Sample records for methyl salicylate transforted

  1. Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, GARY L.

    2001-12-01

    The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ({approx}2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2}), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study.

  2. Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery. PMID:24329991

  3. Are one or two dangerous? Methyl salicylate exposure in toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan E. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Serious toxicity can result from exposure to small amounts of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate is widely available as a component in many over-the-counter brands of creams, ointments, lotions, liniments and medicated oils intended for topical application to relieve musculoskeletal aches and pains. Among the most potent forms of methyl salicylate is oil of wintergreen (98% methyl salicylate). Other products with

  4. The Synthesis of Methyl Salicylate: Amine Diazotization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that this experiment takes safety and noncarcinogenic reactants into account. Demonstrates the use of diazonium salts for the replacement of an aromatic amine group by a phenolic hydroxyl. Involves two pleasant-smelling organic compounds, methyl anthranilate (grape) and methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). (MVL)

  5. Percutaneous absorption of salicylates from some commercially available topical products containing methyl salicylate or salicylate salts in rats.

    PubMed

    Megwa, S A; Benson, H A; Roberts, M S

    1995-11-01

    Studies to determine the extent of local tissue penetration of topically applied, commercially available salicylate esters and salts were conducted in male Wistar rats. The salicylate concentration in plasma, tissues underlying the site of drug application, and similar tissues on the contralateral (control) side were measured. The plasma and tissue salicylate levels suggest that direct penetration of salicylate was predominant to the top muscle level on the treated site. Results also suggest that the drugs were first absorbed into the bloodstream and subsequently distributed to both the deeper tissues on the treated site and the contralateral tissues. The topical application of formulations of ester methyl salicylate and salts triethanolamine salicylate and diethylamine salicylate containing comparable salicylate concentrations yielded similar salicylate concentrations in the various tissues. The salicylate concentrations in the deeper tissues approached concentrations observed in the contralateral tissues suggesting that salicylate present in these tissues was due to the systemic blood supply. PMID:8708981

  6. Airborne signalling by methyl salicylate in plant pathogen resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Shulaev; Paul Silverman; Ilya Raskin

    1997-01-01

    Methyl salicylate, a volatile liquid, also known as oil of winter-green, is made by a number of plants1-9. Here we show that methyl salicylate is a major volatile compound produced by tobacco plants inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus. Methyl salicylate is synthesized from salicylic acid, a non-volatile chemical signal required for the establishment of acquired resistance10 and local and systemic

  7. Potential dangers from topical preparations containing methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y

    1996-09-01

    Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) is widely available in many over-the-counter liniments, ointments, lotions or medicated oils for the relief of musculoskeletal aches and pains. Ingestion of methyl salicylate poses the threat of severe, rapid-onset salicylate poisoning because of its liquid, concentrated form and lipid solubility. Excessive usage of these preparations in patients receiving warfarin may result in adverse interactions and bleedings. Methyl salicylate in topical analgesic preparations may cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis and anaphylactic reactions. Physicians should fully appreciate the potential dangers from topical preparations containing methyl salicylate. PMID:8880210

  8. Rice Allelopathy Induced by Methyl Jasmonate and Methyl Salicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai Hong Bi; Ren Sen Zeng; Li Ming Su; Min An; Shi Ming Luo

    2007-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) are important signaling molecules that induce plant defense against insect\\u000a herbivores and microbial pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that allelopathy is an inducible defense mechanism, and that\\u000a the JA and SA signaling pathways may activate allelochemicals release. Exogenous application of MeJA and MeSA to rice (Oryza sativa L.) enhanced rice allelopathic potential and

  9. 40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the...

  14. Review : Potential dangers from topical preparations containing methyl salicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas YK Chan

    1996-01-01

    Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) is widely available in many over-the-counter liniments, ointments, lotions or medicated oils for the relief of musculoskeletal aches and pains. Ingestion of methyl salicylate poses the threat of severe, rapid-onset salicylate poisoning because of its liquid, concentrated form and lipid solubility. Excessive usage of these preparations in patients receiving warfarin may result in adverse interactions

  15. Acute methyl salicylate toxicity complicating herbal skin treatment for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony J; Duggin, Geoffrey

    2002-06-01

    We present an interesting case of salicylism arising from the use of methyl salicylate as part of a herbal skin cream for the treatment of psoriasis. A 40-year-old man became quite suddenly and acutely unwell after receiving treatment from an unregistered naturopath. Methyl salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen) is widely available in many over the counter topical analgesic preparations and Chinese medicated oils. Transcutaneous absorption of the methyl salicylate was enhanced in this case due to the abnormal areas of skin and use of an occlusive dressing. The presence of tinnitus, vomiting, tachypnoea and typical acid/base disturbance allowed a diagnosis of salicylate toxicity to be made. Our patient had decontaminated his skin prior to presentation, limiting the extent of toxicity and was successfully treated with rehydration and establishment of good urine flow. PMID:12147116

  16. The fluorescence behaviour of methyl and phenyl salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, D.; Thistlethwaite, P. J.; Woolfe, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Fluorcsccnce lifetimes tor the 450 nm emission of methyl and phenyl salicylate in various solvents have been measured. Qucnching studics on the 340 nm fluorescence of these molecules point to the existence of three distinct ground state conformers.

  17. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-met...

  18. Endogenous Methyl Salicylate in Pathogen-Inoculated Tobacco Plants1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjana Seskar; Vladimir Shulaev; Ilya Raskin

    1998-01-01

    The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivar Xanthi-nc (genotype NN) produces high levels of salicylic acid (SA) after inoculation with the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous methyl salicylate (MeSA), a major volatile produced in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants, was recently shown to be an airborne defense signal. Using an assay developed to measure the MeSA present in tissue, we have shown that in

  19. IR, Raman and SERS studies of methyl salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Hema Tresa; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Philip, Daizy; Mannekutla, James R.; Inamdar, S. R.

    2007-04-01

    The IR and Raman spectra of methyl salicylate (MS) were recorded and analysed. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum was recorded in silver colloid. The vibrational wave numbers of the compound have been computed using the Hartree-Fock/6-31G * basis and compared with the experimental values. SERS studies suggest a flat orientation of the molecule at the metal surface.

  20. Mobility and molecular ions of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, methyl salicylate and acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, D. M.

    1983-06-01

    The mobilities of positive and negative reactant ions are reported for (H2O)nH(+); (H2O)2O2 and (H2O)2CO3(-) ion clusters. The formation of positive DMMP monomer and dimer is reported, and equilbria molecular reactions are reported. Acetone is reported as forming a dimer at 81 ppb with a reduced mobility (K sub o) of 1.82, Methyl salicylate is shown to form a protonated and hydrated positive monomer. Mixtures of DMMP and methyl salicylate with acetone showed a substantial change in DMMP ion clustering and little or no change in the methyl salicylate mobility spectra. Negative ions were not observed for DMMP, methyl salicylate, acetone and the mixtures under the conditions reported.

  1. Structural and biochemical studies identify tobacco SABP2 as a methyl salicylate esterase and implicate

    E-print Network

    Pichersky, Eran

    Structural and biochemical studies identify tobacco SABP2 as a methyl salicylate esterase­20) to form methyl salicylate (MeSA) and SA -glucoside, respectively. These SA derivatives appear) Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical signal for the activation of plant defense responses against pathogen

  2. Rice allelopathy induced by methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hai Hong; Zeng, Ren Sen; Su, Li Ming; An, Min; Luo, Shi Ming

    2007-05-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) are important signaling molecules that induce plant defense against insect herbivores and microbial pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that allelopathy is an inducible defense mechanism, and that the JA and SA signaling pathways may activate allelochemicals release. Exogenous application of MeJA and MeSA to rice (Oryza sativa L.) enhanced rice allelopathic potential and led to accumulation of phenolics, an increase in enzymatic activities, and gene transcription of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), two key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Aqueous extracts of the leaves of rice IAC165, a putative allelopathic variety, treated with MeSA (5 mM) or MeJA (0.05 mM), showed increased inhibitory effects (25 and 21%, respectively) on root growth of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.), and increased inhibitory effects (18 and 23%, respectively) on shoot growth. Aqueous extracts from leaves of Huajingxian 1 rice, a putative nonallelopathic variety treated with MeJA and MeSA, caused 63 and 24% inhibition of root growth in barnyardgrass seedlings. The root exudates of both IAC165 and Huajingxian 1 plants treated with MeJA and MeSA for 48 hr also showed significant increases in their inhibitory effects on root growth of barnyardgrass seedlings. At the four-leaf stage, levels of 3,4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid that accumulated in the leaves were 5.3-, 31.3-, 2.2-, and 1.7-fold higher in response to MeJA exposure, and 3.3-, 13.1-, 2.0-, and 2.2-fold higher in response to MeSA. Treatments of MeSA and MeJA enhanced the PAL activity in the rice leaves up to 52.3 and 80.1%, respectively, whereas C4H activity was increased by 40.2 and 67%. Gene transcription of PAL and C4H in rice leaves significantly increased after the plants were subjected to treatment with MeJA and MeSA. These results suggest that allelopathy may be an active defense mechanism, and that plant signaling compounds are potentially valuable in its regulation. PMID:17415624

  3. Energetics and Vibrational Analysis of Methyl Salicylate Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, Richard D.; Dai, Yafei; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2009-08-01

    Energetics and vibrational analysis study of six isomers of methyl salicylate in their singlet ground state and first excited triple state is put forward in this work at the density functional theory level and large basis sets. The ketoB isomer is the lowest energy isomer, followed by its rotamer ketoA. For both ketoB and ketoA their enolized tautomers are found to be stable as well as their open forms that lack the internal hydrogen bond. The calculated vibrational spectra are in excellent agreement with IR experiments of methyl salicylate in the vapor phase. It is demonstrated that solvent effects have a weak influence on the stability of these isomers. The ionization reaction from ketoB to ketoA shows a high barrier of 0.67 eV ensuring that thermal and chemical equilibria yield systems containing mostly the ketoB isomer at normal conditions.

  4. Theoretical investigation of the photophysics of methyl salicylate isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, Richard D.; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2011-10-01

    The photophysics of methyl salicylate (MS) isomers has been studied using time-dependent density functional theory and large basis sets. First electronic singlet and triplet excited states energies, structure, and vibrational analysis were calculated for the ketoB, enol, and ketoA isomers. It is demonstrated that the photochemical pathway involving excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the ketoB to the enol tautomer agrees well with the dual fluorescence in near-UV (from ketoB) and blue (from enol) wavelengths obtained from experiments. Our calculation confirms the existence of a double minimum in the excited state pathway along the O-H-O coordinate corresponding to two preferred energy regions: (1) the hydrogen belongs to the OH moiety and the structure of methyl salicylate is ketoB; (2) the hydrogen flips to the closest carboxyl entailing electronic rearrangement and tautomerization to the enol structure. This double well in the excited state is highly asymmetric. The Franck-Condon vibrational overlap is calculated and accounts for the broadening of the two bands. It is suggested that forward and backward ESIPT through the barrier separating the two minima is temperature-dependent and affects the intensity of the fluorescence as seen in experiments. When the enol fluoresces and returns to its ground state, a barrier-less back proton transfer repopulates the ground state of methyl salicylate ketoB. It is also demonstrated that the rotamer ketoA is not stable in an excited state close to the desired emission wavelength. This observation eliminates the conjecture that the near-UV emission of the dual fluorescence originates from the ketoA rotamer. New experimental results for pure MS in the liquid state are reported and theoretical results compared to them.

  5. Photodegradation of methyl salicylate in poly(methylmethacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Renschler, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Methyl salicylate (MS) has been found to undergo photo-induced decarboxylation to form phenol. The process is first order and has a reaction quantum yield of ca. 8 x 10/sup -5/ and an activation energy of 1.2 kcal./mol (5.0 kJ/mol). Kinetic data were used in computer simulations of photodegradation of MS in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) solar lenses. It was predicted that typical MS concentrations would provide effective uv screening protection for less than 2 years.

  6. A change of phenolic acids content in poplar leaves induced by methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu An; Ying-bai Shen; Li-juan Wu; Zhi-xiang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The contents of seven different phenolic acids such as gallic acid, catechinic acid, pyrocatechol, caffeic acid, coumaric\\u000a acid, ferulic acid and benzoic acid in the poplar leaves (Populus Simonii × Populus Pyramibalis c. v and Populus deltoids) suffocated by Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and Methyl salicylate (MeSA) were monitored for analyzing their functions in interplant\\u000a communications by using high-pressure liquid chromatography

  7. The atmospheric chemistry of methyl salicylate—reactions with atomic chlorine and with ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canosa-Mas, Carlos E.; Duffy, Justin M.; King, Martin D.; Thompson, Katherine C.; Wayne, Richard P.

    Methyl salicylate is one of a number of semiochemicals, signal molecules, emitted by herbivore-infested plants. These signal molecules attract predators of the herbivore, and the chemicals thus act indirectly as part of the defence mechanism of the plant. Previous studies have shown that ozone damage to plants can also elicit the emission of signal molecules. The fate of these signal molecules in the atmosphere is not known. Preliminary studies have been undertaken to examine the atmospheric chemistry of methyl salicylate for the first time. Rate coefficients for the reaction of methyl salicylate with atomic chlorine and with ozone have been determined; the values are (2.8±0.3)×10 -12 and ˜4×10 -21 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. These results suggest that neither reaction with atomic chlorine nor reaction with ozone will provide important loss routes for methyl salicylate in the atmosphere. The possible importance of photolysis of methyl salicylate in the atmosphere is considered.

  8. Plant methyl salicylate induces defense responses in the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a rhizobacterium that promotes plant growth and health. Cultivation of B.?subtilis with an uprooted weed on solid medium produced pleat-like architectures on colonies near the plant. To test whether plants emit signals that affect B.?subtilis colony morphology, we examined the effect of plant-related compounds on colony morphology. Bacillus?subtilis formed mucoid colonies specifically in response to methyl salicylate, which is a plant-defense signal released in response to pathogen infection. Methyl salicylate induced mucoid colony formation by stimulating poly-?-glutamic acid biosynthesis, which formed enclosing capsules that protected the cells from exposure to antimicrobial compounds. Poly-?-glutamic acid synthesis depended on the DegS-DegU two-component regulatory system, which activated DegSU-dependent gene transcription in response to methyl salicylate. Bacillus subtilis did not induce plant methyl salicylate production, indicating that the most probable source of methyl salicylate in the rhizosphere is pathogen-infected plants. Methyl salicylate induced B.?subtilis biosynthesis of the antibiotics bacilysin and fengycin, the latter of which exhibited inhibitory activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We propose that B.?subtilis may sense plants under pathogen attack via methyl salicylate, and express defense responses that protect both B.?subtilis and host plants in the rhizosphere. PMID:25181478

  9. Endogenous Methyl Salicylate in Pathogen-Inoculated Tobacco Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Seskar, Mirjana; Shulaev, Vladimir; Raskin, Ilya

    1998-01-01

    The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivar Xanthi-nc (genotype NN) produces high levels of salicylic acid (SA) after inoculation with the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous methyl salicylate (MeSA), a major volatile produced in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants, was recently shown to be an airborne defense signal. Using an assay developed to measure the MeSA present in tissue, we have shown that in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants the level of MeSA increases dramatically, paralleling increases in SA. MeSA accumulation was also observed in upper, noninoculated leaves. In TMV-inoculated tobacco shifted from 32 to 24°C, the MeSA concentration increased from nondetectable levels to 2318 ng/g fresh weight 12 h after the temperature shift, but subsequently decreased with the onset of the hypersensitive response. Similar results were observed in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola, in which MeSA levels were highest just before the hypersensitive response-induced tissue desiccation. Transgenic NahG plants unable to accumulate SA also did not accumulate MeSA after TMV inoculation, and did not show increased resistance to TMV following MeSA treatment. Based on the spatial and temporal kinetics of its accumulation, we conclude that tissue MeSA may play a role similar to that of volatile MeSA in the pathogen-induced defense response.

