These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ({approx}2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2}), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study.

BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, GARY L.

2001-12-01

2

Methyl salicylate overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Methyl salicylate is a wintergreen-scented chemical found in many over-the-counter products, including muscle ache creams. Methyl salicylate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

3

The Synthesis of Methyl Salicylate: Amine Diazotization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that this experiment takes safety and noncarcinogenic reactants into account. Demonstrates the use of diazonium salts for the replacement of an aromatic amine group by a phenolic hydroxyl. Involves two pleasant-smelling organic compounds, methyl anthranilate (grape) and methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). (MVL)

Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.

1988-01-01

4

Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-met...

5

Endogenous Methyl Salicylate in Pathogen-Inoculated Tobacco Plants1  

PubMed Central

The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivar Xanthi-nc (genotype NN) produces high levels of salicylic acid (SA) after inoculation with the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous methyl salicylate (MeSA), a major volatile produced in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants, was recently shown to be an airborne defense signal. Using an assay developed to measure the MeSA present in tissue, we have shown that in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants the level of MeSA increases dramatically, paralleling increases in SA. MeSA accumulation was also observed in upper, noninoculated leaves. In TMV-inoculated tobacco shifted from 32 to 24°C, the MeSA concentration increased from nondetectable levels to 2318 ng/g fresh weight 12 h after the temperature shift, but subsequently decreased with the onset of the hypersensitive response. Similar results were observed in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola, in which MeSA levels were highest just before the hypersensitive response-induced tissue desiccation. Transgenic NahG plants unable to accumulate SA also did not accumulate MeSA after TMV inoculation, and did not show increased resistance to TMV following MeSA treatment. Based on the spatial and temporal kinetics of its accumulation, we conclude that tissue MeSA may play a role similar to that of volatile MeSA in the pathogen-induced defense response.

Seskar, Mirjana; Shulaev, Vladimir; Raskin, Ilya

1998-01-01

6

Plant methyl salicylate induces defense responses in the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis is a rhizobacterium that promotes plant growth and health. Cultivation of B.?subtilis with an uprooted weed on solid medium produced pleat-like architectures on colonies near the plant. To test whether plants emit signals that affect B.?subtilis colony morphology, we examined the effect of plant-related compounds on colony morphology. Bacillus?subtilis formed mucoid colonies specifically in response to methyl salicylate, which is a plant-defense signal released in response to pathogen infection. Methyl salicylate induced mucoid colony formation by stimulating poly-?-glutamic acid biosynthesis, which formed enclosing capsules that protected the cells from exposure to antimicrobial compounds. Poly-?-glutamic acid synthesis depended on the DegS-DegU two-component regulatory system, which activated DegSU-dependent gene transcription in response to methyl salicylate. Bacillus subtilis did not induce plant methyl salicylate production, indicating that the most probable source of methyl salicylate in the rhizosphere is pathogen-infected plants. Methyl salicylate induced B.?subtilis biosynthesis of the antibiotics bacilysin and fengycin, the latter of which exhibited inhibitory activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We propose that B.?subtilis may sense plants under pathogen attack via methyl salicylate, and express defense responses that protect both B.?subtilis and host plants in the rhizosphere. PMID:25181478

Kobayashi, Kazuo

2014-09-01

7

Methyl Salicylate Is a Critical Mobile Signal for Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), an organism-wide state of enhanced defense to subsequent infections, has been elusive. By stimulating immune responses in mosaic tobacco plants created by grafting different genetic backgrounds, we showed that the methyl salicylate (MeSA) esterase activity of salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2), which converts MeSA into salicylic acid (SA), is required

Sang-Wook Park; Evans Kaimoyo; Dhirendra Kumar; Stephen Mosher; Daniel F. Klessig

2007-01-01

8

Methyl Salicylate Production and Jasmonate Signaling Are Not Essential for Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) develops in response to local microbial leaf inoculation and renders the whole plant more resistant to subsequent pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) in noninfected plant parts is required for SAR, and methyl salicylate (MeSA) and jasmonate (JA) are proposed to have critical roles during SAR long-distance signaling from inoculated to distant leaves. Here, we

Elham Attaran; Tatiana E. Zeier; T. Griebel; J. Zeier

2009-01-01

9

Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

1980-01-01

10

Role of methyl salicylate on oviposition deterrence in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Plants attacked by herbivores have evolved different strategies that fend off their enemies. Insect eggs deposited on leaves have been shown to inhibit further oviposition through visual or chemical cues. In some plant species, the volatile methyl salicylate (MeSA) repels gravid insects but whether it plays the same role in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana is currently unknown. Here we showed that Pieris brassicae butterflies laid fewer eggs on Arabidopsis plants that were next to a MeSA dispenser or on plants with constitutively high MeSA emission than on control plants. Surprisingly, the MeSA biosynthesis mutant bsmt1-1 treated with egg extract was still repellent to butterflies when compared to untreated bsmt1-1. Moreover, the expression of BSMT1 was not enhanced by egg extract treatment but was induced by herbivory. Altogether, these results provide evidence that the deterring activity of eggs on gravid butterflies is independent of MeSA emission in Arabidopsis, and that MeSA might rather serve as a deterrent in plants challenged by feeding larvae. PMID:24973956

Groux, Raphaël; Hilfiker, Olivier; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Erb, Matthias; Reymond, Philippe

2014-07-01

11

Environmental persistence and toxicity of dimethyl malonate and methyl salicylate  

SciTech Connect

To determine the potential environmental persistence and toxic effects of agent simulants Diethyl Malonate (DEM) and Methyl Salicylate (MS), plants, soils, earthworms, and oil microbial populations were exposed to projected aerosolized simulant concentrations of {approximately}100 (low) and {approximately}1000 (high) mg/m{sup 3}. Both simulants exhibited biphasic residence times on foliar and soil surfaces following aerosol exposure. Half-times of DEM on soil and foliar surfaces were 1 to 3 h and 5 to 22 H, respectively, and 2 to 2 h and 5 to 31 h for the MS, respectively. Persistence was longer on the foliar surfaces than that of the soils. Both simulants proved phytotoxic to vegetation with a lower threshold of 1 to 2 {mu}m/cm{sup 2} for the MS versus that of 10 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} for the DEM. However, neither significantly affected chloroplast electron transport in vitro at concentrations of up to 100 {mu}g/mL. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not adversely impact soil microbial activity, while the theshold was 100 {mu}g/g dry soil for MS. Earthworm bioassays indicated survival rates of 66% at soil doses of 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2} soil and 86% at soil doses of 331 {mu}g MS/cm{sup 2}. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Ligotke, M.W.; Cataldo, D.A.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wentsel, R.S. (Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (USA))

1991-03-01

12

Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice  

SciTech Connect

Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

Zhao, Nan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Chern, Mawsheng [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2010-01-01

13

Effects of Charge Transfer on the ESIPT Process in Methyl 5-R-Salicylates.  

PubMed

The fluorescent behavior of the methyl-5-R-salicylates is analyzed in media of negligible acidity and basicity so that the methyl-5-R-salicylates may undergo solvent dipolarity changes or not in a controlled manner based on the following guidelines: (i) The molecular forms of these methyl-5-R-salicylates possessing an intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) between their hydroxyl group and ether type oxygen (rotated tautomer) undergo no excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in their first excited electronic state; (ii) on the other hand, the molecular species with an IMHB between its hydroxyl group and carbonyl oxygen (normal tautomer) exhibits both ESIPT and normal emission when charge transfer (CT) from the R-substituent to the phenol group is slight to moderate, but only normal emission is monitored when CT is strong. The special insensitivity of the first UV absorption band for the normal tautomer of methylsalicylate (MS, with R = H) to the polarity of the solvent is not echoed by the normal forms of methyl-5-R-salicylates containing substituents R with a substantial effect of CT in the IMHB of the compound. These solvatochromic features of MS are shared by the emissions of its derivatives. The photophysical evidence found for the methyl-5-R-salicylates confirms the photophysical model recently reported (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2012, 14, 8903-8909), which assigns three fluorescent emissions to the methyl-5-R-salicylates: two of them coming from the IMHB normal tautomer, which undergoes ESIPT, and another from the IMHB rotated tautomer, which cannot undergo ESIPT. PMID:24967729

Catalán, J

2015-02-12

14

Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

1994-06-01

15

Dermal Absorption of Camphor, Menthol, and Methyl Salicylate in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camphor, menthol, andmethyl salicylate occur in numerous over-the-counter products. Although extensively used, there have been no estimates of human exposure following administration via dermal application. Furthermore, there is little information about the pharmacokinetics of those compounds. The authors report the plasma concentrations of the intact compounds as a function of dose following dermal patch application. Three groups of 8 subjects

Debra Martin; Jennifer Valdez; James Boren; Michael Mayersohn

2004-01-01

16

Evaluation of methyl salicylate lures on populations of Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and other natural enemies in vineyards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methyl salicylate (MeSA), an herbivore induced plant volatile, can potentially elicit control of pests through attraction of beneficial arthropods. This study evaluates the effect of synthetic MeSA lures (PredaLure) on arthropod populations during the 2009 and 2010 seasons in two Oregon vineyards (...

17

Field responses of predaceous arthropods to methyl salicylate: a meta-analysis and case study in cranberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is an herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) that has shown potential in attracting natural enemies. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the magnitude of natural enemy response to MeSA in the field, and tested its attractiveness to insect predators in commercial...

18

THE DUAL EFFECTS OF METHYL SALICYLATE ON RIPENING AND EXPRESSION OF ETHYLENE BIOSYNTHESIS GENES IN TOMATO FRUIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Sun Bright) at three ripening stages (mature green, breaker and turning) were treated with three different concentrations of methyl salicylate (MeSA) vapor to investigate the impact on ripening and ethylene production. The tomato ripening process, incl...

19

Embedded Piezoresistive Microcantilever Sensors Functionalized for the Detection of Methyl Salicylate  

SciTech Connect

Sensors designed to detect the presence of methyl salicylate (MeS) have been tested. These sensors use a sensor platform based on the embedded piezoresistive microcantilever (EPM) design. Sensing materials tested in this study included the polymer poly (ethylene vinyl acetate), or PEVA as well as a composite sensing material consisting of the enzyme SA-binding protein 2, or SABP-2. The SABP-2 was immobilized within a biocompatible Hypol gel matrix. The PEVA-based sensors exhibited slower but reversible responses to MeS vapors, recovering fully to their initial state after the analyte was removed. SABP-2 sensors exhibited faster overall response to the introduction of MeS, responding nearly instantly. These sensors, however, do not recover after exposures have ended. Sensors using the SABP-2 sensing materials act instead as integrating sensors, measuring irreversibly the total MeS dose obtained.

Porter, T. L. [UNLV; Venedam, R. J. [NSTec

2013-03-01

20

Methyl salicylate production and jasmonate signaling are not essential for systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) develops in response to local microbial leaf inoculation and renders the whole plant more resistant to subsequent pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) in noninfected plant parts is required for SAR, and methyl salicylate (MeSA) and jasmonate (JA) are proposed to have critical roles during SAR long-distance signaling from inoculated to distant leaves. Here, we address the significance of MeSA and JA during SAR development in Arabidopsis thaliana. MeSA production increases in leaves inoculated with the SAR-inducing bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae; however, most MeSA is emitted into the atmosphere, and only small amounts are retained. We show that in several Arabidopsis defense mutants, the abilities to produce MeSA and to establish SAR do not coincide. T-DNA insertion lines defective in expression of a pathogen-responsive SA methyltransferase gene are completely devoid of induced MeSA production but increase systemic SA levels and develop SAR upon local P. syringae inoculation. Therefore, MeSA is dispensable for SAR in Arabidopsis, and SA accumulation in distant leaves appears to occur by de novo synthesis via isochorismate synthase. We show that MeSA production induced by P. syringae depends on the JA pathway but that JA biosynthesis or downstream signaling is not required for SAR. In compatible interactions, MeSA production depends on the P. syringae virulence factor coronatine, suggesting that the phytopathogen uses coronatine-mediated volatilization of MeSA from leaves to attenuate the SA-based defense pathway. PMID:19329558

Attaran, Elham; Zeier, Tatiana E; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jürgen

2009-03-01

21

Methyl jasmonate- and salicylic acid-induced d -chiro-inositol production in suspension cultures of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and salicylic acid (SA) on d-chiro-inositol (DCI) production in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) suspension cultures. In this study, adding optimal concentrations of MeJ and SA at an appropriate time markedly increased\\u000a DCI production (yield 6.141 and 5.521 mg\\/g DW, respectively). In addition, treatment of buckwheat cultures with a combination

Yao-hui HuYa-tong; Ya-tong Yu; Chun-hong Piao; Jun-mei Liu; Han-song Yu

2011-01-01

22

[Acute salicylate poisoning].  

PubMed

Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis. PMID:16467617

Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

2006-01-01

23

The Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Methyl Salicylate Negatively Affects Attraction of the Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum  

PubMed Central

The indirect defense mechanisms of plants comprise the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that can attract natural enemies of plant attackers. One of the often emitted compounds after herbivory is methyl salicylate (MeSA). Here, we studied the importance of this caterpillar-induced compound in the attraction of the parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum by using a mutant Arabidopsis line. Pieris rapae infested AtBSMT1-KO mutant Arabidopsis plants, compromised in the biosynthesis of MeSA, were more attractive to parasitoids than infested wild-type plants. This suggests that the presence of MeSA has negative effects on parasitoid host-finding behavior when exposed to wild-type production of herbivore-induced Arabidopsis volatiles. Furthermore, in line with this, we recorded a positive correlation between MeSA dose and repellence of D. semiclausum when supplementing the headspace of caterpillar-infested AtBSMT1-KO plants with synthetic MeSA. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9787-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20407809

Mumm, Roland; Poelman, Erik H.; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Dicke, Marcel

2010-01-01

24

Identification of methyl salicylate as the principal volatile component in the methanol extract of root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata Fers.  

PubMed

Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a medicine in many parts of Africa and shows promise for protecting stored grain against insect pests. Analysis of a methanol extract of the root bark by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showed a major component accounting for over 90% of the volatile material. This was identified as methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate (methyl salicylate) by comparison of the GC retention times and mass spectrum with those of synthetic standards. This conflicts with an earlier report that the major component is methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate. Two minor components had mass spectra characteristic of 2-hydroxybenzoate esters and were identified as methyl 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate and its benzyl analogue, again conflicting with an earlier report. PMID:12112739

Jayasekara, T K; Stevenson, P C; Belmain, S R; Farman, D I; Hall, D R

2002-06-01

25

Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).  

PubMed

Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10?M MJ, 2mM SA or 10?M MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10?M MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10?M MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD. PMID:25216124

Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

2014-11-15

26

Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. PMID:24817050

Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

2014-06-01

27

[Effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].  

PubMed

A field investigation was conducted on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies under wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application. With the development of wheat plant, an alternation from aggregation to uniform was observed in the spatial distribution of S. avenae under the intercropping and methyl salicylate application, being more obvious under the interaction of the two practices. The spatial distribution of S. avenae natural enemies was in accordance with that of the aphid. These results could be used for the reference of sampling investigation and forecast of wheat aphid and its natural enemies in field. PMID:23173471

Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Guang; Liu, Yong

2012-07-01

28

Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mites and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae K...

29

The Preparation of 2-(4Oxo4H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)-1-phenyl-ethanones by the Condensation\\/Cyclization of Dilithiated 1Benzoylacetone with Lithiated Methyl Salicylates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilithiated 1-benzoylacetone was prepared in excess lithium diisopropylamide and condensed with several lithiated methyl salicylates, followed by acid cyclization to 2-(4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)-1-phenylethanones (2-phenacyl-chromones).

April J. Angel; Douglas R. Hurst; Angela R. Williams; Kristen L. French; Charles F. Beam

1998-01-01

30

Methyl Salicylate Production and Jasmonate Signaling Are Not Essential for Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) develops in response to local microbial leaf inoculation and renders the whole plant more resistant to subsequent pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) in noninfected plant parts is required for SAR, and methyl salicylate (MeSA) and jasmonate (JA) are proposed to have critical roles during SAR long-distance signaling from inoculated to distant leaves. Here, we address the significance of MeSA and JA during SAR development in Arabidopsis thaliana. MeSA production increases in leaves inoculated with the SAR-inducing bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae; however, most MeSA is emitted into the atmosphere, and only small amounts are retained. We show that in several Arabidopsis defense mutants, the abilities to produce MeSA and to establish SAR do not coincide. T-DNA insertion lines defective in expression of a pathogen-responsive SA methyltransferase gene are completely devoid of induced MeSA production but increase systemic SA levels and develop SAR upon local P. syringae inoculation. Therefore, MeSA is dispensable for SAR in Arabidopsis, and SA accumulation in distant leaves appears to occur by de novo synthesis via isochorismate synthase. We show that MeSA production induced by P. syringae depends on the JA pathway but that JA biosynthesis or downstream signaling is not required for SAR. In compatible interactions, MeSA production depends on the P. syringae virulence factor coronatine, suggesting that the phytopathogen uses coronatine-mediated volatilization of MeSA from leaves to attenuate the SA-based defense pathway. PMID:19329558

Attaran, Elham; Zeier, Tatiana E.; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jürgen

2009-01-01

31

Methyl salicylate and (-)-(1R,5S)-myrtenal are plant-derived repellents for black bean aphid,Aphis fabae Scop. (Homoptera: Aphididae).  

PubMed

Methyl salicylate and (-)-(1R,5S)-myrtenal stimulate specific olfactory cells in the primary rhinaria on the sixth and fifth antennal segments, respectively, of the black bean aphid.Aphis fabae. In behavioral studies employing a linear track olfactometer, both compounds were repellent toA. fabae and also inhibited attraction to volatiles from its host, broad bean (Vicia faba). Methyl salicylate is associated with secondary metabolite-based defense in plants, and the monoterpenoid (-)-(1R,5S)-myrtenal is metabolically related to (-)-(1S,5S)-?-pinene, an abundant component of defensive resins produced by gymnosperms. It is argued that these two compounds are employed byA. fabae as indicators of nutritionally unsuitable or nonhost plants. PMID:24241919

Hardie, J; Isaacs, R; Pickett, J A; Wadhams, L J; Woodcock, C M

1994-11-01

32

Neuropeptide Receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 Regulate Caenorhabditis elegans Avoidance Response to the Plant Stress Hormone Methyl Salicylate.  

PubMed

Methyl salicylate (MeSa) is a stress hormone released by plants under attack by pathogens or herbivores . MeSa has been shown to attract predatory insects of herbivores and repel pests. The molecules and neurons underlying animal response to MeSa are not known. Here we found that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a strong avoidance response to MeSa, which requires the activities of two closely related neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2. Molecular analyses suggest that NPR-1 expressed in the RMG inter/motor neurons is required for MeSa avoidance. An NPR-1 ligand FLP-18 is also required. Using a rescuing npr-2 promoter to drive a GFP transgene, we identified that NPR-2 is expressed in multiple sensory and interneurons. Genetic rescue experiments suggest that NPR-2 expressed in the AIZ interneurons is required for MeSa avoidance. We also provide evidence that the AWB sensory neurons might act upstream of RMGs and AIZs to detect MeSa. Our results suggest that NPR-2 has an important role in regulating animal behavior and that NPR-1 and NPR-2 act on distinct interneurons to affect C. elegans avoidance response to MeSa. PMID:25527285

Luo, Jintao; Xu, Zhaofa; Tan, Zhiping; Zhang, Zhuohua; Ma, Long

2015-02-01

33

Aqueous-phase oxidation of green leaf volatiles by hydroxyl radical as a source of SOA: Product identification from methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into the atmosphere by vegetation. BVOCs produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via gas-phase reactions, but little is known of their aqueous-phase oxidation as a source of SOA. GLVs can partition into atmospheric water phases, e.g., fog, mist, dew or rain, and be oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (?OH). These reactions in the liquid phase also lead to products that have higher molecular weights, increased polarity, and lower vapor pressures, ultimately forming SOA after evaporation of the droplet. To examine this process, we investigated the aqueous, ?OH-mediated oxidation of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and methyl salicylate (MeSa), two GLVs that produce aqueous-phase SOA. High performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to monitor product formation. The oxidation products identified exhibit higher molecular mass than their parent GLV due to either dimerization or the addition of oxygen and hydroxyl functional groups. The proposed structures of potential products are based on mechanistic considerations combined with the HPLC/ESI-MS data. Based on the structures, the vapor pressure and the Henry's law constant were estimated with multiple methods (SPARC, SIMPOL, MPBPVP, Bond and Group Estimations). The estimated vapor pressures of the products identified are significantly (up to 7 orders of magnitude) lower than those of the associated parent compounds, and therefore, the GLV oxidation products may remain as SOA after evaporation of the water droplet. The contribution of the identified oxidation products to SOA formation is estimated based on measured HPLC-ESI/MS responses relative to previous aqueous SOA mass yield measurements.

Hansel, Amie K.; Ehrenhauser, Franz S.; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Anastasio, Cort; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

2015-02-01

34

The identification and differential expression of Eucalyptus grandis pathogenesis-related genes in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate  

PubMed Central

Two important role players in plant defence response are the phytohormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA); both of which have been well described in model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Several pathogenesis related (PR) genes have previously been used as indicators of the onset of SA and JA signaling in Arabidopsis. This information is lacking in tree genera such as Eucalyptus. The aim of this study was to characterize the transcriptional response of PR genes (EgrPR2, EgrPR3, EgrPR4, EgrPR5, and EgrLOX) identified in Eucalyptus grandis to SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment as well as to qualify them as diagnostic for the two signaling pathways. Using the genome sequence of E. grandis, we identified candidate Eucalyptus orthologs EgrPR2, EgrPR3, EgrPR4, EgrPR5, and EgrLOX based on a co-phylogenetic approach. The expression of these genes was investigated after various doses of SA and MeJA (a derivative of JA) treatment as well as at various time points. The transcript levels of EgrPR2 were decreased in response to high concentrations of MeJA whereas the expression of EgrPR3 and EgrLOX declined as the concentrations of SA treatment increased, suggesting an antagonistic relationship between SA and MeJA. Our results support EgrPR2 as potentially diagnostic for SA and EgrPR3, EgrPR4, and EgrLOX as indicators of MeJA signaling. To further validate the diagnostic potential of the PR genes we challenged E. grandis clones with the fungal necrotrophic pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana. The tolerant clone showed high induction of EgrPR2 and decreased transcript abundance of EgrPR4. Pre-treatment of the susceptible genotype with 5 mM SA resulted in lesion lengths comparable to the tolerant genotype after artificial inoculation with C. austroafricana. Thus expression profiling of EgrPR2 and EgrPR4 genes could serve as a useful diagnostic approach to determine which of the two signaling pathways are activated against various pathogens in Eucalyptus. PMID:23508356

Naidoo, Ronishree; Ferreira, Linda; Berger, Dave K.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Naidoo, Sanushka

2013-01-01

35

Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

36

Overexpression of salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase reduces salicylic acid-mediated pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We cloned a salicylic acid\\/benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene, OsBSMT1, from Oryza sativa. A recombinant OsBSMT1 protein obtained by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli exhibited carboxyl methyltransferase activity in reactions with salicylic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and de-S-methyl benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid (dSM-BTH), producing methyl salicylate (MeSA), methyl benzoate (MeBA),\\u000a and methyl dSM-BTH (MeBTH), respectively. Compared to wild-type plants, transgenic

Yeon Jong Koo; Myeong Ae Kim; Eun Hye Kim; Jong Tae Song; Choonkyun Jung; Joon-Kwan Moon; Jeong-Han Kim; Hak Soo Seo; Sang Ik Song; Ju-Kon Kim; Jong Seob Lee; Jong-Joo Cheong; Yang Do Choi

2007-01-01

37

Optimization of elicitation conditions with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid to improve the productivity of withanolides in the adventitious root culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.  

PubMed

Adventitious root cultures derived from leaf derived callus of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal were treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid independently. Biomass accumulation, culture age, elicitation period, and culture duration were optimized for higher withanolides production in the two best-responding varieties collected from Kolli hills (Eastern Ghats) and Cumbum (Western Ghats) of Tamil Nadu, India. Between the two elicitors, salicylic acid (SA) improved the production of major withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withaferin A, and withanone) as well as minor constituents (12-deoxy withastramonolide, withanoside V, and withanoside IV) in the Kolli hills variety. Treatment of root biomass (11.70 g FW) on 30-day-old adventitious root cultures with 150 ?M SA for 4 h elicitor exposure period resulted in the production of 64.65 mg g(-l) dry weight (DW) withanolide A (48-fold), 33.74 mg g(-l) DW withanolide B (29-fold), 17.47 mg g(-l) DW withaferin A (20-fold), 42.88 mg g(-l) DW withanone (37-fold), 5.34 mg g(-l) DW 12-deoxy withastramonolide (nine fold), 7.23 mg g(-l) DW withanoside V (seven fold), and 9.45 mg g(-l) DW withanoside IV (nine fold) after 10 days of elicitation (40th day of culture) when compared to untreated cultures. This is the first report on the use of elicitation strategy on the significant improvement in withanolides production in the adventitious root cultures of W. somnifera. PMID:22843063

Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Mayavan, Subramanian; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jeyaraj, Murugaraj; Dev, Gnanajothi Kapil; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy

2012-10-01

38

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

39

Methyl salicylate-induced arginine catabolism is associated with up-regulation of polyamine and nitric oxide levels and improves chilling tolerance in cherry tomato fruit.  

PubMed

The effects of methyl salicylate (MeSA) on chilling injury (CI) and gene expression levels, enzyme activities, and metabolites related to arginine catabolism in cherry tomato fruit were investigated. Freshly harvested fruits were treated with 0.05 mM MeSA vapor at 20 °C for 12 h and then stored at 2 °C for up to 28 days. MeSA reduced CI and enhanced the accumulation of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, which was associated with increased gene expression levels and activities of arginase, arginine decarboxylase, and ornithine decarboxylase at most sampling times. MeSA also increased nitric oxide synthase activity, which at least partly contributed to the increased nitric oxide content. The results indicate that MeSA activates the different pathways of arginine catabolism in cold-stored fruit and that the reduction in CI by MeSA may be due to the coordinated metabolism of arginine and the increase in polyamines and nitric oxide levels. PMID:21790190

Zhang, Xinhua; Shen, Lin; Li, Fujun; Meng, Demei; Sheng, Jiping

2011-09-14

40

Dynamics of the enhanced emissions of monoterpenes and methyl salicylate, and decreased uptake of formaldehyde, by Quercus ilex leaves after application of jasmonic acid.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signalling compound with a key role in both stress and development in plants, and is reported to elicit the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we studied the dynamics of such emissions and the linkage with photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. We sprayed JA on leaves of the Mediterranean tree species Quercus ilex and measured the photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductances, and emissions and uptake of VOCs using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography after a dark-light transition. Jasmonic acid treatment delayed the induction of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by approx. 20 min, and decreased them 24 h after spraying. Indications were found of both stomatal and nonstomatal limitations of photosynthesis. Monoterpene emissions were enhanced (20-30%) after JA spraying. Jasmonic acid also increased methyl salicylate (MeSa) emissions (more than twofold) 1 h after treatment, although after 24 h this effect had disappeared. Formaldehyde foliar uptake decreased significantly 24 h after JA treatment. Both biotic and abiotic stresses can thus affect plant VOC emissions through their strong impact on JA levels. Jasmonic acid-mediated increases in monoterpene and MeSa emissions might have a protective role when confronting biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:16390425

Filella, Iolanda; Peñuelas, Josep; Llusià, Joan

2006-01-01

41

Salicylic acid triggers genotoxic adaptation to methyl mercuric chloride and ethyl methane sulfonate, but not to maleic hydrazide in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA), 0.01 mM, a signalling phytohormone, was tested for induction of adaptive response against genotoxicity of methyl mercuric chloride (MMCl), 0.013 mM; ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), 2.5 mM, or maleic hydrazide (MH), 5 mM, in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Induction of adaptive response to EMS by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1 mM, and yet another secondary signal molecule was tested for comparison. Assessed by the incidence of mitoses with spindle and/or chromosome aberration and micronucleus, the findings provided evidence that SA-conditioning triggered adaptive response against the genotoxic-challenges of MMCl and EMS, but failed to do so against MH. H2O2, which is known to induce adaptive response to MMCl and MH, failed to induce the same against EMS in the present study. The findings pointed to the possible role of signal transduction in the SA-induced adaptive response to genotoxic stress that perhaps ruled out an involvement of H2O2. PMID:15725616

Patra, Jita; Sahoo, Malaya K; Panda, Brahma B

2005-03-01

42

Promoter analyses and transcriptional profiling of eggplant polyphenol oxidase 1 gene (SmePPO1) reveal differential response to exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

The transcriptional regulation of multigenic eggplant (Solanum melongena) polyphenol oxidase genes (SmePPO) is orchestrated by their corresponding promoters which mediate developmentally regulated expression in response to myriad biotic and abiotic factors. However, information on structural features of SmePPO promoters and modulation of their expression by plant defense signals are lacking. In the present study, SmePPOPROMOTERs were cloned by genome walking, and their transcription start sites (TSS) were determined by RLM-RACE. Extensive sequence analyses revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved and over-represented putative cis-acting elements involved in light-regulated transcription, biosynthetic pathways (phenylpropanoid/flavonoid), hormone signaling (abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, jasmonate and salicylate), elicitor and stress responses (cold/dehydration responses), sugar metabolism and plant defense signaling (W-BOX/WRKY) that are common to SmePPOPROMOTER1 and 2. The TSS for SmePPO genes are located 9-15bp upstream of ATG with variable lengths of 5' untranslated regions. Transcriptional profiling of SmePPOs in eggplant seedlings has indicated differential response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or salicylic acid (SA) treatment. In planta, while MeJA elicited expression of all the six SmePPOs, SA was only able to induce the expression of SmePPO4-6. Interestingly, in dual treatment, SA considerably repressed the MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOs. Functional dissection of SmePPOPROMOTER1 by deletion analyses using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in tobacco leaves has shown that MeJA enhances the SmePPOPROMOTER1-?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in vivo, while SA does not. Histochemical and quantitative GUS assays have also indicated the negative effect of SA on MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1. By combining in silico analyses, transcriptional profiling and expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1-GUS fusions, the role of SA on the modulation of MeJA-induced SmePPO1 expression has been elucidated. It is concluded that similar to the coding regions of multigenic SmePPOs, the regulatory elements are also evolutionarily conserved and fall into two distinct sub-classes based on their responses to MeJA and SA. PMID:22377322

Shetty, Santoshkumar M; Chandrashekar, Arun; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

2012-05-01

43

Adsorption behavior of salicylic, benzoic, and 2-methyl-2-hexenoic acid on alumina: an in situ modulation excitation PM-IRRAS study.  

PubMed

Adsorption and desorption of acid molecules (10(-4) M in cyclohexane) with different functional groups, namely salicylic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA) and 2-methyl-2-hexenoic acid (MHA), on an Al(2)O(3) thin film was studied by in situ polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). We used a flow-through PM-IRRAS cell to induce adsorption and desorption processes by alternating acid concentration. Simultaneous but separate detection of liquid-phase and surface species was achieved in a time-resolved manner by PM-IRRAS providing insight into the adsorption-desorption behavior and their kinetics. The reliability and sensitivity of recorded surface and liquid-phase spectra were assured by comparative measurements using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IRS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. All three acids irreversibly adsorbed on the basic alumina sites in a bridging mode. Remarkably, reversibly adsorbing surface species were only detected for SA, whereas BA and MHA adsorption were irreversible. To enhance the sensitivity and to obtain kinetic information on adsorption and desorption processes, PM-IRRAS was combined with modulation excitation spectroscopy (MES) applying periodic acid concentration changes. The MES experiments revealed distinct kinetic responses of liquid-phase SA and two different types of surface adsorbed SA species. One of the adsorbed SA was a dimer-like species loosely bound to the alumina surface and the other was probably strongly bound and interacting with other adsorbed SA molecules by hydrogen-bonding. The formation of the two surface species was induced by the presence of the hydroxyl group in SA which most likely enhances the intermolecular interaction via hydrogen-bonding near and on the alumina surface. PMID:19865769

Meier, Daniel M; Urakawa, Atsushi; Baiker, Alfons

2009-11-21

44

[Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].  

PubMed

In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate (MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling S. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of S. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat. PMID:23359948

Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Li, Pei-Ling; Lin, Fang-Jing; Chen, Ju-Lian; Liu, Yong

2012-10-01

45

Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards.  

PubMed

The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory. PMID:22020782

Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H

2011-12-01

46

Membrane-bound guaiacol peroxidases from maize (Zea mays L.) roots are regulated by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and pathogen elicitors  

PubMed Central

Plant peroxidases are involved in numerous cellular processes in plant development and stress responses. Four plasma membrane-bound peroxidases have been identified and characterized in maize (Zea mays L.) roots. In the present study, maize seedlings were treated with different stresses and signal compounds, and a functional analysis of these membrane-bound class III peroxidases (pmPOX1, pmPOX2a, pmPOX2b, and pmPOX3) was carried out. Total guaiacol peroxidase activities from soluble and microsomal fractions of maize roots were compared and showed weak changes. By contrast, total plasma membrane and washed plasma membrane peroxidase activities, representing peripheral and integral membrane proteins, revealed strong changes after all of the stresses applied. A proteomic approach using 2D-PAGE analysis showed that pmPOX3 was the most abundant class III peroxidase at plasma membranes of control plants, followed by pmPOX2a >pmPOX2b >pmPOX1. The molecular mass (63 kDa) and the isoelectric point (9.5) of the pmPOX2a monomer were identified for the first time. The protein levels of all four enzymes changed in response to multiple stresses. While pmPOX2b was the only membrane peroxidase down-regulated by wounding, all four enzymes were differentially but strongly stimulated by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and elicitors (Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum extracts, and chitosan) indicating their function in pathogen defence. Oxidative stress applied as H2O2 treatment up-regulated pmPOX2b >pmPOX2a, while pmPOX3 was down-regulated. Treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor chantharidin resulted in distinct responses. PMID:20032108

Mika, Angela; Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Hopff, David; Lüthje, Sabine

2010-01-01

47

Salicylate Metabolism in Twins  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the contribution of genetic influences on the individual variation in plateau serum salicylate levels, salicylate metabolism was studied in seven pairs of identical and six pairs of fraternal twins. Under the conditions of this study, after a single i.v. dose (40 mg/kg) of sodium salicylate, the serum salicylate concentration versus time curve approximated a straight line on linear coordinates (appeared approximately zero order). The slopes of the decay curves ranged between 0.64 and 1.02. The intrapair variation for identical twin pairs was significantly less than for fraternal twin pairs (P = 0.044). Likewise pleateau serum salicylic acid concentrations (milligrams/deciliter) and total salicylic acid excretion rate after multiple doses demonstrated significantly less intrapair variation for identical twins than for fraternal twins (P = 0.043 and 0.006). Plateau salicylurate excretion (milligram/kilogram per hour) differences after multiple dosing had a P = 0.067. Michaelis-Menton constant for salicylurate formation and hours to 50% excretion after the i.v. dose were not different when comparing identical and nonidentical twins. Salicylurate formation rates were increased after 3 days of oral therapy, and this induction phenomenon may account for much of the apparent discrepancy between genetic influences on salicylurate formation rates observed after single and multiple dose salicylate administration. This study suggests that the plateau concentration of serum salicylate varies among individuals given the same weight-adjusted dose in part because of genetically determined variations in their metabolism of salicylate. PMID:559691

Furst, Daniel E.; Gupta, Niroo; Paulus, Harold E.

1977-01-01

48

2,3,5,4'- tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glycoside biosynthesis by suspension cells cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and production enhancement by methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

Friable calli of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb have been induced in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and kinetin (KT). Suspension cultures were initiated from friable calli by inoculating calli in liquid MS medium in shake flasks in the dark and 25 °C on an orbital shaker at 100 rpm. The maximum dry weight (DW, 7.85 g/L) and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glycoside (THSG, 56.39 mg/L) of suspension cells was obtained in MS medium after 16 days culture. Both methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) could increase THSG production. The most appropriate concentration of MeJA was 100 ?mol/L in MS medium, in which concentration THSG content reached the maximum value of 147.79 mg/L, which represented a 162.36% increase compared to that of the control (56.33 mg/L). The most appropriate concentration of SA was 125 ?mol/L in MS medium, at which concentration THSG content reached its maximum value of 116.43 mg/L, a 106.69% increase compared to that of the control (56.33 mg/L). PMID:22357320

Shao, Li; Zhao, Shu-Jin; Cui, Tang-Bing; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Zhao, Wei

2012-01-01

49

Salicylate activity. 2. Potentiation of atrazine.  

PubMed

Atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] inhibits photosystem II (PSII) and is commonly used to control weeds in maize. It has been found that addition of sodium salicylate (sodium 2-hydroxybenzoate; NaSA) increased the postemergence herbicidal activity of atrazine against dicotyledonous weeds. NaSA also potentiated the activity of bentazon, another PSII-inhibiting herbicide. NaSA increased atrazine activity when applied either as a tank mix or up to 96 h prior to atrazine application. Other salicylates and the plant disease resistance inducers acibenzolar-S-methyl [benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester] and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid also increased atrazine activity. Among the compounds tested, 3-chloro-5-fluorosalicylate, 4-chlorosalicylate, or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid combined with atrazine yielded the greatest increase in herbicidal activity. Potentiation of atrazine by NaSA was greater at higher temperatures (35 and 25 > 15 degrees C). Also, greater potentiation was observed as the light level decreased. In darkness, NaSA alone or in combination with atrazine caused plant death, whereas atrazine alone had little effect. NaSA increased atrazine activity on npr1-2, an Arabidopsis mutant compromised in SA-induced disease resistance. Atrazine activity was also potentiated by NaSA on the ethylene insensitive mutant ein2-1. This indicates that atrazine potentiation is independent of either salicylate-induced disease resistance or ethylene perception. PMID:16332129

Silverman, F Paul; Petracek, Peter D; Heiman, Daniel F; Ju, Zhiguo; Fledderman, Christina M; Warrior, Prem

2005-12-14

50

Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent

Corné M. J Pieterse; Leendert C van Loon

1999-01-01

51

[scpA the new salicylate hydroxylase gene localized on salicylate/caprolactam degradation plasmids].  

PubMed

Both caprolactam and salicylate biodegradation by Pseudomonas salicylate/caprolactam degraders is controlled by large conjugative plasmids (SAL/CAP). Some of these plasmids determined to be the members of IncP-7 group. The new salicylate 1-hydroxylase gene (scpA) on SAL/CAP-plasmids has been detected and partially sequenced. Gene scpA was equally related to closest homologs nahG (NAH7), salA (P. reinekei MT1) and nahU (pND6-1), but identity of scpA to these genes did not exceed 72-74%. Synthesis of salicylate 1-hydroxylase ScpA was not induced by salicylate. This enzyme had wide substrate specificity and exhibited highest specific activity with 4-methylsalicylate and nonsubstituted salicylate. Besides pseudomonad's salicylate degradative conjugative plasmids without "classical" nah2-operon and harboring only salicylate 1-hydroxylase gene nahU have been firstly described. PMID:23705500

Panov, A V; Volkova, O V; Puntus, I F; Esikova, T Z; Kosheleva, I A; Boronin, A M

2013-01-01

52

SALICYLIC ACID SULFONYL DERIVATIVES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid-5-sulfonohydrazide (3) has been condensed with ?-dicarbonyl compounds to form pyrazoles (5). With ethyl acetoacetate, tri- and hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione the hydrazones (4) were obtained; although the former did cyclise in the presence of potassium carbonate-magnesium sulfate. With hexane-2,5-dione the pyrrole (7) was formed and not the pyridazine (8). Acylation of salicylic acid-5-and p-acetamidobenzene-sulfonohydrazides was examined; mono-acetates, benzoates and p-toleuenesulfonates and

Richard Cremlyn; Frederick Swinbourne; Stephen Plant; David Saunders; Colin Sinderson

1981-01-01

53

Requirement of Salicylic Acid for the Induction of Systemic Acquired Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that salicylic acid acts as an endogenous signal responsible for inducing systemic acquired resistance in plants. The contribution of salicylic acid to systemic acquired resistance was investigated in transgenic tobacco plants harboring a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase, which converts salicylic acid to catechol. Transgenic plants that express salicylate hydroxylase accumulated little or no salicylic acid

Thomas Gaffney; Leslie Friedrich; Bernard Vernooij; David Negrotto; Gordon Nye; Scott Uknes; Eric Ward; Helmut Kessmann; John Ryals

1993-01-01

54

Potentiation by salicylate and salicyl alcohol of cadmium toxicity and accumulation in Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of Cd{sub 2+} in Escherichia coli K-12 was potentiated by salicylate and several related compounds. The efficiency of plating on Luria broth plates was reduced by more than 10(5)-fold when 10 mM salicylate and 200 microM CdCl{sub 2} were present simultaneously but was unaffected when either compound was present by itself. Synergistic effects were found at pH 7.4 with certain other weak acids (acetyl salicylate (aspirin), benzoate, and cinnamate) and with a nonacidic salicylate analog, salicyl alcohol, but not with acetate or p-hydroxy benzoate. Thus, the synergism with Cd{sub 2+} is determined by the structure of the compounds and not merely by their acidity. The kinetics of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by cells grown and assayed in broth indicated the presence of two uptake systems with Kms of 1 and 52 microM Cd{sub 2+} and Vmaxs of 0.059 and 1.5 mumol of Cd{sub 2+} per min per g of cells, respectively. The kinetics of uptake for cells grown and assayed with 20 mM salicyl alcohol showed 2.5-fold increases in the Vmaxs of both systems but no change in the Kms. Salicylate-grown cells also exhibited increased rates of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by both systems. Thus, enhanced uptake of Cd{sub 2+} may be responsible for the potentiation of Cd{sub 2+} toxicity by salicylate and salicyl alcohol.

Rosner, J.L.; Aumercier, M. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-12-01

55

SALICYLIC ACID: PROPERTIES, BIOSYNTHESIS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. A review is made of recent publications devoted to various as- pects of salicylic acid (SA) influence on different physiological processes. The role of SA on plant growth and development, flowering, ion uptake, stomatal regulation and photosynthesis is analysed. SA as a natural inducer of thermogenesis and disease resistance in plants is described. Besides the physiological functions of SA,

Losanka Popova; Tania Pancheva; Alexandra Uzunov

1997-01-01

56

Salicylic acid ingestion leading to esophageal stricture.  

PubMed

Accidental ingestion of caustic substances (acid and alkali) occurs more frequently in children than in adults. The subsequent injury varies from minimal to severe, with perforation and even death as potential complications. Several factors have been shown to mediate the severity of injury, including the pH, concentration and physical state of the ingested substance, tissue contact time, and quantity (volume) of the ingested material. Liquids with a pH of less than 2 (acidic) or a pH of greater than 12 (alkali) are considered to be extremely corrosive and hold the greatest risk for injury. Esophageal injury after caustic ingestion is endoscopically graded with a score of 0 for no injury to IIIb for significant circumferential injury with ulcers and necrosis. Ingestion of either a strong alkali or acid has been documented to result in esophageal necrosis and ulcers (grade IIIb). Alkali ingestions occur more frequently because of their presence in daily life (detergents, degreasers) and therefore have more reports of injury. Despite more than 8200 documented cases of topical salicylic acid ingestions annually in US children younger than 19 years, there are no reported cases of salicylic acid resulting in gastrointestinal pathology. We report 2 cases of salicylic acid ingestion resulting in esophageal strictures. Both patients had more significant injury than anticipated given their initial clinical presentations. Given our recent experience, we recommend close follow-up and evaluation for strictures in patients with exposure to salicylic acid. PMID:20145508

Waasdorp Hurtado, Christine E; Kramer, Robert E

2010-02-01

57

Salicylate increases the gain of the central auditory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High doses of salicylate, the anti-inflammatory component of aspirin, induce transient tinnitus and hearing loss. Systemic injection of 250 mg\\/kg of salicylate, a dose that reliably induces tinnitus in rats, significantly reduced the sound evoked output of the rat cochlea. Paradoxically, salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of the sound-evoked field potential from the auditory cortex (AC) of conscious rats, but

W. Sun; J. Lu; D. Stolzberg; L. Gray; A. Deng; E. Lobarinas; R. J. Salvi

2009-01-01

58

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3830 Salicylate test system. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

59

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3830 Salicylate test system. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

60

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3830 Salicylate test system. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

61

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3830 Salicylate test system. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

62

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3830 Salicylate test system. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

63

Spectroscopic studies of solid-state forms of donepezil free base and salt forms with various salicylic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polymorphic forms of donepezil free base have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. None of the free base crystal forms was observed to exhibit detectable fluorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions. Crystalline salt products were obtained by the reaction of donepezil with salicylic and methyl-substituted salicylic acids, with the salicylate and 4-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as non-solvated products, and the 3-methylsalicylate and 5-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as methanol solvated products. The intensity of solid-state fluorescence from donepezil salicylate and donepezil 4-methylsalicylate was found to be reduced relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids, while the solid-state fluorescence intensity of donepezil 3-methylsalicylate methanolate and donepezil 5-methylsalicylate methanolate was greatly increased relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids. Desolvation of the solvated salt products led to formation of glassy solids that exhibited strong green fluorescence.

Brittain, Harry G.

2014-12-01

64

Amygdala hyperactivity and tonotopic shift after salicylate exposure.  

