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Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ({approx}2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2}), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study.




Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.  


As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery. PMID:24329991

Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei



Safety assessment of Salicylic Acid, Butyloctyl Salicylate, Calcium Salicylate, C12-15 Alkyl Salicylate, Capryloyl Salicylic Acid, Hexyldodecyl Salicylate, Isocetyl Salicylate, Isodecyl Salicylate, Magnesium Salicylate, MEA-Salicylate, Ethylhexyl Salicylate, Potassium Salicylate, Methyl Salicylate, Myristyl Salicylate, Sodium Salicylate, TEA-Salicylate, and Tridecyl Salicylate.  


Salicylic Acid is an aromatic acid used in cosmetic formulations as a denaturant, hair-conditioning agent, and skin-conditioning agent--miscellaneous in a wide range of cosmetic products at concentrations ranging from 0.0008% to 3%. The Calcium, Magnesium, and MEA salts are preservatives, and Potassium Salicylate is a cosmetic biocide and preservative, not currently in use. Sodium Salicylate is used as a denaturant and preservative (0.09% to 2%). The TEA salt of Salicylic Acid is used as an ultraviolet (UV) light absorber (0.0001% to 0.75%). Several Salicylic Acid esters are used as skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous (Capryloyl, 0.1% to 1%; C12-15 Alkyl, no current use; Isocetyl, 3% to 5%; Isodecyl, no current use; and Tridecyl, no current use). Butyloctyl Salicylate (0.5% to 5%) and Hexyldodecyl Salicylate (no current use) are hair-conditioning agents and skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous. Ethylhexyl Salicylate (formerly known as Octyl Salicylate) is used as a fragrance ingredient, sunscreen agent, and UV light absorber (0.001% to 8%), and Methyl Salicylate is used as a denaturant and flavoring agent (0.0001% to 0.6%). Myristyl Salicylate has no reported function. Isodecyl Salicylate is used in three formulations, but no concentration of use information was reported. Salicylates are absorbed percutaneously. Around 10% of applied salicylates can remain in the skin. Salicylic Acid is reported to enhance percutaneous penetration of some agents (e.g., vitamin A), but not others (e.g., hydrocortisone). Little acute toxicity (LD(50) in rats; >2 g/kg) via a dermal exposure route is seen for Salicylic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, Tridecyl Salicylate, and Butyloctyl Salicylate. Short-term oral, inhalation, and parenteral exposures to salicylates sufficient to produce high blood concentrations are associated primarily with liver and kidney damage. Subchronic dermal exposures to undiluted Methyl Salicylate were associated with kidney damage. Chronic oral exposure to Methyl Salicylate produced bone lesions as a function of the level of exposure in 2-year rat studies; liver damage was seen in dogs exposed to 0.15 g/kg/day in one study; kidney and liver weight increases in another study at the same exposure; but no liver or kidney abnormalities in a study at 0.167 g/kg/day. Applications of Isodecyl, Tridecyl, and Butyloctyl Salicylate were not irritating to rabbit skin, whereas undiluted Ethylhexyl Salicylate produced minimal to mild irritation. Methyl Salicylate at a 1% concentration with a 70% ethanol vehicle were irritating, whereas a 6% concentration in polyethylene glycol produced little or no irritation. Isodecyl Salicylate, Methyl Salicylate, Ethylhexyl (Octyl) Salicylate, Tridecyl Salicylate, and Butyloctyl Salicylate were not ocular irritants. Although Salicylic Acid at a concentration of 20% in acetone was positive in the local lymph node assay, a concentration of 20% in acetone/olive oil was not. Methyl Salicylate was negative at concentrations up to 25% in this assay, independent of vehicle. Maximization tests of Methyl Salicylate, Ethylhexyl Salicylate, and Butyloctyl Salicylate produced no sensitization in guinea pigs. Neither Salicylic Acid nor Tridecyl Salicylate were photosensitizers. Salicylic Acid, produced when aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed after absorption from the gut, was reported to be the causative agent in aspirin teratogenesis in animals. Dermal exposures to Methyl Salicylate, oral exposures to Salicylic Acid, Sodium Salicylate, and Methyl Salicylate, and parenteral exposures to Salicylic Acid, Sodium Salicylate, and Methyl Salicylate are all associated with reproductive and developmental toxicity as a function of blood levels reached as a result of exposure. An exposure assessment of a representative cosmetic product used on a daily basis estimated that the exposure from the cosmetic product would be only 20% of the level seen with ingestion of a "baby" aspirin (81 mg) on a daily basis. Studies of the genotoxic potential of Salicylic Acid, Sodium Salicylate, Isodecyl Salicylate, Methyl



Toxicity of Modified HL Simulant and Methyl Salicylate in Soil on Cucumbers and Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted to determine if methyl salicylate (MS), a component of HL simulant, was responsible for the toxicity exhibited by cucumbers and earthworms. The HL simulant without methyl salicylate (HLMS) and MS were tested for their toxicity to cucu...

C. T. Phillips R. S. Wentsel



Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate.  


Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-methyltransferases. In order to elaborate the mechanism of MeSA synthesis in tomato, we screened a set of O-methyltransferases for activity against multiple substrates. An enzyme that specifically catalyzes methylation of SA, SlSAMT, as well as enzymes that act upon jasmonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid were identified. Analyses of transgenic over- and under-producing lines validated the function of SlSAMT in vivo. The SlSAMT gene was mapped to a position near the bottom of chromosome 9. Analysis of MeSA emissions from an introgression population derived from a cross with Solanum pennellii revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to higher fruit methyl salicylate emissions. The higher MeSA emissions associate with significantly higher SpSAMT expression, consistent with SAMT gene expression being rate limiting for ripening-associated MeSA emissions. Transgenic plants that constitutively over-produce MeSA exhibited only slightly delayed symptom development following infection with the disease-causing bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). Unexpectedly, pathogen-challenged leaves accumulated significantly higher levels of SA as well as glycosylated forms of SA and MeSA, indicating a disruption in control of the SA-related metabolite pool. Taken together, the results indicate that SlSAMT is critical for methyl salicylate synthesis and methyl salicylate, in turn, likely has an important role in controlling SA synthesis. PMID:20070566

Tieman, Denise; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric; Taylor, Mark G; Rushing, Sarah; Jones, Jeffrey B; Klee, Harry J



Environmental persistence and toxicity of dimethyl malonate and methyl salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the potential environmental persistence and toxic effects of agent simulants Diethyl Malonate (DEM) and Methyl Salicylate (MS), plants, soils, earthworms, and oil microbial populations were exposed to projected aerosolized simulant concentrations of â¼100 (low) and â¼1000 (high) mg\\/m³. Both simulants exhibited biphasic residence times on foliar and soil surfaces following aerosol exposure. Half-times of DEM on soil and

R. J. Fellows; S. D. Harvey; M. W. Ligotke; D. A. Cataldo; S. W. Li; P. Van Voris; R. S. Wentsel



Detection of methyl salicylate using polymer-filled chemicapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl salicylate (MeS) is used as a chemical warfare agent simulant to test chemical protective garments and other individual personal protective gear. The accurate and real-time detection of this analyte is advantageous for various testing regimes. This paper reports the results of MeS vapor exposures on polymer-filled capacitance-based sensors at temperatures ranging from 15°C to 50°C under dry and humid

Sanjay V. Patel; Stephen T. Hobson; Sabina Cemalovic; Todd E. Mlsna



Theoretical investigation of the photophysics of methyl salicylate isomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photophysics of methyl salicylate (MS) isomers has been studied using time-dependent density functional theory and large basis sets. First electronic singlet and triplet excited states energies, structure, and vibrational analysis were calculated for the ketoB, enol, and ketoA isomers. It is demonstrated that the photochemical pathway involving excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the ketoB to the enol tautomer agrees well with the dual fluorescence in near-UV (from ketoB) and blue (from enol) wavelengths obtained from experiments. Our calculation confirms the existence of a double minimum in the excited state pathway along the O-H-O coordinate corresponding to two preferred energy regions: (1) the hydrogen belongs to the OH moiety and the structure of methyl salicylate is ketoB; (2) the hydrogen flips to the closest carboxyl entailing electronic rearrangement and tautomerization to the enol structure. This double well in the excited state is highly asymmetric. The Franck-Condon vibrational overlap is calculated and accounts for the broadening of the two bands. It is suggested that forward and backward ESIPT through the barrier separating the two minima is temperature-dependent and affects the intensity of the fluorescence as seen in experiments. When the enol fluoresces and returns to its ground state, a barrier-less back proton transfer repopulates the ground state of methyl salicylate ketoB. It is also demonstrated that the rotamer ketoA is not stable in an excited state close to the desired emission wavelength. This observation eliminates the conjecture that the near-UV emission of the dual fluorescence originates from the ketoA rotamer. New experimental results for pure MS in the liquid state are reported and theoretical results compared to them.

Massaro, Richard D.; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela



Theoretical investigation of the photophysics of methyl salicylate isomers.  


The photophysics of methyl salicylate (MS) isomers has been studied using time-dependent density functional theory and large basis sets. First electronic singlet and triplet excited states energies, structure, and vibrational analysis were calculated for the ketoB, enol, and ketoA isomers. It is demonstrated that the photochemical pathway involving excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the ketoB to the enol tautomer agrees well with the dual fluorescence in near-UV (from ketoB) and blue (from enol) wavelengths obtained from experiments. Our calculation confirms the existence of a double minimum in the excited state pathway along the O-H-O coordinate corresponding to two preferred energy regions: (1) the hydrogen belongs to the OH moiety and the structure of methyl salicylate is ketoB; (2) the hydrogen flips to the closest carboxyl entailing electronic rearrangement and tautomerization to the enol structure. This double well in the excited state is highly asymmetric. The Franck-Condon vibrational overlap is calculated and accounts for the broadening of the two bands. It is suggested that forward and backward ESIPT through the barrier separating the two minima is temperature-dependent and affects the intensity of the fluorescence as seen in experiments. When the enol fluoresces and returns to its ground state, a barrier-less back proton transfer repopulates the ground state of methyl salicylate ketoB. It is also demonstrated that the rotamer ketoA is not stable in an excited state close to the desired emission wavelength. This observation eliminates the conjecture that the near-UV emission of the dual fluorescence originates from the ketoA rotamer. New experimental results for pure MS in the liquid state are reported and theoretical results compared to them. PMID:22047238

Massaro, Richard D; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela



Effect of salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate on antioxidant systems of Haematococcus pluvialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) on the antioxidant systems in Haematococcus\\u000a pluvialis was investigated. Both SA and MJ at 500 ?M concentration reduced the growth of alga with salicylic acid, having more pronounced\\u000a effect. Carotenoid and chlorophyll contents were decreased by SA and increased by MJ. Salicylic acid (100 ?M) increased astaxanthin\\u000a content to 6.8-fold under

Vidhyavathi Raman; Sarada Ravi



Detection of methyl salicylate using polymer-filled chemicapacitors.  


Methyl salicylate (MeS) is used as a chemical warfare agent simulant to test chemical protective garments and other individual personal protective gear. The accurate and real-time detection of this analyte is advantageous for various testing regimes. This paper reports the results of MeS vapor exposures on polymer-filled capacitance-based sensors at temperatures ranging from 15 degrees C to 50 degrees C under dry and humid conditions. Multiple capacitors were arranged in an array on a silicon chip each having a different sorptive polymer. The sensors used parallel-plate electrode geometry to measure the dielectric permittivity changes of each polymer when exposed to water and MeS vapor. Of the four polymers tested against MeS, the optimal polymer displayed near or sub-parts-per-million detection limits at 35 degrees C (0-80%RH). PMID:18656672

Patel, Sanjay V; Hobson, Stephen T; Cemalovic, Sabina; Mlsna, Todd E



Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol\\/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 μg\\/cm² leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on

D. A. Cataldo; M. W. Ligotke; S. D. Harvey; R. J. Fellows; S. W. Li



Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.  


Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale. PMID:21404848

Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio



40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on food or feed when used as an insect repellant in food packaging and animal feed packaging at an application rate that does not exceed 0.2 mg of methyl...



Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice  

SciTech Connect

Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

Zhao, Nan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Chern, Mawsheng [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)



Pharmacokinetics of methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-lactoside, a novel salicylic acid analog isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis ,in dogs.  


Methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-lactoside (MSL), a natural salicylate derivative of Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder (G. yunnanensis), has been shown to provide a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect in animal models. Studies on the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of MSL can provide both a substantial foundation for understanding its mechanism and empirical evidence to support its use in clinical practice. A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, coupled with ultraviolet analyte detection, was developed for determining the concentration of MSL and its metabolite in beagle plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (5 ?M,4.6 × 250 mm). The mobile phase consisted of aqueous solution containing 0.1% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (82:90, v/v), at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Validation of the assay demonstrated that the developed HPLC method was sensitive, accurate and selective for the determination of MSL and its metabolite in dog plasma. After orally administering three doses of MSL, it could no longer be detected in dog plasma and its metabolite, salicylic acid, was detected. Salicylic acid showed a single peak in the plasma concentration-time curves and linear pharmacokinetics following the three oral doses (r(2) > 0.99). In contrast, only MSL was detected in plasma following intravenous administration. These results will aid in understanding the pharmacological significance of MSL. The developed method was successfully used for evaluation of the oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic profile of MSL in dogs. PMID:23798357

Zhang, Dan; Ma, Xiaowei; Xin, Wenyu; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Weiku; Zhang, Tiantai; Du, Guanhua



Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl salicylate glycosides isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder.  


Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder is a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatments of rheumatoid arthritis, swelling and pain. Two methyl salicylate glycosides, namely methyl benzoate-2-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)-O-?-D-gluco-pyranoside (J12122) and methyl benzoate-2-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2)[O-?-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)]-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (J12123), are natural salicylic derivatives isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of J12122 and J12123 on LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells by measuring the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results showed that both methyl salicylate glycosides dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and IL-6, respectively. Consistent with these observations, J12122 and J12123 significantly suppressed the accumulation of NO, with an inhibitory rate of 56.20% and 51.72% at 3.0 ?g/mL concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the two methyl salicylate glycosides reduced the level of ROS induced by LPS. These results showed that the isolated compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition the production pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and ROS. PMID:21555977

Zhang, Dan; Liu, Rui; Sun, Lan; Huang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Tai; Du, Guan-Hua



Gas scavenging of insoluble vapors: Condensation of methyl salicylate vapor onto evaporating drops of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the evaporation of acoustically levitated water drops at 0 and 32% relative humidity in a moving gas stream which is nearly saturated with methyl salicylate vapor. The initial evaporation rate is characteristic of a pure water drop and gradually slows until the evaporation rate becomes that of pure methyl salicylate. The quantity of condensed methyl salicylate exceeds its Henry's law solubility in water by factors of more than 30-50. This apparent violation of Henry's law agrees with the concentration enhancements in the liquid phase found by glotfelty et al. (1987, Nature235, 602-605) during their field measurements of organophorus pesticides in fog water. Under our conditions, visual evidence demonstrates the presence of two liquid phases, thus invalidating the use of Henry's law. A continuum evaporation-condensation model for an immiscible two-component system which accounts for evaporative self-cooling of the drop correctly predicts the amount of methyl salicylate condensed onto the water drops.

Seaver, Mark; Peele, J. R.; Rubel, Glenn O.


Effects of methyl salicylate on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bee poisoning from pesticides used in agriculture, forestry, urban environments, and public health is a serious problem affecting many bee colonies worldwide. A bee repellent adjuvant would be useful in reducing the bee injury when pesticides are applied to bloom. Applications of methyl salicylate to blooming apples did not appear to repel foraging honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) or reduce

D. F. Mayer



Natural abundance 2H-ERETIC-NMR authentication of the origin of methyl salicylate.  


Methyl salicylate is a compound currently used in the creation of many flavors. It can be obtained by synthesis or from two natural sources: essential oil of wintergreen and essential oil of sweet birch bark. Deuterium site-specific natural isotope abundance (A(i)) determination by NMR spectroscopy with the method of reference ERETIC ((2)H-ERETIC-NMR) has been applied to this compound. A(i) measurements have been performed on 19 samples of methyl salicylate from different origins, natural/synthetic and commercial/extracted. This study demonstrates that appropriate treatment performed on the data allows discrimination between synthetic and natural samples. Moreover, the representation of intramolecular ratios R(6/5) as a function of R(3/2) distinguishes between synthetics, wintergreen oils, and sweet birch bark oils. PMID:15969485

Le Grand, Flore; George, Gerard; Akoka, Serge



Glycyrrhizin production by in vitro cultured Glycyrrhiza glabra elicited by methyl Jasmonate and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. glabra, Fabaceae) is considered as a model plant synthesizing triterpenoid secondary compounds. It is known that glycyrrhizin is\\u000a accumulated in thickened intact licorice roots. The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and salicylic acid (SA) on plant growth\\u000a and production of glycyrrhizin in the roots of in vitro cultured 65-day-old plants were studied. Increasing amounts of

L. Shabani; A. A. Ehsanpour; G. Asghari; J. Emami



Methyl salicylate: a reactive chemical warfare agent surrogate to detect reaction with hypochlorite.  


Methyl salicylate (MeS) has a rich history as an inert physical simulant for the chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard and soman, where it is used extensively for liquid- and vapor-permeation testing. Here we demonstrate possible utility of MeS as a reactivity simulant for chlorine-based decontaminants. In these experiments MeS was reacted with sodium hypochlorite varying stoichiometry, temperature, reaction time, and pH. No colored oxidation products were observed; however, chlorination of the aromatic ring occurred ortho (methyl 3-chlorosalicylate) and para (methyl 5-chlorosalicylate) to the position bearing the -OH group in both the mono- and disubstituted forms. The monosubstituted para product accumulated initially, and the ortho and 3,5-dichloro products formed over the next several hours. Yields from reactions conducted below pH 11 declined rapidly with decreasing pH. Reactions run at 40 °C produced predominantly para substitution, while those run at 0 °C produced lower yields of ortho- and para-substituted products. Reactions were also carried out on textile substrates of cotton, 50/50 nylon-cotton, and a meta aramid. The textile data broadly reproduced reaction times and stoichiometry observed in the liquid phase, but are complicated by physical and possibly chemical interactions with the fabric. These data indicate that, for hypochlorite-containing neutralizing agents operating at strongly alkaline pH, one can expect MeS to react stoichiometrically with the hypochlorite it encounters. This suggests utility of MeS in lieu of such highly hazardous surrogates as monochloroalkyl sulfides as a simulant for threat scenarios involving the stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustard. Specifically, the extent of coverage of the simulant on a fabric by the neutralizing agent can be directly measured. Similar reactivity toward other halogen oxidizing agents is likely but remains to be demonstrated. PMID:21981047

Salter, W Bruce; Owens, Jeffery R; Wander, Joseph D



Vapor–liquid equilibria at elevated pressures of binary mixtures of carbon dioxide with methyl salicylate, eugenol, and diethyl phthalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-flow type apparatus was used to measure the vapor–liquid equilibria (VLE) of CO2 with methyl salicylate, eugenol, and diethyl phthalate binary mixtures at 308.15, 318.15, and 328.15 K over the pressure range from 1.4 to 13 MPa. New VLE data for these binary mixtures are presented and the Henry's constants were determined from these results. The Soave–Redlich–Kwong and the

Kong-Wei Cheng; Shin-Jien Kuo; Muoi Tang; Yan-Ping Chen



Methyl salicylate 2-O-?-D-lactoside, a novel salicylic acid analogue, acts as an anti-inflammatory agent on microglia and astrocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activation of microglia and astrocytes is a characteristic of brain inflammation. Epidemiological studies have shown that long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) delays the onset of AD and suppresses its progression. Methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-lactoside (DL0309) is a new molecule chemically related to salicylic acid. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of DL0309. Findings Our studies show that DL0309 significantly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-?; and the expression of the inflammation-related proteins iNOS, COX-1, and COX-2 by microglia and astrocytes. At a concentration of 10 ?M, DL0309 prominently inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-?B in glial cells by blocking phosphorylation of IKK and p65, and by blocking I?B degradation. Conclusions We demonstrate here for the first time that DL0309 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells by suppressing different pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS/NO. Furthermore, it also regulates the NF-?B signaling pathway by blocking IKK and p65 activation and I?B degradation. DL0309 also acts as a non-selective COX inhibitor in glial cells. These studies suggest that DL0309 may be effective in the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders, including AD.



Foliar methyl salicylate emissions indicate prolonged aphid infestation on silver birch and black alder.  


It is well documented that when plants are damaged by insects they respond by emitting a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While there have been numerous reports concerning VOCs induced by chewing herbivores, there are relatively few studies detailing the VOCs induced by aphid feeding. The effects of aphid feeding on VOCs emitted by boreal forest trees have been particularly neglected. Herbivore-induced VOCs have relevance to direct and indirect plant defence and atmospheric chemistry. In this study, we analysed the VOCs emitted by Betula pendula (Roth) and Alnus glutinosa (L.) (Gaertn.) infested by specialist aphid species under laboratory conditions. We also complemented this by collecting VOCs from leaf beetle-damaged saplings under field conditions. In addition to induction of some inducible terpenes, we detected substantial aphid-induced emissions of methyl salicylate (MeSA) in both B. pendula and A. glutinosa. MeSA emission intensity depended on the length of aphid infestation. Feeding by beetles induced emission of (E)-DMNT in both tree species and (E)-beta-ocimene in A. glutinosa but had no effect on MeSA emissions. MeSA has been shown to have aphid-repellent qualities and has been shown recently to have impact on formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. We discuss our results in relation to these two phenomena. PMID:20097686

Blande, James D; Korjus, Minna; Holopainen, Jarmo K



The Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Methyl Salicylate Negatively Affects Attraction of the Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum  

PubMed Central

The indirect defense mechanisms of plants comprise the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that can attract natural enemies of plant attackers. One of the often emitted compounds after herbivory is methyl salicylate (MeSA). Here, we studied the importance of this caterpillar-induced compound in the attraction of the parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum by using a mutant Arabidopsis line. Pieris rapae infested AtBSMT1-KO mutant Arabidopsis plants, compromised in the biosynthesis of MeSA, were more attractive to parasitoids than infested wild-type plants. This suggests that the presence of MeSA has negative effects on parasitoid host-finding behavior when exposed to wild-type production of herbivore-induced Arabidopsis volatiles. Furthermore, in line with this, we recorded a positive correlation between MeSA dose and repellence of D. semiclausum when supplementing the headspace of caterpillar-infested AtBSMT1-KO plants with synthetic MeSA. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9787-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Mumm, Roland; Poelman, Erik H.; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Dicke, Marcel



Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.  


Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817050

Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre



Effect of methyl salicylate-based lures on beneficial and pest arthropods in strawberry.  


Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a common herbivore-induced plant volatile that, when applied to crops, has the potential to enhance natural enemy abundance and pest control. The impacts of MeSA in strawberry were unknown and examined in the spring and midsummer period. Strawberry plots contained no lures (control) or two 30-d MeSA lures (Predalure) in the center: one lure 0.61 m aboveground over a sticky trap, and one lure on a plant near the ground. Arthropod abundance was monitored at the point source, 5 m and 10 m away from lures over 31 d with white sticky traps, pitfall traps, and leaf inspection. Twenty-seven and nine comparisons were made among beneficial and pest arthropods, respectively. Overall positive responses were found among Chrysopidae in July-August 2008 and Orius tristicolor (White) in May-June 2009 to MeSA based on sticky traps. Chrysopidae showed attraction to the point source, but not at 5 m and 10 m. Ground-dwelling predators collected in pitfall traps such as Araneae, the carabid beetles, Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), and Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) did not respond. Increased abundance of six natural enemy groups appeared on various dates between 3 and 24 d after placement of lures in the field based on leaf inspection and sticky traps. Conversely, fewer Coccinellidae were captured on sticky traps on days 0-3, and fewer natural enemies were observed on leaves on day 28 in MeSA plots. MeSA did not increase nor decrease pest abundance. PMID:20388299

Lee, Jana C



Use of a Synthetic Salicylic Acid Analog to Investigate the Roles of Methyl Salicylate and Its Esterases in Plant Disease Resistance*S?  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2) of tobacco is an integral component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). SABP2 is a methyl salicylate (MeSA) esterase that has high affinity for SA, which feedback inhibits its esterase activity. MeSA esterase activity is required in distal, healthy tissue of pathogen-infected plants to hydrolyze MeSA, which functions as a long-distance, phloem-mobile SAR signal; this hydrolysis releases the biologically active defense hormone SA. In this study, we examined the inhibitory interaction of SA with SABP2, and identified a synthetic SA analog, 2,2,2,2?-tetra-f luoroacetophenone (tetraFA) that, like SA, competitively inhibits the activity of SABP2 and targets esterases, which utilize MeSA as a substrate. However, in contrast to SA, tetraFA does not induce downstream defense responses and, therefore, is effective in planta at blocking SAR development in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected tobacco and Pseudomonas syringae-infected Arabidopsis. These results confirm the importance of SABP2 and MeSA for SAR development in tobacco and establish similar roles for MeSA and the orthologs of SABP2 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, they demonstrate that tetraFA can be used to determine whether MeSA and its corresponding esterase(s) play a role in SAR signaling in other plant species. In planta analyses using tetraFA, in conjunction with leaf detachment assays and MeSA quantification, were used to assess the kinetics with which MeSA is generated in pathogen-infected leaves, transmitted through the phloem, and processed in the distal healthy leaves. In TMV-infected tobacco, these studies revealed that critical amounts of MeSA are generated, transmitted, and processed between 48 and 72 h post primary infection.

Park, Sang-Wook; Liu, Po-Pu; Forouhar, Farhad; Vlot, A. Corina; Tong, Liang; Tietjen, Klaus; Klessig, Daniel F.



Calcium oxalate crystals and methyl salicylate as toxic principles of the fresh leaves from Palicourea longiflora, an endemic species in the Amazonas state.  


The species of the genus Palicourea (Rubiaceae family) is well-known for its toxicity towards animals, particularly livestock. This work reports the occurrence of skin irritation during the manipulation of Palicourea longiflora, considering the prevalence of the monofluoracetic acid (MFAA) and another toxic compound: methyl salicylate. The MFAA was identified by 19F-NMR and methyl salicylate by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Additionally, an anatomical study of leaves had been used to explain the mechanism of penetration of the toxic principles. PMID:17161444

Coelho, Euricléia Gomes; Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Ferreira, José Luiz P; dos Santos, Adriane G; Pinheiro, Maria Lúcia B; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A



Molecular Structure of Salicylic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salicylic acid is a colorless to white crystalline powder with a sweetish acrid taste that occurs naturally in many microorganisms and plants in very small amounts. It is also made synthetically and used as preservative of food products in some countries and as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and toothpastes. This chemical is also used in the manufacture of methyl salicylates, acetylasalicylic acid (aspirin) and other salicylates. Salicylic acid is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of dyestuff, salicylate esters and salts. It is prepared commercially by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure to form sodium salicylate, which is treated with sulfuric acid to liberate salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is quite irritating to skin and mucosa and it destroys epithelial cells. Absorption of large amounts can cause vomiting, abdominal pain, acidosis and mental disturbances.



Methyl Salicylate Production and Jasmonate Signaling Are Not Essential for Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) develops in response to local microbial leaf inoculation and renders the whole plant more resistant to subsequent pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) in noninfected plant parts is required for SAR, and methyl salicylate (MeSA) and jasmonate (JA) are proposed to have critical roles during SAR long-distance signaling from inoculated to distant leaves. Here, we address the significance of MeSA and JA during SAR development in Arabidopsis thaliana. MeSA production increases in leaves inoculated with the SAR-inducing bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae; however, most MeSA is emitted into the atmosphere, and only small amounts are retained. We show that in several Arabidopsis defense mutants, the abilities to produce MeSA and to establish SAR do not coincide. T-DNA insertion lines defective in expression of a pathogen-responsive SA methyltransferase gene are completely devoid of induced MeSA production but increase systemic SA levels and develop SAR upon local P. syringae inoculation. Therefore, MeSA is dispensable for SAR in Arabidopsis, and SA accumulation in distant leaves appears to occur by de novo synthesis via isochorismate synthase. We show that MeSA production induced by P. syringae depends on the JA pathway but that JA biosynthesis or downstream signaling is not required for SAR. In compatible interactions, MeSA production depends on the P. syringae virulence factor coronatine, suggesting that the phytopathogen uses coronatine-mediated volatilization of MeSA from leaves to attenuate the SA-based defense pathway.

Attaran, Elham; Zeier, Tatiana E.; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jurgen



Methyl salicylate and (-)-(1R,5S)-myrtenal are plant-derived repellents for black bean aphid,Aphis fabae Scop. (Homoptera: Aphididae).  


Methyl salicylate and (-)-(1R,5S)-myrtenal stimulate specific olfactory cells in the primary rhinaria on the sixth and fifth antennal segments, respectively, of the black bean aphid.Aphis fabae. In behavioral studies employing a linear track olfactometer, both compounds were repellent toA. fabae and also inhibited attraction to volatiles from its host, broad bean (Vicia faba). Methyl salicylate is associated with secondary metabolite-based defense in plants, and the monoterpenoid (-)-(1R,5S)-myrtenal is metabolically related to (-)-(1S,5S)-?-pinene, an abundant component of defensive resins produced by gymnosperms. It is argued that these two compounds are employed byA. fabae as indicators of nutritionally unsuitable or nonhost plants. PMID:24241919

Hardie, J; Isaacs, R; Pickett, J A; Wadhams, L J; Woodcock, C M



Assessment of squalene synthase and beta-amyrin synthase gene expression in licorice roots treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid using real-time qPCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of two key biosynthetic enzymes for terpenoid biosynthesis (squalene synthase and beta-amyrin synthase) was analyzed\\u000a in licorice as a model organism. For two elicitors, methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and salicylic acid (SA), the roots of 65-day-old\\u000a plantlets treated with a combination of various elicitor concentrations and treatment times were used for RNA extraction and\\u000a reverse transcription to cDNA. A protocol

L. Shabani; A. A. Ehsanpour; A. Esmaeili



Methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid induced oxidative stress and accumulation of phenolics in Panax ginseng bioreactor root suspension cultures.  


To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 microM methyl jasmonate (MJ) or salicylic acid (SA) in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L). Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH) and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%), DPPH activity (40%), flavonoids (88%), ascorbic acid (55%), NPSH (33%), and cysteine (62%) contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase) were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and beta-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes. PMID:17851415

Ali, Mohammad Babar; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Paek, Kee-Yoeup



Encapsulation of methyl and ethyl salicylates by beta-cyclodextrin HPLC, UV-vis and molecular modeling studies.  


The complexation of methyl salicylate (MS) and ethyl salicylate (ES), non-steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antirrheumatic drugs with beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) has been studied from thermodynamic and structural points of view. The complexation with betaCD has been investigated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Retention behavior has been analyzed on a reverse-phase column Luna 18(2) 5 microm. The mobile-phase was methanol:water in different ratios (55:45 to 70:30) in which betaCD (1-9 mM) was incorporated as a mobile-phase additive. The decrease in retention times with increasing concentrations of betaCD enables the determination of the apparent stability constant of the complexes. Values at 30 degrees C with 55% methanol were K(MS:betaCD): 15.84 M(-1) and K(ES:betaCD): 12.73 M(-1) for MS and ES, respectively. The apparent stability constants decrease as the polarity of the solvent decreases. The low solubility of MS and ES in aqueous solution has been improved by complexation with betaCD (1-9 mM). The stability constants of the complexes obtained from the phase-solubility diagrams using a UV-vis spectrophotometric method were K(MS:betaCD): 229 M(-1) and K(ES:betaCD): 166 M(-1). In addition, semi-empirical quantum mechanics calculations using AM1 and PM3 methods in vacuum were performed. The energetically favorable inclusion structures were identified and the most favorable orientation for the inclusion process was found to be the head-down orientation for both complexes. Enthalpy for encapsulation processes was found to be favorable (DeltaH degrees <0), while entropy (DeltaS degrees <0) and Gibbs free energy were unfavorable (DeltaG degrees >0). By means of HPLC and UV-vis measurements and quantum mechanics calculations, it was found that MS and ES form a 1:1 inclusion complex with betaCD. The theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental parameters associated with the encapsulation process. PMID:18650048

Filippa, Mauricio; Sancho, Matías I; Gasull, Estela



Field-testing of methyl salicylate for recruitment and retention of beneficial insects in grapes and hops.  


Evidence for recruitment and retention of beneficial insects in grapes and hops using controlled-release dispensers of methyl salicylate (MeSA), a component of herbivore-induced volatile blends, is presented. In a replicated experiment conducted in a juice grape vineyard, sticky cards in blocks baited with MeSA captured significantly greater numbers of five species of predatory insects (Chrysopa nigricornis, Hemerobius sp., Deraeocoris brevis, Stethorus punctum picipes, Orius tristicolor) than unbaited blocks. Four insect families (Syrphidae, Braconidae, Empididae, Sarcophagidae) were also significantly more abundant in the MeSA-baited blocks, as indicated by sticky card captures. Canopy shake samples and sticky card monitoring conducted in a MeSA-baited, unsprayed hop yard indicated development and maintenance of a beneficial arthropod population that was nearly four times greater than that present in an unbaited reference yard. Four times as many S. punctum picipes and six times as many O. tristicolor were sampled in the MeSA yard. Similar contrasts in abundance of these predators and others were apparent when compared with levels recorded in the yard in previous years. The large population of predatory insects in the MeSA-baited hop yard was associated with a dramatic reduction in spider mite numbers, the major arthropod pest of hops, in late June, and subeconomic populations were maintained for the rest of the season. The evidence presented here is highly suggestive that the use of controlled-release MeSA in a crop could increase recruitment and residency of populations of certain beneficial insects. This strategy may have the potential to enhance the efficacy and reliability of conservation biological control in crop pest management. PMID:15537163

James, David G; Price, Tanya S



The identification and differential expression of Eucalyptus grandis pathogenesis-related genes in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate  

PubMed Central

Two important role players in plant defence response are the phytohormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA); both of which have been well described in model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Several pathogenesis related (PR) genes have previously been used as indicators of the onset of SA and JA signaling in Arabidopsis. This information is lacking in tree genera such as Eucalyptus. The aim of this study was to characterize the transcriptional response of PR genes (EgrPR2, EgrPR3, EgrPR4, EgrPR5, and EgrLOX) identified in Eucalyptus grandis to SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment as well as to qualify them as diagnostic for the two signaling pathways. Using the genome sequence of E. grandis, we identified candidate Eucalyptus orthologs EgrPR2, EgrPR3, EgrPR4, EgrPR5, and EgrLOX based on a co-phylogenetic approach. The expression of these genes was investigated after various doses of SA and MeJA (a derivative of JA) treatment as well as at various time points. The transcript levels of EgrPR2 were decreased in response to high concentrations of MeJA whereas the expression of EgrPR3 and EgrLOX declined as the concentrations of SA treatment increased, suggesting an antagonistic relationship between SA and MeJA. Our results support EgrPR2 as potentially diagnostic for SA and EgrPR3, EgrPR4, and EgrLOX as indicators of MeJA signaling. To further validate the diagnostic potential of the PR genes we challenged E. grandis clones with the fungal necrotrophic pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana. The tolerant clone showed high induction of EgrPR2 and decreased transcript abundance of EgrPR4. Pre-treatment of the susceptible genotype with 5 mM SA resulted in lesion lengths comparable to the tolerant genotype after artificial inoculation with C. austroafricana. Thus expression profiling of EgrPR2 and EgrPR4 genes could serve as a useful diagnostic approach to determine which of the two signaling pathways are activated against various pathogens in Eucalyptus.

Naidoo, Ronishree; Ferreira, Linda; Berger, Dave K.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Naidoo, Sanushka



Novel S-adenosyl- l-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for biosynthesis of methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate, is not involved in floral scent production in snapdragon flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a functional genomic approach we have isolated and characterized a cDNA that encodes a salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) from Antirrhinum majus. The sequence of the protein encoded by SAMT has higher amino acid identity to Clarkia breweri SAMT than to snapdragon benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BAMT) (55 and 40% amino acid identity, respectively). Escherichia coli-expressed SAMT protein catalyzes

Florence Negre; Natalia Kolosova; Joseph Knoll; Christine M Kish; Natalia Dudareva




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The accumulation of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) involved in plant defence re- sponse was studied, in terms of hydroxyproline accu- mulation on purified cell walls of leaves of tobacco cvs Havana 425, Xanthi-nc (wild type), and NahG-trans- formed Xanthi (carrying the gene for salicylate hydroxy- lase). The leaves (7 th and 8 th leaves) were analysed after treatment

V. Raggi



Optimisation of solvent desorption conditions for chemical warfare agent and simulant compounds from Porapak Q using experimental design. I. Methyl salicylate and di(propylene glycol) monomethyl ether.  


Factorial design (FD) was applied in order to develop an optimised method for the detection of chemical warfare (CW) agent simulant compounds on Porapak Q. Application of FD allowed study of the adsorption/desorption mechanism of analytes. Di(propylene glycol) monomethyl ether (DPM) and methyl salicylate (MS) were selected for study as both compounds are employed in agent simulation trials but are currently analysed by different methods. An analytical method for simultaneous determination of both compounds was developed using solvent desorption. The optimised method identified non-polar interactions as the primary adsorption/desorption mechanism. Steel tubes were shown to be more suited for sampling of simulants, due to lower variability in recovery compared to glass tubes. Atmospheric detection limits for both simulants were estimated to be 0.2 mg m(-3) allowing the trace analysis of these compounds by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). PMID:15233533

Muir, Bob; Duffy, Helen B; Moran, Mary C



Optimization of elicitation conditions with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid to improve the productivity of withanolides in the adventitious root culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.  


Adventitious root cultures derived from leaf derived callus of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal were treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid independently. Biomass accumulation, culture age, elicitation period, and culture duration were optimized for higher withanolides production in the two best-responding varieties collected from Kolli hills (Eastern Ghats) and Cumbum (Western Ghats) of Tamil Nadu, India. Between the two elicitors, salicylic acid (SA) improved the production of major withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withaferin A, and withanone) as well as minor constituents (12-deoxy withastramonolide, withanoside V, and withanoside IV) in the Kolli hills variety. Treatment of root biomass (11.70 g FW) on 30-day-old adventitious root cultures with 150 ?M SA for 4 h elicitor exposure period resulted in the production of 64.65 mg g(-l) dry weight (DW) withanolide A (48-fold), 33.74 mg g(-l) DW withanolide B (29-fold), 17.47 mg g(-l) DW withaferin A (20-fold), 42.88 mg g(-l) DW withanone (37-fold), 5.34 mg g(-l) DW 12-deoxy withastramonolide (nine fold), 7.23 mg g(-l) DW withanoside V (seven fold), and 9.45 mg g(-l) DW withanoside IV (nine fold) after 10 days of elicitation (40th day of culture) when compared to untreated cultures. This is the first report on the use of elicitation strategy on the significant improvement in withanolides production in the adventitious root cultures of W. somnifera. PMID:22843063

Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Mayavan, Subramanian; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jeyaraj, Murugaraj; Dev, Gnanajothi Kapil; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy



Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here.

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil



The Extent to Which Methyl Salicylate Is Required for Signaling Systemic Acquired Resistance Is Dependent on Exposure to Light after Infection1[OA  

PubMed Central

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a state of heightened defense to a broad spectrum of pathogens that is activated throughout a plant following local infection. Development of SAR requires the translocation of one or more mobile signals from the site of infection through the vascular system to distal (systemic) tissues. The first such signal identified was methyl salicylate (MeSA) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Subsequent studies demonstrated that MeSA also serves as a SAR signal in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). By contrast, another study suggested that MeSA is not required for SAR in Arabidopsis and raised questions regarding its signaling role in tobacco. Differences in experimental design, including the developmental age of the plants, the light intensity, and/or the strain of bacterial pathogen, were proposed to explain these conflicting results. Here, we demonstrate that the length of light exposure that plants receive after the primary infection determines the extent to which MeSA is required for SAR signaling. When the primary infection occurred late in the day and as a result infected plants received very little light exposure before entering the night/dark period, MeSA and its metabolizing enzymes were essential for SAR development. In contrast, when infection was done in the morning followed by 3.5 h or more of exposure to light, SAR developed in the absence of MeSA. However, MeSA was generally required for optimal SAR development. In addition to resolving the conflicting results concerning MeSA and SAR, this study underscores the importance of environmental factors on the plant’s response to infection.

Liu, Po-Pu; von Dahl, Caroline C.; Klessig, Daniel F.



Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards.  


The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory. PMID:22020782

Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H



Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate.

Hyung-Il Lee; Jose Leon; Ilya Raskin



A pulse radiolysis study of salicylic acid and 5-sulpho-salicylic acid in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions of H, OH, eaq- and some one-electron oxidants have been studied with salicylic acid and 5-sulpho-salicylic acid in aqueous solutions. Rate constants for the reaction of eaq- with these compounds were of the order of 109dm3mol?1s?1 and this reaction led to the formation of reducing radicals which could transfer electron to methyl viologen. Other one-electron reductants were not able

Kamal Kishore; T. Mukherjee



2,3,5,4'- tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glycoside biosynthesis by suspension cells cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and production enhancement by methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.  


Friable calli of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb have been induced in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and kinetin (KT). Suspension cultures were initiated from friable calli by inoculating calli in liquid MS medium in shake flasks in the dark and 25 °C on an orbital shaker at 100 rpm. The maximum dry weight (DW, 7.85 g/L) and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glycoside (THSG, 56.39 mg/L) of suspension cells was obtained in MS medium after 16 days culture. Both methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) could increase THSG production. The most appropriate concentration of MeJA was 100 ?mol/L in MS medium, in which concentration THSG content reached the maximum value of 147.79 mg/L, which represented a 162.36% increase compared to that of the control (56.33 mg/L). The most appropriate concentration of SA was 125 ?mol/L in MS medium, at which concentration THSG content reached its maximum value of 116.43 mg/L, a 106.69% increase compared to that of the control (56.33 mg/L). PMID:22357320

Shao, Li; Zhao, Shu-Jin; Cui, Tang-Bing; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Zhao, Wei



Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.  

PubMed Central

Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC, which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance.

Lee, H I; Leon, J; Raskin, I



Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid  

SciTech Connect

Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-{beta}-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC, which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. 62 refs., 1 fig.

Lee, H.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)



Determination of traces of salicylic acid in acetylsalicylic acid bulk, tablets and other preparations containing phenacetin and caffeine; Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, and acetylsalicylic acid with additional components in pharmaceutical preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A GLC method for the determination of traces of salicylic acid in acetylsalicylic acid bulk, tablets and other preparations containing phenacetin and caffeine after methylation with methyl iodide and potassium carbonate on a column of 3 % OV-17 on Varaport 30, 70–80 mesh, AW\\/DMCS is reported. A column-chromatographic separation of salicylic acid from acetylsalicylic acid is necessary prior to methylation

S. Laik Ali



Dual emission and double proton transfer in salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photophysics of salicylic acid (SA) monomer and dimer has been studied by using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Dilute solution in alkanes emits at 450 nm, which as in methyl salicylate is due to intramolecular proton transfer. In concentrated solutions and in solid state, the SA dimer shows two emissions, at 370 nm and 450 nm, with some unusual behaviour in both the steady state and the time domain fluorescence. The concept of double proton transfer and the tunneling mechanism in the excited state can rationalize the observed photophysical behaviour.