  10. Methyl Salicylate Is a Critical Mobile Signal for Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Wook Park; Evans Kaimoyo; Dhirendra Kumar; Stephen Mosher; Daniel F. Klessig

    2007-01-01

    In plants, the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), an organism-wide state of enhanced defense to subsequent infections, has been elusive. By stimulating immune responses in mosaic tobacco plants created by grafting different genetic backgrounds, we showed that the methyl salicylate (MeSA) esterase activity of salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2), which converts MeSA into salicylic acid (SA), is required

  11. Methyl Salicylate Production and Jasmonate Signaling Are Not Essential for Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elham Attaran; Tatiana E. Zeier; T. Griebel; J. Zeier

    2009-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) develops in response to local microbial leaf inoculation and renders the whole plant more resistant to subsequent pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) in noninfected plant parts is required for SAR, and methyl salicylate (MeSA) and jasmonate (JA) are proposed to have critical roles during SAR long-distance signaling from inoculated to distant leaves. Here, we

  12. Phenolic-type stabilizers as generators and quenchers of singlet molecular oxygen (O 2( 1? g)) . Part I: methyl salicylate, salicylic acid and some related compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnaldo T. Soltermann; Daniel de la Peña; Santiago Nonell; Francisco Amat-Guerri; Norman A. García

    1995-01-01

    The generation and quenching of singlet molecular oxygen by the widely employed photostabilizer methyl salicylate have been studied in several fluid solvents at room temperature. For comparative purposes, the following related compounds were also studied: methyl 2-methoxybenzoate, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methyl 3-hydroxybenzoate, salicylic acid, 5-methylsalicylic acid and 5-nitrosalicylic acid. The results indicate that the compounds with a phenol group are inefficient

  13. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  14. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale. PMID:21404848

  15. Environmental persistence and toxicity of dimethyl malonate and methyl salicylate

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Ligotke, M.W.; Cataldo, D.A.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wentsel, R.S. (Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    To determine the potential environmental persistence and toxic effects of agent simulants Diethyl Malonate (DEM) and Methyl Salicylate (MS), plants, soils, earthworms, and oil microbial populations were exposed to projected aerosolized simulant concentrations of {approximately}100 (low) and {approximately}1000 (high) mg/m{sup 3}. Both simulants exhibited biphasic residence times on foliar and soil surfaces following aerosol exposure. Half-times of DEM on soil and foliar surfaces were 1 to 3 h and 5 to 22 H, respectively, and 2 to 2 h and 5 to 31 h for the MS, respectively. Persistence was longer on the foliar surfaces than that of the soils. Both simulants proved phytotoxic to vegetation with a lower threshold of 1 to 2 {mu}m/cm{sup 2} for the MS versus that of 10 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} for the DEM. However, neither significantly affected chloroplast electron transport in vitro at concentrations of up to 100 {mu}g/mL. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not adversely impact soil microbial activity, while the theshold was 100 {mu}g/g dry soil for MS. Earthworm bioassays indicated survival rates of 66% at soil doses of 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2} soil and 86% at soil doses of 331 {mu}g MS/cm{sup 2}. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  16. TDDFT study on intramolecular hydrogen bond of photoexcited methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Qu, Peng; Tian, Dongxu

    2014-01-01

    The equilibrium geometries, IR-spectra and transition mechanism of intramolecular hydrogen-bonded methyl salicylate in excited state were studied using DFT and TDDFT with 6-31++G (d, p) basis set. The length of hydrogen bond OH?OC is decreased from 1.73 Å in the ground state to 1.41 and 1.69 Å in the excited S1 and S3 states. The increase of bond length for HO and CO group also indicates that in excited state the hydrogen bond OH?OC is strengthened. IR spectra show HO and CO stretching bands are strongly redshifted by 1387 and 67 cm(-1) in the excited S1 and S3 states comparing to the ground state. The excitation energy and the absorption spectrum show the S3 state is the main excited state of the low-lying excited states. By analyzing the frontier molecular orbitals, the transition from the ground state to the excited S1 and S3 states was predicted to be the ???? mode. PMID:24374479

  17. Effect of exercise and heat exposure on percutaneous absorption of methyl salicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Danon; S. Ben-Shimon; Z. Ben-Zvi

    1986-01-01

    The effects of exercise, heat exposure or both on the percutaneous absorption of methyl salicylate were studied in 6 healthy volunteers. Exercise was performed to 30% ofVO2max, 45 min each hour for 6 h, at ambient temperatures of 22°C or 40°C. Systemic availability was assessed by measurement of plasma salicylate concentrations and cumulative urinary salicyluric acid excretion over an 8-h

  18. Comparative teratogenic effects of methyl salicylate applied orally or topically to hamsters.

    PubMed

    Overman, D O; White, J A

    1983-12-01

    Methyl salicylate was administered topically to pregnant hamsters at 7d9h and the teratogenic results were compared with those obtained following oral treatment with the same compound. Both treatments produced the same defect in embryos recovered at day 9: failure of fusion of the neural tube, especially in the area of the developing brain. Analysis of serum salicylate levels following both treatments produced similar curves and indicated that teratogenic levels of salicylate can reach the maternal circulation after topical exposure. PMID:6665740

  19. Effects of l-menthol and dl-camphor on the penetration and hydrolysis of methyl salicylate in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Yano, T; Kanetake, T; Saita, M; Noda, K

    1991-12-01

    Plasters containing methyl salicylate with and without l-menthol and dl-camphor were prepared and topically applied on hairless mouse skin to investigate the effects of l-menthol and dl-camphor on the skin penetration and hydrolysis of methyl salicylate in the skin. The in vitro hydrolysis of methyl salicylate was also investigated using the skin homogenate. It was found that l-menthol with dl-camphor enhanced the skin penetration of methyl salicylate, and they inhibited both the in vivo and in vitro hydrolysis of methyl salicylate to salicylic acid. PMID:1812275

  20. Sensitive and selective gas chromatographic methods for the quantitation of camphor, menthol and methyl salicylate from human plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S Valdez; Debra K Martin; Michael Mayersohn

    1999-01-01

    Analytical methods using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID) for the quantitation of camphor and menthol and GC–MS for the quantitation of methyl salicylate have been developed for measurement of low concentrations from human plasma. Anethole serves as the internal standard for camphor and menthol and ethyl salicylate serves as the internal standard for methyl salicylate. Plasma samples undergo multiple, sequential

  1. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

  2. Optimization and validation of liquid chromatography and headspace-gas chromatography based methods for the quantitative determination of capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, glycol monosalicylate, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, camphor and l-menthol in a topical formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Pauwels; Ward D’Autry; Larissa Van den Bossche; Cédric Dewever; Michel Forier; Stephanie Vandenwaeyenberg; Kris Wolfs; Jos Hoogmartens; Ann Van Schepdael; Erwin Adams

    Capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol monosalicylate, camphor and l-menthol are widely used in topical formulations to relieve local pain. For each separate compound or simple mixtures, quantitative analysis methods are reported. However, for a mixture containing all above mentioned active compounds, no assay methods were found. Due to the differing physicochemical characteristics, two methods were developed and

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl salicylate glycosides isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Rui; Sun, Lan; Huang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Tai; Du, Guan-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder is a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatments of rheumatoid arthritis, swelling and pain. Two methyl salicylate glycosides, namely methyl benzoate-2-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)-O-?-D-gluco-pyranoside (J12122) and methyl benzoate-2-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2)[O-?-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)]-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (J12123), are natural salicylic derivatives isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of J12122 and J12123 on LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells by measuring the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results showed that both methyl salicylate glycosides dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and IL-6, respectively. Consistent with these observations, J12122 and J12123 significantly suppressed the accumulation of NO, with an inhibitory rate of 56.20% and 51.72% at 3.0 ?g/mL concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the two methyl salicylate glycosides reduced the level of ROS induced by LPS. These results showed that the isolated compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition the production pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and ROS. PMID:21555977

  4. Pharmacokinetics of methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-lactoside, a novel salicylic acid analog isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis, in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Ma, Xiaowei; Xin, Wenyu; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Weiku; Zhang, Tiantai; Du, Guanhua

    2013-12-01

    Methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-lactoside (MSL), a natural salicylate derivative of Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder (G. yunnanensis), has been shown to provide a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect in animal models. Studies on the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of MSL can provide both a substantial foundation for understanding its mechanism and empirical evidence to support its use in clinical practice. A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, coupled with ultraviolet analyte detection, was developed for determining the concentration of MSL and its metabolite in beagle plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (5 ?M,4.6 × 250 mm). The mobile phase consisted of aqueous solution containing 0.1% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (82:90, v/v), at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Validation of the assay demonstrated that the developed HPLC method was sensitive, accurate and selective for the determination of MSL and its metabolite in dog plasma. After orally administering three doses of MSL, it could no longer be detected in dog plasma and its metabolite, salicylic acid, was detected. Salicylic acid showed a single peak in the plasma concentration-time curves and linear pharmacokinetics following the three oral doses (r(2) > 0.99). In contrast, only MSL was detected in plasma following intravenous administration. These results will aid in understanding the pharmacological significance of MSL. The developed method was successfully used for evaluation of the oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic profile of MSL in dogs. PMID:23798357

  5. Reduction of chilling injury and transcript accumulation of heat shock proteins in tomato fruit by methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Kui Ding; Chien Yi Wang; Kenneth C Gross; David L Smith

    2001-01-01

    Changes in heat shock protein (HSP) gene expression induced by vapor application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) in tomato fruit were investigated and compared to the well-described heat shock response. Northern hybridization experiments involving six cDNAs, encoding class I and II tomato small HSPs (sHSPs) and three members of HSP 70 family, showed that accumulation of class

  6. Dermal Absorption of Camphor, Menthol, and Methyl Salicylate in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra Martin; Jennifer Valdez; James Boren; Michael Mayersohn

    2004-01-01

    Camphor, menthol, andmethyl salicylate occur in numerous over-the-counter products. Although extensively used, there have been no estimates of human exposure following administration via dermal application. Furthermore, there is little information about the pharmacokinetics of those compounds. The authors report the plasma concentrations of the intact compounds as a function of dose following dermal patch application. Three groups of 8 subjects

  7. Effect of Methyl Salicylate-Based Lures on Beneficial and Pest Arthropods in Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a common herbivore-induced plant volatile that, when applied to crops, has the potential to enhance natural enemy abundance and pest control. The impacts of MeSA in the strawberry system were unknown and examined in this study. Strawberry plots contained no lures (contr...

  8. Gas scavenging of insoluble vapors: Condensation of methyl salicylate vapor onto evaporating drops of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaver, Mark; Peele, J. R.; Rubel, Glenn O.

    We have observed the evaporation of acoustically levitated water drops at 0 and 32% relative humidity in a moving gas stream which is nearly saturated with methyl salicylate vapor. The initial evaporation rate is characteristic of a pure water drop and gradually slows until the evaporation rate becomes that of pure methyl salicylate. The quantity of condensed methyl salicylate exceeds its Henry's law solubility in water by factors of more than 30-50. This apparent violation of Henry's law agrees with the concentration enhancements in the liquid phase found by glotfelty et al. (1987, Nature235, 602-605) during their field measurements of organophorus pesticides in fog water. Under our conditions, visual evidence demonstrates the presence of two liquid phases, thus invalidating the use of Henry's law. A continuum evaporation-condensation model for an immiscible two-component system which accounts for evaporative self-cooling of the drop correctly predicts the amount of methyl salicylate condensed onto the water drops.

  9. Effect of DMSO on the kinetic behavior of alkali catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl salicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lallan Singh; A. K. Gupta; R. T. Singh; D. K. Verma; R. C. Jha

    1984-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl salicylate in aqueous DMSO medium at various compositions starting from 10 to 70 vol. % DMSO at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35°C are reported. The specific rate constant was found to decrease with increasing proportion of DMSO at all the temperatures and the prediction of Parker is not supported. Both isocomposition

  10. The Role of Methyl Salicylate in Prey Searching Behavior of the Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jetske G. De Boer; Marcel Dicke

    2004-01-01

    Many carnivorous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their prey. These plant volatiles are blends of up to hundreds of compounds. It is often unknown which compounds in such a complex volatile blend represent the signal to the foraging carnivore. We studied the role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) as part of the volatile blend in the foraging behavior of

  11. Identification of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid response elements from the nopaline synthase (nos) promoter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Ryong Kim; Younghee Kim; Gynheung An

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants carrying a fusion between the nopa- line synthase (nos) promoter and chloramphenicol acetyltransfer- ase (CAT) reporter gene (cat) were studied for their inducibility by salicylic acid (SA) or methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatments. Either chemical significantly increased CAT activity to a level much higher than that achieved by wounding. Northern blot analysis showed a corresponding increase in mRNA

  12. Spectroscopy and intramolecular relaxation of methyl salicylate in its first excited singlet state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuper, Jerry W.; Perry, David S.

    1984-05-01

    High resolution fluorescence excitation experiments are reported for the blue emitting rotamer of methyl salicylate in its first excited singlet state. These experiments employ moderate expansions of methyl salicylate seeded in argon ( P0D=5-8 Torr cm) to achieve rotational and vibrational cooling in a pulsed supersonic jet. The rotational contour of the electronic origin at 30 055.3 cm-1 is shown to be consistent with a geometrically distorted ?-?* excited state, partially polarized along the A axis and with a rotational temperature of 5-7 K. A noticeable broadening of the spectral features beyond the rotational contour begins at 500 cm-1 above the origin and then increases rapidly above 900 cm-1 reaching a width of 12 cm-1 near 1200 cm-1. The constancy of fluorescence decay lifetimes in this region indicate that intramolecular vibrational relaxation in the S1 manifold is the broadening mechanism.

