658 (14) and 1.4707 (15) Å, indicating double- and single-bond character, respectively. The C—O bond length of 1.3157 (13) Å shows double-bond character, indicating charge delocalization within the NCO plane of the iminium ion. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between H atoms of the cations and O atoms of neighbouring ethyl sulfate anions are present, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870525

  7. Prodynorphin CpG-SNPs associated with alcohol dependence: elevated methylation in the brain of human alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Taqi, Malik Mumtaz; Bazov, Igor; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Sheedy, Donna; Harper, Clive; Alkass, Kanar; Druid, Henrik; Wentzel, Parri; Nyberg, Fred; Yakovleva, Tatjana; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2012-01-01

    The genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors may influence the risk for neuropsychiatric disease through their effects on gene transcription. Mechanistically, these effects may be integrated through regulation of methylation of CpG dinucleotides overlapping with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a disorder. We addressed this hypothesis by analyzing methylation of prodynorphin (PDYN) CpG-SNPs associated with alcohol dependence, in human alcoholics. Postmortem specimens of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC) involved in cognitive control of addictive behavior were obtained from 14 alcohol-dependent and 14 control subjects. Methylation was measured by pyrosequencing after bisulfite treatment of DNA. DNA binding proteins were analyzed by electromobility shift assay. Three PDYN CpG-SNPs associated with alcoholism were found to be differently methylated in the human brain. In the dl-PFC of alcoholics, methylation levels of the C, non-risk variant of 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) SNP (rs2235749; C > T) were increased, and positively correlated with dynorphins. A DNA-binding factor that differentially targeted the T, risk allele and methylated and unmethylated C allele of this SNP was identified in the brain. The findings suggest a causal link between alcoholism-associated PDYN 3′-UTR CpG-SNP methylation, activation of PDYN transcription and vulnerability of individuals with the C, non-risk allele(s) to develop alcohol dependence. PMID:21521424

  8. Li-Ion Cells Employing Electrolytes With Methyl Propionate and Ethyl Butyrate Co-Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate at low temperatures to satisfy the requirements of such applications as landers, rovers, and penetrators. A number of terrestrial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) also require energy storage devices that can operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 C), while still providing high power capability and long life. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-30 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. These limitations at very low temperatures are due to poor electrolyte conductivity, poor lithium intercalation kinetics over the electrode surface layers, and poor ionic diffusion in the electrode bulk. Two wide-operating-temperature-range electrolytes have been developed based on advances involving lithium hexafluorophosphate-based solutions in carbonate and carbonate + ester solvent blends, which have been further optimized in the context of the technology and targeted applications. The approaches employed include further optimization of electrolytes containing methyl propionate (MP) and ethyl butyrate (EB), which are effective co-solvents, to widen the operating temperature range beyond the baseline systems. Attention was focused on further optimizing ester-based electrolyte formulations that have exhibited the best performance at temperatures ranging from -60 to +60 C, with an emphasis upon improving the rate capability at -20 to -40 C. This was accomplished by increasing electrolyte salt concentration to 1.20M and increasing the ester content to 60 percent by volume to increase the ionic conductivity at low temperatures. Two JPL-developed electrolytes 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MP (20:20:60 v/v %) and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+EB (20:20:60 v/v %) operate effectively over a wide

  9. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) in urine as biological index of exposure.

    PubMed

    Imbriani, M; Ghittori, S; Pezzagno, G; Capodaglio, E

    1989-11-01

    Fifteen human volunteers were exposed to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) vapor at 11.9-621.8 mg/m3 for a period of 2 to 4 hours at rest (ten cases) and during light physical exercise (five cases). Subsequently 78 workers occupationally exposed to MEK in a manufacture of leather suitcases (median value: 75.5 mg/m3; geometrical standard deviation: 3.12 mg/m3; range: 6-790) were studied. The analyses were performed by means of a Gas Chromatograph (GC) Hewlett-Packard 5880 A connected with a Mass Selective Detector (MSD). The relative uptake (R) of MEK was about 0.54 (standard deviation: 0.05) and it keeps practically constant either at rest or during light effort (V < 30 L/min). A linear relationship existed in the experimentally exposed subjects between urinary concentration (Cu) and amount of MEK absorbed (U) (Cu = 3.05 x U-162.1; r = 0.95; n = 15) (Cu = micrograms/L; U = mg). Both in the experimentally exposed subjects and in the occupationally exposed workers, the urinary concentration of MEK shoved a linear relationship to the corresponding environmental time-weighted average concentration (CI). The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.93 in occupationally exposed subjects (regression equation: Cu = 0.004 x CI + 0.118; n = 78); Cu = mg/L; CI = mg/m3) and more than 0.93 in experimentally exposed groups. The findings indicate that the urinary concentration of MEK can be used as an appropriate biological exposure indicator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2562745

  10. Brahmarasayana protects against Ethyl methanesulfonate or Methyl methanesulfonate induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Rasayana is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda which refers to rejuvenant therapy. It has been reported that rasayanas have immuno-modulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions, however, the genotoxic potential and modulation of DNA repair of many rasayanas have not been evaluated. Methods The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR) on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system. The mice were orally fed with BR (5 g or 8 mg / day) for two months and 24 h later EMS or MMS was given intraperitoneally. The genotoxicity was analyzed by chromosomal aberrations, sperm count, and sperm abnormalities. Results The results have revealed that BR did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control animals (p >0.05). On the other hand, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg / kg body weight) or MMS (125 mg / kg body weight) were significantly higher (p<0.05) to that of the control group. The treatment of BR for 60 days and single dose of EMS or MMS on day 61, resulted in significant (p <0.05) reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in comparison to EMS or MMS treatment alone, indicating a protective effect of BR. Constitutive base excision repair capacity was also increased in BR treated animals. Conclusion The effect of BR, as it relates to antioxidant activity was not evident in liver tissue however rasayana treatment was observed to increase constitutive DNA base excision repair and reduce clastogenicity. Whilst, the molecular mechanisms of such repair need further exploration, this is the first report to demonstrate these effects and provides further evidence for the role of brahmarasayana in the possible improvement of quality of life. PMID:22853637

  11. Infrared-infrared double resonance study of methyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, R. R. J.; Mukhopadhyay, I.; Lees, R. M.

    1992-09-01

    In this work we carried out an infrared-infrared (IR-IR) double resonance (DR) study of methyl alcohol using a CO 2 laser and a lead salt diode laser, in order to confirm previously proposed far-infrared (FIR) laser assignments for the 9P(34) and 9P(16) CO 2 laser lines. For the 9P(34) CO 2 laser line it is confirmed that the pump radiation excites the torsionally excited Q(125, 9) transition of methyl alcohol in agreement with the assignments proposed earlier. From the study it was noticed that due to the pump radiation, transitions which are not connected by dipole selection rules either to the lower or upper pumped level were also affected. Thus it appears that four-level IR-IR DR experiments are unlikely to provide useful information for transition assignments. The diode laser study was coupled with a recent spectroscopic study using a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer to detect and identify hot band and perturbation allowed transitions in CH 3OH.

  12. Promotion of dropwise condensation of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, and acetone by polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Coating condensing surfaces with thin layer of nonpolar Teflon results in dropwise condensation of polar organic vapor. Greater heat transfer coefficients are produced increasing effectiveness of condensing system. Investigation shows that vapors with strong dipole moment tend to condense dropwise.

  13. Kinetics of the gas-phase reaction between ozone and three unsaturated oxygenated compounds: Ethyl 3,3-dimethyl acrylate, 2-methyl-2-pentenal and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona Colmán, Elizabeth; Blanco, María B.; Barnes, Ian; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2015-05-01

    Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of O3 molecules with three unsaturated oxygenated compounds have been determined using the relative kinetic technique in an environmental chamber with FTIR detection of the reactants at (298 ± 2) K in 760 Torr total pressure of synthetic air. The following rate coefficients (in units of 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) were determined: ethyl 3,3-dimethyl acrylate (0.82 ± 0.19), 2-methyl-2-pentenal (0.71 ± 0.16) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (26 ± 7). The different reactivity of the unsaturated oxygenated compounds toward O3 is discussed in terms of their chemical structure. In addition, a correlation between the reactivity of structurally different unsaturated compounds (alkenes and unsaturated oxygenated VOCs, such as ethers, esters, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols) toward O3 molecules and the HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital) of the compounds is presented. Using the kinetic parameters determined in this work, residence times of these unsaturated compounds in the atmosphere with respect to reaction with O3 have been calculated. In urban and rural areas the main sink of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one is reaction with O3 molecules with a residence time in the order of few minutes.

  14. 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt): unsuccessful search for a marker of combined cannabis and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nadulski, Thomas; Bleeck, Simona; Schräder, Johannes; Bork, Wolf-Rainer; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    11-Nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt) can be presumed to be a mixed metabolite formed during combined consumption of cannabinoids and alcohol. In order to examine this hypothesis, THC-COOEt and its deuterated analogue D(3)-THC-COOEt were synthesized as reference substance and internal standard from the corresponding carboxylic acids and diazoethane and methods were developed for the sensitive detection of THC-COOEt in plasma and hair based on gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry after silylation with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) as well as tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS-MS) after derivatization with pentafluoropropionyl anhydride. The methods were applied for THC-COOEt determination to plasma samples from 22 drunk driving cases which contained both ethanol (0.30-2.16 mg/g) and THC-COOH (15-252 ng/mL) as well as to 12 hair samples from drug fatalities which were both positive for THC (0.09-2.04 ng/mg) and fatty acid ethyl esters as markers of chronic alcohol abuse (0.70-6.3 ng/mg). In none of these samples THC-COOEt could be found with limits of detection of 0.3 ng/mL in plasma and 2 pg/mg in hair in 11 samples using GC-NCI-MS and 0.2 pg/mg in one sample using GC-NCI-MS. Therefore, the use of this compound as a marker for combined cannabis and alcohol consumption could not be achieved. PMID:20074877

  15. Carrying out thermodynamic calculations and definition of the main reactions of decomposition of vapours of ethyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sechin, A. I.; Kyrmakova, O. S.; Ivanova, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Thermodynamic opportunities of course of chemical reactions of decomposition of the vapors of ethyl alcohol necessary at development of devices where these reactions will take place are considered. The entalpiyny method of calculation of constants of balance of probable chemical reactions is given in the Excel editor. Independent reactions of process of oxidation are defined. By result of thermodynamic calculation of each reaction schedules of dependence of a constant of balance on environment temperature from which follows are constructed that one reactions proceed until the end of aside formation of the final products, and others are improbable or impossible. The analysis of the received results shows that reactions of oxidation will successfully proceed in the established directions, and for an intensification of process of decomposition it is necessary to provide a supply of some energy which quantity will be sufficient for oxidation of vapors of ethyl alcohol. Results of calculations showed good convergence with programs of thermodynamic calculations like "Aster - 4" and "TERRA".

  16. Depolymerization of lignin by microwave-assisted methylation of benzylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guodian; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhao, Ying; Qian, Yong; Pang, Yuxia; Ouyang, Xinping

    2016-10-01

    A new two-step lignin depolymerization strategy was developed, in which the benzylic alcohols in lignin was methylated under microwave irradiation, followed by a hydrogenolysis for the cleavage of βO4 bond with Pd/C as the catalyst. The results showed that an efficient and selective catalytic methylation of benzylic alcohols was achieved with various lignin model compounds, and the acidic environment promoted the methylation of benzylic alcohol. Methylation of benzylic alcohol increased the βO4 bond cleavage rate by 55.9%, and improved products selectivity. Preliminary study of lignin depolymerization illustrated that methylation pretreatment of benzylic alcohols facilitated lignin depolymerization to produce aromatic monomers and reduced the oxygen content of aromatic monomers. PMID:27420159

  17. Ethyl alcohol and sugar in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy).

    PubMed

    Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Moreno, Raphaël; Crovisier, Jacques; Colom, Pierre; Lis, Dariusz C; Sandqvist, Aage; Boissier, Jérémie; Despois, Didier; Milam, Stefanie N

    2015-10-01

    The presence of numerous complex organic molecules (COMs; defined as those containing six or more atoms) around protostars shows that star formation is accompanied by an increase of molecular complexity. These COMs may be part of the material from which planetesimals and, ultimately, planets formed. Comets represent some of the oldest and most primitive material in the solar system, including ices, and are thus our best window into the volatile composition of the solar protoplanetary disk. Molecules identified to be present in cometary ices include water, simple hydrocarbons, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen-bearing species, as well as a few COMs, such as ethylene glycol and glycine. We report the detection of 21 molecules in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), including the first identification of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, C2H5OH) and the simplest monosaccharide sugar glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) in a comet. The abundances of ethanol and glycolaldehyde, respectively 5 and 0.8% relative to methanol (0.12 and 0.02% relative to water), are somewhat higher than the values measured in solar-type protostars. Overall, the high abundance of COMs in cometary ices supports the formation through grain-surface reactions in the solar system protoplanetary disk. PMID:26601319

  18. Ethyl alcohol and sugar in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy)

    PubMed Central

    Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Moreno, Raphaël; Crovisier, Jacques; Colom, Pierre; Lis, Dariusz C.; Sandqvist, Aage; Boissier, Jérémie; Despois, Didier; Milam, Stefanie N.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of numerous complex organic molecules (COMs; defined as those containing six or more atoms) around protostars shows that star formation is accompanied by an increase of molecular complexity. These COMs may be part of the material from which planetesimals and, ultimately, planets formed. Comets represent some of the oldest and most primitive material in the solar system, including ices, and are thus our best window into the volatile composition of the solar protoplanetary disk. Molecules identified to be present in cometary ices include water, simple hydrocarbons, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen-bearing species, as well as a few COMs, such as ethylene glycol and glycine. We report the detection of 21 molecules in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), including the first identification of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, C2H5OH) and the simplest monosaccharide sugar glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) in a comet. The abundances of ethanol and glycolaldehyde, respectively 5 and 0.8% relative to methanol (0.12 and 0.02% relative to water), are somewhat higher than the values measured in solar-type protostars. Overall, the high abundance of COMs in cometary ices supports the formation through grain-surface reactions in the solar system protoplanetary disk. PMID:26601319

  19. Effect of ethyl alcohol on thermoregulation in mice following the induction of hypothermia or hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Stead, A G

    1988-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) administration on behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation in mice subjected to severe hypothermia or hyperthermia. Male mice of the BALB/c strain were injected intraperitoneally with ethanol at dosages of 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg and then placed within a hot environmental chamber to raise their body temperature to 41 degrees C or, alternatively, within a cold chamber to lower it to 28 degrees C. Once the desired hypothermic or hyperthermic state was achieved, the mice were removed from the chamber and placed in either a temperature gradient to monitor behavioral thermoregulatory responses or in an environmental chamber thermostabilized at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 28 degrees C to monitor metabolic rate. The 3.0 g/kg dosage significantly affected behavioral thermoregulatory responses of the hyperthermic mice when initially placed in the temperature gradient. The ability to increase metabolic rate following hypothermia was significantly suppressed at 3.0 g/kg. Dosages of 1.0 and 3.0 g/kg inhibited metabolic rate of hyperthermic mice. Both hypothermic and hyperthermic mice given 3.0 g/kg of ethanol had colonic temperatures significantly below normal after placement in the temperature gradient and metabolic chamber. In conclusion, relatively large dosages of ethanol impair behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation and may lower the set-point for the control of body temperature in mice. PMID:3413196

  20. Feasibility study for the production of ethyl alcohol and xanthan polymer from barley fermentation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    Feasibility study results indicate that the project meets most criteria for economic and technical viability. The final process selected will produce an aftertax discounted cash flow rate of return between 33 and 41%. This level of return will occur over the range of raw material, energy and product unit prices that are probable over the next decade. In a typical year, using present day costs, the plant will produce gross revenue of $11,531,000 against production costs of $6,836,000. Pretax cash flow will be $5,947,000. This appears adequate to service acceptable levels of debt required to finance the $12,521,000 anticipated construction cost. The first year total cost including an initial three-month working capital reserve will be $13,620,000. The plant is designed to produce three major products: ethyl alcohol, distiller's dried grains and solubles and xanthan polymer. The individual process steps chosen to produce these products have all been demonstrated at the commercial level at other facilities. A pilot program has been in operation for nine months at the RBI facility to develop fermentation and recovery data on the xanthan process and to provide samples for customer comment and evaluation.

  1. The Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Spectrum of Gauche-Ethyl Alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.

    1996-01-01

    We report an investigation of the rotational-torsional spectrum of the gauche rotational isomers of ethyl alcohol in the 51-505 GHz frequency region. Over a thousand transitions between rotational levels in the gauche substates of the ground OH torsional state have been measured and assigned. These transitions involve rotational quantum numbers J and K(sub a) up to 30 and 15, respectively, and are of two types: alpha-type transitions between levels in either the gauche+ or the gauche-substate, and c-type transitions between rotational levels in the different substates. The majority of these transitions have been fit satisfactorily using a two-state Hamiltonian based on the Fixed Framework Axis Method (FFAM). The rotation, distortion, and interaction constants have been determined along with the energy difference between the two gauche substates. The derived constants can be used to predict many more transitions accurately for astronomical purposes. The J and K(sub a) region where the two-state analysis can be used has been determined. The basis for a three-state analysis including the trans substate is presented and the applicability of the FFAM approach is discussed.

  2. Carcinogen-induced DNA repair in nucleotide-permeable Escherichia coli cells. Induction of DNA repair by the carcinogens methyl and ethyl nitrosourea and methyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, H W; Vosberg, H P; Reygers, U

    1975-08-15

    Ether-permeabilized (nucleotide-permeable) cells of Escherichia coli show excision repair of their DNA after having been exposed to the carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MeNOUr), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNOUr) and methyl methanesulfonate (MeSO2OMe) which are known to bind covalently to DNA. Defect mutations in genes uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, recA, recB, recC and rep did not inhibit this excision repair. Enzymic activities involved in this repair were identified by measuring size reduction of DNA, DNA degradation to acid-soluble nucleotides and repair polymerization. 1. In permeabilized cells methyl and ethyl nitrosourea induced endonucleolytic cleavage of endogenous DNA, as determined by size reduction of denatured DNA in neutral and alkaline sucrose gradients. An enzymic activity from E. coli K-12 cell extracts was purified (greater than 2000-fold) and was found to cleave preferentially methyl-nitrosourea-treated DNA and to convert the methylated supercoiled DNA duplex (RFI) of phage phiX 174 into the nicked circular form. 2. Degradation of alkylated cellular DNA to acid solubility was diminished in a mutant lacking the 5' leads to 3' exonucleolytic activity of DNA polymerase I but was not affected in a mutant which lacked the DNA polymerizing but retained the 5' leads 3' exonucleolytic activity of DNA polymerase I. 3. An easily measurable effect is carcinogen-induced repair polymerization, making it suitable for detection of covalent binding of carcinogens and potentially carcinogenic compounds. PMID:170107

  3. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  4. A project to improve the capabilities of minorities in energy fields and a cost benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, T.S.; Jones, M. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    The project being reported in this document had three components: (1) a research project to carry out cost-benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant at Tuskegee University, (2) seminars to improve the high-technology capabilities of minority persons, and (3) a class in energy management. The report provides a background on the three components listed above. The results from the research on the ethyl alcohol plant, are discussed, along with the seminars, and details of the energy management class.

  5. Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Ethyl Levulinate in Liquid Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction pathways for the acid-catalyzed conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to ethyl levulinate (EL) in ethanol were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio high-level quantum chemical (G4MP2) calculations. Our combined studies show that the production of EL at high yields from FAL is not accompanied by stoichiometric production of diethyl either (DEE), indicating that ethoxymethyl furan (EMF) is not an intermediate in the major reaction pathway. Several intermediates were observed using an LC-MS system, and three of these intermediates were isolated and subjected to reaction conditions. The structures of two intermediates were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. One of these intermediates is EMF, which forms EL and DEE in a secondary reaction pathway. The second intermediate identified is 4,5,5-triethoxypentan-2-one, which is analogous to one of the intermediates observed in the conversion of FAL to LA in water (i.e. 4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one). Furthermore, conversion of this intermediate to EL again involves the formation of DEE, indicating that it is also part of a secondary pathway. The primary pathway for production of EL involves solvent-assisted transfer of a water molecule from the partially detached protonated hydroxyl group of FAL to a ring carbon, followed by intra-molecular hydrogen shift, where the apparent reaction barrier for the hydrogen shift is relatively smaller in ethanol (21.1 kcal/mol) than that in water (26.6 kcal/mol). PMID:25035710

  6. Diagnosis of chronic alcohol consumption. Hair analysis for ethyl-glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Jurado, C; Soriano, T; Giménez, M P; Menéndez, M

    2004-10-29

    This paper describes a procedure for the detection and quantification of ethyl-glucuronide (EtG) in hair samples. During method development the efficacy of extraction of EtG from hair was compared in four extraction methods: (a) methanol; (b) methanol:water (1:1); (c) water; and (d) water:trifluoroacetic acid (9:1). In addition, three derivatizing agents were compared as well: N,O-bistrimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA): trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) (99:1), pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) and heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA). Water was found to be the best extracting solvent and PFPA the best derivatizing agent. Both provided the highest recoveries, with cleaner extracts and more stable derivatives. The final method is as follows: about 100mg of hair are sequentially washed with water and acetone. The decontaminated sample is finely cut with scissors, then the deuterated internal standard (EtG-d5) and 2 mL of water are added. After sonication for 2 h, the sample is maintained at room temperature overnight. Derivatization is performed with PFPA. Derivatives are injected into a GC-MS system in the electronic impact mode. The method shows linearity over the range of concentrations from 0.050 to 5 ng/mg. Detection and quantification limits are 0.025 and 0.050 ng/mg, respectively. Mean recoveries for the three studied concentrations (low, medium and high) are higher than 87%. The coefficients of variation in intra- and inter-assay precision are always lower than 7%. The method is being routinely applied in our lab for the diagnosis of chronic alcohol consumption. PMID:15451088

  7. Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to methyl-tert-butyl ether and ethyl propionate increases cholesterol dissolving capacity and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, J J; Groen, A K; Huibregtse, K; Tytgat, G N

    1994-01-01

    There is a discrepancy between in vitro cholesterol dissolving efficacy of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl propionate and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vivo. This study investigated whether the presence of bile changes the cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate. The addition of dimethylsulphoxide to MTBE or ethyl propionate was also studied to discover if it improves the dissolving capacity for cholesterol gall stones. The presence of bile caused a 25% decrease in cholesterol dissolving capacity of both MTBE and ethyl propionate (p < 0.0001). This inhibitory effect of bile could be overcome by the addition of dimethyl-sulphoxide: dimethylsulphoxide caused an increase in cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate, the increase depending on the dimethyl-sulphoxide/bile ratio in the mixture. Mean dissolution time of weight, size, and patient matched cholesterol gall stones was 220 minutes in MTBE and 130 minutes in MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide (p < 0.0001). No stones dissolved completely in ethyl propionate or ethyl propionate/dimethyl-sulphoxide within 300 minutes. In conclusion, MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide is a more potent dissolving agent for cholesterol gall stones than MTBE, giving a 40% reduction in dissolution time. Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to ethyl propionate does not result in faster stone dissolution. MTBE and MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide are far superior to ethyl propionate as solvents for cholesterol gall stones. PMID:7828992

  8. DNA Methylation in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Regulates Alcohol-Induced Behavior and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Tapocik, Jenica D.; Juergens, Nathan; Pitcairn, Caleb; Borich, Abbey; Schank, Jesse R.; Sun, Hui; Schuebel, Kornel; Zhou, Zhifeng; Yuan, Qiaoping; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Goldman, David; Heilig, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested an association between alcoholism and DNA methylation, a mechanism that can mediate long-lasting changes in gene transcription. Here, we examined the contribution of DNA methylation to the long-term behavioral and molecular changes induced by a history of alcohol dependence. In search of mechanisms underlying persistent rather than acute dependence-induced neuroadaptations, we studied the role of DNA methylation regulating medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) gene expression and alcohol-related behaviors in rats 3 weeks into abstinence following alcohol dependence. Postdependent rats showed escalated alcohol intake, which was associated with increased DNA methylation as well as decreased expression of genes encoding synaptic proteins involved in neurotransmitter release in the mPFC. Infusion of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor RG108 prevented both escalation of alcohol consumption and dependence-induced downregulation of 4 of the 7 transcripts modified in postdependent rats. Specifically, RG108 treatment directly reversed both downregulation of synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2) gene expression and hypermethylation on CpG#5 of its first exon. Lentiviral inhibition of Syt2 expression in the mPFC increased aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, supporting a mechanistic role of Syt2 in compulsive-like behavior. Our findings identified a functional role of DNA methylation in alcohol dependence-like behavioral phenotypes and a candidate gene network that may mediate its effects. Together, these data provide novel evidence for DNA methyltransferases as potential therapeutic targets in alcoholism. PMID:25878287

  9. DNA methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates alcohol-induced behavior and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Estelle; Tapocik, Jenica D; Juergens, Nathan; Pitcairn, Caleb; Borich, Abbey; Schank, Jesse R; Sun, Hui; Schuebel, Kornel; Zhou, Zhifeng; Yuan, Qiaoping; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Goldman, David; Heilig, Markus

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have suggested an association between alcoholism and DNA methylation, a mechanism that can mediate long-lasting changes in gene transcription. Here, we examined the contribution of DNA methylation to the long-term behavioral and molecular changes induced by a history of alcohol dependence. In search of mechanisms underlying persistent rather than acute dependence-induced neuroadaptations, we studied the role of DNA methylation regulating medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) gene expression and alcohol-related behaviors in rats 3 weeks into abstinence following alcohol dependence. Postdependent rats showed escalated alcohol intake, which was associated with increased DNA methylation as well as decreased expression of genes encoding synaptic proteins involved in neurotransmitter release in the mPFC. Infusion of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor RG108 prevented both escalation of alcohol consumption and dependence-induced downregulation of 4 of the 7 transcripts modified in postdependent rats. Specifically, RG108 treatment directly reversed both downregulation of synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2) gene expression and hypermethylation on CpG#5 of its first exon. Lentiviral inhibition of Syt2 expression in the mPFC increased aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, supporting a mechanistic role of Syt2 in compulsive-like behavior. Our findings identified a functional role of DNA methylation in alcohol dependence-like behavioral phenotypes and a candidate gene network that may mediate its effects. Together, these data provide novel evidence for DNA methyltransferases as potential therapeutic targets in alcoholism. PMID:25878287

  10. Crystal structure of the tetra­gonal polymorph of bis­(1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium) tetra­bromido­cadmate

    PubMed Central

    Đorđević, Tamara; Gerger, Sabrina; Karanović, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Both unique Cd atoms in the tetra­gonal polymorph of bis­(1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium) tetra­bromido­cadmate, (C6H11N2)2[CdBr4], occupy special positions (site symmetry -4). The crystal structure consists of isolated tetra­hedral [CdBr4]2− anions which are surrounded by 1-ethyl-3-methyl­imidazolium cations. The methyl and ethyl side chains of the cations show positional disorder in a 0.590 (11):0.410 (11) ratio. In the crystal, (C6H11N2)+ cations display three weak C—H⋯Br hydrogen-bond inter­actions through the imidazolium ring H atoms with the Br− ligands of the surrounding complex anions. The alkyl groups of the side chains are not involved in hydrogen bonding. PMID:27555953

  11. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart I... subpart M of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart M... whether the alcohol is to be used for fuel purposes. Customs shall release the alcohol for transfer,...

  12. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart I... subpart M of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart M... whether the alcohol is to be used for fuel purposes. Customs shall release the alcohol for transfer,...

  13. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart I... subpart M of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart M... whether the alcohol is to be used for fuel purposes. Customs shall release the alcohol for transfer,...

  14. Alcohol alters DNA Methylation Patterns and Inhibits Neural Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng C.; Balaraman, Yokesh; Teng, MingXiang; Liu, Yunlong; Singh, Robindra; Nephew, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) include alcohol-induced alterations of methyl metabolism, resulting in aberrant patterns of DNA methylation and gene expression during development. Having previously demonstrated an essential role for epigenetics in neural stem cell (NSC) development and that inhibiting DNA methylation prevents NSC differentiation, here we investigated the effect of alcohol exposure on genome-wide DNA methylation patterns and NSC differentiation. Methods NSCs in culture were treated with or without a 6-hr 88mM (“binge-like”) alcohol exposure and examined at 48 hrs, for migration, growth, and genome-wide DNA methylation. The DNA methylation was examined using DNA-methylation immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by microarray analysis. Further validation was performed using Independent Sequenom analysis. Results NSC differentiated in 24 to 48 hrs with migration, neuronal expression, and morphological transformation. Alcohol exposure retarded the migration, neuronal formation, and growth processes of NSC, similar to treatment with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine. When NSC departed from the quiescent state, a genome-wide diversification of DNA methylation was observed—that is, many moderately methylated genes altered methylation levels and became hyper- and hypomethylated. Alcohol prevented many genes from such diversification, including genes related to neural development, neuronal receptors, and olfaction, while retarding differentiation. Validation of specific genes by Sequenom analysis demonstrated that alcohol exposure prevented methylation of specific genes associated with neural development [cutl2 (cut-like 2), Igf1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), Efemp1 (epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1), and Sox 7 (SRY-box containing gene 7)]; eye development, Lim 2 (lens intrinsic membrane protein 2); the epigenetic mark Smarca2 (SWI/SNF related

  15. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  16. Experimental study of the autoignition of C{sub 8}H{sub 16}O{sub 2} ethyl and methyl esters in a motored engine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu.; Boehman, Andre L.

    2010-03-15

    Autoignition of two biodiesel surrogates, methyl heptanoate and ethyl hexanoate, was studied in a motored CFR engine at an equivalence ratio of 0.25 and an intake temperature of 155 C. The engine compression ratio was gradually increased from the lowest point (4.43) to the point where significant high temperature heat release (HTHR) occurred. Within the test range of this work, both of the two esters exhibited evident cool flame behavior. At the same compression ratio, methyl heptanoate was observed to have both an earlier onset and a higher magnitude of low temperature heat release (LTHR) than ethyl hexanoate, indicating that methyl heptanoate is more reactive in the low temperature region than ethyl hexanoate. GC-MS analyses of the reaction intermediates from the oxidation of the two esters showed that the alkyl chain of fatty acid esters experiences the typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequence. Based on the observations from GC-MS analyses, major low temperature oxidation pathways of ethyl hexanoate are proposed in this work. Also, it is observed that the abstraction of H-atoms on the {alpha}-carbon of the ester carbonyl group plays an important role in the oxidation of fatty acid esters. In addition, the identification of hexanoic acid among the reaction intermediates from low temperature oxidation of ethyl hexanaoate together with the observation of more fuel carbon being converted to C{sub 2}H{sub 4} during ethyl hexanoate oxidation than during methyl heptanoate oxidation provide evidence for the existence of the six-centered unimolecular elimination reaction during low temperature oxidation of ethyl esters. (author)

  17. Utility of urinary ethyl glucuronide analysis in post-mortem toxicology when investigating alcohol-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Sundström, M; Jones, A W; Ojanperä, I

    2014-08-01

    Use and abuse of alcohol are common findings when unnatural deaths are investigated as evidenced by high blood- and urine- alcohol concentrations (BAC and UAC) at autopsy. Because ethanol is metabolized in the liver until the time of death, the autopsy BAC or UAC might be negative even though the deceased had consumed alcohol in the immediate ante-mortem period. Analysis of the non-oxidative metabolite of ethanol [ethyl glucuronide (EtG)] offers a more sensitive test of recent drinking. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of ethanol and EtG in urine samples from 972 consecutive forensic autopsies. In 425 cases (44%) both EtG and ethanol were positive, which supports ante-mortem drinking. In 342 cases (35%), both EtG and ethanol was negative, which speaks against any consumption of alcohol just before death. In 181 cases, ethanol was negative in urine (<0.2 g/kg), whereas EtG was positive (>0.5 mg/L), which points towards ingestion of alcohol some time before death. In these cases, mean and median concentrations of EtG were 53.2 mg/L and 23.7 mg/L, respectively, although there was no mention of alcohol on 131 of the death certificates. Alcohol was mentioned on death certificates as an underlying or immediate cause of death or a contributing factor in 435 (45%) cases, which rose to 566 (58%) cases when positive EtG results were included. This article demonstrates the usefulness of EtG analysis in routine post-mortem toxicology when ante-mortem drinking and alcohol-related deaths are investigated. PMID:24954799

  18. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  19. [Role of mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate) in the obtaining of stabilized magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical application].

    PubMed

    Vazhnichaya, Ye M; Mokliak, Ye V; Kurapov, Yu A; Zabozlaev, A A

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) are studied as agents for magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermia of malignant tumors, targeted drug delivery as well as anti-anemic action. One of the main problems of such NPs is their aggregation that requires creation of methods for magnetite NPs stabilization during preparation of liquid medicinal forms on their basis. The present work is devoted to the possibility of mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate) use for solubilization of magnetite NPs in hydrophilic medium. For this purpose, the condensate produced by electron-beam evaporation and condensation, with magnetite particles of size 5-8 nm deposited into the crystals of sodium chloride were used in conjunction with substance of mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate), and low molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The NP condensate was dispersed in distilled water or PVP or mexidol solutions. NPs size distribution in the liquid phase of the systems was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, iron (Fe) concentration was evaluated by atomic emission spectrometry. It is shown that in the dispersion prepared in distilled water, the major amount of NPs was of 13-120 nm in size, in mexidol solution - 270-1700 nm, in PVP solution - 30-900 nm. In the fluid containing magnetite NPs together with mexidol and PVP, the main fraction (99.9%) was characterized by the NPs size of 14-75 nm with maximum of 25 nm. This system had the highest iron concentration: it was similar to that in the sample with mexidol solution and 6.6-7.3 times higher than the concentration in the samples with distilled water or PVP. Thus, in the preparation of aqueous dispersions based on magnetite NPs condensate, mexidol provides a transition of Fe to the liquid phase in amount necessary to achieve its biological activity, and PVP stabilizes such modified NPs. PMID:26215417

  20. Effects of Blending Alcohols with Poultry Fat Methyl Esters on Cold Flow Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol in a linear fashion with increasing alcohol content. The flash point decreased and moisture content increased upon addition of alcohols t...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  4. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  5. Intermolecular electron transfer states of 1-methyl-3-(N-(1,8-naphthalimidyl)ethyl)imidazolium iodide obtained by constrained density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Takao; Sumita, Masato; Izawa, Hironori; Morihashi, Kenji

    2016-07-21

    Electron transfer (ET) states of 1-methyl-3-(N-(1,8-naphthalimidyl)ethyl)imidazolium iodide are responsible for its photophysics. Investigation of an ET state based on constrained density functional theory (CDFT) revealed that nonradiative decay from the ET excited state is mediated by the interaction of the iodine atom with the 1,8-naphthalimide or the imidazolium group. PMID:27222312

  6. Synthesis and properties of new derivatives of ethyl 7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Sladowska, H; Bartoszko-Malik, A; Zawisza, T

    1990-01-01

    Condensation of diethyl 2-amino-6-methylpyridine-3,4-dicarboxylate with phenyl or cyclohexyl isocyanates gave the corresponding derivatives of ethyl 7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine- 5-carboxylate[(V), (VI)]. Alkylation of (V) and (VI) afforded the corresponding N-1 substituted derivatives (XI-XIX). PMID:2337441

  7. The synthesis and investigation of impurities found in Clandestine Laboratories: Baeyer-Villiger Route Part I; Synthesis of P2P from benzaldehyde and methyl ethyl ketone.