Pant, D. D.; Joshi, H. C.; Bisht, P. B.; Tripathi, H. B.



Salicylate activity. 2. Potentiation of atrazine.  


Atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] inhibits photosystem II (PSII) and is commonly used to control weeds in maize. It has been found that addition of sodium salicylate (sodium 2-hydroxybenzoate; NaSA) increased the postemergence herbicidal activity of atrazine against dicotyledonous weeds. NaSA also potentiated the activity of bentazon, another PSII-inhibiting herbicide. NaSA increased atrazine activity when applied either as a tank mix or up to 96 h prior to atrazine application. Other salicylates and the plant disease resistance inducers acibenzolar-S-methyl [benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester] and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid also increased atrazine activity. Among the compounds tested, 3-chloro-5-fluorosalicylate, 4-chlorosalicylate, or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid combined with atrazine yielded the greatest increase in herbicidal activity. Potentiation of atrazine by NaSA was greater at higher temperatures (35 and 25 > 15 degrees C). Also, greater potentiation was observed as the light level decreased. In darkness, NaSA alone or in combination with atrazine caused plant death, whereas atrazine alone had little effect. NaSA increased atrazine activity on npr1-2, an Arabidopsis mutant compromised in SA-induced disease resistance. Atrazine activity was also potentiated by NaSA on the ethylene insensitive mutant ein2-1. This indicates that atrazine potentiation is independent of either salicylate-induced disease resistance or ethylene perception. PMID:16332129

Silverman, F Paul; Petracek, Peter D; Heiman, Daniel F; Ju, Zhiguo; Fledderman, Christina M; Warrior, Prem



Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs, or aging, which affects ?14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J.; Allman, Brian L.



The promoter of the plant defensin gene PDF1.2 from Arabidopsis is systemically activated by fungal pathogens and responds to methyl jasmonate but not to salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant defensin PDF1.2 has previously been shown to accumulate systemically via a salicylic acid-independent pathway in leaves of Arabidopsis upon challenge by fungal pathogens. To further investigate the signalling and transcriptional processes underlying plant defensin induction, a DNA fragment containing 1184 bp and 1232 bp upstream of the transcriptional and translational start sites, respectively, was cloned by inverse PCR. To test

John M. Manners; Iris A. M. A. Penninckx; Katrien Vermaere; Kemal Kazan; Rebecca L. Brown; Andrew Morgan; Donald J. Maclean; Mark D. Curtis; Bruno P. A. Cammue; Willem F. Broekaert



Salicylate activity. 1. Protection of plants from paraquat injury.  


Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium; methylviologen) is a widely used, nonselective contact herbicide that rapidly stimulates free radical generation. It has been found that the addition of sodium salicylate (sodium 2-hydroxybenzoate; NaSA) to paraquat spray solutions significantly decreased herbicidal activity. This protection was observed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) regardless of whether NaSA was foliar-applied along with or prior to paraquat application or NaSA was soil-applied prior to paraquat application. Because salicylic acid (SA) is an inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to plant disease, paraquat protection by three SAR inducers (acibenzolar-S-methyl, harpin, and probenazole) and selected salicylate derivatives was assessed. Twenty-two of 24 compounds tested decreased herbicidal activity when foliar-applied with paraquat. Protection from paraquat was greatest with 5-chlorosalicylate, and no protection was observed with benzoic acid. NaSA decreased paraquat activity on npr1-2, an Arabidopsis mutant that is compromised in NaSA-induced SAR, and on ein2-1, an ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant. Thus, salicylate protection from paraquat is independent of disease resistance and ethylene perception. This suggests the existence of an NaSA-mediated pathway capable of protecting plants from reactive oxygen stress. PMID:16332128

Silverman, F Paul; Petracek, Peter D; Fledderman, Christina M; Ju, Zhiguo; Heiman, Daniel F; Warrior, Prem



Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode.  


Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in soybean defence against soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN). GmSAMT1 was identified as a candidate SCN defence-related gene in our previous analysis of soybean defence against SCN using GeneChip microarray experiments. The current study started with the isolation of the full-length cDNAs of GmSAMT1 from a SCN-resistant soybean line and from a SCN-susceptible soybean line. The two cDNAs encode proteins of identical sequences. The GmSAMT1 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. Using in vitro enzyme assays, E. coli-expressed GmSAMT1 was confirmed to function as salicylic acid methyltransferase. The apparent Km value of GmSAMT1 for salicylic acid was approximately 46 ?M. To determine the role of GmSAMT1 in soybean defence against SCN, transgenic hairy roots overexpressing GmSAMT1 were produced and tested for SCN resistance. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in SCN-susceptible backgrounds significantly reduced the development of SCN, indicating that overexpression of GmSAMT1 in the transgenic hairy root system could confer resistance to SCN. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in transgenic hairy roots was also found to affect the expression of selected genes involved in salicylic acid biosynthesis and salicylic acid signal transduction. PMID:24034273

Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Junwei J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Wusheng; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Stewart, Charles N; Chen, Feng



Serum Transaminases during Salicylate Therapy  

PubMed Central

In 8 out of 32 juvenile patients suffering from chronic polyarthritis and in one patient with dermatomyositis, raised transaminase levels were found; the salicylate level was above 35 mg/100 ml in all except one. Reduction in the salicylate level led to a prompt fall in the serum transaminases. Despite a rise in alkaline phosphatase in three cases there was no other evidence of liver dysfunction in the children. Only one of the adults showed a rise in transaminase levels, and she had mild cirrhosis.

Russell, A. S.; Sturge, R. A.; Smith, M. A.



The effect of the NMDA channel blocker memantine on salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats.  


Short-term tinnitus develops shortly after the administration of a high dose of salicylate. Since salicylate selectively potentiates N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) currents in spiral ganglion neurons, it may play a vital role in tinnitus by amplifying NMDA-mediated neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic treatment with a NMDA channel blocker, memantine, could prevent salicylate-induced tinnitus in animals. Additional experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of memantine on the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) to test for changes in hearing function. Thirty-six rats were divided into 3 groups and treated daily for four consecutive days. One group (n = 12) was injected with salicylate (300 mg/kg/d, IP), the second (n = 12) was treated with memantine (5 mg/kg/d, IP) and the third group (n = 12) was injected with salicylate and memantine. All rats were tested for tinnitus and hearing loss at 2, 24, 48 and 72 h after the first drug administration and 24 h post treatment; tinnituslike behaviour was assessed with gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS), and hearing function was measured with DPOAE, ABR and noise burst prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (NBPIAS). Rats in the salicylate group showed impaired GPIAS indicative of transient tinnitus-like behaviour near 16 kHz that recovered 24 h after the last salicylate treatment. Memantine did not cause a significant change in GPIAS. Combined injection of salicylate and memantine significantly attenuated GPIAS tinnitus-like behaviour at 48 hours after the first injection. None of the treatments induced permanent threshold shifts in the ABR and DPOAE, which recovered completely within one day post treatment. Animals treated with salicylate plus memantine showed results comparable to animals treated with salicylate alone, confirming that there is no effect of memantine on DPOAE which reflects OHC function. The present study confirms the role of cochlear NMDA receptors in the induction of salicylate-induced tinnitus. PMID:24882929

Ralli, M; Troiani, D; Podda, M V; Paciello, F; Eramo, S L M; de Corso, E; Salvi, R; Paludetti, G; Fetoni, A R



Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Salicylate Challenge?  

PubMed Central

Growth of Staphylococcus aureus with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory salicylate reduces susceptibility of the organism to multiple antimicrobials. Transcriptome analysis revealed that growth of S. aureus with salicylate leads to the induction of genes involved with gluconate and formate metabolism and represses genes required for gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. In addition, salicylate induction upregulates two antibiotic target genes and downregulates a multidrug efflux pump gene repressor (mgrA) and sarR, which represses a gene (sarA) important for intrinsic antimicrobial resistance. We hypothesize that these salicylate-induced alterations jointly represent a unique mechanism that allows S. aureus to resist antimicrobial stress and toxicity.

Riordan, James T.; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Van Voorhies, Wayne; Price, Christopher T.; Graham, James E.; Wilkinson, Brian J.; Gustafson, John E.



A review of toxicity from topical salicylic acid preparations.  


Topical salicylic acid is often used in dermatologic conditions because of its keratolytic, bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and photoprotective properties. The bioavailability of salicylic acid differs depending on the vehicle used and pH of transcellular fluids. Although rare, salicylic acid toxicity (salicylism) can occur from topical application. Physicians should be mindful of the potential for salicylism or even death from topically applied salicylic acid. PMID:24472429

Madan, Raman K; Levitt, Jacob



Amelioration of Cd toxicity by pretreatment of salicylic acid in Cicer arietinum L. seedlings.  


In this study, the ameliorating effect of salicylic acid (SA), serving as a mediator for protecting plants, against cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cicer arietinum was investigated. The seedlings of Cicer arietinum treated with increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 microM ) inhibited seedling length, reduced fresh and dry weight, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content and fatty acid methyl ester content. Furthermore, the level of some important parameters like MDA, proline and GSH content related to oxidative stress increased in Cd treated seedlings. Leaves of seedlings pretreated with salicylic acid (0.5 mM), alleviated the toxic effects of Cd by increasing the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, GSH and FAME content and decreasing proline and MDA content respectively. The result of the present study reveals the protective role of salicylic acid against Cd toxicity in C. arietinum. PMID:24555342

Canakci, Songül; Dursun, Bahar



sal genes determining the catabolism of salicylate esters are part of a supraoperonic cluster of catabolic genes in Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1.  


A 5-kbp region upstream of the are-ben-cat genes was cloned from Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1, extending the supraoperonic cluster of catabolic genes to 30 kbp. Four open reading frames, salA, salR, salE, and salD, were identified from the nucleotide sequence. Reverse transcription-PCR studies suggested that these open reading frames are organized into two convergent transcription units, salAR and salDE. The salE gene, encoding a protein of 239 residues, was ligated into expression vector pET5a. Its product, SalE, was shown to have esterase activity against short-chain alkyl esters of 4-nitrophenol but was also able to hydrolyze ethyl salicylate to ethanol and salicylic acid. A mutant of ADP1 with a Km(r) cassette introduced into salE had lost the ability to utilize only ethyl and methyl salicylates of the esters tested as sole carbon sources, and no esterase activity against ethyl salicylate could be detected in cell extracts. SalE was induced during growth on ethyl salicylate but not during growth on salicylate itself. salD encoded a protein of undetermined function with homologies to the Escherichia coli FadL membrane protein, which is involved in facilitating fatty acid transport, and a number of other proteins detected during aromatic catabolism, which may also function in hydrocarbon transport or uptake processes. A Km(r) cassette insertion in salD deleteriously affected cell growth and viability. The salA and salR gene products closely resemble two Pseudomonas proteins, NahG and NahR, respectively encoding salicylate hydroxylase and the LysR family regulator of both salicylate and naphthalene catabolism. salA was cloned into pUC18 together with salR and salE, and its gene product showed salicylate-inducible hydroxylase activity against a range of substituted salicylates, with the same relative specific activities as found in wild-type ADP1 grown on salicylate. Mutations involving insertion of Km(r) cassettes into salA and salR eliminated expression of salicylate hydroxylase activity and the ability to grow on either salicylate or ethyl salicylate. Studies of mutants with disruptions of genes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway with or without an additional salE mutation confirmed that ethyl salicylate and salicylate were channeled into the beta-ketoadipate pathway at the level of catechol and thence dissimilated by the cat gene products. SalR appeared to regulate expression of salA but not salE. PMID:10715011

Jones, R M; Pagmantidis, V; Williams, P A



Stress and Antistress Effects of Salicylic Acid and Acetyl Salicylic Acid on Potato Culture Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our own research has found a number of potentially useful effects of medium supplementation with salicylate on in vitro potato microplants. These useful effects are obtained taking advantage of the stress and antistress effects of salicylic\\u000a acid on plants. Growth inhibition is a common stress effect of salicylic acid on plants. This stress effect can be directed\\u000a to culture technology,

H. A. Lopez-Delgado; I. M. Scott; M. E. Mora-Herrera


Iontophoresis of Salicylic Acid From Salicylic Acid Doped Poly(p-phynylene vinylene)\\/ Polyacrylamide Hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent diffusion coefficients, Dapp, and the release mechanisms of salicylic acid from salicylic acid-loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-loaded PAAM, and salicylic acid-doped poly(phenylene vinylene)\\/polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-doped PPV\\/PAAM, were investigated. In the absence of an electric field, the diffusion of SA from the SA-doped PPV\\/PAAM hydrogel is delayed in the first 3 hr due to the ionic interaction between the anionic

Sumonman Niamlang



Acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin) and salicylic acid induce multiple stress tolerance in bean and tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that physiologically activeconcentrations of salicylic acid (SA) and itsderivatives can confer stress tolerance in plants wasevaluated using bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) andtomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Plantsgrown from seeds imbibed in aqueous solutions (0.1--0.5 mM) of salicylic acid or acetyl salicylic acid(ASA) displayed enhanced tolerance to heat, chillingand drought stresses. Seedlings acquired similarstress tolerance when SA or ASA treatments

Tissa Senaratna; Darren Touchell; Eric Bunn; Kingsley Dixon



Antioxidant properties and associated mechanisms of salicylates.  


The pharmacological action of salicylates has been historically related to their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenases, thereby blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane A2. On the other hand, several studies have suggested that salicylates have a multitude of cyclooxygenase-independent actions specially related with their antioxidant properties, which might contribute to the overall salutary effects of these compounds. Although salicylates are well-known antioxidants through their ability to scavenge hydroxyl radical, their antioxidant mechanisms of action have not been fully compiled and characterized. In this context, several mechanisms of action have been suggested, namely i) scavenging of hydroxyl radical and chelation of transition metals; ii) upregulation of nitric oxide; iii) increased synthesis of lipoxins; iv) inhibition of neutrophil oxidative burst; v) inhibition of NF-?B and AP-1 protein kinases; and vii) inhibiton of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1. The newly discovered acetyl salicylic acid-triggered lipoxins probably play a key role in the maintenance of the oxidative stress balance. Furthermore, salicylates have shown to protect low-density lipoprotein from oxidation and elicit an inhibitory effect on the expression of lectin-like receptors on endothelial cells. This review aims to provide an overview of the various proposed antioxidant mechanisms of salicylates. PMID:21671857

Baltazar, M T; Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Duarte, J A; Bastos, M L; Carvalho, F



Iron(III) and aluminium(III) complexes with substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids.  


The chelating properties toward iron(III) and aluminium(III) of variously substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids have been evaluated, together with the effect of methoxy and nitro substituents in ortho and para position with respect to the phenolic group. The protonation and iron and aluminium complex formation equilibria have been studied by potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The overall results highlight that salicyl-aldehydes present good chelating properties toward iron(III), with pFe ranging from 14.2 with nitro to 15.7 with methoxy substituent, being ineffective toward aluminium; the pFe values for salicylic acids are generally lower than those for salicyl-aldehydes, and about 4 units higher than the corresponding pAl values. The effect of the two substituents on the chelating properties of the ligands can be rationalized in terms of the Swain-Lupton treatment which accounts for the field and resonance effects. The structural characterization of the 1:2 iron complex with p-nitro salicylic acid shows that iron(III) ion exhibits an octahedral surrounding where two salicylate chelating ligands supply two O-phenolate and two O-carboxylate donor atoms in a roughly equatorial plane. The trans-apical sites are occupied by two aqua ligands. PMID:23932552

Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Crisponi, Guido; Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Zoroddu, M Antonietta



Potentiation by salicylate and salicyl alcohol of cadmium toxicity and accumulation in Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of Cd{sub 2+} in Escherichia coli K-12 was potentiated by salicylate and several related compounds. The efficiency of plating on Luria broth plates was reduced by more than 10(5)-fold when 10 mM salicylate and 200 microM CdCl{sub 2} were present simultaneously but was unaffected when either compound was present by itself. Synergistic effects were found at pH 7.4 with certain other weak acids (acetyl salicylate (aspirin), benzoate, and cinnamate) and with a nonacidic salicylate analog, salicyl alcohol, but not with acetate or p-hydroxy benzoate. Thus, the synergism with Cd{sub 2+} is determined by the structure of the compounds and not merely by their acidity. The kinetics of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by cells grown and assayed in broth indicated the presence of two uptake systems with Kms of 1 and 52 microM Cd{sub 2+} and Vmaxs of 0.059 and 1.5 mumol of Cd{sub 2+} per min per g of cells, respectively. The kinetics of uptake for cells grown and assayed with 20 mM salicyl alcohol showed 2.5-fold increases in the Vmaxs of both systems but no change in the Kms. Salicylate-grown cells also exhibited increased rates of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by both systems. Thus, enhanced uptake of Cd{sub 2+} may be responsible for the potentiation of Cd{sub 2+} toxicity by salicylate and salicyl alcohol.

Rosner, J.L.; Aumercier, M. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))



Salicylic acid production by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of salicylic acid from sodium salicylate was carried out by electrodialysis (ED) using bipolar membranes (BPM). The process feasibility was tested using a laboratory ED-cell with a membrane area of 40 cm2. The performances of two commercial bipolar membranes (Tokuyama Soda and Stantech membranes) are compared. Current efficiencies for salicylic acid and caustic soda production are close for both

Francisco Alvarez; Ricardo Alvarez; José Coca; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Roger Sandeaux; Claude Gavach



Salicylic acid-induced hepatotoxicity triggered by oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). But it is known to cause serious liver damage occasionally. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are predicted to be the major factors of salicylic acid-induced liver injury. We investigated the influence of salicylic acid on ATP contents, oxygen consumption and lipid peroxidation in the presence of the same concentration of

Hirokazu Doi; Toshiharu Horie



[Protein binding of salicylates in rheumatoid arthritis].  


Protein binding of salicylates was determined in 16 control subjects and 27 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Results obtained after separation of the free and bound fractions by dialysis to equilibrium and measured by spectrofluorometry were analyzed using a new mathematical model. In correlation with the decrease in plasma albumin concentrations, a decrease was found in the protein binding of salicylates in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This phenomenon was less marked in therapeutic zones and was related to the degree of severity of the inflammatory syndrome. The binding capacity per albumin molecule at saturation was decreased in patients suffering from advanced forms, suggesting that the changes seen were not due solely to quantitative variations in serum albumin levels. This study confirms the value of the determination of free salicylate levels in patients suffering from inflammatory rheumatic disorders. PMID:7112023

Netter, P; Monot, C; Stalars, M C; Mur, J M; Royer, R J; Pourel, J; Faure, G; Martin, J; Gaucher, A



Interaction of Salicylate and a Terpenoid Plant Extract with Model Membranes: Reconciling Experiments and Simulations  

PubMed Central

We investigate the effects of two structurally similar small cyclic molecules: salicylic acid and perillic acid on a zwitterionic model lipid bilayer, and show that both molecules might have biological activity related to membrane thinning. Salicylic acid is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, some of the pharmacological properties of which arise from its interaction with the lipid bilayer component of the plasma membrane. Prior simulations show that salicylate orders zwitterionic lipid membranes. However, this is in conflict with Raman scattering and vesicle fluctuation analysis data, which suggest the opposite. We show using extensive molecular dynamics simulations, cumulatively >2.5 ?s, that salicylic acid indeed disorders membranes with concomitant membrane thinning and that the conflict arose because prior simulations suffered from artifacts related to the sodium-ion induced condensation of zwitterionic lipids modeled by the Berger force field. Perillic acid is a terpenoid plant extract that has antiinfective and anticancer properties, and is extensively used in eastern medicine. We found that perillic acid causes large-scale membrane thinning and could therefore exert its antimicrobial properties via a membrane-lytic mechanism reminiscent of antimicrobial peptides. Being more amphipathic, perillic acid is more potent in disrupting lipid headgroup packing, and significantly modifies headgroup dipole orientation. Like salicylate, the membrane thinning effect of perillic acid is masked by the presence of sodium ions. As an alternative to sodium cations, we advocate the straightforward solution of using larger countercations like potassium or tetra-methyl-ammonium that will maintain electroneutrality but not interact strongly with, and thus not condense, the lipid bilayer.

Khandelia, Himanshu; Witzke, Sarah; Mouritsen, Ole G.



Role of salicylic acid in tomato defense against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner.  


We investigated the role of the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway in defense responses of tomato plants to the herbivore, cotton bollworm. After exposure to the cotton bollworm, tomato leaves rapidly accumulated a high level of SA. The transcription of PR1 and BGL2 genes, the marker genes of SA pathway, was up-regulated. An enhanced endogenous SA level was accompanied by an increase in the endogenous H2O2 level as compared with controls. Spraying tomato plants with a solution containing either SA or methyl salicylic acid (Me-SA), the H2O2 level dramatically increased. These data proved that the SA pathway was involved in the tomato plant defense responses to the herbivore. PMID:15666546

Peng, Jinying; Deng, Xiaojun; Huang, Jianhua; Jia, Shihai; Miao, Xuexia; Huang, Yongping



Premature Birth induced in Mice by Salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANIMAL experiments have provided a great deal of information about the interaction of drugs early in pregnancy. Little, however, is known of drug action in the late stages of pregnancy1,2. In our previous studies on the damaging effect of sodium salicylate on the foetus, a tendency to premature birth was observed in the mouse when this substance was given on

M. Eriksson; K. S. Larsson




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. A review is made of recent publications devoted to various as- pects of salicylic acid (SA) influence on different physiological processes. The role of SA on plant growth and development, flowering, ion uptake, stomatal regulation and photosynthesis is analysed. SA as a natural inducer of thermogenesis and disease resistance in plants is described. Besides the physiological functions of SA,

Losanka Popova; Tania Pancheva; Alexandra Uzunov



Pathogen-lnduced Systemic Activation of a Plant Defensin Gene in Arabidopsis Follows a Salicylic Acid-lndependent Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5-kD plant defensin was purified from Arabidopsis leaves challenged with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola and shown to possess antifungal properties in vitro. The corresponding plant defensin gene was induced after treatment of leaves with methyl jasmonate or ethylene but not with salicylic acid or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. When challenged with A. brassicicola, the levels of the plant defensin protein and

Penninckx; Kristel Eggermont; Franky R. G. Terras; Bart P. H. J. Thomma; Genoveva W. De Samblanx; Antony Buchala; Jean-Pierre Metraux; John M. ManneqaY; Willem F. Broekaert



Nitric oxide interacts with salicylate to regulate biphasic ethylene production during the hypersensitive response.  


C(2)H(4) is associated with plant defense, but its role during the hypersensitive response (HR) remains largely uncharacterized. C(2)H(4) production in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) following inoculation with HR-eliciting Pseudomonas syringae pathovars measured by laser photoacoustic detection was biphasic. A first transient rise (C(2)H(4)-I) occurred 1 to 4 h following inoculation with HR-eliciting, disease-forming, and nonpathogenic strains and also with flagellin (flg22). A second (avirulence-dependent) rise, at approximately 6 h (C(2)H(4)-II), was only seen with HR-eliciting strains. Tobacco leaves treated with the C(2)H(4) biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine, suggested that C(2)H(4) influenced the kinetics of a HR. Challenging salicylate hydroxylase-expressing tobacco lines and tissues exhibiting systemic acquired resistance suggested that C(2)H(4) production was influenced by salicylic acid (SA). Disrupted expression of a C(2)H(4) biosynthesis gene in salicylate hydroxylase tobacco plants implicated transcriptional control as a mechanism through which SA regulates C(2)H(4) production. Treating leaves to increase oxidative stress or injecting with SA initiated monophasic C(2)H(4) generation, but the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside initiated biphasic rises. To test whether NO influenced biphasic C(2)H(4) production during the HR, the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was coinoculated with the avirulent strain of P. syringae pv phaseolicola into tobacco leaves. The first transient C(2)H(4) rise appeared to be unaffected by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, but the second rise was reduced. These data suggest that NO and SA are required to generate the biphasic pattern of C(2)H(4) production during the HR and may influence the kinetics of HR formation. PMID:18799663

Mur, Luis A J; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Hall, Michael A; Smith, Aileen R



Optimization of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor using salicylic acid dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, optimization of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor, for maximizing the extent of hydroxyl radical generation, has been investigated using salicylic acid as a dosimeter. The effect of different operating parameters such as inlet pressure into the reactor, shape of the orifice, and concentration of salicylic acid employed was investigated where the extent of hydroxyl radical generation was

Lekhraj P. Amin; Parag R. Gogate; Arthur E. Burgess; David H. Bremner



Effect of salicylic acid and salt on wheat seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pretreatment with salicylic acid on wheat seed germination (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Roshan), lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activity were studied under conditions of salt stress. Seeds treated with different concentrations of salicylic acid were used for measuring germination traits. Salt stress was induced by sodium chloride solution. Seeds were soaked in

Aria Dolatabadian; Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy; Mozafar Sharifi



Salicylic acid-induced hepatotoxicity triggered by oxidative stress.  


Salicylic acid is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). But it is known to cause serious liver damage occasionally. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are predicted to be the major factors of salicylic acid-induced liver injury. We investigated the influence of salicylic acid on ATP contents, oxygen consumption and lipid peroxidation in the presence of the same concentration of salicylic acid. Leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was significantly higher in the presence of 5mM salicylic acid than in its absence. Salicylic acid-induced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) formation and spontaneous chemiluminescence (CL) in rat hepatocytes, whereas antioxidants, such as promethazine (PMZ) and N,N-diphenylphenylenediamine (DPPD), suppressed both TBARS formation and LDH leakage. TBARS formation in rat liver microsomes was suppressed by diethyldithiocarbamate (a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2E1) and diclofenac (a specific inhibitor of CYP2C11). These results suggest that salicylic acid-induced lipid peroxidation was related to oxidative metabolism mediated by CYP2E1 and CYP2C11. On the other hand, 5mM salicylic acid induced a drastic decrease of ATP contents in rat isolated hepatocytes. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiration control ratio (RC ratio), calculated by State 3/State 4 also decreased with the increase of salicylic acid concentration. These findings suggest that salicylic acid would trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and cause ATP decrease, leading to lethal liver cell injury by lipid peroxidation, although this hypothesis remains to be elucidated in vivo. PMID:19948161

Doi, Hirokazu; Horie, Toshiharu



Infrared and ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled substituted salicylic acids; substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer in salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in the salicylic acid (SA) frame were studied by electronic and infrared spectroscopy of jet-cooled 5-methoxylsalicylic acid (5-MeOSA), 5-methylsalicylic acid (5-MeSA), 5-fluorosalicylic acid (5-FSA), 6-fluorosalicylic acid (6-FSA), and methyl salicylate (MS). Infrared spectra were measured in the 3 µm region for both the electronic ground (S0) and first excited (S1) states. The electronic excitation/emission spectra of 5-MeSA and 6-FSA showed the typical spectral features of ESIPT, which have been found in the spectra of SA. On the other hand, 5-MeOSA and 5-FSA exhibit a mirror-image relation between their excitation and emission spectra, which has been regarded as a result of the suppression of ESIPT. Despite such a remarkable difference among the electronic spectra, IR spectroscopy shows that a drastic change of the phenolic OH stretching vibration does occur upon electronic excitation of all substituted SAs, that is, the phenolic OH band of all the SAs disappears from the 3 µm region, indicating a large elongation of the phenolic O-H bond (over 0.1 Å) in S1. This result means that the intramolecular hydrogen bond strength is remarkably enhanced by electronic excitation in all the substituted SAs. Substitution effects on ESIPT in dimers are also discussed.

Abd El-Hakam Abou El-Nasr, E.; Fujii, A.; Ebata, T.; Mikami, N.


Glycolic Acid 15% Plus Salicylic Acid 2%  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Results: All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Conclusion: Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment.

Sanchez-Blanco, Elena



Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of salicylates in aerated aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation induced degradation of acetylsalicylic acid, its hydrolysis product salicylic acid and a salicylic acid derivative 5-sulpho-salicylic acid, was investigated in dilute aqueous solutions by UV-vis spectrophotometry, HPLC separation and diode-array or MS/MS detection, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and by Vibrio fischeri toxicity measurements. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to degrade these molecules readily, and first degradation products were hydroxylated derivatives in all cases. Due to the by-products, among them hydrogen peroxide, the toxicity first increased and then decreased with the absorbed dose. With prolonged irradiation complete mineralization was achieved.

Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László



Salicylic acid induces mitochondrial injury by inhibiting ferrochelatase heme biosynthesis activity.  


Salicylic acid is a classic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Although salicylic acid also induces mitochondrial injury, the mechanism of its antimitochondrial activity is not well understood. In this study, by using a one-step affinity purification scheme with salicylic acid-immobilized beads, ferrochelatase (FECH), a homodimeric enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis in mitochondria, was identified as a new molecular target of salicylic acid. Moreover, the cocrystal structure of the FECH-salicylic acid complex was determined. Structural and biochemical studies showed that salicylic acid binds to the dimer interface of FECH in two possible orientations and inhibits its enzymatic activity. Mutational analysis confirmed that Trp301 and Leu311, hydrophobic amino acid residues located at the dimer interface, are directly involved in salicylic acid binding. On a gel filtration column, salicylic acid caused a shift in the elution profile of FECH, indicating that its conformational change is induced by salicylic acid binding. In cultured human cells, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis, whereas salicylic acid did not exert its inhibitory effect in FECH knockdown cells. Concordantly, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis in zebrafish embryos. Strikingly, the salicylic acid-induced effect in zebrafish was partially rescued by FECH overexpression. Taken together, these findings illustrate that FECH is responsible for salicylic acid-induced inhibition of heme synthesis, which may contribute to its antimitochondrial and anti-inflammatory function. This study establishes a novel aspect of the complex pharmacological effects of salicylic acid. PMID:24043703

Gupta, Vipul; Liu, Shujie; Ando, Hideki; Ishii, Ryohei; Tateno, Shumpei; Kaneko, Yuki; Yugami, Masato; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Nureki, Osamu; Handa, Hiroshi



The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.  


The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated. PMID:16235788

Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia



Evolution of jasmonate and salicylate signal crosstalk.  


The evolution of land plants approximately 470 million years ago created a new adaptive zone for natural enemies (attackers) of plants. In response to attack, plants evolved highly effective, inducible defense systems. Two plant hormones modulating inducible defenses are salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Current thinking is that SA induces resistance against biotrophic pathogens and some phloem feeding insects and JA induces resistance against necrotrophic pathogens, some phloem feeding insects and chewing herbivores. Signaling crosstalk between SA and JA commonly manifests as a reciprocal antagonism and may be adaptive, but this remains speculative. We examine evidence for and against adaptive explanations for antagonistic crosstalk, trace its phylogenetic origins and provide a hypothesis-testing framework for future research on the adaptive significance of SA-JA crosstalk. PMID:22498450

Thaler, Jennifer S; Humphrey, Parris T; Whiteman, Noah K



A theoretical study of salicylate oxidation for ADME prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salicylic acid oxidation has been explained by a mechanism involving single electron transfer oxidation and single hydrogen\\u000a transfer using quantum chemistry calculations at the B3LYP theory level, together with the 6-311G** basis set. These methods\\u000a were employed to obtain energy (E), ionization potential (IP), bond dissociation energies (BDE), and spin density distribution of the salicylic acid. The results\\u000a show

R. Santos BorgesA; A. P. Salgado Mendes; B. H. Souza e Silva; C. Nahum Alves; J. L. Martins do Nascimento



Iontophoretic study on Salicylic acid and Disprin loaded polymer hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes iontophoretic release of Salicylic acid and Potassium Salt of Acetyl Salicylic acid which is commonly\\u000a known as the analgesic and thromboxane prostaglandins inhibitor, Disprin, from hydrogel patches based on Poly(vinyl alcohol),\\u000a Poly (vinyl acetate–co–crotonic acid) & Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone). The experiment utilized a modified Franz cell for iontophoresis\\u000a with a brine filled receptor chamber and employed Visible

Baishali Kanjilal; Rajdeep Dasgupta; Ajit Kumar Banthia


Expression of immediate-early genes in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rat.  


Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC), in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus. PMID:24704997

Hu, S S; Mei, L; Chen, J Y; Huang, Z W; Wu, H



Systemic acquired resistance in canola is linked with pathogenesis-related gene expression and requires salicylic Acid.  


ABSTRACT Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an induced defense response that confers long-lasting protection against a broad range of microbial pathogens. Here we show that treatment of Brassica napus plants with the SAR-inducing chemical benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) significantly enhanced resistance against virulent strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Localized preinoculation of plants with an avirulent strain of P. syringae pv. maculicola also enhanced resistance to these pathogens but was not as effective as BTH treatment. Single applications of either SAR-inducing pretreatment were effective against P. syringae pv. maculicola, even when given more than 3 weeks prior to the secondary challenge. The pretreatments also led to the accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, including BnPR-1 and BnPR-2, with higher levels of transcripts observed in the BTH-treatment material. B. napus plants expressing a bacterial salicylate hydroxylase transgene (NahG) that metabolizes salicylic acid to catechol were substantially compromised in SAR and accumulated reduced levels of PR gene transcripts when compared with untransformed controls. Thus, SAR in B. napus displays many of the hallmarks of classical SAR including long lasting and broad host range resistance, association with PR gene activation, and a requirement for salicylic acid. PMID:18943928

Potlakayala, Shobha D; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S; Fobert, Pierre R



Expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus in salicylate-induced tinnitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Changes in the gene expressions for tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and\\/or interleukin-1? (IL-1?) during tinnitus have not\\u000a been previously reported. We evaluated tinnitus and mRNA expression levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) genes in cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice after intraperitoneal injections\\u000a of salicylate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-eight 3-month-old male SAMP8 mice were randomly and equally

Juen-Haur Hwang; Jin-Cherng Chen; Shan-Ying Yang; Ming-Fu Wang; Yin-Ching Chan



Gaultherin, a natural salicylate derivative from Gaultheria yunnanensis: towards a better non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.  


One of the major factors limiting the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is gastrointestinal toxicity. Gaultherin, 2-[(6-O-beta-D-Xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] benzoic acid methyl ester, a natural salicylate derivative extracted from Gaultheria yunnanensis, has been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and lack gastric ulcerogenic effect compared to aspirin in our primary study. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of gaultherin, which may rely on its active metabolite, and the mechanism responsible for the non-ulcerogenic property. The results showed that gaultherin (200 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the abdominal contractions in the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of gaultherin was demonstrated in the croton oil-induced ear edema model in mice. The results showed that gaultherin and equimolar dose of aspirin produced comparable inhibitory effects. The study of the metabolism characters of gaultherin in mice and rats indicated that gaultherin could be metabolically converted to salicylate, which produced the pharmacological effects, and provided effective concentrations for an extended period. In vitro metabolism experiment showed that gaultherin was metabolized by beta-glycosidase produced by human intestinal bacteria and esterases in intestine, blood and liver successively to release salicylate finally. The study suggested gaultherin did not cause gastric ulcer for the reason that it released salicylate in intestine slowly, not in stomach and it left the cyclooxygenase-1 unaffected, which was the source of cytoprotective prostaglandins in gastric epithelium. PMID:16375889

Zhang, Bin; He, Xiao-Li; Ding, Yi; Du, Guan-Hua



Concurrent release of admixed antimicrobials and salicylic acid from salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters).  


A polymer blend consisting of antimicrobials (chlorhexidine, clindamycin, and minocycline) physically admixed at 10% by weight into a salicylic acid-based poly (anhydride-ester) (SA-based PAE) was developed as an adjunct treatment for periodontal disease. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends were characterized by multiple methods, including contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Static contact angle measurements showed no significant differences in hydrophobicity between the polymer and antimicrobial matrix surfaces. Notable decreases in the polymer glass transition temperature (T(g)) and the antimicrobials' melting points (T(m)) were observed indicating that the antimicrobials act as plasticizers within the polymer matrix. In vitro drug release of salicylic acid from the polymer matrix and for each physically admixed antimicrobial was concurrently monitored by high pressure liquid chromatography during the course of polymer degradation and erosion. Although the polymer/antimicrobial blends were immiscible, the initial 24 h of drug release correlated to the erosion profiles. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends are being investigated as an improvement on current localized drug therapies used to treat periodontal disease. PMID:19180627

Johnson, Michelle L; Uhrich, Kathryn E



Current management of salicylate-induced pulmonary edema.  


Salicylate-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) can occur in both acute and chronic users of aspirin or salicylate products. The medical history, especially when it reveals the use of salicylates, is critical when considering this diagnosis. Unfortunately, the neurologic and systemic effects of salicylate toxicity may hinder the ability to obtain a reliable medical history. SIPE should be considered in patients who present with pulmonary edema and neurological changes, anion-gap metabolic acidosis, or possible sepsis. Some patients may be treated for "pseudosepsis" or other conditions, thereby delaying the diagnosis of salicylate intoxication. Misdiagnosis and possibly delayed diagnosis of SIPE can lead to a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Serum and urine alkalinization by administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate are commonly utilized therapeutic strategies. Finally, hemodialysis is a therapy which should be considered early in the course of treatment. The objective of this review was to emphasize the importance of rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment in patients with SIPE, and summarize the current literature as it relates to the adult population. PMID:21297545

Glisson, James K; Vesa, Telciane S; Bowling, Mark R



Phase I trial of sodium salicylate in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myelogenous leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium salicylate is an inexpensive, readily available anti-inflammatory agent which inhibits NF-?B in in vitro models. We examined whether it was possible to safely achieve and maintain salicylate levels known to inhibit NF-?B in vitro in 11 patients with MDS or AML taking sodium salicylate. Most patients achieved the target blood salicylate level (20–30mg\\/dL) with acceptable toxicity, including reversible grade

Virginia M. Klimek; Emily K. Dolezal; Larry Smith; Gerald Soff; Stephen D. Nimer


Inhibition of Activity of Catalase from Potato Tubers by Salicylic and Succinic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that salicylic acid inhibits the activity of catalase from potato tubers in vitro. Succinic acid suppressed catalase activity at the same concentrations that salicylate; however, its effect was more long-term. Bovine catalase was less sensitive to salicylic and succinic acids than potato catalase. In the past years, the attention of researchers has been attracted to studying the

Ya. S. Panina; N. I. Vasyukova; O. L. Ozeretskovskaya



Possible involvement of salicylic acid in systemic acquired resistance of Cucumis sativus against Sphaerotheca fuliginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible involvement of salicylic acid in systemic acquired resistance ofCucumis sativus againstSphaerotheca fuliginea was studied. Cucumber plants were inoculated with tobacco necrosis virus on the cotyledons and the level of endogenous salicylic acid in the first true leaf was determined by gas chromatography. Salicylic acid increased continously from the second day after virus inoculation to the fifth day, when

Gian Guido Conti; Alberto Pianezzola; Guido Violini; Dario Maffi; Anna Arnoldi



Structural determinants of the catalytic inhibition of human topoisomerase II? by salicylate analogs and salicylate-based drugs.  


We previously identified salicylate as a novel catalytic inhibitor of human DNA topoisomerase II (topo II; EC that preferentially targets the alpha isoform by interfering with topo II-mediated DNA cleavage. Many pharmaceuticals and compounds found in foods are salicylate-based. We have now investigated whether these are also catalytic inhibitors of topo II and the structural determinants modulating these effects. We have determined that a number of hydroxylated benzoic acids attenuate doxorubicin-induced DNA damage signaling mediated by the ATM protein kinase and inhibit topo II decatenation activity in vitro with varying potencies. Based on the chemical structures of these and other derivatives, we identified unique properties influencing topo II inhibition, including the importance of substitutions at the 2'- and 5'-positions. We extended our findings to a number of salicylate-based pharmaceuticals including sulfasalazine and diflunisal and found that both were effective at attenuating doxorubicin-induced DNA damage signaling, topo II DNA decatenation and they blocked stabilization of doxorubicin-induced topo II cleavable complexes in cells. In a manner similar to salicylate, we determined that these agents inhibit topo II-mediated DNA cleavage. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in topo II-mediated ATP-hydrolysis. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel function for the broader class of salicylate-related compounds and highlight the need for additional studies into whether they may impact the efficacy of chemotherapy regimens that include topo II poisons. PMID:24695359

Bau, Jason T; Kurz, Ebba U



Cutaneous bioassay of salicylic acid as a keratolytic.  


Keratolytic efficacy of topical preparations containing salicylic acid was studied in humans utilizing adhesive tape stripping and quantifying SC removal by protein analysis. In combination with tape stripping, squamometry was used to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid on skin surface scaliness and desquamation. Furthermore, skin barrier perturbation and skin irritancy was recorded and related to the dermatopharmacological effect of the preparations. In contrast to squamometry, tape stripping combined with protein analysis was sensitive in detecting keratolytic effect of salicylic acid within hours of application. Importantly, whereas the pH of the preparations only minimally influenced efficacy, local dermatotoxicity was significantly increased at acidic pH. This indicates that the quest to increase the amount of free, non-dissociated SA is, in fact, counterproductive as the more acidic preparations resulted in skin irritation and barrier disruption. PMID:15725565

Bashir, S J; Dreher, F; Chew, A L; Zhai, H; Levin, C; Stern, R; Maibach, H I



Ion Channel-Forming Alamethicin Is a Potent Elicitor of Volatile Biosynthesis and Tendril Coiling. Cross Talk between Jasmonate and Salicylate Signaling in Lima Bean1  

PubMed Central

Alamethicin (ALA), a voltage-gated, ion channel-forming peptide mixture from Trichoderma viride, is a potent elicitor of the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Unlike elicitation with jasmonic acid or herbivore damage, the blend of substances emitted comprises only the two homoterpenes, 4,11-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, and methyl salicylate. Inhibition of octadecanoid signaling by aristolochic acid and phenidone as well as mass spectrometric analysis of endogenous jasmonate demonstrate that ALA induces the biosynthesis of volatile compounds principally via the octadecanoid-signaling pathway (20-fold increase of jasmonic acid). ALA also up-regulates salicylate biosynthesis, and the time course of the production of endogenous salicylate correlates well with the appearance of the methyl ester in the gas phase. The massive up-regulation of the SA-pathway (90-fold) interferes with steps in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of 12-oxophytodienoic acid and thereby reduces the pattern of emitted volatiles to compounds previously shown to be induced by early octadecanoids. ALA also induces tendril coiling in various species like Pisum, Lathyrus, and Bryonia, but the response appears to be independent from octadecanoid biosynthesis, because inhibitors of lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 do not prevent the coiling reaction.

Engelberth, Jurgen; Koch, Thomas; Schuler, Gode; Bachmann, Nadine; Rechtenbach, Jana; Boland, Wilhelm



Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Ethylene Production Is Responsible for Conifer Phloem Defense Responses and Reprogramming of Stem Cambial Zone for Traumatic Resin Duct Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conifer stem pest resistance includes constitutive defenses that discourage invasion and inducible defenses, including phenolic and terpenoid resin synthesis. Recently, methyl jasmonate (MJ) was shown to induce conifer resin and phenolic defenses; however, it is not known if MJ is the direct effector or if there is a downstream signal. Exogenous applications of MJ, methyl salicylate, and ethylene were used

J. W. Hudgins; Vincent R. Franceschi



Manipulation of salicylate content in Arabidopsis thaliana by the expression of an engineered bacterial salicylate synthase.  


Salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role as a signalling molecule involved in plant defense against microbial attack. Genetic manipulation of SA biosynthesis may therefore help to generate plants that are more disease-resistant. By fusing the two bacterial genes pchA and pchB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which encode isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate-lyase, respectively, we have engineered a novel hybrid enzyme with salicylate synthase (SAS) activity. The pchB-A fusion was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, with targeting of the gene product either to the cytosol (c-SAS plants) or to the chloroplast (p-SAS plants). In p-SAS plants, the amount of free and conjugated SA was increased more than 20-fold above wild type (WT) level, indicating that SAS is functional in Arabidopsis. P-SAS plants showed a strongly dwarfed phenotype and produced very few seeds. Dwarfism could be caused by the high SA levels per se or, perhaps more likely, by a depletion of the chorismate or isochorismate pools of the chloroplast. Targeting of SAS to the cytosol caused a slight increase in free SA and a significant threefold increase in conjugated SA, probably reflecting limited chorismate availability in this compartment. Although this modest increase in total SA content did not strongly induce the resistance marker PR-1, it resulted nevertheless in enhanced disease resistance towards a virulent isolate of Peronospora parasitica. Increased resistance of c-SAS lines was paralleled with reduced seed production. Taken together, these results illustrate that SAS is a potent tool for the manipulation of SA levels in plants. PMID:11169183

Mauch, F; Mauch-Mani, B; Gaille, C; Kull, B; Haas, D; Reimmann, C



The protective effect of salicylic acid on lysozyme against riboflavin-mediated photooxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a metabolite of aspirin in vivo, salicylic acid was proved to protect lysozyme from riboflavin-mediated photooxidation in this study. The antioxidative properties of salicylic acid were further studied by using time-resolved laser flash photolysis of 355 nm. It can quench the triplet state of riboflavin via electron transfer from salicylic acid to the triplet state of riboflavin with a reaction constant of 2.25 × 10 9 M -1 s -1. Mechanism of antioxidant activities of salicylic acid on lysozyme oxidation was discussed. Salicylic acid can serve as a potential antioxidant to quench the triplet state of riboflavin and reduce oxidative pressure.

Li, Kun; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Lingli; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Mei; Wang, Shi-Long



Addition of salicylic acid to nutrient solution combined with postharvest treatments (hot water, salicylic acid, and calcium dipping) improved postharvest fruit quality of strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of salicylic acid addition to nutrient solution and different postharvest treatments on fruit quality of strawberry cv. Camarosa after 7 days at 2°C. Plants were irrigated with two complete nutrient solutions, with salicylic acid (0.03mM) or without salicylic acid as the control. Fruits were then treated with eight different postharvest treatments (25°C

M. Shafiee; T. S. Taghavi; M. Babalar



Prevention of fat-induced insulin resistance by salicylate  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and may involve fat-induced activation of a serine kinase cascade involving IKK-?. To test this hypothesis, we first examined insulin action and signaling in awake rats during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps after a lipid infusion with or without pretreatment with salicylate, a known inhibitor of IKK-?. Whole-body glucose uptake and metabolism were estimated using [3-3H]glucose infusion, and glucose uptake in individual tissues was estimated using [1-14C]2-deoxyglucose injection during the clamp. Here we show that lipid infusion decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and activation of IRS-1–associated PI 3-kinase in skeletal muscle but that salicylate pretreatment prevented these lipid-induced effects. To examine the mechanism of salicylate action, we studied the effects of lipid infusion on insulin action and signaling during the clamp in awake mice lacking IKK-?. Unlike the response in wild-type mice, IKK-? knockout mice did not exhibit altered skeletal muscle insulin signaling and action following lipid infusion. In summary, high-dose salicylate and inactivation of IKK-? prevent fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by blocking fat-induced defects in insulin signaling and action and represent a potentially novel class of therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.

Kim, Jason K.; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Fillmore, Jonathan J.; Chen, Yan; Moore, Irene; Lee, Jongsoon; Yuan, Minsheng; Li, Zhi Wei; Karin, Michael; Perret, Pascale; Shoelson, Steven E.; Shulman, Gerald I.



5-Formylsalicylic acid and 5-(benzimidazolium-2-yl)salicylate.  


Both title compounds are derivatives of salicylic acid. 5-Formylsalicylic acid (systematic name: 5-formyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid), C(8)H(6)O(4), possesses three good hydrogen-bond donors and/or acceptors coplanar with their attached benzene ring and abides very well by Etter's hydrogen-bond rules. Intermolecular O-H...O and some weak C-H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a planar sheet. Reaction of this acid and o-phenylenediamine in refluxing ethanol produced in high yield the new zwitterionic compound 5-(benzimidazolium-2-yl)salicylate [systematic name: 5-(1H-benzimidazol-3-ium-2-yl)-2-hydroxybenzoate], C(14)H(10)N(2)O(3). Each imidazolium N-H group and its adjacent salicyl C-H group chelate one carboxylate O atom via hydrogen bonds, forming seven-membered rings. As a result of steric hindrance, the planes of the molecules within these pairs of hydrogen-bonded molecules are inclined to one another by ?74°. There are also ?-? stacking interactions between the parallel planes of the imidazole ring and the benzene ring of the salicyl component of the adjacent molecule on one side and the benzimidazolium component of the molecule on the other side. PMID:21123892

Lu, Yu Bing; Yang, Ping; Huang, Wen Na; Yang, Yan Na; Wu, Jian Zhong



Tungsten oxo salicylate complexes from tungsten hexachloride reactions systems.  


Tungsten hexachloride is a potent halogen-transfer agent, capable of reacting directly with salicylic acid to generate a tungsten oxo fragment and salicoyl chloride. As a result, oxo complexes dominate the chemistry of tungsten(VI) salicylates. Both mono- and disalicylate substituted tungsten oxo complexes are accessible. The Brønsted free acid W(=O)Cl(Hsal)(sal) complex is a sparingly soluble, presumably polymeric material that can be dissolved in THF. The THF adduct has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, although an X-ray crystallographic study indicates that the product cocrystallizes with a structurally analogous d(1) WCl(2)(Hsal.THF)(sal) byproduct. The remaining chloride ligand in W(=O)Cl(Hsal)(sal) is replaced by a bridging oxo unit when the reaction contains a significant excess of salicylic acid. The product "linear" oxo bridged ditungsten complex, [W(=O)(Hsal)(sal)](2)O, forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds, accounting for its high solubility in noncoordinating solvents. An X-ray study shows that the intramolecular Hsal.sal hydrogen bonding in this complex accommodates a more linear W-O-W arrangement than does a previously observed class of isostructural diolate derivatives. Tungsten oxo tetrachloride, formed in the initial reaction between salicylic acid and WCl(6), also reacts with the salicoyl chloride byproduct to generate tungsten salicoylate (OAr-2-COCl) complexes. PMID:11531451

Kolesnichenko, V; Mason, M H; Botts, J B; Botts, A M; Baroni, T E; Heppert, J A; Rheingold, A L; Liable-Sands, L; Yap, G P



Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for onl y6ho rsingle transient addition of

Ashraf Metwally; Iris Finkemeier; Manfred Georgi; Karl-Josef Dietz



Reye's syndrome: salicylate and mitochondrial monoamine oxidase function  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that aspirin is somehow linked with the onset of Reye's syndrome (RS). A general feature of Reye's syndrome is severe impairment of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) function. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of salicylate on platelet mitochondrial MAO activity in three groups: group A (healthy children, n = 21) and group C (healthy adults, n = 10). Platelet MAO was measured by radio-enzymatic technique with /sup 14/C-tyramine as a substrate. The results showed that salicyclate (10 mM) had a 20 to 60 percent inhibitory effect on platelet MAO function in only 1, 3 and 2 of the subjects in group A, B and C. Furthermore, there was an association between low enzyme activity and salicylate MAO inhibitory effect in these subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that salicylate may induce deterioration in mitochondrial function in susceptible individuals and that the assessment of salicylate MAO inhibitory effect may identify those who may be at risk to develop aspirin poisoning and Reye's syndrome.

Faraj, B.A.; Caplan, D.; Lolies, P.



Salicylate-Independent Lesion Formation in Arabidopsis lsd Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many interactions of plants with pathogens, the pri- mary host defense reaction is accompanied by plant cell death at the site of infection. The resulting lesions are cor- related with the establishment of an inducible resistance in plants called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), for which salicylic acid (SA) accumulation is a critical signal- ing event in Arabidopsis and tobacco.

Michelle D. Hunt; Terrence P. Delaney; Robert A. Dietrich; Kris B. Weymann; Jeffery L. Dangl; John A. Ryals



Auditory sensori-neural alterations induced by salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early after the development of aspirin, almost 150 years ago, its auditory toxicity has been associated with high doses employed in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Tinnitus, loss of absolute acoustic sensitivity and alterations of perceived sounds are the three auditory alterations described by human subjects after ingestion of large doses of salicylate. They develop over the initials days

Yves Cazals



The Biosynthesis of Salicylic Acid in Potato Plants1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spraying potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves with arachidonic acid (AA) at 1500 m gm L 21 led to a rapid local synthesis of salicylic acid (SA) and accumulation of a SA conjugate, which was shown to be 2-O-b-glucopyranosylsalicylic acid. Radiolabeling studies with untreated leaves showed that SA was synthesized from phenylala- nine and that both cinnamic and benzoic acid were

Jean-Luc Coquoz; Antony Buchala; Jean-Pierre Metraux



Ammonium determination in soil extracts by the salicylate method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ammonium determination, based on formation of a substituted indophenol with sodiumsalicylate as phenolic reagent, has been reexamined. An increase of 70% in absorbancy compared with existing salicylate methods in soil science, and an increase in reproducibility compared with pre?existing equivalent methods in other disciplines were obtained. The method can be applied satisfactorily for ammonium in 2M KCl soil extracts

A. J. Kempers; A. Zweers



Methylation matters  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is not just for basic scientists any more. There is a growing awareness in the medical field that having the correct pattern of genomic methylation is essential for healthy cells and organs. If methylation patterns are not properly established or maintained, disorders as diverse as mental retardation, immune deficiency, and sporadic or inherited cancers may follow. Through inappropriate silencing of growth regulating genes and simultaneous destabilisation of whole chromosomes, methylation defects help create a chaotic state from which cancer cells evolve. Methylation defects are present in cells before the onset of obvious malignancy and therefore cannot be explained simply as a consequence of a deregulated cancer cell. Researchers are now able to detect with exquisite sensitivity the cells harbouring methylation defects, sometimes months or years before the time when cancer is clinically detectable. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of specific genes has been directly linked with the tumour response to chemotherapy and patient survival. Advances in our ability to observe the methylation status of the entire cancer cell genome have led us to the unmistakable conclusion that methylation abnormalities are far more prevalent than expected. This methylomics approach permits the integration of an ever growing repertoire of methylation defects with the genetic alterations catalogued from tumours over the past two decades. Here we discuss the current knowledge of DNA methylation in normal cells and disease states, and how this relates directly to our current understanding of the mechanisms by which tumours arise.???Keywords: methylation; cancer

Costello, J.; Plass, C.



Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in nicotiana benthamiana.  


Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV. PMID:24450774

Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui



Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration  

SciTech Connect

In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does not influence any of the investigated parameters under hypoxia.

Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail:



GABAergic Neural Activity Involved in Salicylate-Induced Auditory Cortex Gain Enhancement  

PubMed Central

Although high doses of sodium salicylate impair cochlear function, it paradoxically enhances sound-evoked activity in the auditory cortex (AC) and augments acoustic startle reflex responses, neural and behavioral metrics associated with hyperexcitability and hyperacusis. To explore the neural mechanisms underlying salicylate-induced hyperexcitability and “increased central gain”, we examined the effects of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists and antagonists on salicylate-induced hyperexcitability in the AC and startle reflex responses. Consistent with our previous findings, local or systemic application of salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of sound-evoked AC neural activity, but generally reduced spontaneous activity in the AC. Systemic injection of salicylate also significantly increased the acoustic startle reflex. S-baclofen or R-baclofen, GABA-B agonists, which suppressed sound-evoked AC neural firing rate and local field potentials, also suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of the AC field potential and the acoustic startle reflex. Local application of vigabatrin, which enhances GABA concentration in the brain, suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of AC firing rate. Systemic injection of vigabatrin also reduced the salicylate-induced enhancement of acoustic startle reflex. Collectively, these results suggest that the sound-evoked behavioral and neural hyperactivity induced by salicylate may arise from a salicylate-induced suppression GABAergic inhibition in the AC.

Lu, Jianzhong; Lobarinas, Edward; Deng, Anchun; Goodey, Ronald; Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J.; Sun, Wei



Isotopic orientational order in acetyl salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopically mixed methyl groups CD xH 3- x with zero averaged deuteron/hydrogen scattering length 0=< a>= xaD+(3- x) aH are expected to be invisible in a neutron diffraction experiment. We find, indeed, in the scattering length density of aspirin-CD xH 3- x, reconstructed by maximum-entropy methods, at room temperature only three very week minima. At 10 K, however, one positive and two negative extrema are visible: unique evidence for orientational isotopic order. From a combination of 1-d-Fourier and algebraic methods we deconvolute < a> and derive the orientational distribution function f( ?) which has three equivalent maxima/minima at 300 K and loses this 3 ? periodicity at 10 K. f( ?) is the basis for the determination of the hindrance potential with cos( ?) as the leading term.

Schiebel, P.; Prandl, W.; Papoular, R.; Paulus, W.; Detken, A.; Haeberlen, U.; Zimmermann, H.



Relative bioavailability of salicylic acid following dermal application of a 30% salicylic acid skin peel preparation.  


A single-center, single-sequence, two-period crossover study was performed to compare the systemic exposure to salicylic acid (SA) following facial application of a 30% SA cosmetic skin peel formulation applied for 5 min and an oral dose of 650 mg aspirin in nine healthy male and female subjects. The mean (SD) maximum SA concentration (Cmax) was 0.81 (0.32) microg/mL and 56.4 (14.2) microg/mL. The AUC-based safety margin ratio was 50:1. A depot effect was observed during topical application of the skin peel solution as the absorption of SA continued beyond the 5-min application period. Plasma SA Cmax values were achieved from 1.4 to 3.5 h after topical application and from 0.5 to 1.5 h after oral aspirin. The plasma concentrations in the present study (30%; 5 min) were similar to that of a low concentration (2%) applied in a leave-on product to the same body surface area. In conclusion, our results suggest that the use of this SA facial peel should not pose any significant systemic health risks. PMID:17694544

Fung, Wing; Orak, Deborah; Re, Thomas A; Haughey, David B



Salicylic acid activates artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides evidence that salicylic acid (SA) can activate artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. Exogenous application of SA to A. annua leaves was followed by a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the conversion of dihydroartemisinic acid into artemisinin.\\u000a In the 24 h after application, SA application led to a gradual increase in the expression of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl

Gao-Bin Pu; Dong-Ming Ma; Jian-Lin Chen; Lan-Qing Ma; Hong Wang; Guo-Feng Li; He-Chun Ye; Ben-Ye Liu



Hydrogen Peroxide Stimulates Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide induced the accumulation of free benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) in tobacco (Nicotiana fabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaves. Six hours after infiltration with 300 mM H202, the levels of BA and SA in leaves increased 5-fold over the levels detected in control leaves. The accumulation of BA and SA was preceded by the rapid activation of

José León; Michael A. Lawton


Hydrogen bonding of urea-salicylic acid, U·SA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea (U) and salicylic acid (SA) crystallize from aqueous solution as a 1:1 adduct whose structure shows them to be linked via several weak and one strong hydrogen bonds. The ir spectra of the adduct and its deuterated counterpart have been analyzed and the stretching modes of the various hydrogen bonds identified. The1H and13C nmr. spectra are also interpreted to

John Emsley; Naser M. Reza; Reiko Kuroda



Regulation of heat production in the inflorescences of an Arum lily by endogenous salicylic acid  

PubMed Central

We have recently purified calorigen, the natural trigger for heat production in the inflorescences of Sauromatum guttatum Schott (voodoo lily), a thermogenic plant, and identified it as salicylic acid. Since then an analytical assay was developed that allows the quantitation of salicylic acid in plant tissues. This assay was used to demonstrate that on the day preceding the day of blooming the levels of salicylic acid in the thermogenic organs (appendix and lower spadix) of the voodoo lily increased almost 100-fold, reaching a level of 1 ?g/g of fresh weight. The level of salicylic acid in the appendix started to rise in the afternoon and reached its maximum in the late evening, whereas the maximum accumulation of salicylic acid in the lower spadix occurred late at night. The increase in salicylic acid level in the appendix was followed the next morning by a spectacular metabolic burst that lasted for about 7 hr and at its peak increased the appendix temperature by over 12°C. The second, 14-hr-long, thermogenic episode in the lower spadix started late at night and ended on the following morning, after maximum temperature increases of more than 10°C. The concentration of salicylic acid in both thermogenic tissues promptly returned to basal, preblooming levels at the end of the thermogenic periods. The thermogenic response was under strong photoperiodic and developmental control, with salicylic acid eliciting much stronger thermogenic responses in light than in darkness. Similar surges in salicylic acid occurred in nonthermogenic male and female flowers, while the concentration of salicylic acid in the spathe remained consistently below 20 ng/g of fresh weight. Of 33 analogs of salicylic acid tested, only 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) were thermogenic. The activity of 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid exceeded that of salicylic acid.

Raskin, Ilya; Turner, Ivan M.; Melander, Wayne R.



Regulation of heat production in the inflorescences of an Arum lily by endogenous salicylic acid.  


We have recently purified calorigen, the natural trigger for heat production in the inflorescences of Sauromatum guttatum Schott (voodoo lily), a thermogenic plant, and identified it as salicylic acid. Since then an analytical assay was developed that allows the quantitation of salicylic acid in plant tissues. This assay was used to demonstrate that on the day preceding the day of blooming the levels of salicylic acid in the thermogenic organs (appendix and lower spadix) of the voodoo lily increased almost 100-fold, reaching a level of 1 mug/g of fresh weight. The level of salicylic acid in the appendix started to rise in the afternoon and reached its maximum in the late evening, whereas the maximum accumulation of salicylic acid in the lower spadix occurred late at night. The increase in salicylic acid level in the appendix was followed the next morning by a spectacular metabolic burst that lasted for about 7 hr and at its peak increased the appendix temperature by over 12 degrees C. The second, 14-hr-long, thermogenic episode in the lower spadix started late at night and ended on the following morning, after maximum temperature increases of more than 10 degrees C. The concentration of salicylic acid in both thermogenic tissues promptly returned to basal, preblooming levels at the end of the thermogenic periods. The thermogenic response was under strong photoperiodic and developmental control, with salicylic acid eliciting much stronger thermogenic responses in light than in darkness. Similar surges in salicylic acid occurred in nonthermogenic male and female flowers, while the concentration of salicylic acid in the spathe remained consistently below 20 ng/g of fresh weight. Of 33 analogs of salicylic acid tested, only 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) were thermogenic. The activity of 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid exceeded that of salicylic acid. PMID:16594020

Raskin, I; Turner, I M; Melander, W R



Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato.  


We demonstrated that exogenous application of 200 microM salicylic acid through root feeding and foliar spray could induce resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici (Fol) in tomato. Endogenous accumulation of free salicylic acid in tomato roots was detected by HPLC and identification was confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. At 168h of salicylic acid treatment through roots, the endogenous salicylic acid level in the roots increased to 1477ngg(-1) FW which was 10 times higher than control plants. Similarly, the salicylic acid content was 1001ngg(-1) FW at 168h of treatment by foliar spray, which was 8.7 times higher than control plants. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC and peroxidase (POD, EC were 5.9 and 4.7 times higher, respectively than the control plants at 168h of salicylic acid feeding through the roots. The increase in PAL and POD activities was 3.7 and 3.3 times higher, respectively at 168h of salicylic acid treatments through foliar spray than control plants. The salicylic acid-treated tomato plants challenged with Fol exhibited significantly reduced vascular browning and leaf yellowing wilting. The mycelial growth of Fol was not significantly affected by salicylic acid. Significant increase in basal level of salicylic acid in noninoculated plants indicated that tomato root system might have the capacity to assimilate and distribute salicylic acid throughout the plant. The results indicated that the induced resistance observed in tomato against Fol might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance. PMID:19329332

Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mallick, Nirupama; Mitra, Adinpunya



Novel metabolic pathway for salicylate biodegradation via phenol in yeast Trichosporon moniliiforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel metabolic pathway was found in the yeast Trichosporon moniliiforme WU-0401 for salicylate degradation via phenol as the key intermediate. When 20 mM salicylate was used as the sole carbon\\u000a source for the growth of strain WU-0401, phenol was detected as a distinct metabolite in the culture broth. Analysis of the\\u000a products derived from salicylate or phenol through reactions with

Yuichiro Iwasaki; Hiroaki Gunji; Kuniki Kino; Takasumi Hattori; Yoshitaka Ishii; Kohtaro Kirimura



Suppression of Inducible Cyclooxygenase 2 Gene Transcription by Aspirin and Sodium Salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacological action of salicylate cannot be explained by its inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. In this report, the effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate on COX-2 expressions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and foreskin fibroblasts were evaluated. Aspirin and sodium salicylate at therapeutic concentrations equipotently blocked COX-2 mRNA and protein levels induced by interleukin-1beta and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate.

Xiao-Ming Xu; Leticia Sansores-Garcia; Xian-Ming Chen; Nevenka Matijevic-Aleksic; Min Du; Kenneth K. Wu



Salicylate and cocaine: interactive toxicity during chicken mid-embryogenesis.  


Increased free radical production, due to ischemia and reperfusion, has been postulated as a cause of cocaine's (COC) developmental toxicity. Salicylate reacts with hydroxyl free radicals (*OH) to form stable, quantifiable reaction products, which can be measured with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). To determine if chicken embryos' brains and hearts were exposed to increased *OH concentrations after injection of COC, an injection of a nontoxic dose of sodium salicylate (NaSAL, 100 mg/kg egg, or 5 mg/egg), followed by 5 injections of COC (13.5 mg/kg or 0.675 mg/egg, every 1.5 h), was administered to eggs containing embryos on the 12th day of embryogenesis (E12). In addition to finding increased *OH concentrations in E12 embryonic hearts and brains, we observed that the developmental toxicity of COC, manifest as vascular disruption (hemorrhage) and lethality, was enhanced by NaSAL injection. These results confirm and extend results of similar experiments performed upon older embryos (E18), and indicate that increased &z.rad;OH concentration in embryonic tissues after COC exposure and toxic interactions of COC and NaSAL can also occur at an earlier stage of development. The results are discussed in light of possible exposure of human fetuses to both COC and salicylates, since COC-abusing pregnant women can be misdiagnosed with pre-eclampsia and aspirin is used to treat this syndrome. PMID:11163537

Venturini, L; Sparber, S B



An evidence based flowchart to guide the management of acute salicylate (aspirin) overdose  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a flowchart to be used as a tool to guide clinicians step by step through the management of salicylate poisoning. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was carried out. Results: The evidence base was used to develop a management flowchart that guides the clinician through the three main steps in caring for the patient with salicylate poisoning: preventing further absorption, assessing the severity of poisoning and, where appropriate, increasing elimination. Conclusions: Salicylate poisoning can result in severe morbidity and mortality and this flowchart provides an evidence based guideline that will guide clinicians through the management of patients presenting to the emergency department with salicylate poisoning.

Dargan, P; Wallace, C; Jones, A



Common induction and regulation of biphenyl, xylene/toluene, and salicylate catabolism in Pseudomonas paucimobilis.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Pseudomonas paucimobilis (strain Q1) capable of utilizing biphenyl was isolated from soil. This strain grew not only on substituted biphenyls, but also on salicylate, xylene or toluene or both (xylene/toluene), and substituted benzoates. Evidence is presented that the catabolism of biphenyl, xylene/toluene, and salicylate is regulated by a common unit in this strain. The catabolism of biphenyl, xylene/toluene, and salicylate is interrelated, since benzoate and toluate are common metabolic intermediates of biphenyl and xylene/toluene, and salicylate is produced from 2-hydroxybiphenyl (o-phenylphenol). All the oxidative enzymes of the biphenyl, xylene/toluene, and salicylate degradative pathways were induced when the cells were grown on either biphenyl, xylene/toluene or salicylate. The P. paucimobilis Q1 cells showed induction of the meta-cleavage enzymes of both 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl and catechol. Biphenyl-negative derivatives of strain Q1 were simultaneously rendered xylene/toluene and salicylate negative, whereas reversion to the biphenyl-positive character of such derivatives invariably led to a xylene/toluene- and salicylate-positive phenotype. Growth of the P. paucimobilis Q1 cells with benzoate as a sole carbon source allowed the induction of only the ortho pathway enzymes, suggesting that biphenyl, xylene/toluene, or salicylate specifically induced the meta pathway enzymes for the oxidative degradation of these compounds.

Furukawa, K; Simon, J R; Chakrabarty, A M



The sequential exposure to jasmonate, salicylic acid and yeast extract promotes sanguinarine accumulation in Argemone mexicana cell cultures.  


The effects of the sequential application of methyl jasmonate (MeJa), salicylic acid (SA) and yeast extract (YE) to Argemone mexicana cell cultures were compared to either the sole application of each elicitor, or to the three-partite mixture. The highest sanguinarine accumulation occurred using the sequential treatment (ninefold over unexposed control cultures), followed by the single application of YE (fivefold). The elicitor mixture produced less sanguinarine than sole exposure to YE but higher than MeJa alone. SA did not produce any effect. Transcripts corresponding to tyrosine decarboxylase and berberine bridge enzyme accumulated in treated cells, but did not correlate with alkaloid accumulation. Discrete epifluorescence foci, surrounding the nucleus and scattered throughout the cytoplasm of elicited cells, suggested the presence of alkaloid-accumulating vesicles which could participate in a mechanism to avoid sanguinarine toxicity. PMID:22009570

Trujillo-Villanueva, Karen; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; Monforte-González, Miriam; Ramírez-Benítez, Efraín; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe



Vibrational spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, SERS) and quantum chemical calculations on cyclobenzaprinium salicylate.  


FT-IR, FT-Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra of cyclobenzaprinium salicylate were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wavenumbers were examined theoretically using the Gaussian09 set of quantum chemistry codes, and the normal modes were assigned by potential energy distribution calculations. The downshift of the OH stretching frequency is due to strong hydrogen bonded system present in the title compound as given by XRD results. The presence of CH3, CH2 and CO2 modes in the SERS spectrum indicates the nearness of the methyl group to the metal surface which affects the orientation and metal molecule interaction. The presence of phenyl ring modes in the SERS spectrum indicates a tilted orientation with respect to the metal surface. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with XRD results. A computation of the first hyperpolarizability indicates that the compound may be a good candidate as a NLO material. PMID:24200648

Mary, Y Shyma; Jojo, P J; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Kaur, Manpreet; Siddegowda, M S; Yathirajan, H S; Nogueira, Helena I S; Cruz, Sandra M A



Methyl chloroform  

SciTech Connect

Methyl chloroform is identified as a Class 1 ozone-depleting substance under Title VI of the CAA Amendments. On Nov. 30, 1993, EPA ordered the phaseout of Class 1 ozone-depleting substances -- chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform -- by Jan. 1, 1996. Methyl chloroform and other Class 1 substances may be used after the dead-line if sources can be found through recycling or existing inventories. Methyl chloroform is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under CAA. It also is a SARA Title III, Sec. 313 compound with a reportable quantity of 1,000 pounds. OSHA and the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists have set 350 ppm as the time-weighted average airborne exposure level for methyl chloroform. NIOSH lists its immediately dangerous to life or health'' concentration as 1,000 parts per million. DOT identifies the substance as a hazardous material, Class 6.1 (poison).

Wray, T.K.




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In the present investigation we studied the role of salicylic acid in cadmium induced physiological and biochemical changes and the pos- sible induction of oxidative stress in developing rice roots. 24h cadmium treatment resulted in the inhibition of root dry biomass, root elongation and increased cadmium accumulation in roots. Salicylic acid presoaking for 16hrs resulted in protection against cadmium,

Shuvasish Choudhury; Sanjib Kumar Panda


Regulation of Heat Production in the Inflorescences of an Arum Lily by Endogenous Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently purified calorigen, the natural trigger for heat production in the inflorescences of Sauromatum guttatum Schott (voodoo lily), a thermogenic plant, and identified it as salicylic acid. Since then an analytical assay was developed that allows the quantitation of salicylic acid in plant tissues. This assay was used to demonstrate that on the day preceding the day of

Ilya Raskin; Ivan M. Turner; Wayne R. Melander



Loudness perception affected by high doses of salicylate-A behavioral model of hyperacusis.  


The major side-effects of high doses of salicylate include sensorial hearing loss and tinnitus. Although salicylate decreases cochlear output, it enhances the evoked potentials recorded from the central auditory system (CAS), suggesting an increase to sound sensitivity. However, the loudness change after salicylate administration has not yet been directly measured. In this study, we established an operant conditioning based behavioral task in rats and measured their loudness perception changes before and after high doses of salicylate injection (250mg/kg, i.p.). We found that high doses of salicylate induced a significant increase to loudness response in 40% of the rats (out of 20 rats), suggesting a hyperacusis behavior. In another 40% of rats, a rapid increase of loudness response was detected, suggesting loudness recruitment. The reaction time of the rats was also measured during the loudness tests before and after salicylate exposure. The reaction time level functions are highly correlated to the loudness response functions. Our studies confirmed that increased sound sensitivity, which is commonly seen in patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis, can be induced by high doses of salicylate. This loudness change induced by salicylate may be related with hypersensitivity in the CAS. PMID:24882611

Zhang, Chao; Flowers, Elizabeth; Li, Jun-Xu; Wang, Qiuju; Sun, Wei



A rapid biosensor-based method for quantification of free and glucose-conjugated salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signalling molecule in plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. It is also involved in several other processes such as heat production, flowering, and germination. SA exists in the plant as free SA and as an inert glucose conjugate (salicylic acid 2-O-?-D-glucoside or SAG). Recently, Huang et al. developed a bacterial biosensor that responds to

Christopher T DeFraia; Eric A Schmelz; Zhonglin Mou



Dermal and underlying tissue pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid after topical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time course of salicylic acid at a dermal application site and in local underlying tissues below the site in rats was examined using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model assuming first-order diffusional mass transfer between the dermis and underlying tissues. The concentrations of salicylic acid in tissues below the applied site were measured and compared with plasma concentrations and concentrations

Parminder Singh I; Michael S. Roberts



The ancient drug salicylate directly activates AMP-activated protein kinase  

PubMed Central

Salicylate, a plant product, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. More recently it has been replaced by synthetic derivatives such as aspirin and salsalate, both rapidly broken down to salicylate in vivo. At concentrations reached in plasma following administration of salsalate, or aspirin at high doses, salicylate activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Salicylate binds at the same site as the synthetic activator, A-769662, to cause allosteric activation and inhibition of dephosphorylation of the activating phosphorylation site, Thr172. In AMPK knockout mice, effects of salicylate to increase fat utilization and lower plasma fatty acids in vivo were lost. Our results suggest that AMPK activation could explain some beneficial effects of salsalate and aspirin in humans.

Hawley, Simon A.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Ross, Fiona A.; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Chevtzoff, Cyrille; Walker, Katherine J.; Peggie, Mark W.; Zibrova, Darya; Green, Kevin A.; Mustard, Kirsty J.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Sakamoto, Kei; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Hardie, D. Grahame



Highly luminescent and color-tunable salicylate ionic liquids.  


High quantum yields of up to 40.5% can be achieved in salicylate-bearing ionic liquids. A range of these ionic liquids have been synthesized and their photoluminescent properties studied in detail. The differences noted can be related back to the structure of the ionic liquid cation and possible interionic interactions. It is found that shifts of emission, particularly in the pyridinium-based ionic liquids, can be related to cation-anion pairing interactions. Facile and controlled emission color mixing is demonstrated through combining different ILs, with emission colors ranging from blue to yellow. PMID:24615781

Campbell, Paul S; Yang, Mei; Pitz, Demian; Cybinska, Joanna; Mudring, Anja-Verena



Quantitative Vapor-Phase FTIR Spectra of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate and Methyl Salicylate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of initial tests under Contract No. DAAM01-97-D-0015, Task Order No. 0022. The scope of work was to provide preliminary validation of a system for generating quantitative vapor-phase Fourier transform infrared spectra of...

B. R. Williams D. E. Tevault L. C. Buettner




EPA Science Inventory

Substances known or suspected to cause subtle or transient anatomical alterations in renal development were administered prenatally or neonatally to rats in order to determine whether they are capable of altering renal functional development. olchicine alters mitotic activity and...


Simultaneous determination of the UV-filters benzyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octyl salicylate, homosalate, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor and 3-benzylidene camphor in human placental tissue by LC-MS/MS. Assessment of their in vitro endocrine activity.  


UV-filters are widely used in many personal care products and cosmetics. Recent studies indicate that some organic UV-filters can accumulate in biota and act as endocrine disruptors, but there are few studies on the occurrence and fate of these compounds in humans. In the present work, a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to assess the presence of six UV-filters in current use (benzyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octyl salicylate, homosalate, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, and 3-benzylidene camphor) in human placental tissue is proposed. The method involves the extraction of the analytes from the samples using ethyl acetate, followed by a clean-up step using centrifugation prior to their quantification by LC-MS/MS using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface. Bisphenol A-d16 was used as surrogate for the determination of benzyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octyl salicylate and homosalate in negative mode and benzophenone-d10, was used as surrogate for the determination of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor and 3-benzylidene camphor in positive mode. The found limits of detection ranged from 0.4 to 0.6ngg(-1) and the limits of quantification ranged from 1.3 to 2.0ngg(-1), while variability was under 13.7%. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 97% to 104%. Moreover, the interactions of these compounds with the human estrogen receptor alpha (hER?) and androgen receptor (hAR), using two in vitro bioassays based on reporter gene expression and cell proliferation assessment, were also investigated. All tested compounds, except benzyl salicylate and octyl salicylate, showed estrogenic activity in the E-Screen bioassay whereas only homosalate and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor were potent hAR antagonists. Although free salicylate derivatives and free camphor derivatives were not detected in the human placenta samples analyzed, the observed estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of some of these compounds support the analysis of their occurrence and their role as endocrine disrupters in humans. PMID:24004914

Jiménez-Díaz, I; Molina-Molina, J M; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Real, M; Sáenz, J M; Fernández, M F; Olea, N



Paper-based electroanalytical devices for in situ determination of salicylic acid in living tomato leaves.  


Detection of phytohormones in situ has gained significant attention due to their critical roles in regulating developmental processes and signaling for defenses in plants at low concentration. As one type of plant hormones, salicylic acid has recently been found to be one of pivotal signal molecules for physiological behaviors of plants. Here we report the application of paper-based electroanalytical devices for sensitively in situ detection of salicylic acid in tomato leaves with the sample volume of several microliters. Specifically, disposable working electrodes were fabricated by coating carbon tape with the mixture of multiwall carbon nanotubes and nafion. We observed that the treatment of the modified carbon tape electrodes with oxygen plasma could significantly improve electrochemical responses of salicylic acid. The tomato leaves had a punched hole of 1.5mm diameter to release salicylic acid with minor influence on continuous growth of tomatoes. By incorporating the tomato leaf with the paper-based analytical device, we were able to perform in situ determination of salicylic acid based on its electrocatalytic oxidation. Our experimental results demonstrated that the amounts of salicylic acid differed statistically in normal, phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene silent and diseased (infected by Botrytis cinerea) tomato leaves. By quantifying salicylic acid at the level of several nanograms in situ, the simple paper-based electroanalytical devices could potentially facilitate the study of defense mechanism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. This study might also provide a sensitive method with spatiotemporal resolution for mapping of chemicals released from living organisms. PMID:24794407

Sun, Li-Jun; Feng, Qiu-Mei; Yan, Yong-Feng; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Li, Xiao-Hui; Song, Feng-Ming; Yang, Haibing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying



Development of novel bepotastine salicylate salt bioequivalent to the commercial bepotastine besilate in beagle dogs.  


To develop a novel salt form of bepotastine with bioequivalent to the commericial bepostastine besilate, bepostastine salicylate was prepared and its physicochemical properties were investigated. Furthermore, the bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet was prepared by the wet granulation method, and the dissolution and bioavailability in beagle dogs were evaluated compared to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product. Bepotastine salicylate improved the solubility of bepotastine, and the extent of solubility improvement by salicylate form was similar to that by besilate form. However, this novel salt exhibited negligible hygroscopicity similar to besilate form, and showed slightly higher melting point than besilate form. It was stable in various pH solutions. Furthermore, the bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet composed of bepotastine salicylate, microcrystalline cellulose, D-mannitol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate and sodium stearyl fumarate at the weight ratio of 9.63/60.97/38/3.6/6/1.8 showed similar dissolution to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product in water, pH 1.2, pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 and was bioequivalent to the commercial product in beagle dogs. Thus, this bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet would be a promising candidate with bioequivalence to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product. PMID:22963365

Cho, Kwan Hyung; Choi, Han-Gon



Salicylic acid and salicylic acid sensitive and insensitive catalases in different genotypes of chickpea against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.  


Differential expression of catalase isozymes in different genotypes of chickpea resistant genotypes- A1, JG-315, JG-11, WR-315, R1-315, Vijaya, ICCV-15017, GBS-964, GBM-10, and susceptible genotypes- JG-62, MNK, ICCV-08321, ICCV-08311, KW-104, ICCV-08123, ICC-4951, ICC-11322, ICC-08116 for wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. ciceri (Foc) was analyzed. Salicylic acid (SA) and H2O2 concentrations were determined in control as well as in plants infected with F. ciceri and found that the high and low levels of salicylic acid and H2O2 in resistant and susceptible genotypes of chickpea respectively. Catalase isozyme activities were detected in the gel and found that no induction of new catalases was observed in all the resistant genotypes and their some of the native catalase isozymes were inhibited; whereas, induction of multiple catalase isozymes was observed in all the screened susceptible genotypes and their activities were not inhibited upon Foc or SA treatments. The above results support the possible role of these isozymes as a marker to identify which genotype of chickpea is expressing systemic acquired resistance. PMID:24431522

Gayatridevi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K



Salicylate, a catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II, inhibits DNA cleavage and is selective for the ? isoform.  


Topoisomerase II (topo II) is a ubiquitous enzyme that is essential for cell survival through its role in regulating DNA topology and chromatid separation. Topo II can be poisoned by common chemotherapeutics (such as doxorubicin and etoposide), leading to the accumulation of cytotoxic enzyme-linked DNA double-stranded breaks. In contrast, nonbreak-inducing topo II catalytic inhibitors have also been described and have more limited use in clinical chemotherapy. These agents, however, may alter the efficacy of regimens incorporating topo II poisons. We previously identified salicylate, the primary metabolite of aspirin, as a novel catalytic inhibitor of topo II. We have now determined the mechanism by which salicylate inhibits topo II. As catalytic inhibitors can act at a number of steps in the topo II catalytic cycle, we used multiple independent, biochemical approaches to interrogate the catalytic cycle. Furthermore, as mammalian cells express two isoforms of topo II (? and ?), we examined whether salicylate was isoform selective. Our results demonstrate that salicylate is unable to intercalate DNA, and does not prevent enzyme-DNA interaction, nor does it promote stabilization of topo II? in closed clamps on DNA. Although salicylate decreased topo II? ATPase activity in a dose-dependent noncompetitive manner, this was secondary to salicylate-mediated inhibition of DNA cleavage. Surprisingly, comparison of salicylate's effects using purified human topo II? and topo II? revealed that salicylate selectively inhibits the ? isoform. These findings provide a definitive mechanism for salicylate-mediated inhibition of topo II? and provide support for further studies determining the basis for its isoform selectivity. PMID:24220011

Bau, Jason T; Kang, Zhili; Austin, Caroline A; Kurz, Ebba U



Role of Hydrophobic Effect on the Noncovalent Interactions Between Salicylic Acid and a Series of beta-Cyclodextrins.  


The molecular complexation of salicylic acid (o-hydroxybenzoic acid) by beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and/or two of its most used derivatives, 2,6-di-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), was studied from pH potentiometric measurements. The role of the hydrophobic effect was evaluated by studying the influence of the presence of different constant amounts of a series of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol) on the CD:guest interaction at 25 degrees C. The study was carried out by measuring the pH of the hydroalcoholic solutions of the guest, whose concentration is kept constant, as a function of cyclodextrin concentration. The dissociation constant of salicylic acid and the binding constants of the inclusion complexes formed by the CD and both the nonionized (HSA) and ionized (SA-) forms of the guest were simultaneously determined at all alcohol concentrations by using a model previously derived by us. The carboxylic forms were found to bind the CD with higher affinities than the carboxylate partners, irrespective of the polarity of the medium and the cyclodextrin used. The ratio KCD:HSA/KCD:SA- is a constant value characteristic of the cyclodextrin, which points to the hydrophobic effect as one of the main forces involved in the association. A clear influence of the solvent polarity on the affinity of binding was found, in the sense that, as long as the medium becomes more apolar, the interaction between the drug and the cyclodextrin is weakened. A phenomenological limit association curve is proposed to define the limiting conditions for association in the presence of an alcohol as a cosolvent. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10395773

Junquera; Ruiz; Aicart



Pharmacokinetic and In Vivo Efficacy Studies of the Mycobactin Biosynthesis Inhibitor Salicyl-AMS in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis facilitates iron acquisition, which is required for growth and virulence. The mycobactin biosynthesis inhibitor salicyl-AMS [5?-O-(N-salicylsulfamoyl)adenosine] inhibits M. tuberculosis growth in vitro under iron-limited conditions. Here, we conducted a single-dose pharmacokinetic study and a monotherapy study of salicyl-AMS with mice. Intraperitoneal injection yielded much better pharmacokinetic parameter values than oral administration did. Monotherapy of salicyl-AMS at 5.6 or 16.7 mg/kg significantly inhibited M. tuberculosis growth in the mouse lung, providing the first in vivo proof of concept for this novel antibacterial strategy.

Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Adamson, John; Cisar, Justin S.; Davis, Tony D.; Chavadi, Sivagami Sundaram; Warren, J. David



Modification of diffusion rates of benzocaine from topical vehicles using sodium salicylate as complexing agent.  


The release of benzocaine from various topical vehicles containing benzocaine, alone and in the presence of a complexing agent, sodium salicylate, was measured at 37 degrees using dialysis through a cellulose membrane. Sodium salicylate had a marked effect on the release of benzocaine, depending upon the the type of vehicle, with the largest increase observed for the water-miscible base, polyethylene glycol (macrogol ointment BPC). The amount of drug released from preparations containing 1% (w/w) and 2% (w/w) benzocaine in this vehicle depended upon the sodium salicylate concentration. Results are discussed in terms of the differing physical properties of the complexes formed. PMID:1271245

York, P; Saleh, A A



Salicylate-induced pulmonary edema--a near-miss diagnosis.  