  13. In vitro release studies of methyl salicylate from the ointment bases and the commercial dermatological products.

    PubMed

    Barbar, A; Raouf, M; Plakogiannis, F M

    1990-01-01

    Methyl salicylate, a lipophilic liquid is one of the most commonly used analgesic, counterirritant and rubifacient ingredients in the commercially marketed over-the-counter dermatological products. And, since the effectiveness of the topically applied product depends on the release of the drug from such a dosage form, the present study was proposed to investigate the in vitro release of methyl salicylate from the typical ointment bases and several commercial products. Also, the effects of various additive ingredients on the drug release from these bases were evaluated. In general, the selected ointment bases gave superior in vitro drug release profiles compared to all commercial products included in this study. The addition of ethanol at 10% level in these ointment bases significantly enhanced the drug release from the selected formulations. PMID:2371308

  14. SALICYLIC ACID - AND METHYL JASMONATE - INDUCED PROTECTION ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS TO PARAQUAT OXIDATIVE STRESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Popova; E. Ananieva; V. Hristov; K. Christov; K. Georgieva; V. Alexieva

    Summary. In the present work it is demonstrated that Salicylic acid (SA) and Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) provided protection of photosynthesis (A) against paraquat (Pq) stress and diminished the oxidative damage caused by Pq. Barley seedlings (12 d old) were supplied with 500 µM SA, 23 µM MeJA or 10 µM Pq via the transpiration stream and kept in the dark

  15. Glycyrrhizin production by in vitro cultured Glycyrrhiza glabra elicited by methyl Jasmonate and salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Shabani; A. A. Ehsanpour; G. Asghari; J. Emami

    2009-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. glabra, Fabaceae) is considered as a model plant synthesizing triterpenoid secondary compounds. It is known that glycyrrhizin is\\u000a accumulated in thickened intact licorice roots. The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and salicylic acid (SA) on plant growth\\u000a and production of glycyrrhizin in the roots of in vitro cultured 65-day-old plants were studied. Increasing amounts of

  16. Methyl salicylate is a field attractant for the goldeneyed lacewing, Chrysopa oculata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. James

    2006-01-01

    The green lacewing, Chrysopa oculata Say, was significantly attracted to sticky cards baited with undiluted methyl salicylate (MeSA) in an unsprayed vineyard in Washington State. During the first three weeks of the five week experiment 5–8 times as many C. oculata were trapped on MeSA-baited as on unbaited or hexane-baited cards. Diluted (10%, 1%) MeSA-baited cards did not attract C.

  17. In Vitro Dermal Absorption of Methyl Salicylate, Ethyl Parathion, and Malathion: First Responder Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Moody; Mohammed Akram; Eva Dickson; Ih Chu

    2007-01-01

    In vitro tests with fresh dermatomed (0.3 to 0.4 mm thick) female breast skin and one leg skin specimen were conducted in Bronaugh flow-through Teflon diffusion cells with three chemicals used to simulate chemical warfare agents: C-radiolabeled methyl salicylate (MES), ethyl parathion (PT), and malathion (MT), at three dose levels (2, 20, and 200 mM). Tests were conducted at a

  18. Simultaneous GC determination of turpentine, camphor, menthol and methyl salicylate in a topical analgesic formulation (Dologex ® )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. González-Peñas; M. López-Alvarez; F. Martínez de Narvajas; A. Ursúa

    2000-01-01

    Summary  A gas chromatographic assay has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of turpentine, camphor, methol\\u000a and methyl salicylate in a topical formualtion (Dologex). Eucalyptol was used as the internal standard. Compounds were separated on a cross-linked 5% phenyl polydimethylsiloxane\\u000a capillary column and detected by FID. The method was validated on the basis of selectivity, recovery, linearity, precision\\u000a and accuracy.

  19. Effect of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate pre-treatment on the volatile profile in tomato fruit subjected to chilling temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato fruits exposed to chilling temperatures suffer aroma loss prior to visual chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments were reported to alleviate the development of visual CI, however, it is unknown if the treatments alleviate internal CI in t...

  20. Dual fluorescence excitation spectra of methyl salicylate in a free jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbrook, Lou Ann; Kenny, Jonathan E.; Kohler, Bryan E.; Scott, Gary W.

    1981-11-01

    Separate fluorescence excitation spectra of the blue- and UV-emitting forms of methyl salicylate cooled in a free-jet expansion are reported. This study represents the first observation of the detailed vibrational structure of these transitions. The two excitation spectra have no features in common, and their intensity patterns are very different. Many individual lines are ˜2 cm-1 wide (nearly laser limited), although in the excitation spectrum of the UV emission, spectral congestion persists at high energies despite the high degree of cooling. (AIP)

  1. THE DUAL EFFECTS OF METHYL SALICYLATE ON RIPENING AND EXPRESSION OF ETHYLENE BIOSYNTHESIS GENES IN TOMATO FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Sun Bright) at three ripening stages (mature green, breaker and turning) were treated with three different concentrations of methyl salicylate (MeSA) vapor to investigate the impact on ripening and ethylene production. The tomato ripening process, incl...

  2. Evaluation of methyl salicylate lures on populations of Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and other natural enemies in vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA), an herbivore induced plant volatile, can potentially elicit control of pests through attraction of beneficial arthropods. This study evaluates the effect of synthetic MeSA lures (PredaLure) on arthropod populations during the 2009 and 2010 seasons in two Oregon vineyards (...

  3. Field responses of predaceous arthropods to methyl salicylate: a meta-analysis and case study in cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is an herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) that has shown potential in attracting natural enemies. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the magnitude of natural enemy response to MeSA in the field, and tested its attractiveness to insect predators in commercial...

  4. Quantification of Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Jasmonate, and Salicylic Acid in Plants by Capillary Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibylle M. Wilbert; Lowell H. Ericsson; Milton P. Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid have been reported to occur in plants and are thought to be essential for the regulation of systemic defense responses. This work describes a method for the quantitation in plant tissue of these regulators by reverse-phase capillary liquid chromatography interfaced to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer. Inclusion during sample preparation of hydrogenated and\\/or

  5. Induction studies of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on taxane production in suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis var. mairei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Dong Wang; Ying-Jin Yuan; Jin-Chuan Wu

    2004-01-01

    The induction by methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) of taxol and relevant taxane biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis var. mairei was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical model shows that the apparent number of elicitor molecules binding with hypothetical receptor molecules for MJ in inducing taxol biosynthesis is about 75% lower than that for SA.

  6. Methyl salicylate and (?)-(1 R ,5 S )-myrtenal are plant-derived repellents for black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop. (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Hardie; Rufus Isaacs; John A. Pickett; Lester J. Wadhams; Christine M. Woodcock

    1994-01-01

    Methyl salicylate and (?)-(1R,5S)-myrtenal stimulate specific olfactory cells in the primary rhinaria on the sixth and fifth antennal segments, respectively, of the black bean aphid.Aphis fabae. In behavioral studies employing a linear track olfactometer, both compounds were repellent toA. fabae and also inhibited attraction to volatiles from its host, broad bean (Vicia faba). Methyl salicylate is associated with secondary metabolite-based

  7. Methyl salicylate: a reactive chemical warfare agent surrogate to detect reaction with hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Salter, W Bruce; Owens, Jeffery R; Wander, Joseph D

    2011-11-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeS) has a rich history as an inert physical simulant for the chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard and soman, where it is used extensively for liquid- and vapor-permeation testing. Here we demonstrate possible utility of MeS as a reactivity simulant for chlorine-based decontaminants. In these experiments MeS was reacted with sodium hypochlorite varying stoichiometry, temperature, reaction time, and pH. No colored oxidation products were observed; however, chlorination of the aromatic ring occurred ortho (methyl 3-chlorosalicylate) and para (methyl 5-chlorosalicylate) to the position bearing the -OH group in both the mono- and disubstituted forms. The monosubstituted para product accumulated initially, and the ortho and 3,5-dichloro products formed over the next several hours. Yields from reactions conducted below pH 11 declined rapidly with decreasing pH. Reactions run at 40 °C produced predominantly para substitution, while those run at 0 °C produced lower yields of ortho- and para-substituted products. Reactions were also carried out on textile substrates of cotton, 50/50 nylon-cotton, and a meta aramid. The textile data broadly reproduced reaction times and stoichiometry observed in the liquid phase, but are complicated by physical and possibly chemical interactions with the fabric. These data indicate that, for hypochlorite-containing neutralizing agents operating at strongly alkaline pH, one can expect MeS to react stoichiometrically with the hypochlorite it encounters. This suggests utility of MeS in lieu of such highly hazardous surrogates as monochloroalkyl sulfides as a simulant for threat scenarios involving the stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustard. Specifically, the extent of coverage of the simulant on a fabric by the neutralizing agent can be directly measured. Similar reactivity toward other halogen oxidizing agents is likely but remains to be demonstrated. PMID:21981047

  8. Field-Testing of Methyl Salicylate for Recruitment and Retention of Beneficial Insects in Grapes and Hops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. James; Tanya S. Price

    2004-01-01

    Evidence for recruitment and retention of beneficial insects in grapes and hops using controlled-release dispensers of methyl salicylate (MeSA), a component of herbivore-induced volatile blends, is presented. In a replicated experiment conducted in a juice grape vineyard, sticky cards in blocks baited with MeSA captured significantly greater numbers of five species of predatory insects (Chrysopa nigricornis, Hemerobius sp., Deraeocoris brevis,

  9. The dual effects of methyl salicylate on ripening and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes in tomato fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Kui Ding; Chien Yi Wang

    2003-01-01

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Sun Bright) at three ripening stages (mature green, breaker and turning) were treated with three different concentrations of methyl salicylate (MeSA) vapor to investigate the impact on ripening and ethylene production. The tomato ripening process, including the development of red color, ethylene production and respiration rate, was enhanced by 0.1 mM of MeSA during

  10. The herbivore-induced plant volatile methyl salicylate negatively affects attraction of the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum.

    PubMed

    Snoeren, Tjeerd A L; Mumm, Roland; Poelman, Erik H; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-05-01

    The indirect defense mechanisms of plants comprise the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that can attract natural enemies of plant attackers. One of the often emitted compounds after herbivory is methyl salicylate (MeSA). Here, we studied the importance of this caterpillar-induced compound in the attraction of the parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum by using a mutant Arabidopsis line. Pieris rapae infested AtBSMT1-KO mutant Arabidopsis plants, compromised in the biosynthesis of MeSA, were more attractive to parasitoids than infested wild-type plants. This suggests that the presence of MeSA has negative effects on parasitoid host-finding behavior when exposed to wild-type production of herbivore-induced Arabidopsis volatiles. Furthermore, in line with this, we recorded a positive correlation between MeSA dose and repellence of D. semiclausum when supplementing the headspace of caterpillar-infested AtBSMT1-KO plants with synthetic MeSA. PMID:20407809

  11. Transcriptome profiling of genes induced by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Polygonum minus.

    PubMed

    Ee, Su-Fang; Oh, Ji-Min; Mohd Noor, Normah; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura; Ismail, Ismanizan; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-03-01

    The importance of plant secondary metabolites for both mankind and the plant itself has long been established. However, despite extensive research on plant secondary metabolites, plant secondary metabolism and its regulation still remained poorly characterized. In this present study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) transcript profiling was applied to generate the expression profiles of Polygonum minus in response to salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitations. This study reveals two different sets of genes induced by SA and MeJA, respectively where stress-related genes were proved to lead to the expression of genes involved in plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. A total of 98 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were up-regulated, including 46 from SA-treated and 52 from MeJA-treated samples. The cDNA-AFLP transcripts generated using 64 different Mse1/Taq1 primer combinations showed that treatments with SA and MeJA induced genes mostly involved in scavenging reactive oxygen species, including zeaxanthin epoxidase, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 and peroxidase. Of these stress-related genes, 15 % of other annotated TDFs are involved mainly in secondary metabolic processes where among these, two genes encoding (+)-delta cadinene synthase and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were highlighted. PMID:23187733

  12. New insights into the dual fluorescence of methyl salicylate: effects of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and solvation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Panwang; Hoffmann, Mark R; Han, Keli; He, Guozhong

    2015-02-12

    In this paper, we propose a new and complete mechanism for dual fluorescence of methyl salicylate (MS) under different conditions using a combined experimental (i.e., steady-state absorption and emission spectra and time-resolved fluorescence spectra) and theoretical (i.e., time-dependent density function theory) study. First, our theoretical study indicates that the barrier height for excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of ketoB depends on the solvent polarity. In nonpolar solvents, the ESIPT reaction of ketoB is barrierless; the barrier height will increase with increasing solvent polarity. Second, we found that, in alcoholic solvents, intermolecular hydrogen bonding plays a more important role. The ketoB form of MS can form two hydrogen bonds with alcoholic solvents; one will facilitate ESIPT and produce the emission band in the blue region; the other one precludes ESIPT and produces the emission band in the near-UV region. Our proposed new mechanism can well explain previous results as well as our new experimental results. PMID:24678946

  13. Methyl salicylate 2-O-?-D-lactoside, a novel salicylic acid analogue, acts as an anti-inflammatory agent on microglia and astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activation of microglia and astrocytes is a characteristic of brain inflammation. Epidemiological studies have shown that long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) delays the onset of AD and suppresses its progression. Methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-lactoside (DL0309) is a new molecule chemically related to salicylic acid. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of DL0309. Findings Our studies show that DL0309 significantly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-?; and the expression of the inflammation-related proteins iNOS, COX-1, and COX-2 by microglia and astrocytes. At a concentration of 10 ?M, DL0309 prominently inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-?B in glial cells by blocking phosphorylation of IKK and p65, and by blocking I?B degradation. Conclusions We demonstrate here for the first time that DL0309 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells by suppressing different pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS/NO. Furthermore, it also regulates the NF-?B signaling pathway by blocking IKK and p65 activation and I?B degradation. DL0309 also acts as a non-selective COX inhibitor in glial cells. These studies suggest that DL0309 may be effective in the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders, including AD. PMID:21831328

  14. Evaluation of the acaricide effect of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid, and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Novelino, Adriana Maria; Daemon, Erik; Soares, Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves

    2007-08-01

    The tick Boophilus microplus is the principal species of ectoparasite that impairs dairy cattle productivity in Brazil. Its control is mainly by using synthetic chemical products during its parasitic phase. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acaricide activity of four products of natural origin. Depending on solubility, tests were conducted with solutions in distilled water or emulsified in aqueous DMSO at 1% of the following products: thymol, menthol, methyl salicylate, and salicylic acid. Each of these was tested at three concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%) with five repetitions. The "larval packet test" was performed on approximately 100 larvae of B. microplus at around 15 days of age. After applying the test substances, the envelopes were kept at 27 degrees C and UR >80% and opened after 24 h to count the living and dead larvae. Of the four products tested, only thymol caused significant (up to 100%) mortality of B. microplus larvae. The mortality caused by the other products varied from 0.52 to 9.76%. Hence, thymol can be considered a potential agent to control bovine ticks. PMID:17487509

  15. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. PMID:24817050

  16. Use of methyl salicylate as a simulant to predict the percutaneous absorption of sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Riviere, J E; Smith, C E; Budsaba, K; Brooks, J D; Olajos, E J; Salem, H; Monteiro-Riviere, N A

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to chemical vesicants such as sulfur mustard (HD) continues to be a threat to military forces requiring protectant strategies to exposure to be evaluated. Methyl salicylate (MS) has historically been the simulant of choice to assess HD exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare the percutaneous absorption and skin deposition of MS to HD in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). The HD data were obtained from a previously published study in this model wherein 400 microg cm(-2) of ](14)C[-MS or ](14)C[-HD in ethanol were topically applied to 16 IPPSFs and experiments were terminated at 2, 4 or 8 h. Perfusate was collected at increasing time intervals throughout perfusion. Radioactivity was determined in perfusate and skin samples. Perfusate flux profiles were fitted to a bi-exponential model Y(t) = A(e(-bt) - e(-dt)) and the area under the curve (AUC), peak flux and time to peak flux were determined. Sulfur mustard had more pronounced and rapid initial flux parameters (P < 0.05). The AUCs determined from observed and model-predicted parameters were not statistically different, although the mean HD AUC was 40--50% greater than MS. The HD skin and fat levels were up to twice those seen with MS, but had lower stratum corneum and residual skin surface concentrations (P < 0.05). Compared with other chemicals studied in this model, HD and MS cutaneous disposition were very similar, supporting the use of MS as a dermal simulant for HD exposure. PMID:11288131

  17. Fumigant Activity of 6 Selected Essential Oil Compounds and Combined Effect of Methyl Salicylate And Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Against Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Bin; Feng, Jun-Tao; Jiang, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Xing

    2014-09-01

    We studied the knockdown activity and lethal toxicity of 6 essential oil compounds-methyl salicylate, linalool, 2-phenethyl alcohol, eugenol, ?-citronellol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde-as fumigants against adult female Culex pipiens pallens in the laboratory. Of the 6 products tested, trans-cinnamaldehyde was the most toxic (LC50 ?=? 0.26 µl/l air, 24 h) with a slow knockdown time (KT95 ?=? 176.5 min at 0.5 µl/l air). Methyl salicylate displayed a lower toxicity (LC50 ?=? 1.17 µl/l air, 24 h) but the fastest knockdown activity (KT95 ?=? 16.8 min) at the sublethal concentration 0.5 µl/l air. Furthermore, the binary mixture of methyl salicylate and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited a combined effect of fast knockdown activity and high toxicity against Cx. p. pallens adults, showing potential for development as natural fumigants for mosquito control. PMID:25843095

  18. Efficacy and safety profile of a topical methyl salicylate and menthol patch in adult patients with mild to moderate muscle strain: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicenter study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinobu Higashi; Takehito Kiuchi; Kenichi Furuta

    2010-01-01

    Background: An occlusive patch formulation containing 10% methyl salicylate and 3% l-menthol was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of mild to moderate pain. Despite widespread use of counterirritants, including methyl salicylate and menthol, for topical pain relief, published efficacy and safety data regarding the use of the agents alone or in combination are

  19. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mites and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae K...