    PubMed

    Doughty, David; Painter, Ben; Pigou, Paul E; Johnston, Martin R

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of impurities detected in clandestinely manufactured Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS) has emerged as more desirable than simple "fingerprint" profiling. We have been investigating the impurities formed when phenyl-2-propanone (P2P) 5, a key ATS precursor, is synthesised in three steps; an aldol condensation of benzaldehyde and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK); a Baeyer-Villiger reaction; and ester hydrolysis. We have identified and selectively synthesised several impurities that may be used as route specific markers for this series of synthetic steps. Specifically these impurities are 3-methyl-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one 3, 2-methyl-1,5-diphenylpenta-1,4-diene-3-one 9, 2-(methylamino)-3-methyl-4-phenyl-3-butene 16, 2-(Methylamino)-3-methyl-4-phenylbutane 17, and 1-(methylamino)-2-methyl-1,5-diphenylpenta-4-ene-3-one 22. PMID:27081790

  8. 3-Ethyl-2-methyl-5-methyl-ene-6,7-di-hydroindol-4(5H)-one.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    The title compound, C(12)H(15)NO, a degradation product of molindone hydro-chloride, was prepared by the reaction of molindone with methyl iodide and subsequent reaction of the resulting quaternary ammonium salt with 2N aqueous sodium hydroxide. The newly formed double bond is exocyclic in nature and the carbonyl group is conjugated with the π-electrons of the pyrrole ring. The six-membered ring is in the half-chair conformation. The H atom attached to the N atom is involved in an inter-molecular hydrogen bond with the O atom of a screw-related mol-ecule, thus forming a continuous chain. PMID:21200723

  9. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Lau, B P; Weber, D; Page, B D

    1987-07-31

    A sensitive and specific method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of ethyl carbamate in table wines, fortified wines (such as ports and sherries), distilled spirits, brandies and liqueurs has been developed. Three characteristic ions from ethyl carbamate [m/z 89 (molecular ion), 74 and 62] were monitored in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The lowest detection limit (based on the response on the m/z 62 ion) was estimated to be 0.5 ng/g (ppb). Additional confirmation techniques, including high-resolution SIM, and methane or isobutane chemical ionization are described. PMID:3654867

  10. Preparation and Fuel Properties of Mixtures of Soybean Oil Methyl and Ethyl Esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil was transesterified using methanol, ethanol, and various mixtures of methanol and ethanol at a constant mole ratio of alcohol to oil of 12:1 in the presence of 1 wt % potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst at 30 deg C for 60 minutes. The effect of mixtures of methanol and ethanol on percent...

  11. Preparation and Fuel Properties of Mixtures of Soybean Oil Methyl and Ethyl Esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil was transesterified using various mixtures of methanol and ethanol at a constant molar ratio of alcohol to oil of 12:1 in the presence of 1 wt% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 30 degrees C for 60 min. The effect of mixtures of methanol and ethanol on percentage yields and fuel propertie...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of bis-(2-cyano-1-methyl-3-{2- {{(5-methylimidazol-4-yl)methyl}thio}ethyl)guanidine copper(II) sulfate tetrahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahardjo, Sentot B.; Endah Saraswati, Teguh; Pramono, Edy; Fitriana, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Complex of copper(II) with 2-cyano-1-methyl-3-{2-{{(5-methylimidazol-4- yl)methyl}thio}ethyl)guanidin(xepamet) had been synthesized in 1 : 4 mole ratio of metal to the ligand in methanol. The complex was characterized by metal analysis, thermal gravimetry/differential thermal analyzer (TG/DTA), molar conductivity meter, (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility balance. The molar conductivity measurement shows that the complex was 2: 1 for electrolyte and SO42- which was acting as a counter ion. The thermal analysis by Thermogravimetric (TG) indicates that the complex contained four molecules of H2O. The Infrared spectral data indicates that functional groups of (C=N) imidazole and (C-S) are coordinated to the center ion Cu2+. Magnetic moment measurement shows that the complex is paramagnetic with peff = 1.78 ± 0.01 BM. Electronic spectra of the complex show a broad band at 608 nm (16447.23 cm-1) are due to Eg→T2g transition. Based on those of characteristics, The complex formula was estimated as [Cu(xepamet)2]SO4.4H2O. The structure of [Cu(xepamet)2]SO4.4H2O complex is probably square planar.

  13. Synthesis, and anticonvulsant activity of new amides derived from 3-methyl- or 3-ethyl-3-methyl-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Obniska, Jolanta; Rapacz, Anna; Rybka, Sabina; Góra, Małgorzata; Kamiński, Krzysztof; Sałat, Kinga; Żmudzki, Paweł

    2016-04-15

    This paper describes the synthesis of the library of 22 new 3-methyl- and 3-ethyl-3-methyl-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetamides as potential anticonvulsant agents. The maximal electroshock (MES) and the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure models were used for screening all the compounds. The 6Hz model of pharmacoresistant limbic seizures was applied for studying selected derivatives. Six amides were chosen for pharmacological characterization of their antinociceptive activity in the formalin model of tonic pain as well as local anesthetic activity was assessed in mice. The pharmacological data indicate on the broad spectra of activity across the preclinical seizure models. Compounds 10 (ED50=32.08mg/kg, MES test) and 9 (ED50=40.34mg/kg, scPTZ test) demonstrated the highest potency. These compounds displayed considerably better safety profiles than clinically relevant antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, ethosuximide, or valproic acid. Several molecules showed antinociceptive and local anesthetic properties. The in vitro radioligand binding studies demonstrated that the influence on the sodium and calcium channels may be one of the essential mechanisms of action. PMID:26970661

  14. Ageing, chronic alcohol consumption and folate are determinants of genomic DNA methylation, p16 promoter methylation and the expression of p16 in the mouse colon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elder age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors for the development of colon cancer. Each factor can alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation. This study examined the effects of aging and chronic alcohol consumption on genomic and p16-specific methylation, and p16 express...

  15. Aging and chronic alcohol consumption are determinants of p16 gene expression, genomic DNA methylation and p16 promoter methylation in the mouse colon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elder age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors for the development of colon cancer. Each factor can alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation. This study examined the effects of aging and chronic alcohol consumption on genomic and p16-specific methylation, and p16 express...

  16. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart I... subpart M of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart M..., Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart L). (b) An appropriate BATF permit shall...

  17. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart I... subpart M of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart M..., Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart L). (b) An appropriate BATF permit shall...

  18. Effect of alcohol consumption on peripheral blood Alu methylation in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Kim, Young Hun; Lee, Won Kee; Na, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Hae Sook

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create a substantial public health problem worldwide. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. They are complex diseases characterized by both genetic and environmental factors. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector of environmental signals and account for multi-factorial nature of the disease. Global DNA methylation of peripheral blood cells has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for disease risk. Alu elements host one-quarter of CpG dinucelotides in the genome to function as proxies for global DNA methylation. In this study, we evaluated the Alu methylation in the peripheral blood DNA of healthy volunteers and AUD patients using the pyrosequencing technology. The Alu methylation level is significantly higher in AUD compared to healthy controls (23.4 ± 1.6 versus 22.1 ± 1.0, t = 7.83, p < 0.0001). Moreover, significant correlation was found between Alu methylation and alcohol use disorders identification test score (r = 0.250, p < 0.0001), alcohol problem (r = 0.294, p < 0.0001), and life position (r = -0.205, p = 0.0005). Overall, these novel findings indicate that alcohol-related increase in Alu methylation might play a complex role in the etiology and pathogenesis of AUD. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship. PMID:26846433

  19. Chirped Pulse-Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy of Ethyl 3-METHYL-3-PHENYLGLYCIDATE (strawberry Aldehyde)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, Steven T.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Suenram, Richard D.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2009-06-01

    Strawberry aldehyde (C_{12} O_3 H_{14}), a common artificial flavoring compound, has two non-interconvertible conformational families defined by the relative stereochemistry around its epoxide carbons. In one family, referred to as the trans because the two large substituents (a phenyl ring and an ethyl ester) are on opposite sides of the epoxide ring, these two substituents are unable to interact with each other. However, in the cis family, there is a long-range interaction that is difficult to accurately capture in electronic structure calculations. Three trans and two cis conformations have been assigned by broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, along with the C-13 isotopomers in natural abundance for one conformer from each of the families. The agreement of the rotational constants, relative dipole moments, and relative energies between theory and experiment is excellent, even at relatively crude levels of theory, for the trans family, but is quite poor for the cis conformers. In addition, due to the reactivity of strawberry aldehyde and the high temperature to which it must be heated to yield a suitable vapor pressure, several decomposition products have been assigned, and more, as of yet unassigned, are likely to be present. This project demonstrates some of the challenges in performing large-molecule rotational spectroscopy.

  20. Macroscopic and microscopic study of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate-DMSO mixtures.

    PubMed

    Radhi, Asanah; Le, Kim Anh; Ries, Michael E; Budtova, Tatiana

    2015-01-29

    Macroscopic (steady-state viscosity, density) and microscopic (NMR chemical shifts, (1)H NMR relaxation times, and diffusion) properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][OAc])-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture were studied in detail as a function of DMSO molar fraction at various temperatures. Temperature dependencies were used to calculate the activation energies. NMR results indicate that at low molar fraction of DMSO (<0.4), it weakly associates with the cation and in doing so disrupts the strong ion-ion association that exists in the pure ionic liquid. Stokes-Einstein equation, which linearly correlates the diffusion coefficient of a spherical molecule and macroscopic viscosity, was shown to work well for the [EMIM][OAc]-DMSO mixture. The influence of DMSO on the "anomalous" diffusion in [EMIM][OAc] ("quick" cation vs "slow" anion) was investigated; it was demonstrated that DMSO makes the cation diffusion slower. All parameters studied showed relatively small deviations from the ideal mixing rule behavior (from 20% to 50% difference between experimental and theoretically predicted results), confirming weak interactions between the components. PMID:25565058

  1. Integrative epigenetic profiling analysis identifies DNA methylation changes associated with chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Lee, Chau-Shoun; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism has always been a major public health concern in Taiwan, especially in the aboriginal communities. Emerging evidence supports the association between DNA methylation and alcoholism, though very few studies have examined the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the epignome. Since 1986, we have been following up on the mental health conditions of four major aboriginal peoples of Taiwan. The 993 aboriginal people who underwent the phase 1 (1986) clinical interviews were followed up through phase 2 (1990-1992), and phase 3 (2003-2009). Selected individuals for the current study included 10 males from the phase 1 normal cohort who remained normal at phase 2 and became dependent on alcohol by phase 3 and 10 control subjects who have not had any drinking problems throughout the study. We profiled the DNA methylation changes in the blood samples collected at phases 2 and 3. Enrichment analyses have identified several biological processes related to immune system responses and aging in the control group. In contrast, differentially methylated genes in the case group were mostly associated with susceptibility to infections, as well as pathways related to muscular contraction and neural degeneration. The methylation levels of six genes were found to correlate with alcohol consumption. These include genes involved in neurogenesis (NPDC1) and inflammation (HERC5), as well as alcoholism-associated genes ADCY9, CKM, and PHOX2A. Given the limited sample size, our approach uncovered genes and disease pathways associated with chronic alcohol consumption at the epigenetic level. The results offer a preliminary methylome map that enhances our understanding of alcohol-induced damages and offers new targets for alcohol injury research. PMID:25555412

  2. Sit up and smell the roses better: olfactory sensitivity to phenyl ethyl alcohol is dependent on body position.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Johan N; Boyle, Julie A; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that body position can alter auditory sensitivity. Here we demonstrate for the first time that olfactory sensitivity for the commonly used odor phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) (rose odor) is also dependent on body position. By using successive dilutions presented in a staircase protocol, we determined olfactory thresholds for PEA in 36 healthy participants (18 women) in both an upright and a supine position. Participants had a significantly greater olfactory sensitivity when tested in an upright than a supine position, with no significant differences between the sexes. This preliminary study sets the stage for further work on the interaction between olfactory functions and our biology. The implications for olfactory neuroimaging studies are discussed. PMID:16394243

  3. H sub 3 PMo sub 12 O sub 40 -doped polyacetylene as a catalyst for ethyl alcohol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pozniczek, J.; Bielanski, A. ); Kulszewicz-Bajer, I.; Zagorska, M. ); Kruczala, K.; Dyrek, K. ); Pron, A. )

    1991-12-01

    A new and highly efficient catalyst was obtained by exploiting the unique ability of polyacetylene to incorporate heteropolyanions (HPA) of the Keggin type via oxidative doping. 12-Molybdophosphoric acid, 20.8 wt%, was introduced into the polymer. A uniform distribution of HPA over the cross section of the polymer film was found. However, the concentration of HPA seemed to be higher at the surface of the polymer fibers than in their bulk. The conversion of ethyl alcohol was used as a catalytic test reaction. The catalyst exhibited both acid-base activity (formation of ethylene and diethyl ether) as well as redox activity (formation of acetaldehyde). The acid-base activity was 10 times higher than that of unsupported H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}, and the redox activity was about 40 times higher.

  4. Kinetics of Exchange Between Zero-, One-, and Two-Hydrogen-Bonded States of Methyl and Ethyl Acetate in Methanol

    PubMed Central

    Chuntonov, Lev; Pazos, Ileana M.; Ma, Jianqiang; Gai, Feng

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the ester carbonyl stretching vibration can be used as a sensitive probe of local electrostatic field in molecular systems. To further characterize this vibrational probe and extend its potential applications, we studied the kinetics of chemical exchange between differently hydrogen-bonded (H-bonded) ester carbonyl groups of methyl acetate (MA) and ethyl acetate (EA) in methanol. We found that while both MA and EA can form zero, one, or two H-bonds with the solvent, the population of the 2hb state in MA is significantly smaller than that in EA. Using a combination of linear and non-linear infrared measurements and numerical simulations, we further determined the rate constants for the exchange between these differently H-bonded states. We found that for MA the chemical exchange reaction between the two dominant states (i.e., 0hb and 1hb states) has a relaxation rate constant of 0.14 ps−1, whereas for EA the three-state chemical exchange reaction occurs in a predominantly sequential manner with the following relaxation rate constants: 0.11 ps−1 for exchange between 0hb and 1hb states, 0.12 ps−1 for exchange between 1hb and 2hb states. PMID:25738661

  5. Synthesis of magnetron sputtered WO₃ nanoparticles-degradation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and dimethyl methyl phosphonate.

    PubMed

    Verma, Monu; Chandra, Ramesh; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, tungsten oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using DC magnetron sputtering and investigated their potential for decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) and dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP). The tungsten oxide nanoparticles were characterized by Powder XRD, FE-SEM, EDS, TEM, TGA, N2-BET and FT-IR techniques. The XRD patterns of as-deposited and post annealed tungsten oxide nanoparticles reveal that the crystallite size of detected monoclinic phase WO3 nanoparticle was increased with increasing annealing temperatures. The phase and increase in particles size of WO3 nanoparticles were also confirmed by Raman and TEM analyses. The obtained surface area (∼63-33 m(2)/g) of magnetron sputtered WO3 nanoparticles was found to be enhanced significantly as compared to reported surface area of WO3 nanoparticles synthesis by various techniques. The study of degradation reactions of CEES and DMMP on the surface of obtained nanoparticles was carried out by using GC and GC-MS techniques. The decontamination reactions were found to be pseudo first order steady state with rate constant (k) and half life values 0.143-0.109 h(-1) and 4.82-6.49 h for CEES and 0.018-0.010 h(-1) and 36.87-66.65 h for DMMP, respectively. The FT-IR data reveal the role of hydrolysis reactions in the decontamination of CEES as well as DMMP. PMID:25965433

  6. Biocatalytic Resolution of Rac-α-Ethyl-2-Oxo-Pyrrolidineacetic Acid Methyl Ester by Immobilized Recombinant Bacillus cereus Esterase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yin-Yan; Luo, Wei-Feng; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Ying, Xiang-Xian; Wang, Zhao

    2016-04-01

    A new esterase-producing strain (Bacillus cereus WZZ001) which exhibiting high hydrolytic activity and excellent enantioselectivity on rac-α-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidineacetic acid methyl ester (R, S-1) has been isolated from soil sample by our laboratory. In this study, the stereoselective hydrolysis of (R, S-1) was performed using the recombinant Bacillus cereus esterase which expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Under the optimized conditions of pH 8.0, 35 °C, and concentration of substrate 400 mM, a successful enzymatic resolution was achieved with an e.e. s of 99.5 % and conversion of 49 %. Immobilization considerably increased the reusability of the recombinant esterase; the immobilized enzyme showed excellent reusability during 6 cycles of repeated 2 h reactions at 35 °C. Thereby, it makes the recombinant B. cereus esterase a usable biocatalyst for industrial application. PMID:26695776

  7. Laboratory simulated dissipation of metsulfuron methyl and chlorimuron ethyl in soils and their residual fate in rice, wheat and soybean at harvest.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Nilanjan; Pramanik, Sukhendu Kumar; Pal, Raktim; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2006-03-01

    Two sulfonylurea herbicides, metsulfuron methyl (Ally 20 WP) and chlorimuron ethyl (Classic 25 WP) were evaluated for their dissipation behaviour in alluvial, coastal saline and laterite soils under laboratory incubated condition at 60% water holding capacity of soils and 30 degrees C temperature was maintained. In field study herbicides were applied twice for the control of grasses, annual and perennials broad leaves weeds and sedges in rice, wheat and soybean to find out the residual fate of both the herbicides on different matrices of respective crops after harvest. Extraction and clean up methodologies for the herbicides were standardized and subsequently analyzed by HPLC. The study revealed that the half-lives of metsulfuron methyl and chlorimuron ethyl ranged from 10.75 to 13.94 d irrespective of soils and doses applied. Field trials with rice, wheat and soybean also revealed that these two herbicides could safely be recommended for application as no residues were detected in the harvest samples. PMID:16502507

  8. Kinetic study of the reaction of the hydroxyl radical (OH) with methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) and its deuterated isotopomers at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljegren, J. A.; Stevens, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) in the atmosphere comes from a variety of sources. It is produced commercially as an industrial ketone. It can be formed as a result of the OH or Cl-initiated oxidation of C4-C6 alkanes, primarily n-butane, or from the reaction of some alkenes with OH or O3. Biogenic sources include direct emissions from certain plants as well as emissions from decaying plant matter. Methyl ethyl ketone is removed from the atmosphere primarily by its reaction with OH. A product of this reaction includes acetaldehyde, which is a hazardous air pollutant, can further react to produce peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN), and can be a significant source of free radicals to the atmosphere. The absolute rate constant for the reaction of OH with methyl ethyl ketone has been measured as a function of temperature at low pressure using discharge-flow techniques coupled with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection of OH. In addition, measurements of the rate constants for the reactions of OH with two deuterated isotopomers of methyl ethyl ketone, including CD3C(O)CH2CH3 and CH3C(O)CD2CD3, will be presented to gain a better understanding of the mechanism for this reaction. Theoretical studies of the potential energy surface for this reaction suggest that the reaction proceeds through the formation of a hydrogen-bonded pre-reactive complex, similar to that of several other atmospherically relevant oxygenated VOCs such as acetone, acetic acid, and hydroxyacetone.

  9. Common and distinct gene expression patterns induced by the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, cinidon-ethyl and tribenuron-methyl in wheat.

    PubMed

    Pasquer, Frédérique; Ochsner, Urs; Zarn, Jürg; Keller, Beat

    2006-12-01

    In wheat, herbicides are used to control weeds. Little is known about the changes induced in the metabolism of tolerant plants after herbicide treatment. The impact of three herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), cinidon-ethyl and tribenuron-methyl] on the wheat transcriptome was studied using cDNA microarrays. Gene expression of plants grown in a controlled environment or in the field was studied between 24 h and 2 weeks after treatment. Under controlled conditions, 2,4-D induced genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway soon after treatment. Cinidon-ethyl triggered peroxidase and defence-related gene expression under controlled conditions, probably because reactive oxygen species are released by photo-oxidation of protoporphyrin-IX. The same genes were upregulated in the field as under controlled conditions, albeit at a weaker level. These results show that cinidon-ethyl specifically induces genes involved in plant defence. Under controlled conditions, tribenuron-methyl did not change the expression profile immediately after treatment, but defence-related genes were upregulated after 1 week. Sulfonylurea compounds such as tribenuron-methyl specifically inhibit acetolactate synthase and are rapidly detoxified, but the activity of some of the resulting metabolites could explain later changes in gene expression. Finally, overexpression of the isopropylmalate synthase gene, involved in branched-chain amino acid synthesis, and of defence-related genes was observed in the field after sulfonylurea treatment. PMID:17054088

  10. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Anjan Panneer; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours. PMID:26996103

  11. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    PubMed Central

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001–100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours. PMID:26996103

  12. New asymmetrical per-substituted cyclodextrins (2-O-methyl-3-O-ethyl- and 2-O-ethyl-3-O-methyl-6-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl-beta-derivatives) as chiral selectors for enantioselective gas chromatography in the flavour and fragrance field.

    PubMed

    Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Martina, Katia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2010-02-12

    Asymmetrically substituted 6(I-VII)-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl(TBDMS)-3(I-VII)-O-ethyl-2(I-VII)-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MeEt-CD) and 6(I-VII)-O-TBDMS-2(I-VII)-O-ethyl-3(I-VII)-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (EtMe-CD) were synthesised to evaluate the role of the substitution pattern in positions 2 and 3 on the enantioselectivity, in particular in view of their application to routine analysis in fast enantioselective gas chromatography (Es-GC). The chromatographic properties and enantioselectivities of the new derivatives were tested by separating the enantiomers of a series of medium-to-high volatility racemates in the flavour and fragrance field, and compared to those of the corresponding symmetrically substituted 6(I-VII)-O-TBDMS-2(I-VII),3(I-VII)-O-methyl-beta-CD (MeMe-CD) and 6(I-VII)-O-TBDMS-2(I-VII),3(I-VII)-O-ethyl-beta-CD (EtEt-CD), and were then applied to analysis of real-world essential oil (e.o.) samples. A new synthetic process including the sonochemical approach to obtain synthetic reproducibility and significant yields of the per-substituted derivatives with acceptable reaction times was developed. The results show that asymmetrically substituted methyl/ethyl CDs compared to the methyl or ethyl symmetrical derivatives in general provide better enantioselectivity in terms of both enantiomer resolution and number of separated chiral compounds, and show how the substitution pattern in positions 2 and 3 of the CD ring can influence the separation. Moreover, these new CD derivatives with better enantioselectivity are also shown to be very useful in routine analysis for the exhaustive control of samples containing several chiral characterizing markers in a single run. PMID:19846102

  13. Methyl alcohol used as penetrant inspection medium for porous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendron, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Porous material thoroughly wetted with alcohol shows persistent wet line or area at locations of cracks or porosity. Inspection is qualitative and repeatable, but is used quantitatively with select samples to grade density variations in graphite blocks. Photography is employed to achieve permanent record of results.

  14. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  15. Atomistic simulations of the solid-liquid transition of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Feng, Haijun; Zhou, Jian; Qian, Yu

    2011-10-14

    Achieving melting point around room temperature is important for applications of ionic liquids. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate the solid-liquid transition of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide ([emim]Br) by direct heating, hysteresis, void-nucleation, sandwich, and microcanonical ensemble approaches. Variations of the non-bonded energy, density, diffusion coefficient, and translational order parameter of [emim]Br are analyzed as a function of temperature, and a coexisting solid-liquid system is achieved in the microcanonical ensemble method. The melting points obtained from the first three methods are 547 ± 8 K, 429 ± 8 K, and 370 ± 6 K; while for the sandwich method, the melting points are 403 ± 4 K when merging along the x-axis by anisotropic isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensemble, 393 ± 4 K when along the y-axis by anisotropic NPT ensemble, and 375 ± 4 K when along the y-axis by isotropic NPT ensemble. For microcanonical ensemble method, when the slabs are merging along different directions (x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis), the melting points are 364 ± 3 K, 365 ± 3 K, and 367 ± 3 K, respectively, the melting points we get by different methods are approximately 55.4%, 21.9%, 5.1%, 14.5%, 11.6%, 6.5%, 3.4%, 3.7%, and 4.3% higher than the experimental value of 352 K. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. The void-nucleation and microcanonical ensemble methods are most favorable for predicting the solid-liquid transition. PMID:22010721

  16. Degradation of methyl and ethyl mercury into inorganic mercury by oxygen free radical-producing systems: involvement of hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Suda, I; Totoki, S; Takahashi, H

    1991-01-01

    Degradation of methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl Hg (EtHg) with oxygen free radicals was studied in vitro by using three well-known hydroxyl radical (.OH)-producing systems, namely Cu2(+)-ascorbate, xanthine oxidase (XOD)-hypoxanthine (HPX)-Fe(III)EDTA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-ultraviolet light B. For this purpose, the direct determination method for inorganic Hg was employed. MeHg and EtHg were readily degraded by these three systems, though the amounts of inorganic Hg generated from MeHg were one half to one third those from EtHg. Degradation activity of XOD-HPX-Fe(III)EDTA system was inhibited by superoxide dismutase, catalase and the .OH scavengers and stimulated by H2O2. Deletion of the .OH formation promoter Fe(III)EDTA from XOD-HPX-Fe(III)EDTA system resulted in the decreased degradation of MeHg and EtHg, which was enhanced by further addition of the iron chelator diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. In all these cases, a good correlation was observed between alkyl Hg degradation and deoxyribose oxidation determining .OH. By contrast, their degradation appeared to be unrelated to either superoxide anion (O2-) production or H2O2 production alone. We further confirmed that H2O2 (below 2 mM) itself did not cause significant degradation of MeHg and EtHg. These results suggested that .OH, but not O2- and H2O2, might be the oxygen free radical mainly responsible for the degradation of MeHg and EtHg. PMID:1647758

  17. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  18. Production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation and its utilization as automotive fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    Alcohol has an excellent future as a fuel, and its large-scale production from sugar-bearing feedstocks should definitely be a stabilizing factor in the economics of the international sugar industry. This article approaches the subject from the sugar industry viewpoint, with emphasis on the underdeveloped countries. The economic data presented here are only approximations so as to give some idea as to the order of magnitude of the capital and operating costs involved. All economic projections are based on conditions prevailing during the third quarter of 1979.

  19. DNA Methylation Program in Developing Hippocampus and Its Alteration by Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Ozturk, Nail Can; Zhou, Feng C.

    2013-01-01

    During hippocampal development, the Cornus Ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG) undergo waves of neurogenesis and neuronal migration and maturation independently. This stage is widely known to be vulnerable to environmental stresses, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Alcohol exposure has been shown to alter the expression of genes that regulate the fate, survival, migration and differentiation of pyramidal and granule cells. Undermining this process might compromise hippocampal development underlying the learning and memory deficits known in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). We have previously demonstrated that DNA methylation was programmed along with neural tube development. Here, we demonstrated that DNA methylation program (DMP) proceeded along with hippocampal neuronal differentiation and maturation, and how this DMP was affected by fetal alcohol exposure. C57BL/6 mice were treated with 4% v/v ethanol through a liquid diet along with pair-fed and chow-fed controls from gestation day (E) 7 to E16. We found that a characteristic DMP, including 5-methylcytidine (5mC), 5-hydroxylmethylcytidine (5hmC) and their binding proteins, led the hippocampal neuronal differentiation and maturation spatiotemporally as indicated by their phenotypic marks in the CA and DG pre- and post-natally. Alcohol hindered the acquisition and progression of methylation marks, and altered the chromatin translocation of these marks in the nucleus, which was correlated with developmental retardation. PMID:23544149

  20. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  1. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  2. Clinical use of meconium fatty acid ethyl esters for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities: the first reported case.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium are validated biomarkers of heavy fetal alcohol exposure that may potentially be used clinically for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities. However, until now, FAEEs have been largely used anonymously in epidemiological studies, and by child protection authorities in need for verification of heavy alcohol use in pregnancy. Here we describe the first case of a neonate identified as part of a research study on a pilot neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure. The neonate's meconium tested high for FAEEs (52 nmol/g; positive cut-off ≥ 2 nmol/g), which prompted active follow-up of the infant's development, identifying early neurocognitive problems and allowing initiation of a remedial program. PMID:22247425

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of methyl and ethyl N,N,N',N'-tetramethylphosphorodiamidate and O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate.

    PubMed

    Aschmann, Sara M; Atkinson, Roger

    2013-10-31

    Rate constants for the reactions of OH radicals with methyl N,N,N',N'-tetramethylphosphorodiamidate [CH3OP(O)[N(CH3)2]2; MTMPDA], ethyl N,N,N',N'-tetramethylphosphorodiamidate [C2H5OP(O)[N(CH3)2]2; ETMPDA], and O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate [CH3OP(O)(CH3)SCH3; OSDMMP] have been measured over the temperature range 281-349 K at atmospheric pressure of air using a relative rate method. The rate expressions obtained were 4.96 × 10(-12) e((1058±71)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (1.73 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) for OH + MTMPDA, 4.46 × 10(-12) e((1144±95)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (2.07 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) for OH + ETMPDA, and 1.31 × 10(-13) e((1370±229)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (1.30 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) for OH + OSDMMP. The rate constant for OH + OSDMMP was independent of O2 content over the range 2.1-71% O2 at 296 ± 2 K. In addition, rate constants for the reactions of NO3 radicals and O3 with MTMPDA, of (1.4 ± 0.1) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and <3.5 × 10(-19) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively, were measured at 297 ± 2 K. Products of the OH radical- and, for MTMPDA, NO3 radical-initiated reactions were investigated using gas chromatography and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. A product of molecular weight 180 was observed from the OH and NO3 radical-initiated reactions of MTMPDA, and this is attributed to CH3OP(O)[N(CH3)2]N(CH3)CHO. Similarly, a product of molecular weight 194 was observed from the OH + ETMPDA reaction and attributed to C2H5OP(O)[N(CH3)2]N(CH3)CHO. Possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24134801

  4. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-ethyl-1-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659644

  5. Crystal structures of ethyl 6-(4-methyl-phen-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxyl-ate and ethyl 6-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Fernandes, Carlos; Gaspar, Alexandra; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structures of two chromone derivatives, viz. ethyl 6-(4-methyl-phen-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxyl-ate, C19H16O4, (1), and ethyl 6-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxyl-ate C18H13FO4, (2), have been determined: (1) crystallizes with two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. A comparison of the dihedral angles beween the mean planes of the central chromone core with those of the substituents, an ethyl ester moiety at the 2-position and a para-substituted phenyl ring at the 6-position shows that each mol-ecule differs significantly from the others, even the two independent mol-ecules (a and b) of (1). In all three mol-ecules, the carbonyl groups of the chromone and the carboxyl-ate are trans-related. The supra-molecular structure of (1) involves only weak C-H⋯π inter-actions between H atoms of the substituent phenyl group and the phenyl group, which link mol-ecules into a chain of alternating mol-ecules a and b, and weak π-π stacking inter-actions between the chromone units. The packing in (2) involves C-H⋯O inter-actions, which form a network of two inter-secting ladders involving the carbonyl atom of the carboxyl-ate group as the acceptor for H atoms at the 7-position of the chromone ring and from an ortho-H atom of the exocyclic benzene ring. The carbonyl atom of the chromone acts as an acceptor from a meta-H atom of the exocyclic benzene ring. π-π inter-actions stack the mol-ecules by unit translation along the a axis. PMID:26870574

  6. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Chiral Epoxides Ethyl and Methyl (S)-3-(Oxiran-2-yl)propanoates from Renewable Levoglucosenone: An Access to Enantiopure (S)-Dairy Lactone.

    PubMed

    Peru, Aurélien A M; Flourat, Amandine L; Gunawan, Christian; Raverty, Warwick; Jevric, Martyn; Greatrex, Ben W; Allais, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Chiral epoxides-such as ethyl and methyl (S)-3-(oxiran-2-yl)propanoates ((S)-1a/1b)-are valuable precursors in many chemical syntheses. Until recently, these compounds were synthesized from glutamic acid in four steps (deamination, reduction, tosylation and epoxide formation) in low to moderate overall yield (20%-50%). Moreover, this procedure requires some harmful reagents such as sodium nitrite ((eco)toxic) and borane (carcinogen). Herein, starting from levoglucosenone (LGO), a biobased chiral compound obtained through the flash pyrolysis of acidified cellulose, we propose a safer and more sustainable chemo-enzymatic synthetic pathway involving lipase-mediated Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation, tosylation and treatment with sodium ethoxide/methoxide as key steps. This route afforded ethyl and methyl (S)-3-(oxiran-2-yl)propanoates in 57% overall yield, respectively. To demonstrate the potentiality of this new synthetic pathway from LGO, the synthesis of high value-added (S)-dairy lactone was undertaken from these epoxides and provided the target in 37% overall yield from LGO. PMID:27483225

  7. Validation (in-house and collaboratory) of the quantification method for ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages and soy sauce by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhu; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Chen, Qing; Han, Jian-Long; Shen, Xiang-Hong

    2013-12-15

    A method for ethyl carbamate (EC) determination in alcoholic beverages and soy sauce was developed by GC-MS. We adopted the diatomaceous earth solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and elution solvent of ethyl acetate/diethyl ether (5:95 v/v) for sample cleaning. The in-house validation showed the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5.0 μg/kg. In the accuracy assay, the total average recovery for was 96.7%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <5%. Subsequently, a collaborative trial was organized for the further validation. The RSDs for repeatability and reproducibility were 1.2-7.8% and 2.3-9.6% respectively. It indicated that the present method performed well in different laboratories. PMID:23993600

  8. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  9. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  10. Investigations on the synthesis and properties of new derivatives of ethyl 3H-2-imino-7-methyl-4-oxopyrido [3,2-e]-1,3-thiazine-6-carboxylate and isomeric compounds.

    PubMed

    Sladowska, H; Zawisza, T

    1982-04-01

    Condensation of diethyl 2-chloro-6-methylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (IV) with thiourea and alkyl or alkenyl N-mono- and N,N'-disubstituted thioureas gives mainly the corresponding derivatives of ethyl 3H-2-imino-7-methyl-4-oxopyrido [3,2-e]-1,3-thiazine-6-carboxylate (VI-XII). As by-products isomeric derivatives of ethyl 7-methyl-4-oxo-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d) pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (XIII-XVIII) are formed. PMID:7084447

  11. Analysis of ethyl sulfate in raw wastewater for estimation of alcohol consumption and its correlation with drugs of abuse in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-09-19

    The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together. PMID:25103281

  12. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the system methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Susial, P.; Ortega, J. . Lab. de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica)

    1993-10-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were determined at 74.66, 101.32, and 127.99 kPa for binary mixtures containing methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol by using a dynamic still with vapor and liquid circulation. No azeotrope was detected. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the point to point test. Application of the group-contribution models ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC to the activity coefficients at the three pressures studied gives average errors of less than 10%, 11%, and 3%, respectively.

  13. Photochromic and microstructural properties of methyl orange doped poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhajantri, R. F.; Sali, Renuka; Ravindrachary, V.; Pujari, P. K.; Sheela, T.; Rathod, Sunil G.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of Methyl Orange (MO) dye on microstructural, optical and fluorescence properties of the polymer Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is studied. The FTIR study shows the appearance of new peaks indicates the interaction of MO with PVA. The UV-Vis study shows three absorption regions with the first two shows red shift and the third one shows blue shift and hence correspondingly three optical energy band gaps. In fluorescence study, it is observed that the intensity increases with increasing wavelength. These results are understood by invoking the hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between PVA and MO, forms the charge transfer complex (CTC).