A 43-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with confusion, agitation, and progressive dyspnea. Chest x-ray revealed pulmonary edema. Initial diagnostic considerations were pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, central nervous system infection, substance toxicity, and heart failure. Her salicylate level was 92.6 mg/dL, and an arterial blood gas revealed a respiratory alkalosis and nonanion gap metabolic acidosis, consistent with salicylate poisoning. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is an atypical presentation of salicylate toxicity, and this case highlights the importance of an early toxicology screen to make a time-critical diagnosis and provide specific treatment. PMID:24361138

Yuklyaeva, Nataliya; Chaudhary, Ahmad; Gorantla, Ramakrishna; Bischof, Edward



Salicylate 5-Hydroxylase from Ralstonia sp. Strain U2: a Monooxygenase with Close Relationships to and Shared Electron Transport Proteins with Naphthalene Dioxygenase  

PubMed Central

The genes from the oxygenase cluster nagAaGHAbAcAd of naphthalene-degrading Ralstonia sp. strain U2 were cloned and overexpressed. Salicylate 5-hydroxylase (S5H) activity, converting salicylate to gentisate, was present in vitro only in the single extract of cells with overexpressed nagAaGHAb or in a mixture of three cell extracts containing, respectively, NagGH (the oxygenase components), NagAa (ferredoxin reductase), and NagAb (ferredoxin). Each of the three extracts required for S5H activity was rate limiting in the presence of excess of the others but, when in excess, did not affect the rate of catalysis. S5H catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of the aromatic rings of 3- and 4-substituted salicylates. However, the methyl group of 5-methylsalicylate was hydroxylated to produce the 5-hydroxymethyl derivative and the 6-position on the ring of 5-chlorosalicylate was hydroxylated, producing 5-chloro-2,6-dihydroxybenzoate. In an assay for the nag naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) based on the indole-linked oxidation of NADH, three extracts were essential for activity (NagAcAd, NagAa, and NagAb). NDO and S5H were assayed in the presence of all possible combinations of the nag proteins and the corresponding nah NDO proteins from the “classical” naphthalene degrader P. putida NCIMB9816. All three oxygenase components functioned with mixed combinations of the electron transport proteins from either strain. The S5H from strain U2 is a unique monooxygenase which shares sequence similarity with dioxygenases such as NDO but is also sufficiently similar in structure to interact with the same electron transport chain and probably does so in vivo during naphthalene catabolism in strain U2.

Zhou, Ning-Yi; Al-Dulayymi, Jumaa; Baird, Mark S.; Williams, Peter A.



Salicylic Acid: a natural inducer of heat production in arum lilies.  


For more than 50 years the identity of "calorigen," the agent that triggers pronounced heat production in the flowers and inflorescences of some thermogenic plants, remained obscure. Mass spectroscopic analysis of highly purified calorigen extracted from the male flowers of Sauromatum guttatum Schott (voodoo lily) revealed the presence of 2-hydroxybenzoic (salicylic) acid. Application of salicylic acid at 0.13 microgram per gram (fresh weight) to sections of the upper part of the plant's immature spadix, known as the appendix, led to temperature increases of as much as 12 Celsius degrees. These increases duplicated, in both magnitude and timing, the temperature increases produced by the crude calorigen extract. The sensitivity of appendix tissue to salicylic acid increases daily with the approach of anthesis and is controlled by the photoperiod. Thus, at least in some Arum lilies, salicylic acid functions as an endogenous regulator of heat production. PMID:17834449

Raskin, I; Ehmann, A; Melander, W R; Meeuse, B J



Ingestion of chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) reduces salicylate bioavailability after oral asprin administration in the rat.  


The bioavailabilities of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and of salicylic acid were studied in male Wistar rats after acute and chronic administration of a Capsicum annuum extract, containing 100 mg of capsaicin per gram. With a single administration of 100 mg/kg of the extract, aspirin blood levels remained unchanged, but salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 44% compared with control animals. With a single administration of 300 mg/kg of the extract, aspirin blood levels were undetectable while salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 59%. Chronic administration once daily for 4 weeks of 100 and 300 mg/kg of the extract resulted in undetectable aspirin blood levels, while salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 63 and 76%, respectively, compared with controls. Results show that Capsicum ingestion reduces oral drug bioavailability, likely as a result of the gastrointestinal effects of capsaicin. PMID:10537230

Cruz, L; Castañeda-Hernández, G; Navarrete, A



Salicylate-induced degeneration of cochlea spiral ganglion neurons-apoptosis signaling  

PubMed Central

Aspirin, whose active ingredient is sodium salicylate, is the most widely used drugs worldwide, but it is not recommend for children because it may causes Reye’s syndrome. High doses of salicylate also induce temporary hearing loss and tinnitus; while these disorders are believed to disappear when treatment is discontinued some data suggest that prolonged treatment may be neurotoxic. To investigate its ototoxicity, immature, postnatal day 3 rat cochlear organotypic cultures were treated with salicylate. Salicylate did not damage the sensory hair cells, but instead damaged the spiral ganglion neurons and their peripheral fibers in a dose-dependent manner. The cross sectional area of spiral ganglion neurons decreased from 205 ?m2 in controls to 143, 116 and 91 ?m2 in cultures treated with 1, 3 or 5 mM salicylate respectively. Morphological changes and caspase upregulation were indicative of caspase-mediated apoptosis. A quantitative RT-PCR apoptosis array identified a subset of genes up or down regulated by salicylate. Eight genes showed a biologically relevant change (P < 0.05, ? 2 fold change) after 3 h treatment with salicylate; 7 genes (Tp53, Birc3, Tnfrsf5, Casp7, Nfkb1, Fas, Lta, Tnfsf10) were upregulated and 1 gene (Pycard) was downregulated. After 6 h treatment, only 1 gene (Nol3) was upregulated and 2 genes were downregulated (Cideb and Lhx4) while after 12 h treatment, 2 genes (Il10, Gadd45a) were upregulated and 4 (Prok2, Card10, Ltbr, Dapk1) were downregulated. High doses of salicylate in a physiologically relevant range can induce caspase-mediated cell death in immature spiral ganglion neurons; changes in the expression of apoptotic genes particularly among members of the TNF family appear to play an important role in the degeneration.

Wei, Lei; Ding, Dalian; Salvi, Richard



Salicylate impacts the physiological responses to an acute handling disturbance in rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

While salicylates (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) have been detected in the aquatic environment, few studies have focused on the mechanism of action of these pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms. We reported previously that salicylate disrupted the acute trophic hormone-stimulated corticosteroidogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interrenal tissue in vitro. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this drug will inhibit the adaptive plasma

Amélie Gravel; Mathilakath M. Vijayan



FT-Raman, FT-IR and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra of sodium salicylate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of sodium salicylate were recorded and analysed. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum was recorded is silver colloid. Comparisons of the SERS spectrum with the spectra in solution and of the solid sample are made. Sodium salicylate (an O donor ligand) is thought to adsorb in a somewhat 'tilted side on orientation' with respect to the silver surface.

Philip, Daizy; John, Annamma; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa



FT-Raman, FT-IR and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra of sodium salicylate.  


FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of sodium salicylate were recorded and analysed. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum was recorded is silver colloid. Comparisons of the SERS spectrum with the spectra in solution and of the solid sample are made. Sodium salicylate (an O donor ligand) is thought to adsorb in a somewhat 'tilted side on orientation' with respect to the silver surface. PMID:11471708

Philip, D; John, A; Panicker, C Y; Varghese, H T



A Novel Amperometric Sensor for Salicylic Acid Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Modified Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel electrochemical MIP-sensor for salicylic acid (SA) has been synthesized firstly by electropolymerizing o-phenylenediamine on glassy carbon electrode in presence of template molecule (salicylic acid). The response of the sensor to SA is investigated by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The linearity is obtained over a concentration range of 6 × 10 ? 1 × 10 mol\\/L (R = 0.9961). And the detection limit of SA is about 2 × 10 mol\\/L.

Jingwan Kang; Huini Zhang; Zhihua Wang; Guofan Wu; Xiaoquan Lu



A new pharmacological effect of salicylates: inhibition of NFAT-dependent transcription.  


The anti-inflammatory effects of salicylates, originally attributed to inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, are currently known to involve additional mechanisms. In this study we investigated the possible modulation by salicylates of NFAT-mediated transcription in lymphocytic and monocytic cell lines. RNase protection assays showed that 2-acetoxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (triflusal) inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, mRNA expression of several cytokine genes, most of which are NFAT-regulated and cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive. In Jurkat cells, the expression of IL-3, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-2, lymphotactin, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta was inhibited to different extents. In THP-1 cells, inhibition of the expression of M-CSF, G-CSF, stem cell factor, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, lymphotoxin-beta1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and IL-8 was observed. Sodium salicylate and aspirin only showed significant effects at 5 mM. The transcriptional activity of two genes that contain NFAT sites, a GM-CSF full promoter and a T cell-specific enhancer from the IL-3 locus, was also inhibited by salicylates. Transactivation experiments performed with several NFAT-dependent and AP-1-dependent reporter genes showed that triflusal strongly inhibited NFAT-dependent transcription at concentrations as low as 0.25 mM. Sodium salicylate and aspirin were less potent. The triflusal inhibitory effect was reversible and synergized with suboptimal doses of CsA. Experiments to address the mechanism of action of salicylates in the NFAT activation cascade disclosed a mechanism different from that of CsA, because salicylates inhibited DNA-binding and NFAT-mediated transactivation without affecting phosphorylation or subcellular localization of NFAT. In summary, these data describe a new pharmacological effect of salicylates as inhibitors of NFAT-dependent transcription. PMID:15494524

Aceves, Mónica; Dueñas, Ana; Gómez, Cristina; San Vicente, Edurne; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez; García-Rodríguez, Carmen



Solid-state 17O NMR of pharmaceutical compounds: salicylic acid and aspirin.  


We report solid-state NMR characterization of the (17)O quadrupole coupling (QC) and chemical shift (CS) tensors in five site-specifically (17)O-labeled samples of salicylic acid and o-acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin). High-quality (17)O NMR spectra were obtained for these important pharmaceutical compounds under both static and magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions at two magnetic fields, 14.0 and 21.1 T. A total of 14 (17)O QC and CS tensors were experimentally determined for the seven oxygen sites in salicylic acid and Aspirin. Although both salicylic acid and Aspirin form hydrogen bonded cyclic dimers in the solid state, we found that the potential curves for the concerted double proton transfer in these two compounds are significantly different. In particular, while the double-well potential curve in Aspirin is nearly symmetrical, it is highly asymmetrical in salicylic acid. This difference results in quite different temperature dependencies in (17)O MAS spectra of the two compounds. A careful analysis of variable-temperature (17)O MAS NMR spectra of Aspirin allowed us to obtain the energy asymmetry (?E) of the double-well potential, ?E = 3.0 ± 0.5 kJ/mol. We were also able to determine a lower limit of ?E for salicylic acid, ?E > 10 kJ/mol. These asymmetrical features in potential energy curves were confirmed by plane-wave DFT computations, which yielded ?E = 3.7 and 17.8 kJ/mol for Aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively. To complement the solid-state (17)O NMR data, we also obtained solid-state (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra for salicylic acid and Aspirin. Using experimental NMR parameters obtained for all magnetic nuclei present in salicylic acid and Aspirin, we found that plane-wave DFT computations can produce highly accurate NMR parameters in well-defined crystalline organic compounds. PMID:23879687

Kong, Xianqi; Shan, Melissa; Terskikh, Victor; Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong; Wu, Gang



Automated Determination of Ammonia in Natural Freshwaters Using Salicylate-Hexacyanoferrate-Dichloroisocyanurate System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated method for the determination of ammonia in natural freshwaters was developed with the use of salicylate-hexacyanoferrate-dichloroisocyanurate system. Sodium salicylate is easy to handle and does not produce o-chlorophenol. The use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate as a chlorine donater excludes frequent standarization of chlorine content in sodium hypochlorite solution. Sensitivity in the present method is comparable with that in manual

A. Otsuki; K. Sekiguchi



Phase formation in sodium dodecylsulfate solutions in the presence of salicylic acid for preconcentration purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of surfactant-rich phases in aqueous sodium dodecylsulfate solutions in the presence of salicylic acid was\\u000a investigated. The effect of acidity, electrolyte and salicylic acid concentrations on the parameters of phase formation were\\u000a studied. Optimal conditions for microcomponent preconcentration were found. The features of solubilization efficiency changes\\u000a of organic substances depending on their charge and hydrophobicity were established. High

Viktoriia S. Starova; Sergey A. Kulichenko



Reactions of complex compounds of cobalt, part XI. Mechanism of the oxidative degradation of coordinated salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Specifically labelled [1-13C ]salicylic acid has been made by a logical route involving the thermolysis of basic copper(II) benzoates, and the position of labelling established from the spin-spin coupling pattern of the product, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, of isomerisation. The results reinforce findings on the origin of the carbon atoms of chelated oxalate derived from chelated salicylate.

Luis F. Vitas Boas; Robert D. Gillard; Paul R. Mitchell



Benzoic Acid 2Hydroxylase, a Soluble Oxygenase from Tobacco, Catalyzes Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H) catalyzes the biosynthesis of salicylic acid from benzoic acid. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized as a soluble protein of 160 kDa. High-efficiency in vivo labeling of salicylic acid with ^18O_2 suggested that BA2H is an oxygenase that specifically hydroxylates the ortho position of benzoic acid. The enzyme was strongly induced by either tobacco

Jose Leon; Vladimir Shulaev; Nasser Yalpani; Michael A. Lawton; Ilya Raskin



fullRecord:"self methylate" "self methylated" "self methylates" "self methylating" "self methylation" sulfomethylate sulfomethylated sulfomethylates sulfomethylating sulfomethylation phthalocyaninato phthalocyanine phthalocyanines tetrabenzoporphyrazine  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: fullRecord:"self methylate" "self methylated" "self methylates" "self methylating" "self methylation" sulfomethylate sulfomethylated sulfomethylates sulfomethylating sulfomethylation phthalocyaninato phthalocyanine phthalocyanines tetrabenzoporphyrazine ?


Equilibrium studies on chromium(III) complexes of salicylic acid and salicylic acid derivatives in aqueous solution.  


The complexes of chromium(III) ion formed by salicylic acid, SA(H(2)L), and its derivatives (H(2)L): 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA), 5-sulphosalicylic acid (5-SSA) were investigated by means of potentiometry and spectroscopy, at 25 degrees C and in ionic strength of 0.1 M KNO(3) and 0.1 M KCl, respectively. Over the acidic pH range, the coordination of Cr(III) ion to SA and its derivatives in 1 : 1 mole ratio occurs, CrL(+) type complex is formed. In the excess of ligand, the coordination of the second ligand molecule is somewhat hindered; as a result CrL(HL) type complex occurs. Their existences were verified and their formation constants were determined. At near neutral pH, CrL(OH) and CrL(HL)(OH)(-) type hydroxo complexes formed by hydrolytic equilibria and their formation constants were also defined. The stabilities of Cr(III) complexes of SA and its derivatives decrease in the following order: SA>5-SSA>5-NSA. The formation constants of Cr(III) complexes of SA and its derivatives are in comparable ranges with the corresponding complexes of the 2,x-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,x-DHBA) of Cr(III) ion. The stabilities of SA complexes for V(IV), Cr(III) and Fe(III) ions that have similar ionic radii, increase in the order VOLsalicylate ion is four orders of magnitude higher than to transferin, which is a blood serum protein and is associated with insulin action. PMID:15516746

Aksoy, Mehmet Suat; Ozer, Ulviye



Salicylic acid-releasing polyurethane acrylate polymers as anti-biofilm urological catheter coatings.  


Biofilm-associated infections are a major complication of implanted and indwelling medical devices like urological and venous catheters. They commonly persist even in the presence of an oral or intravenous antibiotic regimen, often resulting in chronic illness. We have developed a new approach to inhibiting biofilm growth on synthetic materials through controlled release of salicylic acid from a polymeric coating. Herein we report the synthesis and testing of a ultraviolet-cured polyurethane acrylate polymer composed, in part, of salicyl acrylate, which hydrolyzes upon exposure to aqueous conditions, releasing salicylic acid while leaving the polymer backbone intact. The salicylic acid release rate was tuned by adjusting the polymer composition. Anti-biofilm performance of the coatings was assessed under several biofilm forming conditions using a novel combination of the MBEC Assay™ biofilm multi-peg growth system and bioluminescence monitoring for live cell quantification. Films of the salicylic acid-releasing polymers were found to inhibit biofilm formation, as shown by bioluminescent and GFP reporter strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Urinary catheters coated on their inner lumens with the salicylic acid-releasing polymer significantly reduced biofilm formation by E. coli for up to 5 days under conditions that simulated physiological urine flow. PMID:22342353

Nowatzki, Paul J; Koepsel, Richard R; Stoodley, Paul; Min, Ke; Harper, Alan; Murata, Hironobu; Donfack, Joseph; Hortelano, Edwin R; Ehrlich, Garth D; Russell, Alan J



Effects of salicylates on evoked otoacoustic emissions and remote masking in humans.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate, in young volunteer subjects, the effects of salicylates on evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs), which presumably reflect an active mechanical process in the cochlea due to outer hair cell (OHC) activity, and on remote masking (RM), which has been proposed as a useful tool in the study of the non-linear cochlear distortion products generated by high-frequency maskers. Data from the present research are consistent with the literature showing a reversible effect of salicylate leading to elevated hearing thresholds and reduced EOAE amplitudes. From the point of view of new findings, the results demonstrate a reversible effect of salicylates on RM magnitude, which decreases as serum salicylate concentration increases. As described previously by other authors, salicylate selectivity inhibits OHC motility and, in consequence, reduces the amplitude of the motion of the basilar membrane. According to these data it is very likely that the observed reduction in RM magnitude after salicylate administration is also the result of the decreased ability of the OHCs to contract and of the reduced basilar membrane motion. The results are consistent with the conclusion that the OHC system function plays a role in producing RM. PMID:10437688

Quaranta, A; Portalatini, P; Camporeale, M; Sallustio, V



Salicylates Inhibit Flavivirus Replication Independently of Blocking Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation  

PubMed Central

Flaviviruses comprise a positive-sense RNA genome that replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Whether flaviviruses require an activated nuclear factor(s) to complete their life cycle and trigger apoptosis in infected cells remains elusive. Flavivirus infections quickly activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), and salicylates have been shown to inhibit NF-?B activation. In this study, we investigated whether salicylates suppress flavivirus replication and virus-induced apoptosis in cultured cells. In a dose-dependent inhibition, we found salicylates within a range of 1 to 5 mM not only restricted flavivirus replication but also abrogated flavivirus-triggered apoptosis. However, flavivirus replication was not affected by a specific NF-?B peptide inhibitor, SN50, and a proteosome inhibitor, lactacystin. Flaviviruses also replicated and triggered apoptosis in cells stably expressing I?B?-?N, a dominant-negative mutant that antagonizes NF-?B activation, as readily as in wild-type BHK-21 cells, suggesting that NF-?B activation is not essential for either flavivirus replication or flavivirus-induced apoptosis. Salicylates still diminished flavivirus replication and blocked apoptosis in the same I?B?-?N cells. This inhibition of flaviviruses by salicylates could be partially reversed by a specific p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Together, these results show that the mechanism by which salicylates suppress flavivirus infection may involve p38 MAP kinase activity but is independent of blocking the NF-?B pathway.

Liao, Ching-Len; Lin, Yi-Ling; Wu, Bi-Ching; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Chiu-I; Huang, Yue-Ling; Chen, Jui-Hui; Wang, Jia-Pey; Chen, Li-Kuang



Renal accumulation of salicylate and phenacetin: possible mechanisms in the nephropathy of analgesic abuse  

PubMed Central

Since either aspirin or phenacetin might be causative in the nephropathy of analgesic abuse, studies were designed to examine the renal accumulation and distribution of the major metabolic products of these compounds, salicylate and N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP) respectively, in dogs. Nineteen hydropenic animals were studied, of which seven were given phenacetin, nine received acetyl salicylic acid, two were given both aspirin and phenacetin, and one received APAP directly. Two of three hydrated animals were given phenacetin and one was given aspirin. During peak blood levels of salicylate and (or) APAP, the kidneys were rapidly removed, frozen, sliced from cortex to papillary tip, and analyzed for water, urea, APAP, and salicylate. No renal medullary gradient for salicylate was demonstrable during both hydropenic and hydrated states. In contrast, both free and conjugated APAP concentrations rose sharply in the inner medulla during hydropenia, reaching a mean maximal value at the papillary tip exceeding 10 times the cortical concentration (P < 0.001), a distribution similar to that of urea. Salicylate had no effect on the APAP gradient, but hydration markedly reduced both the APAP and urea gradients in the medulla. The data indicate that APAP probably shares the same renal mechanisms of transport and accumulation as urea and acetamide, and that papillary necrosis from excessive phenacetin may be related to high papillary concentration of APAP.

Bluemle, Lewis W.; Goldberg, Martin



In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of computer-selected analogues of carvacrol and salicylic acid on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  


Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a tick that causes huge economic losses in cattle. The indiscriminate use of acaricides has generated resistance to most compounds present on the market. This makes further investigation on other potential acaricides necessary, the in silico assay being an alternative to the design of new compounds. In the present study a biosilico assay was performed using TOMOCOMD-CARDD (TOpological MOlecular COMputer Design-Computer-Aided Rational Drug Design) and WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) software. Two carvacrol and four salicylic acid derivatives, synthesized by conventional methods and evaluated with the larval packet test on larvae of R. (B.) microplus were selected. All evaluated compounds presented acaricidal activity; however, ethyl 2-methoxybenzoate (91.8 ± 1.7 % mortality) and ethyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (89.1 ± 1.6 % mortality) showed greater activity than salicylic acid. With regard to the carvacrol analogues, carvacrol acetate (67.8 ± 2.1 % mortality) and carvacrol methyl ether (71.7 ± 1.6 % mortality) also showed greater activity than carvacrol (35.9 ± 3.2 % mortality). TOMOCOMD-CARDD and WEKA software were helpful tools in the search for alternative structures with potential acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23543288

Concepción, Ramírez L; Froylán, Ibarra V; Herminia I, Pérez M; Norberto, Manjarrez A; Héctor J, Salgado Z; Yeniel, González C



Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin. Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims—To determine serum salicylic acid concentrations in non-vegetarians and vegetarians not taking salicylate drugs, and to compare these concentrations with those found in patients taking aspirin, 75 mg daily.Methods—Serum samples were obtained from vegetarians (n = 37) and non-vegetarians (n = 39) not taking salicylate drugs. Non-vegetarians and vegetarians were recruited from the community and from a Buddhist monastery, respectively,

C J Blacklock; J R Lawrence; D Wiles; E A Malcolm; I H Gibson; C J Kelly; J R Paterson



Emission of sunscreen salicylic esters from desert vegetation and their contribution to aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) produced by plants are known to have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, our knowledge of the range of BVOCs produced by different plant processes is still expanding, and there remain poorly understood categories of BVOCs. In this study, emissions of a novel class of BVOC emissions were investigated in a desert region. Our study considered 8 species of common desert plants: blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), mondel pine (Pinus eldarica), pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla), cottonwood (Populus deltoides), saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) and yucca (Yucca baccata). The measurements focused on BVOCs with relatively high molecular weight (>C15) and/or an oxygenated functional group. Significantly high emission rates of two salicylic esters were found for blackbrush, desert willow and mesquite with emission rates of 3.1, 1.0 and 4.8?gC dwg-1 h-1, respectively (dwg; dry weight of the leaves in gram). The salicylic esters were identified as 2-ethylhexenyl salicylate (2-EHS) and 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexenyl salicylate (homosalate) and are known as effective ultraviolet (UV) absorbers. We propose that the plants derive a protective benefit against UV radiation from the salicylic esters and that the emission process is driven by the physical evaporation of the salicylic esters due to the high ambient temperatures. In addition, the salicylic esters are predicted to be an effective precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) because they probably produce oxidation products that can condense onto the aerosol phase. We estimated the contribution of the sunscreen esters themselves and their oxidation products on the SOA formation for the Las Vegas area using a BVOC emission model. The contribution was estimated to reach 50% of the biogenic terpenoid emission in the landscapes dominated by desert willow and mesquite and 13% in the Las Vegas area. The contributions to biogenic SOA are likely to be higher due to the potentially high SOA yields of these compounds.

Matsunaga, S. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Potosnak, M. J.; Apel, E. C.



Emission of sunscreen salicylic esters from desert vegetation and their contribution to aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) produced by plants are known to have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, our knowledge of the range of BVOCs produced by different plant processes is still expanding, and there remain poorly understood categories of BVOCs. In this study, emissions of a novel class of BVOC emissions were investigated in a desert region. Our study considered 8 species of common desert plants: blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), mondel pine (Pinus eldarica), pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla), cottonwood (Populus deltoides), saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) and yucca (Yucca baccata). The measurements focused on BVOCs with relatively high molecular weight (>C15) and/or an oxygenated functional group. Significantly high emission rates of two salicylic esters were found for blackbrush, desert willow and mesquite with emission rates of 1.4, 2.1 and 0.46 ?gC dwg-1 h-1, respectively. The salicylic esters were identified as 2-ethylhexenyl salicylate (2-EHS) and 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexenyl salicylate (homosalate) and are known as effective ultraviolet (UV) absorbers. We propose that the plants derive a protective benefit against UV radiation from the salicylic esters and that the emission process is driven by the physical evaporation of the salicylic esters due to the high ambient temperatures. In addition, the salicylic esters are predicted to be an effective precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) because of their low vapor pressure due to a high number of carbon atoms (15 or 16) and the presence of three oxygen atoms. We estimated the contribution of the sunscreen esters themselves and their oxidation products on the SOA formation for the Las Vegas region using a BVOC emission model. The contribution was estimated to reach 90% of the biogenic SOA in the landscapes dominated by desert willow and mesquite and 25% in Las Vegas area.

Matsunaga, S. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Potosnak, M. J.; Apel, E. C.



Two tobacco genes induced by infection, elicitor and salicylic acid encode glucosyltransferases acting on phenylpropanoids and benzoic acid derivatives, including salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tobacco genes (TOGT) with homology to glucosyltransferase genes known to be induced by salicylic acid (SA) also responded rapidly to a fungal elicitor or to an avirulent pathogen. SA, although an efficient inducer, was shown not to be essential in the signal transduction pathway regulating TOGT gene expression during the resistance response. Recombinant TOGT proteins produced in Escherichia coli

Laurence Fraissinet-Tachet; Rachel Baltz; Julie Chong; Serge Kauffmann; Bernard Fritig; Patrick Saindrenan



Intermediates of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco1  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) is an important component of systemic-acquired resistance in plants. It is synthesized from benzoic acid (BA) as part of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Benzaldehyde (BD), a potential intermediate of this pathway, was found in healthy and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-inoculated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaf tissue at 100 ng/g fresh weight concentrations as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BD was also emitted as a volatile organic compound from tobacco tissues. Application of gaseous BD to plants enclosed in jars caused a 13-fold increase in SA concentration, induced the accumulation of the pathogenesis-related transcript PR-1, and increased the resistance of tobacco to TMV inoculation. [13C6]BD and [2H5]benzyl alcohol were converted to BA and SA. Labeling experiments using [13C1]Phe in temperature-shifted plants inoculated with the TMV showed high enrichment of cinnamic acids (72%), BA (34%), and SA (55%). The endogenous BD, however, contained nondetectable enrichment, suggesting that BD was not the intermediate between cinnamic acid and BA. These results show that BD and benzyl alcohol promote SA accumulation and expression of defense responses in tobacco, and provide insight into the early steps of SA biosynthesis.

Ribnicky, David M.; Shulaev, Vladimir; Raskin, Ilya



Association of riboflavin, caffeine, and sodium salicylate in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used UV and visible spectrophotometry to study self-association of aromatic riboflavin molecules (RFN, vitamin B2, 7,8-dimethyl-10-N-(1'-D-ribityl)isoalloxazine) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86) at T = 298 K, using a dimer model. We have determined the equilibrium dimerization constant for riboflavin, KdB = 125 ± 40 M-1. We have studied heteroassociation in the system of molecules of 7,8-dimethyl-10-ribitylisoalloxazine with 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) and sodium salicylate (NAS) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86; T = 298 K). We have determined the heteroassociation constants for RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine molecules in the absence and in the presence of urea in solutions using a modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation: 25 ± 4, 17 ± 3, and 74 ± 11, 53 ± 7 M-1 respectively. We have determined the dimerization constants for NAS (2.7 ± 0.5 M-1) and caffeine (17.0 ± 1.5 M-1). We conclude that heteroassociation of the aromatic molecules leads to a lower effective riboflavin concentration in solution, and the presence of urea in mixed solutions leads to an decrease in the complexation constants for the RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine systems.

Baranovskii, S. F.; Bolotin, P. A.



Inhibition of mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis by sodium salicylate  

PubMed Central

Sodium salicylate (NaSal) is a commonly used agent with a wide pharmacological spectrum. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of NaSal on anaphylaxis. NaSal (10?1 and 1 mm) significantly inhibited systemic anaphylaxis induced by compound 48/80 in rats. NaSal also significantly inhibited local anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE). NaSal (10?1 and 1 mm) significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated that a significantly reduced level of the mRNA of l-histidine decarboxylase was expressed in mast cells treated with NaSal, compared with that without NaSal. NaSal (10?2 and 10?1 mm) had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumour necrosis factor-? secretion from RPMC. The level of cyclic AMP in RPMC, when NaSal (1 mm) was added, transiently and significantly increased about sixfold compared with that of basal cells. These results suggest a possible use of NaSal in managing mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis.

Kim, H M; Shin, H Y; Choo, Y K; Park, J K



Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. Results In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Conclusions Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling.



Ternary copper (II) complexes containing salicylate and nitrogenous chelates such as histamine.  


In the introduction the chemistry of some bivalent copper complexes of aspirin and salicylate is briefly reviewed and the biological importance of mixed-ligand complexes of bivalent copper is illustrated. The nature of hydroxy-bridged copper (II) complexes and their possible role in the physiological activity of histamine is also discussed. Several neutral, insoluble copper (II) complexes of the type (Chelate-Cu-salicylate) 0-lambda H2O where chelate = 1, 10-phenanthroline (phen), chi = 1; 2,2'-bipyridyl (bipy), chi = 2; histamine (Ha), chi = 1; and where salicylate (sal) = dianion of salicylic acid have been prepared for the first time. They have been characterised by physico-chemical methods and the role of binuclearhydroxy-bridged copper (II) complex ions in their formation is demonstrated. Such complexes may be relevant to the pharmacological action of histamine and of the salicylates, the copper complexes of which are potential anti-inflammatory drugs. Results of some in vivo experiments that have been carried out with mice are also presented. PMID:272824

Walker, W R; Reeves, R



A systematic review of salicylates in foods: estimated daily intake of a Scottish population.  


Several studies suggest that natural salicylates in plant-based foods may benefit health. However, large variation in published values of the salicylate content of foods means that relating dietary intakes to disease risk is problematical. Consequently, we have systematically reviewed the available literature using prescribed selection criteria. By combining these literature values with in-house analysis, we have constructed a food composition database describing median salicylate values for 27 different types of fruits, 21 vegetables, 28 herbs, spices and condiments, 2 soups and 11 beverages. Application of a validated food frequency questionnaire estimated median dietary intakes of 4.42 (range 2.90-6.27) and 3.16 (2.35-4.89) mg/day for Scottish males and females, respectively. Major dietary sources of salicylates were alcoholic beverages (22%), herbs and spices (17%), fruits (16%), non-alcoholic beverages including fruit juices (13%), tomato-based sauces (12%) and vegetables (9%). Application of the database to populations with differing dietary habits and disease risk profiles may provide further evidence for the role of dietary salicylates in the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21351247

Wood, Adrian; Baxter, Gwen; Thies, Frank; Kyle, Janet; Duthie, Garry



The salicylate trapping method: is oxidation of salicylic acid solution oxygen and time dependent and metal catalysed?  


For a microdialytic trapping method we systematically investigated changes in concentrations of 2,5-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (2,5-DHBA) and 2,3-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) in freshly prepared solutions of salicylic acid (SA). The solvent was 0.9% saline exposed to different atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (0, 21, and 100%). The solutions were treated by freezing-thawing and an ultrasonic bath in presence and absence of aluminium foil. Without aluminium the concentrations of 2,5-DHBA and 2,3-DHBA kept constant over an observed period of 160 min on different levels from below 20 ng/ml to about 100 ng/ml. In presence of aluminium the concentrations increased to maximum 307 ng/ml after 160 min. Ultrasonic irradiation amplified this effect to maximum 341 ng/ml. HPLC/ECD processing and quantitative analysis of dihydroxy-benzoic acids (DHBAs) in microdialysis may be artificially influenced by varying oxygen environment and metal catalysis. PMID:16324892

Gruber, Michael; Wiesner, Gunther; Burger, Ralf; Lindner, Regina



Methyl radical addition to methyl ethyl ketone  

Microsoft Academic Search

From relative rates of acetone formation in the azomethane sensitized decomposition of methyl ethyl ketone at 290 °C, log10(k\\/cm3mol?1s?1)=5.3±0.4 for the methyl radical addition to methyl ethyl ketone has been determined.

H. Knoll



Revised Method for Determination of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid in Human Plasma by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method for the analysis of aspirin and salicylic acid in human plasma has been updated to include advances in column technology, extraction procedures and absorbance detection. Aspirin and salicylic acid are extracted from acidified plasma into an organic solvent system containing internal standard. Following controlled evaporation under partial vacuum of the organic extract, the dried down-residue is reconstituted with

William D. Mason; Roberta Gillilan



Fast and single solid phase fluorescence spectroscopic batch procedure for (acetyl) salicylic acid determination in drug formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid phase fluorescence spectroscopic batch procedure for (acetyl) salicylic acid in drug formulations have been developed. The procedure is based on the sorption of salicylic acid (SA) on Sephadex DEAE A-25 anion exchanger gel (100 mg) by equilibration from an aqueous solution (10 or 25 ml) for 5 min; the equilibrated gel is transferred into an 1 mm quartz

S Ortega Algar; N Ramos Martos; A Molina D??az



Coated-Graphite Electrode Based on Poly(vinyl chloride)– Aluminum Phthalocyanine Membrane for Determination of Salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction performance characteristics and applications of a new polymeric membrane coated on graphite electrode with high selectivity toward salicylate are reported. The electrode was prepared by incorporating aluminum phthalocyanine chloride into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane. The influence of several variables was investigated to optimize the potentiometric response of the electrode and to maximize the selectivity for salicylate over

Said Shahrokhian; Mohammad K. Amini; S. Kolagar; S. Tangestaninejad



Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense.  


Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical signaling role in the activation of plant defense responses after pathogen attack. We have identified several potential components of the SA signaling pathway, including (i) the H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, (ii) a high affinity SA-binding protein (SABP2), (iii) a SA-inducible protein kinase (SIPK), (iv) NPR1, an ankyrin repeat-containing protein that exhibits limited homology to IkappaBalpha and is required for SA signaling, and (v) members of the TGA/OBF family of bZIP transcription factors. These bZIP factors physically interact with NPR1 and bind the SA-responsive element in promoters of several defense genes, such as the pathogenesis-related 1 gene (PR-1). Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is another signal that activates defense responses after pathogen attack. NO has been shown to play a critical role in the activation of innate immune and inflammatory responses in animals. Increases in NO synthase (NOS)-like activity occurred in resistant but not susceptible tobacco after infection with tobacco mosaic virus. Here we demonstrate that this increase in activity participates in PR-1 gene induction. Two signaling molecules, cGMP and cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR), which function downstream of NO in animals, also appear to mediate plant defense gene activation (e.g., PR-1). Additionally, NO may activate PR-1 expression via an NO-dependent, cADPR-independent pathway. Several targets of NO in animals, including guanylate cyclase, aconitase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (e.g., SIPK), are also modulated by NO in plants. Thus, at least portions of NO signaling pathways appear to be shared between plants and animals. PMID:10922045

Klessig, D F; Durner, J; Noad, R; Navarre, D A; Wendehenne, D; Kumar, D; Zhou, J M; Shah, J; Zhang, S; Kachroo, P; Trifa, Y; Pontier, D; Lam, E; Silva, H



Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings1  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for only 6 h or single transient addition of SA at a 0.5 mm concentration to the hydroponics solution partially protected the seedlings from Cd toxicity during the following growth period. Both SA treatments had little effect on growth in the absence of Cd, but increased root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight and inhibited lipid peroxidation in roots, as indicated by malondialdehyde contents, in the presence of Cd. To test whether this protection was due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, activities and transcript levels of the H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in control and SA-treated seedlings in the presence or absence of 25 ?m Cd. Cd stress increased the activity of these enzymes by variable extent. SA treatments strongly or completely suppressed the Cd-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activities. Slices from leaves treated with SA for 24 h also showed an increased level of tolerance toward high Cd concentrations as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The results support the conclusion that SA alleviates Cd toxicity not at the level of antioxidant defense but by affecting other mechanisms of Cd detoxification.

Metwally, Ashraf; Finkemeier, Iris; Georgi, Manfred; Dietz, Karl-Josef



Selective arylation reactions of bismuth-transition metal salicylate complexes.  


Heterometallic bismuth-niobium or -tantalum salicylate complexes react with sodium tetraphenylborate to produce complexes in which one or more aryl groups have been transferred from boron to bismuth with the concomitant displacement of a eta(2)-salicylato ligand. When the previously reported Bi(2)Ta(2)(sal)(4)(Hsal)(4)(OEt)(4) (1) and BiTa(4)(mu-O)(4)(sal)(4)(Hsal)(3)(O(i)Pr)(4) (2) are treated with an alcoholic solution of NaBPh(4), the compounds [PhBi(Hsal)Ta(sal)(2)(OEt)(2) x EtOH](2) (3) and PhBiTa(4)(mu-O)(4)(Hsal)(2)(sal)(4)(OEt)(4) x CH(2)Cl(2) (4) are produced (sal = O(2)CC(6)H(4)-2-O(2-), Hsal = O(2)CC(6)H(4)-2-OH(-)). The core geometries of the heterometallic complexes are retained. However, if preparations of compound 1 are treated with NaBPh(4) without prior isolation of 1, [Ph(2)BiNb(sal)(2)(OMe)(2)](infinity) (5) is produced instead. This compound was characterized both as a solvent-free crystalline form and as one containing a lattice diethyl ether. The compound exhibits a polymeric chain structure that can be viewed as alternating [Ph(2)Bi](+) and [Nb(sal)(2)(OMe)(2)](-) units connected via bridging carboxylate groups. The arylation of the bismuth(III) center proceeds smoothly under mild conditions at room temperature, affording a new means for the mild functionalization of bismuth-transition metal heterometallic complexes. PMID:19537724

Stavila, Vitalie; Thurston, John H; Whitmire, Kenton H



Salicylic acid alleviates the cadmium toxicity in barley seedlings.  


Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for only 6 h or single transient addition of SA at a 0.5 mM concentration to the hydroponics solution partially protected the seedlings from Cd toxicity during the following growth period. Both SA treatments had little effect on growth in the absence of Cd, but increased root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight and inhibited lipid peroxidation in roots, as indicated by malondialdehyde contents, in the presence of Cd. To test whether this protection was due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, activities and transcript levels of the H(2)O(2)-metabolizing enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in control and SA-treated seedlings in the presence or absence of 25 microM Cd. Cd stress increased the activity of these enzymes by variable extent. SA treatments strongly or completely suppressed the Cd-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activities. Slices from leaves treated with SA for 24 h also showed an increased level of tolerance toward high Cd concentrations as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The results support the conclusion that SA alleviates Cd toxicity not at the level of antioxidant defense but by affecting other mechanisms of Cd detoxification. PMID:12746532

Metwally, Ashraf; Finkemeier, Iris; Georgi, Manfred; Dietz, Karl-Josef



Electrochemical assisted photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid with highly ordered TiO2 nanotube electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the kinetics of photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid, one of the important PPCPs, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTs) were prepared by the electrochemical anodization and characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The effect of TiO2 NTs properties, bias potential, initial salicylic acid concentration and solution pH on the degradation efficiency was studied and carefully analyzed. The results revealed that the salicylic acid degradation follows quasi-first order kinetics in the photoelectrocatalytic process, and the fastest decay kinetics was achieved in acidic environment (pH 2). The result was further interpreted through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is confirmed that the electrochemical assisted photocatalysis is a synergetic approach to combat stable organic substances with improved efficiency.

Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Jinwei; Wang, Ying; Feng, Jiangtao; Yan, Wei; Xu, Hao



Decrease of in vitro serum protein binding of salicylate in rheumatoid arthritis.  


Free and bound fractions of salicylates were separated by equilibrium dialysis and measured by spectrofluorimetry in 27 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in 16 controls. The results showed that in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the binding of salicylate to proteins decreased in an overproportional manner with the decrease of serum albumin concentrations. This phenomenon was linked with the severity of the inflammatory syndrome. The saturation binding capacity per unit of protein concentration was lower in the patients suffering from active forms of the condition, a finding which suggests that the changes observed are not due only to quantitative changes in the serum albumins. This study confirms the importance of determining free salicylate concentrations in the treatment of patients with inflammatory diseases. PMID:6745302

Netter, P; Monot, C; Stalars, M C; Mur, J M; Royer, R J; Faure, G; Pourel, J; Martin, J; Gaucher, A



Biodegradable salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) microspheres for controlled insulin delivery.  


Salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters) (PAEs) chemically incorporate salicylic acid (SA) into the polymer backbone, which is then delivered in a controlled manner upon polymer hydrolysis. In this work, a salicylate-based PAE is a carrier to encapsulate and deliver insulin. Polymer microspheres were formulated using a water/oil/water double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The microspheres obtained had a smooth surface, high protein encapsulation efficiency, and relatively low emulsifier content. Insulin was released in vitro for 15 days, with no signs of aggregation or unfolding of the secondary structure. The released insulin also retained bioactivity in vitro. Concurrently, SA was released from the microspheres with polymer degradation and anti-inflammatory activity was observed. Based upon these results, the formulated microspheres enable simultaneous delivery of insulin and SA, both retaining bioactivity following processing. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2736-2742, 2014. PMID:24027012

Delgado-Rivera, Roberto; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E



Partial reversal by beta-D-xyloside of salicylate-induced inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage  

SciTech Connect

While net /sup 35/S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis in normal canine articular cartilage was suppressed by 10(-3)M sodium salicylate to about 70% of the control value, addition of xyloside (10(-6)M-10(-3)M) to the salicylate-treated cultures led to a concentration-dependent increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which rose to 120-237% of controls. Similar results were obtained when /sup 3/H-glucosamine was used to measure glycosaminoglycan synthesis, confirming that salicylate suppresses and xyloside stimulates net glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and not merely sulfation. Salicylate (10-3)M) did not affect the activity of xylosyl or galactosyl transferase prepared from canine knee cartilage, and net protein synthesis was unaltered by either salicylate or xyloside. The proportion of newly synthesized proteoglycans existing as aggregates when cartilage was cultured with xyloside was similar to that in controls, although the average hydrodynamic size of disaggregated proteoglycans and of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was diminished.

Palmoski, M.J.; Brandt, K.D.