  20. Methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation induces ginsenosides accumulation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant in suspension culture Panax ginseng roots in bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Babar Ali; Kee-Won Yu; Eun-Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2006-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) on changes of the activities of major antioxidant enzymes, superoxide anion accumulation (O2\\u000a ?), ascorbate, total glutathione (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ginsenoside accumulation were investigated in ginseng roots (Panax ginseng L.) in 4 l (working volume) air lift bioreactors. Single treatment of 200 ?M MJ and SA to P.

  1. Structural and biochemical studies identify tobacco SABP2 as a methyl salicylate esterase and implicate it in plant innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Forouhar, Farhad; Yang, Yue; Kumar, Dhirendra; Chen, Yang; Fridman, Eyal; Park, Sang Wook; Chiang, Yiwen; Acton, Thomas B.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Pichersky, Eran; Klessig, Daniel F.; Tong, Liang

    2005-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical signal for the activation of plant defense responses against pathogen infections. We recently identified SA-binding protein 2 (SABP2) from tobacco as a protein that displays high affinity for SA and plays a crucial role in the activation of systemic acquired resistance to plant pathogens. Here we report the crystal structures of SABP2, alone and in complex with SA at up to 2.1-Å resolution. The structures confirm that SABP2 is a member of the ?/? hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, with Ser-81, His-238, and Asp-210 as the catalytic triad. SA is bound in the active site and is completely shielded from the solvent, consistent with the high affinity of this compound for SABP2. Our biochemical studies reveal that SABP2 has strong esterase activity with methyl salicylate as the substrate, and that SA is a potent product inhibitor of this catalysis. Modeling of SABP2 with MeSA in the active site is consistent with all these biochemical observations. Our results suggest that SABP2 may be required to convert MeSA to SA as part of the signal transduction pathways that activate systemic acquired resistance and perhaps local defense responses as well. PMID:15668381

  2. Optical bar code recognition of methyl salicylate (MES) for environmental monitoring using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Clint; Tatineni, Balaji; Anderson, John; Tepper, Gary

    2006-10-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a process in which energy is transferred nonradiatively from one fluorophore (the donor) in an excited electron state to another, the chromophore (the acceptor). FRET is distinctive in its ability to reveal the presence of specific recognition of select targets such as the nerve agent stimulant Methyl Salicylate (MES) upon spectroscopic excitation. We introduce a surface imprinted and non-imprinted thin film that underwent AC-Electrospray ionization for donor-acceptor pair(s) bound to InGaP quantum dots and mesoporous silicate nanoparticles. The donor-acceptor pair used in this investigation included MES (donor) and 6-(fluorescein-5-(and-6)- carboxamido) hexanoic acid, succinimidyl ester bound to InGaP quantum dots (acceptor). MES was then investigated as a donor to various acceptor fluorophore: InGaP: mesoporous silicate nanoparticle layers.

  3. The Preparation of 2-(4Oxo4H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)-1-phenyl-ethanones by the Condensation\\/Cyclization of Dilithiated 1Benzoylacetone with Lithiated Methyl Salicylates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    April J. Angel; Douglas R. Hurst; Angela R. Williams; Kristen L. French; Charles F. Beam

    1998-01-01

    Dilithiated 1-benzoylacetone was prepared in excess lithium diisopropylamide and condensed with several lithiated methyl salicylates, followed by acid cyclization to 2-(4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)-1-phenylethanones (2-phenacyl-chromones).

  4. Methyl Salicylate Production and Jasmonate Signaling Are Not Essential for Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Attaran, Elham; Zeier, Tatiana E.; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) develops in response to local microbial leaf inoculation and renders the whole plant more resistant to subsequent pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) in noninfected plant parts is required for SAR, and methyl salicylate (MeSA) and jasmonate (JA) are proposed to have critical roles during SAR long-distance signaling from inoculated to distant leaves. Here, we address the significance of MeSA and JA during SAR development in Arabidopsis thaliana. MeSA production increases in leaves inoculated with the SAR-inducing bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae; however, most MeSA is emitted into the atmosphere, and only small amounts are retained. We show that in several Arabidopsis defense mutants, the abilities to produce MeSA and to establish SAR do not coincide. T-DNA insertion lines defective in expression of a pathogen-responsive SA methyltransferase gene are completely devoid of induced MeSA production but increase systemic SA levels and develop SAR upon local P. syringae inoculation. Therefore, MeSA is dispensable for SAR in Arabidopsis, and SA accumulation in distant leaves appears to occur by de novo synthesis via isochorismate synthase. We show that MeSA production induced by P. syringae depends on the JA pathway but that JA biosynthesis or downstream signaling is not required for SAR. In compatible interactions, MeSA production depends on the P. syringae virulence factor coronatine, suggesting that the phytopathogen uses coronatine-mediated volatilization of MeSA from leaves to attenuate the SA-based defense pathway. PMID:19329558

  5. Investigation of Tomato Plant Defence Response to Tobacco Mosaic Virus by Determination of Methyl Salicylate with SPME-Capillary GC-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunhui Deng; Xiangmin Zhang; Weimin Zhu; Ji Qian

    2004-01-01

    Headspace SPME was applied to investigation of tomato plant defence response to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) by determination of compounds emitted from tomato plants at the extraction conditions of 25 °C and 15 min. It was found that TMV-inoculated tomato plant released large amount of methyl salicylate (MeSA) as response to TMV and MeSA concentration changed dramatically with time after

  6. Field Evaluation of Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles as Attractants for Beneficial Insects: Methyl Salicylate and the Green Lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. James

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSA), a herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV), was demonstrated to be an attractant for the green lacewing, Chrysopanigricornis, in two field experiments conducted in a Washington hop yard. Significantly greater numbers of C. nigricornis were trapped on MeSA-baited sticky cards (mean: 2.8 ± 0.4\\/card\\/week) than on unbaited cards (0.45 ± 0.15) during June–September. Cards baited with two other

  7. Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on cell growth and cryptotanshinone formation in Ti transformed Salvia miltiorrhiza cell suspension cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Chen; Feng Chen

    1999-01-01

    Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MJ) or salicylic acid (SA) when applied alone failed to induce cryptotanshinone (a phytoalexin) formation in Ti-transformed Salvia miltiorrhiza cell suspension cultures. However, when applied in combination with yeast elicitor, SA at 50–500 µM enhanced the yeast elicitor-induced cryptotanshinone formation while MJ reduced the yeast elicitor-induced cryptotanshinone formation. Ibuprofen at 100 µM did not inhibit the yeast elicitor-induced cryptotanshinone

  8. Neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 regulate Caenorhabditis elegans avoidance response to the plant stress hormone methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jintao; Xu, Zhaofa; Tan, Zhiping; Zhang, Zhuohua; Ma, Long

    2015-02-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSa) is a stress hormone released by plants under attack by pathogens or herbivores . MeSa has been shown to attract predatory insects of herbivores and repel pests. The molecules and neurons underlying animal response to MeSa are not known. Here we found that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a strong avoidance response to MeSa, which requires the activities of two closely related neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2. Molecular analyses suggest that NPR-1 expressed in the RMG inter/motor neurons is required for MeSa avoidance. An NPR-1 ligand FLP-18 is also required. Using a rescuing npr-2 promoter to drive a GFP transgene, we identified that NPR-2 is expressed in multiple sensory and interneurons. Genetic rescue experiments suggest that NPR-2 expressed in the AIZ interneurons is required for MeSa avoidance. We also provide evidence that the AWB sensory neurons might act upstream of RMGs and AIZs to detect MeSa. Our results suggest that NPR-2 has an important role in regulating animal behavior and that NPR-1 and NPR-2 act on distinct interneurons to affect C. elegans avoidance response to MeSa. PMID:25527285

  9. Aqueous-phase oxidation of green leaf volatiles by hydroxyl radical as a source of SOA: Product identification from methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, Amie K.; Ehrenhauser, Franz S.; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Anastasio, Cort; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

    2015-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into the atmosphere by vegetation. BVOCs produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via gas-phase reactions, but little is known of their aqueous-phase oxidation as a source of SOA. GLVs can partition into atmospheric water phases, e.g., fog, mist, dew or rain, and be oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (?OH). These reactions in the liquid phase also lead to products that have higher molecular weights, increased polarity, and lower vapor pressures, ultimately forming SOA after evaporation of the droplet. To examine this process, we investigated the aqueous, ?OH-mediated oxidation of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and methyl salicylate (MeSa), two GLVs that produce aqueous-phase SOA. High performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to monitor product formation. The oxidation products identified exhibit higher molecular mass than their parent GLV due to either dimerization or the addition of oxygen and hydroxyl functional groups. The proposed structures of potential products are based on mechanistic considerations combined with the HPLC/ESI-MS data. Based on the structures, the vapor pressure and the Henry's law constant were estimated with multiple methods (SPARC, SIMPOL, MPBPVP, Bond and Group Estimations). The estimated vapor pressures of the products identified are significantly (up to 7 orders of magnitude) lower than those of the associated parent compounds, and therefore, the GLV oxidation products may remain as SOA after evaporation of the water droplet. The contribution of the identified oxidation products to SOA formation is estimated based on measured HPLC-ESI/MS responses relative to previous aqueous SOA mass yield measurements.

  10. Structural and biochemical studies identify tobacco SABP2 as a methyl salicylate esterase and implicate it in plant innate immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhad Forouhar; Yue Yang; Dhirendra Kumar; Yang Chen; Eyal Fridman; Sang Wook Park; Yiwen Chiang; Thomas B. Acton; Gaetano T. Montelione; Eran Pichersky; Daniel F. Klessig; Liang Tong

    2005-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical signal for the activation of plant defense responses against pathogen infections. We recently identified SA-binding protein 2 (SABP2) from tobacco as a protein that displays high affinity for SA and plays a crucial role in the activation of systemic acquired resistance to plant pathogens. Here we report the crystal structures of SABP2, alone and

  11. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  12. Methyl salicylate lactoside inhibits inflammatory response of fibroblast-like synoviocytes and joint destruction in collagen-induced arthritis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Wenyu; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Xue; Xin, Sheng; Zhou, Yiming; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Dan; Li, Yongjie; Zhou, Sibai; Zhang, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantai; Du, Guanhua

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Methyl salicylate 2-O-?-d-lactoside (MSL), whose chemical structure is similar to that of salicylic acid, is a natural product derivative isolated from a traditional Chinese herb. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of MSL in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explore its underlying mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The anti-arthritic effects of MSL were evaluated on human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in vitro and CIA in mice in vivo by obtaining clinical scores, measuring hind paw thickness and inflammatory cytokine levels, radiographic evaluations and histopathological assessments. KEY RESULTS Treatment with MSL after the onset of arthritis significantly prevented the progression and development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in CIA mice without megascopic gastric mucosa damage. In addition, MSL inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, the phosphorylation and translocation of NF-?B, and cell proliferation induced by TNF-? in FLS. MSL non-selectively inhibited the activity of COX?in vitro, but was a more potent inhibitor of COX-2 than COX-1. MSL also inhibited the phosphorylation of inhibitor of NF-?B kinase, I?B? and p65, thus blocking the nuclear translocation of NF-?B in TNF-?-stimulated FLS. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS MSL exerts therapeutic effects on CIA mice, suppressing the inflammatory response and joint destruction by non-selectively inhibiting the activity of COX and suppressing activation of the NF-?B signalling pathway, but without damaging the gastric mucosa. Therefore, MSL has great potential to be developed into a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA. PMID:24712652

  13. Biodistribution in rats of some salicylates with low gastric ulcerogenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Rainsford; A. Schweitzer; P. Green; M. W. Whitehouse; K. Brune

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of three radioactively labelled salicylate derivatives with low ulcerogenic activity was compared with that of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid using whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting techniques in rats. The methyl ester of ASA (AME) was distributed in vivo very similarly to that observed with ASA and salicylic acid. AME is rapidly demethylated following absorption

  14. Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on the production of tropane alkaloids and the expression of PMT and H6H in adventitious root cultures of Scopolia parviflora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Mi Kang; Hee-Young Jung; Young-Min Kang; Dae-Jin Yun; Jung-Dong Bahk; Jae-kyung Yang; Myung-Suk Choi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) on the production of tropane alkaloids (TA) and the expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) and hyoscyamine 6?-hydroxylase (H6H) were studied in adventitious root cultures of Scopolia parviflora. MJ treatments increased the amounts of both scopolamine and hyoscyamine, with growth inhibition of the roots, while SA increased the amount of scopolamine

  15. Ground and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Salicylic Acid: an Ab Initio Electronic Structure Investigation

    E-print Network

    Chowdhury, Arindam

    emission in the fluorescence spectrum of salicylic acid and methyl salicylate and attributedGround and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Salicylic Acid: an Ab Initio Electronic in salicylic acid have been studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations using the 6-31G** basis set

  16. Paramagnetic metal effect on the ligand localized S/sub 1/. -->. T/sub 1/ intersystem crossing in the rare-earth-metal complexes and methyl salicylate

    SciTech Connect

    Tobita, S.; Arakawa, M.; Tanaka, I.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic relaxation processes in the chelates of La/sup 3 +/, Gd/sup 3 +/, Tb/sup 3 +/, and Lu/sup 3 +/ with methyl salicylate have been investigated by measurements of picosecond fluorescence, nanosecond transient absorptions, and quantum yields. The quantum yields of the S/sub 1/ ..-->.. T/sub 1/ intersystem crossing are not appreciably altered by a change in the central metal ions. However, the fluorescence lifetimes are decreased dramatically in the paramagnetic Gd/sup 3 +/ (240 ps) and Tb/sup 3 +/ (<10 ps) complexes compared with those in the diamagnetic La/sup 3 +/ (2.2 ns) and Lu/sup 3 +/ (2.4 ns) complexes. The rate constants derived from these results for the S/sub 1/ ..-->.. T/sub 1/ intersystem crossing, k/sub TM/, in ligands are 5.5 x 10/sup 7/, 7.5 x 10/sup 8/, and 7.9 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/ for the La/sup 3 +/, Gd/sup 3 +/, and Lu/sup 3 +/ complexes, respectively. A large increase of k/sub TM/ is observed in the paramagnetic Gd/sup 3 +/ complexes, which can be attributed to the electron exchange mechanism with ligand ..pi.. electrons. 27 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Preparation of Benz[b]Indeno[1,2-e]Pyran11(6H)Ones and Benz[b]Indeno[1,2-e]Thiopyran-11(6H)One from Dilithiated 2-Indanone and Lithiated Methyl Salicylates or Lithiated Methyl Thiosalicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica D. Townsend; Angela R. Williams; April J. Angel; Anne E. Finefrock; Charles F. Beam

    2000-01-01

    Dilithiated 2-indanone was prepared with excess lithium diisopropylamide, and the resulting intermediate was condensed with several lithiated methyl salicylates or lithiated methyl thiosalicylate, which was followed by acid cyclization to benz[b]indeno[1,2-e]pyran-11(6H)-ones 3--9 or benz[b]indeno[1,2-e]thiopyran-11(6H)-one 10, which are rare fused-ring indeno-chromones and a new indeno-thiochromone, respectively.