  14. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  18. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A summary of the safety data available for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols in which the common characteristic structural element is one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4) to C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659633

  19. Profiling of childhood adversity-associated DNA methylation changes in alcoholic patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Fan; Kranzler, Henry R; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The increased vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD) seen in individuals with childhood adversity (CA) may result in part from CA-induced epigenetic changes. To examine CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients, we examined peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 candidate genes in 279 African Americans [AAs; 88 with CA (70.5% with AD) and 191 without CA (38.2% with AD)] and 239 European Americans [EAs; 61 with CA (86.9% with AD) and 178 without CA (46.6% with AD)] using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array assays. The effect of CA on methylation of individual CpGs and overall methylation in promoter regions of genes was evaluated using a linear regression analysis (with consideration of sex, age, and ancestry proportion of subjects) and a principal components-based analysis, respectively. In EAs, hypermethylation of 10 CpGs in seven genes (ALDH1A1, CART, CHRNA5, HTR1B, OPRL1, PENK, and RGS19) were cross validated in AD patients and healthy controls who were exposed to CA. P values of two CpGs survived Bonferroni correction when all EA samples were analyzed together to increase statistical power [CHRNA5_cg17108064: P(adjust) = 2.54×10(-5); HTR1B_cg06031989: P(adjust)  = 8.98×10(-5)]. Moreover, overall methylation levels in the promoter regions of three genes (ALDH1A1, OPRL1 and RGS19) were elevated in both EA case and control subjects who were exposed to CA. However, in AAs, CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients were not validated in healthy controls. Our findings suggest that CA could induce population-specific methylation alterations in the promoter regions of specific genes, thus leading to changes in gene transcription and an increased risk for AD and other disorders. PMID:23799031

  20. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as alcohol markers: estimating a reliable cut-off point by evaluation of 1,057 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Bossers, Lydia; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Herre, Sieglinde; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem, especially in Western countries. Therefore, it is important to have markers of alcohol consumption with validated cut-off points. For many years research has focused on analysis of hair for alcohol markers, but data on the performance and reliability of cut-off values are still lacking. Evaluating 1,057 cases from 2005 to 2011, included a large sample group for the estimation of an applicable cut-off value when compared to earlier studies on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair. The FAEEs concentrations in hair, police investigation reports, medical history, and the macroscopic and microscopic alcohol-typical results from autopsy, such as liver, pancreas, and cardiac findings, were taken into account in this study. In 80.2 % of all 1,057 cases pathologic findings that may be related to alcohol abuse were reported. The cases were divided into social drinkers (n = 168), alcohol abusers (n = 502), and cases without information on alcohol use. The median FAEEs concentration in the group of social drinkers was 0.302 ng/mg (range 0.008-14.3 ng/mg). In the group of alcohol abusers a median of 1.346 ng/mg (range 0.010-83.7 ng/mg) was found. Before June 2009 the hair FAEEs test was routinely applied to a proximal hair segment of 0-6 cm, changing to a routinely investigated hair length of 3 cm after 2009, as proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT). The method showed significant differences between the groups of social drinkers and alcoholics, leading to an improvement in the postmortem detection of alcohol abuse. Nevertheless, the performance of the method was rather poor, with an area under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve AUC) of 0.745. The optimum cut-off value for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair FAEEs was 1.08 ng/mg, with a sensitivity of 56 % and a specificity of 80 %. In relation to the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012

  1. Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

  2. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-[2-(4-methyl­benzo­yl)-5-p-tolyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl]acetate

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, E. Arockia Jeya Yasmi; Kumar, S. Suresh; Padala, Anil K.; Ahmed, Qazi Naveed; Athimoolam, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C22H22N2O3, the plane of the five-membered ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 45.4 (1) and 52.5 (1)° to the phenyl rings. Furthermore, this ring makes an angle of 85.2 (2)° with the plane of the ethyl acetate substituent. The mol­ecular structure is affected by an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond between an H atom from the p-tolyl group and the carbonyl O atom of the acetate. The methyl group of the ethyl acetate residue is disordered over two sites with equal occupancies. The crystal structure features inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N inter­actions. One of the C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds forms a C(5) chain motif extending along the a axis. In addition, C—H⋯N contacts form inversion dimers with R 2 2(12) ring motifs, linking the imidazole ring system to the benzene ring of the p-tolyl substituent. PMID:27006805

  3. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-[2-(4-methyl-benzo-yl)-5-p-tolyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl]acetate.

    PubMed

    Prabha, E Arockia Jeya Yasmi; Kumar, S Suresh; Padala, Anil K; Ahmed, Qazi Naveed; Athimoolam, S

    2016-03-01

    In the title compound, C22H22N2O3, the plane of the five-membered ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 45.4 (1) and 52.5 (1)° to the phenyl rings. Furthermore, this ring makes an angle of 85.2 (2)° with the plane of the ethyl acetate substituent. The mol-ecular structure is affected by an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond between an H atom from the p-tolyl group and the carbonyl O atom of the acetate. The methyl group of the ethyl acetate residue is disordered over two sites with equal occupancies. The crystal structure features inter-molecular C-H⋯O and C-H⋯N inter-actions. One of the C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forms a C(5) chain motif extending along the a axis. In addition, C-H⋯N contacts form inversion dimers with R 2 (2)(12) ring motifs, linking the imidazole ring system to the benzene ring of the p-tolyl substituent. PMID:27006805

  4. 3-(2-Chloro­ethyl)-2-methyl-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Jasinski, Jerry P.; Butcher, Ray J.; Hakim Al-Arique, Q. N. M.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Narayana, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C11H11ClN2O, the pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine ring system is planar (maximum deviation = 0.0148 Å) and the methyl C and carbonyl O atoms are nearly coplanar to it. The chloro­ethyl side chain is in a synclinal conformation, nearly orthogonal to the pyrimidine ring, with a dihedral angle between the chloro­ethyl side chain and the pyrimidine ring of 88.5 (1)°. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯N and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds along with π–π inter­actions between the pyrimidine and pyridine rings [centroid–centroid distance is 3.538 (2) Å] form a three-dimensional network. The crystal is a racemic twin with a 0.68 (12):0.32 (12) domain ratio. MOPAC AM1 and density functional theory (DFT) theoretical calculations at the B3-LYP/6–311+G(d,p) level support these observations. PMID:21583662

  5. Molecular structures of tert-butyl alcohol and tert-butyl methyl ether as studied by gas electron diffraction combined with vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Atsuhiko; Ohta, Hiroshi; Konaka, Shigehiro

    1988-02-01

    The molecular of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) have been determined by gas electron diffraction. Vibrational spectra have been measured for TBME. Normal coordinate analyses have been performed to obtain harmonic force fields and to calculate mean amplitudes and shrinkage corrections. Principal bond lengths ( rg) and angles ( rα are: r(OH) = 1.016(14) Å, r(CO) = 1.446(4) Å, r(CC) - 1.529(2) Å, ∠COH = 108(3)° and ∠CCC = 110.9(2)° for TBA r(C 2O) = 1.448(4) Å, r(CC) = 1.532(2) Å, ∠COC = 118.9(14)° and ∠CCC = 111.1(2)° for TBME. The results have been compared with values from molecular mechanics and SCF MO calculations. The observed geometry for TBA is consistent with the rotational constant reported by Valenzuela. The rg(CO) value of TBA is about 0.02 Å larger than that of methanol. The values of rg(C 2O) and ∠COC of TBME are about 0.03 Å and 7° larger than the corresponding values of dimethyl ether and ethyl methyl ether.

  6. Molecular compressibility of some halides in alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serban, C.; Auslaender, D.

    1974-01-01

    After measuring ultrasonic velocity and density, the molecular compressibility values from Wada's formula were calculated, for alkali metal halide solutions in methyl, ethyl, butyl, and glycol alcohol. The temperature and concentration dependence were studied, finding deviations due to the hydrogen bonds of the solvent.

  7. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  8. Allium cepa anaphase-telophase root tip chromosome aberration assay on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, maleic hydrazide, sodium azide, and ethyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1997-04-24

    The Allium anaphase-telophase assay was used to show genotoxicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), maleic hydrazide (MH), sodium azide (NaN3) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). All agents induced chromosome aberrations at statistically significant levels. The rank of the lowest doses with positive effect was as follows: NaN3 0.3 mg/l < MH 1 mg/l < MNU 41 mg/l < EMS 100 mg/l. The results were compared with results from other plant assays (Arabidopsis, Vicia, Tradescantia) and for MH and MNU the values were found to be within the same range, whereas the results in the Allium test for NaN3 and EMS were in a lower range than that found for the other plant assays. EMS and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate), two chemicals used as positive controls in mutagenicity testing, were compared in the Allium test, and MMS was found to be about ten times more potent in inducing chromosome aberrations than EMS. Recording of micronuclei in interphase cells showed that this endpoint does not give more information of clastogenicity than recording of chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:9150760

  9. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  10. DIPPR Project 871 For 1995 - Thermodynamic Properties and Ideal-Gas Enthalpies of Formation for Methyl Benzoate, Ethyl Benzoate, (R)-(+)-Limonene, Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether, Trans-Crotonaldehyde, and

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.

    2002-07-01

    Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, (R)-(+)-limonene, tert-amyl methyl ether, trans-crotonaldehyde, and diethylene glycol are reported. The standard energy of combustion and hence standard enthalpy of formation of each compound in the liquid phase has been measured using an oxygen rotating-bomb calorimeter without rotation. Vapor pressures were measured to a pressure limit of 270 kPa or the lower decomposition point for each of the six compounds using a twin ebulliometric apparatus. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for each compound over a range of temperature (ambient to a maximum of 548 K). A differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure two-phase (liquid + vapor) heat capacities for each compound in the temperature region ambient to the critical temperature or lower decomposition point. For methyl benzoate and tert-amyl methyl ether, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the DSC results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, critical pressures, and critical densities for each of the remaining compounds. The results of the measurements were combined to derive a series of thermophysical properties including critical temperature, critical density, critical pressure, acentric factor, enthalpies of vaporization (restricted to within {+-}50 K of the temperature region of the experimentally determined vapor pressures), and heat capacities along the saturation line. Wagner-type vapor-pressure equations were derived for each compound. All measured and derived values were compared with those obtained in a search of the literature. Recommended critical parameters are listed for each of the compounds studied. Group-additivity parameters, useful in the application of the Benson gas-phase group-contribution correlations, were derived.

  11. EVALUATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AS AN INTERFERENCE ON COMMERCIAL BREATH-ALCOHOL ANALYZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anecdotal reports suggest that high environmental or occupational exposures to the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) may result in breath concentrations that are sufficiently elevated to cause a false positive on commercial breath-alcohol analyzers. We evaluated th...

  12. Fabrication of Poly (methyl methacrylate) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) Thin Film Capacitors on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Bindu; Meenaa Pria KNJ, Jaisree; Alagappan, M.; Kandaswamy, A.

    2015-11-01

    Flexible electronics is becoming more popular with introduction of more and more organic conducting materials and processes for making thin films. The use of polymers as gate dielectric has over ruled the usage of conventional inorganic oxides in Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) on account of its solution process ability and ease of making highly insulating thin film. In this work Capacitance is fabricated with polymeric dielectrics namely poly (methyl methacrylate) - PMMA and poly (vinyl alcohol) - PVA. The electrodes used for these capacitors are Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and Aluminium. Capacitance value of 9.5nF/cm2 and 33.12nF/cm2 is achieved for thickness of 510 nm of PMMA and 80 nm of PVA respectively. This study on capacitance can be used for assessing the suitability of these polymers as gate insulators in OTFTs.

  13. ESR spectrometric characterization of the methyl viologen dosimeter in poly(vinyl alcohol) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Sei-Ichi; Ye, Mu; Lu, Yiqun; Kawamura, Takashi; Kagiya, Tsutomu

    A dosimeter of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film containing methyl viologen dichloride (MV 2+ (Cl -) 2) was characterized by means of ESR and u.v. spectrometries. γ-irradiation of the MV 2+-PVA dosimeter induced one-electron reduction of MV 2+· to thecation radical (MV +), thus giving rise to blue coloration. The resulting MV +· showed an ESR signal with a g-factor of 2.0031. The yield of MV +· at a given radiation dose was estimated from duplicate integral of the ESR first-derivative spectra by reference to 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The yield of MV +· thus estimated increased linearly with increasing the radiation dose up to about 1.4 Mrad. The ESR spectrometry of MV +· showed a linear correlation with the u.v. spectrometric method reported previously.

  14. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  15. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters methyl metabolism and programs serotonin transporter and glucocorticoid receptor expression in brain.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Ying Fai; Sulistyoningrum, Dian C; O'Neill, Ryan; Innis, Sheila M; Weinberg, Joanne; Devlin, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in HPA dysregulation and hyperresponsiveness to stressors in adulthood. Molecular mechanisms mediating these alterations are not fully understood. Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, a source of methyl donors for epigenetic processes, contributes to alcoholic liver disease. We assessed whether PAE affects one-carbon metabolism (including Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA) and programming of HPA function genes (Nr3c1, Nr3c2, and Slc6a4) in offspring from ethanol-fed (E), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. At gestation day 21, plasma total homocysteine and methionine concentrations were higher in E compared with C dams, and E fetuses had higher plasma methionine concentrations and lower whole brain Mtr and Mat2a mRNA compared with C fetuses. In adulthood (55 days), hippocampal Mtr and Cbs mRNA was lower in E compared with C males, whereas Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA were higher in E compared with C females. We found lower Nr3c1 mRNA and lower nerve growth factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A) protein in the hippocampus of E compared with PF females, whereas hippocampal Slc6a4 mRNA was higher in E than C males. By contrast, hypothalamic Slc6a4 mRNA was lower in E males and females compared with C offspring. This was accompanied by higher hypothalamic Slc6a4 mean promoter methylation in E compared with PF females. These findings demonstrate that PAE is associated with alterations in one-carbon metabolism and has long-term and region-specific effects on gene expression in the brain. These findings advance our understanding of mechanisms of HPA dysregulation associated with PAE. PMID:26180184

  16. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  17. Short-range order and fractal cluster structure of aggregates of barium titanate microparticles in a composite based on cyano-ethyl ester of polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasovskii, A. N.; Novikov, D. V.; Vasina, E. S.; Matveichikova, P. V.; Sychev, M. M.; Rozhkova, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of barium titanate (BaTiO3) microparticles in the matrix of cyano-ethyl ester of polyvinyl alcohol and the change in the surface energy upon introduction of shungite carbon nanoclusters into the dielectric composite have been investigated using the methods of scanning electron microscopy and contact angles. The computer processing of the electron microscopy data has demonstrated that the introduction of 0.04% shungite carbon nanoparticles into the composite leads to a decrease in the spatial homogeneity of the quasi-lattice and to an increase in the local density distribution of BaTiO3 microparticles, as well as in the correlation length corresponding to the formation of an infinite cluster of BaTiO3 particles. It has been found that, in this case, the surface energy and dielectric permittivity of the composite extremely increase.

  18. Alcohol-associated folate disturbances result in altered methylation of folate-regulating genes.

    PubMed

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Hamid, Abid; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2012-04-01

    Folate plays a critical role in maintaining normal metabolic, energy, differentiation and growth status of all mammalian cells. The steady-state accumulation of folate seems to depend on the activity of two enzymes: folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), which adds glutamate residues, and gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH), which removes them, enabling it to be transported across the biological membranes. Overexpression of GGH and downregulation of FPGS would be expected to decrease intracellular folate in its polyglutamylated form, thereby increasing efflux of folate and its related molecules, which might lead to resistance to drugs or folate deficiency. The study was sought to delineate the activity of GGH and expression FPGS in tissues involved in folate homeostasis during alcoholism and the epigenetic regulation of these enzymes and transporters regulating intracellular folate levels. We determined the activity of GGH and expression of FPGS in tissues after 3 months of ethanol feeding to rats at 1 g/kg body weight/day. The results showed that there was not any significant change in the activity of folate hydrolyzing enzyme GGH in ethanol-fed rats while there was significant down regulation in the expression of FPGS. Ethanol feeding decreased the total as well as polyglutamated folate levels. There was tissue-specific hyper/hypo methylation of folate transporter genes viz. PCFT and RFC by chronic ethanol feeding. Moreover, hypermethylation of FPGS gene was observed in intestine and kidney without any change in methylation levels of GGH in the ethanol-fed rats. In conclusion, the initial deconjugation of polyglutamylated folate by GGH was not impaired in ethanol-fed rats while the conversion of monoglutamylated folate to polyglutamylated form might be impaired. There was tissue-specific altered methylation of folate transporter genes by chronic ethanol feeding. PMID:22147198

  19. Ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose buoyant microspheres of metoprolol succinate: Influence of pH modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Neha S; Somvanshi, Sachin; Jumde, Amol B; Khandelwal, Harsha M; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor Ramdas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Incorporation of pH modifier has been the usual strategy employed to enhance the dissolution of weakly basic drug from floating microspheres. Microspheres prepared using a combination of both ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) which shows highest release were utilize to investigate the effect of fumaric acid (FA), citric acid (CA), ascorbic acid (AA) and tartaric acid (TA) (all 5-20% w/w) incorporation on metoprolol succinate (MS) release. Materials and Methods: EC, HPMC alone or in combination were used to prepare microspheres that floated in simulated gastric fluid and evaluated for a percent yield, drug entrapment, percent buoyancy and drug release. The higher drug release in combination (MS:HPMC:EC, 1:1:2) was selected for the evaluation of influence of pH modifiers on MS release. CA (5-20% w/w), AA (5-20% w/w), FA (5-20% w/w) and TA (5-20% w/w) were added and evaluated for drug release. Present investigation is directed to develop floating drug delivery system of MS by solvent evaporation technique. Results: The microspheres of MS:HPMC:EC (1:1:2) exhibited the highest entrapment (74.36 ± 2.18). The best percentage yield was obtained at MS:HPMC (1:1) (83.96 ± 1.50) and combination of MS:HPMC:EC (1:1:2) (79.23 ± 1.63). Conclusion: MS release from the prepared microspheres was influenced by changing MS-polymer, MS-polymer-polymer ratio and pH modifier. Although significant increment in MS release was observed with CA (20% w/w), TA (20% w/w) and AA (20% w/w), addition of 20% w/w FA demonstrated more pronounced and significant increase in drug entrapment as well as release from MS:HPMC:EC (1:1:2) buoyant microspheres. PMID:24167789

  20. Growth of tantalum nitride film as a Cu diffusion barrier by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition from bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Hyo Yeon; Lee, Sang Chan; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jin-Seong; Jeon, Dong Ju; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun

    2016-01-01

    A new bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex was synthesized for plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of tantalum nitride (TaN) film. Using the synthesized Ta compound, PEALD of TaN was conducted at growth temperatures of 150-250 °C in combination with NH3 plasma. The TaN PEALD showed a saturated growth rate of 0.062 nm/cycle and a high film density of 9.1-10.3 g/cm3 at 200-250 °C. Auger depth profiling revealed that the deposited TaN film contained low carbon and oxygen impurity levels of approximately 3-4%. N-rich amorphous TaN films were grown at all growth temperatures and showed highly resistive characteristic. The Cu barrier performance of the TaN film was evaluated by annealing of Cu/TaN (0-6 nm)/Si stacks at 400-800 °C, and excellent Cu diffusion barrier properties were observed even with ultrathin 2 nm-thick TaN film.

  1. Reanalysis of the ground and three torsional excited states of trans-ethyl methyl ether by using an IAM-like tunneling matrix formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Sakai, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shozo; Miyamoto, Taihei; Fujitake, Masaharu; Ohashi, Nobukimi

    2016-03-01

    The trans-ethyl methyl ether has two inequivalent methyl internal rotors and shows tunneling splittings of maximum up to five components. However, the barrier of these two internal rotation potentials were relatively high and the five components were not resolved in the ground state microwave spectra. In this study, well-resolved Fourier transform microwave ground state spectrum was measured for the first time to resolve the five components. The ground state microwave spectra were reanalyzed based on these new measurements and the additional millimeter-wave spectra as well as those studied previously by Fuchs et al. Ninety Fourier transform microwave spectral lines were assigned to 107 transitions in the ground state and 3508 conventional microwave absorption lines were assigned up to Ka = 16 of the ground state, including all 707 lines reported by Fuchs et al. In addition, 10 transitions were observed by the double resonance experiment. They were least-squares-analyzed by the use of an internal axis method (IAM)-like tunneling matrix formalism based on an extended permutation-inversion group theoretical idea. Twenty-two molecular parameters composed of rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, internal rotation parameters and internal rotation tunneling parameters were determined for the ground state. The microwave spectra in the three torsionally excited states, that is, the ν28 = 1 C-CH3 torsional state, the ν29 = 1 O-CH3 torsional state and the ν30 = 1 skeletal torsional state, were also reanalyzed by using the IAM-like tunneling matrix formalism and somewhat extended line assignments.

  2. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-15

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  3. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving. PMID:26628164

  4. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  5. Post-Intake of S-Ethyl Cysteine and S-Methyl Cysteine Improved LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Te-Chun; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of S-ethyl cysteine (SEC) and S-methyl cysteine (SMC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice were examined. Eight hours after LPS challenge, SEC or SMC was supplied in drinking water at 0.5% or 1% for 3 days. LPS increased lung myeloperoxidase activity, neutrophil counts and edema. SEC or SMC post-intake attenuated these events. SEC or SMC suppressed LPS-induced lung expression of cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase, and lowered the generation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prostaglandin E₂. LPS enhanced the expression of p47(phox), gp91(phox), Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and increased the production of reactive oxygen species in the lung. SEC or SMC post-intake reversed these alterations. These findings suggest that these agents could protect the lung through their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities. PMID:27548215

  6. Aluminium triggers genotoxic adaptation to methyl mercuric chloride and ethyl methane sulfonate, but not to maleic hydrazide in plant cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Patra, J; Baisakhi, B; Mohapatro, M K; Panda, B B

    2000-02-16

    Non-toxic, conditioning doses of aluminium chloride were tested for induction of adaptive response to the genotoxic challenge doses of methyl mercuric chloride (MMCl), maleic hydrazide (MH) and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Embryonic shoot cells of Hordeum vulgare and root meristem cells of Allium cepa were employed as the assay systems. Plant tissues fixed at different recovery hours following the challenge treatments with or without prior Al-conditioning were analyzed for cells with genotoxicity markers that include spindle and/or chromosome aberrations and micronuclei (MNC). The results provided evidence that Al(3+) triggered adaptive response that protected the plant cells from the genotoxicity of MMCl and EMS. Al(3+), however, failed to induce adaptive response against the genotoxicity of MH. A comparison of Al-induced adaptive response with that induced by heavy metals: Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) and oxidative agents: hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and paraquat (PQ) pointed to the similarity of Al-adaptive response to that of PQ rather than to other heavy metals or H(2)O(2). Al-induced adaptive response demonstrated in the present study to MMCl and EMS possibly involved antioxidant defense and DNA repair systems, respectively. PMID:10708964

  7. Continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate to γ-valerolactone and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran over alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst: the potential of commercialization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Junlin; Zhu, Junhua; Xu, Xuan; Wang, Wanmin; Li, Jiwen; Zhao, Yan; Tang, Kangjian; Song, Qi; Qi, Xiaolan; Kong, Dejin; Tang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) and its esters to produce γ-valerolactone (GVL) and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) is a key step for the utilization of cellulose derived LA. Aiming to develop a commercially feasible base metal catalyst for the production of GVL from LA, with satisfactory activity, selectivity, and stability, Al2O3 doped Cu/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 catalysts were fabricated by co-precipitation routes in parallel. The diverse physio-chemical properties of these two catalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, dissociative N2O chemisorptions, and Py-IR methods. The catalytic properties of these two catalysts were systematically assessed in the continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate (EL) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of acidic property of the SiO2 substrate on the catalytic properties was investigated. To justify the potential of its commercialization, significant attention was paid on the initial activity, proper operation window, by-products control, selectivity, and stability of the catalyst. The effect of reaction conditions, such as temperature and pressure, on the performance of the catalyst was also thoroughly studied. The development of alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst strengthened the value-chain from cellulose to industrially important chemicals via LA and GVL. PMID:27377401

  8. Continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate to γ-valerolactone and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran over alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst: the potential of commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Junlin; Zhu, Junhua; Xu, Xuan; Wang, Wanmin; Li, Jiwen; Zhao, Yan; Tang, Kangjian; Song, Qi; Qi, Xiaolan; Kong, Dejin; Tang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) and its esters to produce γ-valerolactone (GVL) and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) is a key step for the utilization of cellulose derived LA. Aiming to develop a commercially feasible base metal catalyst for the production of GVL from LA, with satisfactory activity, selectivity, and stability, Al2O3 doped Cu/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 catalysts were fabricated by co-precipitation routes in parallel. The diverse physio-chemical properties of these two catalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, dissociative N2O chemisorptions, and Py-IR methods. The catalytic properties of these two catalysts were systematically assessed in the continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate (EL) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of acidic property of the SiO2 substrate on the catalytic properties was investigated. To justify the potential of its commercialization, significant attention was paid on the initial activity, proper operation window, by-products control, selectivity, and stability of the catalyst. The effect of reaction conditions, such as temperature and pressure, on the performance of the catalyst was also thoroughly studied. The development of alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst strengthened the value-chain from cellulose to industrially important chemicals via LA and GVL.

  9. Post-Intake of S-Ethyl Cysteine and S-Methyl Cysteine Improved LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Te-chun; Yin, Mei-chin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of S-ethyl cysteine (SEC) and S-methyl cysteine (SMC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice were examined. Eight hours after LPS challenge, SEC or SMC was supplied in drinking water at 0.5% or 1% for 3 days. LPS increased lung myeloperoxidase activity, neutrophil counts and edema. SEC or SMC post-intake attenuated these events. SEC or SMC suppressed LPS-induced lung expression of cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase, and lowered the generation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prostaglandin E2. LPS enhanced the expression of p47phox, gp91phox, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and increased the production of reactive oxygen species in the lung. SEC or SMC post-intake reversed these alterations. These findings suggest that these agents could protect the lung through their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities. PMID:27548215

  10. Dendrite-Free Aluminum Electrodeposition from AlCl3-1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Debabrata; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2012-06-01

    A novel, dendrite-free electrorefining of aluminum scrap alloys (A360) was investigated by using a low-temperature AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquid electrolyte on copper/aluminum cathodes. The bulk electrodeposition of aluminum was carried out at a fixed voltage of 1.5 V, temperatures 323 K to 383 K (50 °C to 110 °C), stirring rate (0 to 120 rpm), concentration (molar ratio AlCl3:EMIC = 1.25 to 2.0), and electrode surface modification (modified/unmodified). The study investigated the effect of electrode surface modification, cathode materials, temperature, stirring rate, electrolyte concentration, and deposition time on the deposit morphology of aluminum, cathode current density, and their role in production of dendrite-free aluminum deposit, which is essential for decreasing the production cost. The deposits were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was shown that electrode surface modification, cathode overpotential, and stirring rate play an important role in dendrite-free deposit. Modified electrodes and stirring (60 rpm) eliminate dendritic deposition by reducing cathode overpotential below critical overpotential ( η_{{crt}} ≈ - 0.53V ) for dendrite formation. Pure aluminum (>99 pct) was deposited for all experiments with a current efficiency of 84 to 99 pct and energy consumption of 4.51 to 5.32 kWh/kg Al.

  11. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity of S-ethyl N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC), molinate, and S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamate (MeDETC) in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Samuel W.; Valentine, William M.; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies corroborate a correlation between pesticide use and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thiocarbamate and dithiocarbamate pesticides are widely used and produce neurotoxicity in the peripheral nervous system. Recent evidence from rodent studies suggests that these compounds also cause dopaminergic (DAergic) dysfunction and altered protein processing, two hallmarks of PD. However, DAergic neurotoxicity has yet to be documented. We assessed DAergic dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to investigate the ability of thiocarbamate pesticides to induce DAergic neurodegeneration. Acute treatment with either S-ethyl N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC), molinate, or a common reactive intermediate of dithiocarbamate and thiocarbamate metabolism, S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamate (MeDETC), to gradual loss of DAergic cell morphology and structure over the course of 6 days in worms expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under a DAergic cell specific promoter. HPLC analysis revealed decreased DA content in the worms immediately following exposure to MeDETC, EPTC, and molinate. Additionally, worms treated with the three test compounds showed a drastic loss of DAergic-dependent behavior over a time course similar to changes in DAergic cell morphology. Alterations in the DAergic system were specific, as loss of cell structure and neurotransmitter content was not observed in cholinergic, glutamatergic, or GABAergic systems. Overall, our data suggest that thiocarbamate pesticides promote neurodegeneration and DAergic cell dysfunction in C. elegans, and may be an environmental risk factor for PD. PMID:23786526

  12. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity of S-ethyl N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC), molinate, and S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamate (MeDETC) in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Caito, Samuel W; Valentine, William M; Aschner, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological studies corroborate a correlation between pesticide use and Parkinson's disease (PD). Thiocarbamate and dithiocarbamate pesticides are widely used and produce neurotoxicity in the peripheral nervous system. Recent evidence from rodent studies suggests that these compounds also cause dopaminergic (DAergic) dysfunction and altered protein processing, two hallmarks of PD. However, DAergic neurotoxicity has yet to be documented. We assessed DAergic dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to investigate the ability of thiocarbamate pesticides to induce DAergic neurodegeneration. Acute treatment with either S-ethyl N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC), molinate, or a common reactive intermediate of dithiocarbamate and thiocarbamate metabolism, S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamate (MeDETC), to gradual loss of DAergic cell morphology and structure over the course of 6 days in worms expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under a DAergic cell specific promoter. HPLC analysis revealed decreased DA content in the worms immediately following exposure to MeDETC, EPTC, and molinate. In addition, worms treated with the three test compounds showed a drastic loss of DAergic-dependent behavior over a time course similar to changes in DAergic cell morphology. Alterations in the DAergic system were specific, as loss of cell structure and neurotransmitter content was not observed in cholinergic, glutamatergic, or GABAergic systems. Overall, our data suggest that thiocarbamate pesticides promote neurodegeneration and DAergic cell dysfunction in C. elegans, and may be an environmental risk factor for PD. PMID:23786526

  13. The Structure of Nickel Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/Aluminum Chloride: X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    The structure of anhydrous nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride and aluminum chloride has been investigated with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in both Lewis acid and Lewis base solutions. The EXAFS data of NiCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O crystals were also recorded and analyzed to demonstrate the difference file technique. The difference file technique is used to obtain the structural information for the very closely spaced coordination shells of chloride and oxygen in NiCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and they are found to agree very closely with the X-ray diffraction data. The difference file technique is then used to analyze the nickel chloride in the ionic liquid solutions. Even though anhydrous NiCl{sub 2} is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution, the EXAFS data show a single coordination of four chlorides in a tetrahedron around the nickel atom in the basic solution. In a weak acid solution, there are six chlorides in a single octahedral coordination shell around the nickel. However, in a strong acid solution, in addition to the octahedral chloride-coordination shell, there is a second coordination shell of eight aluminum atoms in the form of a simple cube.

  14. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  15. Access to “Friedel-Crafts-restricted” tert-alkyl aromatics by activation/methylation of tertiary benzylic alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Hartsel, Joshua A.; Craft, Derek T.; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Ma, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a two-step protocol to prepare m-tert-alkylbenzenes. The appropriate 3° benzylic alcohols are activated with SOCl2 or concentrated HCl, and then treated with trimethylaluminum, affording the desired products in 68–97% yields (22 examples). This reaction sequence is successful in the presence of a variety of functional groups, including acid-sensitive and Lewis-basic groups. In addition to t-Bu groups, 1,1-dimethylpropyl and 1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl groups can also be installed using this method. PMID:22394317

  16. Thermal effects on the electrical properties of (methyl orange)/ (polyvinyl alcohol) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Helinando P.; de Melo, Celso P.

    2007-04-01

    We have used electrical impedance spectroscopy to determine the dielectric characteristics of polymeric films prepared by incorporating varying amounts of methyl orange (MO), an azobenzene dye, into solid films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), an insulating polymer. By mapping the variation of relevant parameters such as the dielectric relaxation time, we have analyzed how thermal effects would affect the charge transport and polarization processes in the MO/PVA composite samples as the frequency of an applied external field and the temperature were varied in a controlled manner. We interpret the results in terms of number and size of the dye aggregates in the polymeric matrix, by correlating thermal and polarization effects to the temperature and the relative amount of MO in the composite films. Finally, we show that the electrical characteristics of the MO/PVA samples can be modified by light incidence, a fact that confirms the possibility of using these composites in (light written)-(electrically read) solid-state memory devices.

  17. Did you drink alcohol during pregnancy? Inaccuracy and discontinuity of women's self-reports: On the way to establish meconium ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as a biomarker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Anna; Grunitz, Juliane; Grimm, Jennifer; Walz, Lisa; Raabe, Eva; Goecke, Tamme W; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kratz, Oliver; Heinrich, Hartmut; Moll, Gunther H; Fasching, Peter A; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Consuming alcohol during pregnancy is one of the most verified prenatal risk factors for impaired child development. Information about the amount of alcohol consumed prenatally is needed to anticipate negative effects and to offer timely support. Women's self-reports are not reliable, often influenced by social stigmas and retrospective recall bias, causing biomarkers of intrauterine ethanol exposure to become more and more relevant. The present study compares both women's gestational and retrospective self-reports of prenatal alcohol consumption with levels of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium. Women (n = 180) gave self-reports of prenatal alcohol consumption both during their 3rd trimester (gestational self-report) and when their children were 6-8 years old (retrospective self-report). Child meconium was collected after birth and analyzed for EtG. No individual feedback of children's EtG level was given to the women. All analyses were run separately for two cut-offs: 10 ng/g (limit of detection) and 120 ng/g (established by Goecke et al., 2014). Mothers of children with EtG values above 10 ng/g (n = 42) tended to report prenatal alcohol consumption more frequently. There was no trend or significance for the EtG cut-off of 120 ng/g (n = 26) or for retrospective self-report. When focusing on women who retrospectively reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a claim to five or more consumed glasses per month made an EtG over the 10 ng/g and the 120 ng/g cut-off more probable. Women whose children were over the 10 ng/g EtG cut-off were the most inconsistent in their self-report behavior, whereas the consistency in the above 120 ng/g EtG group was higher than in any other group. The next step to establish EtG as a biomarker for intrauterine alcohol exposure is to correlate EtG values in meconium with child developmental impairments. PMID:27565755

  18. Alteration of Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Histone Methylation in Free Radical Scavenging Networks in Adult Mouse Hippocampus following Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chater-Diehl, Eric J.; Castellani, Christina A.; Alberry, Bonnie L.; Singh, Shiva M.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is poorly understood; however, epigenetic and gene expression changes have been implicated. We have developed a mouse model of FASD characterized by learning and memory impairment and persistent gene expression changes. Epigenetic marks may maintain expression changes over a mouse’s lifetime, an area few have explored. Here, mice were injected with saline or ethanol on postnatal days four and seven. At 70 days of age gene expression microarray, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation microarray, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray were performed. Following extensive pathway analysis of the affected genes, we identified the top affected gene expression pathway as “Free radical scavenging”. We confirmed six of these changes by droplet digital PCR including the caspase Casp3 and Wnt transcription factor Tcf7l2. The top pathway for all methylation-affected genes was “Peroxisome biogenesis”; we confirmed differential DNA methylation in the Acca1 thiolase promoter. Altered methylation and gene expression in oxidative stress pathways in the adult hippocampus suggests a novel interface between epigenetic and oxidative stress mechanisms in FASD. PMID:27136348

  19. Ethylglucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate Assays in Clinical Trials, Interpretation and Limitations: Results of a Dose Ranging Alcohol Challenge Study and Two Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jatlow, Peter I.; Agro, Ann; Wu, Ran; Nadim, Haleh; Toll, Benjamin A.; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Nogueira, Christine; Shi, Julia; Dziura, James D.; Petrakis, Ismene L.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are biomarkers of recent alcohol consumption that provide objective measures of abstinence. Our goals are to better understand the impact of cutoff concentration on test interpretation, the need for measuring both metabolites, and how best to integrate test results with self-reports in clinical trials. Methods Subjects (n=18) were administered, one week apart, 3 alcohol doses calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL respectively. Urinary EtG/EtS were measured at timed intervals during a 24 hour hospitalization and twice daily thereafter. In addition, participants from 2 clinical trials provided samples for EtG/EtS and drinking histories. Cutoffs for EtG/EtS of 100/50, 200/100 and 500/250 ng/mL were evaluated. Results Twelve hours following each challenge, EtG was always positive at the 100 and 200 cutoffs, but at 24 hours sensitivity was poor at all cutoffs following the low dose, and poor after 48 hours regardless of dose or cutoff. Similarly, in the clinical trials EtG sensitivity was good for detecting any drinking during the last 24 hours at the two lowest cutoffs, but under 40% during the last 24-48 hours. Sensitivity was reduced at the 500 ng/mL cutoff. Discrepancies between EtG and EtS were few. Comparison of self- reports of abstinence and EtG confirmed abstinence indicated under-reporting of drinking. Conclusions Any drinking the night before should be detectable the following morning with EtG cutoffs of 100 or 200 ng/mL. Twenty-four hours after drinking, sensitivity is poor for light drinking, but good for heavier consumption. At 48 hours, sensitivity is low following 6 drinks or less. Increasing the cutoff to 500 ng/mL leads to substantially reduced sensitivity. Monitoring both EtG and EtS should usually be unnecessary. We recommend EtG confirmed self-reports of abstinence for evaluation of outcomes in clinical trials. PMID:24773137

  20. Theoretical and kinetic study of the reaction of ethyl methyl ketone with HO2 for T = 600-1600 K. Part II: addition reaction channels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Mendes, Jorge; Curran, Henry J

    2013-06-01

    The temperature and pressure dependence of the addition reaction of ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) with HO2 radical has been calculated using the master equation method employing conventional transition state theory estimates for the microcanonical rate coefficients in the temperature range of 600-1600 K. Geometries, frequencies, and hindrance potentials were obtained at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. A modified G3(MP2,CC) method has been used to calculate accurate electronic energies for all of the species involved in the reactions. The rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator approximation has been used for all of the vibrations except for the torsional degrees of freedom which are being treated as 1D hindered rotors. Asymmetric Eckart barriers were used to model tunneling effect in a one-dimensional reaction coordinate through saddle points. Our calculated results show that the four reaction channels forming 1-buten-2-ol + HO2 radical (R5), 2-buten-2-ol + HO2 radical (R10), acetic acid + ethylene + OH radical (R13), and 2-methyl-2-oxetanol + OH radical (R15) are the dominant channels. When the temperature is below 1000 K, the reaction R15 forming the cyclic ether, 2-methyl-2-oxetanol, is dominant while the reaction R13 forming acetic acid + ethylene + OH radical becomes increasingly dominant at temperatures above 1000 K. The other two channels forming 1-buten-2-ol, 2-buten-2-ol, and HO2 radical are not dominant but are still important product channels over the whole temperature range investigated here. No pressure dependence has been found for the reaction channels forming 2-methyl-2-oxetanol + OH radical and acetic acid + ethylene + OH radical. A slightly negative pressure dependence has been found for the reaction channels producing the two butenols. Rate constants for the four important reaction channels at 1 atm (in cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) are k(R5) = 2.67 × 10(15) × T(-1.32)exp(-16637/T), k(R10) = 1.62 × 10(8) × T(0.57)exp(-13142/T), k(R13) = 2.29 × 10(17) × T

  1. Why are ionic liquid ions mainly associated in water? A Car-Parrinello study of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride water mixture.