Effect of salicylate, bismuth, osmolytes, and tetracycline resistance on expression of fimbriae by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Adherence of Escherichia coli is facilitated by fimbriae and several outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Hypertonic conditions, salicylate, and Mar mutations are known to reduce OmpF expression. We speculated that OMPs involved in export or assembly of fimbrial subunits might be similarly affected. To explore this hypothesis, E. coli expressing P, type 1, S, colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), or CFA/II fimbriae was grown in the presence of salicylate, bismuth salts, NaCl, and nonfermented sugars. Tetracycline-resistant clones were derived from several P-fimbriated strains. The bacteria were tested for the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes, yeast cells, and alpha-D-Gal(-4)-beta-D-Gal-bonded latex (Gal-Gal) beads and were examined for fimbriae by electron microscopy. Hyperosmolar conditions decreased fimbrial expression for all strains. Expression of P fimbriae by pyelonephritic strains, all of which were OmpF+, was reversibly repressed by salicylate and bismuth salts. CFA strains were similarly affected. Tetracycline-resistant P-fimbriated strains were OmpF deficient, were unable to agglutinate erythrocytes and Gal-Gal beads, and lacked fimbriae as observed by electron microscopy. Strains with plasmid-encoded P-fimbrial genes did not demonstrate OmpF on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles and were not affected by salicylate. The type 1-fimbriated phenotype was not affected by salicylate or bismuth unless the strains also expressed P fimbriae. S-fimbriated strains were not affected. The mechanism by which salicylates, bismuth salts, and tetracycline resistance inhibit or modulate the expression of P fimbriae may be mediated through OmpF and other OMPs. Images

Kunin, C M; Hua, T H; Guerrant, R L; Bakaletz, L O



Effects of intra-articularly administered corticosteroids and salicylates on the surface structure of articular cartilage.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of repeated intra-articular corticosteroid and salicylate injections on the surface structure of articular cartilage in the rabbit, using the scanning electron miscroscope. We have shown that the normal surface of the rabbit's articular cartilage presents shallow depressions and mound-like elevations and that corticosteroid-treated articular cartilage exhibits progressive lesions, including fissuring and fraying. The effects of salicylates require further investigation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9

Lutfi, A M; Kosel, K



Salicylic acid-induced salinity tolerance in corn grown under NaCl stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of salicylic acid on some physiological and biochemical characteristics of maize (\\u000a Zea mays L.) seedlings under NaCl stress were studied. Pre-soaking treatments of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) were given to maize\\u000a seeds in the presence as well as in the absence of 0.5 mM salicylic acid. Two-week-old maize seedlings exhibited significant\\u000a decrease in dry weight, root length,

Shruti Gautam; Pramod K. Singh



Complexation of iron by salicylic acid and its effect on atrazine photodegradation in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photodegradation of atrazine and the photochemical formation of Fe(II) and H2O2 in aqueous solutions containing salicylic acid and Fe(III) were studied under simulated sunlight irradiation. Atrazine photolysis\\u000a followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the rate constant (k) corresponding to the solution of Fe(III)-salicylic acid complex (Fe(III)-SA) was only 0.0153 h?1, roughly one eighth of the k observed in the Fe(III)

Xiaoxia Ou; Chong Wang; Fengjie Zhang; Xie Quan; Yan Ma; He Liu



Herbivore-Induced SABATH Methyltransferases of Maize That Methylate Anthranilic Acid Using S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine1[W  

PubMed Central

Volatile methyl esters are common constituents of plant volatiles with important functions in plant defense. To study the biosynthesis of these compounds, especially methyl anthranilate and methyl salicylate, we identified a group of methyltransferases that are members of the SABATH enzyme family in maize (Zea mays). In vitro biochemical characterization after bacterial expression revealed three S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferases with high specificity for anthranilic acid as a substrate. Of these three proteins, Anthranilic Acid Methyltransferase1 (AAMT1) appears to be responsible for most of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase activity and methyl anthranilate formation observed in maize after herbivore damage. The enzymes may also be involved in the formation of low amounts of methyl salicylate, which are emitted from herbivore-damaged maize. Homology-based structural modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis identified two amino acid residues, designated tyrosine-246 and glutamine-167 in AAMT1, which are responsible for the high specificity of AAMTs toward anthranilic acid. These residues are conserved in each of the three main clades of the SABATH family, indicating that the carboxyl methyltransferases are functionally separated by these clades. In maize, this gene family has diversified especially toward benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases that accept anthranilic acid and benzoic acid.

Kollner, Tobias G.; Lenk, Claudia; Zhao, Nan; Seidl-Adams, Irmgard; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Chen, Feng; Degenhardt, Jorg



Structure and Mechanism of MbtI, the Salicylate Synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

MbtI (rv2386c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the initial transformation in mycobactin biosynthesis by converting chorismate to salicylate. We report here the structure of MbtI at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and demonstrate that isochorismate is a kinetically competent intermediate in the synthesis of salicylate from chorismate. At pH values below 7.5 isochorismate is the dominant product while above this pH value the enzyme converts chorismate to salicylate without the accumulation of isochorismate in solution. The salicylate and isochorismate synthase activities of MbtI are Mg{sup 2+}-dependent, and in the absence of Mg{sup 2+} MbtI has a promiscuous chorismate mutase activity similar to that of the isochorismate pyruvate lyase, PchB, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MbtI is part of a larger family of chorismate-binding enzymes descended from a common ancestor (the MST family), that includes the isochorismate synthases and anthranilate synthases. The lack of active site residues unique to pyruvate eliminating members of this family, combined with the observed chorismate mutase activity, suggests that MbtI may exploit a sigmatropic pyruvate elimination mechanism similar to that proposed for PchB. Using a combination of structural, kinetic, and sequence based studies we propose a mechanism for MbtI applicable to all members of the MST enzyme family.

Zwahlen,J.; Kolappan, S.; Zhou, R.; Kisker, C.; Tonge, P.



Attenuation of iminodipropionitrile induced behavioral syndrome by sodium salicylate in rats.  


Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) produces irreversible behavioral abnormalities characterized by excitation with choreiform and circling movements (ECC) syndrome in rodents. Concomitant exposure to drugs or environmental chemicals has been shown to alter IDPN-induced neurobehavioral toxicity. This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of sodium salicylate (SS) on IDPN-induced behavioral abnormalities in rats. The animals were exposed to IDPN (100 mg/kg ip) daily for 8 days. SS was administered daily 30 min before IDPN in the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg ip for 12 days. The animals were observed for neurobehavioral abnormalities including dyskinetic head movements, circling, tail hanging, air righting reflex and contact inhibition of the righting reflex. Horizontal and vertical locomotor activities and forelimbs grip strength were also measured. After behavioral studies, the animals were sacrificed, and the cerebrum and temporal bones were collected for glutathione analysis and inner ear histopathology, respectively. The onset of ECC syndrome was observed on Day 9 in the IDPN-alone group with 100% incidence on Day 12. Cotreatment with salicylate dose-dependently delayed the onset time and significantly attenuated the incidence and severity of IDPN-induced neurobehavioral signs. IDPN alone significantly increased horizontal motor activity and reduced vertical motor activity and forelimbs grip strength; these effect were significantly reversed by salicylate treatment. Treatment with salicylate also attenuated IDPN-induced depletion of GSH in the cerebrum, suggesting its free radical scavenging property. PMID:12151040

Tariq, Mohammad; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad; Al Moutaery, Khalaf; Al Deeb, Saleh



Endogenous salicylic acid potentiates cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the role of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) in plants exposed to abiotic stresses known to generate oxidative damage, the response to cadmium treatment of a wild Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype and a SA-deficient transgenic line was investigated. After 5 days of Cd treatment, chlorophyll content was significantly reduced and TBARS significantly increased in wild type seedlings but not

Myriam S. Zawoznik; María D. Groppa; María L. Tomaro; María P. Benavides



Harpin modulates the accumulation of salicylic acid by Arabidopsis cells via apoplastic alkalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is reported here that salicylic acid (SA) is rapidly taken up by Arabidopsis cells, and its uptake is accom- panied by media alkalization and cytosolic acidification, and it is inhibited by the ionophore nigericin, suggest- ing that its import is linked with that of H1 and driven by a proton gradient. Such import and accumulation de- clined sharply within

Andrew Clarke; Luis A. J. Mur; Robert M. Darby; Paul Kenton



A general palladium-catalyzed carbonylative synthesis of chromenones from salicylic aldehydes and benzyl chlorides.  


Cute CO! An interesting and straightforward procedure for the carbonylative synthesis of chromenones from readily available salicylic aldehydes and benzyl chlorides has been developed (see scheme; DPPP = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane). In the presence of a palladium catalyst, various coumarins were produced in good to excellent yields. PMID:23939874

Wu, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Lipeng; Jackstell, Ralf; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias



Marked suppression by salicylate of the augmented proteoglycan synthesis in osteoarthritic cartilage.  


In osteoarthritis a net increase in proteoglycan synthesis has been noted until the disease is far advanced and presumably reflects an attempt by the chondrocyte to repair the defect in the cartilage matrix. Because salicylates are the agents most commonly employed in treatment of osteoarthritis and because we recently showed that 10(-3) M sodium salicylate (i.e., approximately 20 mg%) suppresses proteoglycan synthesis in normal canine knee cartilage in vitro, we have studied the effects of this compound on osteoarthritis knee cartilage from dogs whose anterior cruciate ligament had been transected 9 weeks previously. The data indicated that the augmented synthesis of glycosaminoglycans in the degenerating cartilage was suppressed to a much greater degree by 10(-3) M sodium salicylate than the lower level of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in control cartilage from the contralateral knee of the same animal. Uptake of 14C-acetylsalicylic acid was increased about 35% in osteoarthritic cartilage, suggesting that the drug permeated it more readily than normal cartilage. The salicylate-induced suppression of proteoglycan synthesis in the osteoarthritic cartilage was not accompanied by reversal of the defect in proteoglycan aggregation or by improvement in the (presumed) defect in proteoglycan-collagen interaction in the matrix, as reflected by the abnormally high proportion of 35S-proteoglycans present in the culture medium. PMID:7352948

Palmoski, M J; Colyer, R A; Brandt, K D




Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is focused on the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) under cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Cadmium treatments resulted in the inhibition of root dry biomass, root elongation and increased Cd accumulation in roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA (500 ?M) for 20 hrs resulted in protection against Cd, increased root dry biomass, root elongation and minimal accumulation

Helal Ragab Moussa; Sabah Mohamed El-Gamal




Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity has deleterious effects on plant growth and development through membrane stability, photosynthetic activity, protein content, and ionic composition; however, salicylic acid (SA) could restore these properties in plants. The objective of this study was to determine the ameliorative effects of SA as foliar pre-treatments on membrane permeability, proline and protein contents, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll and ionic

Omer Tohma; Ahmet Esitken



Salicylic acid inhibits jasmonic acid-induced resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to Spodoptera exigua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of salicylic acid (SA) in plant responses to pathogens has been well documented, but its direct and indirect effects on plant responses to insects are not so well understood. We examined the effects of SA, alone and in combination with jasmonic acid (JA), on the per- formance of the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua , in wild-type and mutant



Effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and proton transfer on fluorescence of salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of intermolecular interactions, in particular the influence of intermolecular hydrogen bonds formed by salicylic acid (SA) as a proton donor with proton acceptors of different strength, on fluorescence spectra of SA in non-aqueous solutions have been investigated. Infrared spectra of studied systems have been analyzed in order to elucidate the ground state structure of the complexes formed. It has

G. S. Denisov; N. S. Golubev; V. M. Schreiber; Sh. S. Shajakhmedov; A. V. Shurukhina



Spectroscopic studies on the molecular interaction between salicylic acid and riboflavin (B 2) in micellar solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and riboflavin (RF) was studied by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) in micellar solution. The riboflavin strongly quenches the intrinsic fluorescence of SA by radiative energy transfer. The extent of energy transfer in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micellar solution of different concentration is quantified from the energy transfer efficiency data. It is seen that

S. L. Bhattar; G. B. Kolekar; S. R. Patil



Iontophoretic Transdermal Delivery of Salicylic Acid Dissolved in Ethanol-Water Mixture in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of iontophoresis is restricted to highly water-soluble compounds, since drugs are generally applied as an aqueous solution in a drug electrode. In the present study, salicylic acid (SA) dissolved in ethanol-water mixture was loaded in a drug electrode, and the effect of ethanol on the iontophoretic transdermal delivery of SA was evaluated. Ethanol at a concentration of 10

Teruo Murakami; Chie Ihara; Gakuji Kiyonaka; Ryoko Yumoto; Sadayuki Shigeki; Yushikazu Ikuta; Noboru Yata



Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is affected by the salicylic acid content of the plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild type, transgenic NahG tobacco plants with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and transgenic CSA (constitutive SA biosynthesis) tobacco plants with enhanced SA levels were inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices. In a time course study the effect of SA content on root colonization by the fungal symbiont was determined. Throughout the experiment

Mar??a José Herrera Medina; Hubert Gagnon; Yves Piché; Juan Antonio Ocampo; José Manuel Garc??a Garrido; Horst Vierheilig



Voltammetric determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceuticals formulations of acetylsalicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) has been studied on a glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method. SA gives a single irreversible oxidation wave over the wide pH range studied. The irreversibility of the electrode process was verified by different criteria. The mechanism of oxidation is discussed. Using differential pulse voltammetry, SA yielded

Angel A. J. Torriero; Juan M. Luco; Leonides Sereno; Julio Raba



Can Salicylic Acid Affect the Intercellular Transport of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus by Changing Plasmodesmal Permeability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the plasmodesmal permeability as evaluated by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) spreading in tobacco Nicotiana glutinosaleaves, where TMV induces necrotic lesions. When leaves were treated with SA simultaneously with their viral inoculation, SA retarded the development of necrotic lesions and reduced their number. When inoculated leaves were kept on the SA

M. S. Krasavina; S. I. Malyshenko; G. N. Raldugina; N. A. Burmistrova; A. V. Nosov



Salicylic Acid Regulation of Respiration in Higher Plants: Alternative Oxidase Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative respiratory pathway capacity increases during the development of the thermogenic appendix of a voodoo lily inflorescence. The levels of the alternative oxidase proteins increased dramatically between D-4 (4 days prior to the day of anthesis) and D-3 and continued to increase until the day of anthesis (D-day). The level of salicylic acid (SA) in the appendix is very low

David M. Rhoads; Lee Mclntosh



Salicylic acid inhibits the biosynthesis of ethylene in detached rice leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on ethylene biosynthesis in detached rice leaves were investigated. SA at pH 3.5 effectively inhibited ethylene production within 2 h of its application. It inhibited the conversion of ACC to ethylene, but did not affect the levels of ACC and conjugated ACC. Thus, the inhibitory effect of SA resulted from the inhibition of both

Y F. Huang; C. T. Chen; C. H. Kao



Salicylic acid treatment of pea seeds induces its de novo synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA), which is known as a signal molecule in the induction of defense mechanisms in plants, could be a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity. The aim of the present work was to investigate the distribution of SA in young pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings grown from seeds soaked in 3H-labeled SA solution before sowing, and

Gabriella Szalai; Szabina Horgosi; Vilmos Soós; Imre Majláth; Ervin Balázs; Tibor Janda



Immediate Early Transcription Activation by Salicylic Acid via the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus as-1 Element  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco plants carrying a number of regulatory sequences derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter were tested for their response to treatment with salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous signal involved in plant defense responses. PGlucuronidase (GUS) gene fusions with the full-length (-343 to +8) 35s promoter or the -90 truncation were found to be induced by SA. Time

Xiao-Feng Qin; Loreto Holuigue; Diana M. Horvath; Nam-Hai Chua



Salicylic acid in the machinery of hypersensitive cell death and disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extensive data has described the key role of salicylic acid (SA) in signaling pathogen-induced disease resistance, its function in physiological processes related to cell death is still poorly understood. Recent studies have explored the requirement of SA for mounting the hypersensitive response (HR) against an invading pathogen, where a particular cell death process is activated at the site of

María Elena Alvarez



Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under heat stress and accelerates recovery in grapevine leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on photosynthesis of plants including grapevines has been investigated, very little is yet known about the effects of SA on carbon assimilation and several components of PSII electron transport (donor side, reaction center and acceptor side). In this study, the impact of SA pretreatment on photosynthesis was evaluated in the leaves of

Li-Jun Wang; Ling Fan; Wayne Loescher; Wei Duan; Guo-Jie Liu; Jian-Shan Cheng; Hai-Bo Luo; Shao-Hua Li



Excited state enol-keto tautomerization in salicylic acid: A supersonic free jet study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excited state enol-keto isomerization in salicylic acid (SA) monomer and dimer has been studied in a supersonic free jet expansion. Two carboxylic group rotamers of SA with significantly different photophysical properties are found in the expansion. Rotamer I, the major form of SA in the expansion, has an intramolecular hydrogen bond and can undergo excited state tautomerization reaction. Its S1

Prem B. Bisht; Hrvoje Petek; Keitaro Yoshihara; Umpei Nagashima



Effects of salicylic acid on the behavior of Yali pear infected by Alternaria kikuchiana Tanaka  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the inductive effect of salicylic acid (SA) on the resistance of Pyrus bretschneider cv Yali to black spot disease (Alternaria kikuchiana Tanaka), the physiological and biochemical characteristics of detached pear leaves at the age of 5 to 10 days were measured\\u000a after application of SA. The results showed that exogenous SA significantly improved the resistance of Yali pear

Yongbo Wang; Yuxing Zhang; Jianghong Zhang



The role of salicylic acid in defense response of tomato to root-knot nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is involved in hypersensitive reactions of plants to incompatible pathogens and in systemic acquired resistance (SAR) after the attack of necrosis-inducing pests. The possible involvement of SA in defense responses of tomato to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKNs) was investigated. SA was found not to be responsible for the inhibition of catalase (CAT) detected in the early

Sergio Molinari; Elisabetta Loffredo



Campylobacter pyloridis and associated gastritis: investigator blind, placebo controlled trial of bismuth salicylate and erythromycin ethylsuccinate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigator blind trial was performed comparing bismuth salicylate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and placebo in the treatment of Campylobacter pyloridis associated gastritis in patients without peptic ulceration. Fifty patients fulfilled the study criteria. There was a strong correlation between the presence of C pyloridis and histologically confirmed gastritis. Clearance of organisms led to improvement of the gastritis. C pyloridis was cleared

C A McNulty; J C Gearty; B Crump; M Davis; I A Donovan; V Melikian; D M Lister; R Wise



Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is described for the rapid determination of nitrate?N in plant extracts. The complex formed by nitration of salicylic acid under highly acidic conditions absorbs maximally at 410 nm in basic (pH>12) solutions. Absorbance of the chromophore is directly proportional to the amount of nitrate?N present. Ammonium, nitrite, and chloride ions do not interfere.

D. A. Cataldo; M. Maroon; L. E. Schrader; V. L. Youngs



Pathway of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Healthy and Vi rus- Inoculated Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SAI is a likely endogenous regulator of localized and systemic disease resistance in plants. During the hypersensitive response of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), SA levels rise dramatically. We studied SA biosynthesis in healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco by monitoring the levels of SA and its likely precursors in extracts of leaves and cell

Nasser Yalpani; Michael A. Lawton


Bromodecarboxylation of quinoline salicylic acids: increasing the diversity of accessible substituted quinolines.  


Quinoline salicylic acids underwent bromodecarboxylation at room temperature upon treatment with N-bromosuccinimide. A wide variety of functional groups was tolerated. Several one-pot transformations were also carried out, allowing the preparation of diverse 4-substituted quinolines. PMID:19863103

Janz, Kristin; Kaila, Neelu



Properties of salicylate hydroxylase and hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase purified from Trichosporon cutaneum.  

PubMed Central

Salicylate hydroxylase (salicylate 1-monooxygenase, EC was purified from the soil yeast Trichosporon cutaneum. The enzyme contained flavin adenine dinucleotide and was monomeric, with a molecular weight of 45,300. In addition to salicylate, the four isomeric dihydroxybenzoates having one hydroxyl adjacent to carboxyl in the benzene nucleus were oxidatively decarboxylated without formation of hydrogen peroxide. One of these isomers, gentisate, was rapidly oxidized to hydroxyquinol by the enzyme but did not serve as an effective single carbon source for T. cutaneum; however, when growing with salicylate, cells also readily utilized gentisate for growth. Hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11....) is a newly investigated enzyme which was purified from T. cutaneum grown with 4-hydroxybenzoate. The enzyme was red, contained ferric iron, and was specific for hydroxyquinol; catechol and pyrogallol were oxidized at less than 1% of the rate for hydroxyquinol, and no activity could be detected against seven other catechols. The enzyme was composed of two nonidentical subunits having molecular weights of 39,600 and 38,200 and was apparently dimeric.

Sze, I S; Dagley, S



Salicylate Prevents Virus-Induced Type 1 Diabetes in the BBDR Rat  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR) rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist) develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-?, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein) in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1? and IL-12, coupled with sustained elevations of haptoglobin, were specific to KRV+pIC and not found in rats co-treated with pIC and H1, a non-diabetogenic virus. Salicylate administered concurrently with KRV+pIC inhibited the elevations in IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-? and haptoglobin almost completely, and reduced IL-12 levels significantly. Salicylate prevented diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and diabetes-free animals had no evidence of insulitis. Our data support an important role for innate immunity in virus-induced type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The ability of salicylate to prevent diabetes in this robust animal model demonstrates its potential use to prevent or attenuate human autoimmune diabetes.

Yang, Chaoxing; Jurczyk, Agata; diIorio, Philip; Norowski, Elaine; Brehm, Michael A.; Grant, Christian W.; Guberski, Dennis L.; Greiner, Dale L.; Bortell, Rita



Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth, Metabolic Activities and Oil Content of Basil and Marjoram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and marjoram (Majorana hortensis) plants to foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M was determined in pot experiments conducted during 2004 - 2005. SA increased plant height, number of (branches, nodes & leaves) per plant, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of herbs,



Effect of sodium salicylate, sodium oxalate, and sodium chloride on the micellization and adsorption of sodium deoxycholate in aqueous solutions.  


The salicylate ion increases the rate of bile flow (choleretic effect) and bile salts are known to affect the colonic absorption of oxalate. Owing to this physiological relevance of salicylate and oxalate ions, critical micelle concentration (cmc) values of sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) were determined in aqueous sodium oxalate, sodium salicylate, and sodium chloride solutions by using surface tension, fluorescence, and EMF methods. The results indicate, besides a counterion effect, the influence of coanions on the cmc. In the range from 25 to 40 °C, cmc increases almost linearly with temperature. In the temperature range from 30 to 40 °C, the counterion binding constant ? of NaDC micelles has the same value (0.17±0.01) in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium salicylate. On the other hand, in sodium oxalate solution ?=0.05±0.02 when oxalate concentration is less than or equal to c* and ?=0.48±0.04 above c*, where c*?0.038 mol kg(-1). EMF measurements also supported this type of counterion binding to NaDC micelles in sodium oxalate solutions. In sodium oxalate solution, at c* a change in the shape of deoxycholate micelles is expected to take place. Salicylate, oxalate, and chloride coanions have a similar effect on the adsorption of NaDC. This study reveals that the choleretic effect of salicylate is not due to the influence of salicylate ions on the micellization of NaDC. PMID:21402381

Das, Sujit; Dey, Jahar; Mukhim, Teiborlang; Ismail, Kochi



A novel naturally occurring salicylic acid analogue acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB activity in RAW264.7 macrophages.  


Methyl salicylate 2-O-?-D-lactoside (DL0309), is a molecule chemically related to salicylic acid that is isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (FRANCH.) REHDER (G. yunnanensis). G. yunnanensis, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely used for treating rheumatoid arthritis, swelling, pain, trauma, and chronic tracheitis. In the present study, we explored the mechanism whereby DL0309 exerts anti-inflammatory effects, using the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells. We examined the effects of DL0309 on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) activity by Western blot analysis, cell imaging analysis and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also measured. Our observations indicate that DL0309 suppressed production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), in a concentration-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of IKK-? and degradation of I?B-? by LPS were both inhibited by DL0309 in the cytoplasm. The increased protein level of NF-?B by LPS in the nucleus was also reduced by DL0309. Consistent with these results, we found that DL0309 prevents the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-?B. Finally, our results demonstrate that DL0309 exerts anti-inflammatory effects, by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressing of the activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway in LPS-treated macrophage cells. Therefore, DL0309 may have therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory diseases by regulating the NF-?B pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:22292506

Zhang, Tiantai; Sun, Lan; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Dan; Lan, Xi; Huang, Chao; Xin, Wenyu; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Dongming; Du, Guanhua



Methyl Cellulose Nitrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methyl cellulose nitrate was prepared by nitration of methyl cellulose with 98% nitric acid dissolved in methylene chloride and, in 98% nitric acid without a solvent. With both procedures nitration is apparently complete within fifteen minutes. The hetero...

J. Bobinski Y. P. Carignan



Acetyl salicylic acid induces damage to intestinal epithelial cells by oxidation-related modifications of ZO-1.  


Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is one of the most frequently prescribed medications for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. It has recently been reported to cause small intestinal mucosal injury at a considerably higher rate than previously believed. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism by which this occurs using an in vitro small intestine model focusing on the role of oxidative stress and cell permeability. Differentiated Caco-2 exhibits a phenotype similar to human small intestinal epithelium. We measured whether ASA induced the increase of differentiated Caco-2 permeability, the decrease of tight junction protein expression, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of ROS-modified zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein. In some experiments, Mn(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic) was used. The nontoxic concentration of ASA decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased the flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran across Caco-2 in a time-dependent manner. The same concentration of ASA significantly decreased ZO-1 expression among TJ proteins as assessed by Western blot and immunocytochemistry and increased ROS production and the expression of oxidative stress-modified ZO-1 protein. However, MnTMPyP suppressed the ASA-induced increased intercellular permeability and the ASA-induced ROS-modified ZO-1 expression. Our findings indicate that ASA-induced ROS production can specifically modify the expression of ZO-1 protein and induce increased cell permeability, which may ultimately cause small intestinal mucosal injury. PMID:22917627

Fukui, Akifumi; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Kugai, Munehiro; Tsuji, Toshifumi; Yoriki, Hiroyuki; Qin, Ying; Adachi, Satoko; Higashimura, Yasuki; Mizushima, Katsura; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu



DNA methylation in insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosine DNA methylation has been demonstrated in numerous eukaryotic organisms and has been shown to play an important role in human disease. The func- tion of DNA methylation has been studied extensively in vertebrates, but establishing its primary role has proved difficult and controversial. Analysing methyl- ation in insects has indicated an apparent functional diversity that seems to argue against

L. M. Field; F. Lyko; M. Mandrioli; G. Prantera



Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verrucae): a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts. Design A multicentre, open, two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting University podiatry school clinics, NHS podiatry clinics, and primary care in England, Scotland, and Ireland. Participants 240 patients aged 12 years and over, with a plantar wart that in the opinion of the healthcare professional was suitable for treatment with both cryotherapy and salicylic acid. Interventions Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen delivered by a healthcare professional, up to four treatments two to three weeks apart. Patient self treatment with 50% salicylic acid (Verrugon) daily up to a maximum of eight weeks. Main outcome measures Complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were (a) complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks controlling for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of wart, (b) patient self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months, (c) time to clearance of plantar wart, (d) number of plantar warts at 12 weeks, and (e) patient satisfaction with the treatment. Results There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in the proportions of participants with complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks (17/119 (14%) v 15/110 (14%), difference 0.65% (95% CI –8.33 to 9.63), P=0.89). The results did not change when the analysis was repeated but with adjustment for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of plantar wart or for patients’ preferences at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months (29/95 (31%) v 33/98 (34%), difference –3.15% (–16.31 to 10.02), P=0.64) or in time to clearance (hazard ratio 0.80 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.25), P=0.33). There was also no evidence of a difference in the number of plantar warts at 12 weeks (incident rate ratio 1.08 (0.81 to 1.43), P=0.62). Conclusions Salicylic acid and the cryotherapy were equally effective for clearance of plantar warts. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246, National Research Register N0484189151.



Distribution of salicylic acid in human stratum corneum following topical application in vivo: a comparison of six different formulations.  


Distribution of salicylic acid in human stratum corneum from treatment of six different formulations was assessed by quantitation of drug content in sequentially tape-stripped stratum corneum after a single 2-h dose was applied unoccluded to skin on the ventral forearm of four female subjects. The profile and total amounts of stratum corneum removed in 20 tape-strips varied among different types of formulations. With or without normalization by the total stratum corneum weights removed, the extent of drug delivery to the stratum corneum decreased in the following order: SA (5%) > > SAC (10%), Duofilm (16.7%) > TSSS (2%) > SAO (10%), Salic (2.5%), the percentage in parentheses indicating the salicylic acid concentration in each formulation. The greatest topical bioavailability was observed for the alcoholic solution containing glycerol (SA). The 10% collodion formulation (SAC) was found to deliver an amount of salicylic acid into the stratum corneum 2-fold greater than 10% ointment formulation (SAO). Use of absorption ointment (TSSS) also increased the uptake of salicylic acid into the stratum corneum in comparison with formulations based on simple ointment (SAO) and oil in water (o/w) cream (Salic). The partitioning of salicylic acid from collodion formulations (SAC and Duofilm) appeared to be concentration-independent. The results of this study indicate that topical bioavailability of salicylic acid in the stratum corneum varies substantially among different formulations. PMID:10518670

Tsai, J; Chuang, S; Hsu, M; Sheu, H



Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins induced by salicylic acid in suspension-cultured ginseng cells  

PubMed Central

In this study, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were established for suspension-cultured ginseng cells. Three commonly used protein extraction methods (Trichloroacetic acid-acetone, urea/thiourea and phenol extraction method) were evaluated for proteomic analysis of suspension cultures of ginseng. A comparative analysis of suspension-cultured ginseng cells proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) was reported. The results demonstrated that phenol extraction method was the best method based on protein extraction efficiency and the good quality of 2-DE patterns for suspension-cultured ginseng cells. Fifteen differentially expressed proteins induced by salicylic acid in suspension-cultured ginseng cells were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. These identified proteins were involved in defense and stress response, energy metabolism, signal transduction/transcription, protein synthesis and metabolism, and photosynthesis. Chaperonin 60, related to defense responses, was more abundant in suspension-cultured ginseng cells after application of SA. Vacuolar ATPase subunit B was newly induced in SA treatment.

Sun, Jiaman; Fu, Junfan; Zhou, Rujun



Effects of salicylic acid on growth, biochemical constituents in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings.  


In the present study, the effect of different concentrations of salicylic acid which is an endogenous organic acid in plants and which is commonly cited as a hormone, on the growth and some other parameters of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv.) seedlings was investigated. The solutions were applied to the roots of seedlings using hydroponic method. In general, 1.5 mM concentration of salicylic acid had a stimulating effect while 5 and 10 mM concentrations had varying degrees of inhibitive effects on the seedlings. Although 0.3 mM SA application produced prominent results in the case of all parameters, the difference was not found statistically significant. The inhibitive effect produced by high SA was found much more dominant than the stimulating effect of low SA concentrations. Thus, it was established that SA had a bidirectional physiological effect on the seedlings in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:21870633

Canakci, S



Salicylate de bismuth pour la diarrh?e chez l'enfant  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question J’ai reçu récemment un patient de 5 ans à qui, lors d’un voyage en Amérique du Sud, un médecin de famille local a prescrit du sous-salicylate de bismuth pour une diarrhée. Est-ce une pratique que nous devrions encourager? Réponse La recherche réalisée dans les pays en développement a fait valoir que l’utilisation du sous-salicylate de bismuth était efficace pour raccourcir la durée de la diarrhée. En dépit de ces constatations, son efficacité limitée, des préoccupations à propos du fait qu’il pourrait potentiellement causer le syndrome de Reye, les problèmes d’observance et son coût sont les principales raisons pour lesquelles on ne le recommande pas systématiquement pour les enfants.

Goldman, Ran D.



Human ortholog of a plant salicylic acid receptor found in SK-N-SH cell line.  


Our previous studies have described the purification and characterization of a novel plant NAD(P)-reductase like protein (RL) from the thermogenic appendix of the Sauromatum guttatum inflorescence. RL is mainly located in cytoplasm of thermogenic plants and it can act like a bistable switch. It adopts a compact conformation during heat-production and a more expanded conformation when heat is not generated. Addition of salicylic acid, a natural thermogenic inducer, at picomolar concentration to a solution of purified RL induced a discontinuous volume phase transition in which the volume of RL in the oligomeric form expanded and shrunk repeatedly every 4-5 min. In the present study using ESI-MS analysis we have demonstrated the existence of RL in the human SK-N-SH cell line and in mouse brain tissue. The molecular mass of human RL is in the same range as of its plant counterpart, 34,140 ± 34 Da. The charge state distribution of the human RL is identical to its plant counterpart from the Sauromatum appendix during heat-production. Human RL was present in the compact state when it was purified from the SK-N-SH cell line When these cells were treated with salicylic acid (10 ?M) a shift to a much more compact conformation was observed. It seems that the potential of RL to respond to salicylic acid was conserved. These results may reveal the existence of a thermoregulation system that is evolutionarily conserved and is operating by conformational changes. This discovery may also represent an opportunity for a better understanding of some of the diverse functions of salicylic acid and aspirin in plants and humans. PMID:24288116

Skubatz, Hanna; Howald, William N



Salicylic acid enhances heat tolerance and potato virus X (PVX) elimination during thermotherapy of potato microplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of the standard thermotherapy used to eliminate virus from potato virus X (PVX)-infectedSolanum tuberosum microplants of the Mexican National Potato Program is described here. Microplants were cultured with or without 10-5 M salicylic acid (SA) for 4 wk, then subcultured without SA and exposed to 42 C for 30 days. Survival was more consistent\\u000a in SA-treated microplants: among

H. López-Delgado; M. E. Mora-Herrera; H. A. Zavaleta-Mancera; M. Cadena-Hinojosa; I. M. Scott



Salicylic Acid Protects Potato Plants-from Phytoplasma-associated Stress and Improves Tuber Photosynthate Assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a pathogen attack, cells triggers the overproduction of reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress and physiological\\u000a damage. Plants develop strategies using these reactive molecules for protection against pathogen attack. Phytoplasma are bacteria\\u000a lacking cell walls that inhabit plant phloem and reduce yield, tuber quality, and commercial harvest value. Sprayed salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) activated plant defense response against phytoplasma attack

Silvia Sánchez-Rojo; Humberto A. López-Delgado; Martha E. Mora-Herrera; Humberto I. Almeyda-León; Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera; David Espinosa-Victoria



Ethylene-dependent salicylic acid regulates an expanded cell death response to a plant pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The molecular events associated with susceptible plant responses to disease-causing organisms are not well understood. We have previously shown that ethylene-insensitive tomato plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria have greatly reduced disease symptoms relative to wild-type cultivars. Here we show that salicylic acid (SA) is also an important component of the susceptible disease response. SA accumulates in infected

Philip J. O'Donnell; Jeffrey B. Jones; Francis R. Antoine; Joseph Ciardi; Harry J. Klee



Thermodynamic and NMR study of aggregation of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium salicylate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex aggregation processes of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) have been studied in dilute solutions of sodium\\u000a salicylate (NaSal) by isothermal titration calorimetry and electrical conductivity at temperatures between 278.15 K and 318.15 K.\\u000a A structural transformation that was dependent on the concentrations of DTAC and NaSal was observed. The micellization process\\u000a in dilute solutions of DTAC has been subjected to a detailed

Bojan Šarac; Janez Cerkovnik; Bernard Ancian; Guillaume Mériguet; Gaëlle M. Roger; Serge Durand-Vidal; Marija Bešter-Roga?


Interactive effects of salicylic acid and nitric oxide on soybean plants under NaCl salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor, and their combination (SA+SNP) on some\\u000a physiological parameters of 23-day-old soybean seedlings grown under saline and nonsaline conditions were studied. The changes\\u000a in the leaf area, shoot fresh and dry weights, contents of chlorophylls and carotenoids, amounts of MDA and hydrogen peroxide\\u000a showed that the addition of

M. Simaei; R. A. Khavarinejad; S. Saadatmand; F. Bernard; H. Fahimi



Application of salicylic acid dosimetry to evaluate hydrodynamic cavitation as an advanced oxidation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of OH radicals inside hydrodynamic cavitation bubbles was monitored using a salicylic acid dosimeter. The reaction of this scavenger with OH produces 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) and, to a lesser degree, 2,3-DHB. The former, is a specific reaction product that can be determined with a very high sensitivity using HPLC-IF. This method has been applied to study the influence

S. Arrojo; C. Nerín; Y. Benito



Hydroxyl radical detection with a salicylate probe using modified CUPRAC spectrophotometry and HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may attack biological macromolecules giving rise to oxidative stress-originated diseases, so it is important to establish efficient methods to screen hydroxyl radical scavengers for antioxidant therapy. Since OH is very short-lived, secondary products resulting from OH attack to various probes are measured. As a low-cost measurement technique, we used a salicylate probe for detecting hydroxyl radicals

Burcu Bekta?o?lu; Mustafa Özyürek; Kubilay Güçlü; Re?at Apak



‘Keratolytic’ Properties of Benzoyl Peroxide and Retinoic Acid Resemble Salicylic Acid in Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Retinoic acid (RA) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) were studied, comparing their keratolytic efficacy and water barrier disruption to that of salicylic acid (SA), a well-established keratolytic, under similar conditions. Patients\\/Methods:Six volunteers were included in this blinded study. Eleven randomized test sites were marked on the volar forearms, containing sites for untreated skin at time zero, unoccluded, occlusion, and vehicle

J. M. Waller; F. Dreher; S. Behnam; C. Ford; C. Lee; T. Tiet; G. D. Weinstein; H. I. Maibach



Effect of salicylic acid (SA) on delaying fruit senescence of Huang Kum pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was undertaken to explore the effect of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations on regulating fruit\\u000a senescence of Huang Kum pear. Through dipping fruits and fruit discs for a series of hours in SA solution, enzyme activities\\u000a and physiological characteristics of Huang Kum pear were determined. The results revealed that SA enhanced the activity of\\u000a superoxide dismutase (SOD)

Hassan Imran; Yuxing Zhang; Guoqiang Du; Guoying Wang; Jianghong Zhang



Salicylic acid-mediated hydrogen peroxide accumulation and protection against Cd toxicity in rice leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of H2O2 in salicylic acid (SA)-induced protection of rice leaves against subsequent Cd toxicity was investigated. SA pretreatment\\u000a resulted in an increase in the contents of endogenous SA, as judged by the expression of OsWRKY45 (a SA responsive gene), and H2O2 in rice leaves. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and imidazole (IMD), inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, prevented SA-increased H2O2 production, suggesting

Yun-Yang Chao; Chao-Yeh Chen; Wen-Dar Huang; Ching Huei Kao



Topical acetylsalicylic, salicylic acid and indomethacin suppress pain from experimental tissue acidosis in human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topically applied acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), salicylic acid (SA) and indomethacin were tested in an experimental pain model that provides direct nociceptor excitation through cutaneous tissue acidosis. In 30 volunteers, sustained burning pain was produced in the palmar forearm through a continuous intradermal pressure infusion of a phosphate-buffered isotonic solution (pH 5.2). In 5 different, double-blind, randomized cross-over studies with 6

Kay H. Steen; Peter W. Reeh; Hans W. Kreysel



The mechanism of stomatal closing by salicylic acid in Commelina communis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of stomatal closing by salicylic acid (SA) has been investigated. The addition of 1 mM SA to fully opened stomata\\u000a resulted in a significant reduction of 75% in stomatal aperture. Stomata in the treatment of SA with EGTA closed as observed\\u000a in the treatment of SA. However, the addition of catalase with SA completely inhibited stomatal closing. Stomatal



An Optimization of Optical Fiber Salicylic Acid Sensor Using Artificial Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of an artificial neural network (ANN) in optimizing the response of an optical fiber salicylic acid (SA) sensor is presented in this paper. This sensor is fabricated based on immobilization of ferric(III) nitrate on Dowex?50 × 8. The reflectance spectra of the sensor were measured by using an optical fiber spectrophotometer. A backpropagation (BP) ANN was used to analyze the

Han Chern Loh; Musa Ahmad; Mohd Nasir Taib



Effects of salicylic acid on paraquat tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar spraying ofArabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) plants with a 1.0-mM salicylic acid (SA) solution significantly improved their tolerance to subsequent\\u000a paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative damage. Leaf injuries, including losses of chlorophyll, protein, and fresh weight, were reduced.\\u000a Our analysis of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves showed that SA pre-treatment effectively retarded rapid decreases in the\\u000a activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase,

Hye-Sook Kim; Chang-Jin Lim; Joon-Chul Kim; Chang-Duck Jin; Tae-Jin Han



Solid phase extraction–spectrophotometric determination of salicylic acid using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This method shows a novel, fast and simple solid phase extraction–spectrophotometric procedure for preconcentration and determination of salicylic acid (SA) in blood serum using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as extractor. It is shown that the novel magnetic nano-adsorbent is quite efficient for fast adsorption of SA at 25°C. Various parameters affecting the adsorption of SA on MIONs, such as

Hooshang Parham; Nadereh Rahbar



Exogenous salicylic acid increases polyamine content but may decrease drought tolerance in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown in a previous work that 0.5 mM salicylic acid (SA) added in the hydroponic solution of maize increased its tolerance to low temperature stress [Planta 208 (1999) 175]. The effect of SA and cold treatments on polyamine content in the leaves was investigated using the HPLC technique in this work. Both 0.5 mM SA and cold treatment

Mónika Németh; Tibor Janda; Eszter Horváth; Emil Páldi; Gabriella Szalai



Role of Hormonal System in the Manifestation of Growth Promoting and Antistress Action of Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator. When applied to wheat plants in concentration similar to that\\u000a used in case of exogenous hormones (0.05 mM), SA causes growth promoting and protective effects against an abiotic stresses.\\u000a SA was shown to cause changes in hormonal system associated with transitory parallel accumulation of IAA and ABA with no change\\u000a in

F. M. Shakirova


Transport of salicylic acid through supported liquid membrane based on ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of salicylic acid (SA) through flat-sheet supported liquid membrane (SLM) was investigated using as liquid membrane the ionic liquids 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6mim][PF6]) or ethylammonium nitrate (EAN). Using [C6mim][PF6], it has been observed that the transport efficiency decreases with increasing pH, indicating that the un-dissociated form of SA is mainly extracted. On the other hand, the ionic dissociated form of

Noura kouki; Rafik Tayeb; Ramzi Zarrougui; Mahmoud Dhahbi



Influence of exogenic salicylic acid on Fusarium seedling blight reduction in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) applied at concentrations from 1–10 µg·ml?1 to germinating seeds of 8 barley cultivars reduced the disease rating of seedlings. Seedlings of barley not treated with\\u000a SA and inoculated with Fusarium culmorum exhibited disease rating of root on avarage 76 %. Seedlings treated before inoculation with solution of SA 1, 2, 5 and 10\\u000a µg\\/ml exhibited significantly lower

H. Wi?niewska; J. Che?kowski



Exogenous salicylic acid inhibits browning of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential usage of salicylic acid (SA) as a powerful anti-browning agent in fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) was investigated. The fresh-cut CWC were dipped for 1min in solutions of 0,1,2 or 4 mM SA, then placed in trays over-wrapped with plastic films, and finally stored at 4°C. Changes in color, eating quality, and disease incidence were evaluated, while activities

Litao Peng; Yueming Jiang



Controlled release of salicylic acid from poly(D,L-Lactide)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(D,L-Lactide) of high molecular weight (Mv was prepared by ring-opening bulk polymerization of D,L-Lactide and characterized in terms of Mv, melting point and swelling behavior in buffer solution. Samples of the polymers with low and high Mv (2000 and 22 000 respectively) loaded with various amounts of salicylic acid (SA) were immersed in a buffer solution and the release of

A. G. Andreopoulos; E. Hatzi; M. Doxastakis



Salicylic acid-induced adaptive response to copper stress in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA: 0.5 mM) on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under Cu stress (5 mg l?1) was studied. Excess Cu reduced the fresh and dry weights of different organs (roots, stems and leaves) and photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) in four-week-old plants. There was a considerable increase in Chl a\\/b ratio and lipid peroxidation in both the

M. A. El-Tayeb; A. E. El-Enany; N. L. Ahmed



Salicylic acid alleviates NaCl-induced changes in the metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of 100 mM NaCl and 50 ?M salicylic acid (SA) and their combination on the metabolism of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) during 7 days was studied. NaCl reduced growth and selected physiological parameters and SA in combined treatment (NaCl + SA)\\u000a reversed majority of these symptoms. Application of SA reduced NaCl-induced increase of Na+ in the rosettes, but not in the roots. Accumulation of total

Jozef Ková?ik; Bo?ivoj Klejdus; Josef Hedbavny; Martin Ba?kor



Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress\\u000a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were

Bin Zhou; Xuexi Tang; You Wang



Effects of cadmium and salicylic acid on growth, spectral reflectance and photosynthesis of castor bean seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is a potent signaling molecule in plants and is involved in eliciting specific responses to biotic and\\u000a abiotic stresses. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the exogenous application of SA can improve cadmium (Cd)\\u000a induced inhibition of photosynthesis in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) plants. The effects of SA and Cd on plant growth,

Caifeng Liu; Jiali Guo; Yanlan Cui; Tianfeng Lü; Xiaohuan Zhang; Gangrong Shi



Response of barley grains to the interactive e.ect of salinity and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of grain soaking presowing in 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) and NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) on barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Gerbel) was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage, the growth parameters (fresh and dry weight), potassium, calcium, phosphorus and insoluble sugars content in both shoots and roots of 15-day old seedlings. Leaf relative water

M. A. El-Tayeb



Fabrication and Characterization of Novel Salicylic Acid Sensors Using Different Reagents (Ferric and Copper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fabrication of optical fiber salicylic acid (SA) sensors based on immobilization of ferric(III) nitrate and copper(II) acetate on Dowex?50x8 is presented in this paper. The SA forms a stable purple complex with immobilized Fe at pH 2.1 with a response time of 10 min while it forms a stable yellowish green complex with immobilized Cu at pH 6.5 with a response

Han Chern Loh; Musa Ahmad; Mohd Nasir Taib



The relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138 -15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

Angel, G. C.; Samson, J. A. R.; Williams, G.



Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils—comparison of two methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic

Peter Matúš; Jana Kubová



A fluorescence quenching study of the complexation of salicylic acid mono- and dianions with the copper(II) ion in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence quenching of the anions of sodium salicylate and sulfosalicylic acid by the Cu2+ ion in water has been studied. The Stern-Volmer (SV) curves for all salicylic acid derivatives are concave. Using the modified\\u000a Stern-Volmer equation, the values of the SV constant K = 1420 ± 70 and 470 ± 20 l\\/mol were obtained for salicylic (SA) and sulfosalicylic acid

N. L. Lavrik; N. U. Mulloev



Measurements and modeling of the phase behavior of ternary systems of interest for the GAS process: I. The system carbon dioxide+1-propanol+salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a representative model system for the gas-anti-solvent (GAS) process, the phase behavior of the ternary system carbon dioxide+1-propanol+salicylic acid has been studied experimentally. For this purpose, carbon dioxide has been chosen as the anti-solvent gas, 1-propanol as the organic solvent, and salicylic acid (2-hydroxy benzoic acid) as the model drug. In each experiment, a solution of salicylic acid in

A. Shariati; C. J. Peters



Specific and quantitative assessment of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability by using a bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium  

SciTech Connect

A bioassay was developed and standardized for the rapid, specific, and quantitative assessment of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability by use of bioluminescence monitoring of catabolic gene expression. The bioluminescent reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, which carries a transcriptional nahG-luxCDABE fusion for naphthalene and salicylate catabolism, was used. The physiological state of the reporter cultures as well as the intrinsic regulatory properties of the naphthalene degradation operon must be taken into account to obtain a high specificity at low target substrate concentrations. Experiments have shown that the use of exponentially growing reporter cultures has advantages over the use of carbon-starved, resting cultures. In aqueous solutions for both substrates, naphthalene and salicylate, linear relationships between initial substrate concentration and bioluminescence response were found over concentration ranges of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Naphthalene could be detected at a concentration of 45 ppb. Studies conducted under defined conditions with extracts and slurries of experimentally contaminated sterile soils and identical uncontaminated soil controls demonstrated that this method can be used for specific and quantitative estimations of target pollutant presence and bioavailability in soil extracts and for specific and qualitative estimations of napthalene in soil slurries.

Heitzer, A.; Thonnard, J.E.; Sayler, G.S.; Webb, O.F. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))



Electrically controlled release of salicylic acid from poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/polyacrylamide hydrogels.  


The apparent diffusion coefficients, Dapp, and the release mechanisms of salicylic acid from salicylic acid-loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-loaded PAAM, and salicylic acid-doped poly(phenylene vinylene)/polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-doped PPV/PAAM, were investigated. In the absence of an electric field, the diffusion of SA from the SA-doped PPV/PAAM is delayed in the first 3 h due to the ionic interaction between the anionic drug (SA anion) and the PPV. Beyond this period, SA is dissolved in and can diffuse into the buffer solution through the PAAM matrix. The Dapp of the SA-doped PPV/PAAM is higher than that of the SA-loaded PAAM, and the former increases with increasing electric field strength due to combined mechanisms: the expansion of PPV chains inside the hydrogel; the reduction reaction under a negative potential driving the anionic SA through the PAAM matrix; and the expansion of the matrix pore. The Dapp of SA from the SA-loaded PAAM and the SA-doped PPV/PAAM apparently obey the scaling behavior: Dapp/D0 = (drug size/pore size)m with the scaling exponent m equal to 0.50 at 0.1 V for both SA-loaded PAAM and SA-doped PPV/PAAM. Thus, the presence of the conductive polymer and the applied electric field can be combined to control the drug release rate at an optimal desired level. PMID:19162150

Niamlang, Sumonman; Sirivat, Anuvat



Changes in actin dynamics are involved in salicylic acid signaling pathway.  


Changes in actin cytoskeleton dynamics are one of the crucial players in many physiological as well as non-physiological processes in plant cells. Positioning of actin filament arrays is necessary for successful establishment of primary lines of defense toward pathogen attack, depolymerization leads very often to the enhanced susceptibility to the invading pathogen. On the other hand it was also shown that the disruption of actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of defense response leading to the expression of PATHOGENESIS RELATED proteins (PR). In this study we show that pharmacological actin depolymerization leads to the specific induction of genes in salicylic acid pathway but not that involved in jasmonic acid signaling. Life imaging of leafs of Arabidopsis thaliana with GFP-tagged fimbrin (GFP-fABD2) treated with 1mM salicylic acid revealed rapid disruption of actin filaments resembling the pattern viewed after treatment with 200nM latrunculin B. The effect of salicylic acid on actin filament fragmentation was prevented by exogenous addition of phosphatidic acid, which binds to the capping protein and thus promotes actin polymerization. The quantitative evaluation of actin filament dynamics is also presented. PMID:24767113

Matoušková, Jind?iška; Janda, Martin; Fišer, Radovan; Sašek, Vladimír; Kocourková, Daniela; Burketová, Lenka; Dušková, Ji?ina; Martinec, Jan; Valentová, Olga



Regulation of Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue and Systemic Inflammation by Salicylates and Pioglitazone  

PubMed Central

It is increasingly accepted that chronic inflammation participates in obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Salicylates and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) both have anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. The present study compared the effects of these drugs on obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) and AT macrophages (ATMs), as well as the metabolic and immunological phenotypes of the animal models. Both drugs improved high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. However, salicylates did not affect AT and ATM inflammation, whereas Pioglitazone improved these parameters. Interestingly, HFD and the drug treatments all modulated systemic inflammation as assessed by changes in circulating immune cell numbers and activation states. HFD increased the numbers of circulating white blood cells, neutrophils, and a pro-inflammatory monocyte subpopulation (Ly6Chi), whereas salicylates and Pioglitazone normalized these cell numbers. The drug treatments also decreased circulating lymphocyte numbers. These data suggest that obesity induces systemic inflammation by regulating circulating immune cell phenotypes and that anti-diabetic interventions suppress systemic inflammation by normalizing circulating immune phenotypes.

Kamei, Nozomu; Shimada, Takeshi; Liu, Libin; Moore, Kristin; Woo, Ju Rang; Shoelson, Steven E.; Lee, Jongsoon



A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).  


A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.). PMID:21391500

Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra



Catalytic esterification of sodium salicylate in third-liquid phase under ultrasound-assisted tri-liquid phase-transfer catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The esterification of sodium salicylate to synthesize n-butyl salicylate was investigated via ultrasound-assisted tri-liquid phase-transfer catalysis. The third-liquid phase containing the catalytic intermediate tetra-n-butylphosphonium salicylate (ArCOOQ) was prepared from the reaction of sodium salicylate and tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide with a large excess of NaBr in the aqueous phase. Under ultrasonic irradiation at 28kHz\\/300W, the product yield in the organic phase was

Hung-Ming Yang; Chien-Hsing Chen



DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies CG Methylation Clusters in Arabidopsis Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosine DNA methylation in vertebrates is widespread, but methylation in plants is found almost exclusively at transposable elements and repetitive DNA [1]. Within regions of methylation, methylcytosines are typically found in CG, CNG, and asymmetric contexts. CG sites are maintained by a plant homolog of mammalian Dnmt1 acting on hemi-methylated DNA after replication. Methylation of CNG and asymmetric sites appears

Robert K. Tran; Jorja G. Henikoff; Daniel Zilberman; Renata F. Ditt; Steven E. Jacobsen; Steven Henikoff



Orchestration of DNA Methylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA methylation plays an important role in gene regulation. In order to gain a better understanding of the rules governing\\u000a this epigenetic modification, we have used microarray technology to map DNA methylation in the human genome. This analysis\\u000a has helped decipher the DNA sequences involved in setting up the basic global methylation pattern in the early embryo and\\u000a has revealed

Howard Cedar



DNA methylation in insects.  


Cytosine DNA methylation has been demonstrated in numerous eukaryotic organisms and has been shown to play an important role in human disease. The function of DNA methylation has been studied extensively in vertebrates, but establishing its primary role has proved difficult and controversial. Analysing methylation in insects has indicated an apparent functional diversity that seems to argue against a strict functional conservation. To investigate this hypothesis, we here assess the data reported in four different insect species in which DNA methylation has been analysed more thoroughly: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae, the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae and the mealybug Planococcus citri. PMID:15056357

Field, L M; Lyko, F; Mandrioli, M; Prantera, G



Temperature dependence of chloride, bromide, iodide, thiocyanate and salicylate transport in human red cells  

PubMed Central

1. The temperature dependence of the steady-state self-exchange of chloride between human red cells and a plasma-like electrolyte medium has been studied by measuring the rate of 36Cl- efflux from radioactively labelled cells. Between 0 and 10° C the rate increased by a factor of eight corresponding to an Arrhenius activation energy of 33 kcal/mole. 2. The rate of chloride exchange decreased significantly in experiments where 95% of the chloride ions in cells and medium were replaced by other monovalent anions of a lyotropic series. The rate of chloride self-exchange was increasingly reduced by bromide, bicarbonate, nitrate, iodide, thiocyanate, and salicylate. The latter aromatic anion was by far the most potent inhibitor, reducing the rate of chloride self-exchange to 0·2% of the value found in a chloride medium. 3. The temperature sensitivity of the chloride self-exchange was not affected significantly by the anionic inhibitors. The Arrhenius activation energies of chloride exchange were between 30 and 40 kcal/mole in the presence of the six inhibitory anions mentioned above. 4. The rate of self-exchange of bromide, thiocyanate, and iodide between human red cells and media was determined after washing and labelling cells in media containing 120 mM bromide, thiocyanate, or iodide respectively. The rate of self-exchange of the three anions were 12, 3, and 0·4% of the rate of chloride self-exchange found in the chloride medium. 5. The Arrhenius activation energies of the self-exchange of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate were all between 29 and 37 kcal/mole, the same magnitude as found for the self-exchange of chloride. 6. Although approximately 40% of the intracellular iodide and salicylate ions appeared to be adsorbed to intracellular proteins, the rate of tracer anion efflux followed first order kinetics until at least 98% of the intracellular anions had been exchanged. 7. The self-exchange of salicylate across the human red cell membrane occurred by a different mechanism than the one utilized by the inorganic monovalent anions. The activation energy of salicylate exchange (13·2 kcal/mole) was significantly lower than that of inorganic anion exchange. Salicylate exchange increased with decreasing pH in contrast to the exchange of chloride, which decreases when pH is lowered.

Dalmark, Mads; Wieth, Jens Otto



Sodium salicylate inhibits prostaglandin formation without affecting the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vivo.  


The mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of salicylate are not well understood. In particular, while salicylate inhibits prostaglandin production in vivo it only weakly inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or -2 activity in vitro. Thus, it has often been suggested that in vivo salicylate may inhibit the expression rather than the activity of COX, particularly COX-2. Using a model of acute COX-2 expression in the rat, we show that salicylate inhibits COX-2 activity in vivo without affecting COX-2 expression. In anesthetized rats LPS (6 mg kg(-1), i.p.) increased the expression of COX-2 as evidenced by increased circulating levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) (6-keto-PGF(1alpha), a stable breakdown product of PGI(2)), greatly exaggerated formation of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) following arachidonic acid (AA) challenge (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.), and increased expression of COX-2, but not COX-1, protein. Diclofenac (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or the COX-2 selective agent diisopropyl fluorophosphate (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) decreased the LPS-induced increase in circulating 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) and the exaggerated 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) production following AA challenge. Sodium salicylate (20 or 120 mg kg(-1), i.p.) (administered either 1 h prior, or once per day for 3 days prior, to LPS injection) reduced only the LPS-induced increase in circulating 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), but not the exaggerated 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) production following AA challenge or the expression of COX-2. Thus, salicylate inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 activity in a manner that is overcome by provision of excess substrate and independent of effects on COX-2 expression. In conclusion, our results exclude mechanisms other than direct enzyme inhibition as responsible for the anti-COX effects of salicylate. PMID:11714873

Giuliano, F; Mitchell, J A; Warner, T D



Bis(di-methyl-formamide)-penta-kis-(?-N,2-dioxido-benzene-1-carb-ox-imidato)tetra-kis-(1-methyl-imidazole)di-?-propionato-penta-manganese(III)manganese(II)-di-methyl-formamide-methanol (1/0.24/1.36).  


The title compound [Mn6(C7H4NO3)5(C3H5O2)2(C4H6N2)4.17(C3H7NO)1.83]·0.24C3H7NO·1.36CH3OH or Mn(II)(C3H5O2)2[15-MCMn(III)N(shi)-5](Me-Im)4.17(DMF)1.83·0.24DMF·1.36MeOH (where MC is metallacrown, shi(3-) is salicyl-hydroximate, Me-Im is 1-methyl-imidazole, DMF is N,N-di-methyl-formamide, and MeOH is methanol), contains an Mn(II) ion in the central cavity and five Mn(III) ions in the MC ring. The central Mn(II) ion is seven coordinate and has a geometry best described as distorted face-capped trigonal prismatic with ? angles of 6.13, 10.36, and 11.73° and an estimated average s/h ratio of 1.03±0.11. Four of the ring Mn(III) ions are six coordinate with distorted octa-hedral geometries. Two of the Mn(III) ions have ? absolute stereoconfiguration, while the other two Mn(III) ions have a planar configuration. The fifth Mn(III) ion is five coordinate and has a distorted square pyramidal geometry with ? = 0.20. Three of the Mn(III) ions bind one 1-methyl-imidazole ligand. Two of the ring Mn(III) ions have a 1-methyl-imidazole and a DMF disordered over a coordination site. For one of the ring Mn(III) ions, the occupancy ratio of the ligands refines to 0.51?(1):0.49?(1) in favor of the DMF. For the other ring Mn(III) ion, the occupancy ratio of the ligands refines to 0.68?(1):0.32?(1) in favor of the 1-methyl-imidazole. Two propionate anions serve to bridge the central Mn(II) ion between two different Mn(III) ions. The methyl groups of the bridging propionate anions are disordered over two positions. The methyl group disorder also induces disorder in the H atoms of the adjacent methyl-ene C atom to the same degree. For one of the propionate anions, the occupancy ratio refines to 0.752?(8):0.248?(8) and for the second, the occupancy ratio refines to 0.604?(6):0.396?(6). In addition, the disorder of the methyl group of the latter propionate anion is correlated with a partially occupied [0.604?(6)] methanol mol-ecule. Furthermore, a methanol mol-ecule and a DMF mol-ecule are positionally disordered in the lattice. The occupancy refines to 0.757?(7):0.243?(7) in favor of the methanol mol-ecule. Correlated to the occupancy of the methanol and DMF mol-ecules is a disordered benzene ring of one salicyl-hydroximate ligand. The benzene ring is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.757?(7):0.243?(7). Lastly, the two lattice methanol mol-ecules are hydrogen bonded to the 15-MC-5 mol-ecule. For the partially occupied methanol mol-ecule associated with the disordered propionate anion, the hydroxyl group of the methanol is hydrogen bonded to a carboxyl-ate O atom of the propionate anion. For the partially occupied methanol mol-ecule associated with the partially occupied lattice DMF mol-ecule, the hydroxyl group of the methanol is hydrogen bonded to the phenolate O atom of a salicyl-hydroximate ligand and to the carbonyl O atom of a coordinated DMF mol-ecule. PMID:24426984

Lutter, Jacob C; Kampf, Jeff W; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M



Harpin induces disease resistance in Arabidopsis through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NIM1 gene.  


Harpin, the product of the hrpN gene of Erwinia amylovora, elicits the hypersensitive response and disease resistance in many plants. Harpin and known inducers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) were tested on five genotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana to assess the role of SAR in harpin-induced resistance. In wild-type plants, harpin elicited systemic resistance to Peronospora parasitica and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, accompanied by induction of the SAR genes PR-1 and PR-2. However, in experiments with transgenic Arabidopsis plants containing the nahG gene which prevents accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), harpin neither elicited resistance nor activated SAR gene expression. Harpin also failed to activate SAR when applied to nim1 (non-inducible immunity) mutants, which are defective in responding to SA and regulation of SAR. In contrast, mutants compromised in responsiveness to methyl jasmonate and ethylene developed the same resistance as did wild-type plants. Thus, harpin elicits disease resistance through the NIM1-mediated SAR signal transduction pathway in an SA-dependent fashion. The site of action of harpin in the SAR regulatory pathway is upstream of SA. PMID:10571880

Dong, H; Delaney, T P; Bauer, D W; Beer, S V



Ozone Sensitivity in Hybrid Poplar Correlates with Insensitivity to Both Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid. The Role of Programmed Cell Death in Lesion Formation1  

PubMed Central

Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response.

Koch, Jennifer Riehl; Creelman, Robert A.; Eshita, Steven M.; Seskar, Mirjana; Mullet, John E.; Davis, Keith R.



Use of a molecular form technique for the penetration of supersaturated solutions of salicylic acid across silicone membranes and human skin in vitro.  


Permeation enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) from supersaturated solutions formed using a 'molecular form' technique was investigated. In a conventional cosolvent technique, two solvents are used, one in which the drug is considerably more soluble than the other. Propylene glycol and water have been predominantly used as cosolvents to create supersaturation in skin permeation enhancement. In this paper, we report the use of buffer solutions with different pHs as media for producing different molecular forms. Supersaturated solutions were prepared using pH 8:pH 2 (80:20 v/v), which gave a nominal pH when mixed of around 5. Model silicone membranes and human skin were used. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) was employed to stabilise the supersaturated states. Stability data showed that while the SA supersaturated solutions without HPMC crystallised between 15 min and 46 h depending on the degree of supersaturation, the solutions with HPMC were stable for more than 2 months. The flux of SA increased with the degree of saturation for solutions prepared in a 80:20 buffer pH 8/buffer pH 2 mixture. Although the fluxes of SA with and without HPMC were similar both through silicone membrane and human skin, HPMC was found to be effective in increasing the stability of supersaturated solutions of SA. PMID:16650701

Leveque, N; Raghavan, S L; Lane, M E; Hadgraft, J



DNA methylation and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is tremendous ferment in the field of epigenetics as the relationships between chromatin structure and DNA methylation patterns become clearer. Central to this activity is the realization that the ‘histone code’, which involves the post-translational modification of histones and which has important ramifications for chromatin structure, may be linked to the DNA cytosine methylation pattern. New discoveries have suggested

Peter A Jones



Analysis of regulatory elements involved in the induction of two tobacco genes by salicylate treatment and virus infection.  

PubMed Central

Tobacco genes encoding the PR-1a protein and a glycine-rich protein are expressed after treatment of plants with salicylate or infection with tobacco mosaic virus. Upstream sequences of these genes were fused to reporter genes, and these constructs were used to transform tobacco. Upstream sequences of the PR-1a gene of 689 base pairs or longer were sufficient for induction of the reporter gene in tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated leaves, systemically induced leaves from infected plants, and leaves treated with salicylate. No such induction was found with upstream sequences of 643 base pairs or shorter of the PR-1a gene. When the PR-1a upstream sequence from nucleotides -625 to -902 was fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S core promoter, a construct was obtained that conferred tobacco mosaic virus and salicylate inducibility to the reporter gene in transgenic plants. This confirmed the localization of tobacco mosaic virus- and salicylate-responsive elements between positions -643 and -689 in the PR-1a promoter. With the glycine-rich protein gene, an upstream sequence of 645 base pairs was sufficient for tobacco mosaic virus and salicylate inducibility of the reporter gene, whereas constructs containing 400 base pairs or fewer of the glycine-rich protein promoter were largely inactive.

Van de Rhee, M D; Van Kan, J A; Gonzalez-Jaen, M T; Bol, J F



[Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].  


An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

Xiao, J H



Domains of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b silencing suppressor protein affecting inhibition of salicylic acid-induced resistance and priming of salicylic acid accumulation during infection  

PubMed Central

The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b silencing suppressor protein allows the virus to overcome resistance to replication and local movement in inoculated leaves of plants treated with salicylic acid (SA), a resistance-inducing plant hormone. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants systemically infected with CMV, the 2b protein also primes the induction of SA biosynthesis during this compatible interaction. We found that CMV infection of susceptible tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) also induced SA accumulation. Utilization of mutant 2b proteins expressed during infection of tobacco showed that the N- and C-terminal domains, which had previously been implicated in regulation of symptom induction, were both required for subversion of SA-induced resistance, while all mutants tested except those affecting the putative phosphorylation domain had lost the ability to prime SA accumulation and expression of the SA-induced marker gene PR-1.

Zhou, Tao; Murphy, Alex M.; Lewsey, Mathew G.; Westwood, Jack H.; Zhang, Heng-Mu; Gonzalez, Inmaculada; Canto, Tomas



Domains of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b silencing suppressor protein affecting inhibition of salicylic acid-induced resistance and priming of salicylic acid accumulation during infection.  


The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b silencing suppressor protein allows the virus to overcome resistance to replication and local movement in inoculated leaves of plants treated with salicylic acid (SA), a resistance-inducing plant hormone. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants systemically infected with CMV, the 2b protein also primes the induction of SA biosynthesis during this compatible interaction. We found that CMV infection of susceptible tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) also induced SA accumulation. Utilization of mutant 2b proteins expressed during infection of tobacco showed that the N- and C-terminal domains, which had previously been implicated in regulation of symptom induction, were both required for subversion of SA-induced resistance, while all mutants tested except those affecting the putative phosphorylation domain had lost the ability to prime SA accumulation and expression of the SA-induced marker gene PR-1. PMID:24633701

Zhou, Tao; Murphy, Alex M; Lewsey, Mathew G; Westwood, Jack H; Zhang, Heng-Mu; González, Inmaculada; Canto, Tomás; Carr, John P



Study of supramolecular frameworks having aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, N,N?-bis(salicyl)ethylenediamine and N,N?-bis(salicyl)butylenediamine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of bases (L1 and L2) (where L1 = N,N?-bis(salicyl)ethylenediamine, L2 = N,N?-bis(salicyl)butylenediamine) with dicarboxylic acids [adipic acid (1,6-Hexanedioic acid, AA), pimelic acid (1,7-Heptanedioic acid, PA) and suberic acid (1,8-Octanedioic acid, SUA] yielded the corresponding six new ionic salts viz., [1/2L1H+?1/2AA-?1/2AA] (1), [2 × 1/2L1H+?PA2-?CHCl3] (2) [1/2L1H+?1/2SUA-] (3), [1/2L2H+?1/2AA-?2CH3OH] (4), [1/2L2H+?1/2PA-] (5) and [1/2L2H+?1/2SUA-] (6), respectively. Theses salts were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR, X-ray crystallography, and theoretically by means of Gaussian 09. The X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that the proton transfer occurred from acid to base. It also demonstrated that different type of hydrogen bond interactions between cations and anions were responsible for the supramolecular frameworks. The optimized structures of these salts were calculated in terms of the density functional theory. The curve fitting analysis between experimental and simulated data of structural parameters was done, and found statistically close. The orientation of molecules was remained same in both the gas and solid phases. The thermal studies of these salts were investigated by TG-DTG.

Goel, Nidhi; Kumar, Naresh



Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.



Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on the growth, antioxidant activity and physiology of carrot plants subjected to combined salinity and boron toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that salicylic acid (SA) plays a role in the response of plants to salt and osmotic stresses. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of exogenous salicylic acid on the growth, physiology and antioxidant activity of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Nantes) grown under combined stress of salinity and boron toxicity. The treatments consisted

Figen Eraslan; Ali Inal; Aydin Gunes; Mehmet Alpaslan



Targeted delivery of salicylic acid from acne treatment products into and through skin: role of solution and ingredient properties and relationships to irritation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is a beta hydroxy acid and has multifunctional uses in the treatment of various diseases in skin such as acne, psoriasis, and photoaging. One problem often cited as associated with salicylic acid is that it can be quite irritating at pH 3-4, where it exhibits the highest activity in the treatment of skin diseases. We have identified




Combined effects of salicylic acid and furosemide and noise on hearing  

PubMed Central

Background A major cause of the hearing loss following exposure to intense noise involves release of free radicals resulting from the elevated metabolism. The free radicals induce damage to several of the components of the cochlear amplifier including the outer hair cells and indirectly to the transduction currents. Salicylic acid induces a reversible hearing loss since it binds to the motor protein prestin in the outer hair cells, reducing electromotility. Furosemide also induces a reversible hearing loss since it reduces the endocochlear potential which is a major component of the cochlear transduction currents. On the other hand, each of these drugs also provides protection from a noise induced hearing loss if they are injected just before a noise exposure, probably as a result of the decreased metabolism induced in their presence, with release of lower levels of free radicals. In this study, both drugs were administered in order to assess whether their protective effects would be additive. Methods The study was conducted on normal hearing albino mice of the Sabra strain. They were injected with either salicylic acid alone (N = 11), or furosemide alone (N = 14), or both together (N = 14), or with saline control (N = 11) and exposed to broad band noise for 3.5 hours. An additional group of 9 mice was injected with both salicylic acid and furosemide, but not exposed to noise. The degree of the resulting hearing loss was assessed by recording thresholds of the auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses to broad band clicks before the injections and noise, and 7, 14 and 21 days after. Results The noise induced hearing loss in the mice injected with salicylic acid alone or furosemide alone was smaller than in those injected with saline, i.e. these drugs provided protection, as in previous studies in this laboratory. There was no threshold elevation after two weeks in the mice injected with both drugs without noise exposure, i.e. the effects of the two drugs given together was reversible. On the other hand, there was a significant hearing loss (i.e. threshold elevation) in the group which received both drugs and was also exposed to noise, with mean threshold elevations of 38.8 ± 19.0 dB and 28.3 ± 11.7 dB 7 days after noise exposure. Conclusions This result is very surprising, if not paradoxical. Drugs which provide protection from a noise induced hearing loss when administered alone, not only do not provide protection when given together, but also induce a greater hearing loss when accompanied by noise. This observation may be related to the finding that the depression of the endocochlear potential normally caused by furosemide is reduced in the presence of salicylic acid, so that the protection usually provided by furosemide is not present when it is administered together with salicylic acid. Thus it seems that each drug may interfere with the protective action of the other when coupled with noise.



Salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group for azo-bridged zinc porphyrin in dye-sensitized solar cells.  


Two series dyes of azo-bridged zinc porphyrins have been devised, synthesized, and performed in dye-sensitized solar cells, in which salicylic acids and azo groups were introduced as a new anchoring group and ?-conjugated bridge via a simple synthetic procedure. The representation of the new dyes has been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical means. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of their DSSC devices has been improved compared with other DSSC devices sensitized by symmetrical porphyrin dyes. The results revealed that tridentate binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles could enhance the efficiency of electron injection. The binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles may play a crucial role in the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. PMID:24229086

Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Li, Bo; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping



Fast and single solid phase fluorescence spectroscopic batch procedure for (acetyl) salicylic acid determination in drug formulations.  


A solid phase fluorescence spectroscopic batch procedure for (acetyl) salicylic acid in drug formulations have been developed. The procedure is based on the sorption of salicylic acid (SA) on Sephadex DEAE A-25 anion exchanger gel (100 mg) by equilibration from an aqueous solution (10 or 25 ml) for 5 min; the equilibrated gel is transferred into an 1 mm quartz cell and the native fluorescence of SA sorbed on it is directly measured (lambda(ex)=297 nm; lambda(em)=405 nm). Good linearity was found in the 10-200 and 5-100 microg l(-1) ranges (for 10 and 25 ml sample volume, respectively) with R.S.D. (%) of 2.8 and 1.1. The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) in drug formulations after alkaline hydrolysis to yield SA. PMID:12615230

Ortega Algar, S; Ramos Martos, N; Molina Díaz, A



Comparing analgesic effects of a topical herbal mixed medicine with salicylate in patients with knee osteoarthritis.  


Knee osteoarthritis is the most common cause of disability among people and it is a common disease of joints that can lead to cartilage damage. In this study the analgesic effects of a herbal ointment containing cinnamon, ginger, mastic (Saghez) and sesame oil is compared with Salicylate ointment in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trail study. Patients with diagnosed arthritis were involved in the study and they were divided in two groups via block randomization method. For six weeks, twice a day, intervention group applied herbal ointment and control group used Salicylate ointment. The severity of pain, morning stiffness and limited motion were measured using Visual Analog Pain Scale. In order to analyze the trends of these three indexes, repeated measurement test was used. Ninety two participates with the mean age of 52.2 (+/- 12.4) years and with the mean disease period of 30.45 (+/- 30.3) months were involved in the study. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding the distribution of sex, weight, height, BMI and the duration of illness. No statistical difference was observed between two groups regarding pain relief, morning stiffness and limited motion; nevertheless in repeated measurements during second, forth and sixth weeks in both groups the decreasing trend of these three indexes had been statistically significant (p < 0.0001). It seems that using this herbal combination is clinically effective for patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis in order to decrease their pain, morning stiffness and limited motion; its effect is comparable with Salicylate ointment. PMID:22308653

Zahmatkash, Mohsen; Vafaeenasab, Mohammad Reza



Salicylic acid-dependent and -independent impact of an RNA-binding protein on plant immunity.  


Plants overexpressing the RNA-binding protein AtGRP7 (AtGRP7-ox plants) constitutively express the PR-1 (PATHOGENESIS-RELATED-1), PR-2 and PR-5 transcripts associated with salicylic acid (SA)-mediated immunity and show enhanced resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000. Here, we investigated whether the function of AtGRP7 in plant immunity depends on SA. Endogenous SA was elevated fivefold in AtGRP7-ox plants. The elevated PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5 levels were eliminated upon expression of the salicylate hydroxylase nahG in AtGRP7-ox plants and elevated PR-1 levels were suppressed by sid (salicylic acid deficient) 2-1 that is impaired in SA biosynthesis. RNA immunoprecipitation showed that AtGRP7 does not bind the PR-1 transcript in vivo, whereas it binds PDF1.2. Constitutive or inducible AtGRP7 overexpression increases PR-1 promoter activity, indicating that AtGRP7 affects PR-1 transcription. In line with this, the effect of AtGRP7 on PR-1 is suppressed by npr (non-expressor of PR genes) 1. Whereas AtGRP7-ox plants restricted growth of Pto DC3000 compared with wild type (wt), sid2-1?AtGRP7-ox plants allowed more growth than AtGRP7-ox plants. Furthermore, we show an enhanced hypersensitive response triggered by avirulent Pto DC3000 (AvrRpt2) in AtGRP7-ox compared with wt. In sid2-1?AtGRP7-ox, an intermediate phenotype was observed. Thus, AtGRP7 has both SA-dependent and SA-independent effects on plant immunity. PMID:23961939

Hackmann, Christian; Korneli, Christin; Kutyniok, Magdalene; Köster, Tino; Wiedenlübbert, Matthias; Müller, Caroline; Staiger, Dorothee



Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.  


Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored M0 to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to M0 was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P=0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1%, respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P=0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P=0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P=0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P<0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. PMID:24268474

Schultz, N; Capion, N



Nanocarrier-based hydrogel of betamethasone dipropionate and salicylic acid for treatment of psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Betamethasone dipropionate (BD) has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity. The aim of the current work was to test the hypothesis that the addition of corticosteroid such as BD and a keratolytic agent such as salicylic acid in nanocarrier based microemulsions formulation would result in enhancement and sustaining of corticosteroid delivery rate leading to better anti-psoriatic activity. Clinical use of BD is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. So to increase its permeation across the skin, microemulsion-based gel formulations were prepared and characterised. Materials and Methods: Microemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using oleic acid:sefsol (1.5:1), Tween 20, isopropyl alcohol, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, cosurfactant and aqueous phase, respectively. Selected formulations were subjected to physical stability studies and consequently in vitro skin permeation studies. Surface studies of optimized formulation were done by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was done by carageenan-induced raw paw edema method. Results: The droplet size of microemulsions ranged from 60 to 190 nm. The optimized formulation exhibited viscosity 28.55 ± 2.03 mP, refractive index 1.409, pH 6.4, and conductivity 10-4 scm-1. The optimized microemulsion was converted into hydrogel using carbopol 934, and salicylic acid was incorporated into it. Drug deposition in skin was found to be 29.73 ?g/mg. Assessment of skin permeation was done by histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 72.11% and 43.96% inhibition of inflammation in case of developed microemulsion gel and marketed gel, respectively. Conclusions: The developed microemulsion gel containing BD and salicylic acid provided sustained and good anti-inflammatory activity for the treatment of psoriasis.

Baboota, Sanjula; Alam, Md Sarfaraz; Sharma, Shrestha; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Kumar, Anil; Ali, Javed



One-stop genomic DNA extraction by salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.  


Salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by nonspecific binding of the particles as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared with traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally friendly. PMID:23911528

Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas S; Irudayaraj, Joseph



Hydroxyl radical detection with a salicylate probe using modified CUPRAC spectrophotometry and HPLC.  


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may attack biological macromolecules giving rise to oxidative stress-originated diseases, so it is important to establish efficient methods to screen hydroxyl radical scavengers for antioxidant therapy. Since *OH is very short-lived, secondary products resulting from *OH attack to various probes are measured. As a low-cost measurement technique, we used a salicylate probe for detecting hydroxyl radicals generated from an equivalent mixture of Fe(II)+EDTA with hydrogen peroxide. The produced hydroxyl radicals attacked both the probe and the water-soluble antioxidants in 37 degrees C-incubated solutions for 2 h. The CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay absorbance of the ethylacetate extract due to the reduction of Cu(II)-neocuproine reagent by the hydroxylated probe decreased in the presence of *OH scavengers, the difference being proportional to the scavenging ability of the tested compound. Attack by *OH radicals upon salicylate produced 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate as major products. HPLC separation combined with CUPRAC spectrophotometry was used to identify and quantify hydroxylated salicylate derivatives in the presence of synthetic water-soluble antioxidants and green tea infusion. The developed spectrophotometric method for *OH detection was validated with HPLC, i.e., the concentrations of dihydroxybenzoates produced by radical attack from the probe were determined by HPLC, and the sum of (concentrationxabsorptivity) products of these components approximately agreed with the experimentally found CUPRAC absorbances, confirming the validity of Beer's law for the selected system. Statistical comparison of the results found with the proposed methodology and HPLC was made with two-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) test. Under optimal conditions, about 53% of the probe (salicylate) was converted into dihydroxybenzoate isomers in the absence of *OH scavengers, and these isomers were more specific markers of hydroxyl radicals than the non-specific malondialdehyde end-product of the TBARS test. Thus, the more costly and less speedy HPLC method could advantageously be substituted with the proposed spectrophotometric assay of *OH detection, which was also of much higher yield than the TBARS colorimetric assay. PMID:18804604

Bekta?o?lu, Burcu; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Re?at



Storage Stability Study of Salicylate-based Poly(anhydride-esters)  

PubMed Central

Storage stability was evaluated on a biodegradable salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) to elucidate the effects of storage conditions over time. The hydrolytically labile polymer samples were stored in powdered form at five relevant storage temperatures (?12 °C, 4 °C, 27 °C, 37 °C, 50 °C) and monitored over four weeks for changes in color, glass transition temperature, molecular weight, and extent of hydrolysis. Samples stored at lower temperatures remained relatively constant with respect to bond hydrolysis and molecular weight. Whereas, samples stored at higher temperatures displayed significant hydrolysis. For hydrolytically degradable polymers, such as these poly(anhydride-esters), samples are best stored at low temperatures under an inert atmosphere.

deRonde, Brittany M.; Carbone, Ashley L.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.



Syntheses, characterization and crystal structures of novel amine adducts of metal saccharinates, orotates and salicylates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven novel adducts of ethylenediamine (en), N,N?-dimethylethylenediamine (dmen) and N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (ndmen) with saccharinate, orotate and salicylate as counter-ions were synthesized and characterized with physico-chemical methods (IR and UV\\/vis spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility and thermoanalytical measurements) and X-ray diffraction. Reaction of dmen with tetraaquabis(saccharinato-N)copper(II) dihydrate yielded diaquabis(dmen)copper(II) saccharinate, whereas with the corresponding nickel derivative it afforded bis(dmen)bis(saccharinato-O)nickel(II). In the copper complex the

Hasan Icbudak; Halis Olmez; Okan Z Yesilel; Figen Arslan; Pance Naumov; Gligor Jovanovski; Abdul Razak Ibrahim; Anwar Usman; Hoong-Kun Fun; Suchada Chantrapromma; Seik Weng Ng



Enterobactin Protonation and Iron Release: Structural Characterization of the Salicylate Coordination Shift in Ferric Enterobactin  

PubMed Central

The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by many species of enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. This iron scavenger can be reincorporated by the bacteria as the ferric complex [FeIII(Ent)]3- and is subsequently hydrolyzed by an esterase to facilitate intracellular iron release. Recent literature reports on altered protein recognition and binding of modified enterobactin increase the significance of understanding the structural features and solution chemistry of ferric enterobactin. The structure of the neutral protonated ferric enterobactin complex [FeIII(H3Ent)]0 has been the source of some controversy and confusion in the literature. To demonstrate the proposed change of coordination from the tris-catecholate [FeIII(Ent)]3- to the tris-salicylate [FeIII(H3Ent)]0 upon protonation, the coordination chemistry of two new model compounds N,N’,N”-tris[2-(hydroxybenzoyl)carbonyl]cyclotriseryl trilactone (SERSAM) and N,N’,N”-tris[2-hydroxy,3-methoxy(benzoyl)carbonyl]cyclotriseryl trilactone (SER(3M)SAM) was examined in solution and solid state. Both SERSAM and SER(3M)SAM form tris-salicylate ferric complexes with spectroscopic and solution thermodynamic properties (with log ?110 values of 39 and 38 respectively) similar to those of [FeIII(H3Ent)]0. The fits of EXAFS spectra of the model ferric complexes and the two forms of ferric enterobactin provided bond distances and disorder factors in the metal coordination sphere for both coordination modes. The protonated [FeIII(H3Ent)]0 complex (dFe-O = 1.98 Å, ?2stat(O) = 0.00351(10) Å2) exhibits a shorter average Fe-O bond length but a much higher static Debye-Waller factor for the first oxygen-shell than the catecholate [FeIII(Ent)]3- complex (dFe-O = 2.00 Å, ?2stat(O) = 0.00067(14) Å2). 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the amide bond rotation between the catecholate and salicylate geometries using the gallic complexes of enterobactin; [GaIII(Ent)]3- and [GaIII(H3Ent)]0. The ferric salicylate complexes display quasi-reversible reduction potentials from ?89 mV to ?551 mV (relative to the normal hydrogen electrode NHE) which supports the feasibility of a low pH iron release mechanism facilitated by biological reductants.

Abergel, Rebecca J.; Warner, Jeffrey A.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.



Neuroprotection by Aspirin and Sodium Salicylate Through Blockade of NF-kappaB Activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a commonly prescribed drug with a wide pharmacological spectrum. At concentrations compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy, acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite sodium salicylate were found to be protective against neurotoxicity elicited by the excitatory amino acid glutamate in rat primary neuronal cultures and hippocampal slices. The site of action of the drugs appeared to be downstream of glutamate receptors and to involve specific inhibition of glutamate-mediated induction of nuclear factor kappa B. These results may contribute to the emerging theme of anti-inflammatory drugs and neurodegeneration.

Grilli, Mariagrazia; Pizzi, Marina; Memo, Maurizio; Spano, Pierfranco



Effect of sodium acetyl salicylate on cholesterol saturation of fasting gall bladder bile, with and without chenic acid.  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were (a) to determine whether sodium acetyl salicylate by itself or in combination with chenodeoxycholic (chenic) acid would decrease the cholesterol saturation index (SI) of fasting gall bladder bile in man; and (b) to confirm prospectively that 8 mg kg-1 day-1 chenic acid given at bedtime together with a low cholesterol diet reduces gall bladder bile SI to a level where consistent gallstone dissolution would be expected. Seven patients were studied on each of the following regimens given in random order for 1 month each: bedtime chenic acid alone 8 mg kg-1 day-1; sodium acetyl salicylate alone 600 mg four times daily; bedtime chenic acid together with sodium acetyl salicylate; no treatment. Gall bladder samples were taken by nasoduodenal intubation at the end of each regimen and SI determined. SI (mean +/- s.e. mean) on low cholesterol diet with no drug treatment was 1.14 +/- 0.06. On bedtime chenic acid 8 mg kg-1 day-1 plus low cholesterol diet it fell to 0.83 +/- 0.03 (P less than 0.05). Sodium acetyl salicylate did not alter gall bladder bile SI. 95% confidence limits for the effect of sodium acetyl salicylate on SI were +0.03 and -0.05. We conclude that (a) sodium acetyl salicylate does not lower SI of gall bladder bile in man; (b) an adequate fall in SI for gallstone dissolution can be achieved with a reduced dose (8 mg kg-1 day-1) of chenic acid given at bedtime with a low cholesterol diet.