  18. The risk of severe salicylate poisoning following the ingestion of topical medicaments or aspirin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Y. Chan

    1996-01-01

    Apart from isolated reports of severe salicylate poisoning after ingesting an unusually large amount of a medicinal oil, there are no published data on the threat arising from attempted suicide with topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil compared with aspirin tablets. In this retrospective study, the admission plasma salicylate concentrations and clinical presentations were compared in 80 subjects

  19. Anti-inflammation effect of methyl salicylate 2-O-?-D-lactoside on adjuvant induced-arthritis rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Sun, Jialin; Xin, Wenyu; Li, Yongjie; Ni, Lin; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantai; Du, Guanhua

    2015-03-01

    Methyl salicylate 2-O-?-D-lactoside (MSL) is a derivative of natural salicylate isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder, which is widely used for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA), swelling and pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSL on the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat in vivo and explore the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of MSL in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Our results showed that MSL significantly inhibited the arthritis progression in AIA rats, decreasing the right hind paw swelling and ankle diameter, attenuating histopathological changes and suppressing the plasma levels of TNF-? and IL-1? in AIA rats. Besides, MSL had potent anti-inflammatory effects on the LPS-activated RAW264.7. MSL dose-dependently inhibited the activity of COX-1, and COX-2. Moreover, MSL prominently inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPK in RAW264.7 cells by blocking phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. Our study suggests that MSL may be effective in the treatment of inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and regulating the MAPK signal pathway. PMID:25637446

  20. Presence of salicylic acid in standardbred horse urine and plasma after various feed and drug administrations.

    PubMed

    Beaumier, P M; Fenwick, J D; Stevenson, A J; Weber, M P; Young, L M

    1987-05-01

    Plasma and urinary levels of salicylic acid were examined in Standardbred mares after administration of various feeds, containing different compositions of hay. In addition, horses were administered acetylsalicylic acid orally and methyl salicylate topically. Elevated salicylic acid levels were observed in horse urine and plasma in animals fed lucerne hay. The plasma and urinary elimination of salicylic acid exhibited a diurnal pattern which was related to the type of feed and the feeding schedule. Within 24 h after oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid, plasma and urine salicylic acid levels were consistent with residual levels observed after feeding lucerne hay. Elimination of salicylic acid was rapid and complete, with a half-life between 5 and 7 h. Topical administration of methyl salicylate (8.4 g) produced elevated urinary salicylic acid levels for 6 h. A smaller dose of methyl salicylate (3.4 g) did not elevate plasma or urine salicylic acid levels above those observed following administration of lucerne hay. PMID:3608958

  1. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  2. SUPPORTING INFORMATION (SI) APPENDIX Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant defense responses

    E-print Network

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION (SI) APPENDIX Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant. References: 1. Forouhar F, et al. (2005) Structual and biochemical studies identify tobacco SABP2 as a methyl salicylate esterase and implicate it in plant innate immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:1773-1778. 2. Glide

  3. Efficient scavenging of ?-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2014-02-01

    The radical cation generated during photobleaching of ?-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k2 = 3.2 × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1) in 9?:?1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10(8) L mol(-1) s(-1), but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the ?-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations. PMID:24336797

  4. Inactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases Belonging

    E-print Network

    Pichersky, Eran

    Inactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases (salicylic acid binding protein 2) hydrolyzes methyl salicylate to salicylic acid. There are 20 homologs candidate MeIAA esterases that could hydrolyze MeIAA. MeIAA, like IAA, exerts inhibitory activity

  5. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H I; León, J; Raskin, I

    1995-01-01

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:11607533

  6. Dual emission and double proton transfer in salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, D. D.; Joshi, H. C.; Bisht, P. B.; Tripathi, H. B.

    1994-07-01

    The photophysics of salicylic acid (SA) monomer and dimer has been studied by using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Dilute solution in alkanes emits at 450 nm, which as in methyl salicylate is due to intramolecular proton transfer. In concentrated solutions and in solid state, the SA dimer shows two emissions, at 370 nm and 450 nm, with some unusual behaviour in both the steady state and the time domain fluorescence. The concept of double proton transfer and the tunneling mechanism in the excited state can rationalize the observed photophysical behaviour.

  7. The promoter of the plant defensin gene PDF1.2 from Arabidopsis is systemically activated by fungal pathogens and responds to methyl jasmonate but not to salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Manners; Iris A. M. A. Penninckx; Katrien Vermaere; Kemal Kazan; Rebecca L. Brown; Andrew Morgan; Donald J. Maclean; Mark D. Curtis; Bruno P. A. Cammue; Willem F. Broekaert

    1998-01-01

    The plant defensin PDF1.2 has previously been shown to accumulate systemically via a salicylic acid-independent pathway in leaves of Arabidopsis upon challenge by fungal pathogens. To further investigate the signalling and transcriptional processes underlying plant defensin induction, a DNA fragment containing 1184 bp and 1232 bp upstream of the transcriptional and translational start sites, respectively, was cloned by inverse PCR. To test

  8. Anti-inflammatory\\/anti-pyretic salicylic acid esters with low gastric ulcerogenic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Rainsford; M. W. Whitehouse

    1980-01-01

    The methyl and some other esters of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids and their derivatives were found to have much lower gastric ulcerogenic activity (when assayed in the stress-sensitized rat) compared with their corresponding acids. There was little or no loss in therapeutic potencies of these salicylate esters as determined by assessment of anti-inflammatory activity (against the carrageenan-induced oedema) and antipyretic

  9. Effect of elicitors on the production of gossypol and methylated gossypol in cotton hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of two-chemical elicitors, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, on the production of gossypol, 6-methoxy gossypol, and 6,6'-dimethoxy gossypol in Gossypium barbadense hairy roots was examined. Methyl jasmonate, but not salicylic acid, was found to increase the production of gossypol and ...

  10. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Junwei J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Wusheng; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Stewart, Charles N; Chen, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in soybean defence against soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN). GmSAMT1 was identified as a candidate SCN defence-related gene in our previous analysis of soybean defence against SCN using GeneChip microarray experiments. The current study started with the isolation of the full-length cDNAs of GmSAMT1 from a SCN-resistant soybean line and from a SCN-susceptible soybean line. The two cDNAs encode proteins of identical sequences. The GmSAMT1 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. Using in vitro enzyme assays, E. coli-expressed GmSAMT1 was confirmed to function as salicylic acid methyltransferase. The apparent Km value of GmSAMT1 for salicylic acid was approximately 46 ?M. To determine the role of GmSAMT1 in soybean defence against SCN, transgenic hairy roots overexpressing GmSAMT1 were produced and tested for SCN resistance. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in SCN-susceptible backgrounds significantly reduced the development of SCN, indicating that overexpression of GmSAMT1 in the transgenic hairy root system could confer resistance to SCN. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in transgenic hairy roots was also found to affect the expression of selected genes involved in salicylic acid biosynthesis and salicylic acid signal transduction. PMID:24034273

  11. The effect of the NMDA channel blocker memantine on salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Ralli, M; Troiani, D; Podda, M V; Paciello, F; Eramo, S L M; de Corso, E; Salvi, R; Paludetti, G; Fetoni, A R

    2014-06-01

    Short-term tinnitus develops shortly after the administration of a high dose of salicylate. Since salicylate selectively potentiates N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) currents in spiral ganglion neurons, it may play a vital role in tinnitus by amplifying NMDA-mediated neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic treatment with a NMDA channel blocker, memantine, could prevent salicylate-induced tinnitus in animals. Additional experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of memantine on the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) to test for changes in hearing function. Thirty-six rats were divided into 3 groups and treated daily for four consecutive days. One group (n = 12) was injected with salicylate (300 mg/kg/d, IP), the second (n = 12) was treated with memantine (5 mg/kg/d, IP) and the third group (n = 12) was injected with salicylate and memantine. All rats were tested for tinnitus and hearing loss at 2, 24, 48 and 72 h after the first drug administration and 24 h post treatment; tinnituslike behaviour was assessed with gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS), and hearing function was measured with DPOAE, ABR and noise burst prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (NBPIAS). Rats in the salicylate group showed impaired GPIAS indicative of transient tinnitus-like behaviour near 16 kHz that recovered 24 h after the last salicylate treatment. Memantine did not cause a significant change in GPIAS. Combined injection of salicylate and memantine significantly attenuated GPIAS tinnitus-like behaviour at 48 hours after the first injection. None of the treatments induced permanent threshold shifts in the ABR and DPOAE, which recovered completely within one day post treatment. Animals treated with salicylate plus memantine showed results comparable to animals treated with salicylate alone, confirming that there is no effect of memantine on DPOAE which reflects OHC function. The present study confirms the role of cochlear NMDA receptors in the induction of salicylate-induced tinnitus. PMID:24882929

  12. Salicylate-induced changes in immediate-early genes in the hippocampal CA1 area.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Xu, Feng-Lei; Yin, Yong; Da, Peng; You, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Hui-Min; Tang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Studies have suggested that salicylate affects neuronal function via interactions with specific membrane channels/receptors. However, the effect of salicylate on activity and synaptic morphology of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1 area remains to be elucidated. The activation of immediate?early genes (IEGs) was reported to correlate with neuronal activity, in particular activity?regulated cytoskeleton?associated protein and early growth response gene 1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of these IEGs, as well that of N?methyl D?aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B in rats following acute and chronic salicylate treatment. Protein and messenger RNA levels of all three genes were increased in rats following chronic administration of salicylate (300 mg/kg for 10 days), returning to baseline levels 14 days post?cessation of treatment. The transient upregulation of gene expression following treatment was accompanied by ultrastructural alterations in hippocampal CA1 area synapses. An increase in synaptic interface curvature was observed as well as an increased number of presynaptic vesicles; in addition, postsynaptic densities thickened and lengthened. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that chronic exposure to salicylate may lead to structural alteration of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and it was suggested that this process occurs through induced expression of IEGs via NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25873216

  13. Salicylate-induced changes in immediate-early genes in the hippocampal CA1 area

    PubMed Central

    WU, HAO; XU, FENG-LEI; YIN, YONG; DA, PENG; YOU, XIAO-DONG; XU, HUI-MIN; TANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that salicylate affects neuronal function via interactions with specific membrane channels/receptors. However, the effect of salicylate on activity and synaptic morphology of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1 area remains to be elucidated. The activation of immediate-early genes (IEGs) was reported to correlate with neuronal activity, in particular activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein and early growth response gene 1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of these IEGs, as well that of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B in rats following acute and chronic salicylate treatment. Protein and messenger RNA levels of all three genes were increased in rats following chronic administration of salicylate (300 mg/kg for 10 days), returning to baseline levels 14 days post-cessation of treatment. The transient upregulation of gene expression following treatment was accompanied by ultrastructural alterations in hippocampal CA1 area synapses. An increase in synaptic interface curvature was observed as well as an increased number of presynaptic vesicles; in addition, postsynaptic densities thickened and lengthened. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that chronic exposure to salicylate may lead to structural alteration of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and it was suggested that this process occurs through induced expression of IEGs via NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25873216

  14. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2001 EXOGENOUS METHYL JASMONATE INDUCES VOLATILE

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    to untreated controls. Other induced components included (Z )-3-hexenyl acetate, methyl salicylate, and indoleJournal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2001 EXOGENOUS METHYL JASMONATE INDUCES VOLATILE; accepted December 12, 2000) Abstract--We investigated the effect of exogenous methyl jasmonate (Me

  15. 196 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Biological and Molecular Analyses of the Acibenzolar-S-Methyl-

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    ), acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, a derivative of BTH), salicylic acid (SA), and phosphates have been shown196 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Virology Biological and Molecular Analyses of the Acibenzolar-S-Methyl- Induced. Biological and molecular analyses of the acibenzolar- S-methyl-induced systemic acquired resistance in flue

  16. The estrogenic potential of salicylate esters and their possible risks in foods and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaobin; Jia, Chengxia; Hu, Ying; Sun, Libei; Jiao, Jian; Zhao, Liang; Zhu, Desheng; Li, Jun; Tian, Yonglu; Bai, Huicheng; Li, Ruobao; Hu, Jianying

    2012-03-01

    Salicylate esters (SEs), a class of chemicals extensively used as flavor and fragrance additives in foods, beverages and a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected to have estrogenic activity based on chemical analysis of in silica molecular docking. We evaluated the estrogenic potentials of phenyl salicylate (PhS), benzyl salicylate (BzS), phenethyl salicylate (PES), ethyl salicylate (ES) and methyl salicylate (MS) using an in vitro human estrogen receptor ? (hER?)-coactivator recruiting assay and in vivo immature rodent uterotrophic bioassays. We found that PhS, BzS and PES showed obvious in vitro hER? agonistic activities; BzS in particular exhibited a higher estrogenic activity compared to bisphenol A (BPA). The uterine weights were significantly increased in mice treated with 11.1, 33.3, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day BzS and 33.3mg/kg/day PES and rats treated with 3.7, 11.1, 33.3 and 100mg/kg/day BzS for 3 days (P<0.05). Finally, we transformed the daily intakes and the dermal exposures of SEs in the real world into estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs). We found that the EEQ of BzS daily intake in consumers in the U.S. and the EEQs of dermal BzS and PES exposure among high-volume users worldwide were higher than the maximum secure daily estradiol intake recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In particular, the EEQ for dermal BzS exposure was up to 162 ng EEQ/kg, which is 3.3 times higher than the maximal acceptable daily E(2) intake recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). PMID:22197706

  17. In Vitro Degradation of Willow Salicylates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teija Ruuhola; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto; Pirjo Vainiotalo

    2003-01-01

    Salicylates are defensive compounds against a great variety of generalist herbivores. Salicortin and its derivatives are labile compounds that degrade immediately when cell compartmentalization is ruptured, producing a 6-hydroxy-2-cyclohexenone (6-HCH) moiety that is a strong antifeeding cue. We studied the In Vitro degradation of willow salicylates in the presence and absence of foliar enzymes at acidic, neutral, and alkaline pHs.