PubMed

The amygdala, important in forming and storing memories of aversive events, is believed to play a major role in debilitating tinnitus and hyperacusis. To explore this hypothesis, we recorded from the lateral amygdala (LA) and auditory cortex (AC) before and after treating rats with a dose of salicylate that induces tinnitus and hyperacusis-like behavior. Salicylate unexpectedly increased the amplitude of the local field potential (LFP) in the LA making it hyperactive to sounds?60 dB SPL. Frequency receptive fields (FRFs) of multiunit (MU) clusters in the LA were also dramatically altered by salicylate. Neuronal activity at frequencies below 10 kHz and above 20 kHz was depressed at low intensities, but was greatly enhanced for stimuli between 10 and 20 kHz (frequencies near the pitch of the salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat). These frequency-dependent changes caused the FRF of many LA neurons to migrate towards 10-20 kHz thereby amplifying activity from this region. To determine if salicylate-induced changes restricted to the LA would remotely affect neural activity in the AC, we used a micropipette to infuse salicylate (20 ?l, 2.8 mM) into the amygdala. Local delivery of salicylate to the amygdala significantly increased the amplitude of the LFP recorded in the AC and selectively enhanced the neuronal activity of AC neurons at the mid-frequencies (10-20 kHz), frequencies associated with the tinnitus pitch. Taken together, these results indicate that systemic salicylate treatment can induce hyperactivity and tonotopic shift in the amygdala and infusion of salicylate into the amygdala can profoundly enhance sound-evoked activity in AC, changes likely to increase the perception and emotional salience of tinnitus and loud sounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience. PMID:22464181

Chen, Guang-Di; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard

2012-11-16

65

Cyclic Poly(salicylic acid) by Zwitterionic Polymerization of Salicylic Acid O-Carboxyanhydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ring-opening polymerization of salicylic acid O-carboxyanhydride (SOCA) was studied under various reaction conditions and analyzed by means of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry with regard to the formation of cyclic poly(salicylide)s. First, two thermal polymerizations were performed in the melt at 170°C and cyclic oligosalicylates were found possibly resulting from “back-biting”. Second, polymerizations catalyzed by a highly nucleophilic carbene in dioxane

Hans R. Kricheldorf; Nino Lomadze; Gert Schwarz

2009-01-01

66

Expression of Immediate-Early Genes in the Inferior Colliculus and Auditory Cortex in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus in Rat  

PubMed Central

Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC), in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus. PMID:24704997

Hu, S.S.; Mei, L.; Chen, J.Y.; Huang, Z.W.; Wu, H.

2014-01-01

67

Salicylic acid signaling in disease resistance.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant hormone that mediates host responses against microbial pathogens. Identification and characterization of SA-interacting/binding proteins is a topic which has always excited scientists studying microbial defense response in plants. It is likely that discovery of a true receptor for SA may greatly advance understanding of this important signaling pathway. SABP2 with its high affinity for SA was previously considered to be a SA receptor. Despite a great deal work we may still not have true a receptor for SA. It is also entirely possible that there may be more than one receptor for SA. This scenario is more likely given the diverse role of SA in various physiological processes in plants including, modulation of opening and closing of stomatal aperture, flowering, seedling germination, thermotolerance, photosynthesis, and drought tolerance. Recent identification of NPR3, NPR4 and NPR1 as potential SA receptors and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHE2), several glutathione S transferases (GSTF) such as SA binding proteins have generated more interest in this field. Some of these SA binding proteins may have direct/indirect role in plant processes other than pathogen defense signaling. Development and use of new techniques with higher specificity to identify SA-interacting proteins have shown great promise and have resulted in the identification of several new SA interactors. This review focuses on SA interaction/binding proteins identified so far and their likely role in mediating plant defenses. PMID:25438793

Kumar, Dhirendra

2014-11-01

68

Photosynthetically oxygenated salicylate biodegradation in a continuous stirred tank photobioreactor.  

PubMed

A consortium consisting of a Chlorella sorokiniana strain and a Ralstonia basilensis strain was able to carry out sodium salicylate biodegradation in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using exclusively photosynthetic oxygenation. Salicylate biodegradation depended on algal activity, which itself was a function of microalgal concentration, light intensity, and temperature. Biomass recirculation improved the photobioreactor performance by up to 44% but the results showed the existence of an optimal biomass concentration above which dark respiration started to occur and the process efficiency started to decline. The salicylate removal efficiency increased by a factor of 3 when illumination was increased from 50-300 microE/m2.s. In addition, the removal rate of sodium salicylate was shown to be temperature-dependent, increasing from 14 to 27 mg/l.h when the temperature was raised from 26.5 to 31.5 degrees C. Under optimized conditions (300 microE/m2.s, 30 degrees C, 1 g sodium salicylate/l in the feed and biomass recirculation) sodium salicylate was removed at a maximum constant rate of 87 mg/l.h, corresponding to an estimated oxygenation capacity of 77 mg O2/l.h (based on a BOD value of 0.88 g O2/g sodium salicylate for the tested bacterium), which is in the range of the oxygen transfer capacity of large-scale mechanical surface aerators. Thus, although higher degradation rates were attained in the control reactor, the photobioreactor is a cost-efficient process which reduces the cost of aeration and prevents volatilization problems associated with the degradation of toxic volatile organic compounds under aerobic conditions. PMID:15329938

Muñoz, Raul; Köllner, Claudia; Guieysse, Benoit; Mattiasson, Bo

2004-09-20

69

Concurrent release of admixed antimicrobials and salicylic acid from salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters)  

PubMed Central

A polymer blend consisting of antimicrobials (chlorhexidine, clindamycin, and minocycline) physically admixed at 10% by weight into a salicylic acid-based poly (anhydride-ester) (SA-based PAE) was developed as an adjunct treatment for periodontal disease. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends were characterized by multiple methods, including contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Static contact angle measurements showed no significant differences in hydrophobicity between the polymer and antimicrobial matrix surfaces. Notable decreases in the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg) and the antimicrobials' melting points (Tm) were observed indicating that the antimicrobials act as plasticizers within the polymer matrix. In vitro drug release of salicylic acid from the polymer matrix and for each physically admixed antimicrobial was concurrently monitored by high pressure liquid chromatography during the course of polymer degradation and erosion. Although the polymer/antimicrobial blends were immiscible, the initial 24 h of drug release correlated to the erosion profiles. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends are being investigated as an improvement on current localized drug therapies used to treat periodontal disease. PMID:19180627

Johnson, Michelle L.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

2008-01-01

70

Enhanced Epiphytic Coexistence of Near-Isogenic Salicylate-Catabolizing and Non-Salicylate-Catabolizing Pseudomonas putida Strains after Exogenous Salicylate Application  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that epiphytic bacterial populations can coexist through nutritional resource partitioning was tested with the near-isogenic bacterial strain pair Pseudomonas putida R20 and R20(pNAH7). The plasmid pNAH7 conferred upon R20 the ability to catabolize salicylate as a sole carbon source in vitro. P. putida R20(pNAH7) also catabolized exogenously applied salicylate in planta and reached a significantly larger epiphytic population size than the near-isogenic parental strain R20 under the same conditions. This supports previous observations that epiphytic populations on plants grown under nitrogen-sufficient conditions are limited by carbon availability. In the absence of exogenous salicylate, R20 and R20(pNAH7) competed for and partitioned endogenous carbon according to their inoculum proportion in replacement series experiments, exhibiting a low level of coexistence. In the presence of exogenous salicylate, however, R20(pNAH7) was solely able to catabolize the additional carbon and achieved a higher level of coexistence with R20 than was possible in the absence of exogenous carbon. PMID:16534957

Wilson, M.; Lindow, S. E.

1995-01-01

71

Current management of salicylate-induced pulmonary edema.  

PubMed

Salicylate-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) can occur in both acute and chronic users of aspirin or salicylate products. The medical history, especially when it reveals the use of salicylates, is critical when considering this diagnosis. Unfortunately, the neurologic and systemic effects of salicylate toxicity may hinder the ability to obtain a reliable medical history. SIPE should be considered in patients who present with pulmonary edema and neurological changes, anion-gap metabolic acidosis, or possible sepsis. Some patients may be treated for "pseudosepsis" or other conditions, thereby delaying the diagnosis of salicylate intoxication. Misdiagnosis and possibly delayed diagnosis of SIPE can lead to a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Serum and urine alkalinization by administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate are commonly utilized therapeutic strategies. Finally, hemodialysis is a therapy which should be considered early in the course of treatment. The objective of this review was to emphasize the importance of rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment in patients with SIPE, and summarize the current literature as it relates to the adult population. PMID:21297545

Glisson, James K; Vesa, Telciane S; Bowling, Mark R

2011-03-01

72

Possible involvement of salicylic acid in systemic acquired resistance of Cucumis sativus against Sphaerotheca fuliginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible involvement of salicylic acid in systemic acquired resistance ofCucumis sativus againstSphaerotheca fuliginea was studied. Cucumber plants were inoculated with tobacco necrosis virus on the cotyledons and the level of endogenous salicylic acid in the first true leaf was determined by gas chromatography. Salicylic acid increased continously from the second day after virus inoculation to the fifth day, when

Gian Guido Conti; Alberto Pianezzola; Guido Violini; Dario Maffi; Anna Arnoldi

1996-01-01

73

The protective effect of salicylic acid on lysozyme against riboflavin-mediated photooxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a metabolite of aspirin in vivo, salicylic acid was proved to protect lysozyme from riboflavin-mediated photooxidation in this study. The antioxidative properties of salicylic acid were further studied by using time-resolved laser flash photolysis of 355 nm. It can quench the triplet state of riboflavin via electron transfer from salicylic acid to the triplet state of riboflavin with a reaction constant of 2.25 × 10 9 M -1 s -1. Mechanism of antioxidant activities of salicylic acid on lysozyme oxidation was discussed. Salicylic acid can serve as a potential antioxidant to quench the triplet state of riboflavin and reduce oxidative pressure.

Li, Kun; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Lingli; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Mei; Wang, Shi-Long

2011-06-01

74

Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant defense responses  

E-print Network

Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate- associated plant defense responses Kevin A. Forda,1 by John E. Casida, September 2, 2010 (sent for review March 1, 2010) Neonicotinoid insecticides control. These neonicotinoids effect a similar global tran- scriptional response to that of SA, including genes involved in (a

Wildermuth, Mary C

75

Ammonium determination in soil extracts by the salicylate method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ammonium determination, based on formation of a substituted indophenol with sodiumsalicylate as phenolic reagent, has been reexamined. An increase of 70% in absorbancy compared with existing salicylate methods in soil science, and an increase in reproducibility compared with pre?existing equivalent methods in other disciplines were obtained. The method can be applied satisfactorily for ammonium in 2M KCl soil extracts

A. J. Kempers; A. Zweers

1986-01-01

76

Evidence against specific binding of salicylic acid to plant catalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was demonstrated that salicylic acid (SA) not only binds to catalase from differentiated higher plants and plant cell suspension cultures but also to those of fungi and animals. SA bound specifically to iron-containing enzymes, such as catalase, aconitase, lipoxidase and peroxidase, while not to iron-free plant enzymes. On the grounds of these experiments, the claim is further challenged that

Martina Rüffer; Boris Steipe; Meinhart H. Zenk

1995-01-01

77

Jasmonate and salicylate as global signals for defense gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remarkably, only a few low molecular mass signals, including jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid, upregulate the expression of scores of defense-related genes. Using these regulators, the plant fine-tunes its defense gene expression against aggressors which, in some cases, may be able to disrupt or amplify plant defense signal pathways to their own ends.

Philippe Reymond; Edward E. Farmer

1998-01-01

78

Salicylate-Independent Lesion Formation in Arabidopsis lsd Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many interactions of plants with pathogens, the pri- mary host defense reaction is accompanied by plant cell death at the site of infection. The resulting lesions are cor- related with the establishment of an inducible resistance in plants called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), for which salicylic acid (SA) accumulation is a critical signal- ing event in Arabidopsis and tobacco.

Michelle D. Hunt; Terrence P. Delaney; Robert A. Dietrich; Kris B. Weymann; Jeffery L. Dangl; John A. Ryals

1997-01-01

79

Reye's syndrome: salicylate and mitochondrial monoamine oxidase function  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that aspirin is somehow linked with the onset of Reye's syndrome (RS). A general feature of Reye's syndrome is severe impairment of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) function. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of salicylate on platelet mitochondrial MAO activity in three groups: group A (healthy children, n = 21) and group C (healthy adults, n = 10). Platelet MAO was measured by radio-enzymatic technique with /sup 14/C-tyramine as a substrate. The results showed that salicyclate (10 mM) had a 20 to 60 percent inhibitory effect on platelet MAO function in only 1, 3 and 2 of the subjects in group A, B and C. Furthermore, there was an association between low enzyme activity and salicylate MAO inhibitory effect in these subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that salicylate may induce deterioration in mitochondrial function in susceptible individuals and that the assessment of salicylate MAO inhibitory effect may identify those who may be at risk to develop aspirin poisoning and Reye's syndrome.

Faraj, B.A.; Caplan, D.; Lolies, P.

1986-03-01

80

Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.  

PubMed

Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV. PMID:24450774

Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

2014-06-01

81

Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism  

PubMed Central

The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence. PMID:23959884

Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

2013-01-01

82

GABAergic Neural Activity Involved in Salicylate-Induced Auditory Cortex Gain Enhancement  

PubMed Central

Although high doses of sodium salicylate impair cochlear function, it paradoxically enhances sound-evoked activity in the auditory cortex (AC) and augments acoustic startle reflex responses, neural and behavioral metrics associated with hyperexcitability and hyperacusis. To explore the neural mechanisms underlying salicylate-induced hyperexcitability and “increased central gain”, we examined the effects of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists and antagonists on salicylate-induced hyperexcitability in the AC and startle reflex responses. Consistent with our previous findings, local or systemic application of salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of sound-evoked AC neural activity, but generally reduced spontaneous activity in the AC. Systemic injection of salicylate also significantly increased the acoustic startle reflex. S-baclofen or R-baclofen, GABA-B agonists, which suppressed sound-evoked AC neural firing rate and local field potentials, also suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of the AC field potential and the acoustic startle reflex. Local application of vigabatrin, which enhances GABA concentration in the brain, suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of AC firing rate. Systemic injection of vigabatrin also reduced the salicylate-induced enhancement of acoustic startle reflex. Collectively, these results suggest that the sound-evoked behavioral and neural hyperactivity induced by salicylate may arise from a salicylate-induced suppression GABAergic inhibition in the AC. PMID:21664433

Lu, Jianzhong; Lobarinas, Edward; Deng, Anchun; Goodey, Ronald; Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J.; Sun, Wei

2011-01-01

83

The role of salicylic acid in postharvest ripening of kiwifruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

During postharvest ripening and softening of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang and A.R. Ferguson cv. Bruno) at 20°C, the levels of salicylic acid (SA) in fruit tissues declined. Concurrently, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity increased, and this was associated with climacteric ethylene release. In fruit stored at 0°C with a reduced rate of softening, SA concentrations remained at relatively high

Yu Zhang; Kunsong Chen; Shanglong Zhang; Ian Ferguson

2003-01-01

84

Could salicylates in food have contributed to the decline in cardiovascular disease mortality? A new hypothesis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The prophylactic effect of aspirin (at 80 mg/day) for the prevention of cardiovascular disease mortality has long been recognized. This study examined whether other salicylates are present in comparable quantities in the US food supply. METHODS: To estimate the order of magnitude for salicylates in the food supply, annual production data for selected synthetic salicylates were analyzed. RESULTS: Production figures for 1960 indicate exposure to salicylates of 250 mg/day per person, or 95 mg/day per person excluding aspirin. Trend data indicate a rise in the production of salicylates over time, reaching 341 mg/day per person, or 126 mg/day per person excluding aspirin, in 1970. CONCLUSIONS: The US ingestion of salicylates with aspirinlike properties may have increased to the point that many susceptible individuals have received a beneficial effect that has contributed to the decline in cardiovascular disease mortality. PMID:9314816

Ingster, L M; Feinleib, M

1997-01-01

85

Salicylate intolerance: a masquerader of multiple adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

A female in her early 50s presented with a long-standing history of episodic urticaria and angioedema. She also reported urticarial reactions after ingestion of aspirin, prednisone and multiple antibiotics. These medications were all taken during upper respiratory tract infections. An elimination diet followed by a series of open challenges to food chemicals demonstrated an urticarial eruption following the ingestion of mints, which contain high levels of salicylates. A double-blinded placebo-controlled challenge to salicylate confirmed her sensitivity and explained her reaction to aspirin. The patient informed her treating physician of her copious ingestion of mints during upper respiratory tract infections. Drug hypersensitivity to antibiotics and prednisone was excluded on the basis of negative radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) and/or absent skin-test responses and/or tolerance to oral challenges. This patient had a salicylate intolerance that caused her episodic urticaria and angioedema, and also masqueraded as a drug allergy due to the concurrent ingestion of mints. PMID:21918670

Fernando, Suran Loshana; Clarke, Lesley R

2009-01-01

86

Effects of Willows (Salix brachycarpa) on Populations of Salicylate-Mineralizing Microorganisms in Alpine Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the substrate-induced growth-response (SIGR) method to quantify salicylate-mineralizing microbes and total microbial biomass in soils from under willows (Salix brachycarpa) and in surrounding meadows dominated by the sedge Kobresia myosuroides. Willows had a strong effect on the biomass of salicylate-mineralizing microbes in both years of this study. There were always higher biomass levels of salicylate mineralizers in soils

S. K. Schmidt; D. A. Lipson; T. K. Raab

2000-01-01

87

An evidence based flowchart to guide the management of acute salicylate (aspirin) overdose  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a flowchart to be used as a tool to guide clinicians step by step through the management of salicylate poisoning. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was carried out. Results: The evidence base was used to develop a management flowchart that guides the clinician through the three main steps in caring for the patient with salicylate poisoning: preventing further absorption, assessing the severity of poisoning and, where appropriate, increasing elimination. Conclusions: Salicylate poisoning can result in severe morbidity and mortality and this flowchart provides an evidence based guideline that will guide clinicians through the management of patients presenting to the emergency department with salicylate poisoning. PMID:11971828

Dargan, P; Wallace, C; Jones, A

2002-01-01

88

Salicylates of Intact Salix myrsinifolia Plantlets Do Not Undergo Rapid Metabolic Turnover1  

PubMed Central

Salicylates, the main phenolic glucosides of northern willow (Salix spp.), play an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. Salicylates are labile metabolites that are thought to undergo metabolic turnover. Salicylates are synthesized from phenylalanine (Phe) via the shikimate pathway. 2-Aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a strong inhibitor of Phe ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5), was used to block the biosynthesis of salicylates. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term turnover of salicylates in intact micropropagated plantlets of Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. The biosynthesis of salicylates was inhibited efficiently but not completely by 30 ?m 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. Inhibitor treatment, aside from leading to a high accumulation of Phe, also led to an increase in tyrosine and tryptophan, indicating that 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid may also inhibit enzymes other than Phe ammonia-lyase. Salicylates were shown to be unexpectedly stable metabolites that did not undergo marked metabolic turnover in intact plants; in leaves no significant turnover occurred, and in the stems the five salicylates studied were turned over slowly, with half-lives of 11 to 25 d. The total amount of salicylate in mature shoots decreased only 0.6% per day. PMID:10712554

Ruuhola, Teija Marjaana; Julkunen-Tiitto, Maija-Riitta Kristiina

2000-01-01

89

Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways  

PubMed Central

Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.

2013-01-01

90

Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene  

PubMed Central

Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

2014-01-01

91

Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

2007-01-01

92

DNA Methylation  

PubMed Central

The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication errors, controlling the frequency of initiation of chromosome replication at oriC, and regulation of transcription initiation at promoters containing GATC sequences. In contrast, there is no known function for Dcm methylation although Dcm recognition sites constitute sequence motifs for Very Short Patch repair of T/G base mismatches. In certain bacteria (e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Caulobacter crescentus) adenine methylation is essential and in C. crescentus, it is important for temporal gene expression which, in turn, is required for coordinating chromosome initiation, replication and division. In practical terms, Dam and Dcm methylation can inhibit restriction enzyme cleavage; decrease transformation frequency in certain bacteria; decrease the stability of short direct repeats; are necessary for site-directed mutagenesis; and to probe eukaryotic structure and function. PMID:25405210

Marinus, M.G.; Løbner-Olesen, A.

2014-01-01

93

Influence of age, gender, and obesity on salicylate kinetics following single doses of aspirin.  

PubMed

Salicylate kinetics following single, 650-mg intravenous and oral doses of aspirin were evaluated in humans in 2 studies. Complete conversion of aspirin to salicylate was assumed. The first study involved 25 young (25-40 years) and 21 elderly (66-89 years) healthy male and female volunteers. Mean salicylate clearance was lower in elderly females compared with that in young females; however, the difference between young men and elderly men was not significant. Salicylate free fraction in plasma increased significantly with age in men and women. After correction for free fraction, unbound mean clearance was reduced in elderly men compared with young men, and in elderly women compared with young women. Peak plasma salicylate concentrations after taking oral aspirin were not significantly influenced by age, and systemic availability of salicylate in all groups was complete. The second study compared 20 obese subjects (mean weight 113 kg) with 20 normal weight controls (mean weight 67 kg) matched for age, sex, height, and smoking habits. Small differences between obese and control groups were observed in total salicylate volume of distribution (Vd), unbound Vd, and mean clearance of total or unbound salicylate. Following normalization for total weight, however, values of total Vd and mean clearance were significantly smaller in obese subjects than in normal weight subjects. Rate and completeness of salicylate absorption were not influenced by obesity when aspirin was ingested, although peak levels were lower in obese subjects. If applied to multiple doses, the reduced unbound clearance of salicylate in the elderly would imply increased accumulation unless doses are appropriately adjusted downward. During long-term therapy, salicylate dosage for obese individuals should not be adjusted upward in proportion to total weight. PMID:3741521

Greenblatt, D J; Abernethy, D R; Boxenbaum, H G; Matlis, R; Ochs, H R; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

1986-08-01

94

Effect of salicylate on KCNQ4 of the guinea pig outer hair cell.  

PubMed

Salicylate causes a moderate hearing loss and tinnitus in humans at high-dose levels. Salicylate-induced hearing loss has been attributed to impaired sound amplification by outer hair cells (OHCs) through its direct action on the OHC motility sensor and/or motor. However, there is a disparity of salicylate concentrations between the clinical and animal studies, i.e., extremely high extracellular concentrations of salicylate (from 1 to 10 mM) is required to produce a significant reduction of electromotility in animal studies. Such concentrations are above the clinical/physiological range for humans. Here, we showed that clinical/physiological concentration range of salicylate caused concentration-dependent and reversible reductions in I(K,n) (KCNQ4) and subsequent depolarization of OHCs. Salicylate reduced the maximal tail current of the activation curve of I(K,n) without altering the voltage-sensitivity (V(half)). The salicylate-induced reduction of I(K,n) was almost completely blocked by linopirdine (0.1 mM) and BaCl? (10 mM). Consistent with the finding in OHCs, salicylate significantly reduced KCNQ4-mediated current expressed in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells by comparable amplitude to OHCs without significantly shifting V(half). Nonstationary fluctuation analysis shows that salicylate significantly reduced the estimated single-channel current amplitude and numbers. Intracellular Ca²+ elevation resulting from cytoplasmic acidosis also contributes to the current reduction of I(K,n) (KCNQ4) of OHCs. These results indicate a different model for the salicylate-induced hearing loss through the reduction of KCNQ4 and subsequent depolarization of OHCs, which reduces the driving force for transduction current and electromotility. The major mechanism underlying the reduction of I(K,n) (KCNQ4) is the direct blocking action of salicylate on KCNQ4. PMID:20147414

Wu, T; Lv, P; Kim, H J; Yamoah, E N; Nuttall, A L

2010-04-01

95

Effect of Salicylate on KCNQ4 of the Guinea Pig Outer Hair Cell  

PubMed Central

Salicylate causes a moderate hearing loss and tinnitus in humans at high-dose levels. Salicylate-induced hearing loss has been attributed to impaired sound amplification by outer hair cells (OHCs) through its direct action on the OHC motility sensor and/or motor. However, there is a disparity of salicylate concentrations between the clinical and animal studies, i.e., extremely high extracellular concentrations of salicylate (from 1 to 10 mM) is required to produce a significant reduction of electromotility in animal studies. Such concentrations are above the clinical/physiological range for humans. Here, we showed that clinical/physiological concentration range of salicylate caused concentration-dependent and reversible reductions in IK,n (KCNQ4) and subsequent depolarization of OHCs. Salicylate reduced the maximal tail current of the activation curve of IK,n without altering the voltage-sensitivity (Vhalf). The salicylate-induced reduction of IK,n was almost completely blocked by linopirdine (0.1 mM) and BaCl2 (10 mM). Consistent with the finding in OHCs, salicylate significantly reduced KCNQ4-mediated current expressed in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells by comparable amplitude to OHCs without significantly shifting Vhalf. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis shows that salicylate significantly reduced the estimated single-channel current amplitude and numbers. Intracellular Ca2+ elevation resulting from cytoplasmic acidosis also contributes to the current reduction of IK,n (KCNQ4) of OHCs. These results indicate a different model for the salicylate-induced hearing loss through the reduction of KCNQ4 and subsequent depolarization of OHCs, which reduces the driving force for transduction current and electromotility. The major mechanism underlying the reduction of IK,n (KCNQ4) is the direct blocking action of salicylate on KCNQ4. PMID:20147414

Wu, T.; Lv, P.; Kim, H. J.; Yamoah, E. N.

2010-01-01

96

Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.  

PubMed

The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2°C for 12days plus 2days at 20°C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations. PMID:25529719

Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

2015-05-01

97

Olfactoryresponse of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to methyl salicylate in laboratory bioassays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The response of Typhlodromus pyri, a key predator of grapevine rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), to MeSA was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory bioassays. Six doses ranging from 200 to 0.002 µg of diluted MeSA were tested. Significantly higher proportions of T. pyri preferred MeSA at ...

98

Loudness perception affected by high doses of salicylate--a behavioral model of hyperacusis.  

PubMed

The major side-effects of high doses of salicylate include sensorial hearing loss and tinnitus. Although salicylate decreases cochlear output, it enhances the evoked potentials recorded from the central auditory system (CAS), suggesting an increase to sound sensitivity. However, the loudness change after salicylate administration has not yet been directly measured. In this study, we established an operant conditioning based behavioral task in rats and measured their loudness perception changes before and after high doses of salicylate injection (250 mg/kg, i.p.). We found that high doses of salicylate induced a significant increase to loudness response in 40% of the rats (out of 20 rats), suggesting a hyperacusis behavior. In another 40% of rats, a rapid increase of loudness response was detected, suggesting loudness recruitment. The reaction time of the rats was also measured during the loudness tests before and after salicylate exposure. The reaction time level functions are highly correlated to the loudness response functions. Our studies confirmed that increased sound sensitivity, which is commonly seen in patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis, can be induced by high doses of salicylate. This loudness change induced by salicylate may be related with hypersensitivity in the CAS. PMID:24882611

Zhang, Chao; Flowers, Elizabeth; Li, Jun-Xu; Wang, Qiuju; Sun, Wei

2014-09-01

99

The effect of sodium salicylate on cerebral blood flow and metabolism.  

PubMed Central

1 The effect of intravenous sodium salicylate on cerebral oxygen consumption and cerebral blood flow and its response to hypercapnia was measured by the 133Xenon intracarotid injection technique in ten baboons. 2 After an initial peak, the plasma salicylate level maintained a stable value for 2 h of 1 mmol/l with 50 mg/kg sodium salicylate and 2.5 mmol/l with 200 mg/kg sodium salicylate. 3 Sodium salicylate (50 mg/kg) produced no change in baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) or cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) but the CBF response to hypercapnia was reduced by 41% during the first hour. During the second hour after salicylate administration, CMRO2 increased by 26%, CBF at normocapnia increased by 31% and the CBF response to hypercapnia was 67% of the baseline value. 4 Sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) increased CMRO2 by 65%. There was no significant change in CBF at normocapnia or hypercapnia. 5 These results confirm that inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, which can cross the blood brain barrier in sufficient quantity, reduce the response of the cerebral circulation to hypercapnia. The difficulties in interpreting changes in the CBF CO2 response in the presence of increases in CMRO2 are discussed. It is suggested that the respiratory stimulation seen in salicylate intoxication is the result of a central metabolic stimulation. PMID:6820297

Pickard, J. D.; Rose, J. E.; Shaw, M. D.; Strathdee, A.

1980-01-01

100

Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway. PMID:23500715

Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

2013-05-01

101

Modelling the Penetration of Salicylates through Skin Using a Silicone Membrane  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A diffusion cell to model the permeation of salicylate drugs through the skin using low-cost materials and a sensitive colorimetric analytical technique is described. The diffusion apparatus has been used at a further education college by a student for her AS-level Extended Project to investigate the permeation rates of salicylic acid…

Wilkins, Andrew; Parmenter, Emily

2012-01-01

102

Salicylate induced neural changes in the primary auditory cortex of awake cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic administration of salicylate at high doses can induce reversible tinnitus and hyperacusis in humans and animals. For this reason, a number of studies have investigated the salicylate-induced changes of neural activity in the auditory cortex (AC); however, most previous studies of the AC were conducted on brain slices or anesthetized animals, which cannot completely represent the actual conditions. Few

X. Zhang; P. Yang; Y. Cao; L. Qin; Y. Sato

2011-01-01

103

Antagonism between acibenzolar- S-methyl-induced systemic acquired resistance and jasmonic acid-induced systemic acquired susceptibility to Colletotrichum orbiculare infection in cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cucumber, we show salicylic acid only induce local acquired resistance (LAR), whereas acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) can induce LAR and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to plant diseases. Jasmonic acid (JA) can induce local acquired susceptibility (LAS) and systemic acquired susceptibility (SAS). ASM treatment of lower first leaves leads to the accumulation of cucumber acidic class III chitinase (CHI2) in untreated upper

Chunlin Liu; Ying Ruan; Zongjun Lin; Ran Wei; Qi Peng; Chunyun Guan; Hideo Ishii

2008-01-01

104

Methyl eucomate  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: methyl 3-carboxy-3-hydr­oxy-3-(4-hydroxy­benz­yl)propanoate], C12H14O6, is stabilized by inter­molecular O—H?O and C—H?O hydrogen bonds. The mol­ecules are arranged in layers, parallel to (001), which are inter­connected by the O—H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21202973

Li, Linglin; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

2008-01-01

105

Salicylic acid and salicylic acid sensitive and insensitive catalases in different genotypes of chickpea against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.  

PubMed

Differential expression of catalase isozymes in different genotypes of chickpea resistant genotypes- A1, JG-315, JG-11, WR-315, R1-315, Vijaya, ICCV-15017, GBS-964, GBM-10, and susceptible genotypes- JG-62, MNK, ICCV-08321, ICCV-08311, KW-104, ICCV-08123, ICC-4951, ICC-11322, ICC-08116 for wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. ciceri (Foc) was analyzed. Salicylic acid (SA) and H2O2 concentrations were determined in control as well as in plants infected with F. ciceri and found that the high and low levels of salicylic acid and H2O2 in resistant and susceptible genotypes of chickpea respectively. Catalase isozyme activities were detected in the gel and found that no induction of new catalases was observed in all the resistant genotypes and their some of the native catalase isozymes were inhibited; whereas, induction of multiple catalase isozymes was observed in all the screened susceptible genotypes and their activities were not inhibited upon Foc or SA treatments. The above results support the possible role of these isozymes as a marker to identify which genotype of chickpea is expressing systemic acquired resistance. PMID:24431522

Gayatridevi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

2013-10-01

106

Bacteria-Triggered Systemic Immunity in Barley Is Associated with WRKY and ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTORs But Not with Salicylic Acid.  

PubMed

Leaf-to-leaf systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we characterize systemic immunity in barley (Hordeum vulgare) triggered after primary leaf infection with either Pseudomonas syringae pathovar japonica (Psj) or Xanthomonas translucens pathovar cerealis (Xtc). Both pathogens induced resistance in systemic, uninfected leaves against a subsequent challenge infection with Xtc. In contrast to systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), systemic immunity in barley was not associated with NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 or the local or systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Instead, we documented a moderate local but not systemic induction of abscisic acid after infection of leaves with Psj. In contrast to salicylic acid or its functional analog benzothiadiazole, local applications of the jasmonic acid methyl ester or abscisic acid triggered systemic immunity to Xtc. RNA sequencing analysis of local and systemic transcript accumulation revealed unique gene expression changes in response to both Psj and Xtc and a clear separation of local from systemic responses. The systemic response appeared relatively modest, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction associated systemic immunity with the local and systemic induction of two WRKY and two ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ERF)-like transcription factors. Systemic immunity against Xtc was further associated with transcriptional changes after a secondary/systemic Xtc challenge infection; these changes were dependent on the primary treatment. Taken together, bacteria-induced systemic immunity in barley may be mediated in part by WRKY and ERF-like transcription factors, possibly facilitating transcriptional reprogramming to potentiate immunity. PMID:25332505

Dey, Sanjukta; Wenig, Marion; Langen, Gregor; Sharma, Sapna; Kugler, Karl G; Knappe, Claudia; Hause, Bettina; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Babaeizad, Valiollah; Imani, Jafargholi; Janzik, Ingar; Stempfl, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Mayer, Klaus F X; Vlot, A Corina

2014-12-01

107

Paper-based electroanalytical devices for in situ determination of salicylic acid in living tomato leaves.  

PubMed

Detection of phytohormones in situ has gained significant attention due to their critical roles in regulating developmental processes and signaling for defenses in plants at low concentration. As one type of plant hormones, salicylic acid has recently been found to be one of pivotal signal molecules for physiological behaviors of plants. Here we report the application of paper-based electroanalytical devices for sensitively in situ detection of salicylic acid in tomato leaves with the sample volume of several microliters. Specifically, disposable working electrodes were fabricated by coating carbon tape with the mixture of multiwall carbon nanotubes and nafion. We observed that the treatment of the modified carbon tape electrodes with oxygen plasma could significantly improve electrochemical responses of salicylic acid. The tomato leaves had a punched hole of 1.5mm diameter to release salicylic acid with minor influence on continuous growth of tomatoes. By incorporating the tomato leaf with the paper-based analytical device, we were able to perform in situ determination of salicylic acid based on its electrocatalytic oxidation. Our experimental results demonstrated that the amounts of salicylic acid differed statistically in normal, phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene silent and diseased (infected by Botrytis cinerea) tomato leaves. By quantifying salicylic acid at the level of several nanograms in situ, the simple paper-based electroanalytical devices could potentially facilitate the study of defense mechanism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. This study might also provide a sensitive method with spatiotemporal resolution for mapping of chemicals released from living organisms. PMID:24794407

Sun, Li-Jun; Feng, Qiu-Mei; Yan, Yong-Feng; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Li, Xiao-Hui; Song, Feng-Ming; Yang, Haibing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

2014-10-15

108

Salicylate selectively kills cochlear spiral ganglion neurons by paradoxically up-regulating superoxide.  

PubMed

Aspirin and its active ingredient salicylate are potent antioxidants that have been reported to be neuro- and otoprotective. However, when consumed in large quantities, these drugs can cause temporary hearing loss and tinnitus. Moreover, recent studies indicate that after several days of treatment, salicylate selectively destroys the spiral ganglion neurons and auditory nerve fibers that relay sounds from the sensory hair cells to the brain. Why salicylate selectively damages spiral ganglion neurons while sparing the hair cells and supports cells is unclear. Here we show that high dose of salicylate trigger an apoptotic response in spiral ganglion neurons characterized morphologically by soma shrinkage and nuclear condensation and fragmentation plus activation of extrinsic initiator caspase-8 and intrinsic initiator caspase-9 several days after the onset of drug treatment. Salicylate treatment triggered an upsurge in the toxic superoxide radical only in spiral ganglion neurons, but not in neighboring hair cells and support cells. Mn TMPyP pentachloride, a cell permeable scavenger of superoxide blocked the expression of superoxide staining in spiral ganglion neurons and almost completely blocked the damage to the nerve fibers and spiral ganglion neurons. NMDA receptor activation is known to increase neuronal superoxide levels. Since NMDA receptors are mainly found on spiral ganglion neurons and since salicylate enhances NMDA receptor currents, the selective killing of spiral ganglion neurons is likely a consequence of enhanced and sustained activation of NMDA receptors by salicylate. PMID:23494753

Deng, Lili; Ding, Dalian; Su, Jiping; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard

2013-10-01

109

Salicylate-induced pulmonary edema--a near-miss diagnosis.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with confusion, agitation, and progressive dyspnea. Chest x-ray revealed pulmonary edema. Initial diagnostic considerations were pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, central nervous system infection, substance toxicity, and heart failure. Her salicylate level was 92.6 mg/dL, and an arterial blood gas revealed a respiratory alkalosis and nonanion gap metabolic acidosis, consistent with salicylate poisoning. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is an atypical presentation of salicylate toxicity, and this case highlights the importance of an early toxicology screen to make a time-critical diagnosis and provide specific treatment. PMID:24361138

Yuklyaeva, Nataliya; Chaudhary, Ahmad; Gorantla, Ramakrishna; Bischof, Edward

2014-05-01

110

Pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy studies of the mycobactin biosynthesis inhibitor salicyl-AMS in mice.  

PubMed

Mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis facilitates iron acquisition, which is required for growth and virulence. The mycobactin biosynthesis inhibitor salicyl-AMS [5'-O-(N-salicylsulfamoyl)adenosine] inhibits M. tuberculosis growth in vitro under iron-limited conditions. Here, we conducted a single-dose pharmacokinetic study and a monotherapy study of salicyl-AMS with mice. Intraperitoneal injection yielded much better pharmacokinetic parameter values than oral administration did. Monotherapy of salicyl-AMS at 5.6 or 16.7 mg/kg significantly inhibited M. tuberculosis growth in the mouse lung, providing the first in vivo proof of concept for this novel antibacterial strategy. PMID:23856770

Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Adamson, John; Cisar, Justin S; Davis, Tony D; Chavadi, Sivagami Sundaram; Warren, J David; Quadri, Luis E N; Tan, Derek S; Bishai, William R

2013-10-01

111

Kinetics of salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate signaling reveal a role for redox modulation.  

PubMed

Cross talk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways plays an important role in the regulation and fine tuning of induced defenses that are activated upon pathogen or insect attack. Pharmacological experiments revealed that transcription of JA-responsive marker genes, such as PDF1.2 and VSP2, is highly sensitive to suppression by SA. This antagonistic effect of SA on JA signaling was also observed when the JA pathway was biologically activated by necrotrophic pathogens or insect herbivores, and when the SA pathway was triggered by a biotrophic pathogen. Furthermore, all 18 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions tested displayed SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression, highlighting the potential significance of this phenomenon in induced plant defenses in nature. During plant-attacker interactions, the kinetics of SA and JA signaling are highly dynamic. Mimicking this dynamic response by applying SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) at different concentrations and time intervals revealed that PDF1.2 transcription is readily suppressed when the SA response was activated at or after the onset of the JA response, and that this SA-JA antagonism is long lasting. However, when SA was applied more than 30 h prior to the onset of the JA response, the suppressive effect of SA was completely absent. The window of opportunity of SA to suppress MeJA-induced PDF1.2 transcription coincided with a transient increase in glutathione levels. The glutathione biosynthesis inhibitor l-buthionine-sulfoximine strongly reduced PDF1.2 suppression by SA, suggesting that SA-mediated redox modulation plays an important role in the SA-mediated attenuation of the JA signaling pathway. PMID:18539774

Koornneef, Annemart; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Ritsema, Tita; Verhage, Adriaan; Den Otter, Floor C; Van Loon, L C; Pieterse, Corné M J

2008-07-01

112

Salicylic acid: an old hormone up to new tricks.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a signalling molecule in plant defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic phytopathogens. The biosynthesis of SA on pathogen detection is essential for local and systemic acquired resistance, as well as the accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. SA biosynthesis can occur via several different substrates, but is predominantly accomplished by isochorismate synthase (ICS1) following pathogen recognition. The roles of BTB domain-containing proteins, NPR1, NPR3 and NPR4, in SA binding and signal transduction have been re-examined recently and are elaborated upon in this review. The pathogen-mediated manipulation of SA-dependent defences, as well as the crosstalk between the SA signalling pathway, other plant hormones and defence signals, is also discussed in consideration of recent research. Furthermore, the recent links established between SA, pathogen-triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response are highlighted. PMID:23621321

Boatwright, Jon Lucas; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina

2013-08-01

113

Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals  

SciTech Connect

An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

2009-02-13

114

Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate.

Evans, P. Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J.; Maroto, Sergio

2012-08-01

115

Flow injection spectrofluorimetric determination of iron(III) in water using salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and fast flow injection fluorescence quenching method for the determination of iron in water has been developed.\\u000a Fluorimetric determination is based on the measurement of the quenching effect of iron on salicylic acid fluorescence. An\\u000a emission peak of salicylic acid in aqueous solution occurs at 409 nm with excitation at 299 nm. The carrier solution used\\u000a was 2

Adem Asan; Muberra Andac; Ibrahim Isildak

2010-01-01

116

Solid-state 17O NMR of pharmaceutical compounds: salicylic acid and aspirin.  

PubMed

We report solid-state NMR characterization of the (17)O quadrupole coupling (QC) and chemical shift (CS) tensors in five site-specifically (17)O-labeled samples of salicylic acid and o-acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin). High-quality (17)O NMR spectra were obtained for these important pharmaceutical compounds under both static and magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions at two magnetic fields, 14.0 and 21.1 T. A total of 14 (17)O QC and CS tensors were experimentally determined for the seven oxygen sites in salicylic acid and Aspirin. Although both salicylic acid and Aspirin form hydrogen bonded cyclic dimers in the solid state, we found that the potential curves for the concerted double proton transfer in these two compounds are significantly different. In particular, while the double-well potential curve in Aspirin is nearly symmetrical, it is highly asymmetrical in salicylic acid. This difference results in quite different temperature dependencies in (17)O MAS spectra of the two compounds. A careful analysis of variable-temperature (17)O MAS NMR spectra of Aspirin allowed us to obtain the energy asymmetry (?E) of the double-well potential, ?E = 3.0 ± 0.5 kJ/mol. We were also able to determine a lower limit of ?E for salicylic acid, ?E > 10 kJ/mol. These asymmetrical features in potential energy curves were confirmed by plane-wave DFT computations, which yielded ?E = 3.7 and 17.8 kJ/mol for Aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively. To complement the solid-state (17)O NMR data, we also obtained solid-state (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra for salicylic acid and Aspirin. Using experimental NMR parameters obtained for all magnetic nuclei present in salicylic acid and Aspirin, we found that plane-wave DFT computations can produce highly accurate NMR parameters in well-defined crystalline organic compounds. PMID:23879687

Kong, Xianqi; Shan, Melissa; Terskikh, Victor; Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong; Wu, Gang

2013-08-22

117

Analysis of salicylic acid in willow barks and branches by an electrochemical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical method for measuring free salicylic acid (SA) was optimized and used to detect its content in barks and\\u000a branches of thirteen Salix species. We utilized square wave voltammetry method in combination with pencil lead, the detection limit of which was 1.7\\u000a ng\\/ml of salicylic acid. The highest contents of free SA were observed in the bark of S.

J. Petrek; L. Havel; J. Petrlova; V. Adam; D. Potesil; P. Babula; R. Kizek

2007-01-01

118

Peculiarities of electrostatic interactions between amino acids and salicylic acid in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on calorimetric data, the enthalpy of transfer of salicylic acid to aqueous buffer solutions with the addition of different\\u000a amino acids at the constant acidity of medium pH 7.35 was determined. It was shown that the exothermicity of transfer and\\u000a negative enthalpic coefficients for these pairwise interactions of salicylic acid with amino acids considerably increase with\\u000a increasing charge of

V. P. Barannikov; V. G. Badelin; M. B. Berezin

2009-01-01

119

Phase formation in sodium dodecylsulfate solutions in the presence of salicylic acid for preconcentration purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of surfactant-rich phases in aqueous sodium dodecylsulfate solutions in the presence of salicylic acid was\\u000a investigated. The effect of acidity, electrolyte and salicylic acid concentrations on the parameters of phase formation were\\u000a studied. Optimal conditions for microcomponent preconcentration were found. The features of solubilization efficiency changes\\u000a of organic substances depending on their charge and hydrophobicity were established. High

Viktoriia S. Starova; Sergey A. Kulichenko

2010-01-01

120

Salicylic Acid–Induced Growth and Biochemical Changes in Salt?Stressed Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive effect of salicylic acid and sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. ‘Inqlab’ (salt?sensitive) and cv. ‘S?24’ (salt?tolerant) was studied in a sand?culture pot experiment in a net house. Wheat seeds soaked in water and 100 ppm salicylic acid solution for 6 h were sown in sand salinized with 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. Pots were irrigated

Mohsina Hamid; M. Yasin Ashraf

2010-01-01

121

In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of computer-selected analogues of carvacrol and salicylic acid on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a tick that causes huge economic losses in cattle. The indiscriminate use of acaricides has generated resistance to most compounds present on the market. This makes further investigation on other potential acaricides necessary, the in silico assay being an alternative to the design of new compounds. In the present study a biosilico assay was performed using TOMOCOMD-CARDD (TOpological MOlecular COMputer Design-Computer-Aided Rational Drug Design) and WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) software. Two carvacrol and four salicylic acid derivatives, synthesized by conventional methods and evaluated with the larval packet test on larvae of R. (B.) microplus were selected. All evaluated compounds presented acaricidal activity; however, ethyl 2-methoxybenzoate (91.8 ± 1.7 % mortality) and ethyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (89.1 ± 1.6 % mortality) showed greater activity than salicylic acid. With regard to the carvacrol analogues, carvacrol acetate (67.8 ± 2.1 % mortality) and carvacrol methyl ether (71.7 ± 1.6 % mortality) also showed greater activity than carvacrol (35.9 ± 3.2 % mortality). TOMOCOMD-CARDD and WEKA software were helpful tools in the search for alternative structures with potential acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23543288

Concepción, Ramírez L; Froylán, Ibarra V; Herminia I, Pérez M; Norberto, Manjarrez A; Héctor J, Salgado Z; Yeniel, González C

2013-10-01

122

Comparative efficacy and bioequivalence of novel h1-antihistamine bepotastine salts (nicotinate and salicylate).  