    PubMed

    Spickermann, C; Thar, J; Lehmann, S B C; Zahn, S; Hunger, J; Buchner, R; Hunt, P A; Welton, T; Kirchner, B

    2008-09-14

    In this study we present the results of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation of a single 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride [C(2)C(1)im][Cl] ion pair dissolved in 60 water molecules. We observe a preference of the in plane chloride coordination with respect to the cation ring plane as compared to the energetic slightly more demanding on top coordination. Evaluation of the different radial distribution functions demonstrates that the structure of the hydration shell around the ion pair differs significantly from bulk water and that no true ion pair dissociation in terms of completely autonomous solvation shells takes place on the timescale of the simulation. In addition, dipole moment distributions of the solvent in distinct solvation shells around different functional parts of the [C(2)C(1)im][Cl] ion pair are calculated from maximally localized Wannier functions. The analysis of these distributions gives evidence for a depolarization of water molecules close to the hydrophobic parts of the cation as well as close to the anion. Examination of the angular distribution of different OH(H(2)O)-X angles in turn shows a linear coordination of chloride accompanied by a tangential orientation of water molecules around the hydrophobic groups, being a typical feature of hydrophobic hydration. Based on these orientational aspects, a structural model for the obvious preference of ion pair association is developed, which justifies the associating behavior of solvated [C(2)C(1)im][Cl] ions in terms of an energetically favorable interface between the solvation shells of the anion and the hydrophobic parts of the cation. PMID:19044922

  2. Rat Pig-a mutation assay responds to the genotoxic carcinogen ethyl carbamate but not the non-genotoxic carcinogen methyl carbamate

    PubMed Central

    Bemis, Jeffrey C.; Labash, Carson; Avlasevich, Svetlana L.; Carlson, Kristine; Berg, Ariel; Torous, Dorothea K.; Barragato, Matthew; MacGregor, James T.; Dertinger, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the mode of action of carcinogenic agents is an important factor in risk assessment and regulatory practice. To assess the ability of the erythrocyte-based Pig-a mutation assay to discriminate between genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action, the mutagenic response of Sprague Dawley rats exposed to methyl carbamate (MC) or ethyl carbamate (EC) was investigated. EC, a potent carcinogen, is believed to induce DNA damage through the formation of a DNA-reactive epoxide group, whereas the closely structurally related compound, MC, cannot form this epoxide and its weaker carcinogenic activity is thought to be secondary to inflammation and promotion of cell proliferation. The frequency of Pig-a mutant phenotype cells was monitored before, during, and after 28 consecutive days of oral gavage exposure to either MC (doses ranging from 125 to 500mg/kg/day) or EC (250mg/kg/day). Significant increases in the frequency of mutant reticulocytes were observed from Days 15 through 43, with a peak mean frequency of 19.9×10−6 on Day 29 (i.e. 24.9-fold increase relative to mean vehicle control across all four sampling times). As expected, mutant erythrocyte responses lagged behind mutant reticulocyte responses, with a maximal mean frequency of 8.2×10−6 on Day 43 (i.e. 16.4-fold increase). No mutagenic effects were observed with MC. A second indicator of in vivo genotoxicity, peripheral blood micronucleated reticulocytes, was also studied. This endpoint was responsive to EC (3.3-fold mean increase), but not to MC. These results support the hypothesis that genotoxicity contributes to the carcinogenicity of EC but not of MC, and illustrates the value of the Pig-a assay for discriminating between genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action. PMID:25833916

  3. Anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of the methadone metabolite 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenyl-1-pyrroline (EMDP).

    PubMed

    Forcelli, Patrick A; Turner, Jill R; Lee, Bridgin G; Olson, Thao T; Xie, Teresa; Xiao, Yingxian; Blendy, Julie A; Kellar, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    The enhancement of GABAergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission has been the mainstay of pharmacotherapy and the focus of drug-discovery for anxiety and depressive disorders for several decades. However, the significant limitations of drugs used for these disorders underscores the need for novel therapeutic targets. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may represent one such target. For example, mecamylamine, a non-competitive antagonist of nAChRs, displays positive effects in preclinical tests for anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in rodents. In addition, nicotine elicits similar effects in rodent models, possibly by receptor desensitization. Previous studies (Xiao et al., 2001) have identified two metabolites of methadone, EMDP (2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenyl-1-pyrroline) and EDDP (2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine), which are considered to be inactive at opiate receptors, as relatively potent noncompetitive channel blockers of rat α3β4 nAChRs. Here, we show that these compounds are likewise highly effective blockers of human α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs. Moreover, we show that they display relatively low affinity for opiate binding sites labeled by [(3)H]-naloxone. We then evaluated these compounds in rats and mice in preclinical behavioral models predictive of potential anxiolytic and antidepressant efficacy. We found that EMDP, but not EDDP, displayed robust effects predictive of anxiolytic and antidepressant efficacy without significant effects on locomotor activity. Moreover, EMDP at behaviorally active doses, unlike mecamylamine, did not produce eyelid ptosis, suggesting it may produce fewer autonomic side effects than mecamylamine. Thus, the methadone metabolite EMDP may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for the treatment of some affective disorders. PMID:26365569

  4. Comparative study of the hydrolytic metabolism of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, heptyl- and dodecylparaben by microsomes of various rat and human tissues.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yoko; Fujino, Chieri; Uramaru, Naoto; Sone, Tomomichi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2013-12-01

    Hydrolytic metabolism of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, heptyl- and dodecylparaben by various tissue microsomes and plasma of rats, as well as human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, was investigated and the structure-metabolic activity relationship was examined. Rat liver microsomes showed the highest activity toward parabens, followed by small-intestinal and lung microsomes. Butylparaben was most effectively hydrolyzed by the liver microsomes, which showed relatively low hydrolytic activity towards parabens with shorter and longer alkyl side chains. In contrast, small-intestinal microsomes exhibited relatively higher activity toward longer-side-chain parabens, and showed the highest activity towards heptylparaben. Rat lung and skin microsomes showed liver-type substrate specificity. Kidney and pancreas microsomes and plasma of rats showed small-intestinal-type substrate specificity. Liver and small-intestinal microsomal hydrolase activity was completely inhibited by bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate, and could be extracted with Triton X-100. Ces1e and Ces1d isoforms were identified as carboxylesterase isozymes catalyzing paraben hydrolysis by anion exchange column chromatography of Triton X-100 extract from liver microsomes. Ces1e and Ces1d expressed in COS cells exhibited significant hydrolase activities with the same substrate specificity pattern as that of liver microsomes. Small-intestinal carboxylesterase isozymes Ces2a and Ces2c expressed in COS cells showed the same substrate specificity as small-intestinal microsomes, being more active toward longer-alkyl-side-chain parabens. Human liver microsomes showed the highest hydrolytic activity toward methylparaben, while human small-intestinal microsomes showed a broadly similar substrate specificity to rat small-intestinal microsomes. Human CES1 and CES2 isozymes showed the same substrate specificity patterns as human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. PMID:23742084

  5. Ontogenic profile of seizures evoked by the beta-carboline DMCM (methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kulick, Catherine; Gutherz, Samuel; Kondratyev, Alexei; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    The beta-carboline, methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), is a potent chemoconvulsant. While it has been utilized in adult rodents, it has not been previously examined for effects across postnatal development. DMCM is a negative allosteric modulator of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors, receptor subtypes that are particularly enriched in limbic brain regions. This raises the possibility that DMCM may be particularly effective at evoking forebrain seizures, which is a challenge in neonatal animals due to the relative immaturity of the forebrain seizure network. The ability to selectively evoke forebrain seizures is desirable when screening for drugs to use in temporal lobe epilepsy, which is characterized by seizures within the forebrain (limbic) network. To determine the profile of DMCM action across development, we examined the dose-dependent ability of DMCM to induce seizures in rats at P7, P10, P13, P14, P21 and in adulthood. We found that the highest sensitivity to DMCM occurred in P10, P13, and P14 rats. The lowest sensitivity occurred in P21 rats. Neonatal (P7) and adult (P60+) rats displayed moderate sensitivity. With moderate (0.2–0.4mg/kg) doses of DMCM, we were able to reliably evoke limbic motor seizures without tonic-clonic components in animals as young as P7. These data support the utility of DMCM in assessing seizure threshold during development and raise the possibility for future exploration of DMCM as an agent to screen anticonvulsant drugs during the postnatal period. PMID:24967532

  6. The effects of simultaneous exposure to methyl ethyl ketone and toluene on urinary biomarkers of occupational N,N-dimethylformamide exposure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho-Yuan; Yun, Yuan-Der; Yu, Yi-Chun; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lin, Ming-Song; Kuo, Hsien-Wen; Chen, Kuo-Ming

    2005-03-15

    General regulations and risk assessment regarding toxicants are single-compound oriented even though humans are exposed to multi-chemicals in the general environment. This study investigated the effects of different levels of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and co-exposure levels of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and toluene (TOL) on two biomarkers of DMF exposure: non-metabolized urinary (U-)DMF and the DMF metabolite urinary N-methylformamide (NMF). Thirty-five workers were selected from a two-stage field investigation strategy and were classified into four groups based on DMF exposure and co-exposure levels. Breathing-zone air concentrations of DMF, MEK, and TOL as well as dermal DMF exposure were determined. Post-shift U-DMF and U-NMF levels were determined for each individual. U-DMF concentrations were significantly higher in high-DMF groups than in low-DMF groups, but U-NMF concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the high-DMF-high-co-exposure group than in the high-DMF-low-co-exposure group; there were no significant differences between two low-DMF groups. The ratio of U-NMF to U-DMF showed the biotransformation from DMF to NMF was significantly suppressed at high co-exposure (P<0.001) for high-DMF exposure groups, possibly because of competitive inhibition of CYP2E1, the responsible enzyme involved. Due to the ubiquity of MEK/TOL in DMF-exposed occupational settings, the biological exposure index for occupational DMF exposure should be re-evaluated at high co-exposure levels. PMID:15649622

  7. Why are ionic liquid ions mainly associated in water? A Car-Parrinello study of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride water mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spickermann, C.; Thar, J.; Lehmann, S. B. C.; Zahn, S.; Hunger, J.; Buchner, R.; Hunt, P. A.; Welton, T.; Kirchner, B.

    2008-09-01

    In this study we present the results of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation of a single 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride [C2C1im][Cl] ion pair dissolved in 60 water molecules. We observe a preference of the in plane chloride coordination with respect to the cation ring plane as compared to the energetic slightly more demanding on top coordination. Evaluation of the different radial distribution functions demonstrates that the structure of the hydration shell around the ion pair differs significantly from bulk water and that no true ion pair dissociation in terms of completely autonomous solvation shells takes place on the timescale of the simulation. In addition, dipole moment distributions of the solvent in distinct solvation shells around different functional parts of the [C2C1im][Cl] ion pair are calculated from maximally localized Wannier functions. The analysis of these distributions gives evidence for a depolarization of water molecules close to the hydrophobic parts of the cation as well as close to the anion. Examination of the angular distribution of different OH(H2O )-X angles in turn shows a linear coordination of chloride accompanied by a tangential orientation of water molecules around the hydrophobic groups, being a typical feature of hydrophobic hydration. Based on these orientational aspects, a structural model for the obvious preference of ion pair association is developed, which justifies the associating behavior of solvated [C2C1im][Cl] ions in terms of an energetically favorable interface between the solvation shells of the anion and the hydrophobic parts of the cation.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  9. FTIR gas-phase kinetic study on the reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with unsaturated esters: Methyl-3,3-dimethyl acrylate, (E)-ethyl tiglate and methyl-3-butenoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomer, Juan P.; Blanco, María B.; Peñéñory, Alicia B.; Barnes, Ian; Wiesen, Peter; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2013-11-01

    The relative-rate technique has been used to obtain rates coefficients for the reactions of the unsaturated esters methyl-3,3-dimethyl acrylate, (E)-ethyl tiglate and methyl-3-butenoate with OH radicals and chlorine atoms at (298 ± 2) K in synthetic air at a total pressure of (760 ± 10) Torr. The experiments were performed in an environmental chamber using in situ FTIR detection to monitor the decay of the esters relative to different reference compounds. The following room temperature rate coefficients (in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1) were obtained: k1(OH + (CH3)2Cdbnd CHC(O)OCH3) = (4.46 ± 1.05) × 10-11, k2(Cl + (CH3)2Cdbnd CHC(O)OCH3) = (2.78 ± 0.46) × 10-10, k3(OH + CH3CHdbnd C(CH3)C(O)OCH2CH3) = (8.32 ± 1.93) × 10-11, k4(Cl + CH3CHdbnd C(CH3)C(O)OCH2CH3) = (2.53 ± 0.35) × 10-10, k5(OH + CH2dbnd CHCH2C(O)OCH3) = (3.16 ± 0.57) × 10-11, k4(Cl + CH2dbnd CHCH2C(O)OCH3) = (2.10 ± 0.35) × 10-10. With the exception of the reaction of Cl with methyl-3,3-dimethyl acrylate (k2), for which one determination exists in the literature, this study is the first kinetic study for these reactions under atmospheric pressure. Reactivity trends are discussed in terms of the effect of the alkyl and ester groups attached to the double bond on the overall rate coefficients towards OH radicals. The atmospheric implications of the reactions were assessed by the estimation of the tropospheric lifetimes of the title reactions.

  10. Aging, chronic alcohol consumption, and low folate intake are determinants of genomic DNA methylation in the liver and colon of mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors in the development of colon and liver cancer. Both factors are known to be associated with altered DNA methylation. Inadequate folate intake can also derange biological methylation pathways. We investigated the effects of aging,...

  11. Efficacy of Angelica archangelica essential oil, phenyl ethyl alcohol and α- terpineol against isolated molds from walnut and their antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Goni, Reema; Raina, Ajay Kumar Pandit; Dubey, N K

    2015-04-01

    Mold association, aflatoxin B1 contamination as well as oxidative deterioration of agri-food items during storage and processing are some global task for food industries. In view of the adverse effects of some synthetic preservatives on treated food items and subsequently on consumers health, recently plant based chemicals are encouraged by food industries as better alternatives of synthetics. The present study recommends the combination (1:1:1) of Angelica archangelica essential oil: Phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA): α- terpineol as botanical preservative against molds, aflatoxin contamination and oxidative deterioration of walnut samples. Eight mold species were procured from stored walnut samples, including some aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains. The combination inhibited growth of aflatoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus NKDW-7 and aflatoxin B1 production at 2.25 and 2.0 μL mL(-1) respectively. The IC50 value of the combination was recorded as 3.89 μL mL(-1), showing strong antioxidant potential. The antifungal action of the combination showed > 90 % decrease in ergosterol content in plasma membrane of A. flavus at 2.0 μL mL(-1). The LD50 of the combination, through oral administration on mice, was 9562.9 μL kg(-1) body weight, indication favourable safety profile as a plant based preservative. The combination may be recommended as safe preservative against molds, aflatoxin contamination and oxidative deterioration of walnut samples. PMID:25829603

  12. Crystal structure of ethyl 5-[3-(di-methyl-amino)-acrylo-yl]-2-{[(di-methyl-amino)-methyl-idene]-amino}-4-methylthio-phene-3-carb-oxy-late.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, M S; Prasad, N L; Nagarajaiah, H; Begum, Noor Shahina

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C16H23N3O3S, the dihedral angles between the thio-phene ring and the almost planar di-methyl-amino-methyl-ene-amino (r.m.s. deviation = 0.005 Å) and di-methyl-amino-acryloyl (r.m.s. deviation = 0.033 Å) substituents are 6.99 (8) and 6.69 (7)°, respectively. The ester CO2 group subtends a dihedral angle of 44.92 (18)° with the thio-phene ring. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R (2) 2(14) loops. In addition, a weak C-H⋯π inter-action is observed. PMID:26870521

  13. DNA co-methylation modules in postmortem prefrontal cortex tissues of European Australians with alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Xu, Hongqin; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel; Zhang, Huiping

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylome alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may contribute to risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). We examined postmortem PFC DNA methylomes of 16 male and seven female pairs of AUD and control subjects using Illumina’s HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. In male AUD subjects, 1,812 CpGs (1,099 genes) were differentially methylated (9.5 × 10−9 ≤ Pnominal ≤ 7.2 × 10−4, q < 0.05). In females, no CpGs were associated with AUDs after multiple testing correction (q > 0.05). Twenty-one AUD-associated co-methylation modules were identified in males by co-methylation analysis. The 1,812 CpGs were over-presented by two AUD-associated co-methylation modules (Mturquoise: 1,048 CpGs/683 genes; Mblue: 429 CpGs/304 genes) (Phyper ≤ 0.001). Biological processes enriched for genes in these two modules included neural development and transcriptional regulation. Genes mapped by CpGs in these two modules were enriched in genome-wide association study-identified genes with variants associated with four substance dependence phenotypes or five psychiatric disorders. Additionally, 106 of the 1,812 CpGs were mapped to 93 genes (e.g., AUD-associated genes GRIK3, GRIN2C, and GABRA1) with differential expression in postmortem PFC of male AUD subjects. Our study demonstrates that DNA methylation alterations in the PFC are associated with (and might result in) increased risk of AUDs, and there was a complex DNA methylation-gene expression relationship. PMID:26763658

  14. DNA co-methylation modules in postmortem prefrontal cortex tissues of European Australians with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Xu, Hongqin; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel; Zhang, Huiping

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylome alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may contribute to risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). We examined postmortem PFC DNA methylomes of 16 male and seven female pairs of AUD and control subjects using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. In male AUD subjects, 1,812 CpGs (1,099 genes) were differentially methylated (9.5 × 10(-9) ≤ Pnominal ≤ 7.2 × 10(-4), q < 0.05). In females, no CpGs were associated with AUDs after multiple testing correction (q > 0.05). Twenty-one AUD-associated co-methylation modules were identified in males by co-methylation analysis. The 1,812 CpGs were over-presented by two AUD-associated co-methylation modules (Mturquoise: 1,048 CpGs/683 genes; Mblue: 429 CpGs/304 genes) (Phyper ≤ 0.001). Biological processes enriched for genes in these two modules included neural development and transcriptional regulation. Genes mapped by CpGs in these two modules were enriched in genome-wide association study-identified genes with variants associated with four substance dependence phenotypes or five psychiatric disorders. Additionally, 106 of the 1,812 CpGs were mapped to 93 genes (e.g., AUD-associated genes GRIK3, GRIN2C, and GABRA1) with differential expression in postmortem PFC of male AUD subjects. Our study demonstrates that DNA methylation alterations in the PFC are associated with (and might result in) increased risk of AUDs, and there was a complex DNA methylation-gene expression relationship. PMID:26763658

  15. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like substance) in your blood. Icosapent ... ethyl may work by decreasing the amount of triglycerides and other fats made in the liver.

  16. Comparison of the Efficacies of Chloromethane, Methionine, and S-Adenosylmethionine as Methyl Precursors in the Biosynthesis of Veratryl Alcohol and Related Compounds in Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Harper, D. B.; McRoberts, W. C.; Kennedy, J. T.

    1996-01-01

    The effect on veratryl alcohol production of supplementing cultures of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium with different methyl-(sup2)H(inf3)-labelled methyl precursors has been investigated. Both chloromethane (CH(inf3)Cl) and l-methionine caused earlier initiation of veratryl alcohol biosynthesis, but S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) retarded the formation of the compound. A high level of C(sup2)H(inf3) incorporation into both the 3- and 4-O-methyl groups of veratryl alcohol occurred when either l-[methyl-(sup2)H(inf3)]methionine or C(sup2)H(inf3)Cl was present, but no significant labelling was detected when S-adenosyl-l-[methyl-(sup2)H(inf3)]methionine was added. Incorporation of C(sup2)H(inf3) from C(sup2)H(inf3)Cl was strongly antagonized by the presence of unlabelled l-methionine; conversely, incorporation of C(sup2)H(inf3) from l-[methyl-(sup2)H(inf3)]methionine was reduced by CH(inf3)Cl. These results suggest that l-methionine is converted either directly or via an intermediate to CH(inf3)Cl, which is utilized as a methyl donor in veratryl alcohol biosynthesis. SAM is not an intermediate in the conversion of l-methionine to CH(inf3)Cl. In an attempt to identify the substrates for O methylation in the metabolic transformation of benzoic acid to veratryl alcohol, the relative activities of the SAM- and CH(inf3)Cl-dependent methylating systems on several possible intermediates were compared in whole mycelia by using isotopic techniques. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid was a much better substrate for the CH(inf3)Cl-dependent methylation system than for the SAM-dependent system. The CH(inf3)Cl-dependent system also had significantly increased activities toward both isovanillic acid and vanillyl alcohol compared with the SAM-dependent system. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that the conversion of benzoic acid to veratryl alcohol involves para hydroxylation, methylation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, meta hydroxylation of 4-methoxybenzoic acid to

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  19. Chemometric evaluation of nine alcohol biomarkers in a large population of clinically-classified subjects: pre-eminence of ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair for confirmatory classification.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Valentina; Valente, Valeria; Oliveri, Paolo; De Bernardis, Angela; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco

    2011-10-01

    An important goal of forensic and clinical toxicology is to identify biological markers of ethanol consumption that allow an objective diagnosis of chronic alcohol misuse. Blood and head hair samples were collected from 175 subjects-objectively classified as non-drinkers (N=65), social drinkers (N=51) and active heavy drinkers (N=59)-and analyzed to determine eight traditional indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and cholesterol and triglycerides in blood] and one direct biomarker [ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in head hair]. The experimental values obtained from these determinations were submitted to statistical evaluations. In particular, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and ROC curve analyses, together with principal component analysis (PCA), allowed the diagnostic performances of the various biomarkers to be evaluated and compared consistently. From these evaluations, it was possible to deduce that EtG measured in head hair is the only biomarker that can conclusively discriminate active heavy drinkers from social and non-drinkers, using a cut-off value of 30 pg/mg. In contrast, a few indirect biomarkers such as ALP, cholesterol, and triglycerides showed extremely low diagnostic abilities and may convey misleading information. AST and ALT proved to be highly correlated and exhibited quite low sensitivity and specificity. Consequently, either of these parameters can be discarded without compromising the classification efficiency. Among the indirect biomarkers, γ-GT provided the highest diagnostic accuracy, while CDT and MCV yielded high specificity but low sensitivity. It was therefore concluded that EtG in head hair is the only biomarker capable of supporting a confirmatory diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse in both forensic and clinical practice, while it was found

  20. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  2. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on international key comparison CCQM-K65: Gas standards containing methyl and ethyl mercaptans (at the level of 20-30 µmol/mol) in methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Vishnyakov, I. M.; Pavlov, M. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Woo, Jin-Chun; Kim, Yong-Doo; Wessel, Rob M.; Ziel, Paul R.; Milton, Martin J. T.; Vargha, G.; Brown, A.; Uprichard, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The key comparison CCQM-K65 was intended to compare the capabilities for the preparation and value assignment of gas standards for methyl and ethyl mercaptans in methane, maintained at the participating national metrological institutes: VNIIM (Russia), KRISS (Korea), VSL (Netherlands) and NPL (United Kingdom). The range of the nominal amount of substance fractions of the comparison gas mixtures was 20 µmol/mol to 30 µmol/mol, which is close to regulatory level (in several countries including Russia) for mercaptans in odorated natural gas. This comparison was proposed at the 12th GAWG meeting in October 2004 and was conducted in 2008. Conclusions are as follows: The results of all laboratories are consistent with the reference values. The observed differences between the reference and reported values are within +/-0.9% for methyl mercaptan and +/-0.75% for ethyl mercaptan relative to the gravimetric values, and do not exceed the appropriate assigned expanded uncertainties. The prepared mixtures were found to be stable during about a year within the uncertainty of the measurements. The gravimetric values were successfully validated with a dynamic method. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  3. Identification of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) with DNA breaking activity in soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Hiramoto, K; Yoshida, M; Kato, T; Kikugawa, K

    1998-04-01

    Components with DNA breaking activity in soy sauce were investigated. It was found that there were water soluble high molecular weight DNA breaking components in soy sauce. Two DNA breaking components in the ethyl acetate extract of soy sauce were identified as fragrant components, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), in addition to the previously characterized DNA breaking fragrant component 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HMF) (Hiramoto et al., 1996b). Characterization of DNA breaking activity of HEMF was performed, and the mechanisms for the breaking were considered. HEMF cleaved the single strands of supercoiled pBR 322 DNA at pH 7.4 dose dependently and time dependently. DNA breaking was inhibited by superoxide dismutase, catalase, hydroxyl radical scavengers, spin trapping agents and metal chelators, and enhanced by Fe(III) ion. Electron spin resonance-spin trapping technique revealed the generation of hydroxyl radical. Hence, active oxygen species derived from interaction of HEMF with metal ions and oxygen participated in the cleavage. HEMF exhibited mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA100 without metabolic activation and induced micronucleated mouse peripheral reticulocytes. PMID:9651047

  4. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction. PMID:25742923

  5. Association of Protein Phosphatase PPM1G With Alcohol Use Disorder and Brain Activity During Behavioral Control in a Genome-Wide Methylation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Barbara; Nymberg, Charlotte; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Wong, Cybele P.; Carvalho, Fabiana M.; Jia, Tianye; Cattrell, Anna; Macare, Christine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J.; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor; Smolka, Michael N.; Spanagel, Rainer; Bakalkin, Georgy; Mill, Jonathan; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Rose, Richard J.; Yan, Jia; Aliev, Fazil; Dick, Danielle; Kaprio, Jaakko; Desrivières, Sylvane; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Objective The genetic component of alcohol use disorder is substantial, but monozygotic twin discordance indicates a role for nonheritable differences that could be mediated by epigenetics. Despite growing evidence associating epigenetics and psychiatric disorders, it is unclear how epigenetics, particularly DNA methylation, relate to brain function and behavior, including drinking behavior. Method The authors carried out a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of 18 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for alcohol use disorder and validated differentially methylated regions. After validation, the authors characterized these differentially methylated regions using personality trait assessment and functional MRI in a sample of 499 adolescents. Results Hypermethylation in the 3′-protein-phosphatase-1G (PPM1G) gene locus was associated with alcohol use disorder. The authors found association of PPM1G hypermethylation with early escalation of alcohol use and increased impulsiveness. They also observed association of PPM1G hypermethylation with increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent response in the right subthalamic nucleus during an impulsiveness task. Conclusions Overall, the authors provide first evidence for an epigenetic marker associated with alcohol consumption and its underlying neurobehavioral phenotype. PMID:25982659

  6. Ethyl carbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl carbamate ; CASRN 51 - 79 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  8. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  9. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  11. Relationships among folate, alcohol consumption, gene variants in one-carbon metabolism and p16INK4a methylation and expression in healthy breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Adana A; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Brasky, Theodore M; Liu, Zhenhua; Mason, Joel B; Marian, Catalin; Makambi, Kepher H; Spear, Scott L; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    p16(INK4a) is a tumor suppressor gene, frequently hypermethylated in breast cancer; this epigenetic silencing of p16(INK4a) occurs early in carcinogenesis. The risk factors and functional consequences of p16(INK4a) methylation are unknown. Alcohol consumption, a breast cancer risk factor, impedes folate metabolism and may thereby alter gene methylation since folate plays a pivotal role in DNA methylation. In a cross-sectional study of 138 women with no history of breast cancer who underwent reduction mammoplasty, we studied breast cancer risk factors, plasma and breast folate concentrations, variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, p16(INK4a) promoter methylation and P16 protein expression. Logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). p16(INK4a) methylation was negatively correlated with P16 expression (r = -0.28; P = 0.002). Alcohol consumption was associated with lower breast folate (P = 0.03), higher p16(INK4a) promoter methylation (P = 0.007) and less P16 expression (P = 0.002). Higher breast folate concentrations were associated with lower p16(INK4a) promoter methylation (P = 0.06). Genetic variation in MTRR (rs1801394) and MTHFD1 (rs1950902) was associated with higher p16 (INK4a) promoter methylation (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.11-6.42 and OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.12-6.66, respectively), whereas variation in TYMS (rs502396) was associated with less P16 protein expression (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.99). Given that this is the first study to indicate that alcohol consumption, breast folate and variation in one-carbon metabolism genes are associated with p16(INK4a) promoter methylation and P16 protein expression in healthy tissues; these findings require replication. PMID:25344837

  12. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  13. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF IMIDAZOLIUM-BASED TETRACHLOROINDATE(III) AND THEIR APPLICATION IN THE TETRAHYDROPYRANYLATION OF ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A MW-assisted preparation of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroindate(III), [Rmim][InCl4] (R = methyl, ethyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl) and their application as recyclable catalysts for the efficient and eco-friendly protection of alcohols to form tetrahydropyranyl (TH...

  14. HIGH LEVELS OF MONOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS LIMIT THE USE OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER AND TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  15. DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE), POLYVINYL BUTYRAL RESIN AND POLYIMIDE AT LOW TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R

    2008-01-01

    Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. For this reason dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low temperature power applications. In this work we report the dielectric properties of four polymers: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polyvinyl butyral resin (PVB), and polyimide (PI--Kapton\\textregistered). The dielectric measurements are performed with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 45K to 350K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the polymers are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure. It is observed that PI and \\pmma\\ dissolved in toluene have the lowest dielectric losses for temperatures lower than $100\\ \\kelvin$. \\Blx\\ and PI have the smallest spread in their breakdown strength data.