  18. Salicylic acid protects the skin from UV damage.

    PubMed

    Mammone, Thomas; Gan, David; Goyarts, Earl; Maes, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Aspirin(acetyl salicylate) has long been used as an analgesic. Salicylic acid has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. These activities include inhibiting activity of cox-1, cox-2, and NF-kb. In addition, salicylic acid has also been shown in some systems to induce Hsp70. We have demonstrated that salicylic acid inhibits UVB-induced sunburn cell formation, as well as increase the removal of UVB induced TT dimer formation in living skin equivalents. Given these protective properties of salicylic acid, we propose the use of salicylic acid as a topical therapeutic to protect the skin from sun damage. PMID:16758568

  19. Requirement of Salicylic Acid for the Induction of Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gaffney; Leslie Friedrich; Bernard Vernooij; David Negrotto; Gordon Nye; Scott Uknes; Eric Ward; Helmut Kessmann; John Ryals

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that salicylic acid acts as an endogenous signal responsible for inducing systemic acquired resistance in plants. The contribution of salicylic acid to systemic acquired resistance was investigated in transgenic tobacco plants harboring a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase, which converts salicylic acid to catechol. Transgenic plants that express salicylate hydroxylase accumulated little or no salicylic acid

  20. Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

  1. Effects of salicylate on the inflammatory genes expression and synaptic ultrastructure in the cochlear nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shou-Sen; Mei, Ling; Chen, Jian-Yong; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Wu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Aspirin (salicylate), as a common drug that is frequently used for long-term treatment in a clinical setting, has the potential to cause reversible tinnitus. However, few reports have examined the inflammatory cytokines expression and alteration of synaptic ultrastructure in the cochlear nucleus (CN) in a rat model of tinnitus. The tinnitus-like behavior of rats were detected by the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm. We investigated the expression levels of the tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) mRNA and protein in the CN and compared synapses ultrastructure in the CN of tinnitus rats with normal ones. GPIAS showed that rats with long-term administration of salicylate were experiencing tinnitus, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-? and NR2A were up-regulated in chronic treatment groups, and they returned to baseline 14 days after cessation of treatment. Furthermore, compared to normal rats, repetitive salicylate-treated rats showed a greater number of presynaptic vesicles, thicker and longer postsynaptic densities, increased synaptic interface curvature. These data revealed that chronic salicylate administration markedly, but reversibly, induces tinnitus possibly via augmentation of the expression of TNF-? and NR2A and cause changes in synaptic ultrastructure in the CN. Long-term administration of salicylate causes neural plasticity changes at the CN level. PMID:24092407

  2. In vitro degradation of willow salicylates.

    PubMed

    Ruuhola, Teija; Julkunen-Tiitto, Ritta; Vainiotalo, Pirjo

    2003-05-01

    Salicylates are defensive compounds against a great variety of generalist herbivores. Salicortin and its derivatives are labile compounds that degrade immediately when cell compartmentalization is ruptured, producing a 6-hydroxy-2-cyclohexenone (6-HCH) moiety that is a strong antifeeding cue. We studied the in vitro degradation of willow salicylates in the presence and absence of foliar enzymes at acidic, neutral, and alkaline pHs. Higher substituted salicylates were degraded in the absence of foliar enzymes at alkaline pH and in the presence of foliar enzymes at all three pHs. Salicin and its diglucoside, on the other hand, were degraded only in the presence of foliar enzymes at acidic pH, probably by beta-glucosidase activity. The main degradation products of higher substituted salicylates were salicin, 6-HCH, and catechol in both the absence and presence of enzymes, suggesting that the production of 6-HCH and catechol do not necessarily demand enzymatic activity. We propose that the degradation of salicylates begins with the cleavage of a 1-hydroxy-6-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-carbonyl moiety by foliar esterases and/or alkaline condition. This moiety is decarboxylated in nonenzymatic reaction to an anion of 2-hydroxy-3-cyclohexenone, which is tautomerized to the enol form and further to the keto form, 6-HCH. Hydroxyketone can be also oxidized to catechol, a substrate of polyphenol oxidases. PMID:12857023

  3. Salicylate poisoning: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management.

    PubMed

    Chyka, Peter A; Erdman, Andrew R; Christianson, Gwenn; Wax, Paul M; Booze, Lisa L; Manoguerra, Anthony S; Caravati, E Martin; Nelson, Lewis S; Olson, Kent R; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Scharman, Elizabeth J; Woolf, Alan D; Troutman, William G

    2007-01-01

    A review of U.S. poison center data for 2004 showed over 40,000 exposures to salicylate-containing products. A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and pre-hospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial out-of-hospital management of patients with a suspected exposure to salicylates by 1) describing the process by which a specialist in poison information should evaluate an exposure to salicylates, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of salicylate exposure, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses: 1) Patients with stated or suspected self-harm or who are the victims of a potentially malicious administration of a salicylate, should be referred to an emergency department immediately. This referral should be guided by local poison center procedures. In general, this should occur regardless of the dose reported (Grade D). 2) The presence of typical symptoms of salicylate toxicity such as hematemesis, tachypnea, hyperpnea, dyspnea, tinnitus, deafness, lethargy, seizures, unexplained lethargy, or confusion warrants referral to an emergency department for evaluation (Grade C). 3) Patients who exhibit typical symptoms of salicylate toxicity or nonspecific symptoms such as unexplained lethargy, confusion, or dyspnea, which could indicate the development of chronic salicylate toxicity, should be referred to an emergency department (Grade C). 4) Patients without evidence of self-harm should have further evaluation, including determination of the dose, time of ingestion, presence of symptoms, history of other medical conditions, and the presence of co-ingestants. The acute ingestion of more than 150 mg/kg or 6.5 g of aspirin equivalent, whichever is less, warrants referral to an emergency department. Ingestion of greater than a lick or taste of oil of wintergreen (98% methyl salicylate) by children under 6 years of age and more than 4 mL of oil of wintergreen by patients 6 years of age and older could cause systemic salicylate toxicity and warrants referral to an emergency department (Grade C). 5) Do not induce emesis for ingestions of salicylates (Grade D). 6) Consider the out-of-hospital administration of activated charcoal for acute ingestions of a toxic dose if it is immediately available, no contraindications are present, the patient is not vomiting, and local guidelines for its out-of-hospital use are observed. However, do not delay transportation in order to administer activated charcoal (Grade D). 7) Women in the last trimester of pregnancy who ingest below the dose for emergency department referral and do not have other referral conditions should be directed to their primary care physician, obstetrician, or a non-emergent health care facility for evaluation of maternal and fetal risk. Routine referral to an emergency department for immediate

  4. Jasmonate and salicylate induce the expression of pathogenesis-related-protein genes and increase resistance to chilling injury in tomato fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Kui Ding; Chien Yi Wang; Kenneth C. Gross; David L. Smith

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Beefstake) fruit with low concentrations of (0.01 mM) methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or methyl salicylate (MeSA) substantially enhanced their resistance to chilling temperature and decreased the incidence of decay during low-temperature storage. While studying the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, different accumulation patterns of PR-protein mRNAs in tomato fruit were observed. MeJA substantially

  5. Salicylate-mediated interactions between pathogens and herbivores.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Jennifer S; Agrawal, Anurag A; Halitschke, Rayko

    2010-04-01

    Plants employ hormone-mediated signaling pathways to defend against pathogens and insects. We tested predictions about the relative effect of jasmonate and salicylate pathways and how they mediate interactions between pathogens and herbivores. We employed two pathogens of tomato, Pseudomonas syringae (Pst) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), that are known to elicit distinct components of the two pathways, and we address the consequences of their induction for resistance in wild-type and salicylate-deficient transgenic plants in field experiments. We report that Pst infection induced jasmonic acid and proteinase inhibitors (PIs), and reduced the growth of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars on wild-type and salicylate-deficient plants. Pst and TMV both induced salicylic acid in wild-type but not salicylate-deficient plants. Although TMV did not affect jasmonic acid or PIs, infection increased caterpillar growth on wild-type plants, but not on salicylate-deficient plants. Aphid population growth was higher on salicylate-deficient compared to wild-type plants, and lower on salicylate-induced plants compared to controls. Natural aphid colonization was reduced on TMV-infected wild types, but not on salicylate-deficient plants. In sum, jasmonate-mediated resistance is induced by some pathogens, independent of salicylate, and salicylate-mediated induction by other pathogens results in induced susceptibility to a chewer and resistance to an aphid. We conclude with a predictive model for the expression of defense pathways and their consequences. PMID:20462121

  6. Gaultherin, a natural salicylate derivative from Gaultheria yunnanensis: Towards a better non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Zhang; Xiao-Li He; Yi Ding; Guan-Hua Du

    2006-01-01

    One of the major factors limiting the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is gastrointestinal toxicity. Gaultherin, 2-[(6-O-?-d-Xylopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] benzoic acid methyl ester, a natural salicylate derivative extracted from Gaultheria yunnanensis, has been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and lack gastric ulcerogenic effect compared to aspirin in our primary study. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism

  7. QM/MM Free Energy Simulations of Salicylic Acid Methyltransferase: Effects of Stabilization of TS-like Structures on Substrate Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jianzhuang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Xu, Qin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guo, Hong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Salicylic acid methyltransferases (SAMTs) synthesize methyl salicylate (MeSA) using salicylate as the substrate. MeSA synthesized in plants may function as an airborne signal to activate the expression of defense-related genes and could also be a critical mobile signaling molecule that travels from the site of plant infection to establish systemic immunity in the induction of disease resistance. Here the results of QM/MM free energy simulations for the methyl transfer process in Clarkia breweri SAMT (CbSAMT) are reported to determine the origin of the substrate specificity of SAMTs. The free energy barrier for the methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to 4-hydroxybenzoate in CbSAMT is found to be about 5 kcal/mol higher than that from AdoMet to salicylate, consistent with the experimental observations. It is suggested that the relatively high efficiency for the methylation of salicylate compared to 4-hydroxybenzoate is due, at least in part, to the reason that a part of the stabilization of the transition state (TS) configuration is already reflected in the reactant complex, presumably, through the binding. The results seem to indicate that the creation of the substrate complex (e.g., through mutagenesis and substrate modifications) with its structure closely resembling TS might be fruitful for improving the catalytic efficiency for some enzymes. The results show that the computer simulations may provide important insights into the origin of the substrate specificity for the SABATH family and could be used to help experimental efforts in generating engineered enzymes with altered substrate specificity.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...

  11. Structural genes for salicylate biosynthesis from chorismate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Serino; Cornelia Reimmann; Heinz Baur; Markus Beyeler; Paolo Visca; Dieter Haas

    1995-01-01

    Salicylate is a precursor of pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both compounds display siderophore activity. To elucidate the salicylate biosynthetic pathway, we have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal region of P. aeruginosa PAO1 containing two adjacent genes, designated pchB and pchA, which are necessary for salicylate formation. The pchA gene encodes a protein of 52 kDa with extensive similarity to

  12. Quantitative genetic analysis of salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dobón, Albor; Canet, Juan Vicente; Perales, Lorena; Tornero, Pablo

    2011-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phytohormone required for a full resistance against some pathogens in Arabidopsis, and NPR1 (Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1) is the only gene with a strong effect on resistance induced by SA which has been described. There can be additional components of SA perception that escape the traditional approach of mutagenesis. An alternative to that approach is searching in the natural variation of Arabidopsis. Different methods of analyzing the variation between ecotypes have been tried and it has been found that measuring the growth of a virulent isolate of Pseudomonas syringae after the exogenous application of SA is the most effective one. Two ecotypes, Edi-0 and Stw-0, have been crossed, and their F2 has been studied. There are two significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in this population, and there is one QTL in each one of the existing mapping populations Col-4 × Laer-0 and Laer-0 × No-0. They have different characteristics: while one QTL is only detectable at low concentrations of SA, the other acts after the point of crosstalk with methyl jasmonate signalling. Three of the QTLs have candidates described in SA perception as NPR1, its interactors, and a calmodulin binding protein. PMID:21614499

  13. Morphine deteriorates spatial memory in sodium salicylate treated rats.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, Mehdi; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Naghdi, Nasser; Semnanian, Saeed

    2013-03-15

    Tolerance and cross-tolerance for the effects of morphine (M) and sodium salicylate on nociception and learning were examined. The anti-nociceptive effects were measured by using the classic tail flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests and learning was measured with the Morris water maze (MWM). Tolerance or cross-tolerance was induced by daily injection (i.p.) of morphine sulfate (10mg/kg for 7 days) or sodium salicylate (300 mg/kg for 6 days). The injection of sodium salicylate increased both TF and HP latencies. This anti-nociceptive effect was progressively decreased across six injections and tolerance to sodium salicylate was developed. When M was injected to sodium salicylate-tolerant rats, a weakened anti-nociceptive effect was seen, indicating cross-tolerance to M. Acute treatment with M also increased TF latency. This anti-nociceptive effect was successively decreased across seven injections and tolerance to M was developed. When sodium salicylate was injected to M-tolerant rats, a diminished anti-nociceptive effect was seen, indicating cross-tolerance to sodium salicylate. Acute M impaired water maze performance, while chronic M and sodium salicylate had no effects on MWM performance. However, when M was injected to rats that had received sodium salicylate after each training trial for 7 days, these rats spent less time in target quadrant as compared to M and saline groups. It is concluded that chronic sodium salicylate induces tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of M and vice versa. Also chronic salicylate may produce lasting metaplastic changes in brain mechanisms behind spatial learning and memory, which can be visualized in cross-sensitization to morphine. PMID:23461854

  14. Infrared and ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled substituted salicylic acids; substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer in salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Hakam Abou El-Nasr, E.; Fujii, A.; Ebata, T.; Mikami, N.

    Substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in the salicylic acid (SA) frame were studied by electronic and infrared spectroscopy of jet-cooled 5-methoxylsalicylic acid (5-MeOSA), 5-methylsalicylic acid (5-MeSA), 5-fluorosalicylic acid (5-FSA), 6-fluorosalicylic acid (6-FSA), and methyl salicylate (MS). Infrared spectra were measured in the 3 µm region for both the electronic ground (S0) and first excited (S1) states. The electronic excitation/emission spectra of 5-MeSA and 6-FSA showed the typical spectral features of ESIPT, which have been found in the spectra of SA. On the other hand, 5-MeOSA and 5-FSA exhibit a mirror-image relation between their excitation and emission spectra, which has been regarded as a result of the suppression of ESIPT. Despite such a remarkable difference among the electronic spectra, IR spectroscopy shows that a drastic change of the phenolic OH stretching vibration does occur upon electronic excitation of all substituted SAs, that is, the phenolic OH band of all the SAs disappears from the 3 µm region, indicating a large elongation of the phenolic O-H bond (over 0.1 Å) in S1. This result means that the intramolecular hydrogen bond strength is remarkably enhanced by electronic excitation in all the substituted SAs. Substitution effects on ESIPT in dimers are also discussed.