PubMed

Bepotastine salts (nicotinate and salicylate) were investigated for their physicochemical properties to develop novel salt forms of bepotastine, bioequivalent to the bepotastine besilate-loaded tablet (Talion). These bepotastine salts of either nicotinate- or salicylate-loaded tablets were prepared by conventional wet granulation method, and dissolution profiles and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs were compared to those of Talion. A novel bepotastine nicotinate has a higher solubility at varying pH levels (1.2, 4, or 6.8) than salicylate-loaded or besilate-loaded salt. In addition, those bepostastine salt forms (nicotinate and salicylate) are stable in heat, light, and water. Further, the novel nicotinate- and salicylate-loaded tablets showed similar dissolution rates to Talion in several selected dissolution media and were bioequivalent to Talion in beagle dogs in terms of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum observed concentration (Cmax). A pharmacokinetic study performed in beagle dogs demonstrated that test and reference products were found to be bioequivalent in terms of safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic properties. These results suggest that bepostastine nicotinate and salicylate formulations are considered applicable candidates and are well tolerated versus the conventional bepostastine besilate formulation. PMID:25343294

Lim, Duck Soo; Youn, Yoo Seok; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kwak, Hyo Min; Lim, Seong Kwang; Kim, Ji Yun; Um, Yoon Mi; Lee, Jung Dae; Hyeon, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

2014-01-01

123

Association of riboflavin, caffeine, and sodium salicylate in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used UV and visible spectrophotometry to study self-association of aromatic riboflavin molecules (RFN, vitamin B2, 7,8-dimethyl-10-N-(1'-D-ribityl)isoalloxazine) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86) at T = 298 K, using a dimer model. We have determined the equilibrium dimerization constant for riboflavin, KdB = 125 ± 40 M-1. We have studied heteroassociation in the system of molecules of 7,8-dimethyl-10-ribitylisoalloxazine with 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) and sodium salicylate (NAS) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86; T = 298 K). We have determined the heteroassociation constants for RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine molecules in the absence and in the presence of urea in solutions using a modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation: 25 ± 4, 17 ± 3, and 74 ± 11, 53 ± 7 M-1 respectively. We have determined the dimerization constants for NAS (2.7 ± 0.5 M-1) and caffeine (17.0 ± 1.5 M-1). We conclude that heteroassociation of the aromatic molecules leads to a lower effective riboflavin concentration in solution, and the presence of urea in mixed solutions leads to an decrease in the complexation constants for the RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine systems.

Baranovskii, S. F.; Bolotin, P. A.

2007-03-01

124

Salicylic acid interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytic protein trafficking  

PubMed Central

Removal of cargos from the cell surface via endocytosis is an efficient mechanism to regulate activities of plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, such as receptors or transporters. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that is traditionally associated with pathogen defense. Here, we describe an unanticipated effect of SA on subcellular endocytic cycling of proteins. Both exogenous treatments and endogenously enhanced SA levels repressed endocytosis of different PM proteins. The SA effect on endocytosis did not involve transcription or known components of the SA signaling pathway for transcriptional regulation. SA likely targets an endocytic mechanism that involves the coat protein clathrin, because SA interfered with the clathrin incidence at the PM and clathrin-deficient mutants were less sensitive to the impact of SA on the auxin distribution and root bending during the gravitropic response. By contrast, SA did not affect the ligand-induced endocytosis of the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) receptor during pathogen responses. Our data suggest that the established SA impact on transcription in plant immunity and the nontranscriptional effect of SA on clathrin-mediated endocytosis are independent mechanisms by which SA regulates distinct aspects of plant physiology. PMID:23613581

Du, Yunlong; Tejos, Ricardo; Beck, Martina; Himschoot, Ellie; Li, Hongjiang; Robatzek, Silke; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Ji?í

2013-01-01

125

Emission of sunscreen salicylic esters from desert vegetation and their contribution to aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) produced by plants are known to have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, our knowledge of the range of BVOCs produced by different plant processes is still expanding, and there remain poorly understood categories of BVOCs. In this study, emissions of a novel class of BVOC emissions were investigated in a desert region. Our study considered 8 species of common desert plants: blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), mondel pine (Pinus eldarica), pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla), cottonwood (Populus deltoides), saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) and yucca (Yucca baccata). The measurements focused on BVOCs with relatively high molecular weight (>C15) and/or an oxygenated functional group. Significantly high emission rates of two salicylic esters were found for blackbrush, desert willow and mesquite with emission rates of 3.1, 1.0 and 4.8?gC dwg-1 h-1, respectively (dwg; dry weight of the leaves in gram). The salicylic esters were identified as 2-ethylhexenyl salicylate (2-EHS) and 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexenyl salicylate (homosalate) and are known as effective ultraviolet (UV) absorbers. We propose that the plants derive a protective benefit against UV radiation from the salicylic esters and that the emission process is driven by the physical evaporation of the salicylic esters due to the high ambient temperatures. In addition, the salicylic esters are predicted to be an effective precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) because they probably produce oxidation products that can condense onto the aerosol phase. We estimated the contribution of the sunscreen esters themselves and their oxidation products on the SOA formation for the Las Vegas area using a BVOC emission model. The contribution was estimated to reach 50% of the biogenic terpenoid emission in the landscapes dominated by desert willow and mesquite and 13% in the Las Vegas area. The contributions to biogenic SOA are likely to be higher due to the potentially high SOA yields of these compounds.

Matsunaga, S. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Potosnak, M. J.; Apel, E. C.

2008-12-01

126

Emission of sunscreen salicylic esters from desert vegetation and their contribution to aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) produced by plants are known to have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, our knowledge of the range of BVOCs produced by different plant processes is still expanding, and there remain poorly understood categories of BVOCs. In this study, emissions of a novel class of BVOC emissions were investigated in a desert region. Our study considered 8 species of common desert plants: blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), mondel pine (Pinus eldarica), pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla), cottonwood (Populus deltoides), saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) and yucca (Yucca baccata). The measurements focused on BVOCs with relatively high molecular weight (>C15) and/or an oxygenated functional group. Significantly high emission rates of two salicylic esters were found for blackbrush, desert willow and mesquite with emission rates of 1.4, 2.1 and 0.46 ?gC dwg-1 h-1, respectively. The salicylic esters were identified as 2-ethylhexenyl salicylate (2-EHS) and 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexenyl salicylate (homosalate) and are known as effective ultraviolet (UV) absorbers. We propose that the plants derive a protective benefit against UV radiation from the salicylic esters and that the emission process is driven by the physical evaporation of the salicylic esters due to the high ambient temperatures. In addition, the salicylic esters are predicted to be an effective precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) because of their low vapor pressure due to a high number of carbon atoms (15 or 16) and the presence of three oxygen atoms. We estimated the contribution of the sunscreen esters themselves and their oxidation products on the SOA formation for the Las Vegas region using a BVOC emission model. The contribution was estimated to reach 90% of the biogenic SOA in the landscapes dominated by desert willow and mesquite and 25% in Las Vegas area.

Matsunaga, S. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Potosnak, M. J.; Apel, E. C.

2008-07-01

127

High doses of salicylate causes prepulse facilitation of onset-gap induced acoustic startle response.  

PubMed

Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex (PPI), a well-established method for evaluating sensorimotor gating function, has been used to detect tinnitus in animal models. Reduced gap induced PPI (gap-PPI) was considered as a sign of tinnitus. The silent gap used in the test contains both onset and offset signals. Tinnitus may affect these cues differently. In this experiment, we studied the effects of a high dose of salicylate (250 mg/kg, i.p.), an inducer of reversible tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss, on gap-PPI induced by three different gaps: an onset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and 25 ms offset time, an offset-gap with 25 ms onset and 0.1 ms offset time, and an onset-offset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and offset time. We found that the onset-gaps induced smaller inhibitions than the offset-gaps before salicylate treatment. The offset-gap induced PPI was significantly reduced 1-3h after salicylate treatment. However, the onset-gap caused a facilitation of startle response. These results suggest that salicylate induced reduction of gap-PPI was not only caused by the decrease of offset-gap induced PPI, but also by the facilitation induced by the onset-gap. Since the onset-gap induced PPI is caused by neural offset response, our results suggest that salicylate may cause a facilitation of neural response to an offset acoustical signal. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 14 days), which elevates the GABA level in the brain, blocked the offset-gap induced PPI and onset-gap induced facilitation caused by salicylate. These results suggest that enhancing GABAergic activities can alleviate salicylate induced tinnitus. PMID:24149068

Sun, Wei; Doolittle, Lauren; Flowers, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qiuju

2014-01-01

128

Percutaneous penetration of octyl salicylate from representative sunscreen formulations through human skin in vitro.  

PubMed

The human skin penetration of [14C]octyl salicylate from two representative sunscreen vehicles was determined in vitro. 3H-sucrose was incorporated into all formulations and provided a marker for membrane integrity. When applied as a finite dose in an oil-in-water emulsion vehicle containing 5% (w/w) octyl salicylate, the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 0.65+/-0.16% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 1.58+/-0.36 microg/cm2). When applied as an infinite dose in the oil-in-water emulsion vehicle the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 0.47+/-0.22% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 27.54+/-13.91 microg/cm2). When applied as a finite dose in a representative hydroalcoholic formulation containing 5% (w/w) octyl salicylate, the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 0.59+/-0.09% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 1.58+/-0.25 microg/cm2). When applied as an infinite dose in the hydroalcoholic formulation the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 0.23+/-0.05% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 11.28+/-2.55 microg/cm2). The penetration of [14C]salicylic acid [applied at a concentration of 2.7% (w/w), in the oil-in-water emulsion] was also determined. When applied as a finite dose the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 1.14+/-0.23% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 1.65+/-0.39 microg/cm2). These results suggest that the in vitro human skin permeation of octyl salicylate is relatively low. The amounts of octyl salicylate and salicylic acid permeated when applied in similar vehicles were remarkably similar over 48 hr (1.58 microg/cm2 and 1.65 microg/cm2, respectively). This suggests the possibility that the 14C label appearing in the receptor fluid may, in both cases, represent salicylic acid. If this is the case, then it is possible that the amount of octyl salicylate permeating through the skin is much less than that suggested by the data obtained here. This supposition is, however, entirely speculative and has yet to be confirmed experimentally. PMID:9449227

Walters, K A; Brain, K R; Howes, D; James, V J; Kraus, A L; Teetsel, N M; Toulon, M; Watkinson, A C; Gettings, S D

1997-12-01

129

Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 gene transcription by aspirin and sodium salicylate  

PubMed Central

The pharmacological action of salicylate cannot be explained by its inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. In this report, the effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate on COX-2 expressions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and foreskin fibroblasts were evaluated. Aspirin and sodium salicylate at therapeutic concentrations equipotently blocked COX-2 mRNA and protein levels induced by interleukin-1? and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The suppressing effect was more pronounced in cultured cells deprived of fetal bovine serum for 24 h, suggesting that it may be cell cycle related. Salicylate inhibited nascent COX-2 transcript synthesis but had no effect on COX-2 mRNA stability. It inhibited COX-2 promoter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In mice pretreated with aspirin (10 and 30 mg/kg), followed by challenge with lipopolysaccharide, COX-2 mRNA expression in peritoneal macrophages was markedly suppressed. These findings suggest that salicylate exerts its antiinflammatory action in part by suppressing COX-2 induction, thereby reducing the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins. PMID:10220459

Xu, Xiao-Ming; Sansores-Garcia, Leticia; Chen, Xian-Ming; Matijevic-Aleksic, Nevenka; Du, Min; Wu, Kenneth K.

1999-01-01

130

Effects of salicylate on sound-evoked outer hair cell stereocilia deflections.  

PubMed

Hearing depends on sound-evoked deflections of the stereocilia that protrude from the sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Although sound provides an important force driving stereocilia, forces generated through mechanically sensitive ion channels and through the motor protein prestin have been shown to influence stereocilia motion in solitary hair cells. While a possible influence of prestin on mechanically sensitive ion channels has not been systematically investigated, a decrease in transducer currents is evident in solitary hair cells when prestin is blocked with salicylate, raising the question of whether a reduced prestin activity or salicylate itself affected the mechanotransduction apparatus. We used two- and three-dimensional time-resolved confocal imaging to visualize outer hair cell stereocilia during sound stimulation in the apical turn of cochlear explant preparations from the guinea pig. Surprisingly, following application of salicylate, outer hair cell stereocilia deflections increased, while cochlear microphonic potentials decreased. However, when prestin activity was altered with the chloride ionophore tributyltin, both the cochlear microphonic potential and the stereocilia deflection amplitude decreased. Neither positive nor negative current stimulation abolished the bundle movements in the presence of salicylate, indicating that the observed effects did not depend on the endocochlear potential. These data suggest that salicylate may alter the mechanical properties of stereocilia, decreasing their bending stiffness. PMID:25392240

Hakizimana, Pierre; Fridberger, Anders

2014-11-14

131

Arabidopsis leaf necrosis caused by simulated acid rain is related to the salicylic acid signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis leaves treated with simulated acid rain (SiAR) showed phenotypes similar to necrotic lesions caused by biotic stresses like Pseudomonad infiltration. Exposure of Arabidopsis to SiAR resulted in the up-regulation of genes known to be induced by the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathogen resistance response. The expression of enhanced disease susceptibility (EDS), nonexpressor of PR (NPR) and pathogen-related 1 (PR1), all of which are involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway, were increased after SiAR exposure. However, vegetative storage protein (VSP), a member of the jasmonic acid pathway did not show a significant change in transcript level. SiAR treatment of transgenic plants expressing salicylate hydroxylase (Nah-G), which prevents the accumulation of salicylic acid, underwent more extensive necrosis than wild-type plants, indicating that the signaling pathway activated by SiAR may overlap with the SA-dependent, systemic acquired resistance pathway. Both Col-0 and Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to SiAR and sulfuric SiAR (S-SiAR) by developing necrotic lesions. Neither Col-0 plants nor Nah-G plants showed sensitivity to nitric SiAR (N-SiAR). These results suggest that SiAR activates at least the salicylic acid pathway and activation of this pathway is sensitive to sulfuric acid. PMID:16549362

Lee, Youngmi; Park, Jongbum; Im, Kyunghoan; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Jungwoo; Lee, Kyungyeoll; Park, Jung-An; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Park, Dae-Sup; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Lee, Sukchan

2006-01-01

132

Application of gas-liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography to the analysis of trace amounts of salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic anhydride and acetylsalicylsalicylic acid in aspirin samples and aspirin formulations.  

PubMed

The gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) determination of salicylic acid (SA) in 12 commercial acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) samples and 12 ASA formulations is reported. The GLC determination of SA as an impurity in ASA, utilising methylation with methyl iodide in the presence of potassium carbonate, requires a column chromatographic separation of SA prior to derivatization. Trace amounts of SA in ASA have also been determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Sil-X-I adsorption column using light petroleum-ethyl acetate-acetic acid as the mobile phase. Acetylsalicylic anhydride (ASN) and acetylsalicylsalicylic acid (ASSA) were determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase C18 column with water-methanol mixtures as the mobile phase. GLC was also applied to the determination of ASN as an impurity in ASA formulations. PMID:977701

Ali, S L

1976-11-01

133

AHL-priming functions via oxylipin and salicylic acid  

PubMed Central

Collaborative action between the host plant and associated bacteria is crucial for the establishment of an efficient interaction. In bacteria, the synchronized behavior of a population is often achieved by a density-dependent communication called quorum sensing. This behavior is based on signaling molecules, which influence bacterial gene expression. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are such molecules in many Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, some AHLs are responsible for the beneficial effect of bacteria on plants, for example the long chain N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) can prime Arabidopsis and barley plants for an enhanced defense. This AHL-induced resistance phenomenon, named AHL-priming, was observed in several independent laboratories during the last two decades. Very recently, the mechanism of priming with oxo-C14-HSL was shown to depend on an oxylipin and salicylic acid (SA). SA is a key element in plant defense, it accumulates during different plant resistance responses and is the base of systemic acquired resistance. In addition, SA itself can prime plants for an enhanced resistance against pathogen attack. On the other side, oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites, are lipid-derived signaling compounds. Especially the oxidized fatty acid derivative cis-OPDA, which is the precursor of JA, is a newly described player in plant defense. Unlike the antagonistic effect of SA and JA in plant–microbe interactions, the recently described pathway functions through a synergistic effect of oxylipins and SA, and is independent of the JA signaling cascade. Interestingly, the oxo-C14-HSL-induced oxylipin/SA signaling pathway induces stomata defense responses and cell wall strengthening thus prevents pathogen invasion. In this review, we summarize the findings on AHL-priming and the related signaling cascade. In addition, we discuss the potential of AHL-induced resistance in new strategies of plant protection. PMID:25642235

Schenk, Sebastian T.; Schikora, Adam

2015-01-01

134

Herbivore-Induced SABATH Methyltransferases of Maize That Methylate Anthranilic Acid Using S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine1[W  

PubMed Central

Volatile methyl esters are common constituents of plant volatiles with important functions in plant defense. To study the biosynthesis of these compounds, especially methyl anthranilate and methyl salicylate, we identified a group of methyltransferases that are members of the SABATH enzyme family in maize (Zea mays). In vitro biochemical characterization after bacterial expression revealed three S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferases with high specificity for anthranilic acid as a substrate. Of these three proteins, Anthranilic Acid Methyltransferase1 (AAMT1) appears to be responsible for most of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase activity and methyl anthranilate formation observed in maize after herbivore damage. The enzymes may also be involved in the formation of low amounts of methyl salicylate, which are emitted from herbivore-damaged maize. Homology-based structural modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis identified two amino acid residues, designated tyrosine-246 and glutamine-167 in AAMT1, which are responsible for the high specificity of AAMTs toward anthranilic acid. These residues are conserved in each of the three main clades of the SABATH family, indicating that the carboxyl methyltransferases are functionally separated by these clades. In maize, this gene family has diversified especially toward benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases that accept anthranilic acid and benzoic acid. PMID:20519632

Köllner, Tobias G.; Lenk, Claudia; Zhao, Nan; Seidl-Adams, Irmgard; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Chen, Feng; Degenhardt, Jörg

2010-01-01

135

Revised Method for Determination of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid in Human Plasma by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method for the analysis of aspirin and salicylic acid in human plasma has been updated to include advances in column technology, extraction procedures and absorbance detection. Aspirin and salicylic acid are extracted from acidified plasma into an organic solvent system containing internal standard. Following controlled evaporation under partial vacuum of the organic extract, the dried down-residue is reconstituted with

William D. Mason; Roberta Gillilan

1983-01-01

136

Salicylate Detection by Complexation with Iron(III) and Optical Absorbance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment for the undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratory involving applications of visible spectrophotometry is described. Salicylate, a component found in several medications, as well as the active by-product of aspirin decomposition, is quantified. The addition of excess iron(III) to a solution of salicylate generates a deeply…

Mitchell-Koch, Jeremy T.; Reid, Kendra R.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

2008-01-01

137

Transport of salicylate in proximal tubule (S sub 2 segment) isolated from rabbit kidney  

SciTech Connect

The secretory and the reabsorptive transport of salicylate was studied in the isolated and perfused rabbit proximal tubule (S{sub 2} segment). Salicylate secretion (J{sub sal}{sup b{yields}l}) fulfilled the criteria for a carrier-mediated transport system: J{sub sal}{sup b{yields}l} was saturable, was reversibly inhibited by probenecid, and occurred against a concentration gradient. The K{sub m} and V{sub max} for this secretory transport were 80 {mu}M and 3,200 fmol{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}mm{sup {minus}1}, respectively. At luminal pH of 7.4 and 6.6, salicylate reabsorption (J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b}) was low. J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b} was stimulated by increasing the bath Pco{sub 2} or by removing basolateral HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}; J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b} was inhibited by ethoxyzolamide and by SITS in the bath. The results indicate that salicylate reabsorption depends on H{sup +} secretion, consistent with reabsorption by simple nonionic diffusion. When salicylate was present in the lumen only, J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b} increased after inhibition of the secretory transport by adding ouabain or probenecid in the bath or by lowering the bath temperature. These results are compatible with luminal recycling of salicylate, and suggest the presence of a mediated secretory transporter located at the luminal membrane.

Schild, L.; Roch-Ramel, F. (Institut de Pharmacologie de l'Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland))

1988-04-01

138

Study of the transformation of two salicylates used in personal care products in chlorinated water.  

PubMed

Disinfection of swimming pool water is essential to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. However chlorine based disinfectants, the most commonly used, are known to lead to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which have been associated with adverse health effects. Precursors of DBPs include the organic matter present in the water used to fill the swimming pool, human body fluids and personal care products (PCPs) used by swimmers and bathers. The increased use, in the last years, of PCPs lead to an increased concern about the fate of PCPs in swimming pool waters and potential health risks of formed DBPs. In this study, the chemical transformations of two salicylates, benzyl salicylate (BzS) and phenyl salicylate (PS), incorporated in several PCPs, in chlorinated water were investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-diode-array detection (HPLC-UV-DAD) was used to follow the reaction kinetics and HPLC with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was used to tentatively identify the major transformation by-products. Under the experimental conditions used in this work both salicylates reacted with chlorine following pseudo-first order kinetics: rate constant k = (0.0038 ± 0.0002) min(-1) and half-life t1/2 = (182 ± 10) min for BzS and rate constant k = (0.0088 ± 0.0005) min(-1) and half-life t1/2 = (79 ± 4) min for PS (mean ± standard deviation). The reactions of the two salicylates in chlorinated water led to the formation of DBPs that were tentatively identified as mono- and dichloro- substituted compounds. Most probably they result from an electrophilic substitution of one or two hydrogen atoms in the phenolic ring of both salicylates by one or two chlorine atoms. PMID:25086797

de Oliveira e Sá, Mariana M; Miranda, Margarida S; da Silva, Joaquim C G Esteves

2014-11-15

139

Partial reversal by beta-D-xyloside of salicylate-induced inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage  

SciTech Connect

While net /sup 35/S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis in normal canine articular cartilage was suppressed by 10(-3)M sodium salicylate to about 70% of the control value, addition of xyloside (10(-6)M-10(-3)M) to the salicylate-treated cultures led to a concentration-dependent increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which rose to 120-237% of controls. Similar results were obtained when /sup 3/H-glucosamine was used to measure glycosaminoglycan synthesis, confirming that salicylate suppresses and xyloside stimulates net glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and not merely sulfation. Salicylate (10-3)M) did not affect the activity of xylosyl or galactosyl transferase prepared from canine knee cartilage, and net protein synthesis was unaltered by either salicylate or xyloside. The proportion of newly synthesized proteoglycans existing as aggregates when cartilage was cultured with xyloside was similar to that in controls, although the average hydrodynamic size of disaggregated proteoglycans and of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was diminished.

Palmoski, M.J.; Brandt, K.D.

1982-09-01

140

Salicylic acid-induced salinity tolerance in corn grown under NaCl stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of salicylic acid on some physiological and biochemical characteristics of maize (\\u000a Zea mays L.) seedlings under NaCl stress were studied. Pre-soaking treatments of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) were given to maize\\u000a seeds in the presence as well as in the absence of 0.5 mM salicylic acid. Two-week-old maize seedlings exhibited significant\\u000a decrease in dry weight, root length,

Shruti Gautam; Pramod K. Singh

2009-01-01

141

Complexation of iron by salicylic acid and its effect on atrazine photodegradation in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photodegradation of atrazine and the photochemical formation of Fe(II) and H2O2 in aqueous solutions containing salicylic acid and Fe(III) were studied under simulated sunlight irradiation. Atrazine photolysis\\u000a followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the rate constant (k) corresponding to the solution of Fe(III)-salicylic acid complex (Fe(III)-SA) was only 0.0153 h?1, roughly one eighth of the k observed in the Fe(III)

Xiaoxia Ou; Chong Wang; Fengjie Zhang; Xie Quan; Yan Ma; He Liu

2010-01-01

142

An advanced method for the determination of carboxyl methyl esterase activity using gas chromatography-chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We developed a quantitative method for the determination of methyl esterase activity, analyzing substrate specificity against three major signal molecules, jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA), salicylic acid methyl ester (MeSA), and indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester (MeIAA). We used a silylation reagent for chemical derivatization and used gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy in analyses, for high precision. To test this method, an Arabidopsis esterase gene, AtME8, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the kinetic parameters of the recombinant enzyme were determined for three substrates. Finally, this method was also applied to the direct quantification of phytohormones in petals from lilies and roses. PMID:18255361

Koo, Yeon Jong; Yoon, Eunsil; Song, Jong Tae; Seo, Hak Soo; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jong Seob; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do

2008-02-15

143

Cancer mistunes methylation  

PubMed Central

Metabolic aberrations affecting protein and DNA methylation are a potential source of cancer. A new study shows that the metabolic enzyme nicotinamide N-methyl-transferase, which is overexpressed in several types of tumors, can enhance cancer aggressiveness by draining methyl groups from S-adenosyl-methionine. PMID:23594782

Shlomi, Tomer; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

2013-01-01

144

Effect of desferrioxamine, a strong iron (III) chelator, on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP +)-induced hydroxyl radical generation in the rat striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was examined that the desferrioxamine, a strong iron (III) chelator, enhanced 1 methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+)-induced hydroxyl radical (OH) generation in the extracellular fluid of caudate nucleus anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized, and sodium salicylate in Ringer's solution (0.5 nmol\\/?l\\/min) was infused through a microdialysis probe to detect the generation of OH as reflected by the non-enzymatic formation of

Toshio Obata

2006-01-01

145

Resistance of Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) to the Root Parasitic Plant Orobanche minor is Activated by Salicylate but not by Jasmonate  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Obligate root holoparasites of the genus Orobanche attack dicotyledonous crops and cause severe losses in many parts of the world. Chemical induction of plant defence systems such as systemic acquired resistance was proposed to be an available strategy to control the root parasite, but the detailed mechanisms involved have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and their analogues on resistance of red clover to Orobanche parasitism. Methods Roots of red clover grown in plastic chambers were applied with SA, S-methyl benzo[1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and n-propyl dihydrojasmonate (PDJ), and then were inoculated with O. minor seeds. Attachments of the parasite were observed after 5 weeks. Key Results SA and BTH, inducers of SA-mediated defences, significantly reduced the number of established parasites by more than 75 %. By contrast, MeJA and PDJ, inducers of JA-mediated defences, did not affect parasitism. The reduction in the number of established parasites by SA and BTH was due to the inhibited elongation of O. minor radicles and the activation of defence responses in the host root including lignification of the endodermis. Conclusions These results suggest that SA-induced resistance, but not JA-induced resistance, is effective in inhibiting Orobanche parasitism and that the resistance is expressed by the host root both externally and internally. PMID:17660517

Kusumoto, Dai; Goldwasser, Yaakov; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi

2007-01-01

146

Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under heat stress and accelerates recovery in grapevine leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on photosynthesis of plants including grapevines has been investigated, very little is yet known about the effects of SA on carbon assimilation and several components of PSII electron transport (donor side, reaction center and acceptor side). In this study, the impact of SA pretreatment on photosynthesis was evaluated in the leaves of

Li-Jun Wang; Ling Fan; Wayne Loescher; Wei Duan; Guo-Jie Liu; Jian-Shan Cheng; Hai-Bo Luo; Shao-Hua Li

2010-01-01

147

Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is described for the rapid determination of nitrate?N in plant extracts. The complex formed by nitration of salicylic acid under highly acidic conditions absorbs maximally at 410 nm in basic (pH>12) solutions. Absorbance of the chromophore is directly proportional to the amount of nitrate?N present. Ammonium, nitrite, and chloride ions do not interfere.

D. A. Cataldo; M. Maroon; L. E. Schrader; V. L. Youngs

1975-01-01

148

Salicylic acid-induced physiological and biochemical changes in lemongrass varieties under water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) treatment reduces the damaging action by water deficit on growth and accelerates a restoration of growth processes. The aim of the present work was to study the physiological and biochemical alteration induced by SA in lemongrass plants under stress conditions. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted to test whether SA application at concentration of (10 M)

Mohd Idrees; M. Masroor A. Khan; Tariq Aftab; M. Naeem; Nadeem Hashmi

2010-01-01

149

Hydroxylation of o-halogenophenol and o-nitrophenol by salicylate hydroxylase.  

PubMed

Salicylate hydroxylase [EC 1.14.13.1] from Pseudomonas putida catalyzed the formation of catechol from substrate analogues such as o-nitro-, o-amino-, o-iodo-, o-bromo-, and o-chloro-phenol by removing the ortho-substituted groups. They are converted into nitrite, ammonia, and halide ions, respectively. Kinetic parameters of these reactions were determined by spectrophotometric and polarographic methods. Hydroxylation of o-nitro- or o-iodophenol proceeds with the unusual stoichiometry of 2:1:1 for consumed NADH, O2-uptake, and catechol formed. Other ortho-substituted phenols examined also gave the same results. Like salicylate, these substrates perturb the absorption spectrum of salicylate hydroxylase in the visible region, indicating the formation of enzyme.substrate complexes. Titration experiments with ortho-substituted phenols gave the dissociation constants of the complexes. The complexes were quantitatively reduced with NADH or dithionite without detectable formation of the intermediates. The fact that one atom of 18O2 was incorporated into the produced catechol in hydroxylation of o-nitrophenol indicates that the reaction is of monooxygenase nature. It is concluded that salicylate hydroxylase cleaves the C-N and C-X bonds of ortho-substituted phenols. PMID:1864847

Suzuki, K; Gomi, T; Kaidoh, T; Itagaki, E

1991-02-01

150

Campylobacter pyloridis and associated gastritis: investigator blind, placebo controlled trial of bismuth salicylate and erythromycin ethylsuccinate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigator blind trial was performed comparing bismuth salicylate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and placebo in the treatment of Campylobacter pyloridis associated gastritis in patients without peptic ulceration. Fifty patients fulfilled the study criteria. There was a strong correlation between the presence of C pyloridis and histologically confirmed gastritis. Clearance of organisms led to improvement of the gastritis. C pyloridis was cleared

C A McNulty; J C Gearty; B Crump; M Davis; I A Donovan; V Melikian; D M Lister; R Wise

1986-01-01

151

Effect of Salicylic Acid on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Hedychium bousigonianum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to induce somatic embryogenesis in Hedychium bousigonianum Pierre ex Gagnepain and assess the influence of salicylic acid (S) on somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos and subsequently regenerated plants were successfully obtained 30 days after transfer of embryogenic...

152

Biocontrol Elicited Systemic Resistance in Sugarbeet is Salicylic Acid Independent and NPR1 Dependent.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABSTRACT: Salicylic acid (SA) and NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) are both key players in the establishment of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previously we demonstrated that biological control agents (BCAs) Bacillus mycoides isolate Bac J (BmJ) and Bacillus mojavensis isol...

153

Probenazole induces systemic acquired resistance in tobacco through salicylic acid accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a potent innate immunity system in plants that is effective against a broad range of pathogens. SAR development in dicotyledonous plant such as tobacco and Arabidopsis is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). The signaling pathway upstream of SA accumulation is partially clarified inArabidopsis but little is known in other plant species. We investigated the SAR

Hideo Nakashita; Keiko Yoshioka; Michiko Yasuda; Takako Nitta; Yuko Arai; Shigeo Yoshida; Isamu Yamaguchi

2002-01-01

154

SUPPORTING INFORMATION (SI) APPENDIX Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant defense responses  

E-print Network

SUPPORTING INFORMATION (SI) APPENDIX Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant Table 3. Powdery mildew visible disease scores for wild type Arabidopsis in response to neonicotinoids. wild type (1 page) SI Table 5. Replicate experiments: SA accumulation in response to neonicotinoids (2

Wildermuth, Mary C

155

Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

156

Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

157

Immediate Early Transcription Activation by Salicylic Acid via the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus as-1 Element  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco plants carrying a number of regulatory sequences derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter were tested for their response to treatment with salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous signal involved in plant defense responses. PGlucuronidase (GUS) gene fusions with the full-length (-343 to +8) 35s promoter or the -90 truncation were found to be induced by SA. Time

Xiao-Feng Qin; Loreto Holuigue; Diana M. Horvath; Nam-Hai Chua

1994-01-01

158

Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth, Metabolic Activities and Oil Content of Basil and Marjoram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and marjoram (Majorana hortensis) plants to foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M was determined in pot experiments conducted during 2004 - 2005. SA increased plant height, number of (branches, nodes & leaves) per plant, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of herbs,

FATMA ABD; EL-LATEEF GHARIB

159

An Easily Constructed Salicylate-Ion-Selective Electrode for Use in the Instructional Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an electrode, selective for the salicylate ion, that can be prepared and used by undergraduate students. Discusses the preparation of the electrode, typical response characteristics obtained, and results of a limited study using the electrode to estimate the selectivity coefficient for an interfering ion and to determine the amount of…

Creager, Stephen E.; And Others

1995-01-01

160

Neuroprotection by Aspirin and Sodium Salicylate Through Blockade of NF-kappaB Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a commonly prescribed drug with a wide pharmacological spectrum. At concentrations compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy, acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite sodium salicylate were found to be protective against neurotoxicity elicited by the excitatory amino acid glutamate in rat primary neuronal cultures and hippocampal slices. The site of action of the drugs

Mariagrazia Grilli; Marina Pizzi; Maurizio Memo; Pierfranco Spano

1996-01-01

161

Salicylate Disrupts Interrenal Steroidogenesis and Brain Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression in Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varying levels of pharmaceuticals, including salicylate, ibupro- fen, and acetaminophen, have been reported in the aquatic environment, but few studies have actually addressed the impact of these drugs on aquatic organisms. We tested the hypothesis that these pharmaceuticals are endocrine disruptors in fish by exam- ining their impact on interrenal corticosteroidogenesis in rainbow trout. Indeed, acute adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- mediated

Amelie Gravel; Mathilakath M. Vijayan

2006-01-01

162

Reversal of Obesity and Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance with Salicylates or Targeted Disruption of Ikkbeta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that high doses of salicylates reverse hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia in obese rodents by sensitizing insulin signaling. Activation or overexpression of the IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta) attenuated insulin signaling in cultured cells, whereas IKKbeta inhibition reversed insulin resistance. Thus, IKKbeta, rather than the cyclooxygenases, appears to be the relevant molecular target. Heterozygous deletion (Ikkbeta+\\/-) protected against the development

Minsheng Yuan; Nicky Konstantopoulos; Jongsoon Lee; Lone Hansen; Zhi-Wei Li; Michael Karin; Steven E. Shoelson

2001-01-01

163

New insight into photo-bromination processes in saline surface waters: the case of salicylic acid.  

PubMed

It was shown, through a combination of field and laboratory observations, that salicylic acid can undergo photo-bromination reactions in sunlit saline surface waters. Laboratory-scale experiments revealed that the photochemical yields of 5-bromosalicylic acid and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid from salicylic acid were always low (in the 4% range at most). However, this might be of concern since these compounds are potential inhibitors of the 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, with potential implications in endocrine disruption processes. At least two mechanisms were involved simultaneously to account for the photo-generation of brominated substances. The first one might involve the formation of reactive brominated radical species (Br, Br(2)(-)) through hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation of bromide ions. These ions reacted more selectively than hydroxyl radicals with electron-rich organic pollutants such as salicylic acid. The second one might involve the formation of hypobromous acid, through a two electron oxidation of bromine ions by peroxynitrite. This reaction was catalyzed by nitrite, since these ions play a crucial role in the formation of nitric oxide upon photolysis. This nitric oxide further reacts with superoxide radical anions to yield peroxynitrite and by ammonium through the formation of N-bromoamines, probably due to the ability of N-bromoamines to promote the aromatic bromination of phenolic compounds. Field measurements revealed the presence of salicylic acid together with 5-bromosalicylic and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid in a brackish coastal lagoon, thus confirming the environmental significance of the proposed photochemically induced bromination pathways. PMID:22863810

Tamtam, Fatima; Chiron, Serge

2012-10-01

164

SALICYLIC ACID- AND NITRIC OXIDE-MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current advances in plant defense signaling is discussed, with emphasis on the role of nitric oxide and salicylic acid in the development of disease resistance. Nitric Oxide has recently been shown to have an important role in plant disease resistance. We show an increase in NOS-like activity in TMV...

165

In vitro skin decontamination model: comparison of salicylic acid and aminophylline.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (distilled water, 10% distilled water and soap and methanol) for their ability to remove salicylic acid and aminophylline from an in vitro skin model. Materials and methods: Human abdominal skin was dosed with 20?µL of either [(14)C]-aminophylline or [(14)C]-salicylic acid on 1?cm(2) per skin. After each exposure time (5, 30 and 60?min post-dosing, respectively), surface skin was washed three times with each solution and tape stripped 10 times. Wash solutions, tape strips, receptor fluid and remaining skin were then analyzed with liquid scintillation counting to quantify the amount of salicylic acid and aminophylline. Results: Total mass balance recovery for each chemical at three time exposure points was between 73.6 and 101.5%, except at 60?min where aminophylline was only 42.5%. Majority of salicylic acid and aminophylline were recovered from washing solution when compared to stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, surrounding skin and receptor fluid. Conclusion: The three tested decontaminates possessed similar effectiveness in removing lipophilic and hydrophilic chemicals from the skin. Due to diminishing decontamination efficacy with time, it is suggested that skin should be washed as soon as possible following contamination to minimize percutaneous penetration and the deleterious effects associated with skin reservoir content. PMID:24964167

Noury, Barbara; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

2014-06-25

166

Dynamics of Responses in Compatible Potato - Potato virus Y Interaction Are Modulated by Salicylic Acid  

PubMed Central

To investigate the dynamics of the potato – Potato virus Y (PVY) compatible interaction in relation to salicylic acid - controlled pathways we performed experiments using non-transgenic potato cv. Désirée, transgenic NahG-Désirée, cv. Igor and PVYNTN, the most aggressive strain of PVY. The importance of salicylic acid in viral multiplication and symptom development was confirmed by pronounced symptom development in NahG-Désirée, depleted in salicylic acid, and reversion of the effect after spraying with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (a salicylic acid - analogue). We have employed quantitative PCR for monitoring virus multiplication, as well as plant responses through expression of selected marker genes of photosynthetic activity, carbohydrate metabolism and the defence response. Viral multiplication was the slowest in inoculated potato of cv. Désirée, the only asymptomatic genotype in the study. The intensity of defence-related gene expression was much stronger in both sensitive genotypes (NahG-Désirée and cv. Igor) at the site of inoculation than in asymptomatic plants (cv. Désirée). Photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism gene expression differed between the symptomatic and asymptomatic phenotypes. The differential gene expression pattern of the two sensitive genotypes indicates that the outcome of the interaction does not rely simply on one regulatory component, but similar phenotypical features can result from distinct responses at the molecular level. PMID:22194976

Baebler, Špela; Stare, Katja; Kova?, Maja; Blejec, Andrej; Prezelj, Nina; Stare, Tjaša; Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Rosahl, Sabine; Ravnikar, Maja; Gruden, Kristina

2011-01-01

167

Sensitive determination of salicylate and benzophenone type UV filters in water samples using solid-phase microextraction, derivatization and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive procedure for the determination of three UV filters: ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexyl salicylate (Homosalate, HMS), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3) and two related hydroxylated benzophenones (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, BP-1 and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-8) in water samples is presented. Analytes were first concentrated on the coating of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre, on-fibre silylated and then determined using gas chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Factors affecting the performance of extraction and derivatization steps are thoroughly evaluated and their effects on the yield of the sample preparation discussed. Under final working conditions, a PDMS-DVB coated SPME fibre was exposed directly to 10 mL of water, adjusted at pH 3, for 30 min. After that, the fibre was placed in the headspace (HS) of a 1.5 mL vial containing 20 microL of N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA). On-fibre silylation of hydroxyl groups contained in the structure of target compounds was performed at 45 degrees C for 10 min. The whole sample preparation process was completed in 40 min, providing limits of quantification from 0.5 to 10 ng L(-1) and acceptable precision (RSDs under 13%) for samples spiked at different concentrations. All compounds could be accurately determined in river and treated wastewater (relative recoveries from 89 to 115%) using standards in ultrapure water, whereas standard addition is recommended to quantify their levels in untreated wastewater. Analysis of wastewater revealed the systematic presence of BP-3 and BP-1 in raw samples with maximum concentrations close to 500 and 250 ng L(-1), respectively. PMID:19298877

Negreira, N; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Rubí, E; Cela, R

2009-04-01

168

Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway.  

PubMed

Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in the downregulation of a large set of JA-responsive genes, including the marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Induction of JA-responsive marker gene expression by different JA derivatives was equally sensitive to SA-mediated suppression. Activation of genes encoding key enzymes in the JA biosynthesis pathway, such as LOX2, AOS, AOC2, and OPR3 was also repressed by SA, suggesting that the JA biosynthesis pathway may be a target for SA-mediated antagonism. To test this, we made use of the mutant aos/dde2, which is completely blocked in its ability to produce JAs because of a mutation in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene. Mutant aos/dde2 plants did not express the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 or VSP2 in response to infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae. Bypassing JA biosynthesis by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) rescued this JA-responsive phenotype in aos/dde2. Application of SA suppressed MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression to the same level in the aos/dde2 mutant as in wild-type Col-0 plants, indicating that SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression is targeted at a position downstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway. PMID:20839007

Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; De Lange, Elvira S; Delker, Carolin; Wasternack, Claus; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Ritsema, Tita; Pieterse, Corné M J

2010-11-01

169

Ethylene modulates the role of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 in cross talk between salicylate and jasmonate signaling.  

PubMed

The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) play crucial roles in the signaling network that regulates induced defense responses against biotic stresses. Antagonism between SA and JA operates as a mechanism to fine-tune defenses that are activated in response to multiple attackers. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) was demonstrated to be required for SA-mediated suppression of JA-dependent defenses. Because ET is known to enhance SA/NPR1-dependent defense responses, we investigated the role of ET in the SA-JA signal interaction. Pharmacological experiments with gaseous ET and the ET precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid showed that ET potentiated SA/NPR1-dependent PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 transcription, while it rendered the antagonistic effect of SA on methyl jasmonate-induced PDF1.2 and VSP2 expression NPR1 independent. This overriding effect of ET on NPR1 function in SA-JA cross talk was absent in the npr1-1/ein2-1 double mutant, demonstrating that it is mediated via ET signaling. Abiotic and biotic induction of the ET response similarly abolished the NPR1 dependency of the SA-JA signal interaction. Furthermore, JA-dependent resistance against biotic attackers was antagonized by SA in an NPR1-dependent fashion only when the plant-attacker combination did not result in the production of high levels of endogenous ET. Hence, the interaction between ET and NPR1 plays an important modulating role in the fine tuning of the defense signaling network that is activated upon pathogen and insect attack. Our results suggest a model in which ET modulates the NPR1 dependency of SA-JA antagonism, possibly to compensate for enhanced allocation of NPR1 to function in SA-dependent activation of PR genes. PMID:19176718

Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Spoel, Steven H; De Lange, Elvira S; Abe, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Tsuda, Shinya; Millenaar, Frank F; Welschen, Rob A M; Ritsema, Tita; Pieterse, Corné M J

2009-04-01

170

DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies CG Methylation Clusters in Arabidopsis Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosine DNA methylation in vertebrates is widespread, but methylation in plants is found almost exclusively at transposable elements and repetitive DNA [1]. Within regions of methylation, methylcytosines are typically found in CG, CNG, and asymmetric contexts. CG sites are maintained by a plant homolog of mammalian Dnmt1 acting on hemi-methylated DNA after replication. Methylation of CNG and asymmetric sites appears

Robert K. Tran; Jorja G. Henikoff; Daniel Zilberman; Renata F. Ditt; Steven E. Jacobsen; Steven Henikoff

2005-01-01

171

Methyl rotors in flavoproteins.  