  16. Graphene functionalized with poly(vinyl alcohol) as a Pickering stabilizer for suspension polymerization of poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Erdenedelger, Gansukh; Dao, Trung Dung; Jeong, Han Mo

    2016-08-15

    Two types of thermally reduced graphenes (TRGs) having different lateral sizes were non-covalently modified with poly(vinyl alcohol) to endow water-dispersibility. The modified TRGs were examined as Pickering stabilizers for the suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). They were effective graphene-based Pickering stabilizers for the system with almost all of the polymerized composite microparticles having a regular spherical shape. The particle size of the composite microparticles was tunable by the size or the amount of modified TRG used as stabilizer. The almost perfect core-shell structure of the composite microparticles effectively enhanced the thermal stability of the core PMMA. In addition, when the core-shell microparticles were compression molded into a monolith, the obtained composite exhibited an ultra-low percolation threshold of electrical conductivity of around 0.04vol%. PMID:27187559

  17. A novel one-pot and one-step microwave-assisted cyclization-methylation reaction of amino alcohols and acetylated derivatives with dimethyl carbonate and TBAC.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Terán, Adrián; Guerrero, Leticia; Rivero, Ignacio A

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology for the synthesis of 4-substituted-3-methyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones from amino alcohols catalyzed by a ionic liquid was developed. This novel one-pot and one-step cyclization-methylation reaction represents an easier and faster method than any other reported protocols that can be used to obtain the desired products in good yields and high purity. Applying microwave irradiation at 130°C in the presence of TBAC, dimethyl carbonate acts simultaneously as carbonylating and methylating agent and surprisingly promotes an in situ basic trans esterification when a N-acetylated amino alcohol is used as starting material. Furthermore, dimethyl carbonate worked better than diethyl carbonate in performing this reaction. PMID:25692177

  18. A Novel One-Pot and One-Step Microwave-Assisted Cyclization-Methylation Reaction of Amino Alcohols and Acetylated Derivatives with Dimethyl Carbonate and TBAC

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Terán, Adrián; Guerrero, Leticia; Rivero, Ignacio A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology for the synthesis of 4-substituted-3-methyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones from amino alcohols catalyzed by a ionic liquid was developed. This novel one-pot and one-step cyclization-methylation reaction represents an easier and faster method than any other reported protocols that can be used to obtain the desired products in good yields and high purity. Applying microwave irradiation at 130°C in the presence of TBAC, dimethyl carbonate acts simultaneously as carbonylating and methylating agent and surprisingly promotes an in situ basic trans esterification when a N-acetylated amino alcohol is used as starting material. Furthermore, dimethyl carbonate worked better than diethyl carbonate in performing this reaction. PMID:25692177

  19. Vanillin as a modulator agent in SMART test: inhibition in the steps that precede N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-, ethylmethanesulphonate- and bleomycin-genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sinigaglia, Marialva; Lehmann, Maurício; Baumgardt, Paula; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Reguly, Maria Luíza; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues

    2006-09-01

    Vanillin (VA), the world's major flavoring compound used in food industry and confectionery products - that has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity against a variety of mutagenic/carcinogenic agents - was tested for the interval between the formation of premutational lesion and it is finalization as a DNA lesion. The overall findings using co-treatment protocols in SMART test suggest that VA can lead to a significant protection against the general genotoxicity of ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and bleomycin sulphate (BLEO). Considering MNU, ENU and EMS the desmutagenic activity observed could result from VA-stimulation of detoxification, via induction of glutathione S-transferase. However, the protector effect related to BLEO could be attributed to its powerful scavenger ability, which has the potential to prevent oxidative damage induced by BLEO. PMID:16777474

  20. New spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of melatonin in the presence of N-{2-[1-({3-[2-(acetylamino)ethyl]-5-methoxy-1H-indol-2-yl}methyl)-5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl]- ethyl}acetamide: a contaminant in commercial melatonin preparations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Melatonin (MLT) has many health implications, therefore it is of valuable importance to develop specific analytical methods for determination of MLT in the presence of its main contaminant, N-{2-[1-({3-[2-(acetylamino)ethyl]-5-methoxy-1H-indol-2-yl}methyl)-5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl]ethyl}acetamide (10). For development of these analytical methods, compound 10 had to be prepared in an adequate amount. Results Compound 10 was synthesized in six steps starting from 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (1). Analytical performance of the proposed spectrofluorimetric methods was statistically validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the assay of MLT in laboratory prepared mixtures containing up to 60 % of compound 10 and in commercial MLT tablets with recoveries not less than 99.00 %. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives and the results were favorably compared with those obtained by a reference method. Conclusions This work describes simple, sensitive, and reliable second derivative spectrofluorimetric method in addition to two multivariate calibration methods, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS), for the determination of MLT in the presence of compound 10. PMID:22551394

  1. Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

  2. Alcohol modulates expression of DNA methyltranferases and methyl CpG-/CpG domain-binding proteins in murine embryonic fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Rezzoug, Francine; Kaikaus, Jahanzeb; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), presenting with a constellation of neuro-/psychological, craniofacial and cardiac abnormalities, occurs frequently in offspring of women who consume alcohol during pregnancy, with a prevalence of 1–3 per 1000 livebirths. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that alcohol alters global DNA methylation, and modulates expression of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and various methyl CpG-binding proteins. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), utilized as an in vitro embryonic model system, demonstrated ~5% reduction in global DNA methylation following exposure to 200 mM ethanol. In addition, ethanol induced degradation of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-1, DNMT-3a, and DNMT-3b), as well as the methyl CpG-binding proteins (MeCP-2, MBD-2 and MBD-3), in MEF cells by the proteasomal pathway. Such degradation could be completely rescued by pretreatment of MEF cells with the proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132. These data support a potential epigenetic molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of FAS during mammalian development. PMID:23395981

  3. Discovery of 3-Chloro-N-{(S)-[3-(1-ethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)phenyl][(2S)-piperidine-2-yl]methyl}-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine-2-carboxamide as a Potent Glycine Transporter 1 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shuji; Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Kumi; Oda, Koji; Aoki, Takeshi; Kawakita, Yasunori; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A novel glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitor was designed by the superposition of different chemotypes to enhance its inhibitory activity. Starting from 2-chloro-N-{(S)-phenyl[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl]methyl}-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (2, SSR504734), the introduction of heteroaromatic rings enabled an increase in the GlyT1 inhibitory activity. Subsequent optimization led to the identification of 3-chloro-N-{(S)-[3-(1-ethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)phenyl][(2S)-piperidine-2-yl]methyl}-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine-2-carboxamide (7w), which showed a powerful GlyT1 inhibitory activity (IC50=1.8 nM), good plasma exposure and a plasma to brain penetration in rats that was sufficient to evaluate the compound's pharmacological properties. Compound 7w showed significant effects in several rodent models for schizophrenia without causing any undesirable central nervous system side effects. PMID:27581637

  4. Rectification of impaired adipose tissue methylation status and lipolytic response contributes to hepatoprotective effect of betaine in a mouse model of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaobing; Xia, Yongliang; Chen, Jing; Qian, Ying; Li, Songtao; Zhang, Ximei; Song, Zhenyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Overactive lipolysis in adipose tissue contributes to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD); however, the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. We previously reported that chronic alcohol consumption produces a hypomethylation state in adipose tissue. In this study we investigated the role of hypomethylation in adipose tissue in alcohol-induced lipolysis and whether its correction contributes to the well-established hepatoprotective effect of betaine in ALD. Experimental Approach Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups and started on one of four treatments for 5 weeks: isocaloric pair-fed (PF), alcohol-fed (AF), PF supplemented with betaine (BT/AF) and AF supplemented with betaine (BT/AF). Betaine, 0.5% (w v−1), was added to the liquid diet. Both primary adipocytes and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to demethylation reagents and their lipolytic responses determined. Key Results Betaine alleviated alcohol-induced pathological changes in the liver and rectified the impaired methylation status in adipose tissue, concomitant with attenuating lipolysis. In adipocytes, inducing hypomethylation activated lipolysis through a mechanism involving suppression of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), due to hypomethylation of its catalytic subunit, leading to increased activation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). In line with in vitro observations, reduced PP2A catalytic subunit methylation and activity, and enhanced HSL activation, were observed in adipose tissue of alcohol-fed mice. Betaine attenuated this alcohol-induced PP2A suppression and HSL activation. Conclusions and Implications In adipose tissue, a hypomethylation state contributes to its alcohol-induced dysfunction and an improvement in its function may contribute to the hepatoprotective effects of betaine in ALD. PMID:24819676

  5. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  6. The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor as a Neurobiological Intersection Between Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Mismatch Negativity Study

    PubMed Central

    Lagopoulos, Jim; Kaur, Manreena; Hickie, Ian B; Hermens, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid risky alcohol use in bipolar disorder (BD) is recognized for its high prevalence and clinical relevance, though understanding of its neurobiological underpinning is limited. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has recognized alterations in BD and is a major site of ethanol’s effects in the brain. The present study aimed to examine the NMDA receptor system in adolescents and young adults with BD by evaluating the longitudinal changes in a robust marker of NMDA function, mismatch negativity (MMN), in relation to changes in alcohol use patterns. Methods: Forty-six BD patients (aged 16–30) were recruited at baseline and 59% (n = 27) returned for follow-up 17.9 +/- 7.3 months later. At both time-points a two-tone, passive, duration-deviant MMN paradigm was conducted and alcohol measures were collected. Pearson’s correlations were performed between changes in MMN amplitudes and changes in alcohol use. Multiple regression was used to assess whether MMN amplitudes at baseline could predict alcohol use at follow-up. Results: Reduction in risky drinking patterns was associated with increased temporal MMN and decreased fronto-central MMN. Larger temporal MMN at baseline was a significant predictor of greater alcohol use at follow-up. Conclusions: Results suggest risky alcohol use in BD may further compound pre-existing NMDA receptor abnormalities and, importantly, reducing alcohol use early in stages of illness is associated with changes in MMN. This highlights the importance of monitoring alcohol use from first presentation. In addition, preliminary results present an exciting potential for utility of MMN as a neurobiological marker used to determine risk for alcohol misuse in BD. PMID:25603860

  7. Induction of cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by 1-t-butyl carbamoyl, 7-methyl-indole-3-ethyl isothiocyanate (NB7M) in nervous system cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Brard, Laurent; Singh, Rakesh K; Kim, Kyu Kwang; Lange, Thilo S; Sholler, Giselle L Saulier

    2008-01-01

    Our group has recently developed 1-tbutyl carbamoyl, 7-methyl-indole-3-ethyl isothiocyanate (NB7M), a novel indole ethyl isothiocyanate analog. We now describe its selective cytotoxicity in both central nervous system (CNS) and neuroblastoma (NB) cancer cells. In an effort to understand its mechanism of action we examined the effects of NB7M on apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and pro-survival/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in neuroblastoma cells. NB7M proved highly cytotoxic to NB cell lines (SMS-KCNR, SK-N- SH, SH-SY5Y, IMR-32) with IC50 values ranging from 1.0–2.0 μM, whereas lung fibroblasts were less affected (IC50≥10 μM). In the NCI 60 cell screen 1-dose assay, NB7M (10 μM) reduced the growth (−89 to −27 % growth) of CNS cancer cell lines SF-268, SF-295, SNB-75 (glioblastoma), SF-539 (gliosarcoma), and U251 (astroglioma) while SNB-19 glioblastoma cells were relatively resistant (19% growth). Hoechst staining of SMS-KCNR cells treated with NB7M (3 μM) for 24 hrs exhibited significant chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, whereas Annexin-v/7AADstaining revealed that the majority of cells accumulated in the early-apoptotic and late-apoptotic/necrotic stages. NB7M treatment of SMS-KCNR and SH-SY5Y cells also led to the cleavage of procaspases-3, and PARP-1 while causing activation of pro-apoptotic MAPKs and down-regulation of pro-survival factors AKT and PI-3K. Furthermore, NB7M treatment caused S-phase arrest in SMSKCNR and G1-phase arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. NB7M is active against CNS cancers and NB. PMID:19920894

  8. Fabrication and characterization of superparamagnetic and thermoresponsive hydrogels based on oleic-acid-coated Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles, hexa(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and 2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaphilippou, Petri C.; Pourgouris, Antonis; Marinica, Oana; Taculescu, Alina; Athanasopoulos, George I.; Vekas, Ladislau; Krasia-Christoforou, Theodora

    2011-03-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposites comprised of swollen polymer networks, in which magnetic nanoparticles are embedded, are a relatively new class of "smart" soft materials presenting a significant impact on various technological and biomedical applications. A novel approach for the fabrication of hydrogel nanocomposites exhibiting temperature- and magneto-responsive behavior involves the random copolymerization of hexa(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (HEGMA, hydrophilic, thermoresponsive) and 2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate (AEMA, hydrophobic, metal-chelating) in the presence of preformed oleic-acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles (OA·Fe 3O 4). In total, two series of hydrogel nanocomposites have been prepared in two different solvent systems: ethyl acetate (series A) and tetrahydrofuran (series B). The degrees of swelling (DSs) of all conetworks were determined in organic and in aqueous media. The nanocrystalline phase adopted by the embedded magnetic nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The obtained diffraction patterns indicated the presence of magnetite (Fe 3O 4). Deswelling kinetic studies that were carried out at ˜60 °C in water demonstrated the thermoresponsive properties of the hydrogel nanocomposites, attributed to the presence of the hexaethylene glycol side chains within the conetworks. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed that these materials exhibited superior thermal stability compared to the pristine hydrogels. Further to the characterization of compositional and thermal properties, the assessment of magnetic characteristics by vibrational sample magnetometry (VSM) disclosed superparamagnetic behavior. The tunable superparamagnetic behavior exhibited by these materials depending on the amount of magnetic nanoparticles incorporated within the networks combined with their thermoresponsive properties may allow for their future exploitation in the biomedical field.

  9. Thermal Decomposition of Ethyl Formate behind the Reflected Shock Waves in the Temperature Range of 909-1258K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaganesh, M.; Sudhakar, G.; Rajakumar, B.

    Ethyl formate is the simplest model of ethyl esters which are considered as biodiesel. Systematic tests on properties and reactivity of biodiesel have been reported[1, 2]. Methyl and ethyl ester mix can offer improved physical properties. Generally, ethyl esters are slightly more reactive than the methyl esters[3]. Also ethyl formate is an interstellar molecule. It was first detected in interstellar space by Belloche et al.[4]. So studies of this molecule are required to understand the fuel properties and interstellar chemistry.

  10. Crystal structures of ethyl 6-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxyl­ate and ethyl 6-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ligia R.; Low, John Nicolson; Fernandes, Carlos; Gaspar, Alexandra; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structures of two chromone derivatives, viz. ethyl 6-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxyl­ate, C19H16O4, (1), and ethyl 6-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxyl­ate C18H13FO4, (2), have been determined: (1) crystallizes with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. A comparison of the dihedral angles beween the mean planes of the central chromone core with those of the substituents, an ethyl ester moiety at the 2-position and a para-substituted phenyl ring at the 6-position shows that each mol­ecule differs significantly from the others, even the two independent mol­ecules (a and b) of (1). In all three mol­ecules, the carbonyl groups of the chromone and the carboxyl­ate are trans-related. The supra­molecular structure of (1) involves only weak C—H⋯π inter­actions between H atoms of the substituent phenyl group and the phenyl group, which link mol­ecules into a chain of alternating mol­ecules a and b, and weak π–π stacking inter­actions between the chromone units. The packing in (2) involves C—H⋯O inter­actions, which form a network of two inter­secting ladders involving the carbonyl atom of the carboxyl­ate group as the acceptor for H atoms at the 7-position of the chromone ring and from an ortho-H atom of the exocyclic benzene ring. The carbonyl atom of the chromone acts as an acceptor from a meta-H atom of the exocyclic benzene ring. π–π inter­actions stack the mol­ecules by unit translation along the a axis. PMID:26870574

  11. Crystal structures of tetra-methyl-ammonium (2,2'-bi-pyridine)-tetra-cyanidoferrate(III) trihydrate and poly[[(2,2'-bi-pyridine-κ(2) N,N')di-μ2-cyanido-dicyanido(μ-ethyl-enedi-amine)(ethyl-enedi-amine-κ(2) N,N')-cadmium(II)iron(II)] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Chanthee, Songwuit; Punyain, Wikorn; Namuangrak, Supawadee; Chainok, Kittipong

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of the building block tetra-methyl-ammonium (2,2'-bi-pyridine-κ(2) N,N')tetra-cyanidoferrate(III) trihydrate, [N(CH3)4][Fe(CN)4(C10H8N2)]·3H2O, (I), and a new two-dimensional cyanide-bridged bimetallic coordination polymer, poly[[(2,2'-bi-pyridine-κ(2) N,N')di-μ2-cyanido-dicyanido(μ-ethyl-enedi-amine-κ(2) N:N')(ethyl-enedi-amine-κ(2) N,N')cadmium(II)iron(II)] monohydrate], [CdFe(CN)4(C10H8N2)(C2H8N2)2]·H2O, (II), are reported. In the crystal of (I), pairs of [Fe(2,2'-bipy)(CN)4](-) units (2,2'-bipy is 2,2'-bi-pyri-dine) are linked together through π-π stacking between the pyridyl rings of the 2,2'-bipy ligands to form a graphite-like structure parallel to the ab plane. The three independent water mol-ecules are hydrogen-bonded alternately with each other, forming a ladder chain structure with R 4 (4)(8) and R 6 (6)(12) graph-set ring motifs, while the disordered [N(CH3)4](+) cations lie above and below the water chains, and the packing is stabilized by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The water chains are further linked with adjacent sheets into a three-dimensional network via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the lattice water mol-ecules and the N atoms of terminal cyanide groups of the [Fe(2,2'-bipy)(CN)4](-) building blocks, forming an R 4 (4)(12) ring motif. Compound (II) features a two-dimensional {[Fe(2,2'-bipy)(CN)4Cd(en)2]} n layer structure (en is ethyl-enedi-amine) extending parallel to (010) and constructed from {[Fe(2,2'-bipy)(CN)4Cd(en)]} n chains inter-linked by bridging en ligands at the Cd atoms. Classical O-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the lattice water mol-ecule and N atoms of terminal cyanide groups and the N-H groups of the en ligands are observed within the layers. The layers are further connected via π-π stacking inter-actions between adjacent pyridine rings of the 2,2'-bipy ligands, completing a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. PMID:27308032

  12. Biosensor based on electrospun blended chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) nanofibrous enzymatically sensitized membranes for pirimiphos-methyl detection in olive oil.

    PubMed

    El-Moghazy, A Y; Soliman, E A; Ibrahim, H Z; Marty, J-L; Istamboulie, G; Noguer, T

    2016-08-01

    An ultra-sensitive electrochemical biosensor was successfully developed for rapid detection of pirimiphos-methyl in olive oil, based of genetically-engineered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilization into electrospun chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend nanofibers. Due to their unique properties such as spatial structure, high porosity, and large surface area, the use of nanofibers allowed improving the biosensor response by two folds. The developed biosensor showed a good performance for detecting pirimiphos-methyl, with a limit of detection of 0.2nM, a concentration much lower than the maximum residue limit allowed set by international regulations (164nM). The biosensor was used for the detection of pirimiphos-methyl in olive oil samples after a simple liquid-liquid extraction, and the recovery rates were close to 100%. PMID:27216682

  13. A fully validated high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair for the proof of strict alcohol abstinence.

    PubMed

    Albermann, Maria Elena; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2010-04-01

    Hair analysis has become a powerful tool for the detection of chronic and past drug consumption. For several years, it has been possible to determine even the intake of ethanol in hair samples by detecting the ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide or fatty acid ethyl esters. Recently, new requirements were published for the use of EtG as an abstinence test (c(EtG) < 7 pg/mg) as well as for heavy-drinking detection (c(EtG) > 30 pg/mg). In order to perform abstinence tests, a sensitive LC-MS/MS procedure has been developed and fully validated according to the guidelines of forensic toxicology. The nine-point calibration curve showed linearity over the range of concentrations from 2-1,000 pg/mg. Detection and quantification limits were 1 and 4 pg/mg respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were always better than 20%. The validated procedure has successfully been applied to perform abstinence tests and to analyze hair samples from persons in withdrawal treatment. Concentrations between

  14. Differential induction of adaptive responses by paraquat and hydrogen peroxide against the genotoxicity of methyl mercuric chloride, maleic hydrazide and ethyl methane sulfonate in plant cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Patra, J; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1997-10-24

    Induction of adaptive response by conditioning doses of paraquat (PQ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in embryonic shoot cells of Hordeum vulgare and root meristem cells of Allium cepa was tested against the genotoxicity of challenge doses of methyl mercuric chloride (MMCl), maleic hydrazide (MH) or ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS). Plant tissue fixed at different recovery hours following the challenge treatments was analysed for cells with genotoxicity markers that include spindle or chromosome aberrations and micronuclei. The results provided clear-cut evidence that whereas H2O2 induced adaptive response for the chromosome damage caused by MMCl and MH, PQ induced the same for MMCl and EMS, but not for damage caused by MH. The findings pointed to the differences in the underlying mechanisms of oxidative responses induced by H2O2 and O2-. PMID:9393614

  15. The Search for a Complex Molecule in a Selected Hot Core Region: a Rigorous Attempt to Confirm Trans-Ethyl Methyl Ether Toward W51 E1/E2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Brandon; McGuire, Brett A.; Apponi, Aldo J.; Ziurys, Lucy; Blake, Geoffrey; Remijan, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    An extensive search has been conducted to confirm transitions of trans-ethyl methyl ether (tEME), (C_2H_5OCH_3), toward the high mass star forming region W51 e1/e2 using the 12 m Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) at 2 mm and 3 mm wavelengths. Typical peak to peak noise levels for the present observations of W51e1/e2 were between 10 mK to 30 mK, indicating an upper limit of the tEME column density of ≤ 1.5 × 1015 cm-2, this would make tEME at least a factor 2 times less abundant than dimethyl ether (CH_3OCH_3) toward W51 e1/e2. We have also performed an extensive search for this species toward the high mass star forming region Sgr B2(N-LMH) with the NRAO 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). No transitions of tEME were detected and we were able to set an upper limit to the tEME column density of ≤ 4 × 1014 cm-2 toward Sgr B2(N-LMH). We will discuss these observations in the context of detecting large complex organic species toward star forming regions with next generation telescopes such as ALMA.

  16. Screening of High-Level 4-Hydroxy-2 (or 5)-Ethyl-5 (or 2)-Methyl-3(2H)-Furanone-Producing Strains from a Collection of Gene Deletion Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun; Akao, Takeshi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2 (or 5)-ethyl-5 (or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) is an important flavor compound that contributes to the sensory properties of many natural products, particularly soy sauce and soybean paste. The compound exhibits a caramel-like aroma and several important physiological activities, such as strong antioxidant activity. HEMF is produced by yeast species in soy sauce manufacturing; however, the enzymes involved in HEMF production remain unknown, hindering efforts to breed yeasts with high-level HEMF production. In this study, we identified high-level HEMF-producing mutants among a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutant collection. Fourteen deletion mutants were screened as high-level HEMF-producing mutants, and the ADH1 gene deletion mutant (adh1Δ) exhibited the maximum HEMF production capacity. Further investigations of the adh1Δ mutant implied that acetaldehyde accumulation contributes to HEMF production, agreeing with previous findings. Therefore, acetaldehyde might be a precursor for HEMF. The ADH1 gene deletion mutant of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which is the dominant strain of yeast found during soy sauce fermentation, also produces HEMF effectively, suggesting that acetaldehyde accumulation might be a benchmark for breeding industrial yeasts with excellent HEMF production abilities. PMID:25362059

  17. Screening of high-level 4-hydroxy-2 (or 5)-ethyl-5 (or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone-producing strains from a collection of gene deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Kenji; Watanabe, Jun; Akao, Takeshi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2 (or 5)-ethyl-5 (or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) is an important flavor compound that contributes to the sensory properties of many natural products, particularly soy sauce and soybean paste. The compound exhibits a caramel-like aroma and several important physiological activities, such as strong antioxidant activity. HEMF is produced by yeast species in soy sauce manufacturing; however, the enzymes involved in HEMF production remain unknown, hindering efforts to breed yeasts with high-level HEMF production. In this study, we identified high-level HEMF-producing mutants among a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutant collection. Fourteen deletion mutants were screened as high-level HEMF-producing mutants, and the ADH1 gene deletion mutant (adh1Δ) exhibited the maximum HEMF production capacity. Further investigations of the adh1Δ mutant implied that acetaldehyde accumulation contributes to HEMF production, agreeing with previous findings. Therefore, acetaldehyde might be a precursor for HEMF. The ADH1 gene deletion mutant of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which is the dominant strain of yeast found during soy sauce fermentation, also produces HEMF effectively, suggesting that acetaldehyde accumulation might be a benchmark for breeding industrial yeasts with excellent HEMF production abilities. PMID:25362059

  18. Theoretical investigations on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO-LUMO analyses and NBO study of 1-[(Cyclopropylmethoxy)methyl]-5-ethyl-6-(4-methylbenzyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2,4-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdullah, Ebtehal S.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Panicker, C. Yohannan; El-Brollosy, Nasser R.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.

    2014-12-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 1-[(Cyclopropylmethoxy)methyl]-5-ethyl-6-(4-methylbenzyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2,4-dione were recorded. In this work, experimental and theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational wavenumbers of the title compound are presented. The vibrational wavenumbers were obtained theoretically at the DFT level and were compared with the experimental results. The study is extended to calculate the HOMO-LUMO energy gap, NBO, mapped molecular electrostatic potential and first hyperpolarizability. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of the title compound is 9.15 times that of urea and hence the title compound and the series of compounds it represents are attractive candidates for further studies in non linear optical applications. In the title compound, the HOMO of π nature is delocalized over the phenyl ring while the LUMO is located over the pyrimidine ring. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonding at O7 and N1sbnd H25 positions in each monomer give rise to a C2-symmetry dimer which is predicted to be about 10 kcal mol-1 more stable than the monomeric form.

  19. Density functional study of electronic, charge density, and chemical bonding properties of 9-methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic acid ethyl ester crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Kamarudin, H.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Auluck, S.; Chyský, Jan

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical density functional investigation of the electronic crystal structure, chemical bonding, and the electron charge densities of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3, 2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester (C15H12N4O2S2) is performed. The density of states at Fermi level equal to 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, and the calculated bare electronic specific heat coefficient is found to be 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K2 for the local density approximation (Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation). The electronic charge density space distribution contours in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes were calculated. We find that there are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit exhibit intramolecular C-H…O, C-H…N interactions. This intramolecular interaction is different in molecules A and B, where A molecule show C-H…O interaction while B molecule exhibit C-H…N interaction. We should emphasis that there is π-π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules gives extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. The calculated distance between the two neighbors pyrimidine rings found to be 3.345 Å, in good agreement with the measured one (3.424(1) Å).

  20. Ethyl­enediammonium tetra­kis({2,2′-[ethane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilo­methyl­idyne)]diphenolato}nickel(II)) bis­(perchlorate) dimethyl­formamide monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Assey, Gervas; Gultneh, Yilma; Butcher, Ray J.

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (C2H10N2)[Ni(C16H14N2O2)]4(ClO4)2·C3H7NO, crystallizes with four Ni(salen) mol­ecules {salen is 2,2′-[ethane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilo­methyl­idyne)]diphenolate}, one ethyl­enediammonium cation (actually two half-cations, each located on a center of inversion), two perchlorate anions and one dimethyl­formamide solvent mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. Each NiII cation in the Ni(salen) complex is four-coordinated by two imine N atoms and two phenolate O atoms from the tetra­dentate ligand. The Ni(salen) units form parallel slipped stacks with Ni⋯Ni separations of 3.4541 (4) and 3.6442 (6) Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter­molecular hydrogen bonds between the ammonium H atoms and the perchlorate and salen O atoms, which generate a three-dimensional structure. PMID:21579300

  1. Dopamine D-2 receptor imaging radiopharmaceuticals: synthesis, radiolabeling, and in vitro binding of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N- ((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Kasliwal, R.; Pan, S.G.; Kung, M.P.; Mach, R.H.; Guo, Y.Z.

    1988-05-01

    In developing central nervous system (CNS) dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agents, enantiomers, R-(+) and S-(-) isomers, of 3-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-((1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide, (/sup 125/I)IBZM, were synthesized, and their in vitro binding characteristics were evaluated in rat striatum tissue preparation. The (S)-(-)-(/sup 125/I)IBZM showed high specific dopamine D-2 receptor binding (Kd = 0.43 nM, Bmax = 0.48 pmol/mg of protein). Competition data of various ligands for IBZM binding displayed the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than (S)-(-)-IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol much greater than (R)-(+)-IBZM greater than (S)-(-)-BZM greater than dopamine greater than ketanserin greater than SCH23390 much greater than propanolol. The results indicate that (/sup 125/I)IBZM binds specifically to the dopamine D-2-receptor with stereospecificity. The (/sup 125/I)IBZM is potentially useful as an imaging agent for the investigation of dopamine D-2 receptors in humans.

  2. Octa-μ3-selenido-penta­kis­(tri­ethyl­phos­phane-κP)(tri­methyl­aceto­nitrile-κN)-octa­hedro-hexa­rhenium(III) bis­(hexa­fluorido­anti­monate) tri­methyl­aceto­nitrile monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Ren, YiXin; Bruck, Andrea M.; Szczepura, Lisa F.

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Re6Se8{NCC(CH3)3}(Et3P)5](SbF6)2·NCC(CH3)3, contains a face-capped octa­hedral [Re6(μ3-Se)8]2+ cluster core. The pseudo-centrosymmetric [Re6Se8]2+ cluster core is bonded through the Re atoms to five tri­ethyl­phosphane ligands and one tri­methyl­aceto­nitrile ligand. No significant interactions are observed between the cationic cluster, the SbF6 − anions and the trimethylacetonitrile solvent molecule. PMID:25161513

  3. Salicylic acid triggers genotoxic adaptation to methyl mercuric chloride and ethyl methane sulfonate, but not to maleic hydrazide in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jita; Sahoo, Malaya K; Panda, Brahma B

    2005-03-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), 0.01 mM, a signalling phytohormone, was tested for induction of adaptive response against genotoxicity of methyl mercuric chloride (MMCl), 0.013 mM; ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), 2.5 mM, or maleic hydrazide (MH), 5 mM, in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Induction of adaptive response to EMS by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1 mM, and yet another secondary signal molecule was tested for comparison. Assessed by the incidence of mitoses with spindle and/or chromosome aberration and micronucleus, the findings provided evidence that SA-conditioning triggered adaptive response against the genotoxic-challenges of MMCl and EMS, but failed to do so against MH. H2O2, which is known to induce adaptive response to MMCl and MH, failed to induce the same against EMS in the present study. The findings pointed to the possible role of signal transduction in the SA-induced adaptive response to genotoxic stress that perhaps ruled out an involvement of H2O2. PMID:15725616

  4. Prepsolv (TM): The optimum alternative to 1,1,1-trichloroethane and methyl ethyl ketone for hand-wipe cleaning of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. Scott; Purvis, John A.; Moran, Wade W.

    1995-01-01

    Engineers at Hercules Aerospace, a rocket motor manufacturer in Utah, have worked closely with chemists at Glidco Organics to study the feasibility of using terpenes for zero-residue wipe cleaning. The result of this work is a technological breakthrough, in which the barrier to ultra-low non-volatile residue formation has been broken. After 2 years of development and testing, SCM Glidco Organics has announced the availability of Glidsafe(registered trademark) Prepsolv(TM): a state-of-the-art ultra-low residue terpene wipe cleaning agent that does not require rinsing. Prepsolv(TM) can successfully be used in simple hand-wipe cleaning processes without fear of leaving surface residues. Industry testing has confirmed that Prepsolv(TM) is not only highly effective, but can even be less expensive to use than traditional cleaning solvents like methyl chloroform. This paper addresses the features and benefits of Prepsolv(TM), and presents performance and material compatibility data that characterizes this unique cleaning agent. Since its commercialization, Hercules Aerospace has chosen Prepsolv(TM) as the optimum cleaning agent to replace ozone-depleting solvents in their weapons factory in Magna, UT. Likewise, Boeing has approved Prepsolv(TM) for cleaning components in the manufacture of commercial aircraft at their facilities in Seattle, WA and Wichita, KS. Additional approvals are forthcoming for this uniquely safe and effective solvent.

  5. Effects of the amino-carbonyl reaction of ribose and glycine on the formation of the 2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone aroma component specific to miso by halo-tolerant yeast.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Etsuko; Ohata, Motoko; Kanazawa, Toshinari; Kubota, Kikue; Sakurai, Yonekichi

    2007-07-01

    The formation of HEMF[2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone], the aroma component specific to miso and soy sauce, was promoted by cultivating the halo-tolerant yeast, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, in a medium including the amino-carbonyl reaction products based on ribose and glycine. The glucose concentration in the medium influenced the HEMF formation by Z. rouxii. PMID:17617718

  6. Reduced DNA methylation at the PEG3 DMR and KvDMR1 loci in children exposed to alcohol in utero: a South African Fetal Alcohol Syndrome cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Masemola, Matshane L.; van der Merwe, Lize; Lombard, Zané; Viljoen, Denis; Ramsay, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a devastating developmental disorder resulting from alcohol exposure during fetal development. It is a considerable public health problem worldwide and is characterized by central nervous system abnormalities, dysmorphic facial features, and growth retardation. Imprinted genes are known to play an important role in growth and development and therefore four imprinting control regions (ICRs), H19 ICR, IG-DMR, KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR were examined. It is proposed that DNA methylation changes may contribute to developmental abnormalities seen in FAS and which persist into adulthood. The participants included FAS children and controls from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces. DNA samples extracted from blood and buccal cells were bisulfite modified, the ICRs were amplified by PCR and pyrosequencing was used to derive a quantitative estimate of methylation at selected CpG dinucleotides: H19 ICR (six CpG sites; 50 controls and 73 cases); KvDMR1 (7, 55, and 86); IG-DMR (10, 56, and 84); and PEG3 DMR (7, 50, and 79). The most profound effects of alcohol exposure are on neuronal development. In this study we report on epigenetic effects observed in blood which may not directly reflect tissue-specific alterations in the developing brain. After adjusting for age and sex (known confounders for DNA methylation), there was a significant difference at KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR, but not the H19 ICR, with only a small effect (0.84% lower in cases; p = 0.035) at IG-DMR. The two maternally imprinted loci, KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR, showed lower average locus-wide methylation in the FAS cases (1.49%; p < 0.001 and 7.09%; p < 0.001, respectively). The largest effect was at the PEG3 DMR though the functional impact is uncertain. This study supports the role of epigenetic modulation as a mechanism for the teratogenic effects of alcohol by altering the methylation profiles of imprinted loci in a locus-specific manner. PMID:25806045

  7. Reduced DNA methylation at the PEG3 DMR and KvDMR1 loci in children exposed to alcohol in utero: a South African Fetal Alcohol Syndrome cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masemola, Matshane L; van der Merwe, Lize; Lombard, Zané; Viljoen, Denis; Ramsay, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a devastating developmental disorder resulting from alcohol exposure during fetal development. It is a considerable public health problem worldwide and is characterized by central nervous system abnormalities, dysmorphic facial features, and growth retardation. Imprinted genes are known to play an important role in growth and development and therefore four imprinting control regions (ICRs), H19 ICR, IG-DMR, KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR were examined. It is proposed that DNA methylation changes may contribute to developmental abnormalities seen in FAS and which persist into adulthood. The participants included FAS children and controls from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces. DNA samples extracted from blood and buccal cells were bisulfite modified, the ICRs were amplified by PCR and pyrosequencing was used to derive a quantitative estimate of methylation at selected CpG dinucleotides: H19 ICR (six CpG sites; 50 controls and 73 cases); KvDMR1 (7, 55, and 86); IG-DMR (10, 56, and 84); and PEG3 DMR (7, 50, and 79). The most profound effects of alcohol exposure are on neuronal development. In this study we report on epigenetic effects observed in blood which may not directly reflect tissue-specific alterations in the developing brain. After adjusting for age and sex (known confounders for DNA methylation), there was a significant difference at KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR, but not the H19 ICR, with only a small effect (0.84% lower in cases; p = 0.035) at IG-DMR. The two maternally imprinted loci, KvDMR1 and PEG3 DMR, showed lower average locus-wide methylation in the FAS cases (1.49%; p < 0.001 and 7.09%; p < 0.001, respectively). The largest effect was at the PEG3 DMR though the functional impact is uncertain. This study supports the role of epigenetic modulation as a mechanism for the teratogenic effects of alcohol by altering the methylation profiles of imprinted loci in a locus-specific manner. PMID:25806045

  8. Testing for ethanol markers in hair: discrepancies after simultaneous quantification of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Nicholson, D

    2014-10-01

    The hair of 97 cases were analysed for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE, including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate) according to the Society of Hair Testing guidelines to examine the role of both tests in documenting chronic excessive alcohol drinking, particularly when the results are in contradiction. 27 (27.8%) results were EtG negative and FAEE positive, when applying the SoHT cut-offs, probably due to the use of alcohol-containing hair products. Four cases (4.1%) were EtG positive and FAEE negative that were attributed to the use of herbal lotions containing EtG. PMID:24794020

  9. Potentialities of two solventless extraction approaches--stir bar sorptive extraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction for determination of higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters and ethyl esters in wines.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, R; Nogueira, J M F; Câmara, J S

    2009-12-15

    A stir bar sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large volume injection coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-qMS) was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of higher alcohol acetates (HAA), isoamyl esters (IsoE) and ethyl esters (EE) of fatty acids. The method performance was assessed and compared with other solventless technique, the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode (HS). For both techniques, influential experimental parameters were optimised to provide sensitive and robust methods. The SBSE-LD/LVI methodology was previously optimised in terms of extraction time, influence of ethanol in the matrix, liquid desorption (LD) conditions and instrumental settings. Higher extraction efficiency was obtained using 60 min of extraction time, 10% ethanol content, n-pentane as desorption solvent, 15 min for the back-extraction period, 10 mL min(-1) for the solvent vent flow rate and 10 degrees C for the inlet temperature. For HS-SPME, the fibre coated with 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 25 degrees C for 60 min under continuous stirring in the presence of sodium chloride (10% (w/v)). Both methodologies showed good linearity over the concentration range tested, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.984 for HS-SPME and 0.982 for SBES-LD approach, for all analytes. A good reproducibility was attained and low detection limits were achieved using both SBSE-LD (0.03-28.96 microg L(-1)) and HS-SPME (0.02-20.29 microg L(-1)) methodologies. The quantification limits for SBSE-LD approach ranging from 0.11 to 96.56 microg L(-)and from 0.06 to 67.63 microg L(-1) for HS-SPME. Using the HS-SPME approach an average recovery of about 70% was obtained whilst by using SBSE-LD obtained average recovery were close to 80%. The

  10. 2-{4-Methyl-N-[(2,3,4,9-tetra­hydro-1H-carbazol-3-yl)meth­yl]benzene­sulfon­amido}­ethyl 4-methyl­benzene­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Göçmentürk, Mustafa; Ergün, Yavuz; Mougang-Soume, Berline; Çaylak Delibaş, Nagihan; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C29H32N2O5S2, the indole ring system is nearly planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.013 (2) Å, and the cyclo­hexenone ring has an envelope conformation with the methine C atom as the flap. The two methyl­benzene rings are approximately perpendicular to each other, making a dihedral angle of 89.09 (8)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into a chain running along the a-axis direction, and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions are observed between the chains. PMID:24454234

  11. Gestational choline supplementation normalized fetal alcohol-induced alterations in histone modifications, DNA methylation and POMC gene expression in β-endorphin-producing POMC neurons of the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bekdash, Rola A.; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to ethanol reduces the expression of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene, known to control various physiological functions including the organismal stress response. In this study, we determined whether the changes in POMC neuronal functions are associated with altered expressions of histone-modifying and DNA-methylating enzymes in POMC-producing neurons, since these enzymes are known to be involved in regulation of gene expression. In addition, we tested whether gestational choline supplementation prevents the adverse effects of ethanol on these neurons. Methods Pregnant rat dams were fed with alcohol-containing liquid diet or control diet during gestational days 7 and 21 with or without choline, and their male offspring rats were used during the adult period. Using double-immunohistochemistry, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and methylation specific RT-PCR, we determined protein and mRNA levels of histone-modifying and DNA-methylating enzymes, and the changes in POMC gene methylation and expression in the hypothalamus of adult male offspring rats. Additionally, we measured the basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced corticosterone levels in plasma by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Results Prenatal ethanol treatment suppressed hypothalamic levels of protein and mRNA of histone activation marks (H3K4me3, Set7/9, acetylated H3K9, phosphorylated H3S10) increased the repressive marks (H3K9me2, G9a, Setdb1) and DNA methylating enzyme (Dnmt1) and the methyl-CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). The treatment also elevated the level of POMC gene methylation, while it reduced levels of POMC mRNA and β-EP, and elevated corticosterone response to LPS. Gestational choline normalized the ethanol-altered protein and the mRNA levels of H3K4me3, Set7/9, H3K9me2, G9a, Setdb1, Dnmt1 and MeCP2. It also normalizes the changes in POMC gene methylation and gene expression, β-EP production and the corticosterone

  12. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of 4-[(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) methyl] 1-piperazine carboxylic acid ethyl ester: A new piperazine derivative.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daiany P B; Florentino, Iziara F; Oliveira, Lanussy P; Lino, Roberta C; Galdino, Pablinny M; Menegatti, Ricardo; Costa, Elson A

    2015-10-01

    Piperazine compounds possess anti-infective, anti-carcinogenic, anxiolytic, hypotensive, anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant properties and are attractive candidates for the development of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. This study investigates the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of piperazine derivative 4-[(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) methyl]1-piperazine carboxylic acid ethyl ester (LQFM-008) and the involvement of the serotonergic pathway. In the formalin test, treatments with LQFM-008 (15 and 30mg/kg p.o.) reduced the licking time in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of this test. In the tail flick and hot plate tests, LQFM008 treatment (15 and 30mg/kg p.o.) increased latency to thermal stimulus, suggesting the involvement of central mechanisms in the anti-nociceptive effect of LQFM-008. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, LQFM-008 (p.o.) at the doses of 15 and 30mg/kg reduced the edema at all tested time points, while the dose of 7.5mg/kg reduced the edema only for the first hour. LQFM-008 (30mg/kg p.o.) reduced both cell migration and protein exudation in the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test. Furthermore, pre-treatment with NAN-190 (0.6mg/kgi.p.) and PCPA (100mg/kgi.p.) antagonized the anti-nociceptive effect of LQFM-008 in both phases of the formalin test. Our data suggest that LQFM-008 possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects mediated through the serotonergic pathway. PMID:26276732

  13. The Search for a Complex Molecule in a Selected Hot Core Region: A Rigorous Attempt to Confirm Trans-ethyl Methyl Ether toward W51 e1/e2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, P. Brandon; McGuire, Brett A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Apponi, A. J.; Ziurys, L. M.; Remijan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    An extensive search has been conducted to confirm transitions of trans-ethyl methyl ether (tEME, C2H5OCH3), toward the high-mass star forming region W51 e1/e2 using the 12 m Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory at wavelengths from 2 mm and 3 mm. In short, we cannot confirm the detection of tEME toward W51 e1/e2 and our results call into question the initial identification of this species by Fuchs et al. Additionally, re-evaluation of the data from the original detection indicates that tEME is not present toward W51 e1/e2 in the abundance reported by Fuchs and colleagues. Typical peak-to-peak noise levels for the present observations of W51 e1/e2 were between 10 and 30 mK, yielding an upper limit of the tEME column density of <=1.5 × 1015 cm-2. This would make tEME at least a factor of two times less abundant than dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) toward W51 e1/e2. We also performed an extensive search for this species toward the high-mass star forming region Sgr B2(N-LMH) with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory 100 m Green Bank Telescope. No transitions of tEME were detected and we were able to set an upper limit to the tEME column density of <=4 × 1014 cm-2 toward this source. Thus, we are able to show that tEME is not a new molecular component of the interstellar medium and that an exacting assessment must be carried out when assigning transitions of new molecular species to astronomical spectra to support the identification of large organic interstellar molecules.