  15. Adsorption of salicylic acid onto polymeric adsorbents and activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Otero; Carlos A Grande; Alirio E Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a drug responsible for many cases of intoxication since it is present in many medications and prescription drugs such as aspirin. Activated charcoal is the most used adsorbent for the treatment of poisoning cases and also pharmaceutical wastewaters. The applicability of polymeric resins for the salicylic acid adsorption is the objective of this research work. The adsorptive

  16. The early clinical history of salicylates in rheumatology and pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hedner; B. Everts

    1998-01-01

    The first clinical reports on the treatment of fever and pain with salicylate-containing natural willow bark remedies were made by the English clergyman Edward Stone in 1763. The pharmacologically active principles were isolated from natural sources by Italian, German and French scientists between 1826 and 1829. Salicylic acid was first synthesised by the German Gerland in 1852 and a year

  17. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

    2000-01-01

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

  18. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium 5-nitro-salicylate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C(6)H(13)N(2)O(+)·C(7)H(4)NO(5) (-), the isonipecotamide cations and the 5-nitro-salicylate anions form hydrogen-bonded chain substructures through head-to-tail piperidinium-carboxyl-ate N-H?O hydrogen bonds and through centrosymmetric cyclic head-to-head amide-amide hydrogen-bonding associations [graph set R(2) (2)(8)]. These chains are cross-linked by amide-carboxyl-ate N-H?O and piperidinium-nitro N-H?O associations, giving a sheet structure. PMID:21522633

  19. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium 5-nitro­salicylate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C7H4NO5 ?, the isonipecotamide cations and the 5-nitro­salicylate anions form hydrogen-bonded chain substructures through head-to-tail piperidinium–carboxyl­ate N—H?O hydrogen bonds and through centrosymmetric cyclic head-to-head amide–amide hydrogen-bonding associations [graph set R 2 2(8)]. These chains are cross-linked by amide–carboxyl­ate N—H?O and piperidinium–nitro N—H?O associations, giving a sheet structure. PMID:21522633

  20. Structural genes for salicylate biosynthesis from chorismate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Serino, L; Reimmann, C; Baur, H; Beyeler, M; Visca, P; Haas, D

    1995-11-15

    Salicylate is a precursor of pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both compounds display siderophore activity. To elucidate the salicylate biosynthetic pathway, we have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal region of P. aeruginosa PAO1 containing two adjacent genes, designated pchB and pchA, which are necessary for salicylate formation. The pchA gene encodes a protein of 52 kDa with extensive similarity to the chorismate-utilizing enzymes isochorismate synthase, anthranilate synthase (component I) and p-aminobenzoate synthase (component I), whereas the 11 kDa protein encoded by pchB does not show significant similarity with other proteins. The pchB stop codon overlaps the presumed pchA start codon. Expression of the pchA gene in P. aeruginosa appears to depend on the transcription and translation of the upstream pchB gene. The pchBA genes are the first salicylate biosynthetic genes to be reported. Salicylate formation was demonstrated in an Escherichia coli entC mutant lacking isochorismate synthase when this strain expressed both the pchBA genes, but not when it expressed pchB alone. By contrast, an entB mutant of E. coli blocked in the conversion of isochorismate to 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate formed salicylate when transformed with a pchB expression construct. Salicylate formation could also be demonstrated in vitro when chorismate was incubated with a crude extract of P. aeruginosa containing overproduced PchA and PchB proteins; salicylate and pyruvate were formed in equimolar amounts. Furthermore, salicylate-forming activity could be detected in extracts from a P. aeruginosa pyoverdin-negative mutant when grown under iron limitation, but not with iron excess. Our results are consistent with a pathway leading from chorismate to isochorismate and then to salicylate plus pyruvate, catalyzed consecutively by the iron-repressible PchA and PchB proteins in P. aeruginosa. PMID:7500944

  1. Salicylate and catechol levels are maintained in nahG transgenic poplar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison M. Morse; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; Christopher Dervinis; Paula M. Pijut; Eric A. Schmelz; Wendy Day; John M. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic profiling was used to investigate the molecular phenotypes of a transgenic Populus tremula×P. alba hybrid expressing the nahG transgene, a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol. Despite the efficacy of this transgenic approach to reduce salicylic acid levels in other model systems and thereby elucidate roles for salicylic acid in plant signaling, transgenic poplars

  2. Methylation matters

    PubMed Central

    Costello, J.; Plass, C.

    2001-01-01

    DNA methylation is not just for basic scientists any more. There is a growing awareness in the medical field that having the correct pattern of genomic methylation is essential for healthy cells and organs. If methylation patterns are not properly established or maintained, disorders as diverse as mental retardation, immune deficiency, and sporadic or inherited cancers may follow. Through inappropriate silencing of growth regulating genes and simultaneous destabilisation of whole chromosomes, methylation defects help create a chaotic state from which cancer cells evolve. Methylation defects are present in cells before the onset of obvious malignancy and therefore cannot be explained simply as a consequence of a deregulated cancer cell. Researchers are now able to detect with exquisite sensitivity the cells harbouring methylation defects, sometimes months or years before the time when cancer is clinically detectable. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of specific genes has been directly linked with the tumour response to chemotherapy and patient survival. Advances in our ability to observe the methylation status of the entire cancer cell genome have led us to the unmistakable conclusion that methylation abnormalities are far more prevalent than expected. This methylomics approach permits the integration of an ever growing repertoire of methylation defects with the genetic alterations catalogued from tumours over the past two decades. Here we discuss the current knowledge of DNA methylation in normal cells and disease states, and how this relates directly to our current understanding of the mechanisms by which tumours arise.???Keywords: methylation; cancer PMID:11333864

  3. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-?, and IL-1? mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-?, IL-1? mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

  4. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on salicylate-induced tinnitus, expression of NMDA receptor and inflammatory genes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-?, and IL-1? mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-?, IL-1? mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

  5. Expression of immediate-early genes in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rat.

    PubMed

    Hu, S S; Mei, L; Chen, J Y; Huang, Z W; Wu, H

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC), in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus. PMID:24704997

  6. Gaultherin, a natural salicylate derivative from Gaultheria yunnanensis: towards a better non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; He, Xiao-Li; Ding, Yi; Du, Guan-Hua

    2006-01-13

    One of the major factors limiting the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is gastrointestinal toxicity. Gaultherin, 2-[(6-O-beta-D-Xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] benzoic acid methyl ester, a natural salicylate derivative extracted from Gaultheria yunnanensis, has been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and lack gastric ulcerogenic effect compared to aspirin in our primary study. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of gaultherin, which may rely on its active metabolite, and the mechanism responsible for the non-ulcerogenic property. The results showed that gaultherin (200 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the abdominal contractions in the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of gaultherin was demonstrated in the croton oil-induced ear edema model in mice. The results showed that gaultherin and equimolar dose of aspirin produced comparable inhibitory effects. The study of the metabolism characters of gaultherin in mice and rats indicated that gaultherin could be metabolically converted to salicylate, which produced the pharmacological effects, and provided effective concentrations for an extended period. In vitro metabolism experiment showed that gaultherin was metabolized by beta-glycosidase produced by human intestinal bacteria and esterases in intestine, blood and liver successively to release salicylate finally. The study suggested gaultherin did not cause gastric ulcer for the reason that it released salicylate in intestine slowly, not in stomach and it left the cyclooxygenase-1 unaffected, which was the source of cytoprotective prostaglandins in gastric epithelium. PMID:16375889

  7. [Milestones of cardivascular pharmacotherapy: salicylates and aspirin].

    PubMed

    Jerie, P

    2006-01-01

    The analgesic and antipyretic effect of the bark of willow has been known in Egypt and Greece for canturies. The modem era of salicylates starts with a letter sent 1758 by Reverend Edward Stone to The Royal Society in London. He described "an account of the success of the bark of willow in the cure of agues". His report. erroneously attributed to Edmond Stone. was published five years later. The active ingredient of willow bark. "salicine". was first isolated 1828 by Joseph Buchner, then by Henri Leroux, and also prepared from the oil of wintergreen (Gaultheria) and meadowsweet (Spirea ulmaria) by J. W. Lowig 1833. and called "Spirsäure", which was already pure acetylsalicylic acid. It was also synthetised 1853 by Ch. Gerhardt and finally 1897 in Bayer's laboratoires by Felix Hoffman, who also demonstrated its antiinflammatory efficacy. After two years of clinical trials with low doses, Bayer's management decided to start the productions and launched Aspirin as an analgetic worldwide in summer 1899. The first ASPIRIN ERA bagun. A completely new epoch started when J. N. Vane and Priscilla Piner demonstrated 1971 that the main mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs is the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In later studies the potency to inhibit platelet aggregation with small doses of aspirin (30-125 mg) was demonstrated. The Physicians'Health Study 1988 confirmed this effect: aspirin significantly reduced the risk of both, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. and is now used in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. However the idea was not new: The use of salicylates and aspirin was throughly discussed more than 50 years ago: Paul C. Gibson published 1949 a well-documented case report on efficacy of aspirin in patients with angina, and Kl. Weber and P. Klein in Prague used Gibson's mixture successfully for patients with acute myocardial infarction (1951). Recently, the efficacy and security, the interactions and side-effects of low-dose aspirin have been studied and discussed. In chronic treatment, any combination of two specific platelet antiaggregants should be avoided. PMID:17323609

  8. The chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in hippocampus area CA1.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, Mehdi; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Semnanian, Saeed

    2013-12-01

    The current practical tests were designed to study in vitro interactions in the field potential between salicylate and morphine analgesics in the hippocampus area CA1 taken from morphine-(7 days) or salicylate (6 days)-treated rats. For this, morphine or salicylate was applied in vitro to the hippocampal slices derived from chronically drug-treated or saline-injected rats and drug-induced changes in evoked field potentials of area CA1 were evaluated. Chronic treatment in vivo of morphine or salicylate had no impact on baseline field EPSP and population spikes (PS) but a leftward shift in fEPSP/PS (E/S) curves and an increase in paired pulse ratio at 10 ms IPI were seen. Acute in vitro salicylate produced a durable PS potentiation in morphine-treated group, whereas an increase in PS of all groups was observed after long-term exposure to in vitro salicylate. Acute in vitro morphine caused a stable PS potentiation in control and salicylate treated groups, but not in morphine treated group. A potentiated fEPSP and a greater PS potentiation in salicylate treated group were observed after long-term exposure to in vitro morphine. It is concluded that the chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine incites lasting changes in the CA1 circuitry, which alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in a way that an increase in reactivity or tolerance to the acute salicylate or morphine administration was observed. PMID:24095667

  9. Ion Channel-Forming Alamethicin Is a Potent Elicitor of Volatile Biosynthesis and Tendril Coiling. Cross Talk between Jasmonate and Salicylate Signaling in Lima Bean1

    PubMed Central

    Engelberth, Jürgen; Koch, Thomas; Schüler, Göde; Bachmann, Nadine; Rechtenbach, Jana; Boland, Wilhelm

    2001-01-01

    Alamethicin (ALA), a voltage-gated, ion channel-forming peptide mixture from Trichoderma viride, is a potent elicitor of the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Unlike elicitation with jasmonic acid or herbivore damage, the blend of substances emitted comprises only the two homoterpenes, 4,11-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, and methyl salicylate. Inhibition of octadecanoid signaling by aristolochic acid and phenidone as well as mass spectrometric analysis of endogenous jasmonate demonstrate that ALA induces the biosynthesis of volatile compounds principally via the octadecanoid-signaling pathway (20-fold increase of jasmonic acid). ALA also up-regulates salicylate biosynthesis, and the time course of the production of endogenous salicylate correlates well with the appearance of the methyl ester in the gas phase. The massive up-regulation of the SA-pathway (90-fold) interferes with steps in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of 12-oxophytodienoic acid and thereby reduces the pattern of emitted volatiles to compounds previously shown to be induced by early octadecanoids. ALA also induces tendril coiling in various species like Pisum, Lathyrus, and Bryonia, but the response appears to be independent from octadecanoid biosynthesis, because inhibitors of lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 do not prevent the coiling reaction. PMID:11154344

  10. Salicylic acid signaling in disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhirendra

    2014-11-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant hormone that mediates host responses against microbial pathogens. Identification and characterization of SA-interacting/binding proteins is a topic which has always excited scientists studying microbial defense response in plants. It is likely that discovery of a true receptor for SA may greatly advance understanding of this important signaling pathway. SABP2 with its high affinity for SA was previously considered to be a SA receptor. Despite a great deal work we may still not have true a receptor for SA. It is also entirely possible that there may be more than one receptor for SA. This scenario is more likely given the diverse role of SA in various physiological processes in plants including, modulation of opening and closing of stomatal aperture, flowering, seedling germination, thermotolerance, photosynthesis, and drought tolerance. Recent identification of NPR3, NPR4 and NPR1 as potential SA receptors and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHE2), several glutathione S transferases (GSTF) such as SA binding proteins have generated more interest in this field. Some of these SA binding proteins may have direct/indirect role in plant processes other than pathogen defense signaling. Development and use of new techniques with higher specificity to identify SA-interacting proteins have shown great promise and have resulted in the identification of several new SA interactors. This review focuses on SA interaction/binding proteins identified so far and their likely role in mediating plant defenses. PMID:25438793

  11. Biosynthesis of salicylic acid in plants

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zuyu; Huang, Junli; Lai, Zhibing; Fan, Baofang

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule in plants. Two pathways of SA biosynthesis have been proposed in plants. Biochemical studies using isotope feeding have suggested that plants synthesize SA from cinnamate produced by the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Silencing of PAL genes in tobacco or chemical inhibition of PAL activity in Arabidopsis, cucumber and potato reduces pathogen-induced SA accumulation. Genetic studies, on the other hand, indicate that the bulk of SA is produced from isochorismate. In bacteria, SA is synthesized from chorismate through two reactions catalyzed by isochorismate synthase (ICS) and isochorismate pyruvate lyase (IPL). Arabidopsis contains two ICS genes but has no gene encoding proteins similar to the bacterial IPL. Thus, how SA is synthesized in plants is not fully elucidated. Two recently identified Arabidopsis genes, PBS3 and EPS1, are important for pathogen-induced SA accumulation. PBS3 encodes a member of the acyl-adenylate/thioester-forming enzyme family and EPS1 encodes a member of the BAHD acyltransferase superfamily. PBS3 and EPS1 may be directly involved in the synthesis of an important precursor or regulatory molecule for SA biosynthesis. The pathways and regulation of SA biosynthesis in plants may be more complicated than previously thought. PMID:19816125

  12. Methyl Iodide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane, CH3I) was reported as a potential alternative to the stratospheric ozone-depleting fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) in the mid-1990s (Sims et al., 1995; Ohr et al., 1996). It has since received significant research attention to determine its environmental fate and tran...

  13. Methyl chloroform

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1994-04-01

    Methyl chloroform is identified as a Class 1 ozone-depleting substance under Title VI of the CAA Amendments. On Nov. 30, 1993, EPA ordered the phaseout of Class 1 ozone-depleting substances -- chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform -- by Jan. 1, 1996. Methyl chloroform and other Class 1 substances may be used after the dead-line if sources can be found through recycling or existing inventories. Methyl chloroform is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under CAA. It also is a SARA Title III, Sec. 313 compound with a reportable quantity of 1,000 pounds. OSHA and the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists have set 350 ppm as the time-weighted average airborne exposure level for methyl chloroform. NIOSH lists its immediately dangerous to life or health'' concentration as 1,000 parts per million. DOT identifies the substance as a hazardous material, Class 6.1 (poison).