PubMed

In this contribution we present the study of the thermal dependence of the ENDOR spectra of flavodoxin at low temperatures which reveals the dynamics of the methyl groups bound to the flavin moiety in flavoproteins. The methyl groups behave as quantum rotors locked by a deep rotational well and undergoing a tunneling process. At room temperature, methyl rotors are locked and the hopping motion is slow. This picture of the dynamics of the methyl groups of the flavin ring is quite different from the one usually accepted and has relevant consequences on the understanding of the mechanisms of flavoproteins. PMID:25363087

Martínez, Jesús I; Alonso, Pablo J; García-Rubio, Inés; Medina, Milagros

2014-12-21

172

Method for Determination of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid in Rat Whole Blood by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to simultaneously determine aspirin and salicylic acid in rat whole blood. Aspirin and salicylic acid are extracted from acidified whole blood into a 50\\/50 v\\/v ethylacetate\\/butylchloride organic solvent system containing internal standard (meta-anisic acid). Following controlled evaporation of the organic extract under partial vacuum, the dried residue is reconstituted with mobile phase. Chromatography is ion

Chau-Hwei J. Fu; Srikumaran Melethil; William D. Mason

1985-01-01

173

Induction of a leaf specific geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase and emission of (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene in tomato are dependent on both jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Two cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthases from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) have been cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. LeGGPS1 was predominantly expressed in leaf tissue and LeGGPS2 in ripening fruit and flower tissue. LeGGPS1 expression was induced in leaves by spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)-feeding and mechanical wounding in wild type tomato but not in the jasmonic acid (JA)-response mutant def-1 and the salicylic acid (SA)-deficient transgenic NahG line. Furthermore, LeGGPS1 expression could be induced in leaves of wild type tomato plants by JA- or methyl salicylate (MeSA)-treatment. In contrast, expression of LeGGPS2 was not induced in leaves by spider mite-feeding, wounding, JA- or MeSA-treatment. We show that emission of the GGPP-derived volatile terpenoid (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT) correlates with expression of LeGGPS1. An exception was MeSA-treatment, which resulted in induction of LeGGPS1 but not in emission of TMTT. We show that there is an additional layer of regulation, because geranyllinalool synthase, catalyzing the first dedicated step in TMTT biosynthesis, was induced by JA but not by MeSA. PMID:16786318

Ament, Kai; Van Schie, Chris C; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

2006-10-01

174

Bis(di­methyl­formamide)­penta­kis­(?-N,2-dioxido­benzene-1-carb­ox­imidato)tetra­kis­(1-methyl­imidazole)di-?-propionato-penta­manganese(III)manganese(II)–di­methyl­formamide–methanol (1/0.24/1.36)  

PubMed Central

The title compound [Mn6(C7H4NO3)5(C3H5O2)2(C4H6N2)4.17(C3H7NO)1.83]·0.24C3H7NO·1.36CH3OH or Mn(II)(C3H5O2)2[15-MCMn(III)N(shi)-5](Me—Im)4.17(DMF)1.83·0.24DMF·1.36MeOH (where MC is metallacrown, shi3? is salicyl­hydroximate, Me—Im is 1-methyl­imidazole, DMF is N,N-di­methyl­formamide, and MeOH is methanol), contains an MnII ion in the central cavity and five MnIII ions in the MC ring. The central MnII ion is seven coordinate and has a geometry best described as distorted face-capped trigonal prismatic with ? angles of 6.13, 10.36, and 11.73° and an estimated average s/h ratio of 1.03±0.11. Four of the ring MnIII ions are six coordinate with distorted octa­hedral geometries. Two of the MnIII ions have ? absolute stereoconfiguration, while the other two MnIII ions have a planar configuration. The fifth MnIII ion is five coordinate and has a distorted square pyramidal geometry with ? = 0.20. Three of the MnIII ions bind one 1-methyl­imidazole ligand. Two of the ring MnIII ions have a 1-methyl­imidazole and a DMF disordered over a coordination site. For one of the ring MnIII ions, the occupancy ratio of the ligands refines to 0.51?(1):0.49?(1) in favor of the DMF. For the other ring MnIII ion, the occupancy ratio of the ligands refines to 0.68?(1):0.32?(1) in favor of the 1-methyl­imidazole. Two propionate anions serve to bridge the central MnII ion between two different MnIII ions. The methyl groups of the bridging propionate anions are disordered over two positions. The methyl group disorder also induces disorder in the H atoms of the adjacent methyl­ene C atom to the same degree. For one of the propionate anions, the occupancy ratio refines to 0.752?(8):0.248?(8) and for the second, the occupancy ratio refines to 0.604?(6):0.396?(6). In addition, the disorder of the methyl group of the latter propionate anion is correlated with a partially occupied [0.604?(6)] methanol mol­ecule. Furthermore, a methanol mol­ecule and a DMF mol­ecule are positionally disordered in the lattice. The occupancy refines to 0.757?(7):0.243?(7) in favor of the methanol mol­ecule. Correlated to the occupancy of the methanol and DMF mol­ecules is a disordered benzene ring of one salicyl­hydroximate ligand. The benzene ring is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.757?(7):0.243?(7). Lastly, the two lattice methanol mol­ecules are hydrogen bonded to the 15-MC-5 mol­ecule. For the partially occupied methanol mol­ecule associated with the disordered propionate anion, the hydroxyl group of the methanol is hydrogen bonded to a carboxyl­ate O atom of the propionate anion. For the partially occupied methanol mol­ecule associated with the partially occupied lattice DMF mol­ecule, the hydroxyl group of the methanol is hydrogen bonded to the phenolate O atom of a salicyl­hydroximate ligand and to the carbonyl O atom of a coordinated DMF mol­ecule. PMID:24426984

Lutter, Jacob C.; Kampf, Jeff W.; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M.

2013-01-01

175

Stability of a salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) to electron beam and gamma radiation  

PubMed Central

The effect of electron beam and gamma radiation on the physicochemical properties of a salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) was studied by exposing polymers to 0 (control), 25 and 50 kGy. After radiation exposure, salicylic acid release in vitro was monitored to assess any changes in drug release profiles. Molecular weight, glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature were evaluated for polymer chain scission and/or crosslinking as well as changes in thermal properties. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies were also used to determine polymer degradation and/or chain scission. In vitro cell studies were performed to identify cytocompatibility following radiation exposure. These studies demonstrate that the physicochemical properties of the polymer are not substantially affected by exposure to electron beam and gamma radiation. PMID:21909173

Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Lavelle, Linda; Bodnar, Stanko; Halperin, Frederick; Harper, Ike; Griffin, Jeremy; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

2011-01-01

176

Effects of excipients on the bioavailability of sodium salicylate from orally administered, oily suspensions.  

PubMed

The effects of various excipients, i.e. sucrose, aluminium stearate, Cab-o-sil, hydrogenated castor oil and lecithin, either alone or in combination, on the bioavailability of sodium salicylate from suspension in fractionated coconut oil have been investigated using the rabbit as the test animal. In addition an in vitro drug release study and partition and rheological measurements have been carried out. Results of the study show that the bioavailability of sodium salicylate is not affected significantly by any of the excipients other than 20% w/v of sucrose and that this effect of sucrose is nullified by the inclusion of 1% w/v Cab-o-sil. Some correlation was observed between in vitro drug release data and the apparent viscosity of the oily vehicle. However, no correlations were detectable between in vivo and in vitro bioavailability parameters. PMID:8921746

al-Hammami, O M; Richards, J H

1996-10-01

177

A new class of salicylic acid derivatives for inhibiting YopH of Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

Previously, we identified a class of salicylic acid derivatives that display inhibitory activity against the protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH from Yersinia pestis. Because docking study suggested that the large phenyl ring attaching to the salicylic acid core might be exposed to the solvent and might not contribute significantly to binding, we have developed a new class of compounds that no longer contain this phenyl ring. We first devised a synthetic scheme for the compounds and then developed an automated computational screening model surrounding this synthetic scheme to help select a small number of compounds for synthesis and experimental testing. Based on this computational screening model and the analysis of the structure-activity relationship of our previous class of compounds, we have synthesized eight compounds and found five that yield micromolar activity. When applying in a larger scale, the synthetic scheme and the computational screening model developed here should help to identify even more potent inhibitors in the future. PMID:25468042

Paudyal, Mahesh P; Wu, Li; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Spilling, Christopher D; Wong, Chung F

2014-11-01

178

Changes in Salicylic Acid and Antioxidants during Induced Thermotolerance in Mustard Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-acclimation or salicylic acid (SA) treatments were previ- ously shown to induce thermotolerance in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings from 1.5 to 4 h after treatment. In the present study we investigated changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants in relation to induced thermotolerance. Thirty minutes into a 1-h heat- acclimation treatment glucosylated SA had increased 5.5-fold and then declined during

James F. Dat; Christine H. Foyer; Ian M. Scott

1998-01-01

179

Terahertz Vibrational Modes of Crystalline Salicylic Acid by Numerical Model Using Periodic Density Functional Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terahertz vibrational modes of crystalline salicylic acid at 1-6 THz were investigated using a vibrational calculation method in which the diagonalization of force constant matrix was estimated by periodic density functional calculations. The result proved sufficient to enable the terahertz vibrational modes to be assigned to lattice modes at 32.2-64.9 cm-1 coupled with translational and rotational modes, intermolecular bending

Shigeki Saito; Talgat M. Inerbaev; Hiroshi Mizuseki; Nobuaki Igarashi; Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

2006-01-01

180

Inhibition of auxin-induced ethylene production by salicylic acid in mung bean hypocotyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA), a common plant phenolic compound, influences diverse physiological and biochemical processes in plants.\\u000a To gain insight into the mode of interaction between auxin, ethylene, and SA, the effect of SA on auxininduced ethylene production\\u000a in mung bean hypocotyls was investigated. Auxin markedly induced ethylene production, while SA inhibited the auxin-induced\\u000a ethylene synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. At

Jae-Hyeok Lee; Eon Seon Jin; Woo Taek Kim

1999-01-01

181

Transcriptomic Analysis of Salicylic Acid-Responsive Genes in Tobacco By2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco has played historically important role in the discovery and functional analysis of salicylic acid (SA) as a plant\\u000a hormone. Using this model, it was demonstrated for the first time that tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection results in the\\u000a accumulation of SA in infected tissues that is to activate local and systemic expression of pathogenesis-related proteins\\u000a in the cells. Furthermore,

I. Galis; K. Matsuoka

182

Salicylic acid-induced adaptive response to copper stress in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA: 0.5 mM) on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under Cu stress (5 mg l?1) was studied. Excess Cu reduced the fresh and dry weights of different organs (roots, stems and leaves) and photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) in four-week-old plants. There was a considerable increase in Chl a\\/b ratio and lipid peroxidation in both the

M. A. El-Tayeb; A. E. El-Enany; N. L. Ahmed

2006-01-01

183

The Pathway and Regulation of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Probenazole-Treated Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probenazole (PBZ; 3-allyloxy-1,2-benzisothiazole-1,1-dioxide) is a highly effective chemical inducer of systemic-acquired\\u000a resistance (SAR). It has been used widely to protect rice plants against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Previous studies have shown that PBZ induces SAR through enhanced accumulation of salicylic acid (SA). Plants synthesize\\u000a SA by either a pathway that uses phenylalanine as substrate or another that involves

Jin Yu; Jiong Gao; Xiao Yan Wang; Qiang Wei; Li Feng Yang; Kai Qiu; Ben Ke Kuai

2010-01-01

184

Effects of salicylic acid on seedling growth and nitrogen use efficiency in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is involved in the regulation of metabolic activity and acts as a defense mechanism in plants under various stress conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of SA (10–500 µM) on seedling growth, development, and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants with and without nitrogen nutrient. SA increased the contents of chlorophyll,

Pramod Kumar Singh; Varun Kumar Chaturvedi

2012-01-01

185

Effects of salicylic acid on seedling growth and nitrogen use efficiency in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is involved in the regulation of metabolic activity and acts as a defense mechanism in plants under various stress conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of SA (10–500 µM) on seedling growth, development, and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants with and without nitrogen nutrient. SA increased the contents of chlorophyll,

Pramod Kumar Singh; Varun Kumar Chaturvedi

2011-01-01

186

Salicylic acid alleviates NaCl-induced changes in the metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of 100 mM NaCl and 50 ?M salicylic acid (SA) and their combination on the metabolism of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) during 7 days was studied. NaCl reduced growth and selected physiological parameters and SA in combined treatment (NaCl + SA)\\u000a reversed majority of these symptoms. Application of SA reduced NaCl-induced increase of Na+ in the rosettes, but not in the roots. Accumulation of total

Jozef Ková?ik; Bo?ivoj Klejdus; Josef Hedbavny; Martin Ba?kor

2009-01-01

187

Response of barley grains to the interactive e.ect of salinity and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of grain soaking presowing in 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) and NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) on barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Gerbel) was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage, the growth parameters (fresh and dry weight), potassium, calcium, phosphorus and insoluble sugars content in both shoots and roots of 15-day old seedlings. Leaf relative water

M. A. El-Tayeb

2005-01-01

188

Effects of salicylic acid and cold on freezing tolerance in winter wheat leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM) and cold on freezing tolerance (freezing injury and ice nucleation activity) were investigated in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Dogu-88) grown under control (20\\/18 °C for 15, 30 and 45-day) and cold (15\\/10 °C for 15-day, 10\\/5 °C for 30-day and 5\\/3 °C for 45-day) conditions. Cold acclimatisation caused

Esen Ta?gín; Ökke? Atící; Barbaros Nalbanto?lu

2003-01-01

189

Salicylic acid induces stomatal closure by modulating endogenous hormone levels in cucumber cotyledons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the most important signaling molecules in plant growth and defense responses to biotic and abiotic\\u000a stresses. Here, the effect of exogenous SA on the stomatal movements was investigated in cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Application of different SA concentrations could induce the reduction in stomatal aperture and conductance,\\u000a especially at a concentration

J. H. Hao; X. L. Wang; C. J. Dong; Z. G. Zhang; Q. M. Shang

2011-01-01

190

Inhibition of NF-kappaB by Sodium Salicylate and Aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is critical for the inducible expression of multiple cellular and viral genes involved in inflammation and infection including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and adhesion molecules. The anti-inflammatory drugs sodium salicylate and aspirin inhibited the activation of NF-kappa B, which further explains the mechanism of action of these drugs. This inhibition prevented the degradation

Elizabeth Kopp; Sankar Ghosh

1994-01-01

191

In vitro salicylate does not further impair aging-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction.  

PubMed

Aging and drug-induced side effects may contribute to the deterioration of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the brain. One hypothesis is that the combination of both deleterious stimuli accelerates the process of mitochondrial degradation, leading to progressive bioenergetic disruption. The hypothesis was tested by analyzing the isolated and combined effect of aging and salicylate, a vastly used anti-inflammatory drug, on isolated brain fractions in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided according to age in two groups: adult (n=8, 19 weeks of age) and aged (n=8, 106 weeks of age). In vitro endpoints of brain mitochondrial function including oxygen consumption and transmembrane electric potential (??) were evaluated in the absence and in the presence of salicylate (0.5mM). Brain mitochondrial susceptibility to calcium-induced permeability transition pore (MPTP) was also assessed. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was determined by measuring aconitase and manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and content in sulfhydryl groups (SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Mitochondrial content in apoptotic-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2 and cyclophilin D was determined by Western Blotting. Under basal, untreated, conditions, aging affected brain mitochondrial state 3 respiration, maximal ?? developed, ADP phosphorylation lag phase and calcium-induced MPTP. Interestingly, MDA decreased and Mn-SOD activity increased in the aged group. Brain mitochondrial Bcl-2 content decreased and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in aged group. Salicylate incubation for 20min increased lipid peroxidation in the aged group only and stimulated respiration during state 2, accompanied by decreased ??, although both effects were independent of the animal age. We confirmed that both aging and salicylate per se impaired brain mitochondrial bioenergetics, although the combination of both does not seem to worsen the mitochondrial end-points studied. PMID:22967791

Marques-Aleixo, I; Rocha-Rodrigues, S; Santos-Alves, E; Coxito, P M; Passos, E; Oliveira, P J; Magalhães, J; Ascensão, A

2012-12-01

192

Preparation and characterization of an anti-inflammatory agent based on a zinc-layered hydroxide-salicylate nanohybrid and its effect on viability of Vero-3 cells  

PubMed Central

A new organic-inorganic nanohybrid based on zinc-layered hydroxide intercalated with an anti-inflammatory agent was synthesized through direct reaction of salicylic acid at various concentrations with commercially available zinc oxide. The basal spacing of the pure phase nanohybrid was 15.73 Å, with the salicylate anions arranged in a monolayer form and an angle of 57 degrees between the zinc-layered hydroxide interlayers. Fourier transform infrared study further confirmed intercalation of salicylate into the interlayers of zinc-layered hydroxide. The loading of salicylate in the nanohybrid was estimated to be around 29.66%, and the nanohybrid exhibited the properties of a mesoporous-type material, with greatly enhanced thermal stability of the salicylate compared with its free counterpart. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that free salicylic acid, pure zinc oxide, and the nanohybrid have a mild effect on viability of African green monkey kidney (Vero-3) cells. PMID:23345976

Ramli, Munirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Yusoff, Khatijah

2013-01-01

193

Specific and quantitative assessment of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability by using a bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium  

SciTech Connect

A bioassay was developed and standardized for the rapid, specific, and quantitative assessment of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability by use of bioluminescence monitoring of catabolic gene expression. The bioluminescent reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, which carries a transcriptional nahG-luxCDABE fusion for naphthalene and salicylate catabolism, was used. The physiological state of the reporter cultures as well as the intrinsic regulatory properties of the naphthalene degradation operon must be taken into account to obtain a high specificity at low target substrate concentrations. Experiments have shown that the use of exponentially growing reporter cultures has advantages over the use of carbon-starved, resting cultures. In aqueous solutions for both substrates, naphthalene and salicylate, linear relationships between initial substrate concentration and bioluminescence response were found over concentration ranges of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Naphthalene could be detected at a concentration of 45 ppb. Studies conducted under defined conditions with extracts and slurries of experimentally contaminated sterile soils and identical uncontaminated soil controls demonstrated that this method can be used for specific and quantitative estimations of target pollutant presence and bioavailability in soil extracts and for specific and qualitative estimations of napthalene in soil slurries.

Heitzer, A.; Thonnard, J.E.; Sayler, G.S.; Webb, O.F. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

1992-06-01

194

Intracortical circuits amplify sound-evoked activity in primary auditory cortex following systemic injection of salicylate in the rat.  

PubMed

A high dose of sodium salicylate temporarily induces tinnitus, mild hearing loss, and possibly hyperacusis in humans and other animals. Salicylate has well-established effects on cochlear function, primarily resulting in the moderate reduction of auditory input to the brain. Despite decreased peripheral sensitivity and output, salicylate induces a paradoxical enhancement of the sound-evoked field potential at the level of the primary auditory cortex (A1). Previous electrophysiologic studies have begun to characterize changes in thalamorecipient layers of A1; however, A1 is a complex neural circuit with recurrent intracortical connections. To describe the effects of acute systemic salicylate treatment on both thalamic and intracortical sound-driven activity across layers of A1, we applied current-source density (CSD) analysis to field potentials sampled across cortical layers in the anesthetized rat. CSD maps were normally characterized by a large, short-latency, monosynaptic, thalamically driven sink in granular layers followed by a lower amplitude, longer latency, polysynaptic, intracortically driven sink in supragranular layers. Following systemic administration of salicylate, there was a near doubling of both granular and supragranular sink amplitudes at higher sound levels. The supragranular sink amplitude input/output function changed from becoming asymptotic at approximately 50 dB to sharply nonasymptotic, often dominating the granular sink amplitude at higher sound levels. The supragranular sink also exhibited a significant decrease in peak latency, reflecting an acceleration of intracortical processing of the sound-evoked response. Additionally, multiunit (MU) activity was altered by salicylate; the normally onset/sustained MU response type was transformed into a primarily onset response type in granular and infragranular layers. The results from CSD analysis indicate that salicylate significantly enhances sound-driven response via intracortical circuits. PMID:22496535

Stolzberg, Daniel; Chrostowski, Michael; Salvi, Richard J; Allman, Brian L

2012-07-01

195

Intracortical circuits amplify sound-evoked activity in primary auditory cortex following systemic injection of salicylate in the rat  

PubMed Central

A high dose of sodium salicylate temporarily induces tinnitus, mild hearing loss, and possibly hyperacusis in humans and other animals. Salicylate has well-established effects on cochlear function, primarily resulting in the moderate reduction of auditory input to the brain. Despite decreased peripheral sensitivity and output, salicylate induces a paradoxical enhancement of the sound-evoked field potential at the level of the primary auditory cortex (A1). Previous electrophysiologic studies have begun to characterize changes in thalamorecipient layers of A1; however, A1 is a complex neural circuit with recurrent intracortical connections. To describe the effects of acute systemic salicylate treatment on both thalamic and intracortical sound-driven activity across layers of A1, we applied current-source density (CSD) analysis to field potentials sampled across cortical layers in the anesthetized rat. CSD maps were normally characterized by a large, short-latency, monosynaptic, thalamically driven sink in granular layers followed by a lower amplitude, longer latency, polysynaptic, intracortically driven sink in supragranular layers. Following systemic administration of salicylate, there was a near doubling of both granular and supragranular sink amplitudes at higher sound levels. The supragranular sink amplitude input/output function changed from becoming asymptotic at approximately 50 dB to sharply nonasymptotic, often dominating the granular sink amplitude at higher sound levels. The supragranular sink also exhibited a significant decrease in peak latency, reflecting an acceleration of intracortical processing of the sound-evoked response. Additionally, multiunit (MU) activity was altered by salicylate; the normally onset/sustained MU response type was transformed into a primarily onset response type in granular and infragranular layers. The results from CSD analysis indicate that salicylate significantly enhances sound-driven response via intracortical circuits. PMID:22496535

Chrostowski, Michael; Salvi, Richard J.; Allman, Brian L.

2012-01-01

196

Purification and Characterization of a Three-Component Salicylate 1-Hydroxylase from Sphingomonas sp. Strain CHY-1?  

PubMed Central

In the bacterial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salicylate hydroxylases catalyze essential reactions at the junction between the so-called upper and lower catabolic pathways. Unlike the salicylate 1-hydroxylase from pseudomonads, which is a well-characterized flavoprotein, the enzyme found in sphingomonads appears to be a three-component Fe-S protein complex, which so far has not been characterized. Here, the salicylate 1-hydroxylase from Sphingomonas sp. strain CHY-1 was purified, and its biochemical and catalytic properties were characterized. The oxygenase component, designated PhnII, exhibited an ?3?3 heterohexameric structure and contained one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear iron per ? subunit. In the presence of purified reductase (PhnA4) and ferredoxin (PhnA3) components, PhnII catalyzed the hydroxylation of salicylate to catechol with a maximal specific activity of 0.89 U/mg and showed an apparent Km for salicylate of 1.1 ± 0.2 ?M. The hydroxylase exhibited similar activity levels with methylsalicylates and low activity with salicylate analogues bearing additional hydroxyl or electron-withdrawing substituents. PhnII converted anthranilate to 2-aminophenol and exhibited a relatively low affinity for this substrate (Km, 28 ± 6 ?M). 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoate, which is an intermediate in phenanthrene degradation, was not hydroxylated by PhnII, but it induced a high rate of uncoupled oxidation of NADH. It also exerted strong competitive inhibition of salicylate hydroxylation, with a Ki of 0.68 ?M. The properties of this three-component hydroxylase are compared with those of analogous bacterial hydroxylases and are discussed in light of our current knowledge of PAH degradation by sphingomonads. PMID:17905882

Jouanneau, Yves; Micoud, Julien; Meyer, Christine

2007-01-01

197

ENZYMOLOGY OF ARSENIC METHYLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

198

Age-related resistance of Nicotiana benthamiana against hemibiotrophic pathogen Phytophthora infestans requires both ethylene- and salicylic acid-mediated signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Phytophthora infestans, the agent of late blight disease of potato, is a hemibiotrophic pathogen with biotrophic action during early infection and necrotrophic in the later stage of colonization. Mature Nicotiana benthamiana was resistant to P. infestans, whereas relatively young plants were susceptible to this pathogen. Young plants became resistant following a pretreatment with acibenzolar-S-methyl, a functional analog of salicylic acid (SA), indicating that susceptibility of young plants is due to a lack of induction of SA signaling. Further analysis with virus-induced gene silencing indicated that NbICS1 and NbEIN2, the genes for SA biosynthesis and ethylene (ET) signaling, respectively, are required for the resistance of mature N. benthamiana against P. infestans. Furthermore, these genes are required for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by treatment of the INF1 elicitor. In NbICS1-silenced plants, cell death induced by either INF1 or necrosis-inducing protein NPP1.1 was significantly accelerated. Expression of genes for phytoalexin (capsidiol) biosynthesis, NbEAS and NbEAH, were regulated by ET, and gene silencing of either of them compromised resistance of N. benthamiana to P. infestans. Together, these results suggest that resistance of N. benthamiana against hemibiotrophic P. infestans requires both SA-regulated appropriate induction of cell death and ET-induced production of phytoalexin. PMID:20687803

Shibata, Yusuke; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Takemoto, Daigo

2010-09-01

199

Chemical changes in Ulmus minor xylem tissue after salicylic acid or carvacrol treatments are associated with enhanced resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  

PubMed

Application of endogenous plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) or essential oil component carvacrol (CA) in elms enhances tree resistance to the Dutch elm disease pathogen, although the effect of these compounds on tree metabolism is unknown. The chemical changes induced by SA or CA treatments in Ulmus minor were studied through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of xylem tissues. Treatments consisted of fortnightly irrigating seedlings with water, SA or CA at 600 mg L?¹. The chemical composition of the xylem tissues sampled from treated trees was significantly altered depending on the treatment type. SA treatment induced an accumulation of the sinapyl alcohol, a precursor of lignin and other phenylpropanoid-derived products. CA treatment induced an accumulation of the methyl esters of palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids. Both treatments resulted in early bud burst and SA significantly reduced sapwood radial growth, possibly as a consequence of a trade-off between tree growth and tree defence. The enhanced resistance provided by these treatments is discussed. PMID:22910373

Martín, Juan A; Solla, Alejandro; García-Vallejo, María C; Gil, Luis

2012-11-01

200

Salicylic acid deficiency in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants increases seed yield in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid-deficient NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants were used to evaluate the role of this compound in the development of the short-lived, annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana, with a particular focus on the interplay between salicylic acid and other phytohormones. Low salicylic acid levels led to increased growth, as well as to smaller abscisic acid levels and reduced damage to PSII (as indicated by Fv/Fm ratios) during the reproductive stages in rosette leaves of NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, salicylic acid deficiency highly influenced seed yield and composition. Seed production increased by 4.4-fold and 3.5-fold in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, respectively, compared to the wild type. Salicylic acid deficiency also improved seed composition in terms of antioxidant vitamin concentrations, seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants showing higher levels of ?- and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E) and ?-carotene (pro-vitamin A) than seeds of wild-type plants. Seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants also showed higher nitrogen concentrations than seeds of wild-type plants. It is concluded that (i) the sid2 gene, which encodes for isochorismate synthase, plays a central role in salicylic acid biosynthesis during plant development in A. thaliana, (ii) salicylic acid plays a role in the regulation of growth, senescence, and seed production, (iii) there is a cross-talk between salicylic acid and other phytohormones during plant development, and (iv) the concentrations of antioxidant vitamins in seeds may be influenced by the endogenous levels of salicylic acid in plants. PMID:19188277

Abreu, Maria Elizabeth; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2009-01-01

201

Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulphate-salicylic acid based micellar systems and their potential use in fruits postharvest.  

PubMed

Micellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied at several temperatures in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration and the micellization degree were determined by conductometric techniques and the experimental data used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Salicylic acid helps the micellization of SDS, both by increasing the additive concentration at a constant temperature and by increasing temperature at a constant concentration of additive. The formation of micelles of SDS in the presence of salicylic acid was a thermodynamically spontaneous process, and is also entropically controlled. Salicylic acid plays the role of a stabilizer, and gives a pathway to control the three-dimensional water matrix structure. The driving force of the micellization process is provided by the hydrophobic interactions. The isostructural temperature was found to be 307.5 K for the mixed micellar system. This article explores the use of SDS-salicylic acid based micellar systems for their potential use in fruits postharvest. PMID:24423544

Cid, A; Morales, J; Mejuto, J C; Briz-Cid, N; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gándara, J

2014-05-15

202

Relations between high-affinity binding sites for L-tryptophan, diazepam, salicylate and Phenol Red on human serum albumin.  

PubMed Central

Binding of L-tryptophan, diazepam, salicylate and Phenol Red to defatted human serum albumin was studied by ultrafiltration at pH 7.0. All ligands bind to one high-affinity binding site with association constants of the order of 10(4)-10(5)M-1. The number of secondary binding sites was found to vary from zero to five, with association constants about 10(3)M-1. Competitive binding studies with different pairs of the ligands were performed. Binding of both ligands was determined simultaneously. L-Tryptophan and diazepam were found to compete for a common high-affinity binding site on albumin. The following combinations of ligands do not bind competitively to albumin: L-tryptophan-Phenol Red, L-tryptophan-salicylate and Phenol Red-salicylate. On the other hand, high-affinity bindings of the three ligands do not take place independently but in such a way that binding of one of the ligands results in a decrease in binding of the other ligands. The decreases in binding are reciprocal and can be accounted for by introducing a coupling constant. The magnitude of the constant is dependent on the ligands being bound. In the present study, the mutual decrease in binding was more pronounced with L-tryptophan-salicylate and Phenol Red-salicylate than with L-tryptophan-Phenol Red. PMID:6847607

Kragh-Hansen, U

1983-01-01

203

A convenient sol-gel route for the synthesis of salicylate-titania nanocomposites having visible absorption and blue luminescence  

SciTech Connect

Syntheses of titania-based nanomaterials by simple sol-gel route using a mixture of CTAB and salicylate as well as salicylate ions as templates have been reported. The materials are characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopic (FT IR, UV-VIS) analyses. A disordered mesoscale orientation of nanoparticles (ca. 2-4 nm) composed of TiO{sub 2}-salicylate surface complex has been obtained when 1:1 mixing ratio of CTAB and salicylate at the CTAB concentration of 0.001 M was employed as a template. All these nanocomposites exhibit a considerable red shift at the onsets of their absorption band compared to pure (organic-free) nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} and show blue luminescence at room temperature. This assembly of nanoparticles is highly interesting in the context of visible light sensitization and nanodevice fabrication. - Graphical abstract: A new titania-salicylate nanostructure material has been synthesized, which exhibit a considerable red shift towards the visible region vis-a-vis nanocrystalline (organic-free) TiO{sub 2} and blue luminescence at room temperature.

Mitra, Atanu [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.i [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Nandi, Mahasweta; Mondal, John [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Roy, B.K. [Haldia Government College, Purba Medinipur 721657, West Bengal (India)

2009-05-15

204

Modes of action of aspirin-like drugs: Salicylates inhibit Erk activation and integrin-dependent neutrophil adhesion  

PubMed Central

The anti-inflammatory effects of high-dose salicylates are well recognized, incompletely understood and unlikely due entirely to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. We have previously reported a role for activation of the kinase Erk in CD11b/CD18 integrin-dependent adhesiveness of human neutrophils, a critical step in inflammation. We now report the effects of salicylates on neutrophil Erk and adhesion. Exposure of neutrophils to aspirin or sodium salicylate (poor COX inhibitor) inhibited Erk activity and adhesiveness of formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine- and arachidonic acid-stimulated neutrophils, consistent with anti-inflammation but not COX inhibition (IC50s = 1–8 mM). In contrast, indomethacin blocked neither Erk nor adhesion. Inhibition of Mek (proximal activator of Erk) also blocked stimulation of Erk and adhesion by formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanineand arachidonic acid. Salicylate inhibition of Erk was independent of protein kinase A activation and generation of extracellular adenosine. These data are consistent with a role for Erk in stimulated neutrophil adhesion, and suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of salicylates may be mediated via inhibition of Erk signaling required for integrin-mediated responses. PMID:9826736

Pillinger, Michael H.; Capodici, Constance; Rosenthal, Pamela; Kheterpal, Neil; Hanft, Simon; Philips, Mark R.; Weissmann, Gerald

1998-01-01

205

Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

2012-01-01

206

Effect of salicylic acid on protein composition of Tatar buckwheat Fagopyrum tataricum calluses with different ability for morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The effect of salicylic acid on the content of soluble proteins and individual polypeptides in Tatar buckwheat Fagopyrum tataricum calluses differing in ability for morphogenesis was studied. Changes in the protein composition of the calluses cultivated in the dark and in the light indicated the higher sensitivity of the non-morphogenic callus. Different response of callus cultures to salicylic acid and conditions of cultivation (light, darkness) is suggested to be associated with the antioxidant defense system, which is, in particular, characterized by the hydrogen peroxide content in the calluses. Salicylic acid increased the H2O2 content in non-morphogenic calluses more strongly than in morphogenic calluses, and the difference was more significant for the calluses cultivated in the light. PMID:15823086

Maksyutova, N N; Galeeva, E I; Rumyantseva, N I; Viktorova, L V

2005-03-01

207

Synthesis and characterization of copper complexes of Schiff base derived from isatin and salicylic hydrazide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel metal complexes of Schiff base have been prepared by the interaction of Cu(II) with isatin salicylic hydrazide. All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurement, magnetic moment determination, IR, UV, NMR, Mass and EPR spectral studies, thermal studies and microbial activities. The results indicate that the ligand acts as a tridentate chelating ligand coordinating through nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The ligand and complexes show inactive against Escherichia coli and active against Staphylococcus aureus and B.substilis. By analyzing the results of spectral, thermal and elemental analysis square planar geometry is proposed for all the complexes.

Lekshmy, R. K.; Thara, G. S.

2014-10-01

208

One-stop Genomic DNA Extraction by Salicylic Acid Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified, one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by non-specific binding of the particles, as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared to traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally-friendly. PMID:23911528

Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas; Irudayaraj, Joseph

2014-01-01

209

Studies on the metal-complex of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin).  

PubMed

The present communication deals with the isolation of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin complexes with Bi+3 Zn+2 and UO2+2. The characterization of 1:2 complexes have been carried out with the help of conductometric, pH met;ric, elemental analysis and IR spectral studies. Spectrophotometric studies in case of UO2+2 (the only colored complex) in range of 4.2 to 5.5 pH show absorption at 490 nm and complex obey Beers Law at the concentration range of 0.01 M to 0.1 M. PMID:437021

Baslas, R K; Zamani, R; Nomani, A A

1979-04-15

210

Identification of an OsPR10a promoter region responsive to salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orysa sativa pathogenesis-related protein 10a (OsPR10a) was induced by pathogens, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethephon, abscisic acid (ABA), and NaCl. We tried\\u000a to analyze the OsPR10a promoter to investigate the transcriptional regulation of OsPR10a by SA. We demonstrated the inducibility of OsPR10a promoter by SA using transgenic Arabidopsis carrying OsPR10a:GFP as well as by transient expression assays in

Seon-Hee Hwang; In Ah Lee; Se Won Yie; Duk-Ju Hwang

2008-01-01

211

Enterobactin protonation and iron release: structural characterization of the salicylate coordination shift in ferric enterobactin.  

PubMed

The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by many species of enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. This iron scavenger can be reincorporated by the bacteria as the ferric complex [Fe(III)(Ent)](3)(-) and is subsequently hydrolyzed by an esterase to facilitate intracellular iron release. Recent literature reports on altered protein recognition and binding of modified enterobactin increase the significance of understanding the structural features and solution chemistry of ferric enterobactin. The structure of the neutral protonated ferric enterobactin complex [Fe(III)(H(3)Ent)](0) has been the source of some controversy and confusion in the literature. To demonstrate the proposed change of coordination from the tris-catecholate [Fe(III)(Ent)](3)(-) to the tris-salicylate [Fe(III)(H(3)Ent)](0) upon protonation, the coordination chemistry of two new model compounds N,N',N''-tris[2-(hydroxybenzoyl)carbonyl]cyclotriseryl trilactone (SERSAM) and N,N',N''-tris[2-hydroxy,3-methoxy(benzoyl)carbonyl]cyclotriseryl trilactone (SER(3M)SAM) was examined in solution and solid state. Both SERSAM and SER(3M)SAM form tris-salicylate ferric complexes with spectroscopic and solution thermodynamic properties (with log beta(110)() values of 39 and 38 respectively) similar to those of [Fe(III)(H(3)Ent)](0). The fits of EXAFS spectra of the model ferric complexes and the two forms of ferric enterobactin provided bond distances and disorder factors in the metal coordination sphere for both coordination modes. The protonated [Fe(III)(H(3)Ent)](0) complex (d(Fe)(-)(O) = 1.98 A, sigma(2)(stat)(O) = 0.00351(10) A(2)) exhibits a shorter average Fe-O bond length but a much higher static Debye-Waller factor for the first oxygen shell than the catecholate [Fe(III)(Ent)](3)(-) complex (d(Fe)(-)(O) = 2.00 A, sigma(2)(stat)(O) = 0.00067(14) A(2)). (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the amide bond rotation between the catecholate and salicylate geometries using the gallic complexes of enterobactin: [Ga(III)(Ent)](3)(-) and [Ga(III)(H(3)Ent)](0). The ferric salicylate complexes display quasi-reversible reduction potentials from -89 to -551 mV (relative to the normal hydrogen electrode NHE) which supports the feasibility of a low pH iron release mechanism facilitated by biological reductants. PMID:16819888

Abergel, Rebecca J; Warner, Jeffrey A; Shuh, David K; Raymond, Kenneth N

2006-07-12

212

[DNA methylation in obesity].  

PubMed

The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes), have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA) synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described. PMID:25531701

Pokrywka, Ma?gorzata; Kie?-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Wybra?ska, Iwona

2014-01-01

213

In vitro methylation assay to study protein arginine methylation.  

PubMed

Protein arginine methylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications in the nucleus. Protein arginine methylation can be identified and/or determined via proteomic approaches, and/or immunoblotting with methyl-arginine specific antibodies. However, these techniques sometimes can be misleading and often provide false positive results. Most importantly, these techniques cannot provide direct evidence in support of the PRMT substrate specificity. In vitro methylation assays, on the other hand, are useful biochemical assays, which are sensitive, and consistently reveal if the identified proteins are indeed PRMT substrates. A typical in vitro methylation assay includes purified, active PRMTs, purified substrate and a radioisotope labeled methyl donor (S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-(3)H] methionine). Here we describe a step-by-step protocol to isolate catalytically active PRMT1, a ubiquitously expressed PRMT family member. The methyl transferase activities of the purified PRMT1 were later tested on Ras-GTPase activating protein binding protein 1 (G3BP1), a known PRMT substrate, in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-(3)H] methionine as the methyl donor. This protocol can be employed not only for establishing the methylation status of novel physiological PRMT1 substrates, but also for understanding the basic mechanism of protein arginine methylation. PMID:25350748

Bikkavilli, Rama Kamesh; Avasarala, Sreedevi; Van Scoyk, Michelle; Karuppusamy Rathinam, Manoj Kumar; Tauler, Jordi; Borowicz, Stanley; Winn, Robert A

2014-01-01

214

Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.  

PubMed

The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 ?M of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. PMID:25036598

Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

2014-09-01

215

ocs element promoter sequences are activated by auxin and salicylic acid in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

ocs elements are a group of promoter elements that have been exploited by two distinct groups of plant pathogens, Agrobacterium and certain viruses, to express genes in plants. We examined the activity of single and multiple ocs elements linked to a minimal plant promoter and the uidA reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis. beta-Glucuronidase activity was detected only in root tips and in callus tissue after auxin treatment. A more sensitive assay revealed that auxin treatment also increased ocs element activity in aerial parts of the plant, although the absolute levels of ocs element activity were greater in roots. The response of ocs elements to exogenous auxin began within 1 h. Salicylic acid, a disease-resistance signal in plants, also increased ocs element activity in both roots and aerial parts of the plant. The question of whether the induction in ocs element activity is mediated through auxin and/or salicylic acid signal transduction pathways or is part of a more general stress response is discussed. Images PMID:8146146

Zhang, B; Singh, K B

1994-01-01

216

Whole blood viscosity issues VI: Association with blood salicylate level and gastrointestinal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background: This series on whole blood viscosity issues has been trying to elucidate the sensitivity, specificity and usefulness of the laboratory parameter in clinical practice. The postulation has been that since antiplatelet is used in the management of stasis, of which blood viscosity is an index, the latter would be useful laboratory indication and/or contraindication. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe whether blood level of acetylsalicylic acid differs with the level of whole blood viscosity. Patients and Methods: Out of the ten years database, 538 cases that were concomitantly tested for haematocrit, total proteins and blood level of salicylate were selected for this study. A separate nine cases of positive faecal occult blood tests were audited for blood viscosity and reviewed. Results: A statistically significant difference is observed with lower blood viscosity being associated with higher salicylate level in comparison of the former between the highest vs. lowest quartiles (p < 0.002). This observation demonstrates the effect of aspirin in lowering blood stasis. Reviewing the positive faecal occult blood cases indicate that gastrointestinal bleeding is characterized by relative hypoviscosity and that hyperviscosity is not present during bleeding complications. Conclusion: The findings affirm that whole blood viscosity is a valid clinical laboratory parameter for evidence-based contraindication, indication and monitoring of antiplatelet medication. It calls for better appreciation and clinical utility of whole blood viscosity, which (in the absence of viscometer) can now be extrapolated from haematocrit and total proteins. PMID:22558547

Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Cann, Nathan

2010-01-01

217

Whiteflies Glycosylate Salicylic Acid and Secrete the Conjugate via Their Honeydew.  

PubMed

During insect feeding, a complex interaction takes place at the feeding site, with plants deciphering molecular information associated with the feeding herbivore, resulting in the upregulation of the appropriate defenses, and the herbivore avoiding or preventing these defenses from taking effect. Whiteflies can feed on plants without causing significant damage to mesophyll cells, making their detection extra challenging for the plant. However, whiteflies secrete honeydew that ends up on the plant surface at the feeding site and on distal plant parts below the feeding site. We reasoned that this honeydew, since it is largely of plant origin, may contain molecular information that alerts the plant, and we focused on the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA). First, we analyzed phloem sap from tomato plants, on which the whiteflies are feeding, and found that it contained salicylic acid (SA). Subsequently, we determined that in honeydew more than 80 % of SA was converted to its glycoside (SAG). When whiteflies were allowed to feed from an artificial diet spiked with labeled SA, labeled SAG also was produced. However, manually depositing honeydew on undamaged plants resulted still in a significant increase in endogenous free SA. Accordingly, transcript levels of PR1a, an SA marker gene, increased whereas those of PI-II, a jasmonate marker gene, decreased. Our results indicate that whiteflies manipulate the SA levels within their secretions, thus influencing the defense responses in those plant parts that come into contact with honeydew. PMID:25563984

VanDoorn, Arjen; de Vries, Michel; Kant, Merijn R; Schuurink, Robert C

2015-01-01

218

Locally Delivered Salicylic Acid from a Poly(anhydride-ester): Impact on Diabetic Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can impair bone repair, including a prolonged inflammatory response. A salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SA-PAE) provides controlled and sustained release of salicylic acid (SA) that locally resolves inflammation. This study investigates the effect of polymer-controlled SA release on bone regeneration in diabetic rats where enhanced inflammation is expected. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: diabetic group induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection or normoglycemic controls injected with citrate buffer alone. Three weeks after hyperglycemia development or vehicle injection, 5 mm critical sized defects were created at the rat mandibular angle and treated with SA-PAE/bone graft mixture or bone graft alone. Rats were euthanized 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, then bone fill percentage in the defect region was assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry. It was observed that bone fill increased significantly at 4 and 12 weeks in SA-PAE/bone graft-treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats receiving bone graft alone. Accelerated bone formation in normoglycemic rats caused by SA-PAE/bone graft treatment was observed at 4 weeks but not at 12 weeks. This study shows that treatment with SA-PAE enhances bone regeneration in diabetic rats and accelerates bone regeneration in normoglycemic animals. PMID:23827476

Wada, Keisuke; Yu, Weiling; Elazizi, Mohamad; Barakat, Sandrine; Ouimet, Michelle A.; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Fiorellini, Joseph P.; Graves, Dana T.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

2013-01-01

219

Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus  

PubMed Central

Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin. PMID:21871058

2011-01-01

220

1-Methyl-3-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium picrate  

PubMed Central

The title salt, C13H11N2O2 +·C6H2N3O7 ?, is the unexpected product of a domino reaction of 3-cyano­methyl-1-methyl­imidazolium chloride with salicylic aldehyde in the presence of picric acid. In the cation, the 1H-imidazole ring is twisted by 63.2?(1)° from the 2H-chromen plane. In the crystal, cations and anions are alternately stacked along the a axis through ?–? stacking inter­actions between the almost parallel aromatic rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.458?(2) and 3.678?(2)?Å]. The stacks are further linked by C—H?O hydrogen bonds into a two-tier layer parallel to (001). PMID:23795027

Tuyen, Nguyen Van; Anh, Le Tuan; Festa, Alexey A.; Voskressensky, Leonid G.; Khrustalev, Victor N.

2013-01-01

221

DNA METHYLATION, CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY, AND NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control. DNA methylation plays an essential role in maintaining cellular function, and changes in methylation patterns may contribute to the development of cancer. Aberrant methylation of DNA (global hypomethylation accompanied ...

222

DNA methylation profiling in nanochannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the profiling of the 5-methyl cytosine distribution within single genomic-sized DNA molecules at a gene-relevant resolution. This method linearizes and stretches DNA molecules by confinement to channels with a dimension of about 250×200nm2. The methylation state is detected using fluorescently labeled methyl-CpG binding domain proteins (MBD), with high signal contrast and low background. DNA barcodes consisting of methylated

Shuang Fang Lim; Alena Karpusenko; John J. Sakon; Joseph A. Hook; Tyra A. Lamar; Robert Riehn

2011-01-01

223

Kenaf methyl esters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Additional or alternative feedstocks are one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel. In this paper, for the first time, the fuel properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil methyl esters are comprehensively reported. This biodiesel is also relatively unique by containing small ...

224

Nutrients and DNA Methylation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Epigenetics is a new mechanism responsible for development, aging, and disease process such as cancer development. One major epigenetic phenomenon is DNA methylation, which attributes to gene expression and integrity. Deepening the knowledge on one-carbon metabolism is very important to understandin...

225

Trans-chromosomal methylation.  

PubMed

The epigenome plays a vital role in helping to maintain and regulate cell functions in all organisms. Alleles with differing epigenetic marks in the same nucleus do not function in isolation but can interact in trans to modify the epigenetic state of one or both alleles. This is particularly evident when two divergent epigenomes come together in a hybrid resulting in thousands of alterations to the methylome. These changes mainly involve the methylation patterns at one allele being changed to resemble the methylation patterns of the other allele, in processes we have termed trans-chromosomal methylation (TCM) and trans-chromosomal demethylation (TCdM). These processes are primarily modulated by siRNAs and the RNA directed DNA methylation pathway. Drawing from other examples of trans-allelic interactions, we describe the process of TCM and TCdM and the effect such changes can have on genome activity. Trans-allelic epigenetic interactions may be a common occurrence in many biological systems. PMID:22705969

Greaves, Ian; Groszmann, Michael; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Peacock, W James

2012-08-01

226

A peripheral mechanism of fever: differential sensitivity to the antipyretic action of methyl scopolamine.  

PubMed

The organophosphate pesticide (OP) chlorpyrifos leads to an acute period of hypothermia followed by a delayed fever in the rat. Methyl scopolamine, a peripheral muscarinic antagonist, is thought to have little effect on body temperature of the rat because it does not cross the blood brain barrier. However, administration of methyl scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) during the period of chlorpyrifos-induced fever results in a rapid recovery of core temperature. This indicates a peripheral cholinergic pathway is operative in the febrile response to chlorpyrifos and possibly other modes of fever. In this study, we evaluated the possible antipyretic role of methyl scopolamine (i.p.) to a variety of stimuli that lead to fever-like responses in the rat: stress-induced (handling and cage switch), chlorpyrifos-induced (15 mg/kg, p.o.), nocturnal-induced, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever (50 microg/kg, i.p.). Methyl scopolamine led to marked reversal in the elevated core temperature caused by handling, cage switch, and during the nocturnal phase. It is of interest to note that all these elevations of core body temperature are prostaglandin mediated and are blocked with the antipyretic drug, sodium salicylate. However, LPS-induced fever, also a prostaglandin dependent fever, was unaffected by methyl scopolamine. Methyl scopolamine also lowered baseline core temperature when administered during the afternoon, but not during the morning in unstressed animals. It is proposed that a peripheral cholinergic pathway, possibly mediated through afferent vagal pathways, is operative in controlling core temperature during fevers associated with stress, nocturnal phase, and a pesticide. During recovery from exposure to a LPS, the fever appears to be mediated independently of peripheral cholinergic activation. PMID:11189022

Rowsey, P J; Gordon, C J

2000-12-20

227

Understanding the relationship between DNA methylation and histone lysine methylation?  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation acts as an epigenetic modification in vertebrate DNA. Recently it has become clear that the DNA and histone lysine methylation systems are highly interrelated and rely mechanistically on each other for normal chromatin function in vivo. Here we examine some of the functional links between these systems, with a particular focus on several recent discoveries suggesting how lysine methylation may help to target DNA methylation during development, and vice versa. In addition, the emerging role of non-methylated DNA found in CpG islands in defining histone lysine methylation profiles at gene regulatory elements will be discussed in the context of gene regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Methylation: A Multifaceted Modification — looking at transcription and beyond. PMID:24560929

Rose, Nathan R.; Klose, Robert J.