Kupfer, R M; Northfield, T C



In vitro effects of tiaprofenic acid, sodium salicylate and hydrocortisone on the proteoglycan metabolism of human osteoarthritic cartilage.  


We examined the in vitro effects of therapeutic doses of tiaprofenic acid (26 micrograms/ml; 2.6 micrograms/ml), sodium salicylate (160 micrograms/ml), and hydrocortisone (7.25 micrograms/ml; 0.725 micrograms/ml) on the proteoglycan metabolism (catabolism and synthesis) and chondrocyte ultrastructure of organ explant cultures of human osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage. The effect of these drugs on chondrocyte neutral metalloprotease synthesis was also examined. Tiaprofenic acid and the higher concentration of hydrocortisone had a similar suppressive effect on proteoglycan catabolism (38%). The effect of the lower concentration of hydrocortisone was less marked (29%), while sodium salicylate had the least effect (21%). The proteoglycan released in each treated group was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than that of the untreated one. The suppression of proteoglycan catabolism by tiaprofenic acid was reversible in all but one specimen. This reversal was only seen in 4 of the 8 patient specimens treated with sodium salicylate and in 2 of the 8 patient specimens treated with the higher dose of hydrocortisone. The decrease in proteoglycan catabolism induced by these drugs correlated with their potential to reduce synthesis of neutral metalloprotease. The proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage organ explant cultures was reduced by sodium salicylate and hydrocortisone, but not by tiaprofenic acid. These findings were corroborated through an electron microscopic study, showing extensive vesicular dilatation of chondrocytic endoplasmic reticulum seen only in explants treated with hydrocortisone or sodium salicylate. Our data suggests that some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) are able to decrease OA cartilage catabolism. However, caution should be taken since certain NSAID, like salicylate, may also possibly jeopardize the cartilage repair process by inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis. PMID:2754669

Pelletier, J P; Cloutier, J M; Martel-Pelletier, J



Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin  

SciTech Connect

The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E{sub 2} to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa.

Goddard, P.J.



Lysine methylation goes global.  


The process of post-translational covalent modifications of proteins represents a transcription-independent regulatory mechanism allowing rapid alteration of protein activity and function in response to various intra- and extracellular stimuli. Lysine methylation (KM) was deemed to be a constant covalent mark, providing long-term signaling, including the histone-dependent mechanism for transcriptional memory. Only recently has it become apparent that lysine methylation, similar to other covalent modifications, is transient and can be dynamically regulated by an opposing activity, de-methylation. These discoveries accelerated a systematic search for other nonhistone substrates of lysine methylation, especially among transcription factors. Recent findings suggest that KM affects gene expression not only at the level of chromatin, but also by modifying transcription factors. PMID:16760670

Morgunkova, Anna; Barlev, Nick A



Methylations: a radical mechanism.  


On the basis of labeling experiments, Grove et al. (2011) have shown how an electrophilic carbon (from an RNA adenosine) can be methylated by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases though an original radical mechanism. PMID:21609836

Fontecave, Marc




EPA Science Inventory

Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...


DNA Methylation and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a DNA methylation acts in concert with other epigenetic mechanisms to regulate normal gene expression and facilitate chromatin\\u000a organization within cells. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are acquired during carcinogenic transformation; such events\\u000a are often accompanied by alterations in chromatin structure at gene regulatory regions. The expression pattern of any given\\u000a gene is achieved by interacting epigenetic mechanisms. First, the insertion of

Phillippa C. Taberlay; Peter A. Jones


Methylation-specific PCR.  


Defining DNA methylation patterns in the genome has become essential for understanding diverse biological processes including the regulation of gene expression, imprinted genes, and X chromosome inactivation and how these patterns are deregulated in human diseases. Methylation-specific (MS)-PCR is a useful tool for qualitative DNA methylation analysis with multiple advantages, including ease of design and execution, sensitivity in the ability to detect small quantities of methylated DNA, and the ability to rapidly screen a large number of samples without the need for purchase of expensive laboratory equipment. This assay requires modification of the genomic DNA by sodium bisulfite and two independent primer sets for PCR amplification, one pair designed to recognize the methylated and the other pair the unmethylated versions of the bisulfite-modified sequence. The amplicons are visualized using ethidium bromide staining following agarose gel electrophoresis. Amplicons of the expected size produced from either primer pair are indicative of the presence of DNA in the original sample with the respective methylation status. PMID:23913210

Huang, Zhiqing; Bassil, Christopher F; Murphy, Susan K



DNA methylation and differentiation.  

PubMed Central

The methylation of specific cytosine residues in DNA has been implicated in regulating gene expression and facilitating functional specialization of cellular phenotypes. Generally, the demethylation of certain CpG sites correlates with transcriptional activation of genes. 5-Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methylation and has been widely used as a potent activator of suppressed genetic information. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine results in profound phenotypic alterations. The drug-induced hypomethylation of DNA apparently perturbs DNA-protein interactions that may consequently alter transcriptional activity and cell determination. The inhibitory effect of cytosine methylation may be exerted via altered DNA-protein interactions specifically or may be transduced by a change in the conformation of chromatin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cytosine methylation also plays a central role in parental imprinting, which in turn determines the differential expression of maternal and paternal genomes during embryogenesis. In other words, methylation is the mechanism whereby the embryo retains memory of the gametic origin of each component of genetic information. A memory of this type would probably persist during DNA replication and cell division as methylation patterns are stable and heritable.

Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A



Solid phase extraction-spectrophotometric determination of salicylic acid using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as extractor.  


This method shows a novel, fast and simple solid phase extraction-spectrophotometric procedure for preconcentration and determination of salicylic acid (SA) in blood serum using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as extractor. It is shown that the novel magnetic nano-adsorbent is quite efficient for fast adsorption of SA at 25 degrees C. Various parameters affecting the adsorption of SA on MIONs, such as pH of solution, type, volume and concentration of desorbing reagent and amount of adsorbent and matrix effects, have been investigated. The calibration graph for the determination of SA was linear in the range of 0.025-1.250microgmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3S(b)) was 5.5x10(-3)microgmL(-1) (n=10) for SA. The intra-day precision (R.S.D.) was below 10.1% and inter-day R.S.D. was less than 17.5%, while accuracy (relative error R.E.) was within +/-3.6 determined from quality control samples for salicylic acid (SA) which corresponded to requirement of the guidance of Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved in this method. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of SA in blood serum. PMID:19406599

Parham, Hooshang; Rahbar, Nadereh



Salicylic acid and NIM1/NPR1-independent gene induction by incompatible Peronospora parasitica in arabidopsis.  


To identify pathogen-induced genes distinct from those involved in systemic acquired resistance, we used cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism to examine RNA levels in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, nim1-1, and salicylate hydroxylase-expressing plants after inoculation with an incompatible isolate of the downy mildew pathogen Peronospora parasitica. Fifteen genes are described, which define three response profiles on the basis of whether their induction requires salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and NIM1/NPR1 activity, SA alone, or neither. Sequence analysis shows that the genes include a calcium binding protein related to TCH3, a protein containing ankyrin repeats and potential transmembrane domains, three glutathione S-transferase gene family members, and a number of small, putatively secreted proteins. We further characterized this set of genes by assessing their expression patterns in each of the three plant lines after inoculation with a compatible P. parasitica isolate and after treatment with the SA analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. Some of the genes within subclasses showed different requirements for SA accumulation and NIM1/NPR1 activity, depending upon which elicitor was used, indicating that those genes were not coordinately regulated and that the regulatory pathways are more complex than simple linear models would indicate. PMID:11605963

Rairdan, G J; Donofrio, N M; Delaney, T P



NSAIDs, Mitochondria and Calcium Signaling: Special Focus on Aspirin/Salicylates  

PubMed Central

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has long been used as an anti-pyretic and analgesic drug. Recently, much attention has been paid to the chemopreventive and apoptosis-inducing effects of NSAIDs in cancer cells. These effects have been thought to be primarily attributed to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis. However, recent studies have demonstrated unequivocally that certain NSAIDs, including aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid, exert their anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects independently of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. It is becoming increasingly evident that two potential common targets of NSAIDs are mitochondria and the Ca2+ signaling pathway. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the roles of mitochondria and Ca2+ in the apoptosis-inducing effects as well as some side effects of aspirin, salicylates and other NSAIDs, and introducing the emerging role of L-type Ca2+ channels, a new Ca2+ entry pathway in non-excitable cells that is up-regulated in human cancer cells.

Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Toshio; Ra, Chisei



Ascorbic Acid and Salicylic Acid Mitigate NaCl Stress in Caralluma tuberculata Calli.  


Plants exposed to salt stress undergo biochemical and morphological changes even at cellular level. Such changes also include activation of antioxidant enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, while morphological changes are determined as deformation of membranes and organelles. Present investigation substantiates this phenomenon for Caralluma tuberculata calli when exposed to NaCl stress at different concentrations. Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in NaCl-stressed calli dwindled upon application of non-enzymatic antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA). Many fold increased enzymes concentrations trimmed down even below as present in the control calli. Electron microscopic images accentuated several cellular changes upon NaCl stress such as plasmolysed plasma membrane, disruption of nuclear membrane, increased numbers of nucleoli, alteration in shape and lamellar membrane system in plastid, and increased number of plastoglobuli. The cells retrieved their normal structure upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the present experiments conclude that NaCl aggravate oxidative molecules that eventually alleviate antioxidant enzymatic system. Furthermore, the salt stress knocked down by applying ascorbic acid and salicylic acid manifested by normal enzyme level and restoration of cellular structure. PMID:24744157

Rehman, Riaz Ur; Zia, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Lu, Gang; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz



ocs element promoter sequences are activated by auxin and salicylic acid in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

ocs elements are a group of promoter elements that have been exploited by two distinct groups of plant pathogens, Agrobacterium and certain viruses, to express genes in plants. We examined the activity of single and multiple ocs elements linked to a minimal plant promoter and the uidA reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis. beta-Glucuronidase activity was detected only in root tips and in callus tissue after auxin treatment. A more sensitive assay revealed that auxin treatment also increased ocs element activity in aerial parts of the plant, although the absolute levels of ocs element activity were greater in roots. The response of ocs elements to exogenous auxin began within 1 h. Salicylic acid, a disease-resistance signal in plants, also increased ocs element activity in both roots and aerial parts of the plant. The question of whether the induction in ocs element activity is mediated through auxin and/or salicylic acid signal transduction pathways or is part of a more general stress response is discussed. Images

Zhang, B; Singh, K B



Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions.  


Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100-1100mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15mg/gh were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum YX/S of 0.5g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16g/m(2). PMID:24413046

Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario



Salicylate-induced growth arrest is associated with inhibition of p70s6k and down-regulation of c-myc, cyclin D1, cyclin A, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.  


Salicylate and its pro-drug form aspirin are widely used medicinally for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, and more recently for their ability to protect against colon cancer and cardiovascular disease. Despite the wide use of salicylate, the mechanisms underlying its biological activities are largely unknown. Recent reports suggest that salicylate may produce some of its effects by modulating the activities of protein kinases. Since we have previously shown that the farnesyltransferase inhibitor l-744, 832 inhibits cell proliferation and p70(s6k) activity, and salicylate inhibits cell proliferation, we examined whether salicylate affects p70(s6k) activity. We find that salicylate potently inhibits p70(s6k) activation and phosphorylation in a p38 MAPK-independent manner. Interestingly, low salicylate concentrations (salicylate concentrations (>/=5 mm) are required to block p70(s6k) activation by epidermal growth factor + insulin-like growth factor-1. These data suggest that salicylate may selectively inhibit p70(s6k) activation in response to specific stimuli. Inhibition of p70(s6k) by salicylate occurs within 5 min, is independent of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, and is associated with dephosphorylation of p70(s6k) on its major rapamycin-sensitive site, Thr(389). A rapamycin-resistant mutant of p70(s6k) is resistant to salicylate-induced Thr(389) dephosphorylation. PMID:10993886

Law, B K; Waltner-Law, M E; Entingh, A J; Chytil, A; Aakre, M E; Nørgaard, P; Moses, H L



Optical biosensor for environmental on-line monitoring of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability with an immobilized bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium  

SciTech Connect

An optical whole-cell biosensor based on a genetically engineered bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium was developed for continuous on-line monitoring of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability and microbial catabolic activity potential in waste streams. The bioluminescent reporter bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, carries a transcriptional nahG-luxCDABE fusion for naphthalene and salicylate catabolism. Exposure to either compound resulted in inducible bioluminescence. The reporter culture was immobilized onto the surface of an optical guide by using strontium alginate. The biosensor probe was then inserted into a measurement cell which simultaneously received the waste stream solution and a maintenance medium. Exposure under defined conditions to both naphthalene and salicylate resulted in a rapid increase in bioluminescence. The magnitude of the response and the response time were concentration dependent. Good reproducibility of the response was observed during repetitive perturbations with either napthalene or salicylate. Exposure to other compounds, such as glucose and complex nutrient medium or toluene, resulted in either minor bioluminescence increases after significantly longer response times compared with naphthalene or no response, respectively. The environmental utility of the biosensor was tested by using real pollutant mixtures. A specific bioluminescence response was obtained after exposure to either an aqueous solution saturated with JP-4 fuel or an aqueous leachate from a manufactured-gas plant soil, since napthalene was present in both pollutant mixtures. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Heitzer, A.; Malachowsky, K.; Thonnard, J.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others



Down Regulation of Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Salicylic Acid Attenuates Its Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic metabolite produced by plants and is known to play an important role in several physiological processes, such as the induction of plant defense responses against pathogen attack. Here, using the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathosystem, we provide evidence that SA acts directly on the pathogen, down regulating fitness and virulence factor production of the bacteria.

B. Prithiviraj; H. P. Bais; T. Weir; B. Suresh; E. H. Najarro; B. V. Dayakar; H. P. Schweizer; J. M. Vivanco



Salicylic Acid Is Not the Translocated Signal Responsible for Inducing Systemic Acquired Resistance but Is Required in Signal Transduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

lnfection of plants by necrotizing pathogens can induce broad-spectrum resistance to subsequent pathogen Infection. This systemlc acquired resistance (SAR) is thought to be trlggered by a vascular-mobile signal that moves throughout the plant from the infected leaves. A conslderable amount of evldence suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is involved in the induction of SAR. Because SA is found in phloem

Bernard Vernooij; Roland Reist; Rachida KolditzJawhar; Eric Ward; Scott Uknes; Helmut Kessmann; John Ryals



The release dynamics of salicylic acid and tetracycline hydrochloride from the psyllium and polyacrylamide based hydrogels (II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psyllium, a medicinally active natural polysaccharide, has been modified with polyacrylamide to develop the hydrogels; those can act as the potential candidate for novel drug delivery systems. In the present studies, the release dynamics of model drugs (salicylic acid and tetracycline hydrochloride) from the drug-loaded hydrogels have been discussed, for the evaluation of the drug release mechanism and diffusion coefficients.

Baljit Singh; G. S. Chauhan; D. K. Sharma; Nirmala Chauhan



The impact of cytokinin on jasmonate-salicylate antagonism in Arabidopsis immunity against infection with Pst DC3000.  


Cytokinin has long been shown to be an essential modulator of growth and development in plants. However, its implications in plant immunity have only recently been realized. The interaction between jasmonate and salicylate pathways is regarded as a central backbone of plant immune defense. However, the effect of cytokinin on the jasmonate and salicylate mediated balance in plant immunity is still not known. Here, we analyze the impact of cytokinin on the jasmonate-salicylate antagonism in Arabidopsis immunity regarding infection with hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Systems biology analysis of a refined hormone immune pathway model provides insights into the impact of cytokinin on the balance between jasmonate and salicylic acid pathways in Arabidopsis. Targeted experiments validate model simulations monitoring bacterial growth in wild type plants as well as in jasmonate pathway mutants. An integrated analysis shows that CK promotes the SA pathway of plant immunity and does not promote JA-mediated Arabidopsis susceptibility against infection with Pst DC3000. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of an emerging model of auxin-cytokinin antagonism in plant immunity. PMID:24494231

Naseem, Muhammad; Kaltdorf, Martin; Hussain, Anwar; Dandekar, Thomas



The impact of cytokinin on jasmonate-salicylate antagonism in Arabidopsis immunity against infection with Pst DC3000  

PubMed Central

Cytokinin has long been shown to be an essential modulator of growth and development in plants. However, its implications in plant immunity have only recently been realized. The interaction between jasmonate and salicylate pathways is regarded as a central backbone of plant immune defense. However, the effect of cytokinin on the jasmonate and salicylate mediated balance in plant immunity is still not known. Here, we analyze the impact of cytokinin on the jasmonate-salicylate antagonism in Arabidopsis immunity regarding infection with hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Systems biology analysis of a refined hormone immune pathway model provides insights into the impact of cytokinin on the balance between jasmonate and salicylic acid pathways in Arabidopsis. Targeted experiments validate model simulations monitoring bacterial growth in wild type plants as well as in jasmonate pathway mutants. An integrated analysis shows that CK promotes the SA pathway of plant immunity and does not promote JA-mediated Arabidopsis susceptibility against infection with Pst DC3000. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of an emerging model of auxin-cytokinin antagonism in plant immunity.

Naseem, Muhammad; Kaltdorf, Martin; Hussain, Anwar; Dandekar, Thomas



Influence of exogenous salicylic acid on flavonolignans and lipoxygenase activity in the hairy root cultures of Silybum marianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silymarin is one of the most potent antioxidant so far developed from plant sources used as hepatoprotectants. Influence of different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8mg\\/50ml culture) and exposure time (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h) of salicylic acid on lipoxygenase activity, linoleic acid content, growth and production of silymarin in hairy root cultures of S. marianum were

Masumeh Khalili; Tahereh Hasanloo; Seyyed Kamal Kazemi Tabar; Hassan Rahnama



Role of Salicylic Acid in Systemic Resistance Induced by Pseudomonas spp. Against Pythium aphanidermatum in Cucumber Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas corrugata strain 13 and P. aureofaciens strain 63-28, applied to roots, induced systemic resistance against Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber roots. Salicylic acid (SA) from bacterial culture or plant tissues was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Both strains produced SA in King's B broth and also induced cucumber root to accumulate endogenous SA one day after bacterial inoculation. Using

Chunquan Chen; Richard R. Bélanger; Nicole Benhamou; Timothy C. Paulitz



Changes in the Bacterial Flora of Skin of Processed Broiler Chickens Washed in Solutions of Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the number of bacteria recovered from the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in salicylic acid (SA) solutions was examined. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in distilled water (control), 10% SA, or 20% SA by agitating skin in wash solutions in a Stomacher laboratory blender.

A. Hinton Jr.; J. A. Cason



Effect of exogenous salicylic acid supply on nodule formation of hypernodulating mutant and wild type of soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean plant is characterized by a systemic autoregulatory control system of nodulation (autoregulation) by initial infection with rhizobia, and plants commonly display a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to pathogenic microbe infection related to salicylic acid (SA) signal transmission. We investigated the effect of exogenous SA supply on soybean nodulation to determine whether SA affects the autoregulation of nodulation. Seedlings of

Takashi Sato; Hiroyuki Fujikake; Norikuni Ohtake; Kuni Sueyoshi; Tadashi Takahashi; Atsushi Sato; Takuji Ohyama



Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress by abscisic acid and salicylic acid in wheat genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) were sprayed on leaves of wheat genotypes C 306 and Hira at 25 and 40 d after sowing under moderate water stress (?0.8 MPa) imposed by adding PEG-6000 in nutrient solution. ABA and SA increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase in comparison to unsprayed control plants. Both

S. Agarwal; R. K. Sairam; G. C. Srivastava; R. C. Meena



Effects of exogenous salicylic acid pre-treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid content in Linum usitatissimum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in flax plants were studied by investigating plant growth, lipid peroxidation and fatty acid composition. Cadmium inhibited biomass production as well as the absorption of K, Ca, Mg and Fe. Furthermore, it dramatically increased Cd accumulation in both roots and shoots. The pre-soaking of dry flax grains in SA-containing solutions

A. Belkhadi; H. Hediji; Z. Abbes; I. Nouairi; Z. Barhoumi; M. Zarrouk; W. Chaïbi; W. Djebali



Antibiotic effect of exogenously applied salicylic acid on in vitro soilborne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum.  


Salicylic acid, which is biosynthesized inside plant and is often found and accumulated in soil due to plant debris decaying, is considered as a signaling substance during plant-microbe interactions. It is involved in the cycling of biogeochemistry and related to plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. The antibiotic effect of salicylic acid on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum (FON) was studied to investigate the relationships between the salicylic acid and the fungus in the ecological interaction of plant-microbe. Results showed that the biomass, colony diameter, number of conidium germination and conidium production of FON were decreased by 52.0%, 25.7%, 100% and 100% at concentrations of 800 mg L(-1). However, mycotoxin yield was increased by 233%, pectinase activity raised by 168.0% and cellulase activity increased by 1325% compared to control at higher concentrations. It was concluded that salicylic acid as an allelochemical greatly inhibited FON growth and conidia formation and germination, though stimulated mycotoxin production and activities of hydrolytic enzymes by FON. PMID:18952255

Wu, Hong-Sheng; Raza, Waseem; Fan, Jia-Qin; Sun, Yong-Gang; Bao, Wei; Liu, Dong-Yang; Huang, Qi-Wei; Mao, Ze-Sheng; Shen, Qi-Rong; Miao, Wei-Guo



Enhanced skin permeation of salicylate by ion-pair formation in non-aqueous vehicle and further enhancement by ethanol and l-menthol.  


Enhancement of skin permeability of salicylate from non-aqueous vehicle by ion-pair formation with either alkylamines or benzylamine as model cationic ions was examined in excised guinea pig dorsal skin. Solubility of salicylate in isopropyl myristate (IPM) was increased by the addition of either alkylamines or benzylamine as counter ions. The increase was more significant in the presence of amines with longer alkyl chains. Flux of salicylate increased in the presence of these amines due to the increase in the solubility. Maximum flux was observed in the presence of n-hexylamine, which induced an 11-fold increase due to 137-fold increase in solubility. Flux and permeability coefficients of salicylate in the presence of n-butylamine, n-hexylamine, iso-octylamine and benzylamine as counter ions in IPM were larger than those of the non-ionic form of salicylic acid. Flux of 3-methylsalicylate (3-CH3 substituent) and that of 5-hydroxysalicylate (5-OH substituent) were smaller than that of salicylate in the presence of n-hexylamine. After partition to the skin surface, the ion-pair is suggested to dissociate and permeate separately according to the study using lidocaine as the counter ion. Flux of salicylate increased in the presence of benzylamine as the counter ion by the addition of 15% ethanol and 15% ethanol plus 1% l-menthol due to further improvement in the solubility as well as an increase in the permeability coefficient. PMID:16595949

Abu Hena Mostofa Kamal, Mohammad; Iimura, Nahoko; Nabekura, Tomohiro; Kitagawa, Shuji



Ozone-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana: the role of salicylic acid in the accumulation of defense-related transcripts and induced resistance.  

PubMed Central

Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to ozone results in the expression of a number of defense-related genes that are also induced during a hypersensitive response. A potential common link between the activation of defense gene expression during a hypersensitive response and by ozone treatment is the production of active oxygen species and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Here we report that salicylic acid accumulation, which can be induced by hydrogen peroxide and is required for the expression of both a hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance, is also required for the induction of some, but not all, ozone-induced mRNAs examined. In addition, we show that ozone exposure triggers induced resistance of A. thaliana to infection with virulent phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains. Infection of transgenic plants expressing salicylate hydroxylase, which prevents the accumulation of salicylic acid, or npr1 mutant plants, which are defective in the expression of systemic acquired resistance at a step downstream of salicylic acid, demonstrated that the signaling pathway activated during ozone-induced resistance overlaps with the systemic acquired resistance activation pathway and is salicylic acid dependent. Interestingly, plants expressing salicylate hydroxylase exhibited increased sensitivity to ozone exposure. These results demonstrate that ozone activates at least two distinct signaling pathways, including a salicylic acid dependent pathway previously shown to be associated with the activation of pathogen defense reactions, and that this latter pathway also induces a protective response to ozone. Images Fig. 5

Sharma, Y K; Leon, J; Raskin, I; Davis, K R



HSP-72 Accelerated Expression in Mononuclear Cells Induced In Vivo by Acetyl Salicylic Acid Can Be Reproduced In Vitro when Combined with H2O2  

PubMed Central

Background Among NSAIDs acetyl salicylic acid remains as a valuable tool because of the variety of benefic prophylactic and therapeutic effects. Nevertheless, the molecular bases for these responses have not been complete understood. We explored the effect of acetyl salicylic acid on the heat shock response. Results Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from rats challenged with acetyl salicylic acid presented a faster kinetics of expression of HSP-72 messenger RNA and protein in response to in vitro heat shock. This effect reaches its maximum 2 h after treatment and disappeared after 5 h. On isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from untreated rats, incubation with acetyl salicylic acid was ineffective to produce priming, but this effect was mimicked when the cells were incubated with the combination of H2O2+ ASA. Conclusions Administration of acetyl salicylic acid to rats alters HSP-72 expression mechanism in a way that it becomes more efficient in response to in vitro heat shock. The fact that in vitro acetyl salicylic acid alone did not induce this priming effect implies that in vivo other signals are required. Priming could be reproduces in vitro with the combination of acetyl salicylic acid+H2O2.

Sandoval-Montiel, Alvaro A.; Zentella-de-Pina, Martha; Ventura-Gallegos, Jose L.; Frias-Gonzalez, Susana; Lopez-Macay, Ambar; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro



Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils--comparison of two methods.  


Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl. PMID:17723563

Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana



Early senescence and cell death in Arabidopsis saul1 mutants involves the PAD4-dependent salicylic acid pathway.  


Age-dependent leaf senescence and cell death in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) requires activation of the transcription factor ORESARA1 (ORE1) and is not initiated prior to a leaf age of 28 d. Here, we investigate the conditional execution of events that regulate early senescence and cell death in senescence-associated ubiquitin ligase1 (saul1) mutants, deficient in the PLANT U-BOX-ARMADILLO E3 ubiquitin ligase SAUL1. In saul1 mutants challenged with low light, the switch of age-dependent cell death was turned on prematurely, as indicated by the accumulation of ORE1 transcripts, induction of the senescence marker gene SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE12, and cell death. However, ORE1 accumulation by itself was not sufficient to cause saul1 phenotypes, as demonstrated by double mutant analysis. Exposure of saul1 mutants to low light for only 24 h did not result in visible symptoms of senescence; however, the senescence-promoting transcription factor genes WRKY53, WRKY6, and NAC-LIKE ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI were up-regulated, indicating that senescence in saul1 seedlings was already initiated. To resolve the time course of gene expression, microarray experiments were performed at narrow intervals. Differential expression of the genes involved in salicylic acid and defense mechanisms were the earliest events detected, suggesting a central role for salicylic acid in saul1 senescence and cell death. The salicylic acid content increased in low-light-treated saul1 mutants, and application of exogenous salicylic acid was indeed sufficient to trigger saul1 senescence in permissive light conditions. Double mutant analyses showed that PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) but not NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES1 (NPR1) is essential for saul1 phenotypes. Our results indicate that saul1 senescence depends on the PAD4-dependent salicylic acid pathway but does not require NPR1 signaling. PMID:22706448

Vogelmann, Katja; Drechsel, Gabriele; Bergler, Johannes; Subert, Christa; Philippar, Katrin; Soll, Jürgen; Engelmann, Julia C; Engelsdorf, Timo; Voll, Lars M; Hoth, Stefan



Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Methods Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Results Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%–51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%–35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%–25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%–64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%–30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%–21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Interpretation For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. ( registration no. ISRCTN42730629)

Bruggink, Sjoerd C.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; de Waal, Margot W.M.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W.; Eekhof, Just A.H.



Use of the water-soluble fluor sodium salicylate for fluorographic detection of tritium in thin-layer chromatograms and nitrocellulose blots  

SciTech Connect

We have determined that sodium salicylate, a water-soluble fluor which we use routinely for fluorography with polyacrylamide gels, is also useful for fluorography with thin-layer media. Detection of /sup 3/H-labeled material applied to thin-layer chromatography plates, or nitrocellulose membranes, can be enhanced up to 150-fold after treatment with an aqueous solution of 2 M sodium salicylate, while detection of /sup 35/S-labeled material is enhanced only about 2-fold. We demonstrate the utility of sodium salicylate fluorography in detecting 3H-labeled palmitic acid following thin-layer chromatography and /sup 3/H-labeled proteins following blotting to nitrocellulose.

Lucher, L.A.; Lego, T.



Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.  


Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin



Optical trapping investigation on the effects of salicylate on electromechanical properties of plasma membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of cellular membranes to generate electrically-induced mechanical force (EMF) has been demonstrated in many cell types, including cochlear outer hair cells, axons, and some cultured mammalian cells. Models of membrane based EMF generation are based on an interaction between the transmembrane electric field and membrane surface charge. We use a technique that combines optical trapping with voltage clamping to investigate the effects of an electrically charged amphipathic agent on EMF by membrane tethers. Our preliminary results indicate that salicylate, a negatively charged amphipathic agent, which is also known to cause reversible hearing loss and reduce outer hair cell electromotility, reduces EMF in membrane tethers. These measurements provide a basis to better understand the role of membrane charge properties in EMF generation.

Lee, Linda; Qian, Feng; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman



Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.  


The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador



Electric field assisted transdermal drug delivery from salicylic acid-loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels.  


The apparent diffusion coefficients, D(app), and the release mechanisms of salicylic acid from polyacrylamide hydrogels through pigskin were investigated. D(app) increases with increasing electric field strength and reaches the maximum value at electric field strength of 0.1 V; beyond that it decreases with increasing electric field strength and becomes saturated at 5 V. The increase in D(app) at low electric field strength can be attributed to the combination of iontophoresis, electroporation of matrix pore, and induced pathway in pigskin. D(app) obeys the scaling behavior D(app)/D(o) = (drug size/pore size)m with m equal to 0.67 and 0.49 at the electric field strengths of 0 and 0.1 V, respectively. PMID:19624247

Niamlang, Sumonman; Sirivat, Anuvat



Controlled release of salicylic acid from poly(D,L-Lactide).  


Poly(D,L-Lactide) of high molecular weight (Mv) was prepared by ring-opening bulk polymerization of D,L-Lactide and characterized in terms of Mv, melting point and swelling behavior in buffer solution. Samples of the polymers with low and high Mv (2000 and 22 000 respectively) loaded with various amounts of salicylic acid (SA) were immersed in a buffer solution and the release of SA was recorded. The results obtained showed that swelling of the poly(D,L-Lactide) samples obeyed Fick's law, especially for those with high molecular weight, where biodegradation proceeds slowly. The release of SA seemed to follow a simplified relationship which is linear with time, at least for the early stages of delivery. The extent of linearity is dependent on the content of the acidic SA, which probably accelerates decomposition of the high molecular weight products. PMID:15348307

Andreopoulos, A G; Hatzi, E; Doxastakis, M



Anodic oxidation of salicylic acid on BDD electrode: variable effects and mechanisms of degradation.  


The degradation of 100mL of solution with salicylic acid (SA) in the pH range 3.0-10.0 has been studied by anodic oxidation in a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel cathode, both of 3 cm(2) area, by applying a current of 100, 300 and 450 mA at 25°C. Completed mineralization is always achieved due to the great concentration of hydroxyl radical (OH) generated at the BDD surface. The mineralization rate increases with increasing applied current, but decreases when drug concentration rises from 200 mg L(-1). Nevertheless, the pH effect was not significant. During oxidation it was observed that catechol, 2,5-dihydroxylated benzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxylated benzoic acid and hydroquinone were formed as aromatic intermediates. In addition, ion-exclusion chromatography allowed the detection of fumaric, maleic, oxalic and formic as the ultimate carboxylic acid. PMID:23158689

Rabaaoui, Nejmeddine; Allagui, Mohamed Salah



Voltammetric determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceuticals formulations of acetylsalicylic acid.  


The electrochemical oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) has been studied on a glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method. SA gives a single irreversible oxidation wave over the wide pH range studied. The irreversibility of the electrode process was verified by different criteria. The mechanism of oxidation is discussed. Using differential pulse voltammetry, SA yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in Britton-Robinson buffer solution, pH 2.37 at 1.088V (versus Ag/AgCl). The method was linear over the SA concentration range: 1-60mugml(-1). The method was successfully applied for the analysis of SA as a hydrolysis product, in solid pharmaceutical formulations containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). PMID:18969288

Torriero, Angel A J; Luco, Juan M; Sereno, Leonides; Raba, Julio



Method for the extraction of the volatile compound salicylic acid from tobacco leaf material.  


Salicylic acid (SA) is a signalling compound in plants which is able to induce systemic acquired resistance. In the analysis of SA in plant tissues, the extraction recovery is often very low and variable. This is mainly caused by sublimation of SA, especially during evaporation of organic solvents. Techniques have been designed in order to overcome this problem. In the first part of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA was prevented by addition of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide. At a later stage of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA during solvent evaporation was controlled by the addition of a small amount of HPLC eluent. In this way, recoveries in the range of 71-91% for free SA and 65-79% for acid-hydrolysed SA were obtained. Recoveries could be further optimised by the use of an internal standard to correct for volume changes after the addition of the HPLC eluent. PMID:11899606

Verberne, Marianne C; Brouwer, Nynke; Delbianco, Federica; Linthorst, Huub J M; Bol, John F; Verpoorte, Robert



Fluorescence characteristics of 5-amino salicylic acid: An iodide recognition study.  


In this paper we report the effect of iodide on the fluorescence of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). In the absence of iodide, prominent blue green (BG) emission band at ?465nm (broad) is observed in aprotic solvents whereas violet (V) emission at ?408nm, blue green (BG) at ?480nm and green (G) at ?500nm are observed in case of protic solvents. On the addition of iodide ion (I(-)), the intensity of BG fluorescence is enhanced in case of aprotic solvents. On the other hand the G band is enhanced in protic solvents and decrease in the intensity of the V band is observed. The effect of hydrogen bonding as well as the interplay of neutral and ionic species is invoked to explain the observed results. The study projects the application of this system in iodide recognition in protic/aprotic environments. PMID:22522294

Arora, Priyanka; Suyal, Kanchan; Joshi, Neeraj K; Joshi, Hem Chandra; Pant, Sanjay



Exogenous treatment with indole-3-acetic acid and salicylic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat seedlings.  


The seedlings of wheat were grown in the presence of CdCl2 (500 or 1000 ?M Cd), were applied with 500 ?M of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 500 ?M salicylic acid (SA) as seed soaking and were sampled at 56 days after sowing. The plants exposed to Cd exhibited a substantial decline in growth, pigment content, relative water content (RWC) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) and leaf structure. However, pretreatment with IAA or SA mitigated the stress generated by Cd and markedly improved the aforesaid parameters. The Cd increased proline content, electrolyte leakage and plant Cd content. However, the IAA or SA treatment attenuated the adverse effects of Cd on these attributes. The results showed that pretreatment with IAA or SA enhanced the antioxidant defense activities in Cd stressed wheat, thus alleviating Cd induced oxidative damage and enhancing Cd tolerance and leaf anatomy. PMID:23684274

Agami, Ramadan A; Mohamed, Gamal F



Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 °C) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 °C could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 °C chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion: SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

Kang, Guo-zhang; Wang, Zheng-xun; Xia, Kuai-fei; Sun, Gu-chou



Additive cytotoxic effects of dihydroartemisinin and sodium salicylate on cancer cells.  


Background/Aim: The standard methods of chemotherapy in cancer treatment are expensive and pose serious health effects. The present study investigates an alternative chemotherapy by testing the combined treatment of two drugs on leukemia cells: dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and sodium salicylate (SS). Materials and Methods: Cells were divided into 4 treatment groups: a control, treatment with DHA-only, treatment with SS-only, and treatment with both DHA and SS. Cells were counted immediately before the addition of any reagents (0-h count), and at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Results and Conclusion: At low concentrations, the combination of DHA and SS significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation, although no synergistic interaction between the two drugs was found. Even without a clear synergistic interaction, the combination of DHA and SS provides a safe and affordable form of cancer treatment. PMID:24982346

Wickerath, Marisa; Singh, Narendra P



Effect of salicylate on outer hair cell plasma membrane viscoelasticity: studies using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma membrane (PM) of mammalian outer hair cells (OHCs) generates mechanical forces in response to changes in the transmembrane electrical potential. The resulting change in the cell length is known as electromotility. Salicylate (Sal), the anionic, amphipathic derivative of aspirin induces reversible hearing loss and decreases electromotile response of the OHCs. Sal may change the local curvature and mechanical properties of the PM, eventually resulting in reduced electromotility or it may compete with intracellular monovalent anions, particularly Cl-, which are essential for electromotility. In this work we have used optical tweezers to study the effects of Sal on viscoelastic properties of the OHC PM when separated from the underlying composite structures of the cell wall. In this procedure, an optically trapped microsphere is brought in contact with PM and subsequently pulled away to form a tether. We measured the force exerted on the tether as a function of time during the process of tether growth at different pulling rates. Effective tether viscosity, steady-state tethering force extrapolated to zero pulling rate, and the time constant for tether growth were estimated from the measurements of the instantaneous tethering force. The time constant for the tether growth measured for the OHC basal end decreased 1.65 times after addition of 10 mM Sal, which may result from an interaction between Sal and cholesterol, which is more prevalent in the PM of OHC basal end. The time constants for the tether growth calculated for the OHC lateral wall and control human embryonic kidney cells as well as the other calculated viscoelastic parameters remained the same after Sal perfusion, favoring the hypothesis of competitive inhibition of electromotility by salicylate.

Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman



Indomethacin and salicylate modulate effect of insulin on glucose kinetics in dogs.  


We studied insulin's effects on glucose production (Ra) and utilization (Rd) in trained, conscious dogs before and during treatment with indomethacin (Indo) and salicylate (S). Ra and Rd (mg X kg-1 X min-1) were calculated by isotope dilution using [3-3H]glucose. Animals were treated with either oral Indo or acetylsalicylic acid for 1 day before the respective studies. On the study day, experimental animals were given a continuous infusion of either saline (control), Indo (5 mg/kg bolus followed by 0.05 mg X kg-1 X min-1), or sodium salicylate (0.45 mg X kg-1 X min-1) for 330 min on separate days; each animal participated in all three protocols. After establishing steady-state specific activity, control (C) and experimental animals (n = 6/group) received insulin, 0.275 mU X kg-1 X min-1 for 150 min, raising serum insulin levels two- to threefold above basal. During insulin infusion in C, plasma glucose (G) fell from 99 +/- 2 to 82 +/- 6 ml/dl (P less than 0.01), associated with a transient fall in Ra from 2.5 +/- 0.3 to 1.9 +/- 0.2 (P less than 0.01) at 30 min, returning to base line at 45 min; Rd did not change. In the Indo and S groups, G also fell by a similar extent. In contrast to C, however, the fall in G was associated with a rise in Rd, commencing at 30 min in the Indo group (P less than 0.05) and at 45 min in the S group (P less than 0.01); Ra did not fall and actually rose above basal (P less than 0.05), although it did not match the rise in Rd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3923840

Miller, J D; Ganguli, S; Sperling, M A



Anti-inflammatory salicylate treatment alters the metabolic adaptations to lactation in dairy cattle.  


Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in physiological state. To investigate the role of inflammation-associated pathways in these homeorhetic adaptations, we treated cows with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (SS) for the first 7 days of lactation. Administration of SS decreased liver TNF-? mRNA and marginally decreased plasma TNF-? concentration, but plasma eicosanoids and liver NF-?B activity were unaltered during treatment. Despite the mild impact on these inflammatory markers, SS clearly altered metabolic function. Plasma glucose concentration was decreased by SS, but this was not explained by a shift in hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression or by altered milk lactose secretion. Insulin concentrations decreased in SS-treated cows on day 7 compared with controls, which was consistent with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was then used to assess whether altered insulin sensitivity may have influenced glucose utilization rate with SS. The RQUICKI estimate of insulin sensitivity was significantly elevated by SS on day 7, coincident with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. Salicylate prevented postpartum insulin resistance, likely causing excessive glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and hypoglycemia. These results represent the first evidence that inflammation-associated pathways are involved in homeorhetic adaptations to lactation. PMID:23678026

Farney, Jaymelynn K; Mamedova, Laman K; Coetzee, Johann F; KuKanich, Butch; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Stoakes, Sara K; Minton, J Ernest; Hollis, Larry C; Bradford, Barry J



Anti-inflammatory salicylate treatment alters the metabolic adaptations to lactation in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in physiological state. To investigate the role of inflammation-associated pathways in these homeorhetic adaptations, we treated cows with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (SS) for the first 7 days of lactation. Administration of SS decreased liver TNF-? mRNA and marginally decreased plasma TNF-? concentration, but plasma eicosanoids and liver NF-?B activity were unaltered during treatment. Despite the mild impact on these inflammatory markers, SS clearly altered metabolic function. Plasma glucose concentration was decreased by SS, but this was not explained by a shift in hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression or by altered milk lactose secretion. Insulin concentrations decreased in SS-treated cows on day 7 compared with controls, which was consistent with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was then used to assess whether altered insulin sensitivity may have influenced glucose utilization rate with SS. The RQUICKI estimate of insulin sensitivity was significantly elevated by SS on day 7, coincident with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. Salicylate prevented postpartum insulin resistance, likely causing excessive glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and hypoglycemia. These results represent the first evidence that inflammation-associated pathways are involved in homeorhetic adaptations to lactation.

Farney, Jaymelynn K.; Mamedova, Laman K.; Coetzee, Johann F.; KuKanich, Butch; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Stoakes, Sara K.; Minton, J. Ernest; Hollis, Larry C.



The physiological response of Artemisia annua L. to salt stress and salicylic acid treatment.  


Salinity has a great influence on plant growth and distribution. A few existing reports on Artemisia annua L. response to salinity are concentrated on plant growth and artemisinin content; the physiological response and salt damage mitigation are yet to be understood. In this study, the physiological response of varying salt stresses (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mM NaCl) on A. annua L. and the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (0.05 or 0.1 mM) at 300-mM salt stress were investigated. Plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, proline, and mineral element level were determined. In general, increasing salt concentration significantly reduced plant growth. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were stimulated by salt treatment to a higher enzyme activity in treated plants than those in untreated plants. Content of proline had a visible range of increment in the salt-treated plants. Distribution of mineral elements was in inconformity: Na(+) and Ca(2+) were mainly accumulated in the roots; K(+) and Mg(2+) were concentrated in leaves and stems, respectively. Alleviation of growth arrest was observed with exogenous applications of salicylic acid (SA) under salt stress conditions. The activity of SOD and POD was notably enhanced by SA, but the CAT action was suppressed. While exogenous SA had no discernible effect on proline content, it effectively inhibited excessive Na(+) absorption and promoted Mg(2+) absorption. Ca(2+) and K(+) contents showed a slight reduction when supplemented with SA. Overall, the positive effect of SA towards resistance to the salinity of A. annua will provide some practical basis for A. annua cultivation. PMID:24757320

Li, Lin; Zhang, Haihui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Yonghong; Yang, Ruiwu; Ding, Chunbang; Wang, Xiaoli



Trans-chromosomal methylation.  