  14. Comparison of ethyl glucuronide in hair with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in serum as markers of chronic high levels of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Morini, Luca; Politi, Lucia; Acito, Silvia; Groppi, Angelo; Polettini, Aldo

    2009-07-01

    This study was designed with the aim to compare sensitivity and specificity of ethyl glucuronide in hair (HEtG) and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in serum as markers of heavy drinking. Eighty-six volunteers, including teetotalers, social, and heavy drinkers, were interviewed to evaluate their ethanol daily intake (EDI) during the last 2-week and 3-month periods. HEtG determination was performed by a fully validated LC-MS-MS procedure and ranged from

  15. Methyl allyl ether formation in plants: novel S-adenosyl L-methionine:coniferyl alcohol 9-O-methyltransferase from suspension cultures of three Linum species.

    PubMed

    Berim, Anna; Schneider, Bernd; Petersen, Maike

    2007-06-01

    A novel 41 kDa methyltransferase displaying high regiospecificity towards the allylic hydroxyl moiety of coniferyl alcohol was cloned from suspension cultures of Linum nodiflorum L. and expressed in E. coli. The apparent K (m) for coniferyl alcohol is 7.23 microM with a V (max) of 707.5 pkat mg(-1) protein at 30 degrees C, whereas the K (m) for the co-substrate S-adenosyl-L-methionine is 18.5 microM. Structure-function relationship studies revealed stringent structure requirements. Even minor substructure deviations as the side-chain saturation or changes in the phenyl ring substitution result in activities decreased by 75-90%. Crotyl and allyl alcohols are not substrates, confirming that the aromatic ring itself is indispensable, and solely the derivatives with a C(3) side-chain are accepted. The enzyme shares only similarities under 46% on amino acid level with other known methyltransferases. The designated reaction product, coniferyl alcohol 9-methyl ether, could be detected in suspension cells. The highest content of up to 0.02% of the dry mass is concurrent with an increase of the specific enzyme activity that reaches its maximum of 3.94 pkat mg(-1) on day 6 of the culture period. Transcript levels estimated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR remain constant until day 6 and recede thereafter. The corresponding methyltransferase from Linum flavum L. differs mainly by one short variable fragment. Biochemical characterization revealed a higher catalytic efficiency and a slightly broader substrate plasticity together with a lower sensitivity to the presence of Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+). This is to our knowledge the first report of a regiospecific allylic O-methylation of phenylpropanoids in plants. PMID:17333502

  16. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  17. Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.

    PubMed

    López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2005-09-01

    The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold. PMID:16131132

  18. An enantioselective NADP(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase responsible for cooxidative production of (3S)-5-hydroxy-3-methyl-pentanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Minoru; Matsumura, Aline Tiemi; Kurosaki, Kaishi; Chhetri, Rajan Thapa; Motomatsu, Shigekazu; Suzuki, Ichiro; Sahabi, Danladi Mahuta

    2016-06-01

    A soil bacterium, Mycobacterium sp. B-009, is able to grow on racemic 1,2-propanediol (PD). The strain was revealed to oxidize 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol (MPD) to 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-pentanoic acid (HMPA) during growth on PD. MPD was converted into an almost equimolar amount of the S-form of HMPA (S-HMPA) at 72%ee, suggesting the presence of an enantioselective MPD dehydrogenase (MPD-DH). As expected, an NADP(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the initial step of MPD oxidation, was detected and purified from the cell-free extract. This enzyme was suggested to be a homodimeric medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR). The catalytic and kinetic parameters indicated that MPD is the most suitable substrate for the enzyme. The enzyme was encoded by a 1047-bp gene (mpd1) and several mycobacterial strains were found to have putative MDR genes similar to mpd1. In a phylogenetic tree, MPD-DH formed an independent clade together with the putative MDR of Mycobacterium neoaurum, which produces opportunistic infections. PMID:26923741

  19. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of 5-methyl-2-(5-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonyl)-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one

    PubMed Central

    Umesha, K. B.; Rai, K. M. L.; Harish Nayaka, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Cycloaddition of nitrile imines 4 generated in situ by the catalytic dehydrogenation of diphenyl hydrazones 3 using Chloramine-T (CAT) as oxidant in glacial acetic acid with enolic form of ethyl acetoacetate 5 afforded Ethyl 3-aryl-5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-carboxylate 6 in 80% yield. The said pyrazoles 6 refluxed with 80% hydrazine hydrate using absolute alcohol as solvent for about 2–3 hours to produce the respective 5-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid hydrazide 7. The alcoholic solution of pyrazole acid hydrazides on heating with ethyl acetoacetate 5 to give the 5-methyl-2-(5-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonyl)-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one 8. The synthesized compounds were found to exhibit good antimicrobial and antioxidant activity as evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power and DNA protection assays. PMID:23675159

  20. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiaoxue; Sun, Shiyue; Xu, Xiaoyu; Qu, Xian-jun

    2015-01-01

    {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)/p22(phox), Sirtuin3 (SIRT3)/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21(Waf1/Cip) pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation. PMID:25961022

  1. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiaoxue; Sun, Shiyue; Xu, Xiaoyu; Qu, Xian-jun

    2015-01-01

    {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)/p22phox, Sirtuin3 (SIRT3)/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21Waf1/Cip pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation. PMID:25961022

  2. Rigidity and soft percolation in the glass transition of an atomistic model of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium nitrate, from molecular dynamics simulations—Existence of infinite overlapping networks in a fragile ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Habasaki, Junko; Ngai, K. L.

    2015-04-28

    The typical ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium nitrate (EMIM-NO{sub 3}), was examined by molecular dynamics simulations of an all-atomistic model to show the characteristics of networks of cages and/or bonds in the course of vitrification of this fragile glass-former. The system shows changes of dynamics at two characteristic temperatures, T{sub B} (or T{sub c}) and the glass transition temperature T{sub g}, found in other fragile glass forming liquids [K. L. Ngai and J. Habasaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 114502 (2014)]. On decreasing temperature, the number of neighboring cation-anion pairs, N{sub B}, within the first minimum of the pair correlation function, g(r){sub min}, increases. On crossing T{sub B} (>T{sub g}), the system volume and diffusion coefficient both show changes in temperature dependence, and as usual at T{sub g}. The glass transition temperature, T{sub g}, is characterized by the saturation of the total number of “bonds,” N{sub B} and the corresponding decrease in degree of freedom, F = [(3N − 6) − N{sub B}], of the system consisting of N particles. Similar behavior holds for the other ion-ion pairs. Therefore, as an alternative, the dynamics of glass transition can be interpreted conceptually by rigidity percolation. Before saturation occurring at T{sub g}, the number of bonds shows a remarkable change at around T{sub B}. This temperature is associated with the disappearance of the loosely packed coordination polyhedra of anions around cation (or vice versa), related to the loss of geometrical freedom of the polyhedra, f{sub g}, of each coordination polyhedron, which can be defined by f{sub g} = [(3N{sub V} − 6) − N{sub b}]. Here, 3N{sub v} is the degree of freedom of N{sub V} vertices of the polyhedron, and N{sub b} is number of fictive bonds. The packing of polyhedra is characterized by the soft percolation of cages, which allows further changes with decreasing temperature. The power spectrum of displacement of the central ion

  3. Rigidity and soft percolation in the glass transition of an atomistic model of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium nitrate, from molecular dynamics simulations—Existence of infinite overlapping networks in a fragile ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habasaki, Junko; Ngai, K. L.

    2015-04-01

    The typical ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium nitrate (EMIM-NO3), was examined by molecular dynamics simulations of an all-atomistic model to show the characteristics of networks of cages and/or bonds in the course of vitrification of this fragile glass-former. The system shows changes of dynamics at two characteristic temperatures, TB (or Tc) and the glass transition temperature Tg, found in other fragile glass forming liquids [K. L. Ngai and J. Habasaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 114502 (2014)]. On decreasing temperature, the number of neighboring cation-anion pairs, NB, within the first minimum of the pair correlation function, g(r)min, increases. On crossing TB (>Tg), the system volume and diffusion coefficient both show changes in temperature dependence, and as usual at Tg. The glass transition temperature, Tg, is characterized by the saturation of the total number of "bonds," NB and the corresponding decrease in degree of freedom, F = [(3N - 6) - NB], of the system consisting of N particles. Similar behavior holds for the other ion-ion pairs. Therefore, as an alternative, the dynamics of glass transition can be interpreted conceptually by rigidity percolation. Before saturation occurring at Tg, the number of bonds shows a remarkable change at around TB. This temperature is associated with the disappearance of the loosely packed coordination polyhedra of anions around cation (or vice versa), related to the loss of geometrical freedom of the polyhedra, fg, of each coordination polyhedron, which can be defined by fg = [(3NV - 6) - Nb]. Here, 3Nv is the degree of freedom of NV vertices of the polyhedron, and Nb is number of fictive bonds. The packing of polyhedra is characterized by the soft percolation of cages, which allows further changes with decreasing temperature. The power spectrum of displacement of the central ion in the cage is found to be correlated with the fluctuation of Nb of cation-cation (or anion-anion) pairs in the polyhedron, although the

  4. Rigidity and soft percolation in the glass transition of an atomistic model of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium nitrate, from molecular dynamics simulations--Existence of infinite overlapping networks in a fragile ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Habasaki, Junko; Ngai, K L

    2015-04-28

    The typical ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium nitrate (EMIM-NO3), was examined by molecular dynamics simulations of an all-atomistic model to show the characteristics of networks of cages and/or bonds in the course of vitrification of this fragile glass-former. The system shows changes of dynamics at two characteristic temperatures, TB (or Tc) and the glass transition temperature Tg, found in other fragile glass forming liquids [K. L. Ngai and J. Habasaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 114502 (2014)]. On decreasing temperature, the number of neighboring cation-anion pairs, NB, within the first minimum of the pair correlation function, g(r)min, increases. On crossing TB (>Tg), the system volume and diffusion coefficient both show changes in temperature dependence, and as usual at Tg. The glass transition temperature, Tg, is characterized by the saturation of the total number of "bonds," NB and the corresponding decrease in degree of freedom, F = [(3N - 6) - NB], of the system consisting of N particles. Similar behavior holds for the other ion-ion pairs. Therefore, as an alternative, the dynamics of glass transition can be interpreted conceptually by rigidity percolation. Before saturation occurring at Tg, the number of bonds shows a remarkable change at around TB. This temperature is associated with the disappearance of the loosely packed coordination polyhedra of anions around cation (or vice versa), related to the loss of geometrical freedom of the polyhedra, fg, of each coordination polyhedron, which can be defined by fg = [(3NV - 6) - Nb]. Here, 3Nv is the degree of freedom of NV vertices of the polyhedron, and Nb is number of fictive bonds. The packing of polyhedra is characterized by the soft percolation of cages, which allows further changes with decreasing temperature. The power spectrum of displacement of the central ion in the cage is found to be correlated with the fluctuation of Nb of cation-cation (or anion-anion) pairs in the polyhedron, although the

  5. THE SEARCH FOR A COMPLEX MOLECULE IN A SELECTED HOT CORE REGION: A RIGOROUS ATTEMPT TO CONFIRM TRANS-ETHYL METHYL ETHER TOWARD W51 e1/e2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, P. Brandon; McGuire, Brett A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Apponi, A. J.; Ziurys, L. M.; Remijan, Anthony

    2015-01-20

    An extensive search has been conducted to confirm transitions of trans-ethyl methyl ether (tEME, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCH{sub 3}), toward the high-mass star forming region W51 e1/e2 using the 12 m Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory at wavelengths from 2 mm and 3 mm. In short, we cannot confirm the detection of tEME toward W51 e1/e2 and our results call into question the initial identification of this species by Fuchs et al. Additionally, re-evaluation of the data from the original detection indicates that tEME is not present toward W51 e1/e2 in the abundance reported by Fuchs and colleagues. Typical peak-to-peak noise levels for the present observations of W51 e1/e2 were between 10 and 30 mK, yielding an upper limit of the tEME column density of ≤1.5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –2}. This would make tEME at least a factor of two times less abundant than dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) toward W51 e1/e2. We also performed an extensive search for this species toward the high-mass star forming region Sgr B2(N-LMH) with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory 100 m Green Bank Telescope. No transitions of tEME were detected and we were able to set an upper limit to the tEME column density of ≤4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup –2} toward this source. Thus, we are able to show that tEME is not a new molecular component of the interstellar medium and that an exacting assessment must be carried out when assigning transitions of new molecular species to astronomical spectra to support the identification of large organic interstellar molecules.

  6. Impaired Regulation of ALDH2 Protein Expression Revealing a Yet Unknown Epigenetic Impact of rs886205 on Specific Methylation of a Negative Regulatory Promoter Region in Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Haschemi Nassab, Mani; Rhein, Mathias; Hagemeier, Lars; Kaeser, Marius; Muschler, Marc; Glahn, Alexander; Pich, Andreas; Heberlein, Annemarie; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol known to provoke aversive symptoms of alcohol consumption, is predominantly eliminated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Reduced ALDH2 activity correlates with low alcohol tolerance and low risk for alcohol dependence. The ALDH2 promoter polymorphism rs886205 (A>G) is associated with decreased promoter activity, but a molecular mechanism and allele-dependent ALDH2 protein expression has not been described yet. On the basis of allele-dependent epigenetic effects, we analyzed the rs886205 genotype, methylation rates of cytosine-phosphatidyl-guanine (CpG)-sites within a regulatory promoter region and ALDH2 protein levels in 82 alcohol-dependent patients during a 2-week withdrawal and compared them to 34 matched controls. Patients without the G-allele of rs886205 showed higher methylation of the promoter region than controls and readily adapted epigenetically as well as on protein level during withdrawal, while patients with the G-allele displayed retarded methylation readjustment and no change in ALDH2 protein levels. Our data provide novel insights into an unknown genetic-epigenetic interaction, revealing impaired ALDH2 protein expression in patients with the G-allele of rs886205. Additionally, we checked for an association between rs886205 and protection against alcohol dependence and found a trend association between the G-allele and protection against alcohol dependence that needs replication in a larger Caucasian cohort. PMID:26339786

  7. Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-04-28

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus. PMID:27131521

  8. Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus.

  9. How Different Molecular Architectures Influence the Dynamics of H-Bonded Structures in Glass-Forming Monohydroxy Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Wikarek, M; Pawlus, S; Tripathy, Satya N; Szulc, A; Paluch, M

    2016-06-30

    Primary alcohols have been an active area of research since the beginning of the 20th century. The main problem in studying monohydroxy alcohols is the molecular origin of the slower Debye relaxation, whereas the faster process, recognized as structural relaxation, remains much less investigated. This is because in many primary alcohols the structural process is strongly overlapped by the dominating Debye relaxation. Additionally, there is still no answer for many fundamental questions concerning the origin of the molecular characteristic properties of these materials. One of them is the role of molecular architecture in the formation of hydrogen-bonded structures and its potential connection to the relaxation dynamics of Debye and structural relaxation processes. In this article, we present the results of ambient and high-pressure dielectric studies of monohydroxy alcohols with similar chemical structures but different carbon chain lengths (2-ethyl-1-butanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) and positions of the OH- group (2-methyl-2-hexanol and 2-methyl-3-hexanol). New data are compared with previously collected results for 5-methyl-2-hexanol. We note that differences in molecular architecture have a significant influence on the formation of hydrogen-bonded structures, which is reflected in the behavior of the Debye and structural relaxation processes. Intriguingly, studying the relaxation dynamics in monohydroxy alcohols at high pressures of up to p = 1700 MPa delivers a fundamental bridge to understand the potential connection between molecular conformation and its response to the characteristic properties of these materials. PMID:27254726

  10. Nanosized CuO and ZnO Catalyst Supported on Honeycomb-Typed Monolith for Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Methyl Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Min; Ahn, Won-Ju; Jo, Woong-Kyu; Song, Jin-Hun; Oh, Chang-Yeop; Jeong, Young-Shin; Chung, Min-Chul; Park, Kwon-Pil; Kim, Ki-Joong; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Sohn, Bo-Kyun; Jung, Sang-Chul; Lee, Do-Jin; Ahn, Byeong-Kwon; Ahn, Ho-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most serious problems in the world. Conversion of CO2 to methyl alcohol (CH3OH) was studied using catalytic chemical methods. Honeycomb-typed monolith used as catalyst support was 400 cell/inch2. Pretreatment of the monolith surface was carried out by thermal treatment and acid treatment. Monolith-supported nanosized CuO-ZnO catalysts were prepared by wash-coat method. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using SEM, TEM, and XRD. The catalytic activity for CO2 hydrogenation to CH3OH was investigated using a flow-type reactor with varying reaction temperature, reaction pressure and contact time. Conversion of CO2 was increased with increasing reaction temperature, but selectivity to CH3OH was decreased. Optimum reaction temperature was about 250 degrees C under 20 atm. Because of the reverse water gas shift reaction. PMID:26328404

  11. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  12. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  13. Allosteric inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase a by the potential antidiabetic drug 3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbo xylate.

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomakos, N. G.; Tsitsanou, K. E.; Zographos, S. E.; Skamnaki, V. T.; Goldmann, S.; Bischoff, H.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the potential antidiabetic drug (-)(S)-3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbox ylate (W1807) on the catalytic and structural properties of glycogen phosphorylase a has been studied. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is an allosteric enzyme whose activity is primarily controlled by reversible phosphorylation of Ser14 of the dephosphorylated enzyme (GPb, less active, predominantly T-state) to form the phosphorylated enzyme (GPa, more active, predominantly R-state). Upon conversion of GPb to GPa, the N-terminal tail (residues 5-22), which carries the Ser14(P), changes its conformation into a distorted 3(10) helix and its contacts from intrasubunit to intersubunit. This alteration causes a series of tertiary and quaternary conformational changes that lead to activation of the enzyme through opening access to the catalytic site. As part of a screening process to identify compounds that might contribute to the regulation of glycogen metabolism in the noninsulin dependent diabetes diseased state, W1807 has been found as the most potent inhibitor of GPb (Ki = 1.6 nM) that binds at the allosteric site of T-state GPb and produces further conformational changes, characteristic of a T'-like state. Kinetics show W1807 is a potent competitive inhibitor of GPa (-AMP) (Ki = 10.8 nM) and of GPa (+1 mM AMP) (Ki = 19.4 microM) with respect to glucose 1-phosphate and acts in synergism with glucose. To elucidate the structural features that contribute to the binding, the structures of GPa in the T-state conformation in complex with glucose and in complex with both glucose and W1807 have been determined at 100 K to 2.0 A and 2.1 A resolution, and refined to crystallographic R-values of 0.179 (R(free) = 0.230) and 0.189 (R(free) = 0.263), respectively. W1807 binds tightly at the allosteric site and induces substantial conformational changes both in the vicinity of the allosteric site and the subunit interface. A disordering of the N

  14. Allosteric inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase a by the potential antidiabetic drug 3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbo xylate.

    PubMed

    Oikonomakos, N G; Tsitsanou, K E; Zographos, S E; Skamnaki, V T; Goldmann, S; Bischoff, H

    1999-10-01

    The effect of the potential antidiabetic drug (-)(S)-3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbox ylate (W1807) on the catalytic and structural properties of glycogen phosphorylase a has been studied. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is an allosteric enzyme whose activity is primarily controlled by reversible phosphorylation of Ser14 of the dephosphorylated enzyme (GPb, less active, predominantly T-state) to form the phosphorylated enzyme (GPa, more active, predominantly R-state). Upon conversion of GPb to GPa, the N-terminal tail (residues 5-22), which carries the Ser14(P), changes its conformation into a distorted 3(10) helix and its contacts from intrasubunit to intersubunit. This alteration causes a series of tertiary and quaternary conformational changes that lead to activation of the enzyme through opening access to the catalytic site. As part of a screening process to identify compounds that might contribute to the regulation of glycogen metabolism in the noninsulin dependent diabetes diseased state, W1807 has been found as the most potent inhibitor of GPb (Ki = 1.6 nM) that binds at the allosteric site of T-state GPb and produces further conformational changes, characteristic of a T'-like state. Kinetics show W1807 is a potent competitive inhibitor of GPa (-AMP) (Ki = 10.8 nM) and of GPa (+1 mM AMP) (Ki = 19.4 microM) with respect to glucose 1-phosphate and acts in synergism with glucose. To elucidate the structural features that contribute to the binding, the structures of GPa in the T-state conformation in complex with glucose and in complex with both glucose and W1807 have been determined at 100 K to 2.0 A and 2.1 A resolution, and refined to crystallographic R-values of 0.179 (R(free) = 0.230) and 0.189 (R(free) = 0.263), respectively. W1807 binds tightly at the allosteric site and induces substantial conformational changes both in the vicinity of the allosteric site and the subunit interface. A disordering of the N

  15. Production of ethyl alcohol from tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Sreekantiah, K.R.; Rao, B.A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from starchy tubers by gelatinization in a boiling acidic solution, saccharification with Rhizopus niveus, and fermentation with Saccharomyces ellipsoideus in the presence of the saccharifying fungus. The efficiency of ethanol production from potato, tapioca, and sweet potato starch was 68, 81, and 75% respectively.

  16. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. [Methyl isobutyl ether(MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether(MTBE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.

    1993-02-01

    The testing of strongly acidic catalysts for the conversion of a mixture of methanol and isobutanol to ethers and hydrocarbons was continued. Under standardized test conditions the catalysts tested this quarter were: phosphotungstic acid supported on zirconia (PW[sub 12]/ZrO[sub 2]), niobic acid'' (Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5]xH[sub 2]0), and an iron and manganese doped sulfate-modified zirconia (Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]). The overall activity of these catalysts followed the order of Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] > PW[sub 12]/ZrO[sub 2] > Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5]xH[sub 2]0 with the Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] catalyst approaching ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] in both activity and selectivity for isobutene production. The effect of the presence of water on the reaction of methanol and isobutanol over ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] was determined to be insignificant. At 157[degrees]C and a feed of 2/1 molar ratio methanol/isobutanol, the production of isobutene was unaffected by the addition of 0.05and 0.10 parts of water to the 2/1 alcohol feed. Surface areas have been determined for Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] niobic acid, and phosphotungstic acid on silica. After calcination, the surface area for Fe/Mn/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] was found to be 83 M2 /g. Niobic acid and phosphotungstic acid on silica (PW[sub 12]/SiO[sub 2]) were found to have surface areas of 118 and 218 m[sup 2]/g, respectively. [sup 1]H NMR was used to determine if and how much 1-butene was present as a product when isobutanol is dehydrated over sulfate-modified zirconia. It was found to be present in small amounts, [le]3% of the product stream.

  17. Synthesis and properties of 1-aryl(pyrimidinyl)-piperazinylalkyl derivatives of ethyl 3-phenyl-7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidine-5-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Sladowska, H; Sieklucka-Dziuba, M; Staniak, L; Kleinrok, Z

    1994-01-01

    Synthesis of N-aryl (pyrimidinyl)piperazinylalkyl derivatives of ethyl 2,4-dioxo-1,2,3-4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carboxylate is reported. Some of the obtained compounds are pharmacologically active. PMID:7945716

  18. Dielectric relaxation study of mixtures of alkyl methacrylates and 1-alcohols using time-domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivagurunathan, P.; Dharmalingam, K.; Ramachandran, K.; Prabhakar Undre, B.; Khirade, P. W.; Mehrotra, S. C.

    2006-05-01

    Dielectric relaxation measurements on alkyl methacrylates (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate) with 1-alcohols (1-propanol, 1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 1-decanol) have been carried out using time-domain reflectometry (TDR) over the frequency range 10 MHz to 20 GHz at 303 K for different concentrations of alcohols. The dielectric parameters, namely the static dielectric constant (ɛ0), the dielectric constant at microwave frequencies (ɛ∞) and the relaxation time (τ) were determined. The Kirkwood correlation factor, which contains information regarding solute-solvent interaction and corresponding structural information, the excess permittivity and the excess inverse relaxation time were also determined. The values of the static dielectric constant and the relaxation time increase with the percentage of alkyl methacrylates in the alcohol, whereas the static dielectric constant decreases and the relaxation time increases with an increase in the alkyl chain length of both the methacrylates and the alcohols.

  19. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a)...

  20. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a)...

  1. Electron-transfer reaction of cinnamic acids and their methyl esters with the DPPH(*) radical in alcoholic solutions.

    PubMed

    Foti, Mario C; Daquino, Carmelo; Geraci, Corrada

    2004-04-01

    The kinetic behavior of cinnamic acids, their methyl esters, and two catechols 1-10 (ArOH) in the reaction with DPPH(*) in methanol and ethanol is not compatible with a reaction mechanism that involves hydrogen atom abstraction from the hydroxyl group of 1-10 by DPPH(*). The rate of this reaction at 25 degrees C is, in fact, comparatively fast despite that the phenolic OH group of ArOH is hydrogen bonded to solvent molecules. The observed rate constants (k(1)) relative to DPPH(*) + ArOH are 3-5 times larger for the methyl esters than for the corresponding free acids and, for the latter, decrease as their concentration is increased according to the relation k(1) = B/[ArOH](0)(m), where k(1) is given in units of M(-1) s(-1), m is ca. 0.5, and B ranges from 0.02 (p-coumaric acid) to ca. 3.48 (caffeic acid) in methanol and from 0.04 (p-coumaric acid) to ca. 13 (sinapic acid) in ethanol. Apparently, the reaction mechanism of DPPH(*) + ArOH involves a fast electron-transfer process from the phenoxide anion of 1-10 to DPPH(*). Kinetic analysis of the reaction sequence for the free acids leads to an expression for the observed rate constant, k(1), proportional to [ArOH](0)(-1/2) in excellent agreement with the experimental behavior of these phenols. The experimental results are also interpreted in terms of the influence that adventitious acids or bases present in the solvent may have. These impurities dramatically influence the ionization equilibrium of phenols and cause a reduction or an enhancement, respectively, of the measured rate constants. PMID:15049623

  2. Combined toxicities of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolite tert-butyl alcohol on earthworms via different exposure routes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Yoon, Youngdae; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) are among the major soil contaminants that threaten the health of soil ecosystems. Many MTBE-contaminated sites accumulate TBA, because TBA is the intermediate of MTBE biodegradation. To access the risk of MTBE and TBA in soil, we investigated the combined toxicities of MTBE and TBA using two earthworm species, Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei, as well as the toxic effects via different exposure routes. The combined toxicity showed weak antagonistic effects (LC50mix values were slightly greater than 1.0), and sensitivity toward same pollutants differed in the two earthworm species. Moreover, the toxicity of MTBE and TBA was also affected by the exposure route; both filter paper and artificial soil tests showed that dermal-only exposure to MTBE had an even greater toxic effect than combined dermal and oral exposure. Thus, we suggest that diverse environmental factors including organic materials, the physicochemical properties of the contact media, and the exposure routes of the organism, should be taken into consideration when assessing the effects of pollutants on organisms in diverse environmental systems. PMID:25706436

  3. Catalytic Activity of Nanosized CuO-ZnO Supported on Titanium Chips in Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Methyl Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ho-Geun; Lee, Hwan-Gyu; Chung, Min-Chul; Park, Kwon-Pil; Kim, Ki-Joong; Kang, Byeong-Mo; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Jung, Sang-Chul; Lee, Do-Jin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, titanium chips (TC) generated from industrial facilities was utilized as TiO2 support for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methyl alcohol (CH3OH) over Cu-based catalysts. Nano-sized CuO and ZnO catalysts were deposited on TiO2 support using a co-precipitation (CP) method (CuO-ZnO/TiO2), where the thermal treatment of TC and the particle size of TiC2 are optimized on CO2 conversion under different reaction temperature and contact time. Direct hydrogenation of CO2 to CH3OH over CuO-ZnO/TiO2 catalysts was achieved and the maximum selectivity (22%) and yield (18.2%) of CH3OH were obtained in the range of reaction temperature 210-240 degrees C under the 30 bar. The selectivity was readily increased by increasing the flow rate, which does not affect much to the CO2 conversion and CH3OH yield. PMID:27433722

  4. Roles of tert-butyl formate, tert-butyl alcohol and acetone in the regulation of methyl tert-butyl ether degradation by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012.

    PubMed

    François, A; Garnier, L; Mathis, H; Fayolle, F; Monot, F

    2003-08-01

    Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 is a Gram-positive strain able to grow on methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a sole carbon and energy source. The effect of two downstream metabolites of MTBE, tert-butyl formate (TBF) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) on MTBE degradation was investigated using resting cells. The addition of low concentrations of TBF decreased the MTBE degradation rate by about 30%. In contrast, the addition of TBA did not have a significant effect on MTBE degradation rate, even at high concentrations; and it was also shown that TBA degradation occurred only once MTBE was exhausted. At neutral pH, TBF hydrolysis involved mainly an esterase-type activity regulated by the presence of TBA. The TBF degradation rate was about four times lower than the MTBE degradation rate. Furthermore, acetone was identified as an intermediate during TBA degradation. An acetone mono-oxygenase activity, inhibited by methimazole but not by acetylene, was suggested. It was different from the MTBE/TBA mono-oxygenase and, thus, acetone did not appear to compete with MTBE and TBA for the same enzyme. These new results show that the metabolic regulation of the early steps of MTBE degradation by M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 is complex, involving inhibition and competition phenomena. PMID:12883872

  5. Self-stratified films obtained from poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) colloidal dispersions containing poly(vinyl alcohol): a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Kevin L; Su, Shengpei; Howell, Hunter R; Urban, Marek W

    2008-03-01

    These studies focus on the role of poly(vinyl alcohol) (pVOH) during colloidal synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) (pMMA/nBA) and its effect on particle coalescence. Using 2D photoacoustic FT-IR spectroscopy and internal reflection IR imaging, we showed that the presence of pVOH creates competing environments between the copolymer particle surfaces, aqueous phases, and dispersing agents which results in migration and self-induced stratification occurring during coalescence. pMMA/nBA/pVOH films stratify to form sodium dodecyl sulfate rich film-air interfaces, and the -SO3- moieties exhibit preferential parallel orientation with respect to the surface. At the same time, the bulk of the film is dominated by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the pVOH phase and the copolymer matrix. This behavior is attributed to significant interactions between pVOH and pMMA/nBA, resulting in limited mobility of pVOH. PMID:18193907

  6. Ethyl levulinate: A potential bio-based diluent for biodiesel which improves cold flow properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physical properties of biodiesel from soybean, canola, cottonseed and poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethyl levulinate with increasing concentration. The effect of adding ethyl levulinate was determined by studying its influence on the acid value, cloud point, pour point...

  7. Facts on the Effects of Alcohol. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is one of the few alcohols that humans can drink. This alcohol is a byproduct of yeast's reaction with the sugars in fruit or vegetable juice and the process stops naturally with about an 11 to 14 percent alcoholic concentration, although distillation can greatly increase the alcoholic content. Once ingested, most alcohol…

  8. [Detection and application of ethyl glucuronide in forensic toxicology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Zhuo, Xian-yi; Shen, Bao-hua

    2009-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide is a specific metabolite of ethanol. There have been plenty of articles referring its pharmacokinetics, detection and application as a specific bio-marker of alcohol intake. This article reviews various analytical methods of EtG, relationship between EtG quantification and ethanol intake, and criteria for determining chronic alcohol abuse, and origin of ethanol found in the cadavers by EtG analysis. EtG has its potential application in forensic toxicology. PMID:19397218

  9. [Formation of ethyl carbamate in umeshu (plum liqueur)].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Kamimura, H; Ibe, A; Tabata, S; Yasuda, K; Nishijima, M

    2001-12-01

    Samples of umeshu, a Japanese plum liqueur made from unripe plums, shochu and crystal sugar, were stored under fluorescent light, in the dark and in the refrigerator. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in umeshu exposed to light or room temperature was larger than that in the dark or at low temperature. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in umeshu to which cyanide had been added was larger than that in the absence of added cyanide. Thus, the amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the umeshu was increased by not only light and higher temperature, but also cyanide. Samples of model alcoholic beverages were stored under various conditions using red, yellow and blue cellophanes. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the model alcoholic beverage with blue cellophane was larger than in the cases of red and yellow cellophanes. It was found that the amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the model alcoholic beverage was increased by light in the wavelength range of 375-475 nm. PMID:11875819

  10. (μ3-Hydrido)[μ3-2-(tri-methyl-sil-yl)ethyl-idyne-κ(3) C (1):C (1):C (1)]tetra-kis-[(η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)cobalt(II)].