2014-01-01

228

Salicylic Acid and Systemic Acquired Resistance Play a Role in Attenuating Crown Gall Disease Caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) on crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with SA showed decreased susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection. Exogenous application of SA to Agrobacterium cultures decreased its growth, virulence, and attachment to plant cells. Using Agrobacterium whole-genome microarrays, we characterized the direct effects of SA

Ajith Anand; Srinivasa Rao Uppalapati; Choong-Min Ryu; Stacy N. Allen; Li Kang; Yuhong Tang; Kirankumar S. Mysore

2007-01-01

229

Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants. PMID:25133394

Tett, Adrian J; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S

2014-01-01

230

Neural changes in the auditory cortex of awake guinea pigs after two tinnitus inducers: salicylate and acoustic trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tinnitus, also called phantom auditory perception, is a major health problem in western countries. As such, a significant amount of effort has been devoted to understanding its mechanisms, including studies in animals wherein a supposed “tinnitus state” can be induced. Here, we studied on the same awake animals the effects of a high-dose of salicylate and of an acoustic trauma

A. J. Noreña; G. Moffat; J. L. Blanc; L. Pezard; Y. Cazals

2010-01-01

231

Rapid Syntheses of Benzopyrans from o-OBOC Salicylaldehydes and Salicyl alcohols: A Three-Component Reaction  

PubMed Central

The Diels-Alder reactions of o-quinone methides generated from OBOC-salicylic aldehydes and alcohols are described, allowing for the synthesis of various substituted benzopyrans. The low temperatures employed for this procedure enable high diastereoselectivity in reactions with ?-substituted o-quinone methides. PMID:12353982

Jones, Ryan M.; Selenski, Carolyn; Pettus, Thomas R. R.

2008-01-01

232

Modulation of ethylene- and heat-controlled hyponastic leaf movement in Arabidopsis thaliana by the plant defence hormones jasmonate and salicylate.  

PubMed

Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is adopted by several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, as a mechanism to escape adverse growth conditions. Among the signals that trigger hyponastic growth are, the gaseous hormone ethylene, low light intensities, and supra-optimal temperatures (heat). Recent studies indicated that the defence-related phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) synthesized by the plant upon biotic infestation repress low light-induced hyponastic growth. The hyponastic growth response induced by high temperature (heat) treatment and upon application of the gaseous hormone ethylene is highly similar to the response induced by low light. To test if these environmental signals induce hyponastic growth via parallel pathways or converge downstream, we studied here the roles of Methyl-JA (MeJA) and SA on ethylene- and heat-induced hyponastic growth. For this, we used a time-lapse camera setup. Our study includes pharmacological application of MeJA and SA and biological infestation using the JA-inducing caterpillar Pieris rapae as well as mutants lacking JA or SA signalling components. The data demonstrate that MeJA is a positive, and SA, a negative regulator of ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and that both hormones repress the response to heat. Taking previous studies into account, we conclude that SA is the first among many tested components which is repressing hyponastic growth under all tested inductive environmental stimuli. However, since MeJA is a positive regulator of ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and is inhibiting low light- and heat-induced leaf movement, we conclude that defence hormones control hyponastic growth by affecting stimulus-specific signalling pathways. PMID:22009062

van Zanten, Martijn; Ritsema, Tita; Polko, Joanna K; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Millenaar, Frank F; Pieterse, Corné M J; Peeters, Anton J M

2012-04-01

233

Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation  

PubMed Central

Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

2013-01-01

234

Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.  

PubMed

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

2014-10-01

235

Kinetics and Mechanism of Nanoparticles-Catalyzed Piperidinolysis of Anionic Phenyl Salicylate  

PubMed Central

The values of the relative counterion (X) binding constant RXBr (=KX/KBr, where KX and KBr represent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTABr, micellar binding constants of Xv? (in non-spherical micelles), v = 1,2, and Br? (in spherical micelles)) are 58, 68, 127, and 125 for Xv? = 1?, 12?, 2?, and 22?, respectively. The values of 15?mM CTABr/[NavX] nanoparticles-catalyzed apparent second-order rate constants for piperidinolysis of ionized phenyl salicylate at 35°C are 0.417, 0.488, 0.926, and 0.891?M?1?s?1 for NavX = Na1, Na21, Na2, and Na22, respectively. Almost entire catalytic effect of nanoparticles catalyst is due to the ability of nonreactive counterions, Xv?, to expel reactive counterions, 3?, from nanoparticles to the bulk water phase. PMID:25478597

Khan, M. Niyaz

2014-01-01

236

Optical trapping investigation on the effects of salicylate on electromechanical properties of plasma membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of cellular membranes to generate electrically-induced mechanical force (EMF) has been demonstrated in many cell types, including cochlear outer hair cells, axons, and some cultured mammalian cells. Models of membrane based EMF generation are based on an interaction between the transmembrane electric field and membrane surface charge. We use a technique that combines optical trapping with voltage clamping to investigate the effects of an electrically charged amphipathic agent on EMF by membrane tethers. Our preliminary results indicate that salicylate, a negatively charged amphipathic agent, which is also known to cause reversible hearing loss and reduce outer hair cell electromotility, reduces EMF in membrane tethers. These measurements provide a basis to better understand the role of membrane charge properties in EMF generation.

Lee, Linda; Qian, Feng; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

2006-02-01

237

Fluorescence characteristics of 5-amino salicylic acid: An iodide recognition study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the effect of iodide on the fluorescence of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). In the absence of iodide, prominent blue green (BG) emission band at ˜465 nm (broad) is observed in aprotic solvents whereas violet (V) emission at ˜408 nm, blue green (BG) at ˜480 nm and green (G) at ˜500 nm are observed in case of protic solvents. On the addition of iodide ion (I-), the intensity of BG fluorescence is enhanced in case of aprotic solvents. On the other hand the G band is enhanced in protic solvents and decrease in the intensity of the V band is observed. The effect of hydrogen bonding as well as the interplay of neutral and ionic species is invoked to explain the observed results. The study projects the application of this system in iodide recognition in protic/aprotic environments.

Arora, Priyanka; Suyal, Kanchan; Joshi, Neeraj K.; Joshi, Hem Chandra; Pant, Sanjay

238

Salicylic acid-dependent gene expression is activated by locomotion mucus of different molluscan herbivores  

PubMed Central

Slugs and snails specifically secrete mucus to aid their locomotion. This mucus is the contact material between molluscan herbivores and plants. We have recently shown that the locomotion mucus of the slug Deroceras reticulatum contains salicylic acid (SA).1 When applied to wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana this mucus induces the activity of the SA-responsive pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) promotor1. Here we analyzed PR1 promotor activity in response to treatments with locomotion mucus of eight slugs and snails. Although none of the mucus contained SA, their application still elicited PR1 promotor activity. These data provide further insights into the complex interactions between molluscan herbivores and plants. PMID:25346792

Meldau, Stefan; Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Baldwin, Ian T

2014-01-01

239

Preparation and investigation the release behaviour of wax microspheres loaded with salicylic acid.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid-beeswax microspheres were prepared by melt dispersion technique. The effects of formulation parameters on the microscopic characteristic, drug loading and cumulative amount of released drug were investigated by experimental design. Results showed that all of the microparticles were spherical with porous surfaces. The average size of microspheres was 24-48 microm, the drug content was in the range of 22-45% and the encapsulation efficiency was 46-93%. Drug loading was influenced by emulsification speed as a main factor. All the microspheres had a burst release initially. The emulsifier concentration did not have a significant effect on drug release. The release behaviour of microspheres conformed best to Korsmeyer-Peppas semi-empirical model and the release of SA from beeswax microspheres was Fickian (n < 0.45). PMID:18791907

Gifani, Aida; Taghizadeh, Mojtaba; Seifkordi, Ali A; Ardjmand, Mehdi

2009-09-01

240

Efficacy of Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. Versus Salicylic Acid for Wart Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Wart is a skin disease with circular appendages, which is called “suloul” in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). According to ITM literature, warts have different types and causes. The most important mechanism is excretion of materials (Khelt) from body to skin and mucus; its causative material is often phlegm, black bile or a combination of them. To treat warts, it is necessary to consider the patient’s life style, modify his dietary intake and moisturize his temperament. Objectives: This study aimed to compare Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. as a method of ITM, versus salicylic acid in treatment of wart. Patients and Methods: In this study, conducted in Yazd, Iran, 100 patients were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group 1) salicylic acid, group 2) salicylic acid and D. sophia L. group 3) M. communis L. group 4) M. communis L. and D. sophia L. Numbers, sizes of lesions and symptoms, on days 0, 20, 40 and 90 were examined and analyzed. The relapse rate was investigated three months after. Changes of sizes and numbers of warts in each period of time in each group, compared to baseline, were assessed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. To compare these changes between the groups, Kruskal Wallis test was used. Results: In this study 100 patients participated, 69% of which were female. Compared to baseline, mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 40 were 1.12 ± 4.2, 0.96 ± 2.5, 1.32 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.2 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.02). Mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 90 were 1.84 ± 4.5, 1.56 ± 2.8, 1.24 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.6 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.03). In addition mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 40 were 0.96 ± 1.8, 1.03 ± 2.4, 2.47 ± 3.0 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 90 were 1.24 ± 2.1, 1.3 ± 2.3, 2.45 ± 3.1 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Relapse was not seen in any groups after three months. The frequency of side effects was similar after three months. Conclusions: M. communis L. can be used as a topical treatment for warts. It not only shows more rapid response than salicylic acid, but also has fewer side effects. It seems that D. sophia L. can modify the digestion process and patients can excrete large amounts of the substance that causes warts. Therefore, it is better to use it more than 40 days. According to our investigation, in ITM, considering the cause and mechanism of disease generation and the causing materials of the disease, different treatments should be applied for each patient. Although applying an appropriate treatment is necessary, a unique treatment for all the patients cannot be available.

Ghadami Yazdi, Elham; Minaei, Mohamad Bagher; Hashem Dabaghian, Fataneh; Ebrahim Zadeh Ardakani, Mohamad; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Rastegari, Mohamad; Ghadami Yazdi, Ali

2014-01-01

241

The physiological response of Artemisia annua L. to salt stress and salicylic acid treatment.  

PubMed

Salinity has a great influence on plant growth and distribution. A few existing reports on Artemisia annua L. response to salinity are concentrated on plant growth and artemisinin content; the physiological response and salt damage mitigation are yet to be understood. In this study, the physiological response of varying salt stresses (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mM NaCl) on A. annua L. and the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (0.05 or 0.1 mM) at 300-mM salt stress were investigated. Plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, proline, and mineral element level were determined. In general, increasing salt concentration significantly reduced plant growth. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were stimulated by salt treatment to a higher enzyme activity in treated plants than those in untreated plants. Content of proline had a visible range of increment in the salt-treated plants. Distribution of mineral elements was in inconformity: Na(+) and Ca(2+) were mainly accumulated in the roots; K(+) and Mg(2+) were concentrated in leaves and stems, respectively. Alleviation of growth arrest was observed with exogenous applications of salicylic acid (SA) under salt stress conditions. The activity of SOD and POD was notably enhanced by SA, but the CAT action was suppressed. While exogenous SA had no discernible effect on proline content, it effectively inhibited excessive Na(+) absorption and promoted Mg(2+) absorption. Ca(2+) and K(+) contents showed a slight reduction when supplemented with SA. Overall, the positive effect of SA towards resistance to the salinity of A. annua will provide some practical basis for A. annua cultivation. PMID:24757320

Li, Lin; Zhang, Haihui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Yonghong; Yang, Ruiwu; Ding, Chunbang; Wang, Xiaoli

2014-04-01

242

Anti-inflammatory salicylate treatment alters the metabolic adaptations to lactation in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in physiological state. To investigate the role of inflammation-associated pathways in these homeorhetic adaptations, we treated cows with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (SS) for the first 7 days of lactation. Administration of SS decreased liver TNF-? mRNA and marginally decreased plasma TNF-? concentration, but plasma eicosanoids and liver NF-?B activity were unaltered during treatment. Despite the mild impact on these inflammatory markers, SS clearly altered metabolic function. Plasma glucose concentration was decreased by SS, but this was not explained by a shift in hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression or by altered milk lactose secretion. Insulin concentrations decreased in SS-treated cows on day 7 compared with controls, which was consistent with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was then used to assess whether altered insulin sensitivity may have influenced glucose utilization rate with SS. The RQUICKI estimate of insulin sensitivity was significantly elevated by SS on day 7, coincident with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. Salicylate prevented postpartum insulin resistance, likely causing excessive glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and hypoglycemia. These results represent the first evidence that inflammation-associated pathways are involved in homeorhetic adaptations to lactation. PMID:23678026

Farney, Jaymelynn K.; Mamedova, Laman K.; Coetzee, Johann F.; KuKanich, Butch; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Stoakes, Sara K.; Minton, J. Ernest; Hollis, Larry C.

2013-01-01

243

Chromatographic analysis of salicylic compounds in different species of the genus Salix.  

PubMed

The separation of nine phenol glycosides--salicin, salicortin, 2'-acetylsalicortin, populin, tremulacin, salidroside, triandrin, picein and helicin--by normal phase (NP), reversed phase (RP) HPLC techniques and a coupling of NP and RP monolithic silica columns was studied. Among the above nine compounds only five--salicin, populin, tremulacin, salidroside and triandrin--were resolved in an NP system with a mobile phase comprising hexane/isopropanol/methanol (87:12:1, v/v/v). Optimized separation was performed with two coupled monolithic silica columns of different polarity (bare silica and RP-18). The method was applied to verify the presence of salicylic compounds and other phenolic derivatives in the bark of six species from the genus Salix, namely S. purpurea, S. daphnoides clone 1095, S. alba clone 1100, S. triandra, S. viminalis, and S. herbacea. Gradient elution with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.05% of trifluoroacetic acid, with increasing acetonitrile concentration from 3% to 48%, was chosen as optimal. For the selective detection of the salicylic compounds, an evaporative light scattering detector was employed along with a UV detector. The differences in the composition of phenols in the different plant materials were confirmed. Additionally, it must be emphasized that for the first time the presence of 2'-acetylsalicortin was revealed in S. alba clone 1100. Furthermore, an SPE-HPLC method was developed for the rapid analysis of the salicin content, analyzed as free and total fraction, in willow barks. The determined concentrations of total salicin varied from 25.4 mg/g in S. alba clone 1100 to 96.47 mg/g in S. daphnoides clone 1095. PMID:17880029

Pob?ocka-Olech, Loretta; van Nederkassel, Anne-Marie; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Krauze-Baranowska, Miros?awa; Glód, Daniel; Baczek, Tomasz

2007-11-01

244

Effect of salicylate on outer hair cell plasma membrane viscoelasticity: studies using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma membrane (PM) of mammalian outer hair cells (OHCs) generates mechanical forces in response to changes in the transmembrane electrical potential. The resulting change in the cell length is known as electromotility. Salicylate (Sal), the anionic, amphipathic derivative of aspirin induces reversible hearing loss and decreases electromotile response of the OHCs. Sal may change the local curvature and mechanical properties of the PM, eventually resulting in reduced electromotility or it may compete with intracellular monovalent anions, particularly Cl-, which are essential for electromotility. In this work we have used optical tweezers to study the effects of Sal on viscoelastic properties of the OHC PM when separated from the underlying composite structures of the cell wall. In this procedure, an optically trapped microsphere is brought in contact with PM and subsequently pulled away to form a tether. We measured the force exerted on the tether as a function of time during the process of tether growth at different pulling rates. Effective tether viscosity, steady-state tethering force extrapolated to zero pulling rate, and the time constant for tether growth were estimated from the measurements of the instantaneous tethering force. The time constant for the tether growth measured for the OHC basal end decreased 1.65 times after addition of 10 mM Sal, which may result from an interaction between Sal and cholesterol, which is more prevalent in the PM of OHC basal end. The time constants for the tether growth calculated for the OHC lateral wall and control human embryonic kidney cells as well as the other calculated viscoelastic parameters remained the same after Sal perfusion, favoring the hypothesis of competitive inhibition of electromotility by salicylate.

Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

2004-06-01

245

Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the proton-transfer salts of nicotine with 3,5-di-nitro-salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid.  

PubMed

The structures of the 1:1 anhydrous salts of nicotine (NIC) with 3,5-di-nitro-salicylic acid (DNSA) and 5-sulfosalicylic acid (5-SSA), namely (1R,2S)-1-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrolidin-1-ium 2-carb-oxy-4,6-di-nitro-phenolate, C10H15N2 (+)·C7H3N2O7 (-), (I), and (1R,2S)-1-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrolidin-1-ium 3-carb-oxy-4-hy-droxy-benzene-sulfonate, C10H15N2 (+)·C7H5O6S(-), (II), are reported. The asymmetric units of both (I) and (II) comprise two independent nicotinium cations (C and D) and either two DNSA or two 5-SSA anions (A and B), respectively. One of the DNSA anions shows a 25% rotational disorder in the benzene ring system. In the crystal of (I), inter-unit pyrrolidinium N-H?Npyridine hydrogen bonds generate zigzag NIC cation chains which extend along a, while the DNSA anions are not involved in any formal inter-species hydrogen bonding but instead form ?-?-associated stacks which are parallel to the NIC cation chains along a [ring-centroid separation = 3.857?(2)?Å]. Weak C-H?O inter-actions between chain substructures give an overall three-dimensional structure. In the crystal of (II), A and B anions form independent zigzag chains with C and D cations, respectively, through carb-oxy-lic acid O-H?Npyridine hydrogen bonds. These chains, which extend along b, are pseudocentrosymmetrically related and give ?-? inter-actions between the benzene rings of anions A and B and the pyridine rings of the NIC cations C and D, respectively [ring centroid separations = 3.6422?(19) and 3.7117?(19)?Å]. Also present are weak C-H?O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the chains, giving an overall three-dimensional structure. PMID:25484766

Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

2014-11-01

246

Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the proton-transfer salts of nicotine with 3,5-di­nitro­salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid  

PubMed Central

The structures of the 1:1 anhydrous salts of nicotine (NIC) with 3,5-di­nitro­salicylic acid (DNSA) and 5-sulfosalicylic acid (5-SSA), namely (1R,2S)-1-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrolidin-1-ium 2-carb­oxy-4,6-di­nitro­phenolate, C10H15N2 +·C7H3N2O7 ?, (I), and (1R,2S)-1-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrolidin-1-ium 3-carb­oxy-4-hy­droxy­benzene­sulfonate, C10H15N2 +·C7H5O6S?, (II), are reported. The asymmetric units of both (I) and (II) comprise two independent nicotinium cations (C and D) and either two DNSA or two 5-SSA anions (A and B), respectively. One of the DNSA anions shows a 25% rotational disorder in the benzene ring system. In the crystal of (I), inter-unit pyrrolidinium N—H?Npyridine hydrogen bonds generate zigzag NIC cation chains which extend along a, while the DNSA anions are not involved in any formal inter-species hydrogen bonding but instead form ?–?-associated stacks which are parallel to the NIC cation chains along a [ring-centroid separation = 3.857?(2)?Å]. Weak C—H?O inter­actions between chain substructures give an overall three-dimensional structure. In the crystal of (II), A and B anions form independent zigzag chains with C and D cations, respectively, through carb­oxy­lic acid O—H?Npyridine hydrogen bonds. These chains, which extend along b, are pseudocentrosymmetrically related and give ?–? inter­actions between the benzene rings of anions A and B and the pyridine rings of the NIC cations C and D, respectively [ring centroid separations = 3.6422?(19) and 3.7117?(19)?Å]. Also present are weak C—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the chains, giving an overall three-dimensional structure. PMID:25484766

Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

2014-01-01

247

DNA methylation regulated nucleosome dynamics.  

PubMed

A strong correlation between nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation patterns has been reported in literature. However, the mechanistic model accounting for the correlation remains elusive. In this study, we evaluated the effects of specific DNA methylation patterns on modulating nucleosome conformation and stability using FRET and SAXS. CpG dinucleotide repeats at 10?bp intervals were found to play different roles in nucleosome stability dependent on their methylation states and their relative nucleosomal locations. An additional (CpG)5 stretch located in the nucleosomal central dyad does not alter the nucleosome conformation, but significant conformational differences were observed between the unmethylated and methylated nucleosomes. These findings suggest that the correlation between nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation patterns can arise from the variations in nucleosome stability dependent on their sequence and epigenetic content. This knowledge will help to reveal the detailed role of DNA methylation in regulating chromatin packaging and gene transcription. PMID:23817195

Jimenez-Useche, Isabel; Ke, Jiaying; Tian, Yuqing; Shim, Daphne; Howell, Steven C; Qiu, Xiangyun; Yuan, Chongli

2013-01-01

248

Blocking caspase-3-dependent pathway preserves hair cells from salicylate-induced apoptosis in the guinea pig cochlea.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aim to explore whether the caspase-3-dependent pathway is involved in the apoptotic cell death that occurs in the hair cells (HCs) of guinea pig cochlea following a salicylate treatment. Guinea pigs received sodium salicylate (Na-SA), at a dose of 200 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) i.p., as a vehicle for 5 consecutive days. In some experiments, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zDEVD-FMK), a specific apoptosis inhibitor, was directly applied into the cochlea via the round window niche (RWN) prior to salicylate treatment for determination of caspase-3 activation. Alterations in auditory function were evaluated with auditory brainstem responses (ABR) thresholds. Caspase-3 activity was determined by measuring the proteolytic cleavage product of caspase-3 (N-terminated peptide substrate). DNA fragmentation within the nuclei was examined with a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. Ultrastructure variation in the target cell was assessed by electron microscopy (EM). Salicylate treatment initiated an obvious elevation in ABR thresholds with a maximum average shift of 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL), and caused significant apoptosis in both inner (IHCs) and outer (OHCs) hair cells resulted from an evident increasing in immunoreactivity to caspase-3 protease. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) displayed chromatin condensation and nucleus margination accompanied by cell body shrinkage in the OHCs, but not in the IHCs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed breakdown, fusion, and loss in the stereociliary bundles at the apex of OHCs rather than IHCs. zDEVD-FMK pretreatment prior to salicylate injection substantially attenuated an expression of the apoptotic protease and protected HCs against apoptotic death, followed by a moderate relief in the thresholds of ABR, an alleviation in the submicroscopic structure was also identified. In particular, disorientation and insertion in the hair bundles at the apex of OHCs was exhibited though no classic apoptotic change found. The above changes were either prevented or significantly attenuated by zDEVD-FMK. These findings indicate that salicylate could damage cochlear hair cells via inducing apoptosis associated with caspase-3 activation. PMID:21503676

Feng, Hao; Yin, Shi-Hua; Tang, An-Zhou

2011-07-01

249

Analysis of the pmsCEAB Gene Cluster Involved in Biosynthesis of Salicylic Acid and the Siderophore Pseudomonine in the Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 defective in biosynthesis of the fluorescent siderophore pseu- dobactin still display siderophore activity, indicating the production of a second siderophore. A recombinant cosmid clone (pMB374-07) of a WCS374 gene library harboring loci necessary for the biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA) and this second siderophore pseudomonine was isolated. The salicylate biosynthesis region of WCS374 was localized

JESUS MERCADO-BLANCO; KOEN M. G. M. VAN DER DRIFT; PER E. OLSSON; JANE E. THOMAS-OATES; LEENDERT C. VAN LOON; PETER A. H. M. BAKKER

2001-01-01

250

Salicylate 5Hydroxylase from Ralstonia sp. Strain U2: a Monooxygenase with Close Relationships to and Shared Electron Transport Proteins with Naphthalene Dioxygenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes from the oxygenase cluster nagAaGHAbAcAd of naphthalene-degrading Ralstonia sp. strain U2 were cloned and overexpressed. Salicylate 5-hydroxylase (S5H) activity, converting salicylate to gentisate, was present in vitro only in the single extract of cells with overexpressed nagAaGHAb or in a mixture of three cell extracts containing, respectively, NagGH (the oxygenase components), NagAa (ferredoxin reductase), and NagAb (ferredoxin). Each

Ning-Yi Zhou; Jumáa Al-Dulayymi; Mark S. Baird; Peter A. Williams

2002-01-01

251

[Effect of salicylic acid on water potential, ethylene secretion and activity of antioxidative processes in the winter wheat leaves under drought conditions].  

PubMed

Effect of plants treatment by salicylic acid on the water potential, ethylene emission, intensity of lipid peroxidation oxidation and enzymatic antioxidative activity in the leaves with contrasting drought-resistance of winter wheat cultivars was investigated. It is ascertain, that the treatment of plants by salicylic acid contributes to a decrease of water loss and intensity of lipid peroxidation, to an increase of ethylene synthesis and peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activity in the winter wheat leaves under drought conditions. PMID:19873885

Mamenko, T P; Iaroshenko, O A

2009-01-01

252

Development and validation of a stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, betamethasone dipropionate and their related compounds in Diprosalic Lotion ®  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diprosalic Lotion® is an anti-inflammatory drug product that contains salicylic acid and betamethasone dipropionate as active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, betamethasone dipropionate, and their related compounds in Diprosalic Lotion®. A 150mm×4.6mm I.D. YMC J'sphere ODS-H80 column at 35°C and UV detection at 240nm was used.

Minshan Shou; Wilmer A. Galinada; Yu-Chien Wei; Qinglin Tang; Robert J. Markovich; Abu M. Rustum

2009-01-01

253

HISTONE METHYLATION REGULATES MEMORY FORMATION  

PubMed Central

It has been established that regulation of chromatin structure through post-translational modification of histone proteins, primarily histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation, is an important early step in the induction of synaptic plasticity and formation of long-term memory. In this study, we investigated the contribution of another histone modification, histone methylation, to memory formation in the adult hippocampus. We found that tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4), an active mark for transcription, is upregulated in hippocampus one hour following contextual fear conditioning. In addition, we found that di-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9), a molecular mark associated with transcriptional silencing, is increased one hour after fear conditioning and decreased twenty-four hours after context exposure alone and contextual fear conditioning. Tri-methylated H3K4 levels returned to baseline levels at twenty-four hours. We also found that mice deficient in the H3K4-specific histone methyltransferase, Mll, displayed deficits in contextual fear conditioning relative to wildtype animals. This suggests that histone methylation is required for proper long-term consolidation of contextual fear memories. Interestingly, inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with sodium butyrate (NaB) resulted in increased H3K4 tri-methylation and decreased H3K9 di-methylation in hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning. Correspondingly, we found that fear learning triggered increases in H3K4 tri-methylation at specific gene promoter regions (Zif268 and bdnf) with altered DNA methylation and MeCP2 DNA binding. Zif268 DNA methylation levels returned to baseline at twenty-four hours. Together, these data demonstrate that histone methylation is actively regulated in the hippocampus and facilitates long-term memory formation. PMID:20219993

Gupta, Swati; Kim, Se Y.; Artis, Sonja; Molfese, David L.; Schumacher, Armin; Sweatt, J. David; Paylor, Richard E.; Lubin, Farah D.

2010-01-01

254

Nicotiana tabacum overexpressing ?-ECS exhibits biotic stress tolerance likely through NPR1-dependent salicylic acid-mediated pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elaborate networks and the crosstalk of established signaling molecules like salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA),\\u000a ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) play key role in plant defense response.\\u000a To obtain further insight into the mechanism through which GSH is involved in this crosstalk to mitigate biotic stress, transgenic\\u000a Nicotiana tabacum overexpressing Lycopersicon

Srijani Ghanta; Dipto Bhattacharyya; Ragini Sinha; Anindita Banerjee; Sharmila Chattopadhyay

2011-01-01

255

Hydroponic treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effects of chilling injury in maize ( Zea mays L.) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The addition of 0.5 mM salicylic acid (SA) to the hydroponic growth solution of young maize (Zea mays L.) plants under normal growth conditions provided protection against subsequent low-temperature stress. This observation\\u000a was confirmed by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and electrolyte leakage measurements. In addition, 1 d of 0.5 mM SA pre-treatment\\u000a decreased net photosynthesis, stomatal conductivity and transpiration at

T. Janda; G. Szalai; I. Tari; E. Páldi

1999-01-01

256

Dissection of Arabidopsis Bax Inhibitor1 Suppressing Bax, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Salicylic Acid-Induced Cell Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overexpression of plant Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1) was able to suppress Bax-mediated cell death in yeast and Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that reactive oxygen species production induced by the ectopic expression of Bax was insensitive to the coexpression of AtBI-1. Similarly, H 2 O 2 - or salicylic acid-mediated cell death also was suppressed in tobacco BY-2 cells overexpressing AtBI-1. To

Maki Kawai-Yamada; Yuri Ohori; Hirofumi Uchimiya

2003-01-01

257

Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Salicylic acid (SA) regulates multiple anti-viral mechanisms, including mechanism(s) that may be negatively regulated by the\\u000a mitochondrial enzyme, alternative oxidase (AOX), the sole component of the alternative respiratory pathway. However, studies\\u000a of this mechanism can be confounded by SA-mediated induction of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1, a component of the antiviral\\u000a RNA silencing pathway. We made transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants in

Wing-Sham Lee; Shih-Feng Fu; Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz; John P Carr

2011-01-01

258

Two Inducers of Plant Defense Responses, 2,6-Dichloroisonicotinec Acid and Salicylic Acid, Inhibit Catalase Activity in Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,6-Dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) and salicylic acid (SA) are potent inducers of plant defense responses including the synthesis of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the development of enhanced disease resistance. A soluble SA-binding protein has been purified from tobacco with an affinity and specificity of binding that suggest it is a SA receptor. Recently, this protein has been shown to be a

Uwe Conrath; Zhixiang Chen; Joseph R. Ricigliano; Daniel F. Klessig

1995-01-01

259

Combined effect of salicylic acid and salinity on some antioxidant activities, oxidative stress and metabolite accumulation in Phaseolus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that salicylic acid (SA) acts as an endogenous signal molecule responsible for inducing abiotic stress tolerance\\u000a in plants. The effect of SA and sodium chloride (NaCl) on growth, metabolite accumulation, oxidative stress and enzymatic\\u000a and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris, cv. F-15) was studied. Results revealed that either SA or NaCl decrease,

Francisco Palma; Carmen Lluch; Carmen Iribarne; Jose M. García-Garrido; Noel A. Tejera García

2009-01-01

260

Salicylic Acid Is a Systemic Signal and an Inducer of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in Virus-Infected Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in tobacco, which occurs during the hypersensitive response to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), may be caused by a minimum 10-fold systemic increase in endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA). This rise in SA parallels PR-1 protein induction and occurs in TMV-resistant Xanthi-nc tobacco carrying the N gene, but not in TMV-susceptible (nn) tobacco. By

Nasser Yalpani; Paul Silverman; T. Michael; A. Wilson; Daniel A. Kleier

1991-01-01

261

Managing Nematodes without Methyl Bromide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methyl bromide is an effective pre-plant soil fumigant used to control nematodes in many high-input, high-value production systems including vegetables, nurseries, ornamentals, tree fruits, strawberries, and grapes. Because methyl bromide has provided a reliable return on investment for nematode c...

262

DNA Methylation: Hemodialysis Versus Hemodiafiltration.  

PubMed

Aberrant DNA methylation is an emerging characteristic of chronic kidney disease including dialysis patients. It appears to be associated to inflammation. We compared the global DNA methylation status in 10 control subjects compared to 80 dialysis patients (N?=?40 on-line hemodiafiltration, N?=?40 high-flux hemodialysis) in relation to the dialysis technique and inflammation. Whole blood DNA methylation was assessed with a 5-mc DNA enzyme linked immunosorbent assay Kit. Global DNA methylation was higher in hemodialysis (HD) compared to on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients (0.045 vs. 0.039; P?methylation we divided dialysis patients according to the median value of 5-mC. DNA methylation was highest in inflamed patients on hemodialysis. The dialysis technique was the only independent predictor of global DNA methylation in dialysis patients. On-line HDF could be associated with a favorable DNA methylation profile. PMID:25404498

Ghigolea, Adrian-Bogdan; Moldovan, Raluca Argentina; Gherman-Caprioara, Mirela

2014-11-18

263

Molecular Structure of Methyl benzoate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl benzoate is used mainly as a perfume; it has a very pleasant smell and mixes well with scents of ylang ylang, musk, rose, and geranium. Methyl benzoate also acts as a solvent for cellulose esters, as a dying carrier, disinfectant additive, penetrating agent, and as a pesticide.

2002-10-11

264

Fabrication of ZnFe2O4 films and its application in photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid.  

PubMed

ZnFe2O4 thin films are successfully deposited onto bare and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated quartz substrate using the spray pyrolysis method. The structure and morphology of ZnFe2O4 photoelectrodes were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the polycrystalline nature of films with a spinel cubic crystal structure. The AFM micrographs shows the granular nature of the films. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss shows dispersion behavior as a function of frequency measured in the range from 20Hz to 1MHz. Photoelectrocatalysis degradation of salicylic acid using ZnFe2O4 photoelectrode under sunlight illumination has been investigated. The result shows that the degradation percentage of salicylic acid on ZnFe2O4 photoelectrodes is reached 49% under neutral conditions after 320min illumination. The decrease in values of COD from 19.4mg/L to 6.4mg/L indicates there is mineralization of salicylic acid with time. PMID:25528302

Kumbhar, S S; Mahadik, M A; Shinde, S S; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

2015-01-01

265

Methods of DNA methylation detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

2010-01-01

266

Histone methylation in myelodysplastic syndromes  

PubMed Central

Histone methylation is a type of epigenetic modification that is critical for the regulation of gene expression. Numerous studies have demonstrated that abnormalities of this newly characterized epigenetic modification are involved in the development of multiple diseases, including cancer. There is also emerging evidence for a link between histone methylation and the pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasms, including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This article provides an overview of recent progress in the studies of histone methylation in myeloid malignancies, with an emphasis on MDS. We cover each type of histone methylation modification and their regulatory mechanisms, as well as their abnormalities in MDS or potential connections to MDS. We also summarize the recent progress in the development of inhibitors targeting histone methylation and their applications as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:22122281

Wei, Yue; Gañán-Gómez, Irene; Salazar-Dimicoli, Sophie; McCay, Sara L.; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

2013-01-01

267

UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS determination of salicylate-like phenolic gycosides in Populus tremula leaves.  

PubMed

Associations of salicylate-like phenolic glycosides (PGs) with biological activity have been reported in Salix and Populus trees, but only for a few compounds, and in relation to a limited number of herbivores. By considering the full diversity of PGs, we may improve our ability to recognize genotypes or chemotype groups and enhance our understanding of their ecological function. Here, we present a fast and efficient general method for salicylate determination in leaves of Eurasian aspen that uses ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS). The time required for the liquid chromatography separations was 13.5 min per sample, compared to around 60 min per sample for most HPLC protocols. In leaf samples from identical P. tremula genotypes with diverse propagation and treatment histories, we identified nine PGs. We found the compound-specific mass chromatograms to be more informative than the UV-visible chromatograms for compound identification and when quantitating samples with large variability in PG content. Signature compounds previously reported for P. tremoloides (tremulacin, tremuloidin, salicin, and salicortin) always were present, and five PGs (2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicin, acetyl-tremulacin, and salicyloyl-salicin) were detected for the first time in P. tremula. By using information about the formic acid adduct that appeared for PGs in the LTQ-Orbitrap MS environment, novel compounds like acetyl-tremulacin could be tentatively identified without the use of standards. The novel PGs were consistently either present in genotypes regardless of propagation and damage treatment or were not detectable. In some genotypes, concentrations of 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin and 2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin were similar to levels of biologically active PGs in other Salicaceous trees. Our study suggests that we may expect a wide variation in PG content in aspen populations which is of interest both for studies of interactions with herbivores and for mapping population structure. PMID:21748301

Abreu, Ilka Nacif; Ahnlund, Maria; Moritz, Thomas; Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber

2011-08-01

268

Methyl Halide Production by Fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl iodide (CH3I) are methyl halide gases that contribute significant amounts of halogen radicals to the atmosphere. In an effort to better understand the global budget of methyl halides and their impact on the atmosphere, we need to identify the natural sources in addition to the known anthropogenic sources of these compounds. We are investigating the role of fungi in the production of methyl halides in the soils and wetlands in southern New Hampshire, USA. Previous research has shown that wood decay fungi and ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are within a group of fungi called basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. In our study, measurements of headspace gas extracted from flasks containing fungi grown in culture demonstrate that a variety of fungi, including basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. Our research sites include four ecosystems: an agricultural field, a temperate forest, a fresh water wetland, and coastal salt marshes. We have collected and isolated fungi at each site by culturing tissue samples of fruiting bodies and plant material, by using wood baits, and from the direct culture of soil. We compared the rates of methyl halide emissions from the fungi in the four ecosystems. In addition, we measured emissions from previously assayed fungal isolates after reintroducing them to sterilized soils that were collected from their original environments. Fungal biomass was determined by substrate-induced respiration (SIR). The emission rate by the fungus was determined by a linear regression of the concentration of methyl halide in the sample headspace over time divided by the fungal biomass.

Dailey, G. D.; Varner, R. K.; Blanchard, R. O.; Sive, B. C.; Crill, P. M.

2005-12-01

269

Novel neurological and immunological targets for salicylate-based phytopharmaceuticals and for the anti-depressant imipramine.  

PubMed

Inflammatory processes are increasingly recognised to contribute to neurological and neuropsychatric disorders such as depression. Thus we investigated whether a standardized willow bark preparation (WB) which contains among other constituents salicin, the forerunner of non-steroidal antiphlogistic drugs, would have an effect in a standard model of depression, the forced swimming test (FST), compared to the antidepressant imipramine. Studies were accompanied by gene expression analyses. In order to allocate potential effects to the different constituents of WB, fractions of the extract with different compositions of salicyl alcohol derivative and polyphenols were also investigated. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12/group) were treated for 14 days (p.o.) with the WB preparation STW 33-I (group A) and its fractions (FR) (groups FR-B to E) in concentrations of 30 mg/kg. The FRs were characterized by a high content of flavone and chalcone glycosides (FR-B), flavonoid glycosides and salicyl alcohol derivatives (FR-C), salicin and related salicyl alcohol derivatives (FR-D) and proanthocyanidines (FR-E). The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (20 mg/kg) (F) was used as positive control. The FST was performed on day 15. The cumulative immobility time was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in group A (36%), group FR-D (44%) and by imipramine (16%) compared to untreated controls. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood. RNA samples (group A, group FR-D, and imipramine) were further analysed by rat whole genome microarray (Agilent) in comparison to untreated controls. Quantitative PCR for selected genes was performed. Genes (>2 fold, p<0.01), affected by WB and/or FR-D and imipramine, included both inflammatory (e.g. IL-3, IL-10) and neurologically relevant targets. Common genes regulated by WB, FR-D and imipramine were GRIA 2 ?, SRP54 ?, CYP26B ?, DNM1L ? and KITLG ?. In addition, the hippocampus of rats treated (27 d) with WB (15-60 mg/kg WB) or imipramine (15 mg/kg bw) showed a slower serotonin turnover (5-hydroxyindol acetic acid/serotonin (p<0.05)) depending on the dosage. Thus WB (30 mg/kg), its ethanolic fraction rich in salicyl alcohol derivatives (FR-D) (30 mg/kg) and imipramine, by being effective in the FST, modulated known and new targets relevant for neuro- and immunofunctions in rats. These findings contribute to our understanding of the link between inflammation and neurological functions and may also support the scope for the development of co-medications from salicylate-containing phytopharmaceuticals as multicomponent mixtures with single component synthetic drugs. PMID:22743246

Ulrich-Merzenich, G; Kelber, O; Koptina, A; Freischmidt, A; Heilmann, J; Müller, J; Zeitler, H; Seidel, M F; Ludwig, M; Heinrich, E U; Winterhoff, H

2012-07-15

270

Changes in leaf proteome profile of Arabidopsis thaliana in response to salicylic acid.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) has been implicated in determining the outcome of interactions between many plants and their pathogens. Global changes in response to this phytohormone have been observed at the transcript level, but little is known of how it induces changes in protein abundance. To this end we have investigated the effect of 1 mM SA on soluble proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves by proteomic analysis. An initial study at transcript level has been performed on temporal landscape, which revealed that induction of most of the SA-responsive genes occurs within 3 to 6 h post treatment (HPT) and the expression peaked within 24 HPT. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis has been used to identify differentially expressed proteins and 63 spots have been identified successfully. This comparative proteomic profiling of SA treated leaves versus control leaves demonstrated the changes of many defence related proteins like pathogenesis related protein 10a (PR10a), diseaseresistance- like protein, putative late blight-resistance protein, WRKY4, MYB4, etc. along with gross increase in the rate of energy production, while other general metabolism rate is slightly toned down, presumably signifying a transition from 'normal mode' to 'defence mode'. PMID:23660666

Datta, Riddhi; Sinha, Ragini; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

2013-06-01

271

Kinetics and mechanism of nanoparticles-catalyzed piperidinolysis of anionic phenyl salicylate.  

PubMed

The values of the relative counterion (X) binding constant R(X)(Br) (=K(X)/K(Br), where K(X) and K(Br) represent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTABr, micellar binding constants of X(v-) (in non-spherical micelles), v = 1,2, and Br(-) (in spherical micelles)) are 58, 68, 127, and 125 for X(v-) = 1(-), 1(2-), 2(-), and 2(2-), respectively. The values of 15 mM CTABr/[Na(v)X] nanoparticles-catalyzed apparent second-order rate constants for piperidinolysis of ionized phenyl salicylate at 35 °C are 0.417, 0.488, 0.926, and 0.891 M(-1) s(-1) for Na(v)X = Na1, Na2 1, Na2, and Na2 2, respectively. Almost entire catalytic effect of nanoparticles catalyst is due to the ability of nonreactive counterions, X(v-), to expel reactive counterions, 3(-), from nanoparticles to the bulk water phase. PMID:25478597

Razak, Norazizah Abd; Khan, M Niyaz

2014-01-01

272

Role of salicylic acid and NIM1/NPR1 in race-specific resistance in arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) and the NIM1/NPR1 protein have both been demonstrated to be required for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and implicated in expression of race-specific resistance. In this work, we analyzed the role that each of these molecules play in the resistance response triggered by members of two subclasses of resistance (R) genes, members of which recognize unrelated pathogens. We tested the ability of TIR and coiled-coil-class (also known as leucine-zipper-class) R genes to confer resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato or Peronospora parasitica in SA-depleted (NahG) and nim1/npr1 plants. We found that all of the P. syringae pv. tomato-specific R genes tested were dependent upon SA accumulation, while none showed strong dependence upon NIM1/NPR1 activity. A similar SA dependence was observed for the P. parasitica TIR and CC-class R genes RPP5 and RPP8, respectively. However, the P. parasitica-specific R genes differed in their requirement for NIM1/NPR1, with just RPP5 depending upon NIM1/NPR1 activity for effectiveness. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that at least in Arabidopsis, SA accumulation is necessary for the majority of R-gene-triggered resistance, while the role of NIM1/NPR in race-specific resistance is limited to resistance to P. parasitica mediated by TIR-class R genes. PMID:12072475

Rairdan, Gregory J; Delaney, Terrence P

2002-01-01

273

Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have revealed an important role for hormones in plant immunity. We are now beginning to understand the contribution of crosstalk among different hormone signaling networks to the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate development and responses to the environment. Cytokinin signaling involves a phosphorelay circuitry similar to two-component systems used by bacteria and fungi to perceive and react to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we asked whether cytokinin and components of cytokinin signaling contribute to plant immunity. We demonstrate that cytokinin levels in Arabidopsis are important in determining the amplitude of immune responses, ultimately influencing the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. We show that high concentrations of cytokinin lead to increased defense responses to a virulent oomycete pathogen, through a process that is dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and activation of defense gene expression. Surprisingly, treatment with lower concentrations of cytokinin results in increased susceptibility. These functions for cytokinin in plant immunity require a host phosphorelay system and are mediated in part by type-A response regulators, which act as negative regulators of basal and pathogen-induced SA–dependent gene expression. Our results support a model in which cytokinin up-regulates plant immunity via an elevation of SA–dependent defense responses and in which SA in turn feedback-inhibits cytokinin signaling. The crosstalk between cytokinin and SA signaling networks may help plants fine-tune defense responses against pathogens. PMID:22291601

Argueso, Cristiana T.; Ferreira, Fernando J.; Epple, Petra; To, Jennifer P. C.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Schaller, G. Eric; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Kieber, Joseph J.

2012-01-01

274

Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco  

PubMed Central

Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and ?-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance. PMID:24025239

Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Jürgen

2013-01-01

275

Spider mites suppress tomato defenses downstream of jasmonate and salicylate independently of hormonal crosstalk.  