The epigenome plays a vital role in helping to maintain and regulate cell functions in all organisms. Alleles with differing epigenetic marks in the same nucleus do not function in isolation but can interact in trans to modify the epigenetic state of one or both alleles. This is particularly evident when two divergent epigenomes come together in a hybrid resulting in thousands of alterations to the methylome. These changes mainly involve the methylation patterns at one allele being changed to resemble the methylation patterns of the other allele, in processes we have termed trans-chromosomal methylation (TCM) and trans-chromosomal demethylation (TCdM). These processes are primarily modulated by siRNAs and the RNA directed DNA methylation pathway. Drawing from other examples of trans-allelic interactions, we describe the process of TCM and TCdM and the effect such changes can have on genome activity. Trans-allelic epigenetic interactions may be a common occurrence in many biological systems. PMID:22705969

Greaves, Ian; Groszmann, Michael; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Peacock, W James



Trans-chromosomal methylation  

PubMed Central

The epigenome plays a vital role in helping to maintain and regulate cell functions in all organisms. Alleles with differing epigenetic marks in the same nucleus do not function in isolation but can interact in trans to modify the epigenetic state of one or both alleles. This is particularly evident when two divergent epigenomes come together in a hybrid resulting in thousands of alterations to the methylome. These changes mainly involve the methylation patterns at one allele being changed to resemble the methylation patterns of the other allele, in processes we have termed trans-chromosomal methylation (TCM) and trans-chromosomal demethylation (TCdM). These processes are primarily modulated by siRNAs and the RNA directed DNA methylation pathway. Drawing from other examples of trans-allelic interactions, we describe the process of TCM and TCdM and the effect such changes can have on genome activity. Trans-allelic epigenetic interactions may be a common occurrence in many biological systems.

Greaves, Ian; Groszmann, Michael; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James



Methyl Bromide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Seven cases of methyl bromide poisoning which occurred amongst workers engaged on a fumigation project are described. The methods adopted for investigation of the environmental situation are discussed and the measurement of blood bromide levels on random samples of workers is suggested as an index of the effectiveness of equipment and working methods.

Rathus, E. M.; Landy, P. J.



RNA nucleotide methylation.  


Methylation of RNA occurs at a variety of atoms, nucleotides, sequences and tertiary structures. Strongly related to other posttranscriptional modifications, methylation of different RNA species includes tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, tmRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, miRNA, and viral RNA. Different catalytic strategies are employed for RNA methylation by a variety of RNA-methyltransferases which fall into four superfamilies. This review outlines the different functions of methyl groups in RNA, including biophysical, biochemical and metabolic stabilization of RNA, quality control, resistance to antibiotics, mRNA reading frame maintenance, deciphering of normal and altered genetic code, selenocysteine incorporation, tRNA aminoacylation, ribotoxins, splicing, intracellular trafficking, immune response, and others. Connections to other fields including gene regulation, DNA repair, stress response, and possibly histone acetylation and exocytosis are pointed out. WIREs RNA 2011 2 611-631 DOI: 10.1002/wrna.79 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:21823225

Motorin, Yuri; Helm, Mark



DNA methylation and cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate DNA is modified by methyl moieties at the 5?-position of cytosine rings residing in the di-nucleotide sequence CpG. Approximately 80% of CpG dinucleotide sequences are methylated. The pattern of distribution of methylated CGs is cell-type specific and correlates with gene expression programming and chromatin structure. Three kinds of seemingly contradictory aberrations in DNA methylation are observed in cancer, global

Moshe Szyf



Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

King, Angela G.



Targeting DNA methylation in cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is overwhelming evidence that DNA methylation patterns are altered in cancer. Methylation of CG-rich islands in regulatory regions of genes marks them for transcriptional silencing. Multiple genes, which confer selective advantage upon cancer cells such as tumor suppressors, adhesion molecules, inhibitors of angiogenesis and repair enzymes are silenced. In parallel, tumor cell genomes are globally less methylated than their

Moshe Szyf



Histone methylation in transcriptional control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past year or so, methylation of histones has come to be recognised as a major player in the regulation of gene activity. This notion follows the discovery of lysine and arginine methyltransferases and proteins that recognise the methyl-lysine ‘mark’ on histones. Methylated histones have been implicated in heterochromatic repression, promoter regulation and the propagation of a repressed state

Tony Kouzarides



fullRecord:"self OR methylate" OR "sulfo OR methylated" OR "sulfo OR methylates" OR "sulfo OR methylating" OR "sulfo OR methylation" OR sulfomethylate OR sulfomethylated OR sulfomethylates OR sulfomethylating OR sulfomethylation  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: fullRecord:"self OR methylate" OR "sulfo OR methylated" OR "sulfo OR methylates" OR "sulfo OR methylating" OR "sulfo OR methylation" OR sulfomethylate OR sulfomethylated OR sulfomethylates OR sulfomethylating OR sulfomethylation ?


Ultrasound-assisted third-liquid phase-transfer catalyzed esterification of sodium salicylate in a continuous two-phase-flow reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The esterification of sodium salicylate to synthesize butyl salicylate by third-liquid phase-transfer catalysis under ultrasound irradiation was investigated in a continuous two-phase-flow reactor. The reactor was designed to keep the third-liquid phase in the middle part and to have the aqueous and organic phases flowing through it in countercurrent. Using tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide to prepare the third-liquid phase for this esterification,

Hung-Ming Yang; Guan-Yi Peng



Phytophthora root-rot of container-grown citrus as affected by foliar sprays and soil drenches of phosphorous and acetyl salicylic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycelial growth ofPhytophthora nicotianae var.parasitica in vitro was inhibited by phosphorous and acetyl salicylic acids at 10 ppm; mycelial growth ofP. citrophthora was inhibited by phosphorous acid at 10 ppm and acetyl salicylic acid at 100 ppm. Foliar sprays and soil drenches with these\\u000a chemicals were compared with soil applications of metalaxyl as treatments for Phytophthora root-rot of container-grown citrus

G. E. Walker



Inhibition of Cytokine Gene Expression by Sodium Salicylate in a Macrophage Cell Line through an NF-kB-Independent Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage-derived cytokines and chemokines are involved at multiple steps of immune and inflammatory responses, and the transcriptional factor NF-kB appears to play a pivotal role in their coordinated upregu- lation. The anti-inflammatory agents salicylates have been proposed to act in part by inhibiting NF-kB. We have therefore studied the effects of sodium salicylate on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced kB-binding activity and on




Effect of pre- and postharvest salicylic acid treatment on physio-chemical attributes in relation to vase-life of rose cut flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naturally short vase-life of cut rose flowers, leads to difficulties with long-distance transportation and subsequent marketing. This study was conducted to determine whether application of salicylic acid (SA) pre- and postharvest could improve vase-life of cut rose flowers of the ‘Black Magic’ variety. Aqueous solutions of 50–200?M salicylic acid were sprayed on roses grown in a controlled greenhouse about

M. Alaey; M. Babalar; R. Naderi; M. Kafi



Nickel–aluminum layered double hydroxide as a nanosorbent for selective solid-phase extraction and spectrofluorometric determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceutical and biological samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nickel–aluminum layered double hydroxide (Ni–Al LDH) was synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and used as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of salicylic acid (SA) from aqueous solutions. Extraction of analyte is based on the adsorption of salicylate ions on the Ni–Al (NO3?) LDH and\\/or their exchanging with LDH interlayer NO3? ions.

H. Abdolmohammad-Zadeh; S. Kohansal; G. H. Sadeghi



Salicylic acid and derivatives anchored on poly(styrene- co-divinylbenzene) resin and membrane via a diazo bridge: Synthesis, characterisation and application to metal extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

New materials for chelating solid-phase extraction have been prepared by grafting of salicylic acid and derivatives on poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) based sorbents. These sorbents are either resin bead-shaped Amberlite® XAD-4 or membrane disk-shaped Empore™ SDB-XC. Grafting has been achieved via –NN– spacer. The grafted ligands are salicylic acid (SA), its dimer form methylenedisalicylic acid (MDSA) and trimer form aurintricarboxylic form (ATA) in

Sabrina Boussetta; Catherine Branger; André Margaillan; Jean-Luc Boudenne; Bruno Coulomb



FIA-AAS determination of salicylic acid by a solid-phase reactor of copper carbonate incorporated in polyester resin beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of salicylic acid was carried out by reaction of the drug with copper carbonate entrapped in a polymeric material in a solid-phase reactor; the released cupric ions were monitored by flame atomic absorption at 324.8 nm. The calibration graph is linear over the range 4.0–75 ?g ml?1 of salicylic acid, with a relative standard deviation of less than

G. A. Rivas; J. Martínez Calatayud



Sensitive determination of salicylate and benzophenone type UV filters in water samples using solid-phase microextraction, derivatization and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive procedure for the determination of three UV filters: ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexyl salicylate (Homosalate, HMS), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3) and two related hydroxylated benzophenones (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, BP-1 and 2,2?-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-8) in water samples is presented. Analytes were first concentrated on the coating of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre, on-fibre silylated and then determined using gas chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry

N. Negreira; I. Rodríguez; M. Ramil; E. Rubí; R. Cela



Genetic architecture of plastic methyl jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed Central

The ability of a single genotype to generate different phenotypes in disparate environments is termed phenotypic plasticity, which reflects the interaction of genotype and environment on developmental processes. However, there is controversy over the definition of plasticity genes. The gene regulation model states that plasticity loci influence trait changes between environments without altering the means within a given environment. Alternatively, the allelic sensitivity model argues that plasticity evolves due to selection of phenotypic values expressed within particular environments; hence plasticity must be controlled by loci expressed within these environments. To identify genetic loci controlling phenotypic plasticity and address this controversy, we analyzed the plasticity of glucosinolate accumulation under methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found genetic variation influencing multiple MeJa signal transduction pathways. Analysis of MeJa responses in the Landsberg erecta x Columbia recombinant inbred lines identified a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that regulate plastic MeJa responses. All significant plasticity QTL also impacted the mean trait value in at least one of the two "control" or "MeJa" environments, supporting the allelic sensitivity model. Additionally, we present an analysis of MeJa and salicylic acid cross-talk in glucosinolate regulation and describe the implications for glucosinolate physiology and functional understanding of Arabidopsis MeJa signal transduction.

Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Figuth, Antje; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas



Salicylate-induced depletion of endogenous inorganic sulfate. Potential role in the suppression of sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in murine articular cartilage.  


Sodium salicylate has been shown to suppress glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by articular hyaline cartilage in vitro. We investigated the in vivo effect of sodium salicylate on murine patellar cartilage, using incorporation of intraperitoneally administered 35S-sulfate as a measure of sulfated GAG synthesis. Our results indicated that a single dose of sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) inhibited in vivo sulfated GAG synthesis by 56%, compared with controls, and had no effect on sulfated GAG breakdown. A striking finding was that sodium sulfate treatment reduced the serum concentration of inorganic sulfate from 1.1 mM to approximately 0.3 mM, and that this serum reduction was associated with a twofold increase in urinary excretion of sulfate. Using anatomically intact patellar cartilage, in vitro studies clearly showed that, in concentrations reached in vivo (greater than or equal to 1 mM), salicylate suppressed murine chondrocyte GAG synthesis. However, in the presence of serum, the effects of 1 mM salicylate were abolished. We also found that sulfated GAG synthesis was clearly inhibited at low concentrations of sulfate (less than 0.5 mM). Our data indicate that sodium salicylate can suppress articular chondrocyte sulfated GAG synthesis in vivo, and that this effect may particularly be due to a drug-induced reduction of endogenous sulfate. PMID:4026888

de Vries, B J; van den Berg, W B; van de Putte, L B



Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae) are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA) 95% CI: 85.09-117.26) more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [] and National Research Register N0484189151.



DNA Methylation Screening and Analysis  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is an epigenetic form of gene regulation that is universally important throughout the life course, especially during in utero and postnatal development. DNA methylation aids in cell cycle regulation and cellular differentiation processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation profiles may be altered by diet and the environment, and that these profiles are especially vulnerable during development. Thus, it is important to understand the role of DNA methylation in developmental governance and subsequent disease progression. A variety of molecular methods exist to assay for global, gene-specific, and epigenome-wide methylation. Here we describe these methods and discuss their relative strengths and limitations.

Sant, Karilyn E.; Nahar, Muna S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.



An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase capable of methylating farnesoic acid?  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the identification of a new family of plant methyltransferases (MTs), named the SABATH family, that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to methylate a carboxyl moiety or a nitrogen-containing functional group on a diverse array of plant compounds. The Arabidopsis genome alone contains 24 distinct SABATH genes. To identify the catalytic specificities of members of this protein family in Arabidopsis, we screened recombinantly expressed and purified enzymes with a large number of potential substrates. Here,we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene At3g44860 encodes a protein with high catalytic specificity towards farnesoic acid (FA). Under steady-state conditions, this farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (FAMT) exhibits KM values of 41 and 71 ?M for FA and SAM, respectively. A three-dimensional model of FAMT constructed based upon similarity to the experimentally determined structure of Clarkia breweri salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) suggests a reasonable model for FA recognition in the FAMT active site. In planta, the mRNA levels of At3g44860 increase in response to the exogenous addition of several compounds previously shown to induce plant defense responses at the transcriptional level. Although methyl farnesoate (MeFA) has not yet been detected in Arabidopsis, the presence of a FA-specific carboxyl methyltransferase in Arabidopsis capable of producing MeFA, an insect juvenile hormone made by some plants as a presumed defense against insect herbivory, suggests that MeFA or chemically similar compounds are likely to serve as new specialized metabolites in Arabidopsis.

Yang, Yue; Yuan, Joshua S.; Ross, Jeannine; Noel, Joseph P.; Pichersky, Eran; Chen, Feng



Salicylic acid-induced elicitation of folates in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) improves bioaccessibility and reduces pro-oxidant status.  


Foliage of Coriandrum sativum is a rich source of natural folates amenable for enhancement through salicylic acid-mediated elicitation, thereby holding a great promise for natural-mode alleviation of this vitamin (B(9)) deficiency. In the present study we report salicylic acid-mediated differential elicitation of different forms of folates - 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate - their stabilities during microwave-drying and bioaccessibilities from fresh and dried foliage. The first two compounds nearly doubled and the third increased sixfold post-elicitation, with all three showing concomitant increase in bioaccessibilities. Although a slight decrease in bioaccessibility was observed in dried foliage, over twofold increase of each form of folate upon elicitation would deliver much higher levels of natural folates from this traditional culinary foliage, which is widely used in many cuisines. Elicitor-mediated folate enhancement also imparted reduction of oxidative status and the enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities in coriander foliage. PMID:23122099

Puthusseri, Bijesh; Divya, Peethambaran; Lokesh, Veeresh; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi



Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis  

PubMed Central

Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants.

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail



Chilling tolerance of maize, cucumber and rice seedling leaves and roots are differentially affected by salicylic acid.  


Salicylic acid (SA) is one component of a complex signalling pathway that is induced by a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. Exposing seedling radicles to aqueous solutions of 0.5 mM salicylic acid for 24 h before chilling at 2.5 degrees C for 1-4 days reduced the chilling-induced increase in electrolyte leakage from maize and rice leaves, and cucumber hypocotyls, but not from their radicles. The SA treatments that induced chilling tolerance in the aerial portion of the seedlings did not induce chilling tolerance in the radicles, even though the SA treatments were applied to the radicles. A comparison of activity among five antioxidant enzymes showed that SA did not alter enzyme activities in the radicles, but that chilling tolerance induced by SA in the aerial portions of maize and cucumber plants was associated with an increase in the activity of glutathione reductase and guaiacol peroxidase. PMID:12121463

Kang, Ho-Min; Saltveit, Mikal E



Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis.  


Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants. PMID:22567327

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail



Thermodynamic dissociation constants of salicylic and monochloroacetic acids in mixed solvent systems from conductance measurements at 25°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molar conductances of dilute solutions of salicylic and monochloroacetic acids in binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, N,N-dimethylformamide, acetone, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran and dioxane with water have been measured at 25°C. The Lee-Wheaton conductance equation was fitted to the data in order to derive thermodynamic dissociation constants and limiting molar conductances. The results were compared with those in the literature

M. S. K. Niazi; M. Z. I. Khan



Salicylic acid pretreatment induces drought tolerance and delays leaf rolling by inducing antioxidant systems in maize genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) acts as an endogenous signal molecule responsible for inducing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In\\u000a this study, the role of SA in improving drought tolerance in two maize cultivars (Zea mays L.) differing in their tolerance to drought was evaluated. The plants were regularly watered per pot and grown until the\\u000a grain filling stage (R2) under a

Neslihan SaruhanAykut Saglam; Aykut Saglam; Asim Kadioglu


Luminescent heptadentate Tb 3+ complex with pendant aza-15-crown-5 showing recognition of lactate and salicylate in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coordinatedly unsaturated neutral complex TbL1 that possesses two labile metal-bound water molecules provides linear response to lactate in the range of 0–3.0mM at the simulated extracellular background with the variations of Tb luminescence lifetime as output; the maximal amplification of the luminescence intensity of TbL1 reaches a factor of 135 upon titration with aromatic antenna salicylate in the physiological

Cong Li; Wing-Tak Wong



Size-controlled synthesis of gold bipyramids using an aqueous mixture of CTAC and salicylate anions as the soft template.  


One-dimensional (1D) gold (Au) bipyramids are successfully synthesized through a facile seed-mediated method using cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), Au seed nanoparticles, Ag(+) ions, and ascorbic acid. The length and optical properties of the synthesized Au bipyramids are controlled with precision by varying the amount of salicylate anions (Sal(-)) added during the synthesis. The micelles formed from CTA(+)-Sal(-) mixtures in aqueous solutions act as effective templates for the size-controlled synthesis of 1D nanocrystals. PMID:23771497

Yoo, Hyojong; Jang, Min Hoon



Protein carbonylation in barley seedling roots caused by aluminum and proton toxicity is suppressed by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton (H+) and aluminum (Al3+) toxicities are major factors limiting crop production on acid soils. To study whether salicylic acid (SA) is functional\\u000a in alleviating protein damage caused by H+ and Al3+ toxicities, an investigation of the antioxidant defense response regulated by SA was carried out on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings under H+, Al3+, and combined stresses. It was

H. Song; X. Xu; H. Wang; Y. Tao



Photochemical and photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid with hydrogen peroxide over TiO 2\\/SiO 2 fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the photo-oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) in aqueous solutions under UV-irradiation was investigated in both purely homogeneous and photocatalytic conditions. Results obtained show that in absence of photocatalyst and under UV-irradiation, the SA degradation rate increases with increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide added, although for high concentrations of H2O2 the enhancement of the

Cristina Adán; Juan M. Coronado; Ricardo Bellod; Javier Soria; Hiroyuki Yamaoka



Salicylic acid-independent induction of pathogenesis-related protein transcripts by sugars is dependent on leaf developmental stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble sugars have been found to regulate a number of genes involved in functions associated with sink metabolism, defense reactions and photosynthesis. As viruses and pathogens induce the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes and have also been reported to lead to localized sugar accumulation in leaves, it was investigated whether a salicylic acid-independent but sugar-dependent pathway for PR-protein gene

Karin Herbers; Philippe Meuwly; Jean-Pierre Métraux; Uwe Sonnewald



Salicylic acid changes activities of H 2O 2-metabolizing enzymes and increases the chilling tolerance of banana seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment in the chilling-sensitive banana seedlings by spraying 0.5 mM salicylic acid (SA) hydroponic solution onto leaves and irrigating to roots at 30\\/22°C for 1 day induced an increase of chilling tolerance during subsequent 5°C chilling stress. Pretreatment of 0.5 mM SA treatment at 30\\/22°C for 1 day did not result in a remarkable change in superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity,

Guozhang Kang; Changhu Wang; Guchou Sun; Zhengxun Wang



Combined effect of salicylic acid and salinity on some antioxidant activities, oxidative stress and metabolite accumulation in Phaseolus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that salicylic acid (SA) acts as an endogenous signal molecule responsible for inducing abiotic stress tolerance\\u000a in plants. The effect of SA and sodium chloride (NaCl) on growth, metabolite accumulation, oxidative stress and enzymatic\\u000a and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris, cv. F-15) was studied. Results revealed that either SA or NaCl decrease,

Francisco Palma; Carmen Lluch; Carmen Iribarne; Jose M. García-Garrido; Noel A. Tejera García



Salicylic Acid Influences Net Photosynthetic Rate, Carboxylation Efficiency, Nitrate Reductase Activity, and Seed Yield in Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid (SA) were applied to the foliage of 30-d-old plants of mustard (Brassica juncea Czern & Coss cv. Varuna). The plants sprayed with the lowest used concentration (10?5 M) of SA were healthier than those sprayed with water only or with higher concentrations of SA (10?4 or 10?3 M). 60-d-old plants possessed 8.4, 9.8, 9.3, 13.0

Q. Fariduddin; S. Hayat; A. Ahmad



Salicylic acid pretreatment alleviates chilling injury and affects the antioxidant system and heat shock proteins of peaches during cold storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batch. cv. Beijing 24] fruit at commercial maturity were immersed in 0, 0.35, 0.7 and 1mM salicylic acid (SA) solution for 5min, stored at 0°C for 28 days, then moved to 20°C for 3 days to simulate shelf life. Chilling injury (CI) index, decay index (DI), firmness and thiobarbituric acid-reactive-substance (TBARS) content of fruit were measured

Lijun Wang; Shuangjian Chen; Weifu Kong; Shaohua Li; Douglas D. Archbold



Visible light photoelectrocatalysis with salicylic acid-modified TiO 2 nanotube array electrode for p-nitrophenol degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focused on immersion method synthesis of visible light active salicylic acid (SA)-modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode and its photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity. The SA-modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode was synthesized by immersing in SA solution with an anodized TiO2 nanotube array electrode. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), UV–vis diffuse reflectance

Xin Wang; Huimin Zhao; Xie Quan; Yazhi Zhao; Shuo Chen



Effect of Foliar Salicylic Acid Applications on Growth, Chlorophyll, and Mineral Content of Cucumber Grown Under Salt Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA) applications on growth, chlorophyll, and mineral content of cucumber grown under salt stress. The study was conducted in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Cucumber seedlings were treated with foliar SA applications at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mM). Salinity treatments were established by

Ertan Yildirim; Metin Turan; Ismail Guvenc



Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on growth and H 2O 2-metabolizing enzymes in rice seedlings under lead stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) was an essential component of the plant resistance to pathogens and also plays an important role in mediating plant response to some abiotic stress. The possible effects of SA on the growth and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes in rice seedlings under lead stress were studied. When rice seedlings grown in nutrient solution containing Pb2+ (0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25 mmol\\/L)

Jing CHEN; Cheng ZHU; Li-ping LI; Zhong-yang SUN; Xue-bo PAN



Exogenous Application of Salicylic Acid through Rooting Medium Modulates Ion Accumulation and Antioxidant Activity in Spring Wheat under Salt Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to assess whether exogenous application of salicylic acid through hydroponic culture could alter the ion concentrations and activate some antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase & peroxidase) of a salt tolerant line (S-24) and a moderately salt sensitive cultivar (MH-97) of wheat. Seeds of cultivar were germinated in 0 or 150 mM NaCl in Hoagland's nutrient solution



Effects of Cold Acclimation and Salicylic Acid on Changes in ACC and MACC Contents in Maize during Chilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 0.5 mM salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment and of growing at hardening temperatures on chilling-induced changes in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and malonyl 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC) was investigated in young maize (Zea mays L.) plants grown in hydroponic solution at 22\\/20 °C. Chilling at 5 °C caused an increase in ACC content;however, this increase was less pronounced in plants

G. Szalai; I. Tari; T. Janda; A. Pestenácz; E. Páldi



Salicylic acid-induced aluminum tolerance by modulation of citrate efflux from roots of Cassia tora L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum-induced exudation of organic acids from roots has been proposed as a mechanism for Al tolerance in plants. To better understand the regulatory process leading to efflux of organic acids, the possible involvement of salicylic acid (SA) in regulating Al-induced citrate release in Cassia tora L. was identified. The response of citrate efflux to exogenous SA was concentration-dependent. Application of

Zhi-Min Yang; Jin Wang; Song-Hua Wang; Lang-Lai Xu



A novel application of Onyx™ monolithic column for simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and triamcinolone acetonide by sequential injection chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and fast simultaneous determination of triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) and salicylic acid (SA) in topical pharmaceutical formulations by sequential injection chromatography (SIC) as an alternative to classical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. A recently introduced Onyx™ monolithic C18 (50mm×4.6mm, Phenomenex®) with 5mm monolithic precolumn were used for the first time for creating sequential injection chromatography system

Petr Chocholouš; Pavel Holík; Dalibor Šatínský; Petr Solich



Does salicylic acid regulate antioxidant defense system, cell death, cadmium uptake and partitioning to acquire cadmium tolerance in rice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Salicylic acid (SA) may accelerate the cell death of cadmium-stressed roots to avoid cadmium (Cd) uptake by plants or may play positive roles in protecting the stressed roots from Cd-induced damage. To test these hypotheses, we performed a series of split-root hydroponic experiments with one-half of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Jiahua 1) roots exposed to 50mM Cd and

Bin Guo; Yongchao Liang; Yongguan Zhu



Acetyl salicylic acid alleviates chilling injury and maintains nutritive and bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during postharvest storage of pomegranates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranates were treated by dipping with acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) at three concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mM) immediately after harvest and then stored under chilling temperature for 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84 days at 2°C plus a subsequent period of 4 days at 20°C. Control fruit exhibited more chilling injury (CI) symptoms (manifested by pitting and browning) than

Mohammad Sayyari; Salvador Castillo; Daniel Valero; Huertas M. Díaz-Mula; María Serrano



Simultaneous Quantification of Sodium Ferulate, Salicylic Acid, Cinnarizine and Vitamin B1 in Human Plasma by LC Tandem MS Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS) via electrospray\\u000a ionization (ESI) has been developed and validated to separate and simultaneously quantify sodium ferulate (SF), salicylic\\u000a acid (SA), cinnarizine (CIN) and vitamin B1 (VB1) in human plasma. Gemfibrozil (GEM) was used as the internal standard (IS)\\u000a for SF and SA, whereas lomerizine (LOM)

Na Liu; Cheng Yang; Zunjian Zhang; Yuan Tian; Fengguo Xu; Yun Chen



Improvement of pea ( Pisum sativum) seed vigour response by fish protein hydrolysates in combination with acetyl salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) were used for stimulation of vigour of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. Pea seeds were pre-hydrated in water which contained 50 ?M of ASA, 2 ml l?1 of FPH (standardized mackerel hydrolysates) and 2 ml l?1 of a combination of ASA and FPH (ASA\\/FPH) for 24 h and followed by germination in

Nuri Andarwulan; Kalidas Shetty



Surface modification of nanometer size TiO 2 with salicylic acid for photocatalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of photocatalytic reactions was limited by the wide band-gap of TiO2 and the high degree of electron–hole recombination inherent in photocatalytic process, as well as by the limited adsorption capability of photocatalysts. In order to increase the overall efficiency, the surface of nanometer size TiO2 was simply and fast modified by chemical adsorption in saturated solution of salicylic

Li Shun-Xing; Zheng Feng-Ying; Cai Wen-Lian; Han Ai-Qin; Xie Yu-Kun



Degradation of naphthalene to salicylic acid by cultures of Pseudomonas denitrificans and Achromobacter sp. from the effluents of petroleum refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons from effluents of a petroleum refinery was investigated, with emphasis\\u000a on the breakdown of naphthalene to salicylic acid. The microorganisms were grown in a synthetic medium with naphthalene as\\u000a the sole carbon source. The effects of pH, temperature, aeration and naphthalene concentration were studied. The optimum conditions\\u000a for degradation were found to be: pH

M. Martonová; B. Škárka; Z. Rad?j



Methylation: lost in hydroxylation?  

PubMed Central

Methylation of histone tails is a key determinant in forming active and silent states of chromatin. Histone methylation was regarded as irreversible until the recent identification of a lysine-specific histone demethylase (LSD1), which acts specifically on mono- and dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4. Here, we propose that the fission yeast protein Epe1 is a putative histone demethylase that could act by oxidative demethylation. Epe1 modulates the stability of silent chromatin and contains a JmjC domain. The Epe1 protein can be modelled onto the structure of the 2-oxoglutarate-Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase, factor inhibiting hypoxia inducible factor (FIH), which is a protein hydroxylase that also contains a JmjC domain. Thus, Epe1 and certain other chromatin-associated JmjC-domain proteins may be protein hydroxylases that catalyse a novel histone modification. Another intriguing possibility is that, by hydroxylating the methyl groups, Epe1 and certain other JmjC-domain proteins may be able to demethylate mono-, di- or trimethylated histones.

Trewick, Sarah C.; McLaughlin, Paul J.; Allshire, Robin C.



Measurement of platelet reactivity of patients with cardiovascular disease on-treatment with acetyl salicylic acid: a prospective study.  


Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel are extensively used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, the responsiveness to ASA treatment may vary among individuals. This study was conducted to investigate the profile and prevalence of ASA resistance in cardiac patients. From August 2007 to August 2008, a total of 282 cardiac patients were enrolled. Two study groups were identified: patients taking 100 mg ASA daily but without clopidogrel, and patients taking both 100 mg ASA and 75 mg clopidogrel daily. Platelet function was determined with the Multiplate analyzer to determine platelet responsiveness. Salicylate blood level was measured for all patients on ASA. Seventy-three patients (26%) were determined to be nonresponsive to ASA, and 45 patients (16%) were partially responsive, whereas 164 patients (58.2%) were responsive to ASA. Myocardial infarction and coronary obstruction were both strongly associated with ASA nonresponsiveness (p < 0.001). ASA resistance occurred more in female patients (p = 0.002). The salicylate blood level was found to be low in ASA-resistant patients (35.33 ± 50.22 mg/l) and higher in sensitive patients (54.26 ± 18.7 mg/l; p < 0.001). Quantitative assessment of platelet functions is predictive of ASA treatment failure in individual patients. Dual antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel and ASA was found to have greater inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation than either agent alone. Non-adherence may be a significant mediator of poor outcome. PMID:21181173

Awidi, Abdalla; Saleh, Akram; Dweik, Manar; Kailani, Baraah; Abu-Fara, Mohammed; Nabulsi, Rinad; Bener, Abdulbari



The effect of different concentrations of salicylic acid on protective enzyme activities of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants.  


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different concentration (0, 0.1, 0.7, 1.5, 3, 6 and 9 mM) of SA on antioxidant enzymes in Capsicum annuum L. plants. Enzyme activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase were measured. The plants were grown in pots vermiculite. Before applying the salicylic acid treatments, plants filled with were irrigated with based nutrient solution (Hoagland solution) for 5 weeks. After 5 weeks, plants were sprayed with different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.5, 3, 6 and 9 mM) of salicylic acid. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and means were compared by Duncan test. In each experiment 4 replicats were used. Concentrations of 1.5, 3, 6 and 9 mM of SA caused significant increase in polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activities in treated leaves. Concentrations of 0.7, 1.5 ad 3 mM of SA decreased in (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) activities, but concentrations of 6 and 9 Mm of SA increased enzyme activities. Different concentrations of salicylic acid had different effects on enzyme activities in Capsicum annuum L. PMID:19090118

Mahdavian, K; Kalantari, K M; Ghorbanli, M



Methylation Profiling Using Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation and Tiling Array Hybridization  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates development and plays a role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. It is dynamically changed during germline development. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) is an efficient, cost-effective method for locus-specific and genome-wide analysis. Methylated DNA fragments are enriched by a 5-methylcytidine-recognizing antibody, therefore allowing the analysis of both CpG and non-CpG methylation. The enriched DNA fragments can be amplified and hybridized to tiling arrays covering CpG islands, promoters, or the entire genome. Comparison of different methylomes permits the discovery of differentially methylated regions that might be important in disease- or tissue-specific expression. Here, we describe an established MeDIP protocol and tiling array hybridization method for profiling methylation of testicular germ cells.

Cheung, Hoi-Hung; Lee, Tin-Lap; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee



Catalytic reaction of methyl diazoacetate with 1-methyl-2-alkenylpyrroles  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The reaction of 1-methyl-2-alkenylpyrroles with methyl diazoacetate at 20–50°C in the presence of CuCl leads to the formation of both adducts of the carbene at the exocyclic double bond, namely, esters of (1-methyl-2-pyrrolyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acids, and the products of the insertion of the carbene at the 5- and 4-C-H bonds of the pyrrole ring.2.The competitive reactions method was used to show

V. M. Shostakovskii; A. U. Musaev; A. E. Vasil'vitskii; A. M. Guliev; O. M. Nefedov



O-Carbonyl-Assisted Alkaline Hydrolyses of Methyl Benzoates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rates of alkaline hydrolysis of methyl 6-methyl-2-benzoylbenzoate, methyl 6-methyl-2-acetylbenzoate, methyl 6-chloro-2-benzoylbenzoate, methyl 6-chloro-2-acetylbenzoate, and the 6-unsubstituted analogs have been measured. In each case the 6-substitute...

M. S. Newman A. L. Leegwater



Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic structures and kinetic water-exchange reactions of aqueous Al(III)-salicylate complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on the structures and water-exchange reactions of aqueous Al(III)-salicylate complexes. Based on the four models (gas phase (GP); polarizable continuum model (PCM), which estimates the bulk solvent effect; supermolecule model (SM), which considers the explicit solvent effect, and supermolecule-polarizable continuum model (SM-PCM), which accounts for both types of solvent effects), we systematically conducted this study by examining three different properties of the complexes. (1) The microscopic properties of the aqueous Al(III)-salicylate complexes were studied by optimizing their various structures (including the possible 1:1 mono- and bidentate complexes, cis and trans isomers of the 1:2 bidentate complexes and 1:3 bidentate complexes) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) level. (2) The 27Al and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated using the GIAO method at the HF/6-311+G(d, p) level. The calculation results show that the values obtained with the SM-PCM models are in good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature, indicating that the models we employed are appropriate for Al(III)-salicylate complexes. (3) The water-exchange reactions of 1:1 mono- and bidentate Al(III)-salicylate complexes were simulated using supermolecule models at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) level. The logarithm of the water-exchange rate constant (log kex) of the 1:1 bidentate complex predicted using the "log kex-dAl-OH2" correlation is 4.0, which is in good agreement with the experimental value of 3.7, whereas the calculated range of log kex of the 1:1 monodentate complexes is 1.3-1.9. By effectively combining the results for the thermodynamic static structures with the simulations of the kinetic water-exchange reactions, this work promotes further understanding of the configurations and formation mechanism of Al(III)-salicylate complexes.

Shi, Wenjing; Jin, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shaonan; Bi, Shuping



DNA methylation in mouse testes.  


DNA methylation of retrotransposons and imprinted genes is accurately regulated in spermatogenesis. In particular, CpG methylation of long interspersed elements-1 (LINE1 or L1) and intracisternal A-particle (IAP) retrotransposons during spermatogenesis has been well characterized. CpG methylation of the regulatory regions of retrotransposons is acquired during embryonic testis development; however, reductions of DNA methylation in LINE1 and/or IAP and/or Rasgrf1, which is an imprinted gene, are observed in deficient mice of piRNA biogenesis concerning. Here, we describe two methods, bisulfite sequencing and Southern blotting using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme, for analysis of DNA methylation of LINE1, IAP, and imprinted genes in mouse testes. PMID:24178559

Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Kita-Kojima, Kanako; Shiromoto, Yusuke; Ito, Daisuke; Koshima, Hirotaka; Nakano, Toru



Methylated genes in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Hundreds of hypermethylated genes have been described in breast cancer, yet the nature and contribution of these genes in their methylated state to overall risk and prognosis is under-characterized in non-sporadic breast cancers. We therefore compared associations of DNA methylation with tumor stage, hormone/growth receptor status and clinical outcomes in a familial breast cancer cohort. Because few previous methylation studies have considered the oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties of their gene sets, this functional status was included as part of our correlative analysis. Results We found methylation of oncogenes was associated with better prognostic indicators, whereas tumor suppressor gene methylation was associated with a more severe phenotype in women that were either HER2+ or lymph node positive at diagnosis, and/or tended to recur or develop distant metastases. For example, the methylation of the tumor suppressor gene APC was strongly associated with a specific subset of tumors that were both ER+ and HER2+, while methylation of the TWIST oncogene was associated with breast cancers that did not metastasize. Methods This was a retrospective, hospital-based study of n = 99 archival breast tumors derived from women with a germline genetic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and/or familial breast cancer history. DNA methylation was quantified from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumors using the established protocol of quantitative multiplex-methylation specific PCR (QM-MSP). Non-parametric statistics were used to analyze candidate gene methylation in association with clinical outcomes. Conclusion We report several novel, positive associations between percent methylation of the APC, RASSF1A, TWIST, ER?, CDH1 and Cyclin D2 genes and key variables such as tumor stage, hormone and growth receptor status, and a history of recurrent or metastatic disease. Our data suggest the potential utility of parsing gene methylation by functional status and breast tumor subtype.

Vang, Russell; Blackford, Amanda; Fackler, Mary Jo



Development and optimization of a sublingual tablet formulation for physostigmine salicylate.  


This study is aimed to design and optimize a sublingual tablet formulation of physostigmine salicylate, an effective drug in Alzheimer's disease and nerve gas poisoning, by means of the D-optimal experimental design methodology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone, lactose, starch 1500 and sodium starch glycolate were used in the formulations as independent variables. Tablets were prepared by the direct compression method and evaluated for their physical properties (tablet hardness, disintegration time and friability), which were regarded as responses in a D-optimal design. Due to the significance of the special cubic model for data fitted, compared to other models, it was used to examine the obtained results. Response surface plots were plotted to study the tablet properties and the optimized overlay plot was generated based on the results and targets considered for the responses. After verification of the optimum checkpoint formulations, an optimized formulation was chosen due to its desirable physical properties and closely observed and predicted values. Drug assay, content uniformity of the dosage unit, drug dissolution and accelerated stability studies were done on the optimum formulation as further experiments. All the obtained results complied with the requirements of a sublingual tablet formulation. PMID:19819826

Bolourchian, Noushin; Hadidi, Naghmeh; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Shafaghi, Bijan



Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have revealed an important role for hormones in plant immunity. We are now beginning to understand the contribution of crosstalk among different hormone signaling networks to the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate development and responses to the environment. Cytokinin signaling involves a phosphorelay circuitry similar to two-component systems used by bacteria and fungi to perceive and react to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we asked whether cytokinin and components of cytokinin signaling contribute to plant immunity. We demonstrate that cytokinin levels in Arabidopsis are important in determining the amplitude of immune responses, ultimately influencing the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. We show that high concentrations of cytokinin lead to increased defense responses to a virulent oomycete pathogen, through a process that is dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and activation of defense gene expression. Surprisingly, treatment with lower concentrations of cytokinin results in increased susceptibility. These functions for cytokinin in plant immunity require a host phosphorelay system and are mediated in part by type-A response regulators, which act as negative regulators of basal and pathogen-induced SA–dependent gene expression. Our results support a model in which cytokinin up-regulates plant immunity via an elevation of SA–dependent defense responses and in which SA in turn feedback-inhibits cytokinin signaling. The crosstalk between cytokinin and SA signaling networks may help plants fine-tune defense responses against pathogens.

Argueso, Cristiana T.; Ferreira, Fernando J.; Epple, Petra; To, Jennifer P. C.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Schaller, G. Eric; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Kieber, Joseph J.



Induction of Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defense Response in Perennial Ryegrass Against Infection by Magnaporthe oryzae.  


ABSTRACT Incorporation of plant defense activators is an innovative approach to development of an integrated strategy for the management of turfgrass diseases. The effects of salicylic acid (SA), benzothiadiazole (BTH, chemical analog of SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethephon (ET, an ethylene-releasing compound) on development of gray leaf spot in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were evaluated. Gray leaf spot disease incidence and severity were significantly decreased when plants were treated prior to inoculation with SA, BTH, and partially by ET but not by JA. Accumulation of endogenous SA and elevated expression of pathogenesis-related (PR)-1, PR-3.1, and PR-5 genes were associated with inoculation of plants by M. oryzae. Treatment of plants with SA enhanced expression levels of PR-3.1 and PR-5 but did not affect the PR-1 level, whereas BTH treatment enhanced relative expression levels of all three PR genes. Microscopic observations of leaves inoculated with M. oryzae revealed higher frequencies of callose deposition at the penetration sites in SA- and BTH-treated plants compared with the control plants (treated with water). These results suggest that early and higher induction of these genes by systemic resistance inducers may provide perennial ryegrass with a substantial advantage to defend against infection by M. oryzae. PMID:24328494

Rahman, Alamgir; Kuldau, Gretchen A; Uddin, Wakar



[Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on formation of active oxygen forms in wheat coleoptiles].  


The comparative study of influence of exogenous salicylic (SaA) and succinic (SuA) acids on the production of reactive oxygen species by isolated wheat coleoptiles has been provided. Under the action of both acids the increase of generation of superoxide anion-radical (O2(.-)) was observed. This increase was partially suppressed by treatment of coleoptiles with inhibitors of peroxidase (salicylhydroxamic acid) and NADP H-oxidase (imidazole and alpha-naphthol). The increase of hydrogen peroxide content, activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was registered under the influence of SaA and SuA; catalase activity did not change essentially. The treatment of coleoptiles with the indicated acids resulted in the increase of their resistance to abiotic stress (damaging heating, 43 +/- 0,1 degrees C, 10 min). The conclusion is made, that the increase of O2(.-) generation in wheat coleoptiles under the action of SaA and SuA is related, probably, to the increase of apoplast peroxidase and NADP.H-oxidase activity, and the rise of H2O2 content is related to the growth of SOD activity. These enzymatic systems are involved in the induction of plant cells protective reactions to the hyperthermia. PMID:22276431

Kolupaiev, Iu Ie; Iastreb, T O; Shvidenko, M V; Karpets', Iu V



Salicylic acid, a plant defense hormone, is specifically secreted by a molluscan herbivore.  


Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan



Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.  


Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui



Salicylic acid and calcium-induced protection of wheat against salinity.  


Soil salinity is one of the important environmental factors that produce serious agricultural problems. The objective of the present study was to determine the interactive effect of salicylic acid (SA) and calcium (Ca) on plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, proline (Pro) concentration, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes of Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Samma) under salt stress. Application of 90 mM of NaCl reduced plant growth (plant height, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW), chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, CA activity) and enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) and Pro concentration. However, the application of SA or Ca alone as well as in combination markedly improved plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, Pro concentration, CA activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under salt stress. It was, therefore, concluded that application of SA and Ca alone as well as in combination ameliorated the adverse effect of salinity, while combined application proved more effective to reduce the oxidative stress generated by NaCl through reduced MDA accumulation, Chl a/b ratio and Chls degradation and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:21979309

Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Basalah, Mohammed O