    PubMed

    Haehnel, Martin; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2013-11-01

    In the title compound, [Co4(C5H5)4(μ3-CCH2SiMe3)(μ3-H)], the Co atoms form a distorted tetra-hedron with the ethyl-idyne moiety bridging three of the Co atoms as well as the hydrido ligand also bridging three of the Co atoms. The Co-Co bond lengths in the Co4 tetrahedron vary from 2.3844 (4) to 2.4608 (4) Å. Each Co atom is additionally η(5)-bonded to a cyclopentadienyl (Cp) anion. PMID:24454164

  11. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-{4-[(5-chloro-1-benzo-furan-2-yl)meth-yl]-3-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-di-hydro-pyridazin-1-yl}acetate.

    PubMed

    Boukharsa, Youness; El Ammari, Lahcen; Taoufik, Jamal; Saadi, Mohamed; Ansar, M'hammed

    2015-05-01

    In the title compound, C18H17ClN2O4, the dihedral angle between the benzofuran ring system [maximum deviation 0.014 (2) Å] and the oxopyradizine ring is 73.33 (8)°. The structure is characterized by disorder of the ethyl group, which is split into two parts, with a major component of 0.57 (3), and the acetate carbonyl O atom, which is statistically disordered. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by C-H⋯O inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:25995910

  12. Interstellar Alcohols and the Chemistry of Hot Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, M. E.; Charnley, S. B.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1994-12-01

    Gas-phase methanol and ethanol have been observed in hot cores, the warm remnants of a molecular cloud in which massive star formation has recently occurred. The newborn stars heat the surrounding gas and dust, evaporating ice mantles containing alcohols which can then participate in gas-phase reactions. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry which can form several esters and ethers; our models show that methyl ethyl ether and diethyl ether should form in detectable quantities in cores rich in methanol and ethanol. These reactions can also explain the low observed abundance of gas-phase ethanol in some hot core sources. Possible grain surface mechanisms for the formation of these alcohols will also be presented. We acknowledge support via a DOE fellowship (MEK), a NAS/NRC research associateship at NASA Ames (SBC), a SERC grant to the UMIST Astrophysics Group (TJM), and a grant from NASA's Astrophysics Theory Program (AGGMT).

  13. Chlorimuron-ethyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorimuron - ethyl ; CASRN 90982 - 32 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  14. Crystal structure of (3E,5E)-3,5-bis-[4-(di-ethyl-aza-nium-yl)benzyl-idene]-1-methyl-4-oxopiperidin-1-ium trichloride dihydrate: a potential biophotonic material.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Volodymyr V; Zakharov, Lev N; Nesterov, Vladimir N; Shulaev, Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    In the trication of the title hydrated mol-ecular salt, C28H40N3O(3+)·3Cl(-)·2H2O, the central heterocyclic ring adopts a sofa conformation, with the exocyclic N-C bond in an equatorial orientation. The dihedral angles between the planar part of this heterocyclic ring and the two almost flat side-chain fragments, which include the aromatic ring and bridging atoms, are 28.8 (1) and 41.1 (1)°. Both di-ethyl-aza-niumyl substituents have a tetra-hedral geometry, while the dihedral angles between the above-mentioned flat part of the aryl fragments and the imaginary planes drawn through atoms C-N-C of the di-ethyl-aza-niumyl substituents are 86.3 (2) and 80.4 (1)°, respectively. In the crystal, N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the cations and anions into [100] chains. The chains are cross-linked by numerous C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl inter-actions, generating a three-dimensional network. One of the chloride ions is disordered over two adjacent positions in a 0.895 (4):0.105 (4) ratio. PMID:26870417

  15. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  16. Crystal structures of tetra­methyl­ammonium (2,2′-bi­pyridine)­tetra­cyanidoferrate(III) trihydrate and poly[[(2,2′-bi­pyridine-κ2 N,N′)di-μ2-cyanido-dicyanido(μ-ethyl­enedi­amine)(ethyl­enedi­amine-κ2 N,N′)­cadmium(II)iron(II)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Chanthee, Songwuit; Punyain, Wikorn; Namuangrak, Supawadee; Chainok, Kittipong

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structures of the building block tetra­methyl­ammonium (2,2′-bi­pyridine-κ2 N,N′)tetra­cyanidoferrate(III) trihydrate, [N(CH3)4][Fe(CN)4(C10H8N2)]·3H2O, (I), and a new two-dimensional cyanide-bridged bimetallic coordination polymer, poly[[(2,2′-bi­pyridine-κ2 N,N′)di-μ2-cyanido-dicyanido(μ-ethyl­enedi­amine-κ2 N:N′)(ethyl­enedi­amine-κ2 N,N′)cadmium(II)iron(II)] monohydrate], [CdFe(CN)4(C10H8N2)(C2H8N2)2]·H2O, (II), are reported. In the crystal of (I), pairs of [Fe(2,2′-bipy)(CN)4]− units (2,2′-bipy is 2,2′-bi­pyri­dine) are linked together through π–π stacking between the pyridyl rings of the 2,2′-bipy ligands to form a graphite-like structure parallel to the ab plane. The three independent water mol­ecules are hydrogen-bonded alternately with each other, forming a ladder chain structure with R 4 4(8) and R 6 6(12) graph-set ring motifs, while the disordered [N(CH3)4]+ cations lie above and below the water chains, and the packing is stabilized by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The water chains are further linked with adjacent sheets into a three-dimensional network via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the lattice water mol­ecules and the N atoms of terminal cyanide groups of the [Fe(2,2′-bipy)(CN)4]− building blocks, forming an R 4 4(12) ring motif. Compound (II) features a two-dimensional {[Fe(2,2′-bipy)(CN)4Cd(en)2]}n layer structure (en is ethyl­enedi­amine) extending parallel to (010) and constructed from {[Fe(2,2′-bipy)(CN)4Cd(en)]}n chains inter­linked by bridging en ligands at the Cd atoms. Classical O—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the lattice water mol­ecule and N atoms of terminal cyanide groups and the N—H groups of the en ligands are observed within the layers. The layers are further connected via π–π stacking inter­actions between adjacent pyridine rings of the 2,2′-bipy ligands, completing a three-dimensional supra­molecular structure. PMID:27308032

  17. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair by GC-MS and application in a population of cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Politi, Lucia; Mari, Francesco; Furlanetto, Sandra; Del Bravo, Ester; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate in hair samples was developed, validated and applied to real samples. Ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate are fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) which are known to be direct biotransformation products of ethanol. Their presence in the body fluids and tissue is therefore indicative of alcohol intake and, in particular, FAEE concentration in hair higher than 0.5 ng/mg is indicative of excessive chronic alcohol consumption. The method was applied to 80 hair samples formerly found positive for cocaine and FAEE analytical results were compared with the presence of cocaethylene, a cocaine metabolite formed only when alcohol and cocaine are used together. According to our data the two biomarkers (FAEE and cocaethylene in hair) are tools of great value in the assessment of the diagnosis of use of cocaine and ethanol. In fact, discrepancies were noted and might be related to various factors including differences in consumption habits and thus permitting to distinguish the use of both substances non-concurrently or concurrently. Also, the determination of both markers may, in some cases, discriminate the use of moderate or heavy alcohol amounts when associated with cocaine. Finally, in a population of non-cocaine-users our results support FAEE as valuable means in the assessment of excessive alcohol chronic use. PMID:21159458

  18. Structural characterization of analgesic isothiazolopyridines of Mannich base type; X-ray analysis of 2-[(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl]- and 2-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-4,6-dimethylisothiazolo[5,4- b]pyridin-3(2 H)-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarzyk, Zbigniew; Malinka, Wiesław

    2008-10-01

    The crystal and molecular structures of the title 2-[(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl], 6, and 2-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl], 7, derivatives of isothiazolo[5,4- b]pyridine were determined. The molecular packing in 6 is influenced by C-H…X (X = N, O) hydrogen bonds and π… π interactions of the pairs of isothiazolopyridine rings belonging to inversion related molecules. The crystal structure of 7 contains the net of O-H…N and C-H…O intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Moreover, isothiazole and pyridine rings show significant stacking with the shortest π… π distances of 3.453 Å. The conformations of the molecules 6 and 7 were compared with those observed in the crystals of related analgesic 4-arylpiperazine ( 2, 3) and 4-arylpiperidine ( 4, 5) derivatives of isothiazolopyridine of Mannich base type. Additionally, the computational investigations using semi-empirical AM1 and RHF/6-31G∗∗ ab initio methods are performed within series 2- 7 in order to find correlation between geometrical and electronic parameters of the molecules and their analgesic action. Results of the theoretical calculations show that the charge distribution on the piperazine N atoms is correlated with conformation of the (4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl side chain and analgesic action of isothiazolopyridines analyzed.

  19. Conducting polymer blends: Polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, polycarbonate resin, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl methyl ketone)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    Various aromatic compounds can be polymerized by electrochemical oxidation in solution containing a supporting electrolyte. Most studies have been devoted to polypyrrole and polythiophene. In situ doping during electrochemical polymerization yields free standing conductive polymer film. One major approach to making conducting polymer blends is electrochemical synthesis after coating the host polymer on a platinum electrode. In the electrolysis of pyrrole or thiophene monomer, using (t-Bu[sub 4]N)BF[sub 4] as supporting electrolyte, and acetonitrile as solvent, monomer can diffuse through the polymer film, to produce a polypyrrole or polythiophene blend in the film. Doping occurs along with polymerization to form a conducting polymer alloy. The strongest molecular interaction in polymers, and one that is central to phase behavior, is hydrogen bonding. This mixing at the molecular level enhances the degree of miscibility between two polymers and results in macroscopic properties indicative of single phase behavior. In this dissertation, the authors describes the syntheses of conducting polymer blends: polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, poly(bisphenol-A-carbonate), polyvinyl alcohol and poly(vinyl methyl ketone). The syntheses are performed both electrochemically and chemically. Characterization of these blends was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Percolating threshold conductivities occur from 7% to 20% for different polymer blends. The low threshold conductivity is attributed to blend homogeneity enhanced by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl group in the insulating polymer and the N-H group in polypyrrole. Thermal stability, environmental stability, mechanical properties, crystallinity and morphological structure are also discussed. The authors have also engaged in the polymerization of imidazoles.

  20. Evaluating UV/H2O2 processes for methyl tert-butyl ether and tertiary butyl alcohol removal: effect of pretreatment options and light sources.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hokanson, David R; Crittenden, John C; Trussell, Rhodes R; Minakata, Daisuke

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of UV/H2O2 process to remove methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) from a drinking water source. Kinetic models were used to evaluate the removal efficiency of the UV/H2O2 technologies with different pretreatment options and light sources. Two commercial UV light sources, i.e. low pressure, high intensity lamps and medium pressure, high intensity lamps, were evaluated. The following pretreatment alternatives were evaluated: (1) ion exchange softening with seawater regeneration (NaIX); (2) Pellet Softening; (3) weak acid ion exchange (WAIX); and (4) high pH lime softening followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The presence or absence of a dealkalization step prior to the UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) was also evaluated for each pretreatment possibility. Pretreatment has a significant impact on the performance of UV/H2O2 process. The NaIX with dealkalization was shown to be the most cost effective. The electrical energy per order (EEO) values for MtBE and tBA using low pressure high output UV lamps (LPUV) and 10mg/LH2O2 are 0.77 and 3.0 kWh/kgal-order, or 0.20 and 0.79 kWh/m3-order, respectively. For medium pressure UV high output lamps (MPUV), EEO values for MtBE and tBA are 4.6 and 15 kWh/kgal-order, or 1.2 and 4.0 kWh/m3-order, for the same H2O2 dosage. PMID:18951605

  1. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a)...

  2. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a)...

  3. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of the putative breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor [11C]methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl)amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Severin; Langer, Oliver; Kuntner, Claudia; Wanek, Thomas; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Stanek, Johann; Dörner, Bernd; Bauer, Florian; Baumgartner, Christoph; Löscher, Wolfgang; Erker, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The multidrug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where it limits brain entry of a broad range of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl)amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate (1) is a recently discovered BCRP-selective inhibitor, which is structurally derived from the potent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar. The aim of this study was to develop a new PET tracer based on 1 to map BCRP expression levels in vivo. Methods 1 was labelled with 11C in its methyl ester function by reaction of the corresponding carboxylic acid 2 with [11C]methyl triflate. PET imaging of [11C]-1 was performed in wild-type, Mdr1a/b(−/−), Bcrp1(−/−) and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice (n=3 per mouse type) and radiotracer metabolism was assessed in plasma and brain. Results Brain-to-plasma ratios of unchanged [11C]-1 were 4.8- and 10.3-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(−/−) and in Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice, respectively, as compared to wild-type animals, but only modestly increased in Bcrp1(−/−) mice. [11C]-1 was rapidly metabolized in vivo giving rise to a polar radiometabolite which was taken up into brain tissue. Conclusion Our data suggest that [11C]-1 preferably interacts with P-gp rather than BCRP at the murine BBB which questions its reported in vitro BCRP selectivity. Consequently, [11C]-1 appears to be unsuitable as a PET tracer to map cerebral BCRP expression. PMID:20610168

  4. Crystal structure of (2S,4R)-ethyl 4-nitro-methyl-1-[(S)-1-phenyl-eth-yl]-6-sulfanyl-idene-piperidine-2-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Zárate, Araceli; Aparicio, David; Palillero, Angel; Mendoza, Angel

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C17H22N2O4S, a thio-piperidine derivative, the piperidine ring has an envelope conformation with the methyl-ene C atom opposite to the C=S bond as the flap. The nitro-methyl substituent is equatorial while the eth-oxy-carbonyl group is axial. The mean planes of the nitro-methyl group, the carb-oxy group and phenyl ring are inclined to the mean plane through the five planar atoms of the piperidine ring [maximum deviation = 0.070 (4) Å] by 56.8 (2), 83.8 (5) and 87.1 (2)°, respectively. There is an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond involving an H atom of the eth-oxy-carbonyl group and a nitro O atom. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [100]. The chains are linked by further C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated layers lying parallel to (001). PMID:25705497

  5. Formation and inhibition of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Stachel, Nicole; Skopp, Gisela

    2016-08-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) und ethyl sulfate (EtS) are widely accepted biomarkers in forensic and clinical settings. Even though, levels of EtG and EtS in blood and urine increase with increasing doses of alcohol, a high inter-individual variability in their production has been noticed. Therefore, we investigated the influence of dietary plant phenols on the formation of EtG and EtS and tentatively estimated the magnitude of in vivo inhibitory interactions from our in vitro results. To address these issues, formation of EtS and EtG was investigated using recombinant glucuronosyl- and sulfotransferases as well as human liver microsomes and liver cytosol. After respective kinetics had been established, inhibition experiments using quercetin, kaempferol and resveratrol were performed. These polyphenols are subject to extensive glucuronidation and/or sulfonation. EtG and EtS were determined by LC-MS/MS following solid phase extraction for EtG due to severe matrix effects and by direct injection for EtS. All enzymes investigated were involved in the conjugation of ethanol. Maximal EtG and EtS formation rates were observed with HLM and SULT1A1, respectively. All kinetics could best be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Resveratrol was a competitive inhibitor of UGT1A1, UGT1A9 and HLM; quercetin and kaempferol were inhibitors of all transferases under investigation except UGT2B15. Findings for quercetin with regard to UGT2B7 and SULT2A1 and for kaempferol with regard to SULT1E1 and SULT2A1 suggested a mechanism based inhibition. Competitive inhibition of the glucuronidation and sulfonation of ethanol was estimated as weak to negligible and as moderate to weak, respectively. Beside the known polymorphisms of the transferases involved in EtG and EtS formation, prediction of the inhibitory potential indicates that polyphenols may contribute to the variable formation rate of EtG and EtS. PMID:26829336

  6. Photooxidation Dynamics of Model Ketones and Alcohols on TiO2(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kershis, Matthew; Wilson, Daniel; White, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The photooxidation dynamics of model ketones and alcohols on TiO2(110) were studied using pump-probe laser spectroscopy under UHV conditions. Butanone photooxidation was chosen as a model reaction to demonstrate a fast ion imaging system using pixel imaging mass spectrometry (PImMS). Butanone photooxidation proceeds via ejection of both an ethyl and methyl radical. In the former case, multiple species are observed in product mass spectra which previous studies have shown are the result of ethyl radical fragmentation due to dissociative ionization. Results obtained using this imaging technique agree with previous work and demonstrate the utility of this technique in elucidating fundamental surface photochemical mechanisms. Results from the study of ethanol and isopropanol photooxidation on this surface will also be presented. These results show that methyl radicals are ejected during the photooxidation of these molecules. Comparison of methyl radical final state distributions measured here with those obtained for acetaldehyde and acetone photooxidation indicate that methyl radicals are produced as secondary photoproducts following the photooxidation of the primary aldehyde-ketone photoproducts. Support from U.S. Dept. of Energy, contract DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  8. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method

  9. S-(2-((2 prime -carbamoylethyl)amino)ethyl) phosphorothioate and related compounds as potential antiradiation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, F.I.; Gopinathan, M.B.; Philip, A. )

    1990-09-01

    A reinvestigation of the radiation protection activity of S-(2-((2{prime}-carbamylethyl)amino)ethyl) lithium hydrogen phosphorothioate (4a) revealed that this compound possessed good (70% protection at a dose of 600 mg/kg) activity. The thione and imino bioisosteres of 4, S-(2-(2{prime}-thiocarbamylethylamino)ethyl) lithium hydrogen phosphorothioate (13a) and S-(2-(2{prime}-amidinoethylamino)ethyl) phosphorothioic acid (18b) showed 100% protection at doses of 300 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The N-methyl (4b) and tert-butyl (4c) analogues of amide 4a, the N-methyl (13b) analogue of the thioamide 13a, the N-methyl (18a) analogue of amidine (18b), and the cyclic amidine S-(2-((2{prime}-(4,5-dihydroimidozoyl)ethyl)amino)ethyl) lithium hydrogen phosphorothioate (21) all showed 80% protection at the highest dose tested.

  10. Alcohol- and alcohol antagonist-sensitive human GABAA receptors: tracking δ subunit incorporation into functional receptors.

    PubMed

    Meera, Pratap; Olsen, Richard W; Otis, Thomas S; Wallner, Martin

    2010-11-01

    GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) have long been a focus as targets for alcohol actions. Recent work suggests that tonic GABAergic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs is uniquely sensitive to ethanol and enhanced at concentrations relevant for human alcohol consumption. Ethanol enhancement of recombinant α4β3δ receptors is blocked by the behavioral alcohol antagonist 8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (Ro15-4513), suggesting that EtOH/Ro15-4513-sensitive receptors mediate important behavioral alcohol actions. Here we confirm alcohol/alcohol antagonist sensitivity of α4β3δ receptors using human clones expressed in a human cell line and test the hypothesis that discrepant findings concerning the high alcohol sensitivity of these receptors are due to difficulties incorporating δ subunits into functional receptors. To track δ subunit incorporation, we used a functional tag, a single amino acid change (H68A) in a benzodiazepine binding residue in which a histidine in the δ subunit is replaced by an alanine residue found at the homologous position in γ subunits. We demonstrate that the δH68A substitution confers diazepam sensitivity to otherwise diazepam-insensitive α4β3δ receptors. The extent of enhancement of α4β3δH68A receptors by 1 μM diazepam, 30 mM EtOH, and 1 μM β-carboline-3-carboxy ethyl ester (but not 1 μM Zn(2+) block) is correlated in individual recordings, suggesting that δ subunit incorporation into recombinant GABA(A)Rs varies from cell to cell and that this variation accounts for the variable pharmacological profile. These data are consistent with the notion that δ subunit-incorporation is often incomplete in recombinant systems yet is necessary for high ethanol sensitivity, one of the features of native δ subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs. PMID:20699325

  11. Alcohol- and Alcohol Antagonist-Sensitive Human GABAA Receptors: Tracking δ Subunit Incorporation into Functional Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Meera, Pratap; Olsen, Richard W.; Otis, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAARs) have long been a focus as targets for alcohol actions. Recent work suggests that tonic GABAergic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing GABAARs is uniquely sensitive to ethanol and enhanced at concentrations relevant for human alcohol consumption. Ethanol enhancement of recombinant α4β3δ receptors is blocked by the behavioral alcohol antagonist 8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (Ro15-4513), suggesting that EtOH/Ro15-4513-sensitive receptors mediate important behavioral alcohol actions. Here we confirm alcohol/alcohol antagonist sensitivity of α4β3δ receptors using human clones expressed in a human cell line and test the hypothesis that discrepant findings concerning the high alcohol sensitivity of these receptors are due to difficulties incorporating δ subunits into functional receptors. To track δ subunit incorporation, we used a functional tag, a single amino acid change (H68A) in a benzodiazepine binding residue in which a histidine in the δ subunit is replaced by an alanine residue found at the homologous position in γ subunits. We demonstrate that the δH68A substitution confers diazepam sensitivity to otherwise diazepam-insensitive α4β3δ receptors. The extent of enhancement of α4β3δH68A receptors by 1 μM diazepam, 30 mM EtOH, and 1 μM β-carboline-3-carboxy ethyl ester (but not 1 μM Zn2+ block) is correlated in individual recordings, suggesting that δ subunit incorporation into recombinant GABAARs varies from cell to cell and that this variation accounts for the variable pharmacological profile. These data are consistent with the notion that δ subunit-incorporation is often incomplete in recombinant systems yet is necessary for high ethanol sensitivity, one of the features of native δ subunit-containing GABAARs. PMID:20699325

  12. Scattering and Spectroscopic Study on the Hydration and Phase Behavior of Aqueous Alcohol Ethoxylate and Methyl Ester Ethoxylate: Effects of Terminal Groups in Hydrophilic Chains.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Akahane, Takesi; Amano, Kenshi; Hyodo, Ryo; Yanase, Keiichi; Ogura, Taku

    2016-06-23

    Using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and viscometry, we have investigated the hydration behavior, static structures, Brownian dynamics, and mechanical properties of aqueous solutions of alcohol ethoxylate (C12E15) and methyl ester ethoxylate (C12MEE), hereafter abbreviated as AE and MEE, respectively, in which we especially focus on the effects of the endcaps of these nonionic surfactants. We find that AE and MEE exhibit fairly different phase behaviors in water: AE produces liquid crystalline phases at w (surfactant weight fraction) > 0.35, whereas MEE retains a liquid phase in an extremely wide concentration range (w < 0.7) at ambient temperature. The structure factor deduced from SAXS intensities using a generalized indirect Fourier transformation technique and the effective hydration number evaluated from the negative excess bulk water relaxation amplitude revealed by DRS unambiguously demonstrate that hydration water molecules, exhibiting about 4-times-slower collective reorientational dynamics than that of bulk water, contribute to the excluded volume of the micelles. The blocked terminal hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor site of MEE leads to smaller hydration number of MEE than compared to that of AE, and consequently the lower excluded volume of the MEE micelles. The effective micellar volume fraction, ϕ(eff), should be defined by incorporating such different hydration effects. Importantly, voluminosity, defined as the micellar volume fraction per unit mass, is clearly a decreasing function of w, demonstrating progressive dehydration at a higher w. The collective diffusion constants determined by DLS for the AE and MEE micelles show a monotonous increase up to ϕ(eff) ≈ 0.5, as expected for the hard spheres. Low-shear-rate viscosities follow a Krieger-Dougherty model in the identical micellar packing fraction range. All static, dynamic, and mechanical properties of these micellar

  13. What Is Alcohol? And Why Do People Drink? Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Alcoholic beverages have been used throughout American history but their use has always been controversial. Ethyl alcohol is one of the few alcohols man is able to drink, although it is never full strength. The fermentation process is used to manufacture alcoholic beverages. Wines are made from a variety of fruits. Beer is made from yeast and a…

  14. Terminal-Selective Transesterification of Chlorine-Capped Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)s: A Modular Approach to Telechelic and Pinpoint-Functionalized Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yusuke; Terashima, Takaya; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2016-04-20

    Terminal-selective transesterification of chlorine-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA-Cl) with alcohols was developed as a modular approach to create telechelic and pinpoint-functionalized polymers. Being sterically less hindered and electronically activated, both the α-end ethyl ester and ω-end methyl ester of PMMA-Cl were efficiently and selectively transesterified with diverse alcohols in the presence of a titanium alkoxide catalyst, while retaining the pendent esters intact, to almost quantitatively give various chlorine-capped telechelic PMMAs. In sharp contrast to conventional telechelic counterparts, the telechelic polymers obtained herein yet carry a chlorine atom at the ω-terminal to further work as a macroinitiator in living radical polymerization. The iterative process of living radical polymerization and terminal-selective transesterification successfully afforded unique pinpoint-functionalized polymers where a single functional monomer unit was introduced into the desired site of the polymer chains. PMID:27040865

  15. Fatality from drinking denatured alcohol and hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne

    2011-06-01

    A 19-year-old non-diabetic female suffering from irritable bowel syndrome was found unconscious outdoors in the month of October. She was severely hypothermic and rushed to hospital for life-saving treatment. Evidence emerged that the victim had attempted suicide by drinking denatured alcohol (T-Red). According to the manufacturer of this product, it contains > 85% (v/v) ethanol, ~5% (v/v) acetone, 1-2% (v/v) ethyl acetate, and ∼3% (v/v) methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), but no isopropanol. A venous blood sample taken on admission to hospital contained ethanol (660 mg/100 mL), acetone (25 mg/100 mL), isopropanol (78 mg/100 mL), and MEK, although the latter was not quantified. Despite intensive care, the patient died 21 h after admission and postmortem femoral blood contained ethanol (390 mg/100 mL), acetone (14 mg/100 mL), isopropanol (53 mg/100 mL), and MEK. During oxidative metabolism of ethanol, there is a shift in the redox state of the liver to a more reduced potential as reflected in a raised NADH/NAD(+) ratio, which impacts on other NAD-dependent biochemical reactions, including reduction of acetone to isopropanol. The lower concentrations of ethanol, acetone, and isopropanol in postmortem blood compared with antemortem blood indicate the metabolism of these substances during the 21-h survival period when the patient received emergency hospital treatment. PMID:21619727

  16. Synthesis and properties of phosphono-derivatives of methyl stearate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of phosphono-derivatives of methyl stearate (PhDMS) were synthesized from methyl oleate and dialkyl H-phosphonates (dialkyl-phosphites). The alkyl groups in the phosphonates were methyl, ethyl, and butyl. The reaction can be carried to 98+% completion with a radical initiator. It is possibl...

  17. Radical-initiated reaction of methyl linoleate with dialkyl phosphites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of dialkyl phosphite (methyl, ethyl and n-butyl) to methyl linoleate (MeLin) double bonds was investigated. The reaction proved to be more challenging than the analogous reaction with methyl oleate (MeOl), due to inhibition of the radical reaction by the bis-allylic hydrogens of MeLin a...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of (furan-2-yl)methyl(2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethyl)dithiocarbamate (ftpedtc): X-ray structures of [Zn(ftpedtc)2(py)] and [Zn(ftpedtc)Cl(1,10-phen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamuna Rani, Palanisamy; Thirumaran, Subbiah; Ciattini, Samuele

    2015-02-01

    Seven complexes of a new dithiocarbamate ligand (ftpedtc = (furan-2-yl)methyl(2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethyl)dithiocarbamate) namely [Ni(ftpedtc)2] (1), [Ni(ftpedtc)(NCS)(PPh3)] (2), [Ni(ftpedtc)(PPh3)2]ClO4 (3), [Zn(ftpedtc)2] (4), [Zn(ftpedtc)2(py)] (5), [Zn(ftpedtc)2(1,10-phen)] (6) and [Zn(ftpedtc)2(2,2‧-bipy] (7) have been prepared. The complexes were characterized by IR, UV-Vis and NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis was carried out for complexes 5 and [Zn(ftpedtc)Cl(1,10-phen)] (8). Electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for nickel complexes. The 13C NMR peaks of the group N13CS2 are found in all the cases, at around 205.0 ppm, which indicates the bidentate character of the dithiocarbamate ligand. X-ray structures of 5 and 8 show bidentate coordination by dithiocarbamate ligands and a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry for zinc, defined by NS4 and ClN2S2 donor sets, respectively. The packing in 8 involves π-π stacking interactions involving the 1,10-phenanthroline ring systems with the distance between ring centroids being 3.587 Å.

  19. Measurement of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in human blood by purge-and-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an isotope-dilution method.

    PubMed

    Bonin, M A; Ashley, D L; Cardinali, F L; McCraw, J M; Wooten, J V

    1995-01-01

    We developed an isotope-dilution method for measuring methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in whole human blood using a purge-and-trap gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method. The labeled analogues for MTBE and TBA were [2H12]methyl tert-butyl ether and [2H9]-tert-butyl alcohol, respectively. Volatiles were removed from the blood by direct helium purging of the liquid; were trapped on a Tenax trap; and were desorbed, cryofocused, and chromatographed on a DB-624 capillary column that was connected directly to the ion source of a mass spectrometer. Detection was by mass analysis using a double-focusing magnetic-sector mass spectrometer operating in the full-scan mode at the medium mass resolution of 3000. For the isotope-dilution method, the minimum detection limits in blood (5-10 mL) are 0.01 microgram/L for MTBE and 0.06 microgram/L for TBA. The isotope-dilution method proved to be a big improvement in recovery, reproducibility, and sensitivity over our previous analytical method, which used the labeled ketone, [4-2H3]-2-butanone, as the internal standard for both MTBE and TBA. The isotope-dilution method has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring blood levels of MTBE and TBA in populations exposed to oxygenated fuels containing MTBE. PMID:7564298

  20. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T. E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: brittany.gordon@ncf.edu

    2014-03-20

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL.

  1. Protease determination using an optimized alcohol enzyme electrode.

    PubMed

    Bardeletti, G; Carillon, C

    1993-12-01

    A new method for the determination of protease activities is described. In this large family, trypsin is used as a protease model that cleaves the ethyl or methyl ester of artificial substrates producing ethanol or methanol. Alcohol is detected using an alcohol oxidase enzyme electrode. The H2O2 production that occurs is measured amperometrically. At 30 degrees C, in a 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, the enzyme electrode response for ethanol was calibrated at 3.10(-6)-3.10(-3)M and for methanol from 3.10(-7) to 4.10(-4)M in the cell measurement. Trypsin levels as determined by the proposed method and by a conventional spectrophotometric method are in good agreement when using the same measurement conditions. A detection limit of 10 U.L-1 and a linear calibration curve of 10-100,000 U.L-1 in the sample were obtained. Measuring time for the required trypsin solution concentration was from 4 min (for the most dilute samples) to 1 min (for the most concentrate samples). In a typical experiment, protease measurements did not inactivate the alcohol oxidase on the probe, nor did a more classical use for alcohol detection. The procedure developed could permit any protease estimation on the condition that they hydrolyze ester bonds from synthetic substrate. PMID:8109959

  2. Rise of inhaled toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene, or mesitylene in rat blood after treatment with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Roemer, K.G.; Federsel, R.J.; Freundt, K.J.

    1986-12-01

    Toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene, and mesitylene (1,3,5-methyl benzene) are widespread as solvents in industries and laboratories or in the manufacture and application of glues, paints, printing inks etc. These aromatics may be absorbed by employees during exposure at the workplace. Alcoholic beverages may be consumed during occupational inhalation or after shift's end at times. Toxicokinetic interactions between the aromatics and ethanol must be assumed because of the common pathway of biotransformation. The blood levels of toluene and m-xylene after inhalation increased significantly in volunteers dosed simultaneously with ethanol. In this view the present experiments in rats should elucidate whether the blood concentrations of inhaled ethyl benzene and mesitylene (both structurally related to toluene and m-xylene) can rise under the influence of ethanol, and whether quantitative differences of this effect due to the structure of these aromatics can occur. From the results informations important for the assessment of occupational health risk are to be expected.

  3. Comparison of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) concentrations in hair for testing abstinence.

    PubMed

    Albermann, M E; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2011-04-01

    Hair analysis is a powerful tool for retrospective drug analysis. By determining the minor ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair, even a previous consumption of alcohol is detectable. However, previous studies showed a lack of correlation if both parameters are determined simultaneously. A further study was conducted to confirm or refute these results. One hundred and sixty hair samples were analyzed for EtG and FAEE in the context of driving ability. In 109 cases, alcohol abstinence was clearly proven and was excluded in 15 cases. In 36 cases, ambiguous results were found. Possible reasons for the deviating results are discussed. It is recommended, that in context of driving ability diagnostics the EtG result is determinant. In critical cases FAEE concentrations can be determined for checking purposes, but a negative FAEE result cannot refute a determined EtG concentration >7 pg/mg. PMID:21127843

  4. Metabolic pathway engineering for fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using stable chromosomal integration.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are fatty acid derived molecules similar to first generation biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAMEs) which can be produced in a microbial cell factory. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a suitable candidate for microbial large scale and long term cultivations, which is the typical industrial production setting for biofuels. It is crucial to conserve the metabolic design of the cell factory during industrial cultivation conditions that require extensive propagation. Genetic modifications therefore have to be introduced in a stable manner. Here, several metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in S. cerevisiae were combined and the genes were stably expressed from the organisms' chromosomes. A wax ester synthase (ws2) was expressed in different yeast strains with an engineered acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, we compared expression of ws2 with and without overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs SE (L641P) ) and further evaluated additional overexpression of a mutant version of acetyl-CoA decarboxylase (ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) ) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1). The combined engineering efforts of the implementation of ws2, ADH2, ALD6 and acs SE (L641P) , ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) and ACB1 in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking storage lipid formation (are1Δ, are2Δ, dga1Δ and lro1Δ) and β-oxidation (pox1Δ) resulted in a 4.1-fold improvement compared with sole expression of ws2 in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25422103

  5. Ethyl Radical Ejection During Photodecomposition of Butanone on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-10-15

    The photodecomposition of acetone and butanone were examined on the (110) surface of rutile TiO2 using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). In both cases, photodecomposition was proceeded by a required thermal reaction between the adsorbed ketone and coadsorbed oxygen resulting in a diolate species. The diolate photodecomposed by ejection of an organic radical from the surface leaving behind a carboxylate species. In the acetone case, only methyl radical PSD was detected and acetate was left on the surface. In the butanone case there was a possibility of either methyl or ethyl radical ejection, with propionate or acetate left behind, respectively. However, only ethyl radical PSD was detected and the species left on the surface (acetate) was the same as in the acetone case. The preference for ethyl radical ejection is linked to the greater thermal stability of the ethyl radical over that of the methyl radical. Unlike in the acetone case, where the ejected methyl radicals did not participate in thermal chemistry on the TiO2(110) surface after photoactivation of the acetone diolate, ethyl radicals photodesorbing at 100 K from butanone diolate showed a preference for dehydrogenation to ethene through the influence of coadsorbed oxygen. These results reemphasize the mechanistic importance of organic radical production during photooxidation reactions on TiO2 surface. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  6. Ethyl Radical Ejection During Photodecomposition of Butanone on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-10-15

    The photodecomposition of acetone and butanone were examined on the (110) surface of rutile TiO2 using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). In both cases, photodecomposition was proceeded by a required thermal reaction between the adsorbed ketone and coadsorbed oxygen resulting in a diolate species. The diolate photodecomposed by ejection of an organic radical from the surface leaving behind a carboxylate species. In the acetone case, only methyl radical PSD was detected and acetate was left on the surface. In the butanone case there was a possibility of either methyl or ethyl radical ejection, with propionate or acetate left behind, respectively. However, only ethyl radical PSD was detected and the species left on the surface (acetate) was the same as in the acetone case. The preference for ethyl radical ejection is linked to the greater thermal stability of the ethyl radical over that of the methyl radical. Unlike in the acetone case, where the ejected methyl radicals did not participate in thermal chemistry on the TiO2(110) surface after photoactivation of the acetone diolate, ethyl radicals photodesorbing at 100 K from butanone diolate showed a preference for dehydrogenation to ethene through the influence of coadsorbed oxygen. These results reemphasize the mechanistic importance of organic radical production during photooxidation reactions on TiO2 surface.