PubMed

Plants respond to herbivory by mounting a defense. Some plant-eating spider mites (Tetranychus spp.) have adapted to plant defenses to maintain a high reproductive performance. From natural populations we selected three spider mite strains from two species, Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi, that can suppress plant defenses, using a fourth defense-inducing strain as a benchmark, to assess to which extent these strains suppress defenses differently. We characterized timing and magnitude of phytohormone accumulation and defense-gene expression, and determined if mites that cannot suppress defenses benefit from sharing a leaf with suppressors. The nonsuppressor strain induced a mixture of jasmonate- (JA) and salicylate (SA)-dependent defenses. Induced defense genes separated into three groups: 'early' (expression peak at 1 d postinfestation (dpi)); 'intermediate' (4 dpi); and 'late', whose expression increased until the leaf died. The T. evansi strains suppressed genes from all three groups, but the T. urticae strain only suppressed the late ones. Suppression occurred downstream of JA and SA accumulation, independently of the JA-SA antagonism, and was powerful enough to boost the reproductive performance of nonsuppressors up to 45%. Our results show that suppressing defenses not only brings benefits but, within herbivore communities, can also generate a considerable ecological cost when promoting the population growth of a competitor. PMID:25297722

Alba, Juan M; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Glas, Joris J; Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Villarroel, Carlos A; Schuurink, Robert C; Sabelis, Maurice W; Kant, Merijn R

2015-01-01

276

Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2013-07-01

277

Involvement of extracellular oxidative burst in salicylic acid-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA), a ubiquitous phenolic phytohormone, is involved in many plant physiological processes including stomatal movement. We analysed SA-induced stomatal closure, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), cytosolic calcium ion ([Ca²+](cyt)) oscillations and inward-rectifying potassium (K+(in)) channel activity in Arabidopsis. SA-induced stomatal closure was inhibited by pre-treatment with catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), suggesting the involvement of extracellular ROS. A peroxidase inhibitor, SHAM (salicylhydroxamic acid) completely abolished SA-induced stomatal closure whereas neither an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (DPI) nor atrbohD atrbohF mutation impairs SA-induced stomatal closures. 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) stainings demonstrated that SA induced H?O? and O?? production. Guard cell ROS accumulation was significantly increased by SA, but that ROS was suppressed by exogenous CAT, SOD and SHAM. NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) suppressed the SA-induced stomatal closure but did not suppress guard cell ROS accumulation whereas SHAM suppressed SA-induced NO production. SA failed to induce [Ca²+](cyt) oscillations in guard cells whereas K+(in) channel activity was suppressed by SA. These results indicate that SA induces stomatal closure accompanied with extracellular ROS production mediated by SHAM-sensitive peroxidase, intracellular ROS accumulation and K+(in) channel inactivation. PMID:21062318

Khokon, Atiqur Rahman; Okuma, Eiji; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Munemasa, Shintaro; Uraji, Misugi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

2011-03-01

278

Ethylene signaling renders the jasmonate response of Arabidopsis insensitive to future suppression by salicylic Acid.  

PubMed

Cross-talk between jasmonate (JA), ethylene (ET), and Salicylic acid (SA) signaling is thought to operate as a mechanism to fine-tune induced defenses that are activated in response to multiple attackers. Here, 43 Arabidopsis genotypes impaired in hormone signaling or defense-related processes were screened for their ability to express SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Mutant cev1, which displays constitutive expression of JA and ET responses, appeared to be insensitive to SA-mediated suppression of the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Accordingly, strong activation of JA and ET responses by the necrotrophic pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola prior to SA treatment counteracted the ability of SA to suppress the JA response. Pharmacological assays, mutant analysis, and studies with the ET-signaling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene revealed that ET signaling renders the JA response insensitive to subsequent suppression by SA. The APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factor ORA59, which regulates JA/ET-responsive genes such as PDF1.2, emerged as a potential mediator in this process. Collectively, our results point to a model in which simultaneous induction of the JA and ET pathway renders the plant insensitive to future SA-mediated suppression of JA-dependent defenses, which may prioritize the JA/ET pathway over the SA pathway during multi-attacker interactions. PMID:20064062

Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Du, Yujuan; Koornneef, Annemart; Proietti, Silvia; Körbes, Ana P; Memelink, Johan; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ritsema, Tita

2010-02-01

279

Percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid--in vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) has been used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations for many years. Although there are a number of studies which report on the permeation characteristics of this molecule in vitro, to our knowledge the disposition of SA in vivo has not been studied in detail. In the present work we prepared a range of SA formulations with different gelling agents. Permeation of SA from the formulations was studied in vitro using conventional Franz cells and in vivo using confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS). Selection of the gelling agent clearly influenced the efficacy of SA delivery from all formulations. It was possible to detect SA in vivo using CRS and to depth profile the molecule. A good in vitro-in vivo correlation was also found when the cumulative amounts of SA which permeated in vitro were plotted against the CRS signal in the skin. The findings provide further confidence in the application of CRS for the study of drug disposition in the skin. PMID:25178827

Mateus, Rita; Moore, David J; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

2014-11-20

280

A native chromatin extraction method based on salicylic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles and characterization of chromatin.  

PubMed

Native chromatin contains valuable genetic, epigenetic and structural information. Though DNA and nucleosome structures are well defined, less is known about the higher-order chromatin structure. Traditional chromatin extraction methods involve fixation, fragmentation and centrifugation, which might distort the higher-order structural information of native chromatin. We present a simple approach to isolate native chromatin from cultured mammalian cells using salicylic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles (SAMNPs). Chromatin is magnetically separated from cell lysates without any filtration or high-speed centrifugation. The purified chromatin is suitable for the examination of histone modifications and other chromatin associated proteins as confirmed by western blotting analysis. The structure of chromatin was determined by confocal fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). High-resolution AFM and TEM images clearly show a classical bead-on-a-string structure. The higher-order chromatin structure is also determined via electron microscopy. Our method provides a simple, inexpensive and an environmentally friendly means to extract native chromatin not possible before, suitable for both biochemical and structural analysis. PMID:25475154

Zhou, Zhongwu; Irudayaraj, Joseph

2014-12-01

281

Salicylic Acid Regulation of Respiration in Higher Plants: Alternative Oxidase Expression.  

PubMed Central

Alternative respiratory pathway capacity increases during the development of the thermogenic appendix of a voodoo lily inflorescence. The levels of the alternative oxidase proteins increased dramatically between D-4 (4 days prior to the day of anthesis) and D-3 and continued to increase until the day of anthesis (D-day). The level of salicylic acid (SA) in the appendix is very low early on D-1, but increases to a high level in the evening of D-1. Thermogenesis occurs after a few hours of light on D-day. Therefore, the initial accumulation of the alternative oxidase proteins precedes the increase in SA by 3 days, indicating that other regulators may be involved. A 1.6-kb transcript encoding the alternative oxidase precursor protein accumulated to a high level in the appendix tissue by D-1. Application of SA to immature appendix tissue caused an increase in alternative pathway capacity and a dramatic accumulation of the alternative oxidase proteins and the 1.6-kb transcript. Time course experiments showed that the increase in capacity, protein levels, and transcript level corresponded precisely. The response to SA was blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, indicating that de novo transcription and translation are required. However, nuclear, in vitro transcription assays indicated that the accumulation of the 1.6-kb transcript did not result from a simple increase in the rate of transcription of aox1. PMID:12297672

Rhoads, DM; McIntosh, L

1992-01-01

282

Brassinosteroids Antagonize Gibberellin- and Salicylate-Mediated Root Immunity in Rice1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a unique class of plant steroid hormones that orchestrate myriad growth and developmental processes. Although BRs have long been known to protect plants from a suite of biotic and abiotic stresses, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still rudimentary. Aiming to further decipher the molecular logic of BR-modulated immunity, we have examined the dynamics and impact of BRs during infection of rice (Oryza sativa) with the root oomycete Pythium graminicola. Challenging the prevailing view that BRs positively regulate plant innate immunity, we show that P. graminicola exploits BRs as virulence factors and hijacks the rice BR machinery to inflict disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that this immune-suppressive effect of BRs is due, at least in part, to negative cross talk with salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA) pathways. BR-mediated suppression of SA defenses occurred downstream of SA biosynthesis, but upstream of the master defense regulators NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and OsWRKY45. In contrast, BR alleviated GA-directed immune responses by interfering at multiple levels with GA metabolism, resulting in indirect stabilization of the DELLA protein and central GA repressor SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1). Collectively, these data favor a model whereby P. graminicola coopts the plant BR pathway as a decoy to antagonize effectual SA- and GA-mediated defenses. Our results highlight the importance of BRs in modulating plant immunity and uncover pathogen-mediated manipulation of plant steroid homeostasis as a core virulence strategy. PMID:22353574

De Vleesschauwer, David; Van Buyten, Evelien; Satoh, Kouji; Balidion, Johny; Mauleon, Ramil; Choi, Il-Ryong; Vera-Cruz, Casiana; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Höfte, Monica

2012-01-01

283

Modulation of reactive oxygen species by salicylic acid in arabidopsis seed germination under high salinity  

PubMed Central

Potential roles of salicylic acid (SA) on seed germination have been explored in many plant species. However, it is still controversial how SA regulates seed germination, mainly because the results have been somewhat variable, depending on plant genotypes used and experimental conditions employed. We found that SA promotes seed germination under high salinity in Arabidopsis. Seed germination of the sid2 mutant, which has a defect in SA biosynthesis, is hypersensitive to high salinity, but the inhibitory effects are reduced in the presence of physiological concentrations of SA. Abiotic stresses, including high salinity, impose oxidative stress on plants. Endogenous contents of H2O2 are higher in the sid2 mutant seeds. However, exogenous application of SA reduces endogenous level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), indicating that SA is involved in plant responses to ROS-mediated damage under abiotic stress conditions. Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone closely associated with seed germination, also reverses the inhibitory effects of high salinity on seed germination and seedling establishment. Under high salinity, GA stimulates SA biosynthesis by inducing the SID2 gene. Notably, SA also induces genes encoding GA biosynthetic enzymes. These observations indicate that SA promotes seed germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity through signaling crosstalks with GA. PMID:21150285

Lee, Sangmin

2010-01-01

284

Acceleration of the herbicide isoproturon degradation in wheat by glycosyltransferases and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

Isoproturon (IPU) is a herbicide widely used to prevent weeds in cereal production. Due to its extensive use in agriculture, residues of IPU are often detected in soils and crops. Overload of IPU to crops is associated with human health risks. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an approach to mitigate its accumulation in crops. In this study, the IPU residues and its degradation products in wheat were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time of fight tandem-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS/MS). Most detected IPU-derivatives were sugar-conjugated. Degradation and glycosylation of IPU-derivatives could be enhanced by applying salicylic acid (SA). While more sugar-conjugated IPU-derivatives were identified in wheat with SA application, lower levels of IPU were detected, indicating that SA is able to accelerate intracellular IPU catabolism. All structures of IPU-derivatives and sugar-conjugated products were characterized. Comparative data were provided with specific activities and gene expression of certain glucosyltransferases. A pathway with IPU degradation and glucosylation was discussed. Our work indicates that SA-accelerated degradation is practically useful for wheat crops growing in IPU-contaminated soils because such crops with SA application can potentially lower or minimize IPU accumulation in levels below the threshold for adverse effects. PMID:25464323

Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Hong

2015-02-11

285

Salicylic acid signal transduction: the initiation of biosynthesis, perception and transcriptional reprogramming  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is a small phenolic compound that regulates diverse physiological processes, in particular plant resistance against pathogens. Understanding SA-mediated signaling has been a major focus of plant research. Pathogen-induced SA is mainly synthesized via the isochorismate pathway in chloroplasts, with ICS1 (ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1) being a critical enzyme. Calcium signaling regulates activities of a subset of transcription factors thereby activating nuclear ICS1 expression. The produced SA triggers extensive transcriptional reprogramming in which NPR1 (NON-EXPRESSOR of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1) functions as the central coactivator of TGA transcription factors. Recently, two alternative but not exclusive models for SA perception mechanisms were proposed. The first model is that NPR1 homologs, NPR3 and NPR4, perceive SA thereby regulating NPR1 protein accumulation. The second model describes that NPR1 itself perceives SA, triggering an NPR1 conformational change thereby activating SA-mediated transcription. Besides the direct SA binding, NPR1 is also regulated by SA-mediated redox changes and phosphorylation. Emerging evidence show that pathogen virulence effectors target SA signaling, further strengthening the importance of SA-mediated immunity. PMID:25538725

Seyfferth, Carolin; Tsuda, Kenichi

2014-01-01

286

Spider mites suppress tomato defenses downstream of jasmonate and salicylate independently of hormonal crosstalk  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to herbivory by mounting a defense. Some plant-eating spider mites (Tetranychus spp.) have adapted to plant defenses to maintain a high reproductive performance. From natural populations we selected three spider mite strains from two species, Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi, that can suppress plant defenses, using a fourth defense-inducing strain as a benchmark, to assess to which extent these strains suppress defenses differently. We characterized timing and magnitude of phytohormone accumulation and defense-gene expression, and determined if mites that cannot suppress defenses benefit from sharing a leaf with suppressors. The nonsuppressor strain induced a mixture of jasmonate- (JA) and salicylate (SA)-dependent defenses. Induced defense genes separated into three groups: ‘early’ (expression peak at 1 d postinfestation (dpi)); ‘intermediate’ (4 dpi); and ‘late’, whose expression increased until the leaf died. The T. evansi strains suppressed genes from all three groups, but the T. urticae strain only suppressed the late ones. Suppression occurred downstream of JA and SA accumulation, independently of the JA–SA antagonism, and was powerful enough to boost the reproductive performance of nonsuppressors up to 45%. Our results show that suppressing defenses not only brings benefits but, within herbivore communities, can also generate a considerable ecological cost when promoting the population growth of a competitor. PMID:25297722

Alba, Juan M; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Glas, Joris J; Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Villarroel, Carlos A; Schuurink, Robert C; Sabelis, Maurice W; Kant, Merijn R

2015-01-01

287

Salicylic Acid Regulates Plasmodesmata Closure during Innate Immune Responses in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

In plants, mounting an effective innate immune strategy against microbial pathogens involves triggering local cell death within infected cells as well as boosting the immunity of the uninfected neighboring and systemically located cells. Although not much is known about this, it is evident that well-coordinated cell–cell signaling is critical in this process to confine infection to local tissue while allowing for the spread of systemic immune signals throughout the whole plant. In support of this notion, direct cell-to-cell communication was recently found to play a crucial role in plant defense. Here, we provide experimental evidence that salicylic acid (SA) is a critical hormonal signal that regulates cell-to-cell permeability during innate immune responses elicited by virulent bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that direct exogenous application of SA or bacterial infection suppresses cell–cell coupling and that SA pathway mutants are impaired in this response. The SA- or infection-induced suppression of cell–cell coupling requires an ENHANCED DESEASE RESISTANCE1– and NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1–dependent SA pathway in conjunction with the regulator of plasmodesmal gating PLASMODESMATA-LOCATED PROTEIN5. We discuss a model wherein the SA signaling pathway and plasmodesmata-mediated cell-to-cell communication converge under an intricate regulatory loop. PMID:23749844

Wang, Xu; Sager, Ross; Cui, Weier; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Hua; Lee, Jung-Youn

2013-01-01

288

Abnormal Glycosphingolipid Mannosylation Triggers Salicylic Acid–Mediated Responses in Arabidopsis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis thaliana protein GOLGI-LOCALIZED NUCLEOTIDE SUGAR TRANSPORTER (GONST1) has been previously identified as a GDP-d-mannose transporter. It has been hypothesized that GONST1 provides precursors for the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides, such as glucomannan. Here, we show that in vitro GONST1 can transport all four plant GDP-sugars. However, gonst1 mutants have no reduction in glucomannan quantity and show no detectable alterations in other cell wall polysaccharides. By contrast, we show that a class of glycosylated sphingolipids (glycosylinositol phosphoceramides [GIPCs]) contains Man and that this mannosylation is affected in gonst1. GONST1 therefore is a Golgi GDP-sugar transporter that specifically supplies GDP-Man to the Golgi lumen for GIPC synthesis. gonst1 plants have a dwarfed phenotype and a constitutive hypersensitive response with elevated salicylic acid levels. This suggests an unexpected role for GIPC sugar decorations in sphingolipid function and plant defense signaling. Additionally, we discuss these data in the context of substrate channeling within the Golgi. PMID:23695979

Mortimer, Jenny C.; Yu, Xiaolan; Albrecht, Sandra; Sicilia, Francesca; Huichalaf, Mariela; Ampuero, Diego; Michaelson, Louise V.; Murphy, Alex M.; Matsunaga, Toshiro; Kurz, Samantha; Stephens, Elaine; Baldwin, Timothy C.; Ishii, Tadashi; Napier, Johnathan A.; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Handford, Michael G.; Dupree, Paul

2013-01-01

289

Proteome approach to characterize proteins induced by antagonist yeast and salicylic acid in peach fruit.  

PubMed

Proteins induced by antagonist yeast Pichia membranefaciens and salicylic acid (SA) in peach fruit were determined using proteome analysis in this study. Both the yeast and SA enhanced the resistance of peach fruit and delayed the initiation infection of Penicillium expansum. When quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer was used, a total of 25 proteins could be identified as significantly up- or down-regulated in response to at least one activitor. According to the function, these proteins were attributed to protein metabolism, defense response, transcription, energy metabolism, and cell structure. Among them, 6 antioxidant and 3 pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were induced by P. membranefaciens or SA treatments. The induction results of these proteins were related to treatment time. Six other proteins were identified as the enzymes which catalyze the reactions of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, both the yeast and SA treatments enhanced the transcript and translation expression of the catalase gene. These results suggested that antioxidant and PR proteins, as well as enzymes associated with sugar metabolism, were involved in resistance of peach fruit induced by P. membranefaciens and SA. PMID:17381148

Chan, Zhulong; Qin, Guozheng; Xu, Xiangbin; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

2007-05-01

290

Proteomic analysis of salicylic acid-induced resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in susceptible and resistant rice.  

PubMed

To probe salicylic acid (SA)-induced sequential events at translational level and factors associated with SA response, we conducted virulence assays and proteomic profiling analysis on rice resistant and susceptible cultivars against Magnaporthe oryzae at various time points after SA treatment. The results showed that SA significantly enhanced rice resistance against M. oryzae. Proteomic analysis of SA-treated leaves unveiled 36 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various functions, including defense, antioxidative enzymes, and signal transduction. Majority of these proteins were induced except three antioxidative enzymes, which were negatively regulated by SA. Consistent with the above findings, SA increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with resistant cultivar C101LAC showing faster response to SA and producing higher level of ROS than susceptible cultivar CO39. Furthermore, we showed that nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1, which is implicated in regulation of ROS production, was strongly induced in C101LAC but not in CO39. Taken together, the findings suggest that resistant rice cultivar might possess a more sensitive SA signaling system or effective pathway than susceptible cultivar. In addition, our results indicate that SA also coordinates other cellular activities such as photosynthesis and metabolism to facilitate defense response and recovery, highlighting the complexity of SA-induced resistance mechanisms. PMID:22730241

Li, Yunfeng; Zhang, Zhihui; Nie, Yanfang; Zhang, Lianhui; Wang, Zhenzhong

2012-08-01

291

Constitutively elevated salicylic acid signals glutathione-mediated nickel tolerance in Thlaspi nickel hyperaccumulators.  

PubMed

Progress is being made in understanding the biochemical and molecular basis of nickel (Ni)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi; however, the molecular signaling pathways that control these mechanisms are not understood. We observed that elevated concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), a molecule known to be involved in signaling induced pathogen defense responses in plants, is a strong predictor of Ni hyperaccumulation in the six diverse Thlaspi species investigated, including the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi goesingense, Thlaspi rosulare, Thlaspi oxyceras, and Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators Thlaspi arvense and Thlaspi perfoliatum. Furthermore, the SA metabolites phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, salicyloyl-glucose, and catechol are also elevated in the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense when compared to the nonaccumulators Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and T. arvense. Elevation of free SA levels in Arabidopsis, both genetically and by exogenous feeding, enhances the specific activity of serine acetyltransferase, leading to elevated glutathione and increased Ni resistance. Such SA-mediated Ni resistance in Arabidopsis phenocopies the glutathione-based Ni tolerance previously observed in Thlaspi, suggesting a biochemical linkage between SA and Ni tolerance in this genus. Intriguingly, the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense also shows enhanced sensitivity to the pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum) and fails to induce SA biosynthesis after infection. Nickel hyperaccumulation reverses this pathogen hypersensitivity, suggesting that the interaction between pathogen resistance and Ni tolerance and hyperaccumulation may have played a critical role in the evolution of metal hyperaccumulation in the Thlaspi genus. PMID:15734913

Freeman, John L; Garcia, Daniel; Kim, Donggiun; Hopf, Amber; Salt, David E

2005-03-01

292

Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.  

PubMed

Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum?GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. PMID:24684632

Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

2014-10-01

293

Salicylate-induced auditory perceptual disorders and plastic changes in nonclassical auditory centers in rats.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that sodium salicylate (SS) activates not only central auditory structures, but also nonauditory regions associated with emotion and memory. To identify electrophysiological changes in the nonauditory regions, we recorded sound-evoked local field potentials and multiunit discharges from the striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate cortex after SS-treatment. The SS-treatment produced behavioral evidence of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Physiologically, the treatment significantly enhanced sound-evoked neural activity in the striatum, amygdala, and hippocampus, but not in the cingulate. The enhanced sound evoked response could be linked to the hyperacusis-like behavior. Further analysis showed that the enhancement of sound-evoked activity occurred predominantly at the midfrequencies, likely reflecting shifts of neurons towards the midfrequency range after SS-treatment as observed in our previous studies in the auditory cortex and amygdala. The increased number of midfrequency neurons would lead to a relative higher number of total spontaneous discharges in the midfrequency region, even though the mean discharge rate of each neuron may not increase. The tonotopical overactivity in the midfrequency region in quiet may potentially lead to tonal sensation of midfrequency (the tinnitus). The neural changes in the amygdala and hippocampus may also contribute to the negative effect that patients associate with their tinnitus. PMID:24891959

Chen, Guang-Di; Radziwon, Kelly E; Kashanian, Nina; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard

2014-01-01

294

Salicylic acid, a plant defense hormone, is specifically secreted by a molluscan herbivore.  

PubMed

Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

2014-01-01

295

Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.

Meguro, Ayano; Sato, Yutaka

2014-04-01

296

Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense. PMID:22057329

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2011-01-01

297

Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant–pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses, including drought, low temperature, and salinity stresses. It has been suggested that SA has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops. However, the utility of SA is dependent on the concentration of the applied SA, the mode of application, and the state of the plants (e.g., developmental stage and acclimation). Generally, low concentrations of applied SA alleviate the sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and high concentrations of applied induce high levels of oxidative stress, leading to a decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this article, the effects of SA on the water stress responses and regulation of stomatal closure are reviewed. PMID:24478784

Miura, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi

2014-01-01

298

Salicylic Acid Regulates Arabidopsis Microbial Pattern Receptor Kinase Levels and Signaling[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis thaliana, responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are mediated by cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and include the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition in the cell wall, and the generation of the signal molecule salicylic acid (SA). SA acts in a positive feedback loop with ACCELERATED CELL DEATH6 (ACD6), a membrane protein that contributes to immunity. This work shows that PRRs associate with and are part of the ACD6/SA feedback loop. ACD6 positively regulates the abundance of several PRRs and affects the responsiveness of plants to two PAMPs. SA accumulation also causes increased levels of PRRs and potentiates the responsiveness of plants to PAMPs. Finally, SA induces PRR- and ACD6-dependent signaling to induce callose deposition independent of the presence of PAMPs. This PAMP-independent effect of SA causes a transient reduction of PRRs and ACD6-dependent reduced responsiveness to PAMPs. Thus, SA has a dynamic effect on the regulation and function of PRRs. Within a few hours, SA signaling promotes defenses and downregulates PRRs, whereas later (within 24 to 48 h) SA signaling upregulates PRRs, and plants are rendered more responsive to PAMPs. These results implicate multiple modes of signaling for PRRs in response to PAMPs and SA. PMID:25315322

Tateda, Chika; Zhang, Zhongqin; Shrestha, Jay; Jelenska, Joanna; Chinchilla, Delphine; Greenberg, Jean T.

2014-01-01

299

Nuclear jasmonate and salicylate signaling and crosstalk in defense against pathogens  

PubMed Central

An extraordinary progress has been made over the last two decades on understanding the components and mechanisms governing plant innate immunity. After detection of a pathogen, effective plant resistance depends on the activation of a complex signaling network integrated by small signaling molecules and hormonal pathways, and the balance of these hormone systems determines resistance to particular pathogens. The discovery of new components of hormonal signaling pathways, including plant nuclear hormone receptors, is providing a picture of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and resistance through several protein families that perceive hormones within the nucleus and lead to massive gene induction responses often achieved by de-repression. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of positive and negative regulators of these hormones signaling pathways that are crucial regulatory targets of hormonal crosstalk in disease and defense. We focus on the most recent discoveries on the jasmonate and salicylate pathway components that explain their crosstalk with other hormonal pathways in the nucleus. We discuss how these components fine-tune defense responses to build a robust plant immune system against a great number of different microbes and, finally, we summarize recent discoveries on specific nuclear hormonal manipulation by microbes which exemplify the ingenious ways by which pathogens can take control over the plant’s hormone signaling network to promote disease. PMID:23577014

Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Solano, Roberto

2013-01-01

300

Molecular Structure of Methyl mercaptan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl mercaptan is a colorless, flammable and volatile sulfur compound that is responsible for the rotten cabbage or burnt rubber aroma. This substance can be found in the blood, brain, and other tissues of humans and other animals, it is released from animal feces and occurs naturally in foods such as nuts and cheeses. The formation of methyl mercaptan is commonly noted as a problem in the process of the post-fermentation of wine. Despite the repulsive smell methyl mercaptan is used as a gas odorant, as an intermediate in the production of fungicides, as jet fuel additives, flavoring agents, plastics, as well as in the synthesis of methionines, and as catalysts.

2003-06-03

301

DNA methylation analysis in human cancer  

PubMed Central

Chapter summary The functional impact of aberrant DNA methylation and the widespread alterations in DNA methylation in cancer development has led to the development of a variety of methods to characterize the DNA methylation patterns. This chapter will critique and describe the major approaches to analyzing DNA methylation. PMID:23359152

O'Sullivan, Eileen; Goggins, Michael

2014-01-01

302

Noncoding RNAs and DNA Methylation in Plants  

PubMed Central

Cytosine DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification in eukaryotes that maintains genome integrity and regulates gene expression. The DNA methylation patterns in plants are more complex than those in animals, and plants and animals have common as well as distinct pathways in regulating DNA methylation. Recent studies involving genetic, molecular, biochemical and genomic approaches have greatly expanded our knowledge of DNA methylation in plants. The roles of many proteins as well as non-coding RNAs in DNA methylation have been uncovered.

Zhao, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xuemei

2015-01-01

303

Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under heat stress and accelerates recovery in grapevine leaves  

PubMed Central

Background Although the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on photosynthesis of plants including grapevines has been investigated, very little is yet known about the effects of SA on carbon assimilation and several components of PSII electron transport (donor side, reaction center and acceptor side). In this study, the impact of SA pretreatment on photosynthesis was evaluated in the leaves of young grapevines before heat stress (25°C), during heat stress (43°C for 5 h), and through the following recovery period (25°C). Photosynthetic measures included gas exchange parameters, PSII electron transport, energy dissipation, and Rubisco activation state. The levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the chloroplast were also investigated. Results SA did not significantly (P < 0.05) influence the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) of leaves before heat stress. But, SA did alleviate declines in Pn and Rubisco activition state, and did not alter negative changes in PSII parameters (donor side, acceptor side and reaction center QA) under heat stress. Following heat treatment, the recovery of Pn in SA-treated leaves was accelerated compared with the control (H2O-treated) leaves, and, donor and acceptor parameters of PSII in SA-treated leaves recovered to normal levels more rapidly than in the controls. Rubisco, however, was not significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by SA. Before heat stress, SA did not affect level of HSP 21, but the HSP21 immune signal increased in both SA-treated and control leaves during heat stress. During the recovery period, HSP21 levels remained high through the end of the experiment in the SA-treated leaves, but decreased in controls. Conclusion SA pretreatment alleviated the heat stress induced decrease in Pn mainly through maintaining higher Rubisco activition state, and it accelerated the recovery of Pn mainly through effects on PSII function. These effects of SA may be related in part to enhanced levels of HSP21. PMID:20178597

2010-01-01

304

pH-Metric log K calculations of famotidine, naproxen, nizatidine, ranitidine and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

The octanol/water partition coefficient (log K) is one of the most commonly used parameters in structure-activity relationships in many areas such as drug design (including pesticides), pharmacokinetics, anesthesiology, environmental sciences, toxicology, bioaccumulation and predicting skin permeability as a predictive parameter. log K is generally determined using shake flask method, but the possibility of calculating log K using pH-metric titrations and half neutralization points is demonstrated in this study. The potentiometric pH titration technique has been developed as an automatic technique for log K determination but it can be achieved by manual titrations. This technique uses the pKa of the substance. The pKa of the substance shifts pK'a when the titration is repeated in the presence of octanol. log K value of the substance can be determined using pKa, pK'a values and relevant equation. The aim of the study was to determine the log K values of a series of compounds using pH-metric titrations and to compare pH-metric log K determination results with the other methods. The log K values of famotidine, naproxen, nizatidine, ranitidine and salicylic acid were determined using both shake flask method and potentiometric titrations. Their log K values were also calculated theoretically using computer program and all results were compared. The pH-metric log K values were found to be close to the shake flask method results. This method was found to be useful for the determination of log K values as it provides a high degree of accuracy even in the presence of titratable impurities in the solution. PMID:11680809

Degim, T; Zaimoglu, V; Akay, C; Degim, Z

2001-09-01

305

Identification of multiple salicylic acid-binding proteins using two high throughput screens  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) is an important hormone involved in many diverse plant processes, including floral induction, stomatal closure, seed germination, adventitious root initiation, and thermogenesis. It also plays critical functions during responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. The role(s) of SA in signaling disease resistance is by far the best studied process, although it is still only partially understood. To obtain insights into how SA carries out its varied functions, particularly in activating disease resistance, two new high throughput screens were developed to identify novel SA-binding proteins (SABPs). The first utilized crosslinking of the photo-reactive SA analog 4-AzidoSA (4AzSA) to proteins in an Arabidopsis leaf extract, followed by immuno-selection with anti-SA antibodies and then mass spectroscopy-based identification. The second utilized photo-affinity crosslinking of 4AzSA to proteins on a protein microarray (PMA) followed by detection with anti-SA antibodies. To determine whether the candidate SABPs (cSABPs) obtained from these screens were true SABPs, recombinantly-produced proteins were generated and tested for SA-inhibitable crosslinking to 4AzSA, which was monitored by immuno-blot analysis, SA-inhibitable binding of the SA derivative 3-aminoethylSA (3AESA), which was detected by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay, or SA-inhibitable binding of [3H]SA, which was detected by size exclusion chromatography. Based on our criteria that true SABPs must exhibit SA-binding activity in at least two of these assays, nine new SABPs are identified here; nine others were previously reported. Approximately 80 cSABPs await further assessment. In addition, the conflicting reports on whether NPR1 is an SABP were addressed by showing that it bound SA in all three of the above assays. PMID:25628632

Manohar, Murli; Tian, Miaoying; Moreau, Magali; Park, Sang-Wook; Choi, Hyong Woo; Fei, Zhangjun; Friso, Giulia; Asif, Muhammed; Manosalva, Patricia; von Dahl, Caroline C.; Shi, Kai; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.; O'Doherty, Inish; Schroeder, Frank C.; van Wijk, Klass J.; Klessig, Daniel F.

2014-01-01

306

Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. The exposure of pea plants to increasing Cd concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 microM) during early stages of their establishment, caused a gradual decrease in shoot and root fresh weight accumulation, the rate of CO2 fixation and the activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC, E.C. 4.1.1.39), the effect being most expressed at higher Cd concentrations. In vivo the excess of Cd-induced alterations in the redox cycling of oxygen-evolving centers and the assimilatory capacity of the pea leaves as revealed by changes in thermoluminescence emission after flash illumination. The levels of some important parameters associated with oxidative stress, namely lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage and proline production were increased. Seed pretreatment with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cd on growth, photosynthesis, carboxylation reactions, thermoluminescence characteristics and chlorophyll content, and led to decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Cd. The data suggest that the beneficial effect of SA during an earlier growth period could be related to avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to cadmium thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. In addition, the observed high endogenous levels of SA after treatment with Cd suggests that SA may act directly as an antioxidant to scavenge the reactive oxygen species and/or indirectly modulate redox balance through activation of antioxidant responses. Taken together these evidences could explain at some extend the protective role of SA on photochemical activity of chloroplast membranes and photosynthetic carboxylation reactions in Cd-stressed pea plants. PMID:19091585

Popova, Losanka P; Maslenkova, Liliana T; Yordanova, Rusina Y; Ivanova, Albena P; Krantev, Aleksander P; Szalai, Gabriella; Janda, Tibor

2009-03-01

307

In situ detection of salicylic acid binding sites in plant tissues.  

PubMed

The determination of hormone-binding sites in plants is essential in understanding the mechanisms behind hormone function. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that regulates responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to label SA-binding sites in plant tissues, a quantum dots (QDs) probe functionalized with a SA moiety was successfully synthesized by coupling CdSe QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (PAS), using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as the coupling agent. The probe was then characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, as well as UV/vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The results confirmed the successful conjugation of PAS to CdSe QDs and revealed that the conjugates maintained the properties of the original QDs, with small core diameters and adequate dispersal in solution. The PAS-CdSe QDs were used to detect SA-binding sites in mung bean and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in vitro and in vivo. The PAS-CdSe QDs were effectively transported into plant tissues and specifically bound to SA receptors in vivo. In addition, the effects of the PAS-CdSe QDs on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in the tips of A. thaliana seedlings were investigated. Both SA and PAS-CdSe QDs had similar effects on the trend in cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentrations, suggesting that the PAS-CdSe QDs maintained the bioactivity of SA. To summarize, PAS-CdSe QDs have high potential as a fluorescent probe for the in vitro/in vivo labeling and imaging of SA receptors in plants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24833131

Liu, Jing-Wen; Deng, Da-Yi; Yu, Ying; Liu, Fang-Fei; Lin, Bi-Xia; Cao, Yu-Juan; Hu, Xiao-Gang; Wu, Jian-Zhong

2015-02-01

308

Effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and proton transfer on fluorescence of salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of intermolecular interactions, in particular the influence of intermolecular hydrogen bonds formed by salicylic acid (SA) as a proton donor with proton acceptors of different strength, on fluorescence spectra of SA in non-aqueous solutions have been investigated. Infrared spectra of studied systems have been analyzed in order to elucidate the ground state structure of the complexes formed. It has been found that at the room temperature in dilute solutions in non-polar or slightly polar aprotic solvents, where the SA molecule is not involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding, the position of the main (blue) fluorescence component is determined by the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in the lowest singlet excited state S 1. With increasing proton acceptor ability of the environment, when formation of weak or middle strength intermolecular H-bonds is possible, the emission band shifts gradually to lower frequency, the quantum yield falls and poorly resolved doublet structure becomes more pronounced, especially in the solvents containing heavy bromine atoms. As a possible reason for these effects, coupling between the S 1 and closely lying triplet term is considered. With the strongest proton acceptors like aliphatic amines, intermolecular proton transfer with ionic pair formation in the ground state and double (intra- and intermolecular) proton transfer in the excited state take place, resulting in a blue shift of the emission band. Similar emission is typical for the SA anion in aqueous solutions. The p Ka value of SA in S 1 state has been found to be 3.1. Such a small value can be explained taking into account the ESIPT reaction following the excitation. The SA complex with pyridine exhibits emission spectrum containing both molecular-like and anion-like bands with relative intensities strongly dependent on the temperature and solvent properties. The most probable origin of this dual emission is the molecular-ionic tautomerism caused by the existence of two potential minima and reversible intermolecular proton transfer in the excited state.

Denisov, G. S.; Golubev, N. S.; Schreiber, V. M.; Shajakhmedov, Sh. S.; Shurukhina, A. V.

1997-12-01

309

Multistep involvement of glutathione with salicylic acid and ethylene to combat environmental stress.  

PubMed

The role of glutathione (GSH) in plant defense is an established fact. However, the association of GSH with other established signaling molecules within the defense signaling network remains to be evaluated. Previously we have shown that GSH is involved in defense signaling network likely through NPR1-dependent salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathway. In this study, to gain further insight, we developed chloroplast-targeted gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-ECS) overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (NtGp line) and constructed a forward subtracted cDNA (suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)) library using NtGp line as a tester. Interestingly, in addition to SA-related transcripts like pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a) and SAR8.2 m/2l, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACC oxidase), a key enzyme of ethylene (ET) biosynthesis, was identified in the SSH library. Besides, transcription factors like WRKY transcription factor 3 (WRKY3), WRKY1 and ethylene responsive factor 4 (ERF4), associated with SA and ET respectively, were also identified thus suggesting an interplay of GSH with ET and SA. Furthermore, proteomic profiling of NtGp line, performed by employing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), corroborated with the transcriptomic profile and several defense-related proteins like serine/threonine protein kinase, and heat shock 70 protein (HSP70) were identified with increased accumulation. Fascinatingly, induction of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase) was also noted thus demonstrating the active involvement of GSH with ET. Protein gel blot analysis confirmed the enhanced accumulation of ACC oxidase in NtGp line. Together, our data revealed that GSH is involved in the synergistic multiple steps crosstalk through ET as well as SA to combat environmental stress. PMID:24913051

Ghanta, Srijani; Datta, Riddhi; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Sinha, Ragini; Kumar, Deepak; Hazra, Saptarshi; Mazumdar, Aparupa Bose; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

2014-07-01

310

Genome-Wide Analysis of Salicylate and Dibenzofuran Metabolism in Sphingomonas Wittichii RW1  

PubMed Central

Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium isolated for its ability to degrade the xenobiotic compounds dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (DBF). A number of genes involved in DBF degradation have been previously characterized, such as the dxn cluster, dbfB, and the electron transfer components fdx1, fdx3, and redA2. Here we use a combination of whole genome transcriptome analysis and transposon library screening to characterize RW1 catabolic and other genes implicated in the reaction to or degradation of DBF. To detect differentially expressed genes upon exposure to DBF, we applied three different growth exposure experiments, using either short DBF exposures to actively growing cells or growing them with DBF as sole carbon and energy source. Genome-wide gene expression was examined using a custom-made microarray. In addition, proportional abundance determination of transposon insertions in RW1 libraries grown on salicylate or DBF by ultra-high throughput sequencing was used to infer genes whose interruption caused a fitness loss for growth on DBF. Expression patterns showed that batch and chemostat growth conditions, and short or long exposure of cells to DBF produced very different responses. Numerous other uncharacterized catabolic gene clusters putatively involved in aromatic compound metabolism increased expression in response to DBF. In addition, only very few transposon insertions completely abolished growth on DBF. Some of those (e.g., in dxnA1) were expected, whereas others (in a gene cluster for phenylacetate degradation) were not. Both transcriptomic data and transposon screening suggest operation of multiple redundant and parallel aromatic pathways, depending on DBF exposure. In addition, increased expression of other non-catabolic genes suggests that during initial exposure, S. wittichii RW1 perceives DBF as a stressor, whereas after longer exposure, the compound is recognized as a carbon source and metabolized using several pathways in parallel. PMID:22936930

Coronado, Edith; Roggo, Clémence; Johnson, David R.; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

2012-01-01

311

Characterization of Withania somnifera leaf transcriptome and expression analysis of pathogenesis-related genes during salicylic acid signaling.  

PubMed

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a valued medicinal plant with pharmaceutical applications. The present study was undertaken to analyze the salicylic acid induced leaf transcriptome of W. somnifera. A total of 45.6 million reads were generated and the de novo assembly yielded 73,523 transcript contig with average transcript contig length of 1620 bp. A total of 71,062 transcripts were annotated and 53,424 of them were assigned GO terms. Mapping of transcript contigs to biological pathways revealed presence of 182 pathways. Seventeen genes representing 12 pathogenesis-related (PR) families were mined from the transcriptome data and their pattern of expression post 17 and 36 hours of salicylic acid treatment was documented. The analysis revealed significant up-regulation of all families of PR genes by 36 hours post treatment except WsPR10. The relative fold expression of transcripts ranged from 1 fold to 6,532 fold. The two families of peroxidases including the lignin-forming anionic peroxidase (WsL-PRX) and suberization-associated anionic peroxidase (WsS-PRX) recorded maximum expression of 377 fold and 6532 fold respectively, while the expression of WsPR10 was down-regulated by 14 fold. Additionally, the most stable reference gene for normalization of qRT-PCR data was also identified. The effect of SA on the accumulation of major secondary metabolites of W. somnifera including withanoside V, withaferin A and withanolide A was also analyzed and an increase in content of all the three metabolites were detected. This is the first report on expression patterns of PR genes during salicylic acid signaling in W. somnifera. PMID:24739900

Ghosh Dasgupta, Modhumita; George, Blessan Santhosh; Bhatia, Anil; Sidhu, Om Prakash

2014-01-01

312

EDR2 negatively regulates salicylic acid-based defenses and cell death during powdery mildew infections of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively little is known about the plant components that execute the cell death program or about its regulation in response to pathogen attack. Results We isolated the edr2-6 mutant, an allele of the previously described edr2 mutants. We found that edr2-6 exhibited an exaggerated chlorosis and necrosis response to attack by three pathogens, two powdery mildew and one downy mildew species, but not in response to abiotic stresses or attack by the bacterial leaf speck pathogen. The chlorosis and necrosis did not spread beyond inoculated sites suggesting that EDR2 limits the initiation of cell death rather than its spread. The pathogen-induced chlorosis and necrosis of edr2-6 was correlated with a stimulation of the salicylic acid defense pathway and was suppressed in mutants deficient in salicylic acid signaling. EDR2 encodes a novel protein with a pleckstrin homology and a StAR transfer (START) domain as well as a plant-specific domain of unknown function, DUF1336. The pleckstrin homology domain binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in vitro and an EDR2:HA:GFP protein localizes to endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and endosomes. Conclusion EDR2 acts as a negative regulator of cell death, specifically the cell death elicited by pathogen attack and mediated by the salicylic acid defense pathway. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate may have a role in limiting cell death via its effect on EDR2. This role in cell death may be indirect, by helping to target EDR2 to the appropriate membrane, or it may play a more direct role. PMID:17612410

Vorwerk, Sonja; Schiff, Celine; Santamaria, Marjorie; Koh, Serry; Nishimura, Marc; Vogel, John; Somerville, Chris; Somerville, Shauna

2007-01-01

313

Characterization of Withania somnifera Leaf Transcriptome and Expression Analysis of Pathogenesis – Related Genes during Salicylic Acid Signaling  

PubMed Central

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a valued medicinal plant with pharmaceutical applications. The present study was undertaken to analyze the salicylic acid induced leaf transcriptome of W. somnifera. A total of 45.6 million reads were generated and the de novo assembly yielded 73,523 transcript contig with average transcript contig length of 1620 bp. A total of 71,062 transcripts were annotated and 53,424 of them were assigned GO terms. Mapping of transcript contigs to biological pathways revealed presence of 182 pathways. Seventeen genes representing 12 pathogenesis-related (PR) families were mined from the transcriptome data and their pattern of expression post 17 and 36 hours of salicylic acid treatment was documented. The analysis revealed significant up-regulation of all families of PR genes by 36 hours post treatment except WsPR10. The relative fold expression of transcripts ranged from 1 fold to 6,532 fold. The two families of peroxidases including the lignin-forming anionic peroxidase (WsL-PRX) and suberization-associated anionic peroxidase (WsS-PRX) recorded maximum expression of 377 fold and 6532 fold respectively, while the expression of WsPR10 was down-regulated by 14 fold. Additionally, the most stable reference gene for normalization of qRT-PCR data was also identified. The effect of SA on the accumulation of major secondary metabolites of W. somnifera including withanoside V, withaferin A and withanolide A was also analyzed and an increase in content of all the three metabolites were detected. This is the first report on expression patterns of PR genes during salicylic acid signaling in W. somnifera. PMID:24739900

Ghosh Dasgupta, Modhumita; George, Blessan Santhosh; Bhatia, Anil; Sidhu, Om Prakash

2014-01-01

314

Derivative-ratio spectrophotometric method for the determination of ternary mixture of aspirin, paracetamol and salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the assay of a ternary mixture of aspirin (ASP), paracetamol (PAR) and salicylic acid (SAL). The method is based on the use of the first and second derivatives of the ratio spectra and measurement at zero-crossing wavelengths. The ratio spectra were obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the mixture by that of one of the components. The concentration of the other components are then determined from their respective calibration curves treated similarly. The described method was applied for the determination of these combinations in synthetic mixtures and dosage forms. The results obtained were accurate and precise.

El-Yazbi, Fawzi A.; Hammud, Hassan H.; Assi, Sulaf A.

2007-10-01

315

Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X Wing-Sham Lee1†, Shih-Feng Fu1†, Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz2, John P Carr1... capacity for alternative respiration, 0.5 mM SA was adequate to induce resistance to TMV infection even though it did not induce resistance to TMV in non-transgenic N. benthamiana leaves (Figure 4B). This was also seen in three other transgenic lines...

Lee, Wing-Sham; Fu, Shih-Feng; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie; Carr, John P

2011-02-28

316

Synthesis of some novel 1,2,4-triazol-3-one derivatives bearing the salicyl moiety and their anticonvulsant activities.  

PubMed

A series of new 1,2,4-triazole-3-one derivatives bearing the salicyl moiety were synthesized by using microwave irradiation, and their chemical structures were identified by IR, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, elemental analysis, and LC-MS. The anticonvulsant activities of the compounds 4a-c, 4e, and 5a-e were evaluated by the Anticonvulsant Screening Program of the National Institute of Health, USA. The compounds had moderate anticonvulsant activities in the maximum electroshock-induced seizure and minimal clonic seizure models in mice, without any neurotoxic effects. PMID:24623369

Kahveci, Bahittin; Mente?e, Emre; Akkaya, Emre; Y?lmaz, Fatih; Do?an, Inci S; Ozel, Arzu

2014-06-01

317

Dynamics of the enhanced emissions of monoterpenes and methyl salicylate, and decreased uptake of formaldehyde, by Quercus ilex leaves after application of jasmonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signalling compound with a key role in both stress and development in plants, and is reported to elicit the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we studied the dynamics of such emissions and the linkage with photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. •W e sprayed JA on leaves of the Mediterranean tree species

Iolanda Filella; Josep Penuelas; Joan Llusia

2006-01-01

318

Cytosine methylation alters DNA mechanical properties  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation plays an essential role in transcriptional control of organismal development in epigenetics, from turning off a specific gene to inactivation of entire chromosomes. While the biological function of DNA methylation is becoming increasingly clear, the mechanism of methylation-induced gene regulation is still poorly understood. Through single-molecule force experiments and simulation we investigated the effects of methylation on strand separation of DNA, a crucial step in gene expression. Molecular force assay and single-molecule force spectroscopy revealed a strong methylation dependence of strand separation. Methylation is observed to either inhibit or facilitate strand separation, depending on methylation level and sequence context. Molecular dynamics simulations provided a detailed view of methylation effects on strand separation, suggesting the underlying physical mechanism. According to our study, methylation in epigenetics may regulate gene expression not only through mechanisms already known but also through changing mechanical properties of DNA. PMID:21775342

Severin, Philip M. D.; Zou, Xueqing; Gaub, Hermann E.; Schulten, Klaus

2011-01-01

319

40 CFR 180.437 - Methyl 2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4...  

...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl...

2014-07-01

320

40 CFR 180.437 - Methyl 2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl...

2012-07-01

321

40 CFR 180.437 - Methyl 2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl...

2010-07-01

322

40 CFR 180.437 - Methyl 2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl...

2011-07-01

323

40 CFR 180.437 - Methyl 2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl 6-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl...4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p -toluate and methyl...

2013-07-01

324

Synthesis and characterization of acrylic type hydrogels containing azo derivatives of 5-amino salicylic acid for colon-specific drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  pH-sensitive hydrogels are suitable candidates for oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, proteins and drugs, due to their\\u000a ability to respond to environmental pH changes. Terephthalic acid was covalently linked with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA),\\u000a abbreviated as cross-linking agent (CA). Acryloyl ester of 5-[4-(hydroxy phenyl) azo] salicylic acid (HPAS) as an azo derivative\\u000a of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) was prepared under mild

M. Mahkam; L. Doostie; S. O. R. Siadat

2006-01-01

325

Salicylate poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on (2-[(E)-2-(4-nitrophenyl) hydrazono]-1-phenyl-2-(2-quinolyl)-1-ethanone) Cu(II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new salicylate-selective electrode based on the complex of (2-[(E)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)hydrazono]-1-phenyl-2-(2-quinolyl)-1-ethanone) Cu(II) as the membrane carrier was developed. The electrode exhibited a good Nernstian slope of ?59.6±1.0mV\\/decade and a linear range of 1.0×10?6 to 1.0M for salicylate. The limit of detection was 5.0×10?7M. The electrode had a fast response time of 10s and can be used for more than 3 months.

M. Mazloum Ardakani; M. S. Jalayer; J. Safari; Z. Sadeghi; H. R. Zare

2005-01-01

326

PCMdb: Pancreatic Cancer Methylation Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pancreatic cancer is the fifth most aggressive malignancy and urgently requires new biomarkers to facilitate early detection. For providing impetus to the biomarker discovery, we have developed Pancreatic Cancer Methylation Database (PCMDB, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/pcmdb/), a comprehensive resource dedicated to methylation of genes in pancreatic cancer. Data was collected and compiled manually from published literature. PCMdb has 65907 entries for methylation status of 4342 unique genes. In PCMdb, data was compiled for both cancer cell lines (53565 entries for 88 cell lines) and cancer tissues (12342 entries for 3078 tissue samples). Among these entries, 47.22% entries reported a high level of methylation for the corresponding genes while 10.87% entries reported low level of methylation. PCMdb covers five major subtypes of pancreatic cancer; however, most of the entries were compiled for adenocarcinomas (88.38%) and mucinous neoplasms (5.76%). A user-friendly interface has been developed for data browsing, searching and analysis. We anticipate that PCMdb will be helpful for pancreatic cancer biomarker discovery.

Nagpal, Gandharva; Sharma, Minakshi; Kumar, Shailesh; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gupta, Sudheer; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

2014-02-01

327

Establishment of auditory discrimination and detection of tinnitus induced by salicylic acid and intense tone exposure in the rat.  

PubMed

Rats were trained in a two lever food reinforced operant procedure to discriminate a 8000 Hz pure tone stimulus from its absence. Responding on one lever was reinforced in the presence of the tone and responding on the other lever was reinforced when the tone was absent. Frequency generalization testing yielded an inverted U-shaped function, whereas sound pressure level generalization testing yielded a continuous decrease in responding on the tone associated lever with decreasing sound pressure levels. The administration of sodium salicylic acid (150-450 mg/kg) generated responding on the tone associated lever suggesting that salicylic acid induced an experience that had commonalities with the percept of the training tone stimulus. After exposure to intense sound, responding consistent with the presence of tinnitus was achieved and Lidocaine failed to reduce tinnitus behavior. The use of a two choice design helped avoid confounding factors induced by drug induced side effects. Further, since no auditory cues were employed in the test situation the model achieves resistance to potential bias due to hearing impairment and hyperacusis. We propose that this model may be useful in detecting tinnitus. PMID:23535449

Sederholm, Fredrik; Swedberg, Michael D B

2013-05-13

328

Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures  

PubMed Central

Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillen, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sanchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-Gonzalez, Miriam; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

2013-01-01

329

Salicylate ion-selective electrode based on new tetranuclear copper complexes of O-vannlin-methionine as neutral carriers.  

PubMed

A new salicylate-selective PVC membrane electrode based on a new Schiff base tetranuclear copper complex of O-vannlin-methionine (Cu(II)(4)-TVM) as a neutral carrier is described. This electrode displays a preferential potentiometric response to salicylate and an anti-Hofmeister selectivity sequence in the following order: Sal(-) > ClO(4)(-) > SCN(-) > I(-) > NO(2)(-) > NO(3)(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-) > SO(3)(2-) > SO(4)(2-) > H(2)PO(4)(-). The electrode exhibits near-Nernstian potential linear range of 1.5 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-1) M with a detection limit of 8.0 x 10(-7) M and a slope of -56.3 mV/decade in pH 3.0-8.0 of phosphorate buffer solution at 20 degrees C. Thanks to the tetranuclear copper(II) in the carrier, the electrode has the advantages of simplicity, fast response, fair stability and reproducibility and low detection limit. The response mechanism to the electrodes is discussed by the a.c. impedance technique and the UV spectroscopy technique. The electrode can be applied to analyses of medicine and the results obtained are in fair agreement with the results given by a standard method. PMID:17297228

Ye, Guangrong; Chai, Yaqin; Ruo, Yuan; Zhou, Lu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lina

2007-02-01

330

Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery  

PubMed Central

Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release. PMID:24578624

Woo, J. O.; Misran, M.; Lee, P. F.; Tan, L. P.

2014-01-01

331

A large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered salicylic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens in plants, but how SA is synthesized in plant cells still remains elusive. Identification of new components involved in pathogen-induced SA accumulation would help address this question. To this end, we performed a large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered SA accumulation during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis using a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification method. A total of 35,000 M2 plants in the npr1-3 mutant background have been individually analyzed for the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) ES4326-induced SA accumulation. Among the mutants isolated, 19 had SA levels lower than npr1 (sln) and two exhibited increased SA accumulation in npr1 (isn). Complementation tests revealed that seven of the sln mutants are new alleles of eds5/sid1, two are sid2/eds16 alleles, one is allelic to pad4, and the remaining seven sln and two isn mutants are new non-allelic SA accumulation mutants. Interestingly, a large group of mutants (in the npr1-3 background), in which Psm ES4326-induced SA levels were similar to those in the wild-type Columbia plants, were identified, suggesting that the signaling network fine-tuning pathogen-induced SA accumulation is complex. We further characterized the sln1 single mutant and found that Psm ES4326-induced defense responses were compromised in this mutant. These defense response defects could be rescued by exogenous SA, suggesting that SLN1 functions upstream of SA. The sln1 mutation was mapped to a region on the north arm of chromosome I, which contains no known genes regulating pathogen-induced SA accumulation, indicating that SLN1 likely encodes a new regulator of SA biosynthesis. Thus, the new sln and isn mutants identified in this genetic screen are valuable for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced SA accumulation in plants. PMID:25610446

Ding, Yezhang; Shaholli, Danjela; Mou, Zhonglin

2014-01-01

332

Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting photosynthesis from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Seeds of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid Norma) were sterilized and divided into two groups. Half of the seeds were presoaked in 500 microM SA solution for only 6h, after which both groups were allowed to germinate for 3d and were then grown for 14d in Hoagland solution at 22/18 degrees C in a 16/8-h light/dark period and 120 micromolm(-2)s(-1) PAR. All seedlings (without H(2)O and SA controls) were transferred to Cd-containing solutions (10, 15, and 25 microM) and grown for 14d. The rate of CO(2) fixation and the activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC, EC 4.1.1.39) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) were measured. Changes in the levels of several important parameters associated with oxidative stress, namely H(2)O(2) and proline production, lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7)) were measured. Exposure of the plants to Cd caused a gradual decrease in the shoot and root dry weight accumulation, with the effect being most pronounced at 25 microM Cd. Seed pretreatment with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cd on plant growth parameters. The same tendency was observed for the chlorophyll level. The rate of CO(2) fixation was lower in Cd-treated plants, and the inhibition was partially overcome in SA-pretreated plants. A drop in the activities of RuBPC and PEPC was observed for Cd-treated plants. Pretreatment with SA alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on enzyme activity. Proline production and the rates of lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage increased in Cd-treated plants, whereas the values of these parameters were much lower in SA-pretreated plants. Treatment of plants with Cd decreased APX activity, but more than doubled SOD activity. Pretreatment with SA caused an increase in both APX and SOD activity, but caused a strong reduction in CAT activity. The data suggest that SA may protect cells against oxidative damage and photosynthesis against Cd toxicity. PMID:17913285

Krantev, Alexander; Yordanova, Rusina; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella; Popova, Losanka

2008-06-16

333

Alleviation of Osmotic Stress Effects by Exogenous Application of Salicylic or Abscisic Acid on Wheat Seedlings  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to assess the role of salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. The investigation was unique in its comprehensiveness, examining changes under osmotic stress and other conditions, and testing a number of parameters simultaneously. In both drought susceptible (SQ1) and drought resistant (CS) wheat cultivars, significant physiological and biochemical changes were observed upon the addition of SA (0.05 mM) or ABA (0.1 ?M) to solutions containing half-strength Hoagland medium and PEG 6000 (?0.75 MPa). The most noticeable result of supplementing SA or ABA to the medium (PEG + SA and PEG + ABA) was a decrease in the length of leaves and roots in both cultivars. While PEG treatment reduced gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content in CS, and osmotic potential, and conversely, increased lipid peroxidation, soluble carbohydrates in SQ1, proline content in both cultivars and total antioxidants activity in SQ1, PEG + SA or PEG + ABA did not change the values of these parameters. Furthermore, PEG caused a two-fold increase of endogenous ABA content in SQ1 and a four-fold increase in CS. PEG + ABA increased endogenous ABA only in SQ1, whereas PEG + SA caused a greater increase of ABA content in both cultivars compared to PEG. In PEG-treated plants growing until the harvest, a greater decrease of yield components was observed in SQ1 than in CS. PEG + SA, and particularly PEG + ABA, caused a greater increase of these yield parameters in CS compared to SQ1. In conclusion, SA and ABA ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant wheat cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by PEG in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment achieved by an increase in proline and carbohydrate content as well as by an increase in antioxidant activity. PMID:23803653

Marci?ska, Izabela; Czyczy?o-Mysza, Ilona; Skrzypek, Edyta; Grzesiak, Maciej T.; Janowiak, Franciszek; Filek, Maria; Dziurka, Micha?; Dziurka, Kinga; Waligórski, Piotr; Juzo?, Katarzyna; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Stanis?aw

2013-01-01

334

Modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters--Validation for methyl hexanoate, methyl heptanoate, and methyl decanoate in a  

E-print Network

hydrocarbon fossil fuels to biofuels (particularly bioethanol and biodiesel [1] and [2]). Since the principal rate analysis showed that reactions pathways for the oxidation of methyl esters in the low components of plant matter, cellulose and starch, have the molecular formula (C6H10O5)n, these new fuels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

Methods of DNA methylation analysis.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this review was to provide guidance for investigators who are new to the field of DNA methylation analysis. Epigenetics is the study of mitotically heritable alterations in gene expression potential that are not mediated by changes in DNA sequence. Recently, it has become clear that n...

336

Gene methylation in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

2013-09-23

337

DNA Methylation of Cancer Genome  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating normal development and carcinogenesis. Current understanding of the biological roles of DNA methylation is limited to its role in the regulation of gene transcription, genomic imprinting, genomic stability, and X chromosome inactivation. In the past 2 decades, a large number of changes have been identified in cancer epigenomes when compared with normals. These alterations fall into two main categories, namely, hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes and hypomethylation of oncogenes or heterochromatin, respectively. Aberrant methylation of genes controlling the cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, drug resistance, and intracellular signaling has been identified in multiple cancer types. Recent advancements in whole-genome analysis of methylome have yielded numerous differentially methylated regions, the functions of which are largely unknown. With the development of high resolution tiling microarrays and high throughput DNA sequencing, more cancer methylomes will be profiled, facilitating the identification of new candidate genes or ncRNAs that are related to oncogenesis, new prognostic markers, and the discovery of new target genes for cancer therapy.† PMID:19960550

Cheung, Hoi-Hung; Lee, Tin-Lap; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

2010-01-01

338

Hypoglycemic effect of oral insulin in diabetic rabbits using pH-dependent coated capsules containing sodium salicylate without and with sodium cholate.  

PubMed

The hypoglycemic effect of oral insulin (20 U and 40 U) capsules coated with a pH-dependent soluble polymer (Eudragit S100) and containing sodium salicylate (50 mg) without and with sodium cholate (50 mg) was studied in alloxan-hyperglycemic rabbits and compared with that of s.c. insulin injection (20 U). The capsules containing 20 U insulin + sodium salicylate (50 mg) produced a significant reduction in plasma glucose level to 82 and 73% of initial values at 2 and 3 hr after administration, respectively. The blood glucose level slowly returned to normal values at 5 hr. The AUC0-5 hr was 73.7 +/- 43.5 mg.hr/dl compared to 242 +/- 70.5 mg.hr/dl for insulin (20 U, s.c.) with a relative hypoglycemia of 30.4%. A higher dose of oral insulin (40 U) + sodium salicylate (50 mg) was more effective in reducing plasma glucose level which steadily decreased and reached 56% of the initial value by 5 hr (AUC0-5 hr = 132 +/- 41.5 mg.hr/dl and relative hypoglycemia = 27.3%). Sodium cholate (50 mg), however, slightly improved sodium salicylate effect producing an AUC0-5 hr of 139 +/- 37.3 mg.hr/dl with relative hypoglycemia of 28.7%. The relative hypoglycemia of pH-dependent coated capsules reached in the present experiment is the highest found so far. PMID:9876590

Hosny, E A; Ghilzai, N M; al-Najar, T A; Elmazar, M M

1998-03-01

339

Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

340

Salicylic Acid and NPR1 Induce the Recruitment of trans-Activating TGA Factors to a Defense Gene Promoter in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to elucidate the contributions by transcription factors to plant gene expression will require increasing knowledge of their specific in vivo regulatory associations. We are systematically investigating the role of individual TGA factors in the transcriptional control of pathogenesis-related (PR) defense genes, whose expression is stimulated in leaves by salicylic acid (SA) through a stimulus pathway involving NPR1. We focused

Christopher Johnson; Erin Boden; Jonathan Arias

2003-01-01

341

Influence of Salicylic Acid on In Vitro Micropropagation and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species, H. acetosella and H. moscheutos (cv ‘Luna Red’)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. It has been reported to improve in vitro regeneration as well as induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effects of varying SA concentrations (0, 0.5, and 1 mM) on i...

342

Effects of sulfur and salicylic acid in a shampoo base in the treatment of dandruff: a double-blind study using corneocyte counts and clinical grading.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of sulfur 2 percent and salicylic acid 2 percent either alone or in combination in a shampoo base was determined in a double-blind controlled study using two methods of evaluation: clinical assessment of scaling and corneocyte counts (the number of desquamating cells/cm2). Forty-eight subjects (twenty-nine men and nineteen women) with moderate to severe scaling shampooed their hair under supervision twice a week for five weeks, using one of four formulas: sulfur 2 percent plus salicylic acid 2 percent in a shampoo vehicle; sulfur 2 percent in a shampoo vehicle; salicylic acid 2 percent in a shampoo vehicle; or the shampoo vehicle alone. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 the degree of scaling was assessed, and specimens were taken for corneocyte counts. Significantly greater and earlier reductions in both degree of scaling and corneocyte counts were seen in subjects treated with the formula containing both sulfur 2 percent and salicylic acid 2 percent in the shampoo base than in those who received either active ingredient alone or the shampoo vehicle. PMID:3301220

Leyden, J J; McGinley, K J; Mills, O H; Kyriakopoulos, A A; Kligman, A M

1987-06-01

343

Genetic Modification of Alternative Respiration Has Differential Effects on Antimycin A-Induced versus Salicylic Acid-Induced Resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA), a natural defensive signal chemical, and antimycin A, a cytochrome pathway inhibitor, induce resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Pharmacological evidence suggested signaling during resistance induction by both chemicals involved alternative oxidase (AOX), sole component of the alternative respiratory pathway (AP). Roles of the AP include regulation of intramitochondrial reactive oxygen species and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.

Androulla Gilliland; Davinder P. Singh; Jennifer M. Hayward; Catherine A. Moore; Alex M. Murphy; Caroline J. York; Jo Slator; John P. Carr

2003-01-01

344

Radical SAM-Mediated Methylation Reactions  

PubMed Central

A subset of enzymes that belong to the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) superfamily are able to catalyze methylation reactions. Substrates of these enzymes are distinct from the nucleophilic substrates that undergo methylation by a polar mechanism. Recently, activities of several radical SAM methylating enzymes have been reconstituted in vitro and their mechanisms of catalysis investigated. The RNA modifying enzymes RlmN and Cfr catalyze methylation via a methyl synthase mechanism. These enzymes use SAM in two distinct roles: as a source of a methyl group transferred to a conserved cysteine and as a source of 5?-deoxyadenosyl radical (5?-dA•). Hydrogen atom abstraction by this species generates a thiomethylene radical which adds into the RNA substrate, forming an enzyme-substrate covalent adduct. In another recent study, methylation of the indole moiety of tryptophan by the radical SAM and cobalamin-binding domain enzyme TsrM has been reconstituted. Methylcobalamin serves as an intermediate methyl donor in TsrM, and is proposed to transfer the methyl group as a methyl radical. Interestingly, despite the presence of the radical SAM motif, no reductive cleavage of SAM has been observed in this methylation. These important reconstitutions set the stage for further studies on mechanisms of radical methylation. PMID:23835516

Fujimori, Danica Galoni?

2013-01-01

345

Conservation and divergence in eukaryotic DNA methylation  

E-print Network

restriction enzymes sensitive to methylated CG sites (11, 12); the level of DNA methylation is determined of resolu- tion, restriction enzyme bias, difficulty in characterizing genome regions rich in repeats, and enzymes mediating the process (3). In humans, aberrant DNA methylation has been associated with diseases

346

ELUCIDATING THE PATHWAY FOR ARSENIC METHYLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Enzymatically-catalyzed methylation of arsenic is part of a metabolic pathway that converts inorganic arsenic into methylated products. Hence, in humans chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic, methyl and dimethyl arsenic account for most of the arsenic that is excreted in the ...

347

Identification of Differentially Methylated Sequences in Colorectal Cancer by Methylated CpG Island Amplification1  

Microsoft Academic Search

CpG island methylation has been linked to tumor suppressor gene inactivation in neoplasia and may serve as a useful marker to clone novel cancer-related genes. We have developed a novel PCR-based method, methylated CpG island amplification (MCA), which is useful for both methylation analysis and cloning differentially methylated genes. Using restriction enzymes that have differential sensitivity to 5-methyl-cytosine, followed by

Minoru Toyota; Coty Ho; Nita Ahuja; Kam-Wing Jair; Qing Li; Mutsumi Ohe-Toyota; Stephen B. Baylin; Jean-Pierre J. Issa

1999-01-01

348

Early Senescence and Cell Death in Arabidopsis saul1 Mutants Involves the PAD4-Dependent Salicylic Acid Pathway1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Age-dependent leaf senescence and cell death in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) requires activation of the transcription factor ORESARA1 (ORE1) and is not initiated prior to a leaf age of 28 d. Here, we investigate the conditional execution of events that regulate early senescence and cell death in senescence-associated ubiquitin ligase1 (saul1) mutants, deficient in the PLANT U-BOX-ARMADILLO E3 ubiquitin ligase SAUL1. In saul1 mutants challenged with low light, the switch of age-dependent cell death was turned on prematurely, as indicated by the accumulation of ORE1 transcripts, induction of the senescence marker gene SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE12, and cell death. However, ORE1 accumulation by itself was not sufficient to cause saul1 phenotypes, as demonstrated by double mutant analysis. Exposure of saul1 mutants to low light for only 24 h did not result in visible symptoms of senescence; however, the senescence-promoting transcription factor genes WRKY53, WRKY6, and NAC-LIKE ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI were up-regulated, indicating that senescence in saul1 seedlings was already initiated. To resolve the time course of gene expression, microarray experiments were performed at narrow intervals. Differential expression of the genes involved in salicylic acid and defense mechanisms were the earliest events detected, suggesting a central role for salicylic acid in saul1 senescence and cell death. The salicylic acid content increased in low-light-treated saul1 mutants, and application of exogenous salicylic acid was indeed sufficient to trigger saul1 senescence in permissive light conditions. Double mutant analyses showed that PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) but not NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES1 (NPR1) is essential for saul1 phenotypes. Our results indicate that saul1 senescence depends on the PAD4-dependent salicylic acid pathway but does not require NPR1 signaling. PMID:22706448

Vogelmann, Katja; Drechsel, Gabriele; Bergler, Johannes; Subert, Christa; Philippar, Katrin; Soll, Jürgen; Engelmann, Julia C.; Engelsdorf, Timo; Voll, Lars M.; Hoth, Stefan

2012-01-01

349

Alternansucrase acceptor reactions with methyl hexopyranosides.  

PubMed

Alternansucrase (EC 2.4.1.140, sucrose: (1-->6), (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucan 6(3)-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase) is a D-glucansucrase that synthesizes an alternating alpha-(1-->3), (1-->6)-linked D-glucan from sucrose. It also synthesizes oligosaccharides via D-glucopyranosyl transfer to various acceptor sugars. We have studied the acceptor products arising from methyl glycosides as model compounds in order to better understand the specificity of alternansucrase acceptor reactions. The initial product arising from methyl beta-D-glucopyranoside was methyl beta-isomaltoside, which was subsequently glucosylated to yield methyl beta-isomaltotrioside and methyl alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. These products are analogous to those previously described from methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside. The major initial acceptor product from methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside was methyl alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside, but several minor products were also isolated and characterized, including a 3,6-di-O-substituted mannopyranoside. Methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside yielded two initial products, methyl alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-D-galactopyranoside and methyl alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, in a 2.5:1 molar ratio. Methyl D-allopyranosides were glucosylated primarily at position 6, yielding methyl alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-D-allopyranosides. The latter subsequently gave rise to methyl alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-D-allopyranosides. In general, the methyl alpha-D-hexopyranosides were better acceptors than the corresponding beta-glycosides. PMID:14499572

Côté, Gregory L; Dunlap, Christopher A

2003-09-10

350

The superiority of asymmetric alkyl methyl carbonates  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical behavior of graphite electrodes cycled galvanostatically versus Li metal in electrolyte solutions containing LiPF{sub 6}, LiC(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 3}, and LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} in ethyl and methyl alkyl carbonates was studied. The solvents include ethyl methyl, ethyl propyl, methyl propyl, isopropyl methyl, and isopropyl ethyl carbonates. The use of asymmetric, aliphatic alkyl methyl carbonates is shown to be essential to achieve both high capacity and long cycle life with graphite electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

Ein-Eli, Y.; McDevitt, S.F.; Laura, R. [Covalent Associates, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)

1998-01-01

351

Physcomitrella patens activates reinforcement of the cell wall, programmed cell death and accumulation of evolutionary conserved defence signals, such as salicylic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but not jasmonic acid, upon Botrytis cinerea infection.  

PubMed

The moss Physcomitrella patens is an evolutionarily basal model system suitable for the analysis of plant defence responses activated after pathogen assault. Upon infection with the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, several defence mechanisms are induced in P. patens, including the fortification of the plant cell wall by the incorporation of phenolic compounds and the induced expression of related genes. Botrytis cinerea infection also activates the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and cell death with hallmarks of programmed cell death in moss tissues. Salicylic acid (SA) levels also increase after fungal infection, and treatment with SA enhances transcript accumulation of the defence gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in P. patens colonies. The expression levels of the genes involved in 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) synthesis, including lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS), increase in P. patens gametophytes after pathogen assault, together with a rise in free linolenic acid and OPDA concentrations. However, jasmonic acid (JA) could not be detected in healthy or infected tissues of this plant. Our results suggest that, although conserved defence signals, such as SA and OPDA, are synthesized and are probably involved in the defence response of P. patens against B. cinerea infection, JA production appears to be missing. Interestingly, P. patens responds to OPDA and methyl jasmonate by reducing moss colony growth and rhizoid length, suggesting that jasmonate perception is present in mosses. Thus, P. patens can provide clues with regard to the evolution of different defence pathways in plants, including signalling and perception of OPDA and jasmonates in nonflowering and flowering plants. PMID:22551417

Ponce De León, Inés; Schmelz, Eric A; Gaggero, Carina; Castro, Alexandra; Álvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos

2012-10-01

352

Increased DNA methylation in the suicide brain.  

PubMed

Clinical studies find that childhood adversity and stressful life events in adulthood increase the risk for major depression and for suicide. The predispositions to either major depression or suicide are thought to depend on genetic risk factors or epigenetic effects. We investigated DNA methylation signatures postmortem in brains of suicides with diagnosis of major depressive disorder. DNA methylation levels were determined at single C-phosphate-G (CpG) resolution sites within ventral prefrontal cortex of 53 suicides and nonpsychiatric controls, aged 16 to 89 years. We found that DNA methylation increases throughout the lifespan. Suicides showed an 8-fold greater number of methylated CpG sites relative to controls (P < 2.2 x 10(-16)), with greater DNA methylation changes over and above the increased methylation observed in normal aging. This increased DNA methylation may be a significant contributor to the neuropathology and psychopathology underlying the risk of suicide in depression. PMID:25364291

Haghighi, Fatemeh; Xin, Yurong; Chanrion, Benjamin; O'Donnell, Anne H; Ge, Yongchao; Dwork, Andrew J; Arango, Victoria; Mann, J John

2014-09-01

353

Increased DNA methylation in the suicide brain  

PubMed Central

Clinical studies find that childhood adversity and stress-ful life events in adulthood increase the risk for major depression and for suicide. The predispositions to either major depression or suicide are thought to depend on genetic risk factors or epigenetic effects. We investigated DNA methylation signatures postmortem in brains of suicides with diagnosis of major depressive disorder. DNA methylation levels were determined at single C-phosphate-G (CpG) resolution sites within ventral prefrontal cortex of 53 suicides and nonpsychiatric controls, aged 16 to 89 years. We found that DNA methylation increases throughout the lifespan. Suicides showed an 8-fold greater number of methylated CpG sites relative to controls (P<2.2x10-16), with greater DNA methylation changes over and above the increased methylation observed in normal aging. This increased DNA methylation may be a significant contributor to the neuropathology and psychopathology underlying the risk of suicide in depression. PMID:25364291

Haghighi, Fatemeh; Xin, Yurong; Chanrion, Benjamin; O'Donnell, Anne H.; Ge, Yongchao; Dwork, Andrew J.; Arango, Victoria; Mann, J. John

2014-01-01

354

Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO. PMID:25308637

Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

2015-03-15

355

Amino Acid Homeostasis Modulates Salicylic Acid–Associated Redox Status and Defense Responses in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The tight association between nitrogen status and pathogenesis has been broadly documented in plant–pathogen interactions. However, the interface between primary metabolism and disease responses remains largely unclear. Here, we show that knockout of a single amino acid transporter, LYSINE HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER1 (LHT1), is sufficient for Arabidopsis thaliana plants to confer a broad spectrum of disease resistance in a salicylic acid–dependent manner. We found that redox fine-tuning in photosynthetic cells was causally linked to the lht1 mutant-associated phenotypes. Furthermore, the enhanced resistance in lht1 could be attributed to a specific deficiency of its main physiological substrate, Gln, and not to a general nitrogen deficiency. Thus, by enabling nitrogen metabolism to moderate the cellular redox status, a plant primary metabolite, Gln, plays a crucial role in plant disease resistance. PMID:21097712

Liu, Guosheng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Bhuiyan, Nazmul H.; Pilot, Guillaume; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Zou, Jitao; Wei, Yangdou

2010-01-01

356

The gene encoding glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase/GSNO reductase is responsive to wounding, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

It has recently been discovered that glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) exhibits a strong S-nitrosoglutathione reductase activity. Plants use NO and S-nitrosothiols as signaling molecules to activate defense mechanisms. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate the regulation of FALDH by mechanical wounding and plant hormones involved in signal transduction. Our results show that the gene encoding FALDH in Arabidopsis (ADH2) is down-regulated by wounding and activated by salicylic acid (SA). In tobacco, FALDH levels and enzymatic activity decreased after jasmonate treatment, and increased in response to SA. This is the first time that regulation of FALDH in response to signals associated with plant defense has been demonstrated. PMID:12753920

Díaz, Maykelis; Achkor, Hakima; Titarenko, Elena; Martínez, M Carmen

2003-05-22

357

Strategy to improve photovoltaic performance of DSSC sensitized by zinc prophyrin using salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group.  

PubMed

Three new zinc porphyrin dyes attached to ethynyl benzoic acid as an electron transmission and anchoring group have been designed, synthesized, and well-characterized. The performances of their sensitized solar cells have been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical methods. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cells sensitized by the dye with salicylic acid as an anchoring group demonstrated obvious enhancement when compared with that sensitized by the dye with carboxylic acid as an anchoring group. The density functional theory calculations and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopies revealed that tridentate binding modes could increase the efficiency of electron injection from dyes to the TiO2 nanoparticles by more electron pathways. PMID:24761751

Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Ran; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping

2014-05-14

358

Coronatine promotes Pseudomonas syringae virulence in plants by activating a signaling cascade that inhibits salicylic acid accumulation  

PubMed Central

Phytopathogens can manipulate plant hormone signaling to access nutrients and counteract defense responses. Pseudomonas syringae produces coronatine, a toxin that mimics the plant hormone jasmonic acid isoleucine and promotes opening of stomata for bacterial entry, bacterial growth in the apoplast, systemic susceptibility and disease symptoms. We examined the mechanisms underlying coronatine-mediated virulence and show that coronatine activates three homologous NAC transcription factor (TF) genes, ANAC019, ANAC055 and ANAC072, through direct activity of the TF, MYC2. Genetic characterization of NAC TF mutants demonstrates that these TFs mediate coronatine-induced stomatal reopening and bacterial propagation in both local and systemic tissues by inhibiting the accumulation of the key plant immune signal salicylic acid (SA). These NAC TFs exert this inhibitory effect by repressing ICS1 and activating BSMT1, genes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism, respectively. Thus, a signaling cascade by which coronatine confers its multiple virulence activities has been elucidated. PMID:22704619

Zheng, Xiao-yu; Spivey, Natalie Weaver; Zeng, Weiqing; Liu, Po-Pu; Fu, Zheng Qing; Klessig, Daniel F.; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

2012-01-01

359

Coronatine promotes Pseudomonas syringae virulence in plants by activating a signaling cascade that inhibits salicylic acid accumulation.  

PubMed

Phytopathogens can manipulate plant hormone signaling to access nutrients and counteract defense responses. Pseudomonas syringae produces coronatine, a toxin that mimics the plant hormone jasmonic acid isoleucine and promotes opening of stomata for bacterial entry, bacterial growth in the apoplast, systemic susceptibility, and disease symptoms. We examined the mechanisms underlying coronatine-mediated virulence and show that coronatine activates three homologous NAC transcription factor (TF) genes, ANAC019, ANAC055, and ANAC072, through direct activity of the TF, MYC2. Genetic characterization of NAC TF mutants demonstrates that these TFs mediate coronatine-induced stomatal reopening and bacterial propagation in both local and systemic tissues by inhibiting the accumulation of the key plant immune signal salicylic acid (SA). These NAC TFs exert this inhibitory effect by repressing ICS1 and activating BSMT1, genes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism, respectively. Thus, a signaling cascade by which coronatine confers its multiple virulence activities has been elucidated. PMID:22704619

Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Spivey, Natalie Weaver; Zeng, Weiqing; Liu, Po-Pu; Fu, Zheng Qing; Klessig, Daniel F; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

2012-06-14

360

Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.  

PubMed

Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control. PMID:23265522

Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

2013-05-01

361

Evidence of Salicylic Acid pathway with EDS1 and PAD4 proteins by molecular dynamics simulation for Grape improvement.  

PubMed

Abstract Biotic stress is a major cause of heavy loss in grape productivity. In order to develop biotic stress-resistant grape varieties, the key defense genes along with its pathway has to be deciphered. In angiosperm plants, lipase-like protein PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) is well known to be essential for systemic resistance against biotic stress. PAD4 functions together with its interacting partner protein ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) to promote salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and SA-independent defense pathway. Existence and structure of key protein of systemic resistance EDS1 and PAD4 are not known in grapes. Before SA pathway studies are taken in grape, molecular evidence of EDS1: PAD4 complex are to be established. To establish this, EDS1 protein sequence was retrieved from NCBI and homologous PAD4 protein was generated using Arabidopsis thaliana as template and conserved domains were confirmed. In present study, computational methods were used to model EDS1 and PAD4 and simulated the interactions of EDS1 and PAD4. Since no structural details of the proteins were available, homology modelling was employed to construct three-dimensional structures. Further, molecular dynamic simulations was performed to study the dynamic behaviour of the EDS1 and PAD4. The modelled proteins were validated and subjected to molecular docking analysis. Molecular evidence of stable complex of EDS1:PAD4 in grape supporting Salicylic Acid defense pathway in response to biotic stress is reported in this study. If SA defence pathway genes are explored, then markers of genes involved can play pivotal role in grape variety development especially against biotic stress leading to higher productivity. PMID:25483988

Tandon, Gitanjali; Sarika; A Iquebal, M; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Sukhdeep; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh

2014-12-01

362

Extending shikimate pathway for the production of muconic acid and its precursor salicylic acid in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

cis,cis-Muconic acid (MA) and salicylic acid (SA) are naturally-occurring organic acids having great commercial value. MA is a potential platform chemical for the manufacture of several widely-used consumer plastics; while SA is mainly used for producing pharmaceuticals (for example, aspirin and lamivudine) and skincare and haircare products. At present, MA and SA are commercially produced by organic chemical synthesis using petro-derived aromatic chemicals, such as benzene, as starting materials, which is not environmentally friendly. Here, we report a novel approach for efficient microbial production of MA via extending shikimate pathway by introducing the hybrid of an SA biosynthetic pathway with its partial degradation pathway. First, we engineered a well-developed phenylalanine producing Escherichia coli strain into an SA overproducer by introducing isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate lyase. The engineered strain is able to produce 1.2g/L of SA from simple carbon sources, which is the highest titer reported so far. Further, the partial SA degradation pathway involving salicylate 1-monoxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase is established to achieve the conversion of SA to MA. Finally, a de novo MA biosynthetic pathway is assembled by integrating the established SA biosynthesis and degradation modules. Modular optimization enables the production of up to 1.5g/L MA within 48h in shake flasks. This study not only establishes an efficient microbial platform for the production of SA and MA, but also demonstrates a generalizable pathway design strategy for the de novo biosynthesis of valuable degradation metabolites. PMID:24583236

Lin, Yuheng; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

2014-05-01

363

TMV-Cg Coat Protein stabilizes DELLA proteins and in turn negatively modulates salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway during.  

PubMed

BackgroundPlant viral infections disturb defense regulatory networks during tissue invasion. Emerging evidence demonstrates that a significant proportion of these alterations are mediated by hormone imbalances. Although the DELLA proteins have been reported to be central players in hormone cross-talk, their role in the modulation of hormone signaling during virus infections remains unknown.ResultsThis work revealed that TMV-Cg coat protein (CgCP) suppresses the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway without altering defense hormone SA or jasmonic acid (JA) levels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of CgCP reduces plant growth and delays the timing of floral transition. Quantitative RT-qPCR analysis of DELLA target genes showed that CgCP alters relative expression of several target genes, indicating that the DELLA proteins mediate transcriptional changes produced by CgCP expression. Analyses by fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that CgCP stabilizes DELLA proteins accumulation in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) and that the DELLA proteins are also stabilized during TMV-Cg virus infections. Moreover, DELLA proteins negatively modulated defense transcript profiles during TMV-Cg infection. As a result, TMV-Cg accumulation was significantly reduced in the quadruple-DELLA mutant Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type plants.ConclusionsTaken together, these results demonstrate that CgCP negatively regulates the salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway by stabilizing the DELLA proteins during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection, suggesting that CgCP alters the stability of DELLAs as a mechanism of negative modulation of antiviral defense responses. PMID:25084837

Rodriguez, Maria; Conti, Gabriela; Zavallo, Diego; Manacorda, Carlos; Asurmendi, Sebastian

2014-08-01

364

Molecular Structure of Methyl Acrylate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Commercially available since 1944, methyl acrylate is a clear, colorless liquid with a sweet, fruity odor. This lachrymator often found in tobacco smoke, is used in the manufacturing of polymers, leather finishing, resins, textile, paper coatings, and plastic films. It is highly flammable and polymerizes explosively with exposure to light or heat. Inhibition by hydroquinone monomethyl ether, MEHQ, helps to prevent this problem. Because MEHQ functionality is reliant on oxygen, methyl acrylate must never be stored in an inert environment. Contact with skin will lead to severe deep burns, while ingestion or inhalation could lead to nausea, cough and abdominal pain. The liver, lungs, and kidneys are target organs for this compound, and medical attention should be sought immediately upon exposure.

2002-10-01

365

Zinc complexes supported by methyl salicylato ligands: synthesis, structure, and application in ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide.  

PubMed

Two novel zinc alkoxides supported by chelating methyl salicylato (MesalO; MesalOH = methyl salicylate) ligands were successfully synthesized and characterized. Reaction of MesalOH with ZnEt2 (2:1) gives a tetranuclear cluster [Zn(MesalO)2]4 (1), which by addition of pyridine is transformed to the mononuclear compound [Zn(MesalO)2(py)2] (2). Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The catalytic activity of both compounds was tested for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide (L-LA). It was found that compounds 1 and 2 are efficient initiators of the ROP of L-LA, yielding cyclic PLLA with weight average molecular weights up to 100 kDa for 2. The treatment of 2 with 1 equiv. of BnOH in toluene afforded a dimeric compound [Zn(OBn)(MesalO)(py)]2 (3). The addition of L-LA to a combination of 1 and 4 equiv. of BnOH in THF or 2 and 1 equiv. of BnOH in toluene led to the rapid and efficient generation of PLLA with end-capped BnO groups. PMID:23811782

Petrus, Rafa?; Sobota, Piotr

2013-10-14

366

Methylated Flavones from Teucrium polium.  

PubMed

The following four methylated flavones were obtained from the leaves of TEUCRIUM POLIUM L. (Labiatae). 4', 5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (cirsimaritin); 3', 5 dihydroxy-4',6,7-trimethoxyflavone (eupatorin); 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (apigenin-4', 7-dimethylether); 4', 5, 3'-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (cirsiliol). One of these (4', 5-dihydroxy- 6,7-dimethoxyflavone) has been already reported in the same plant by Brieskorn and Biechele (1). PMID:17345353

Verykokidou-Vitsaropoulou, E; Vajias, C

1986-10-01

367

In vitro Assays of Inorganic Arsenic Methylation  

PubMed Central

Inorganic arsenic is extensively metabolized to produce mono-, di-, and trimethylated products. The formation of these metabolites produces a variety of intermediates that differ from inorganic arsenic in terms of patterns of distribution and retention and in toxic effects. In order to elucidate the pathway for arsenic methylation, it was necessary to develop a reliable in vitro assay system in which the formation of methylated metabolites could be monitored. Here, in vitro assay system that uses the postmicrosomal supernate from rat liver is used as the source of the enzymatic activity that catalyzes methylation reactions. This system can be used to study the requirements for methylation reactions (e.g., identifying the donor of methyl groups) and for screening of compounds as potential activators or inhibitors of arsenic methylation. PMID:20440380

Drobna, Zuzana; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.

2009-01-01

368

Wp specific methylation of highly proliferated LCLs  

SciTech Connect

The epigenetic regulation of viral genes may be important for the life cycle of EBV. We determined the methylation status of three viral promoters (Wp, Cp, Qp) from EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by pyrosequencing. Our pyrosequencing data showed that the CpG region of Wp was methylated, but the others were not. Interestingly, Wp methylation was increased with proliferation of LCLs. Wp methylation was as high as 74.9% in late-passage LCLs, but 25.6% in early-passage LCLs. From two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, Wp specific hypermethylation was also found (>80%). Interestingly, the expression of EBNA2 gene which located directly next to Wp was associated with its methylation. Our data suggested that Wp specific methylation may be important for the indicator of the proliferation status of LCLs, and the epigenetic viral gene regulation of EBNA2 gene by Wp should be further defined possibly with other biological processes.

Park, Jung-Hoon [Functional Genomics Lab, Graduate School of Life Science and Biotechnology, CHA Research Institute, Bundang Campus, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, 222 Yatap-Dong, Bundang-Gu, Sungnam-Si, Kyunggi-Do 436-836, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jae-Pil [Division of Genome Resources Bank and Reservation, National Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Health, 5 Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul 122-701, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sung-Mi [Division of Genome Resources Bank and Reservation, National Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Health, 5 Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul 122-701, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hye-Young [Division of Genome Resources Bank and Reservation, National Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Health, 5 Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul 122-701, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon-Woo [Division of Genome Resources Bank and Reservation, National Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Health, 5 Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul 122-701, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Han, Bok-Ghee [Division of Genome Resources Bank and Reservation, National Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Health, 5 Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul 122-701, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suman [Functional Genomics Lab, Graduate School of Life Science and Biotechnology, CHA Research Institute, Bundang Campus, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, 222 Yatap-Dong, Bundang-Gu, Sungnam-Si, Kyunggi-Do 436-836, South Korea (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: suman@cha.ac.kr

2007-06-29

369

Function and information content of DNA methylation.  

PubMed

Cytosine methylation is a DNA modification generally associated with transcriptional silencing. Factors that regulate methylation have been linked to human disease, yet how they contribute to malignances remains largely unknown. Genomic maps of DNA methylation have revealed unexpected dynamics at gene regulatory regions, including active demethylation by TET proteins at binding sites for transcription factors. These observations indicate that the underlying DNA sequence largely accounts for local patterns of methylation. As a result, this mark is highly informative when studying gene regulation in normal and diseased cells, and it can potentially function as a biomarker. Although these findings challenge the view that methylation is generally instructive for gene silencing, several open questions remain, including how methylation is targeted and recognized and in what context it affects genome readout. PMID:25592537

Schübeler, Dirk

2015-01-15

370

Transfer RNA methylating activity of yeast mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified in Urografin or sucrose gradient contain tRNA methylating activity with specificities different from those of the cytoplasm. The main reaction product, using E.coli tRNA as methyl group acceptor, is N2,-N2-dimethylguanine. The corresponding mitochondrial methylase is coded by nuclear DNA. A DNA methylating activity is also associated with yeast mitochondria. PMID:10793751

Smolar, Nina; Svensson, Ingvar

1974-01-01

371

Aberrant DNA methylation patterns in diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate whether global levels of DNA methylation status were associated with albuminuria and progression of diabetic nephropathy in a case-control study of 123 patients with type 2 diabetes- 53 patients with albuminuria and 70 patients without albuminuria. Methods The 5-methyl cytosine content was assessed by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to determine individual global DNA methylation status in two groups. Results Global DNA methylation levels were significantly higher in patients with albuminuria compared with those in normal range of albuminuria (p?=?0.01). There were significant differences in global levels of DNA methylation in relation to albuminuria (p?=?0.028) and an interesting pattern of increasing global levels of DNA methylation in terms of albuminuria severity. In patients with micro- and macro albuminuria, we found no significant correlations between global DNA methylation levels and duration of diabetes (p?>?0.05). In both sub groups, there were not significant differences between global DNA methylation levels with good and poor glycaemic control (p?>?0.05). In addition, in patients with albuminuria, no differences in DNA methylation levels were observed between patients with and without other risk factors including age, gender, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity. Conclusions These data may be helpful in further studies to develop novel biomarkers and new strategies for clinical care of patients at risk of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25028646

2014-01-01

372

Characterization of DNA methylation in the rat.  

PubMed

In the rat, differentiation and cell proliferation both affect DNA methylation. We studied 5-methylcytosine at the inner cytosine of the sequence C-C-G-G, a common methylation site, using endonuclease MspI (which cleaves C-C-G-G- and C-mC-G-G), and its isoschizomer HpaII (which cleaves only C-C-G-G). DNA from all tissues and cell lines studied was methylated at C-C-G-G, at levels ranging from 45 to 80%, but the methylation sites were not distributed uniformly. Our analysis suggests a model in which cells contain variable amounts of three DNA methylation states, averaging 30-40, 70-80 and 95-100% methylation, respectively. One biological parameter that alters methylation is the proliferative state of the cell. We observed that NRK, a non-transformed cell line, increased its DNA methylation from 45 to 67% when monolayer cultures became confluent and non-dividing. We also observed that a class of repetitive DNA was completely methylated in DNA from all sources except a transformed cell line. PMID:6297564

Kunnath, L; Locker, J

1982-12-31

373

The antidandruff efficacy of a shampoo containing piroctone olamine and salicylic acid in comparison to that of a zinc pyrithione shampoo.  