  7. Clinical Sensitivity and Specificity of Meconium Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters, Ethyl Glucuronide, and Ethyl Sulfate for Detecting Maternal Drinking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Dukes, Kimberly A.; Tripp, Tara; Petersen, Julie M.; Raffo, Cheri; Burd, Larry; Odendaal, Hein; Elliott, Amy J.; Hereld, Dale; Signore, Caroline; Willinger, Marian; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated agreement between self-reported prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and objective meconium alcohol markers to determine the optimal meconium marker and threshold for identifying PAE. Methods Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 0.1 g meconium from infants of Safe Passage Study participants. Detailed PAE information was collected from women with a validated timeline follow-back interview. As meconium formation begins during weeks 12-20, maternal self-reported drinking at or beyond 19 weeks was our exposure variable. Results Of 107 women, 33 reported no alcohol consumption in pregnancy, 16 stopped drinking by week 19, and 58 drank beyond 19 weeks (including 45 3rd trimester drinkers). There was moderate-substantial agreement between self-reported PAE ≥19 weeks and meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g (kappa: 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.73). This biomarker and associated cutoff was superior to a 7 FAEE sum ≥2 nmol/g and all other individual and combination marker cutoffs. With meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g as the gold-standard condition and maternal self-report ≥19 weeks gestation as the test condition, 82% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.6-92.0) and 75% specificity (95% CI: 63.2-86.8) were observed. A significant dose-concentration relationship between self-reported drinks per drinking day and meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g also was observed (P<0.01). Conclusions We assessed meconium EtG, EtS, and FAEE concentrations in the same meconium sample and compared concentrations to detailed self-reported PAE data. Maternal alcohol consumption ≥19 weeks was better represented by meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g compared to current FAEE cutoffs. PMID:25595440

  8. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  9. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons V : 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, Earl R

    1946-01-01

    The method used for the synthesis and purification of an 8-gallon quantity of 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene from m-creosol consists in obtaining m-methylcyclohexanone from m-creosol by hydrogenation followed by oxidation, condensation of the ketone with ethylmagnesium bromide, dehydration of the tertiary alcohol obtained, and the dehydration of the olefins to 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene. A yield of 28 percent of the theoretical was obtained from 98 percent commercial m-creosol. The physical properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene are compared with selected values from the literature.

  10. Distribution and organoleptic impact of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate enantiomers in wine.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The enantiomers of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate were assayed in several wines using chiral gas chromatography (β-cyclodextrin). Analyses of 37 commercial red wines from various vintages and origins revealed the almost exclusive presence of the S-enantiomeric form. The average concentration was ∼50 μg/L, but the oldest samples were found to contain higher ethyl 2-methylbutanoate levels than the youngest wines. The olfactory threshold of a racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (50:50, m/m) in dilute alcohol solution was 2.60 μg/L, almost twice that of the S-form, which was 1.53 μg/L. Ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate and the racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate had different aromatic nuances: the former was mainly defined by fruity descriptors, such as green apple (Granny Smith) and strawberry, whereas the latter had an unspecific, caustic, fruity, solvent odor. Sensory analysis revealed an enhancing effect of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied: the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool, consisting of esters found in red wines, in dilute alcohol solution alone was higher than that of the same mixture supplemented with 50 μg/L ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate. The sensory profiles of these aromatic reconstitutions highlighted the contribution of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate to black-berry-fruit descriptors. PMID:24844693

  11. Kinetics of thin filament activation probed by fluorescence of N-((2-(Iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole-labeled troponin I incorporated into skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle: implications for regulation of muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, B; Chalovich, JM

    1999-01-01

    Making use of troponin with fluorescently labeled troponin I subunit (N-((2-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole-troponin I, IANBD-TnI) that had previously been described in solution studies as a probe for thin filament activation (. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:7209-7213), we present a new approach that allows the kinetics of thin filament activation to be studied in skinned muscle fibers. After the exchange of native troponin for fluorescently labeled troponin, the fluorescence intensity is sensitive to both changes in calcium concentration and actin attachment of cross-bridges in their strong binding states (. Biophys. J. 77:000-000). Imposing rapid changes in the fraction of strongly attached cross-bridges, e.g., by switching from isometric contraction to high-speed shortening, causes changes in thin filament activation at fixed Ca(2+) concentrations that can be followed by recording fluorescence intensity. Upon changing to high-speed shortening we observed small (<20%) changes in fluorescence that became faster at higher Ca(2+) concentrations. At all Ca(2+) concentrations, these changes are more than 10-fold faster than force redevelopment subsequent to the period of unloaded shortening. We interpret this as an indication that equilibration among different states of the thin filament is rapid and becomes faster as Ca(2+) is raised. Fast equilibration suggests that the rate constant of force redevelopment is not limited by changes in the activation level of thin filaments induced by the isotonic contraction before force redevelopment. Instead, our modeling shows that, in agreement with our previous proposal for the regulation of muscle contraction, a rapid and Ca(2+)-dependent equilibration among different states of the thin filament can fully account for the Ca(2+) dependence of force redevelopment and the fluorescence changes described in this study. PMID:10545369

  12. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  13. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin...

  14. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  15. Biodegradation of tert-butyl alcohol and related xenobiotics by a methylotrophic bacterial isolate.

    PubMed

    Piveteau, P; Fayolle, F; Vandecasteele, J P; Monot, F

    2001-04-01

    A new aerobic bacterial strain, CIP 1-2052, isolated from an activated sludge sample, was able to use tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a product of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) degradation, as its sole carbon and energy source. Cobalt ions stimulated TBA mineralization. The maximum growth and TBA degradation rates were 0.032 +/- 0.004 h(-1) and 35.8 +/- 8.5 mg TBA x g(-1) (cell dry mass) per h, respectively. The growth yield on TBA was 0.54 +/- 0.02 g x g(-1). Strain CIP 1-2052 exhibited a particular substrate specificity towards alcohols. It degraded tertiary alcohols, TBA and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA), but neither their primary and secondary alcohol homologues, nor ethanol. However, one-carbon compounds, namely methanol and formate, were degraded by strain CIP 1-2052, showing the methylotrophic nature of this isolate. The properties of this new strain suggest that it could be used for bioremediation of contaminated aquifers. PMID:11341321

  16. Solid Dose Form of Metformin with Ethyl Eicosapentaenoic Acid Does Not Improve Metformin Plasma Availability

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Jeffrey H.; Johnson, William D.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate effects of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid on pharmacokinetics of metformin. Pharmacokinetic profiles of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid when delivered separately or together in solid dose form were investigated and compared to determine whether the solid dose resulted in an altered metforminpharmacokinetics when given with or without food. Methods A single-center, open-label, repeated dose study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metformin when administered in solid dose form with ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid compared to co-administration with icosapent ethyl, an ester of eicosapentaenoic acid and ethyl alcohol used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia with metformin hydrochloride. Non-compartmental PK methods were used to compare area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) between patients randomized to either the ester or separate medications group under both fasting and fed conditions. Results Using these two PK parameters, results showed that metformin availability was higher under fasting conditions when delivered separately from icosapent ethyl. There were no group differences in the fed condition. Conclusions The solid dose form of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid did not improve the pharmacokinetics of metformin in terms of plasma availability, suggesting that little is to be gained over the separate administration of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid and metformin hydrochloride. PMID:26893954

  17. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  18. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  19. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  20. Photooxidation of methyl sulfide, ethyl sulfide, and methanethiol

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.

    1984-06-01

    Products of sunlight-irradiated mixtures of oxides of nitrogen and alkyl sulfides (RSR, R = CH/sub 3/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/) and methanethiol (CH/sub 3/SH) in air include formaldehyde (R = CH/sub 3/), acetaldehyde and PAN (R = C/sub 2/H/sub 5/), sulfur dioxide, and alkyl nitrates (RONO/sub 2/) as well as particulate alkanesulfonic acids (RSO/sub 2/OH) and inorganic sulfate. The nature and yields of gaseous and particulate products are discussed in terms of OH-initiated reaction pathways, including C-S bond scission, and subsequent reactions of alkythiyl radicals (RS), including those leading to photolabile RSNO and stable RSNO/sub 2/ products for which indirect evidence is presented. SO/sub 2/ yields are found to vary according to the relative importance of the competing pathways RS + O/sub 2/ (a) and RS + NO/sub 2/ (b), for which a ratio k/sub b/ / k/sub a/ approx. 2 x 10/sup 6/ is derived from data for irradiated RSR-NO/sub x/, RSH-Cl/sub 2/, and RSH-Cl/sub 2/-NO/sub 2/ mixtures.

  1. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mice.” “Cancer Research.” 39:3471-3475. (1979). (5) Pederson, T. and Peters, H. “Proposal for classification of oocytes and follicles in the mouse...

  2. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mice.” “Cancer Research.” 39:3471-3475. (1979). (5) Pederson, T. and Peters, H. “Proposal for classification of oocytes and follicles in the mouse...

  3. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the dry sample. (2) The viscosity of an aqueous solution, 2.5 grams of the material in 100 milliliters of water, at 20 °C, is 20 to 60 centipoises. (3) The ash content on a dry basis has a maximum of...

  4. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the dry sample. (2) The viscosity of an aqueous solution, 2.5 grams of the material in 100 milliliters of water, at 20 °C, is 20 to 60 centipoises. (3) The ash content on a dry basis has a maximum of...

  5. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... not more than 19 percent, calculated as OC2H5, both measured on the dry sample. (2) The viscosity of an aqueous solution, 2.5 grams of the material in 100 milliliters of water, at 20 °C, is 20 to...

  6. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (CAS No. 1338-23-4) in Dimethyl Phthalate (CAS No. 131-11-3) (45:55) Administered Topically in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Errol

    1993-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) is an unstable organic peroxide used in the manufacture of acrylic resins, as a hardening agent for fiberglass-reinforced plastics, and as a curing agent for unsaturated polyester resins. It is commercially available as a 40% to 60% solution in dimethyl phthalate (DMP). Because exposure to MEKP is typically through dermal contact, 2-week and 13-week toxicity studies were conducted by topical application of MEKP in DMP (45:55 w/w) to the clipped dorsal region of male and female Fischer 344/N rats and mice. Animals were evaluated for histopathology and for reproductive endpoints. In vitro genetic toxicity studies of MEKP included assessments of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells and analysis of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In addition, the peripheral blood of mice from the 13-week study was evaluated in the micronucleus assay. In the 2-week studies, groups of 5 animals of each species and sex were administered MEKP in DMP for 5 days per week at doses of 50.6, 101.3, 202.5, 405, and 810 mg/kg body weight per day for rats and 112.5, 225, 450, 900, and 1800 mg/kg body weight per day for mice. Control groups received DMP or no treatment. No rats died during the studies, but at least 1 mouse in each group receiving MEKP died. Body weight gains of rats decreased with increasing doses of MEKP; body weight gains of mice were not affected by treatment. The primary effects of topical administration of MEKP in both rats and mice were an extensive coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis, variable degrees of inflammation of the adnexa, and epidermal regeneration and hyperplasia at the application site. Lesions considered secondary to the dermal lesions included increased hematopoiesis in the spleen in rats and mice and increased myeloid hyperplasia of the bone marrow in mice, primarily at the higher doses. Mice showed a marked, dose

  7. An Innovative Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures and Studies on Change of Activation Energies of the Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz Dikko, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient changes with addition of contaminants to the original liquid. This forms the basis of a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer designed and constructed for this purpose. We find that the viscosity coefficient μ of alcohol increased almost linearly with water concentration at a rate that depends on the type of alcohol and water concentration. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration. This increase also depends on type of alcohol. Our detailed investigation on alcohol-water mixtures for both ethyl and methyl alcohol along with discussion on possible future potential application of such a simple, yet very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. A comparison is made of our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. A part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage in order to explain some of the observed properties is presented.

  8. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of…

  9. The relationship between lysine 4 on histone H3 methylation levels of alcohol tolerance genes and changes of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Ji, Binfeng; Ren, Hongzhen; Meng, Chun

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether epigenetic changes contributed to improve ethanol tolerance in mutant populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). Two ethanol-tolerant variants of S. cerevisiae were used to evaluate the genetic stability in the process of stress-free passage cultures. We found that acquired ethanol tolerance was lost and transcription level of some genes (HSP104, PRO1, TPS1, and SOD1) closely related to ethanol tolerance decreased significantly after the 10th passage in ethanol-free medium. Tri-methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) enhanced at the promoter of HSP104, PRO1, TPS1 and SOD1 in ethanol-tolerant variants of S. cerevisiae was also diminished after tenth passage in stress-free cultures. The ethanol tolerance was reacquired when exogenous SOD1 transferred in some tolerance-lost strains. This showed that H3K4 methylation is involved in phenotypic variation with regard to ethanol tolerance with respect to classic breeding methods used in yeast. PMID:24779776

  10. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  11. S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    S - Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate ( EPTC ) ; CASRN 759 - 94 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  12. Detection of ethyl glucuronide in blood spotted on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Kaufmann, E; Thoma, D; Thierauf, A; Weinmann, W; Skopp, G; Alt, A

    2011-07-15

    This study aims to show that sensitive detection of ethyl glucuronide in dried blood spotted onto various surfaces after a period of 24h is feasible. At present, there is insufficient information how tightly ethyl glucuronide (EtG) binds to various materials and how easily it can be eluted. 4ml aliquots of blood samples obtained from seven volunteers after consumption of alcoholic beverages were applied to six different surfaces. After drying and a 24h-storage at 20±2°C the samples were re-dissolved in water, and EtG was subsequently analyzed by a LC-MS Paul-type ion trap. A comparison was made between dried and corresponding fluid samples. EtG was detectable in all subjects' samples following consumption of alcohol. EtG was also detectable after a storage time of four weeks at 4°C in whole blood that had been preserved with EDTA. EtG was detectable in all samples dried on different surfaces and its concentration remained relatively constant irrespective of the particular condition of the material. Detection of EtG in blood spots from the scene may indicate recent alcohol consumption in cases where collection of blood remained undone or could not be performed. PMID:21641739

  13. Surface Tension Characteristics of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solution with Alcoholic Surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Ogawa, Kiyoshi

    At present, the combination of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) solution as an absorbent and water as a refrigerant have widely been used as the working fluid for absorption refrigerating machines. In order to obtain absorption enhancement of water vapor into the LiBr solution by Marangoni convection, an alcoholic surfactant is being added in the LiBr solution. In that case, the surface tension of the LiBr solution with the surfactant plays an important role for the vapor absorption. In this study, the surface tensions of the LiBr solution with several alcoholic surfactants such as 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were measured by Wilhelmy plate method. As a result, the surface tensions of 50 wt% LiBr solution with several surfactants were obtained over the LiBr solution temperature range from 298 K to 318 K and the surfactant concentration range from 0 to 104 ppm by mass. The measured surface tension has decreased with the increasing number of carbons included in the surfactant at constant concentration, and the surface tension has increased with the increasing temperature of 50 wt% LiBr solution. The surface tension increase of 1-octanol became greater than any other surfactant used in this work. The effective carbon number of the surfactant for the absorption enhancement was in the range from 7 to 8.

  14. Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100 mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100 mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 25–50 ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,500–5,000 ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 5–1,000 and 2.5–500 ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15 %. Extraction efficiencies were 51.2–96.5 %. Matrix effects ranged from −84.7 to 16.0 %, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within ±20 % change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (−20 °C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12 h at room temperature and 72 h at 4 °C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption. PMID:24408304

  15. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  16. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  17. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  18. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  19. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  20. A Simple Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz de, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The change of activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient with addition of contaminants to the original liquid gives rise to a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration for ethyl and methyl alcohol. Our detailed investigation on the alcohol-water mixtures along with discussion on possible future potential application of the simple and very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. We compared our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. We also discuss a part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage.

  1. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  2. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  3. The direct polymerization of vinyl alcohol and vinyl alcohol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, B.M.; Cederstav, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    The copolymerization of vinyl alcohol with a number of electron deficient olefins is reported. Vinyl alcohol was formed through the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ketene methyl vinyl acetal. Under water starved conditions, the kinetics of tautomerization have a zero order dependence upon the concentration of vinyl alcohol (k{sub obs} = 3.5 x 10{sup -6} M/s). Hence, under these conditions, the half life of vinyl alcohol can be several hours at room temperature. We found that this meta-stable species could be quantitatively polymerized in a copolymerization (AIBN, h{upsilon}, -10 to 25{degrees}C) with maleic anhydride, maleimide or acrylonitrile.

  4. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  5. 21 CFR 73.345 - Paprika oleoresin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... L.) by extraction, using any one or a combination of the following solvents: Acetone Ethyl alcohol Ethylene dichloride Hexane Isopropyl alcohol Methyl alcohol Methylene chloride Trichloroethylene...

  6. 21 CFR 73.345 - Paprika oleoresin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... L.) by extraction, using any one or a combination of the following solvents: Acetone Ethyl alcohol Ethylene dichloride Hexane Isopropyl alcohol Methyl alcohol Methylene chloride Trichloroethylene...

  7. 21 CFR 73.345 - Paprika oleoresin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... L.) by extraction, using any one or a combination of the following solvents: Acetone Ethyl alcohol Ethylene dichloride Hexane Isopropyl alcohol Methyl alcohol Methylene chloride Trichloroethylene...

  8. 21 CFR 73.345 - Paprika oleoresin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... L.) by extraction, using any one or a combination of the following solvents: Acetone Ethyl alcohol Ethylene dichloride Hexane Isopropyl alcohol Methyl alcohol Methylene chloride Trichloroethylene...

  9. 21 CFR 73.345 - Paprika oleoresin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... L.) by extraction, using any one or a combination of the following solvents: Acetone Ethyl alcohol Ethylene dichloride Hexane Isopropyl alcohol Methyl alcohol Methylene chloride Trichloroethylene...

  10. Ultrasonic Velocity, Viscosity and Refractive Index Investigation on Interacting Blend Solutions of PAA (Poly Acrylic Acid) and PVA (Poly Vinyl Alcohol) in Solvent DMSO (Di methyl Sulphoxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamani, Chakrala

    2010-11-01

    The present study provides a great insight into the major new research areas like Plasma research (which is yielding a greater understanding of the universe) and Nano Technology Research (which provides many practical uses like Drug Delivery System). The Ultrasonic Velocities, Viscosities and Refractive indices of Poly (Acrylic Acid) and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) blends in DMSO solutions have been measured over a wide range of composition, concentration and at different temperatures. The variation of Ultrasonic Velocity, derived acoustical parameters, adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance, Rao number, molar compressibility and relaxation strength with composition of blend solution was found not linear. This non-linearity has been attributed to incompatibility in conformity with the earlier findings. This behavior was confirmed by Viscometric and interaction parameters studies, as well as by investigation of Refractive index studies. These investigations offer an entirely new and simple approach to the study of the compatibility of polymer blends which is in general obtained by sophisticated techniques of thermal dynamic mechanical and electron microscopic analysis.

  11. Ethyl radical ejection during photodecomposition of butanone on TiO 2(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-10-01

    The photodecomposition of acetone and butanone were examined on the (1 1 0) surface of rutile TiO 2 using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). In both cases, photodecomposition was preceded by a required thermal reaction between the adsorbed ketone and coadsorbed oxygen resulting in an adsorbed diolate species. The diolate photodecomposed by ejection of an organic radical from the surface leaving behind a carboxylate species. In the acetone case, only methyl radical PSD was detected and acetate was left on the surface. In the butanone case there was a possibility of either methyl or ethyl radical ejection, with propionate or acetate left behind, respectively. However, only ethyl radical PSD was detected and the species left on the surface (acetate) was the same as in the acetone case. The preference for ethyl radical ejection is linked to the greater stability of the C-CH 3 bond in butanone over that of the C-C 2H 5 bond. Unlike in the acetone case, where the ejected methyl radicals did not participate in thermal chemistry on the TiO 2(1 1 0) surface after photoactivation of the acetone diolate, ethyl radicals photodesorbing at 100 K from butanone diolate showed preference for dehydrogenation to ethene on the surface through the influence of coadsorbed oxygen. These results reemphasize the mechanistic importance of organic radical production during photooxidation reactions on TiO 2 surface.

  12. Breakdown in vapors of alcohols: methanol and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Sivos, Jelena; Skoro, Nikola; Maric, Dragana; Malovic, Gordana

    2014-10-01

    Breakdown data for vapors of the two simplest alcohols - methanol and ethanol - are presented. The breakdown is achieved between plan-parallel electrodes, where cathode is made of copper and anode is a thin film of platinum deposited on quartz window. Diameter of electrodes is 5.4 cm and electrode gap 1.1 cm. We compare breakdown voltages (Paschen curves) for methyl and ethyl alcohol in the pressure range 0.1--2 Torr. In both vapors, the pressure is kept well below the vapor pressure, to prevent formation of liquid droplets. For each point of Paschen curves corresponding axial profiles of emission are recorded by ICCD camera in visual part of the spectra. Axial intensity distributions reveal important processes of excitation. Both vapors show strong emission peak near the cathode at all pd values covered by measurements, which indicates that excitation by ions and fast neutrals play important role in the discharge. Preliminary spectrally resolved measurements of the discharge structure with optical filters show that dominantly emission comes from CH band at 431 nm. There is a very low intensity of H α emission detected in ethanol vapor at high E/N, while it is much stronger in methanol even at lower E/N. It is interesting to note that H α emission in methanol exhibits exponential increase of intensity from the cathode to the anode, so it comes mainly from excitation by electrons, not heavy particles. Supported by MESTD Projects ON171037 and III41011.

  13. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  14. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  15. Phase Behavior of Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) in Alcohol-Water System: Coexistence of LCST and UCST.

    PubMed

    Kuila, Atanu; Maity, Nabasmita; Chatterjee, Dhruba P; Nandi, Arun K

    2016-03-10

    A thermoresponsive polymer poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PMeO2MA) is grafted from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) backbone by using a combined ATRC and ATRP technique with a high conversion (69%) of the monomer to produce the graft copolymer (PD). It is highly soluble polymer and its solution property is studied by varying polarity in pure solvents (water, methanol, isopropanol) and also in mixed solvents (water-methanol and water-isopropanol) by measuring the hydrodynamic size (Z-average) of the particles by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The variation of Z-average size with temperature of the PD solution (0.2%, w/v) indicates a lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase transition (T(PL)) in aqueous medium, an upper critical solution temperature (UCST)-type phase transition (T(PU)) in isopropanol medium, and no such phase transition for methanol solution. In the mixed solvent (water + isopropanol) at 0-20% (v/v) isopropanol the TPL increases, whereas the T(PU) decreases at 92-100% with isopropanol content. For the mixture 20-90% isopropanol, PD particles having larger sizes (400-750 nm) exhibit neither any break in Z-average size-temperature plot nor any cloudiness, indicating their dispersed swelled state in the medium. In the methanol + water mixture with methanol content of 0-30%, T(PL) increases, and at 40-60% both UCST- and LCST-type phase separations occur simultaneously, but at 70-90% methanol the swelled state of the particles (size 250-375 nm) is noticed. For 50 vol % methanol by varying polymer concentration (0.07-0.2% w/v) we have drawn a quasibinary phase diagram that indicates an approximate inverted hourglass phase diagram where a swelled state exists between two single phase boundary produced from LCST- and UCST-type phase transitions. An attempt is made to understand the phase separation process by temperature-dependent (1)H NMR spectroscopy along with transmission electron microscopy. PMID:26859626

  16. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-hong; Wang, Zhi-li; Shi, Bao-lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-xin; Wang, Su-li; Gao, Bao-jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite. PMID:26457083

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Bao-Lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Su-Li; Gao, Bao-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite. PMID:26457083

  19. Exposure assessment and risk characterisation of ethyl carbamate from Korean traditional fermented rice wine, Takju and Yakju.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Park, Sung-Kug; Yoon, Hae-Jung; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Meehye

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate is one of the most hazardous chemicals naturally occurring in food, and is present in alcoholic beverages. Korean traditional rice wine, Takju and Yakju, is frequently consumed in Korea, but there have been no studies characterising the risks of ethyl carbamate in these products. In order to assess and characterise the exposure risk of ethyl carbamate in Korean traditional rice wines, ethyl carbamate was investigated by means of GC-MS. The analytical methods were optimised and validated through determining linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, recovery and precision. A total of 283 traditional Korean rice wines, including 175 Takju and 108 Yakju samples, were analysed. Exposure assessment was performed by factoring in ethyl carbamate content, daily consumption and body weight. Daily exposures of ethyl carbamate were estimated for adults in four age groups, and risks of ethyl carbamate were characterised by the margin of exposure, which is more than 10 000. Based on this study, the risks of ethyl carbamate in Korean traditional rice wine were shown to be of low concern. PMID:26794849

  20. Substituent effects in heterogeneous catalysis. VIII. Reactions of 2-methyl- and 2-ethylcyclohexanone with deuterium catalyzed by platinum metals

    SciTech Connect

    Teratani, S.; Tanaka, K.; Ogawa, H.; Taya, K.

    1981-08-01

    2-Methyl and 2-ethyl derivatives of cyclohexanone were allowed to react with deuterium in t-BuOD using platinum group metals as catalysts. The product alcohols and the remaining ketone were examined by mass spectrometry. Over Ru, Os, and Ir, the simple addition of two deuterium atoms to the carbonyl linkage was predominant, accompanied by little isotopic exchange. Over Pt, however, isotopic exchange was significant and over Rh and Pd quite extensive. The samples obtained over Rh and Pd were further analyzed by NMR spectroscopy to determine the loci of the incorporated deuterium atoms. Deuterium exchange over Pd was almost entirely confined to the C(2) and C(6) positions, while that over Rh was smeared beyond these positions. These results can be accounted for by assuming the intermediacy of ..pi..-absorbed ..pi..-oxaallylic species on Pd and of ..beta..-diadsorbed species on Rh.

  1. Methyl Iodide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane, CH3I) was reported as a potential alternative to the stratospheric ozone-depleting fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) in the mid-1990s (Sims et al., 1995; Ohr et al., 1996). It has since received significant research attention to determine its environmental fate and tran...

  2. Subchronic exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether resulting in genetic damage in Aldh2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2013-09-15

    Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) is biofuel additive recently used in Japan and some other countries. Limited evidence shows that ETBE has low toxicity. Acetaldehyde (AA), however, as one primary metabolite of ETBE, is clearly genotoxic and has been considered to be a potential carcinogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ALDH2 gene on ETBE-induced genotoxicity and metabolism of its metabolites after inhalation exposure to ETBE. A group of wild-type (WT) and Aldh2 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 500ppm ETBE for 1-6h, and the blood concentrations of ETBE metabolites, including AA, tert-butyl alcohol and 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, were measured. Another group of mice of WT and KO were exposed to 0, 500, 1750, or 5000ppm ETBE for 6h/day with 5 days per weeks for 13 weeks. Genotoxic effects of ETBE in these mice were measured by the alkaline comet assay, 8-hydroxyguanine DNA-glycosylase modified comet assay and micronucleus test. With short-term exposure to ETBE, the blood concentrations of all the three metabolites in KO mice were significantly higher than the corresponding concentrations of those in WT mice of both sexes. After subchronic exposure to ETBE, there was significant increase in DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner in KO male mice, while only 5000ppm exposure significantly increased DNA damage in male WT mice. Overall, there was a significant sex difference in genetic damage in both genetic types of mice. These results showed that ALDH2 is involved in the detoxification of ETBE and lack of enzyme activity may greatly increase the sensitivity to the genotoxic effects of ETBE, and male mice were more sensitive than females. PMID:23810710

  3. Hydrogenation of ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate

    SciTech Connect

    Klabunovskii, E.I.; Levitina, E.S.; Kaigorodova, L.N.; Godunova, L.F.; Gogoladze, D.D.; Karpeiskaya, E.I.; Novikova, S.A.

    1987-03-10

    Hydrogenation of ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate in acetic anhydride at atmospheric pressure in the presence of strong base leads to a quantitative yield of the ethyl ester of ..cap alpha..,eta-diacetyllysine. Selective reduction of the cyano and oximino groups in ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate has been shown in the presence of powdered Ni, Cu-Ni, and LaNi/sub 5/H/sub 6.6/ catalysts. Hydrogenation of ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate on Raney Ni at atmospheric pressure in dioxan with addition of acetic anhydride leads to a 50% yield of diacetyllysine.

  4. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  5. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  7. Methyl chloroform

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1994-04-01

    Methyl chloroform is identified as a Class 1 ozone-depleting substance under Title VI of the CAA Amendments. On Nov. 30, 1993, EPA ordered the phaseout of Class 1 ozone-depleting substances -- chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform -- by Jan. 1, 1996. Methyl chloroform and other Class 1 substances may be used after the dead-line if sources can be found through recycling or existing inventories. Methyl chloroform is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under CAA. It also is a SARA Title III, Sec. 313 compound with a reportable quantity of 1,000 pounds. OSHA and the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists have set 350 ppm as the time-weighted average airborne exposure level for methyl chloroform. NIOSH lists its immediately dangerous to life or health'' concentration as 1,000 parts per million. DOT identifies the substance as a hazardous material, Class 6.1 (poison).

  8. Apple Aminoacid Profile and Yeast Strains in the Formation of Fusel Alcohols and Esters in Cider Production.

    PubMed

    Eleutério Dos Santos, Caroline Mongruel; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Braga, Cíntia Maia; Rossi, Márcio José; Ninow, Jorge; Machado Dos Santos, Tâmisa Pires; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The amino acid profile in dessert apple must and its effect on the synthesis of fusel alcohols and esters in cider were established by instrumental analysis. The amino acid profile was performed in nine apple musts. Two apple musts with high (>150 mg/L) and low (<75 mg/L) nitrogen content, and four enological yeast strains, were used in cider fermentation. The aspartic acid, asparagine and glutamic acid amino acids were the majority in all the apple juices, representing 57.10% to 81.95%. These three amino acids provided a high consumption (>90%) during fermentation in all the ciders. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 81.42% of data variability and the separation of three groups for the analyzed samples was verified. The ciders manufactured with low nitrogen content showed sluggish fermentation and around 50% less content of volatile compounds (independent of the yeast strain used), which were mainly 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) and esters. However, in the presence of amino acids (asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine) there was a greater differentiation between the yeasts in the production of fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. High contents of these aminoacids in dessert apple musts are essential for the production of fusel alcohols and most of esters by aromatic yeasts during cider fermentation. PMID:25920613

  9. Addition reaction of methyl cinnamate with 2-amino-4- nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, Venty; Rakhman Wibowo, Fajar; Pranoto; Robingatun Isnaeni, Siti; Ratna Kumala Sari, Meiyanti; Handayani, Sekar

    2016-02-01

    A novel compound which have one N-H fragment and nitrophenyl group has been designed and synthesized from cinnamaldehyde. The reaction was conducted in 3 step reactions to give the final product. Firstly, cinnamaldehyde was converted into cinnamic acid, which was then esterified with methyl alcohol to obtained methyl cinnamate. The last step was the addition reaction between methyl cinnamate and 2-amino-4-nitrophenol to give a cinnamaldehyde derivative, namely methyl-3-(2-hidroksi-5-nitrophenyl amino)-3- phenylpropanoate.

  10. Influence of the brewing process on furfuryl ethyl ether formation during beer aging.

    PubMed

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2004-11-01

    In beer, the development of a solvent-like stale flavor is associated with the formation of furfuryl ethyl ether. The synthesis rate of this important flavor compound is proportional to the concentration of furfuryl alcohol in beer. This study shows that furfuryl alcohol in beer is mainly formed by Maillard reactions initiated during wort boiling and malt production. A mechanism for its formation from alpha-(1,4)-oligoglucans and amino acids in wort and beer is proposed. During wort boiling, a quadratic relationship was found between the wort extract concentration, on the one hand, and the increase of furfuryl alcohol and furfural, on the other. The reduction of furfural by yeast during fermentation further increases the furfuryl alcohol content. In pale beers, the furfuryl alcohol concentration is essentially determined by the thermal load on wort during brewing operations. In dark beers, a considerable fraction of furfuryl alcohol may, however, come from the dark malts used. These results lead to important practical conclusions concerning the control over furfuryl ethyl ether in beer. PMID:15506813

  11. THE MILLIMETER- AND SUBMILLIMETER-WAVE SPECTRUM OF THE TRANS AND GAUCHE CONFORMERS OF ETHYL FORMATE

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, Ivan R.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Herbst, Eric

    2009-04-15

    Since methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}) is found to have a high abundance in hot molecular cores and other types of clouds in the galactic center, it is reasonable to search among such sources for detectable abundances of the more complex analog ethyl formate (HCOOC{sub 2}H{sub 5}). Following a previous study of the millimeter-wave spectrum of ethyl formate, we have extended the analysis of the vibrational ground state of the trans and gauche conformers of ethyl formate into the submillimeter-wave range. Over 2200 new spectral lines have been measured and analyzed at frequencies up to 380 GHz. Fitting the data for each conformer to a Watson A-reduced asymmetric-top Hamiltonian has allowed us to predict the frequencies and intensities of many more transitions through 380 GHz.

  12. Ethyl Formate: A Potential Disinfestation Treatment for Eucalyptus Weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Apples.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manjree; Ren, Yonglin; Newman, James; Learmonth, Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Export of Pink Lady apples from Australia has been significantly affected by infestations of adult eucalyptus weevils (Gonipterus platensis Marelli). These weevils cling tenaciously to the pedicel of apple fruit when selecting overwintering sites. As a result, apples infested with live G. platensis adults lead to rejection for export. Since the Montreal Protocol restricted use of methyl bromide as postharvest treatment, it was necessary to consider alternative safer fumigants for disinfestation of eucalyptus weevil. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 80 mg/liter of ethyl formate. Complete control (100% mortality) was achieved at 25-30 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure without apples. However, with 90-95% of the volume full of apples, complete control was achieved at 40 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure. No phytotoxicity was observed and after one day aeration, residue of ethyl formate declined to natural levels (0.05-0.2 mg/kg). Five ethyl formate field trials were conducted in cool storages (capacity from 250-900 tons) and 100% kill of eucalyptus weevils were achieved at 50-55 mg/liter at 7-10°C for 24 h. Ethyl formate has great potential for preshipment treatment of apples. Its use is considerably cheaper and safer than already existing fumigants like methyl bromide and phosphine. PMID:26470387

  13. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  14. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  15. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  16. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl...

  17. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl...

  18. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  19. Antimutagenic Effect of Dioscorea Pentaphylla on Genotoxic Effect Induced By Methyl Methanesulfonate in the Drosophila Wing Spot Test

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, G.; Hosetti, B. B.; Dhananjaya, B. L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Plants as dietary sources are known to have several chemoprotective agents. Dioscorea pentaphylla is an important medicinal plant, which is often used as edible food. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of D. pentaphylla extracts on the genotoxic effect induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in the Drosophila wing spot test. Materials and Methods: The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was carried out in Drosophila melanogaster. In transheterogyous larvae, multiple wing hair (mwh 3-0.3) and flare (flr3-38.8) genes were used as markers of the extent of mutagenicity. Results: It was observed thatall the three extracts (petroleum ether, choloroform, and ethyl alcohol) in the combined treatment had significantly inhibited the effect of MMS-induced genotoxic effects. When compared to others, the ethanol extract showed a very significant antimutagenic activity. Conclusion: The compounds that are present in the extracts may directly interact with the methyl radical groups of MMS and inactivate them by chemical reaction. It is also possible that the compounds in the extract compete to interact with the nucleophilic sites in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), thus altering the binding of the mutagen to these sites. Although our results indicate that the compounds present in the extracts may directly interact with the methyl radical groups of MMS and inactivate them by chemical reaction, it may also be quite interesting to investigate through the other different mechanisms by which D. pentaphylla could interfere in vivo on the effect of genotoxic agents. PMID:25948963

  20. Direct catalytic olefination of alcohols with sulfones.

    PubMed

    Srimani, Dipankar; Leitus, Gregory; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2014-10-01

    The synthesis of terminal, as well as internal, olefins was achieved by the one-step olefination of alcohols with sulfones catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex. Furthermore, performing the reaction with dimethyl sulfone under mild hydrogen pressure provides a direct route for the replacement of alcohol hydroxy groups by methyl groups in one step. PMID:25163718