PubMed

Dandruff (pityriasis capitis) is a chronic scalp condition characterized by scaling and sometimes itching and redness. Shampoos containing antifungal agents are used to control the scaling condition. In the present study, two shampoos with different actives are compared in a double-blind, randomised and bilateral study on 19 subjects. One shampoo contained piroctone olamine (0.75%) combined with salicylic acid (2%) and the other contained zinc pyrithione (1%) as active ingredient. The subjects were treated twice weekly with the shampoos for almost 4 weeks. Before each treatment the degree of dandruff was evaluated. Both shampoos were highly effective in reducing the dandruff. The combination of piroctone olamine and salicylic acid appeared to be slightly more effective than zinc pyrithione in reducing the severity and area affected by the scaling. PMID:18503415

Lodén, M; Wessman, C

2000-08-01

374

[Change in the content of salicylic acid and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the influence of Azospirilium lectins].  

PubMed

The time course of changes in the endogenous content of salicylic acid, the ratio between the acid's free and bound forms, and changes in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the effect of lectins of two strains of the associative nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum (A. brasilense Sp7 and its mutant defective in lectin activity, A. brasilense Sp7.2.3) is investigated. Differences in plant response to the action of the lectins from these two strains are established. On the basis of the obtained data, a model is proposed for lectin-assisted induction of resistance, according to which the lectin effect on the roots of seedlings results in the accumulation of free salicylic acid, which inhibits catalase activity, ultimately leading to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and formation of induced resistance. PMID:25518563

2013-01-01

375

Molecular Structure of Methyl Cyanide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl Cyanide is a toxic, colorless liquid with an aromatic (ether like) odor and forms explosive mixtures with air. It is a critical solvent for several important processes e.g., it is widely used as a mobile phase solvent in chromatography applications, as a wash solvent and in preparing reagent solutions for oligonucleotide synthesis. It is employed in the manufacturing of acrylic fibers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, nitrile rubber, batteries, pesticides, and inorganic salts. It can be utilized to remove tars, phenols, and coloring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons, to extract fatty acids from fish liver, animal, and vegetable oils, and to recrystallize steroids.

2003-06-03

376

Review study on CG islands and CpG methylation  

E-print Network

is it important to study DNA methylation? · Methylation is one of the epigenetic marker. · Examples: · Experiments do motivate us to study more about the methylation and epigenetics. · Some mechanisms by which. · The impact of CpG methylation on structure of DNA · Role of different enzymes involved in DNA methylation

Rohs, Remo

377

Enhanced somatic embryogenesis by salicylic acid of Astragalus adsurgens Pall.: relationship with H 2O 2 production and H 2O 2-metabolizing enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA), when added to the differentiation medium below 200 ?mol\\/l, significantly enhanced somatic embryogenesis in callus culture of Astragalus adsurgens Pall. The highest frequency of somatic embryogenesis occurred at 150 ?mol\\/l SA. Enhanced somatic embryogenesis by SA was accompanied by an increase in the endogenous H2O2 level as compared with controls. This increased endogenous H2O2 level was related

Jian-Ping Luo; Shao-Tong Jiang; Li-Jun Pan

2001-01-01

378

Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized emulsions: Effect of polymer type and pH on release and topical delivery of salicylic acid.  

PubMed

Emulsions are widely used as topical formulations in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. They are thermodynamically unstable and require emulsifiers for stabilization. Studies have indicated that emulsifiers could affect topical delivery of actives, and this study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of different polymers, applied as emulsifiers, as well as the effects of pH on the release and topical delivery of the active. O/w emulsions were prepared by the layer-by-layer technique, with whey protein forming the first layer around the oil droplets, while either chitosan or carrageenan was subsequently adsorbed to the protein at the interface. Additionally, the emulsions were prepared at three different pH values to introduce different charges to the polymers. The active ingredient, salicylic acid, was incorporated into the oil phase of the emulsions. Physical characterization of the resulting formulations, i.e., droplet size, zeta potential, stability, and turbidity in the water phase, was performed. Release studies were conducted, after which skin absorption studies were performed on the five most stable emulsions, by using Franz type diffusion cells and utilizing human, abdominal skin membranes. It was found that an increase in emulsion droplet charge could negatively affect the release of salicylic acid from these formulations. Contrary, positively charged emulsion droplets were found to enhance dermal and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from emulsions. It was hypothesized that electrostatic complex formation between the emulsifier and salicylic acid could affect its release, whereas electrostatic interaction between the emulsion droplets and skin could influence dermal/transdermal delivery of the active. PMID:24550100

Combrinck, Johann; Otto, Anja; du Plessis, Jeanetta

2014-06-01

379

The Effects of Topically Applied Glycolic Acid and Salicylic Acid on Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Erythema, DNA Damage and Sunburn Cell Formation in Human Skin  

PubMed Central

Background ?-Hydroxy acids (?HA) are reported to reduce signs of aging in the skin and are widely used cosmetic ingredients. Several studies suggest that ?HA can increase the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet radiation. More recently, ?-hydroxy acids (?HA), or combinations of ?HA and ?HA have also been incorporated into antiaging skin care products. Concerns have also arisen about increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation following use of skin care products containing ?-HA. Objective To determine whether topical treatment with glycolic acid, a representative ?HA, or with salicylic acid, a ?HA, modifies the short-term effects of solar simulated radiation (SSR) in human skin. Methods Fourteen subjects participated in this study. Three of the four test sites on the mid-back of each subject were treated daily Monday - Friday, for a total of 3.5 weeks, with glycolic acid (10%), salicylic acid (2%), or vehicle (control). The fourth site received no treatment. After the last treatment, each site was exposed to SSR, and shave biopsies from all 4 sites were obtained. The endpoints evaluated in this study were erythema (assessed visually and instrumentally), DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Results Treatment with glycolic acid resulted in increased sensitivity of human skin to SSR, measured as an increase in erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Salicylic acid did not produce significant changes in any of these biomarkers. Conclusions Short-term topical application of glycolic acid in a cosmetic formulation increased the sensitivity of human skin to SSR, while a comparable treatment with salicylic acid did not. PMID:19411163

Kornhauser, Andrija; Wei, Rong-Rong; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Coelho, Sergio G.; Kaidbey, Kays; Barton, Curtis; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Beer, Janusz Z.; Miller, Sharon A.; Hearing, Vincent J.

2009-01-01

380

Accumulation of salicylic acid and PR1 gene transcripts in relation to the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, PR-1 gene expression, and the degree of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) established in Arabidopsis plants has been determined by comparing the response of wild-type ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and two hypersensitive response (HR)-defective mutants (rps2-201 andrps2-101C ) during the SAR response induced by avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Unlike wild-type Col-0 plants, plants

ROBIN K. CAMERON; NANCY L. PAIVA; CHRIS J. LAMB; RICHARD A. DIXON

1999-01-01

381

Novel interrelationship between salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and PIP2-specific phospholipase C in heat acclimation-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence suggests that heat acclimation and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) may lead to the enhancement of thermotoler- ance in plants. In this study, the roles that free SA, conjugated SA, ABA, and phosphatidylinositol-4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) play in thermotolerance development induced by heat acclimation (38 8C) were investigated. To evaluate their potential functions,

Hong-Tao Liu; Yan-Yan Liu; Qiu-Hong Pan; Hao-Ru Yang; Ji-Cheng Zhan; Wei-Dong Huang

2006-01-01

382

Parallel Changes in H2O2 and Catalase during Thermotolerance Induced by Salicylic Acid or Heat Acclimation in Mustard Seedlings1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spraying mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings with salicylic acid (SA) solutions between 10 and 500 mM significantly improved their tolerance to a subsequent heat shock at 55°C for 1.5 h. The effects of SA were concentration dependent, with higher concentrations failing to induce thermotolerance. The time course of thermotoler- ance induced by 100 mM SA was similar to that obtained

James F. Dat; Humberto Lopez-Delgado; Christine H. Foyer; Ian M. Scott

1998-01-01

383

The WRKY70 Transcription Factor: A Node of Convergence for Jasmonate-Mediated and Salicylate-Mediated Signals in Plant Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross talk between salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent defense signaling has been well documented in plants, but how this cross talk is executed and the components involved remain to be elucidated. We demonstrate that the plant-specific transcription factor WRKY70 is a common component in SA- and JA-mediated signal pathways. Expression of WRKY70 is activated by SA and repressed

Jing Li; Gunter Brader; E. Tapio Palva

2004-01-01

384

Changes in the water status and osmotic solute contents in response to drought and salicylic acid treatments in four different cultivars of wheat ( Triticum aestivum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) controls growth and stress responses in plants. It also induces drought tolerance in plants. In this paper,\\u000a four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with different drought responses were treated with SA in three levels of drain (90, 60, 30% of maximum field\\u000a capacity) to examine its interactive effects on drought responses and contents of osmotic solutes that

Naglaa LoutfyMohamed; Mohamed A. El-Tayeb; Ahmed M. Hassanen; Mahmoud F. M. Moustafa; Yoh Sakuma; Masahiro Inouhe

385

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF UREA, MOLYBDENUM, BENZYLADENINE, SUCROSE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON YIELD, NITROGEN METABOLISM OF RADISH PLANTS AND QUALITY OF EDIBLE ROOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006–2007 small radish was cultivated in a pot experiment. Foliar applications were applied twice with solutions of the following compounds: 1) control (water); 2) urea; 3) urea+molybdenum (Mo), 4) urea+Mo+benzyladenine (BA); 5) urea+Mo+BA+sucrose; 6) urea+Mo+BA+sucrose+salicylic acid (SA), 7) BA; 8) SA; and 9) sucrose. The above solutions contained following concentrations of compounds: urea 20 g dm, sucrose 10 g

Sylwester Smole?; W?odzimierz Sady

2012-01-01

386

Salicylic acid functionalized silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles for solid phase extraction and preconcentration of some heavy metal ions from various real samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the preconcentration of trace heavy metal ions in environmental samples has been reported. The presented method\\u000a is based on the sorption of Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cr(III) ions with salicylic acid as respective chelate on silica-coated\\u000a magnetite nanoparticles. Prepared adsorbent was characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and FT-IR measurements. The metals content\\u000a of the sorbed complexes are

M Reza Shishehbore; Abbas Afkhami; Hasan Bagheri

2011-01-01

387

Design, Synthesis, Application and Recovery of Guar Gum 5Amino Salicylic Acid Hydroximate [GASAH] Resin for Selective Separation and Determination of Trace and Heavy Metal Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion exchange method is applied for removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater and determines the applicability of synthesized guar gum 5-amino salicylic acid hydroximate (GASAH) resin. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, agitation speed, contact time, adsorbent dose and flow rate on the removal of metal ions has been studied. Fourier-transform infrared spectrum and elemental

A. V. Singh; Naresh Kumar Sharma

2012-01-01

388

Ozone Sensitivity in Hybrid Poplar Correlates with Insensitivity to Both Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid. The Role of Programmed Cell Death in Lesion Formation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and\\/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels

Jennifer Riehl Koch; Robert A. Creelman; Steven M. Eshita; Mirjana Seskar; John E. Mullet; Keith R. Davis

2000-01-01

389

Suppressive effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac sodium, salicylate and indomethacin on delayed rectifier K+-channel currents in murine thymocytes.  

PubMed

Lymphocytes predominantly express delayed rectifier K(+)-channels (Kv1.3) in their plasma membranes, and the channels play crucial roles in the lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Since nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drugs, exert immunomodulatory effects, they would affect the channel currents in lymphocytes. In the present study, employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of diclofenac sodium, salicylate and indomethacin on the channel currents in murine thymocytes and the membrane capacitance. Diclofenac sodium and salicylate significantly suppressed the pulse-end currents of the channel. However, indomethacin suppressed both the peak and the pulse-end currents with a significant increase in the membrane capacitance. This study demonstrated for the first time that NSAIDs, such as diclofenac sodium, salicylate and indomethacin, exert inhibitory effects on thymocyte Kv1.3-channel currents. The slow inactivation pattern induced by indomethacin was thought to be associated with microscopic changes in the plasma membrane surface detected by the increase in the membrane capacitance. PMID:22409730

Kazama, Itsuro; Maruyama, Yoshio; Murata, Yoshimichi

2012-10-01

390

Erasure of CpG methylation in Arabidopsis alters patterns of histone H3 methylation in heterochromatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals and plants, formation of heterochromatin is associated with hypermethylation of DNA at CpG sites and histone H3 methylation at lysine 9. Previous studies have revealed that maintenance of DNA methylation in Neurospora and Arabidopsis requires histone H3 methylation. A feedback loop from DNA methylation to histone methylation, however, is less understood. Its recent examination in Arabidopsis with a

Muhammad Tariq; Hidetoshi Saze; Aline V. Probst; Jacek Lichota; Yoshiki Habu; Jerzy Paszkowski

2003-01-01

391

Down Regulation of Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Salicylic Acid Attenuates Its Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic metabolite produced by plants and is known to play an important role in several physiological processes, such as the induction of plant defense responses against pathogen attack. Here, using the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathosystem, we provide evidence that SA acts directly on the pathogen, down regulating fitness and virulence factor production of the bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 showed reduced attachment and biofilm formation on the roots of the Arabidopsis mutants lox2 and cpr5-2, which produce elevated amounts of SA, as well as on wild-type Arabidopsis plants primed with exogenous SA, a treatment known to enhance endogenous SA concentration. Salicylic acid at a concentration that did not inhibit PA14 growth was sufficient to significantly affect the ability of the bacteria to attach and form biofilm communities on abiotic surfaces. Furthermore, SA down regulated three known virulence factors of PA14: pyocyanin, protease, and elastase. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa produced more pyocyanin when infiltrated into leaves of the Arabidopsis transgenic line NahG, which accumulates less SA than wild-type plants. This finding suggests that endogenous SA plays a role in down regulating the synthesis and secretion of pyocyanin in vivo. To further test if SA directly affects the virulence of P. aeruginosa, we used the Caenorhabiditis elegans-P. aeruginosa infection model. The addition of SA to P. aeruginosa lawns significantly diminished the bacterium's ability to kill the worms, without affecting the accumulation of bacteria inside the nematodes' guts, suggesting that SA negatively affects factors that influence the virulence of P. aeruginosa. We employed microarray technology to identify SA target genes. These analyses showed that SA treatment affected expression of 331 genes. It selectively repressed transcription of exoproteins and other virulence factors, while it had no effect on expression of housekeeping genes. Our results indicate that in addition to its role as a signal molecule in plant defense responses, SA works as an anti-infective compound by affecting the physiology of P. aeruginosa and ultimately attenuating its virulence. PMID:16113247

Prithiviraj, B.; Bais, H. P.; Weir, T.; Suresh, B.; Najarro, E. H.; Dayakar, B. V.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vivanco, J. M.

2005-01-01

392

Pathodiagnostic parameters and evaluation of O?- methyl guanine methyl transferase gene promoter methylation in meningiomas.  

PubMed

Histopathological evaluation and grading of meningioma give important prognostic information. We evaluated retrospectively monotonous sheeting, necrosis, hypercellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, small cell changes, brain invasion, mitosis, mast cells, psammoma bodies, MIB-1 labeling index (MIB-1 LI) and histological grade of 230 primary meningioma tumors according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification. To reveal any possible association between clinical features and promoter hypermethylation of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) as an important epigenetic modification in many human cancers, we also evaluated the methylation status of MGMT in meningiomas by a SYBR-green-based real-time PCR method. There was a female predominance (2.38 to 1) in the meningiomas. The mean age of the patients was 49.9 ± 12.6 years (range 16 to 78 years). Transitional meningiomas were the most common subtype of the meningiomas (35.21%, n=81). Most of the meningiomas were located in the falx and parasagital area. There was a significant correlation between histopathological features of malignancy. These features were observed more frequently and with statistical relation to grade II rather than grade I. Mast cells, psammoma bodies and nuclear pleomorphism had poor associations (P>0.05). When we re-evaluated the tumor grading, 31 patients with grade I meningiomas were upgraded to grade II. None of the meningiomas tested by MSQP were methylated in MGMT promoter sequence. High MIB-1 LI could be indicative for higher grade of meningioma. Continuous revision of the classification system is needed to improve the accuracy of prognostic judgments in meningioma. The data confirm that there is no rationale to test meningiomas for MGMT methylation status. PMID:24398011

Jabini, Raheleh; Moradi, Afshin; Afsharnezhad, Sima; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Behravan, Javad; Raziee, Hamid Reza; Mosaffa, Fatemeh

2014-04-01

393

40 CFR 180.445 - Bensulfuron methyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bensulfuron methyl (methyl-2[[[[[(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yl) amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl] methyl] benzoate) in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million Crayfish 0.05 Rice,...

2010-07-01

394

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2014-04-01

395

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2013-04-01

396

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2012-04-01

397

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2011-04-01

398

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2010-04-01

399

Neurological Manifestation of Methyl Bromide Intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl bromide is a highly toxic gas with poor olfactory warning properties. It is widely used as insecticidal fumigant for dry foodstuffs and can be toxic to central and peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological manifestations of methyl bromide intoxication occur from inhalation. Acute toxicity characterized by headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances. Tremor , convulsion, un- consciousness

Kammant Phanthumchinda

400

ABIOLOGICAL METHYLATION OF MERCURY IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

This work defines several factors influencing the methylation of mercuric ion in soil. Two of the most important findings were that it is possible to extract the mercury methylating factor from soil with a solution of 0.5N sodium hydroxide and that this factor is responsible for ...

401

DNA methylation landscapes: provocative insights from epigenomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomes of many animals, plants and fungi are tagged by methylation of DNA cytosine. To understand the biological significance of this epigenetic mark it is essential to know where in the genome it is located. New techniques are making it easier to map DNA methylation patterns on a large scale and the results have already provided surprises. In particular,

Adrian Bird; Miho M. Suzuki

2008-01-01

402

Adsorption kinetics of methyl violet onto perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines adsorption kinetics and activation parameters of methyl violet on perlite. The effect of process parameters like contact time, concentration of dye, temperature and pH on the extent of methyl violet adsorption from solution has been investigated. Results of the kinetic studies show that the adsorption reaction is first order with respect to dye solution concentration with activation

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan

2003-01-01

403

DNA Sequence Explains Seemingly Disordered Methylation Levels in Partially Methylated Domains of Mammalian Genomes  

PubMed Central

For the most part metazoan genomes are highly methylated and harbor only small regions with low or absent methylation. In contrast, partially methylated domains (PMDs), recently discovered in a variety of cell lines and tissues, do not fit this paradigm as they show partial methylation for large portions (20%–40%) of the genome. While in PMDs methylation levels are reduced on average, we found that at single CpG resolution, they show extensive variability along the genome outside of CpG islands and DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS). Methylation levels range from 0% to 100% in a roughly uniform fashion with only little similarity between neighboring CpGs. A comparison of various PMD-containing methylomes showed that these seemingly disordered states of methylation are strongly conserved across cell types for virtually every PMD. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that DNA sequence is a major determinant of these methylation states. This is further substantiated by a purely sequence based model which can predict 31% (R2) of the variation in methylation. The model revealed CpG density as the main driving feature promoting methylation, opposite to what has been shown for CpG islands, followed by various dinucleotides immediately flanking the CpG and a minor contribution from sequence preferences reflecting nucleosome positioning. Taken together we provide a reinterpretation for the nucleotide-specific methylation levels observed in PMDs, demonstrate their conservation across tissues and suggest that they are mainly determined by specific DNA sequence features. PMID:24550741

Gaidatzis, Dimos; Burger, Lukas; Murr, Rabih; Lerch, Anita; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Schübeler, Dirk; Stadler, Michael B.

2014-01-01

404

DNA methylation: roles in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated disease of unknown cause that primarily affects the joints and ultimately leads to joint destruction. In recent years, the potential role of DNA methylation in the development of RA is raising great expectations among clinicians and researchers. DNA methylation influences diverse aspects of the disease and regulates epigenetic silencing of genes and behavior of several cell types, especially fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), the most resident cells in joints. The activation of FLS is generally regarded as a key process in the development of RA that actively results in the promotion of ongoing inflammation and joint damage. It has also been shown that aberrant DNA methylation occurs in the pathogenesis of RA and contributes to the development of the disease. Recently, there has been an impressive increase in studies involving DNA methylation in RA. In this paper, we consider the role of DNA methylation in the development of RA. PMID:24652004

Yuan, Feng-Lai; Li, Xia; Xu, Rui-Sheng; Jiang, Dong-Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Gang

2014-09-01

405

Prebiotic Methylation and the Evolution of Methyl Transfer Reactions in Living Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An hypothesis is presented for the prebiotic origin of methyl groups and the evolution of methyl transfer reactions in living cells. This hypothesis, described in terms of prebiotic and early biotic chemical evolution, is based on experimental observations in our lab and in those of others, and on the mechanisms of enzymatic methyl transfer reactions that occur in living cells. Of particular interest is our demonstration of the reductive methylation of ethanolamine and glycine in aqueous solution by excess formaldehyde. These reactions, involving prebiotic compounds and conditions, are mechanistically analogous to the de novo origin of methyl groups in modern cells by reduction of methylene tetrahydrofolate. Furthermore, modern cellular methyl transfers from S-adenosylmethionine to amine nitrogen may involve formaldehyde as an intermediate and subsequent reductive methylation, analogous to the prebiotic chemistry observed herein.

Waddell, Thomas G.; Eilders, Lon L.; Patel, Bipin P.; Sims, Michael

2000-12-01

406

Ecotoxicological effects of salicylic acid in the freshwater fish Salmo trutta fario: antioxidant mechanisms and histological alterations.  

PubMed

The presence of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic ecosystems has been widely reported during the past years. Salicylic acid (SA) is mainly used in human medicine as an analgesic and antipyretic drug, being also active in preventing platelet aggregation. To study the ecotoxicological effects potentially elicited by SA in freshwater fish, brown trout individuals (Salmo trutta fario) were chronically exposed (28 days) to this drug, in order to evaluate the enzymatic and histological effects, in both gills and liver. A qualitative and semi-qualitative evaluation of the gills and liver was performed, and also a quantitative evaluation of various lamellar structures. Oxidative stress was quantified trough the determination of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), glutathione reductase (GRed), total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Catalase (Cat) activities. Lipid peroxidative damage was also assessed by the quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver. The here-obtained data showed the occurrence of oxidative stress, reflected by an increased activity of GPx and GRed in the liver; additionally, it was possible to observe non-specific histological changes in gills. The global significance of the entire set of results is discussed, giving emphasis to the ecological relevance of the responses. PMID:25096487

Nunes, B; Campos, J C; Gomes, R; Braga, M R; Ramos, A S; Antunes, S C; Correia, A T

2015-01-01

407

Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation  

PubMed Central

We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40°C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in ?-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat. PMID:24022274

Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

2013-01-01

408

Kinome profiling reveals an interaction between jasmonate, salicylate and light control of hyponastic petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Plants defend themselves against infection by biotic attackers by producing distinct phytohormones. Especially jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well known defense-inducing hormones. Here, the effects of MeJA and SA on the Arabidopsis thaliana kinome were monitored using PepChip arrays containing kinase substrate peptides to analyze posttranslational interactions in MeJA and SA signaling pathways and to test if kinome profiling can provide leads to predict posttranslational events in plant signaling. MeJA and SA mediate differential phosphorylation of substrates for many kinase families. Also some plant specific substrates were differentially phosphorylated, including peptides derived from Phytochrome A, and Photosystem II D protein. This indicates that MeJA and SA mediate cross-talk between defense signaling and light responses. We tested the predicted effects of MeJA and SA using light-mediated upward leaf movement (differential petiole growth also called hyponastic growth). We found that MeJA, infestation by the JA-inducing insect herbivore Pieris rapae, and SA suppressed low light-induced hyponastic growth. MeJA and SA acted in a synergistic fashion via two (partially) divergent signaling routes. This work demonstrates that kinome profiling using PepChip arrays can be a valuable complementary ?omics tool to give directions towards predicting behavior of organisms after a given stimulus and can be used to obtain leads for physiological relevant phenomena in planta. PMID:21170386

Ritsema, Tita; van Zanten, Martijn; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Millenaar, Frank F; Pieterse, Corné M J; Peeters, Anton J M

2010-01-01

409

Enhanced photocatalytic activity of sprayed Au doped ferric oxide thin films for salicylic acid degradation in aqueous medium.  

PubMed

Various doping percentage of Au were successfully introduced into the Fe2O3 photocatalysts via a spray pyrolysis method different. The effect of Au doping on photoelectrochemical, structural, optical and morphological properties of these deposited thin films is studied. The PEC characterization shows that, the photocurrent increases gradually with increasing Au content initially up to 2at.% indicating the maximum values of short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are (Isc=90?A and Voc=220.5mV) and then decreases after exceeding the optimal Au doping content. Therefore, the photocurrent of Au doped Fe2O3 photocatalysts can be adjusted by the Au content. Deposited films are polycrystalline with a rhombohedral crystal structure having (104) preferred orientation. SEM and AFM images show deposited thin films are compact and uniform. The photocatalytic activities of the Fe2O3 and Au:Fe2O3 photocatalyst were evaluated by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid under sunlight irradiation. The results show that the Au:Fe2O3 thin film photocatalyst exhibited about 45% more degradation of pollutants than the pure Fe2O3. Thus, in Au doped Fe2O3 photocatalysts, the interaction between Au and Fe2O3 reduces the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers and improve the photocatalytic activity. PMID:25496876

Mahadik, M A; Shinde, S S; Kumbhar, S S; Pathan, H M; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

2015-01-01

410

Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis induced by biocontrol bacteria is independent of salicylic acid accumulation and pathogenesis-related gene expression.  

PubMed Central

Systemic acquired resistance is a pathogen-inducible defense mechanism in plants. The resistant state is dependent on endogenous accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and is characterized by the activation of genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Recently, selected nonpathogenic, root-colonizing biocontrol bacteria have been shown to trigger a systemic resistance response as well. To study the molecular basis underlying this type of systemic resistance, we developed an Arabidopsis-based model system using Fusarium oxysporum f sp raphani and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato as challenging pathogens. Colonization of the rhizosphere by the biological control strain WCS417r of P. fluorescens resulted in a plant-mediated resistance response that significantly reduced symptoms elicited by both challenging pathogens. Moreover, growth of P. syringae in infected leaves was strongly inhibited in P. fluorescens WCS417r-treated plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis NahG plants, unable to accumulate SA, and wild-type plants were equally responsive to P. fluorescens WCS417r-mediated induction of resistance. Furthermore, P. fluorescens WCS417r-mediated systemic resistance did not coincide with the accumulation of PR mRNAs before challenge inoculation. These results indicate that P. fluorescens WCS417r induces a pathway different from the one that controls classic systemic acquired resistance and that this pathway leads to a form of systemic resistance independent of SA accumulation and PR gene expression. PMID:8776893

Pieterse, C M; van Wees, S C; Hoffland, E; van Pelt, J A; van Loon, L C

1996-01-01

411

Investigating the role of solvent-solute interaction in crystal nucleation of salicylic acid from organic solvents.  

PubMed

In previous work, it has been shown that the crystal nucleation of salicylic acid (SA) in different solvents becomes increasingly more difficult in the order: chloroform, ethyl acetate acetonitrile, acetone, methanol, and acetic acid. In the present work, vibration spectroscopy, calorimetric measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Raman and infrared spectra suggest that SA exists predominately as dimers in chloroform, but in the other five solvents there is no clear evidence of dimerization. In all solvents, the shift in the SA carbonyl peak reflecting the strength in the solvent-solute interaction is quite well correlated to the nucleation ranking. This shift is corroborated by DFT calculated energies of binding one solvent molecule to the carboxyl group of SA. An even better correlation of the influence of the solvent on the nucleation is provided by DFT calculated energy of binding the complete first solvation shell to the SA molecule. These solvation shell binding energies are corroborated by the enthalpy of solvent-solute interaction as estimated from experimentally determined enthalpy of solution and calculated enthalpy of cavity formation using the scaled particle theory. The different methods reveal a consistent picture and suggest that the stronger the solvent binds to the SA molecule in solution, the slower the nucleation becomes. PMID:25029039

Khamar, Dikshitkumar; Zeglinski, Jacek; Mealey, Donal; Rasmuson, Åke C

2014-08-20

412

Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2013-01-01

413

Dermcidin isoform-2 induced nullification of the effect of acetyl salicylic acid in platelet aggregation in acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

The aggregation of platelets on the plaque rupture site on the coronary artery is reported to cause both acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While the inhibition of platelet aggregation by acetyl salicylic acid was reported to produce beneficial effects in ACS, it failed to do in AMI. The concentration of a stress induced protein (dermcidin isoform-2) was much higher in AMI than that in ACS. Incubation of normal platelet rich plasma (PRP) with dermcidin showed one high affinity (Kd = 40?nM) and one low affinity binding sites (Kd = 333?nM). When normal PRP was incubated with 0.4??M dermcidin, the platelets became resistant to the inhibitory effect of aspirin similar to that in the case of AMI. Incubation of PRP from AMI with dermcidin antibody restored the sensitivity of the platelets to the aspirin effect. Incubation of AMI PRP pretreated with 15??M aspirin, a stimulator of the NO synthesis, resulted in the increased production of NO in the platelets that removed the bound dermcidin by 40% from the high affinity binding sites of AMI platelets. When the same AMI PRP was retreated with 10??M aspirin, the aggregation of platelets was completely inhibited by NO synthesis. PMID:25055737

Bank, Sarbashri; Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Guha, Santanu; Sinha, A. K.

2014-01-01

414

Hydrogen Peroxide Is Involved in Salicylic Acid-Elicited Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) is an elicitor to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plant cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role as a key signaling molecule in response to various stimuli and is involved in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. However, the relationship between them is unclear and their synergetic functions on accumulation of secondary metabolites are unknown. In this paper, the roles of SA and H2O2 in rosmarinic acid (RA) production in Salvia miltiorrhiza cell cultures were investigated. The results showed that SA significantly enhanced H2O2 production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, and RA accumulation. Exogenous H2O2 could also promote PAL activity and enhance RA production. If H2O2 production was inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (IMD) or scavenged by quencher (DMTU), RA accumulation would be blocked. These results indicated that H2O2 is secondary messenger for signal transduction, which can be induced by SA, significantly and promotes RA accumulation. PMID:24995364

Hao, Wenfang; Zhang, Jingyi; Hu, Gege; Yao, Yaqin; Dong, Juane

2014-01-01

415

On the origin of surface imposed anisotropic growth of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids crystals during droplet evaporation.  

PubMed

In this paper droplet evaporative crystallization of salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) crystals on different surfaces, such as glass, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and paraffin was studied. The obtained crystals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. In order to better understand the effect of the surface on evaporative crystallization, crystals deposited on glass were scraped off. Moreover, evaporative crystallization of a large volume of solution was performed. As we found, paraffin which is non-polar surface promotes formation of crystals morphologically similar to those obtained via bulk evaporative crystallization. On the other hand, when crystallization is carried out on the polar surfaces (glass and PVA), there is a significant orientation effect. This phenomenon is manifested by the reduction of the number of peaks in PXRD spectrum recorded for deposited on the surface crystals. Noteworthy, reduction of PXRD signals is not observed for powder samples obtained after scraping crystals off the glass. In order to explain the mechanism of carboxylic crystals growth on the polar surfaces, quantum-chemical computations were performed. It has been found that crystal faces of the strongest orientation effect can be characterized by the highest surface densities of intermolecular interactions energy (IIE). In case of SA and ASA crystals formed on the polar surfaces the most dominant faces are characterized by the highest adhesive and cohesive properties. This suggests that the selection rules of the orientation effect comes directly from surface IIE densities. PMID:25690367

Przyby?ek, Maciej; Cysewski, Piotr; Pawelec, Maciej; Zió?kowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Miros?aw

2015-03-01

416

Reciprocal crosstalk between jasmonate and salicylate defence-signalling pathways modulates plant volatile emission and herbivore host-selection behaviour.  

PubMed

The jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathways, which mediate induced plant defence responses, can express negative crosstalk. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of this crosstalk on host-plant selection behaviour of herbivores. We report on temporal and dosage effects of such crosstalk on host preference and oviposition-site selection behaviour of the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae towards Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants, including underlying mechanisms. Behavioural observations reveal a dynamic temporal response of mites to single or combined applications of JA and SA to the plant, including attraction and repellence, and an antagonistic interaction between SA- and JA-mediated plant responses. Dose-response experiments show that concentrations of 0.001mM and higher of one phytohormone can neutralize the repellent effect of a 1mM application of the other phytohormone on herbivore behaviour. Moreover, antagonism between the two signal-transduction pathways affects phytohormone-induced volatile emission. Our multidisciplinary study reveals the dynamic plant phenotype that is modulated by subtle changes in relative phytohormonal titres and consequences for the dynamic host-plant selection by an herbivore. The longer-term effects on plant-herbivore interactions deserve further investigation. PMID:24759882

Wei, Jianing; van Loon, Joop J A; Gols, Rieta; Menzel, Tila R; Li, Na; Kang, Le; Dicke, Marcel

2014-07-01

417

ImprimatinC1, a novel plant immune-priming compound, functions as a partial agonist of salicylic acid  

PubMed Central

Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from pathogens. They confer durable resistance to a broad range of diseases by activating intrinsic immune mechanisms in plants. To obtain leads regarding useful compounds, we have screened a chemical library using an established method that allows selective identification of immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the characterisation of one of the isolated chemicals, imprimatinC1, and its structural derivative imprimatinC2. ImprimatinC1 functions as a weak analogue of salicylic acid (SA) and activates the expression of defence-related genes. However, it lacks antagonistic activity toward jasmonic acid. Structure-activity relationship analysis suggests that imprimatinC1 and C2 can be metabolised to 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 3,4-chlorobenzoic acid, respectively, to function in Arabidopsis. We also found that imprimatinC1 and C2 and their potential functional metabolites acted as partial agonists of SA. Thus, imprimatinC compounds could be useful tools for dissecting SA-dependent signal transduction pathways. PMID:23050089

Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Shirasu, Ken

2012-01-01

418

Some things get better with age: differences in salicylic acid accumulation and defense signaling in young and mature Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis, much of what we know about the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and its role in plant defense comes from experiments using young plants. We are interested in understanding why young plants are susceptible to virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae, while mature plants exhibit a robust defense response known as age-related resistance (ARR). SA-mediated signaling is important for defense in young plants, however, ARR occurs independently of the defense regulators NPR1 and WHY1. Furthermore, intercellular SA accumulation is an important component of ARR, and intercellular washing fluids from ARR-competent plants exhibit antibacterial activity, suggesting that SA acts as an antimicrobial agent in the intercellular space. Young plants accumulate both intracellular and intercellular SA during PAMP- and effector-triggered immunity, however, virulent P. syringae promotes susceptibility by suppressing SA accumulation using the phytotoxin coronatine. Here we outline the hypothesis that mature, ARR-competent Arabidopsis alleviates coronatine-mediated suppression of SA accumulation. We also explore the role of SA in other mature-plant processes such as flowering and senescence, and discuss their potential impact on ARR. PMID:25620972

Carella, Philip; Wilson, Daniel C.; Cameron, Robin K.

2015-01-01

419

Kinome Profiling Reveals an Interaction Between Jasmonate, Salicylate and Light Control of Hyponastic Petiole Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Plants defend themselves against infection by biotic attackers by producing distinct phytohormones. Especially jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well known defense-inducing hormones. Here, the effects of MeJA and SA on the Arabidopsis thaliana kinome were monitored using PepChip arrays containing kinase substrate peptides to analyze posttranslational interactions in MeJA and SA signaling pathways and to test if kinome profiling can provide leads to predict posttranslational events in plant signaling. MeJA and SA mediate differential phosphorylation of substrates for many kinase families. Also some plant specific substrates were differentially phosphorylated, including peptides derived from Phytochrome A, and Photosystem II D protein. This indicates that MeJA and SA mediate cross-talk between defense signaling and light responses. We tested the predicted effects of MeJA and SA using light-mediated upward leaf movement (differential petiole growth also called hyponastic growth). We found that MeJA, infestation by the JA-inducing insect herbivore Pieris rapae, and SA suppressed low light-induced hyponastic growth. MeJA and SA acted in a synergistic fashion via two (partially) divergent signaling routes. This work demonstrates that kinome profiling using PepChip arrays can be a valuable complementary ?omics tool to give directions towards predicting behavior of organisms after a given stimulus and can be used to obtain leads for physiological relevant phenomena in planta. PMID:21170386

Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Millenaar, Frank F.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Peeters, Anton J. M.

2010-01-01

420

Interactions between the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathway modulate the plant metabolome and affect herbivores of different feeding types.  

PubMed

The phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediate induced plant defences and the corresponding pathways interact in a complex manner as has been shown on the transcript and proteine level. Downstream, metabolic changes are important for plant-herbivore interactions. This study investigated metabolic changes in leaf tissue and phloem exudates of Plantago lanceolata after single and combined JA and SA applications as well as consequences on chewing-biting (Heliothis virescens) and piercing-sucking (Myzus persicae) herbivores. Targeted metabolite profiling and untargeted metabolic fingerprinting uncovered different categories of plant metabolites, which were influenced in a specific manner, indicating points of divergence, convergence, positive crosstalk and pronounced mutual antagonism between the signaling pathways. Phytohormone-specific decreases of primary metabolite pool sizes in the phloem exudates may indicate shifts in sink-source relations, resource allocation, nutrient uptake or photosynthesis. Survival of both herbivore species was significantly reduced by JA and SA treatments. However, the combined application of JA and SA attenuated the negative effects at least against H.?virescens suggesting that mutual antagonism between the JA and SA pathway may be responsible. Pathway interactions provide a great regulatory potential for the plant that allows triggering of appropriate defences when attacked by different antagonist species. PMID:24372400

Schweiger, R; Heise, A-M; Persicke, M; Müller, C

2014-07-01

421

Research on the adsorption property of supported ionic liquids for ferulic acid, caffeic acid and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

In this paper, the preparation of new supported ionic liquids (SILs) composed of the N-methylimidazolium cation and the quinoline cation is described. They have been confirmed and evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Six kinds of different SILs included SiO(2)·Im(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·BF(4)(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·PF(6)(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·BF(4)(-) and SiO(2)·Qu(+)·PF(6)(-). The adsorption characteristics of ferulic acid (FA), caffeic acid (CA) and salicylic acid (SA) on SILs were investigated by static adsorption experiments. It was found that SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had excellent adsorption and desorption capacity to three tested phenolic compounds. The dynamic adsorption characteristics of FA, CA and SA on SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) were also studied. The saturated adsorption capacity of FA, CA and SA using SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) as adsorbent was 64.6 mg/g, 53.2 mg/g and 72.2 mg/g respectively. Using 70% ethanol as eluent, the saturated desorption efficiencies of FA, CA and SA were 97.2%, 90.3% and 96.5% respectively. Thus, SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had strong adsorption and separation capacity for FA, CA and SA. PMID:21543269

Du, Ni; Cao, Shuwen; Yu, Yanying

2011-06-01

422

[Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens].  

PubMed

Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples. PMID:21381401

Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

2010-01-01

423

Is the Fungus Magnaporthe Losing DNA Methylation?  

PubMed Central

The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an ortholog of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet, and buffelgrass were methylation proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, torpedo grass, Guinea grass, and crabgrass were methylation deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale. PMID:23979580

Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Van Vu, Ba; Kadotani, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaki; Murata, Toshiki; Shiina, Kohta; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

424

High-frequency aberrantly methylated targets in pancreatic adenocarcinoma identified via global DNA methylation analysis using methylCap-seq  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive reprogramming and dysregulation of DNA methylation is an important characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC). Our study aimed to characterize the genomic methylation patterns in various genomic contexts of PC. The methyl capture sequencing (methylCap-seq) method was used to map differently methylated regions (DMRs) in pooled samples from ten PC tissues and ten adjacent non-tumor (PN) tissues. A selection of DMRs was validated in an independent set of PC and PN samples using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), and methylation sensitive restriction enzyme-based qPCR (MSRE-qPCR). The mRNA and expressed sequence tag (EST) expression of the corresponding genes was investigated using RT-qPCR. Results A total of 1,131 PC-specific and 727 PN-specific hypermethylated DMRs were identified in association with CpG islands (CGIs), including gene-associated CGIs and orphan CGIs; 2,955 PC-specific and 2,386 PN-specific hypermethylated DMRs were associated with gene promoters, including promoters containing or lacking CGIs. Moreover, 1,744 PC-specific and 1,488 PN-specific hypermethylated DMRs were found to be associated with CGIs or CGI shores. These results suggested that aberrant hypermethylation in PC typically occurs in regions surrounding the transcription start site (TSS). The BSP, MSP, MSRE-qPCR, and RT-qPCR data indicated that the aberrant DNA methylation in PC tissue and in PC cell lines was associated with gene (or corresponding EST) expression. Conclusions Our study characterized the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in PC and identified DMRs that were distributed among various genomic contexts that might influence the expression of corresponding genes or transcripts to promote PC. These DMRs might serve as diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets for PC. PMID:25276247

2014-01-01

425

Mercury methylation by the methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei.  

PubMed

Methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is synthesized by anaerobic microorganisms in the environment. To date, mercury (Hg) methylation has been attributed to sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria (SRB and IRB, respectively). Here we report that a methanogen, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1, methylated Hg in a sulfide-free medium at comparable rates, but with higher yields, than those observed for some SRB and IRB. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the concatenated orthologs of the Hg methylation proteins HgcA and HgcB from M. hungatei are closely related to those from known SRB and IRB methylators and that they cluster together with proteins from eight other methanogens, suggesting that these methanogens may also methylate Hg. Because all nine methanogens with HgcA and HgcB orthologs belong to the class Methanomicrobia, constituting the late-evolving methanogenic lineage, methanogenic Hg methylation could not be considered an ancient metabolic trait. Our results identify methanogens as a new guild of Hg-methylating microbes with a potentially important role in mineral-poor (sulfate- and iron-limited) anoxic freshwater environments. PMID:23934484

Yu, Ri-Qing; Reinfelder, John R; Hines, Mark E; Barkay, Tamar

2013-10-01

426

Mercury Methylation by the Methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is synthesized by anaerobic microorganisms in the environment. To date, mercury (Hg) methylation has been attributed to sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria (SRB and IRB, respectively). Here we report that a methanogen, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1, methylated Hg in a sulfide-free medium at comparable rates, but with higher yields, than those observed for some SRB and IRB. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the concatenated orthologs of the Hg methylation proteins HgcA and HgcB from M. hungatei are closely related to those from known SRB and IRB methylators and that they cluster together with proteins from eight other methanogens, suggesting that these methanogens may also methylate Hg. Because all nine methanogens with HgcA and HgcB orthologs belong to the class Methanomicrobia, constituting the late-evolving methanogenic lineage, methanogenic Hg methylation could not be considered an ancient metabolic trait. Our results identify methanogens as a new guild of Hg-methylating microbes with a potentially important role in mineral-poor (sulfate- and iron-limited) anoxic freshwater environments. PMID:23934484

Reinfelder, John R.; Hines, Mark E.

2013-01-01

427

Methylation kinetics and CpG-island methylator phenotyope status in colorectal cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Hypermethylation of CpG islands is thought to contribute to carcinogenesis through the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Tumor cells with relatively high levels of CpG island methylation are considered CpG island methylator phenotypes (CIMP). The mechanisms that are responsible for regulating the activity of de novo methylation are not well understood. Results We quantify and compare de novo methylation kinetics in CIMP and non-CIMP colon cancer cell lines in the context of different loci, following 5-aza-2’deoxycytidine (5-AZA)-mediated de-methylation of cells. In non-CIMP cells, a relatively fast rate of re-methylation is observed that starts with a certain time delay after cessation of 5-AZA treatment. CIMP cells, on the other hand, start re-methylation without a time delay but at a significantly slower rate. A mathematical model can account for these counter-intuitive results by assuming negative feedback regulation of de novo methylation activity and by further assuming that this regulation is corrupted in CIMP cells. This model further suggests that when methylation levels have grown back to physiological levels, de novo methylation activity ceases in non-CIMP cells, while it continues at a constant low level in CIMP cells. Conclusions We propose that the faster rate of re-methylation observed in non-CIMP compared to CIMP cells in our study could be a consequence of feedback-mediated regulation of DNA methyl transferase activity. Testing this hypothesis will involve the search for specific feedback regulatory mechanisms involved in the activation of de novo methylation. Reviewers’ report This article was reviewed by Georg Luebeck, Tomasz Lipniacki, and Anna Marciniak-Czochra PMID:23758948

2013-01-01

428

A genetic sensor for strong methylating compounds  

PubMed Central

Methylating chemicals are common in industry and agriculture and are often toxic, partly due to their propensity to methylate DNA. The Escherichia coli Ada protein detects methylating compounds by sensing aberrant methyl adducts on the phosphoester backbone of DNA. We characterize this system as a genetic sensor and engineer it to lower the detection threshold. By overexpressing Ada from a plasmid, we improve the sensor’s dynamic range to 350-fold induction and lower its detection threshold to 40 µM for methyl iodide. In eukaryotes, there is no known sensor of methyl adducts on the phosphoester backbone of DNA. By fusing the N-terminal domain of Ada to the Gal4 transcriptional activation domain, we built a functional sensor for methyl phosphotriester adducts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This sensor can be tuned to variable specifications by altering the expression level of the chimeric sensor and changing the number of Ada operators upstream of the Gal4-sensitive reporter promoter. These changes result in a detection threshold of 28 µM and 5.2-fold induction in response to methyl iodide. When the yeast sensor is exposed to different SN1 and SN2 alkylating compounds, its response profile is similar to that observed for the native Ada protein in E. coli, indicating that its native function is retained in yeast. Finally, we demonstrate that the specifications achieved for the yeast sensor are suitable for detecting methylating compounds at relevant concentrations in environmental samples. This work demonstrates the movement of a sensor from a prokaryotic to eukaryotic system and its rational tuning to achieve desired specifications. PMID:24032656

Moser, Felix; Horwitz, Andrew; Chen, Jacinto; Lim, Wendell A.; Voigt, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

429

Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a low