  14. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine:Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase, an Enzyme Involved in Floral Scent

    E-print Network

    Pichersky, Eran

    S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine:Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase, an Enzyme Involved in Floral Arbor, Michigan 48109 Received February 10, 1998, and in revised form April 14, 1999 S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic compound in C. breweri, from salicylic acid and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). The native en- zyme

  15. Determination of hydroxyl radicals in an advanced oxidation process with salicylic acid trapping and liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Fon Jen; Meei-Fan Leu; Thomas C Yang

    1998-01-01

    Liquid chromatography was used indirectly to detect hydroxyl radicals after a trapping reaction with salicylic acid in an advanced oxidation process. Through the quantitative determination of primary hydroxylated derivatives of salicylic acid, the concentration of hydroxyl radicals was evaluated relatively. Factors affecting the trapping reaction, such as the ratio of salicylic acid to hydrogen peroxide and trapping time, as well

  16. Host Preference and Larval Performance of the Salicylate-Using Leaf Beetle Phratora vitellinae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan E. Rank; Alfred Kopf; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto; Jorma Tahvanainen

    1998-01-01

    Larvae of Phratora vitellinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) convert salicyl glucosides from the host plant into a larval defensive secretion with salicylaldehyde. This secretion repels generalist predators. Willows vary greatly in the concentrations of salicyl glucosides in their leaves. One may predict that P. vitellinae prefers and survives better on plants that contain more salicyl glucosides. We determined the amount of larval

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet scintillators: sodium salicylate and p-terphenyl.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Datta, A K

    1979-05-01

    Some of the characteristic properties of sodium salicylate and p-terphenyl have been studied at a convenient incident wavelength of 253.7 nm. These include the fluorescent spectrum, relative quantum efficiency as a function of scintillator thickness, absolute quantum efficiency, and its possible decline with time. It has been shown that the rotary pump and diffusion pump oil vapors in contact with phosphors affect the stability of fluorescence in a marked but complicated manner. The effect of humidity on relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of the phosphors has also been discussed. p-Terphenyl has been found to be a useful alternative to sodium salicylate. PMID:20212860

  18. METHYL GREEN

    PubMed Central

    Kurnick, N. B.; Foster, Marilee

    1950-01-01

    1. Methyl green ("ethyl green") C. I. Number 685 was examined and found to behave identically with methyl green C. I. Number 684 (no longer available) in respect to molar extinction coefficient, effect of combination with polymerized DNA, failure to react with depolymerized DNA, and effect of pH. 2. The mass law permits the calculation of P/dye. This is found to be 13 P/dye. The same value is obtained when an excess of methyl green is caused to fade by adjusting the pH to 7.5. 3. The compound formed by methyl green with DNA has the same maximum absorption at 642.5 to 645 mµ in the pH range 3.5–7.8, whereas the free dye fades markedly above pH 5.0. PMID:14824487

  19. Synthesis of methyl 1-hydroxy-6-oxo-2-cyclohexenecarboxylate, a component of salicortin and tremulacin, and the monomer of idesolide.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Amie M; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Snider, Barry B

    2007-10-12

    We have developed a short and practical first synthesis of methyl 1-hydroxy-6-oxo-2-cyclohexenecarboxylate (2), which has been known as a component of salicortin and tremulacin since 1970. Birch reduction of the SEM ether of methyl salicylate followed by oxidation of the intermediate enolate with (-)-camphorsulfonyloxaziridine afforded the SEM enol ether of 2. Hydrolysis of the SEM enol ether afforded 2. We did not observe the dimerization of either racemic or optically enriched 2 to give idesolide (1). PMID:17867704

  20. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV. PMID:24450774

  1. Transepithelial transport of salicylate by the Malpighian tubules of insects from different orders.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Esau; Van Walderveen, Maria C; Livingston, Alexandra; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2007-10-01

    The organic anion salicylate is a plant secondary metabolite that protects plants against phytophagous insects. In this study, a combination of salicylate-selective microelectrodes and a radioisotope tracer technique was used to study the transepithelial transport of salicylate by the Malpighian tubules of 10 species of insects from five orders. Our results show that salicylate is transported into the lumen of the Malpighian tubules in all the species evaluated, except Rhodnius prolixus. The transepithelial transport of salicylate by the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila simulans, Drosophila erecta, Drosophila sechellia, and Acheta domesticus was saturable, Na(+)-dependent and inhibited by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. This transport system resembles that previously found in tubules of Drosophila melanogaster. In contrast, transepithelial transport of salicylate by Malpighian tubules of Tenebrio molitor, Plagiodera versicolora, Aedes aegypti, and Trichoplusia ni was unaffected by Na(+)-free bathing saline. The presence of both salicylate and salicylate metabolites in the secreted fluid samples from the Malpighian tubules of A. domesticus, R. prolixus, T. molitor, and T. ni indicates that insect Malpighian tubules may both transport and metabolize salicylate. The highest capacities to rid the hemolymph of salicylate were found in T. molitor, P. versicolora and Drosphila spp. Our results suggest that transport of salicylate by the Malpighian tubules might contribute to elimination of this organic anion from the hemolymph, particularly in some species that encounter high levels of organic anion in the diet. PMID:17640663

  2. Trade-off between synthesis of salicylates and growth of micropropagated Salix pentandra.

    PubMed

    Ruuhola, Teija; Julkunen-Titto, Riitta

    2003-07-01

    We studied the relationship between biosynthesis of salicylates, the main chemical defenses in willow and growth of Salix pentandra by cultivating plants in the presence of 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a powerful inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL: EC 4.3.1.5.). AIP inhibited efficiently, though not totally, the endogenous synthesis of salicylates. This inhibition markedly increased plant growth. Exogenous application of the precursors of salicylates, benzoic acid (BA), salicylic acid (SA), and helicin, increased the levels of several individual salicylates, but decreased the growth of plants cultivated in the presence of AIP. These results suggest a trade-off between plant growth and the synthesis of salicylates in S. pentandra. Phenylalanine, which accumulated in response to inhibitor treatment, but was decreased by precursor treatments, may be a common and limiting precursor for both plant growth and salicylate synthesis. The biosynthesis of salicin is suggested to proceed mainly via benzoyl-glucose, an intermediate in the synthesis of salicylic acid. Salicin is the most obvious precursor of more substituted salicylates, salicortin, acetylsalicortin, and tremulacin. In addition, we found that the salicylate pools of mature plant parts of S. pentandra were not subject to turnover, implying that the maintenance of salicylates does not demand high resources of plants, although their initial construction is costly. PMID:12921436

  3. Ammonium determination in soil extracts by the salicylate method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Kempers; A. Zweers

    1986-01-01

    An ammonium determination, based on formation of a substituted indophenol with sodiumsalicylate as phenolic reagent, has been reexamined. An increase of 70% in absorbancy compared with existing salicylate methods in soil science, and an increase in reproducibility compared with pre?existing equivalent methods in other disciplines were obtained. The method can be applied satisfactorily for ammonium in 2M KCl soil extracts

  4. Chloride and Salicylate Influence Prestin-dependent Specific Membrane Capacitance

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Song, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The outer hair cell is electromotile, its membrane motor identified as the protein SLC26a5 (prestin). An area motor model, based on two-state Boltzmann statistics, was developed about two decades ago and derives from the observation that outer hair cell surface area is voltage-dependent. Indeed, aside from the nonlinear capacitance imparted by the voltage sensor charge movement of prestin, linear capacitance (Clin) also displays voltage dependence as motors move between expanded and compact states. Naturally, motor surface area changes alter membrane capacitance. Unit linear motor capacitance fluctuation (?Csa) is on the order of 140 zeptofarads. A recent three-state model of prestin provides an alternative view, suggesting that voltage-dependent linear capacitance changes are not real but only apparent because the two component Boltzmann functions shift their midpoint voltages (Vh) in opposite directions during treatment with salicylate, a known competitor of required chloride binding. We show here using manipulations of nonlinear capacitance with both salicylate and chloride that an enhanced area motor model, including augmented ?Csa by salicylate, can accurately account for our novel findings. We also show that although the three-state model implicitly avoids measuring voltage-dependent motor capacitance, it registers ?Csa effects as a byproduct of its assessment of Clin, which increases during salicylate treatment as motors are locked in the expanded state. The area motor model, in contrast, captures the characteristics of the voltage dependence of ?Csa, leading to a better understanding of prestin. PMID:24554714

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Amann; Bernhard A. Peskar

    2002-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most widely used drugs worldwide. It acetylates cyclooxygenases thereby irreversibly blocking the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids. Biotransformation of aspirin yields salicylate, a compound that possesses similar anti-inflammatory potency as aspirin but lacks aspirin's inhibitory effect on the activity of isolated cyclooxygenase. This article is aimed at providing an overview about the

  6. A KERATOLYTIC GEL CONTAINING SALICYLIC ACID IN PROPYLENE GLYCOL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard P. Baden; Joseph C. Alper

    1973-01-01

    Mixtures of propylene glycol and water have been shown to be effective in several types of ichthyosis. A new formulation has been developed which contains a gelling agent, propylene glycol, ethanol, and salicylic acid in distilled water. This gel has been shown to be very effective in removal of thickened stratum corneum in a variety of disorders associated with hyperkeratosis.

  7. Salicylate-Independent Lesion Formation in Arabidopsis lsd Mutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle D. Hunt; Terrence P. Delaney; Robert A. Dietrich; Kris B. Weymann; Jeffery L. Dangl; John A. Ryals

    1997-01-01

    In many interactions of plants with pathogens, the pri- mary host defense reaction is accompanied by plant cell death at the site of infection. The resulting lesions are cor- related with the establishment of an inducible resistance in plants called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), for which salicylic acid (SA) accumulation is a critical signal- ing event in Arabidopsis and tobacco.

  8. DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Marinus, M.G.; Løbner-Olesen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication errors, controlling the frequency of initiation of chromosome replication at oriC, and regulation of transcription initiation at promoters containing GATC sequences. In contrast, there is no known function for Dcm methylation although Dcm recognition sites constitute sequence motifs for Very Short Patch repair of T/G base mismatches. In certain bacteria (e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Caulobacter crescentus) adenine methylation is essential and in C. crescentus, it is important for temporal gene expression which, in turn, is required for coordinating chromosome initiation, replication and division. In practical terms, Dam and Dcm methylation can inhibit restriction enzyme cleavage; decrease transformation frequency in certain bacteria; decrease the stability of short direct repeats; are necessary for site-directed mutagenesis; and to probe eukaryotic structure and function. PMID:25405210

  9. Oxidation of Methyl-Substituted Naphthalenes: Pathways in a Versatile Sphingomonas paucimobilis Strain†

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tapan K.; Selifonov, Sergey A.; Gunsalus, Irwin C.

    1998-01-01

    Aromatic compounds with alkyl substituents are abundant in fossil fuels. These compounds become important environmental sources of soluble toxic products, developmental inhibitors, etc. principally through biological activities. To assess the effect of methyl substitution on the completeness of mineralization and accumulation of pathway products, an isolate from a phenanthrene enrichment culture, Sphingomonas paucimobilis 2322, was used. Washed cell suspensions containing cells grown on 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene in mineral medium were incubated with various mono-, di-, and trimethylnaphthalene isomers, and the products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The data revealed enzymes with relaxed substrate specificity that initiate metabolism either by methyl group monoxygenation or by ring dioxygenation. Congeners with a methyl group on each ring initially hydroxylate a methyl, and this is followed by conversion to a carboxyl; when there are two methyl groups on a single ring, the first reaction is aryl dioxygenation of the unsubstituted ring. Intermediates are channeled to primary ring fission via dihydrodiols to form methyl-substituted salicylates. Further evidence that there are multiple pathways comes from the fact that both phthalate and (methyl)salicylate are formed from 2-methylnaphthalene. PMID:9572967

  10. Isotopic orientational order in acetyl salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, P.; Prandl, W.; Papoular, R.; Paulus, W.; Detken, A.; Haeberlen, U.; Zimmermann, H.

    2000-03-01

    Isotopically mixed methyl groups CD xH 3- x with zero averaged deuteron/hydrogen scattering length 0=< a>= xaD+(3- x) aH are expected to be invisible in a neutron diffraction experiment. We find, indeed, in the scattering length density of aspirin-CD xH 3- x, reconstructed by maximum-entropy methods, at room temperature only three very week minima. At 10 K, however, one positive and two negative extrema are visible: unique evidence for orientational isotopic order. From a combination of 1-d-Fourier and algebraic methods we deconvolute < a> and derive the orientational distribution function f( ?) which has three equivalent maxima/minima at 300 K and loses this 3 ? periodicity at 10 K. f( ?) is the basis for the determination of the hindrance potential with cos( ?) as the leading term.

  11. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does not influence any of the investigated parameters under hypoxia.

  12. Effect of mixed function oxidase induction and inhibition on salicylate-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, M.E.; Kocsis, J.J.

    1986-06-30

    A previous study in this laboratory demonstrated that greater nephrotoxicity was induced by 500 mg/kg (/sup 14/C)salicylate in 12-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats than in 3-month-old animals, and the increased nephrotoxicity was correlated with greatly increased binding of radioactivity to the renal mitochondria in the older rats. To determine the role of reactive intermediate generation in salicylate-induced nephrotoxicity, male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with piperonyl butoxide, phenobarbital, or Aroclor prior to the administration of 500 mg/kg (/sup 14/C)salicylate. In the kidneys of rats pretreated with only corn oil, mitochondrial macromolecules contained 57% of the total covalently bound radioactivity while in the livers of these same animals, microsomes contained most (52%) of the bound radioactivity. Pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide, an inhibitor of mixed function oxidase activity, decreased (a) salicylate-induced nephrotoxicity; (b) the covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)salicylate equivalents to renal mitochondria; and (c) the formation of the 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenoic acid metabolites of salicylate. Pretreatment with phenobarbital and Aroclor, inducers of hepatic P-450, on the other hand, had no effect on salicylate-induced nephrotoxicity nor on the covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)salicylate equivalents to renal mitochondria. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that salicylate is metabolized to reactive intermediates that irreversibly bind to renal mitochondria and lead to salicylate-induced nephrotoxicity.

  13. Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence. PMID:23959884

  14. Relative bioavailability of salicylic acid following dermal application of a 30% salicylic acid skin peel preparation.

    PubMed

    Fung, Wing; Orak, Deborah; Re, Thomas A; Haughey, David B

    2008-03-01

    A single-center, single-sequence, two-period crossover study was performed to compare the systemic exposure to salicylic acid (SA) following facial application of a 30% SA cosmetic skin peel formulation applied for 5 min and an oral dose of 650 mg aspirin in nine healthy male and female subjects. The mean (SD) maximum SA concentration (Cmax) was 0.81 (0.32) microg/mL and 56.4 (14.2) microg/mL. The AUC-based safety margin ratio was 50:1. A depot effect was observed during topical application of the skin peel solution as the absorption of SA continued beyond the 5-min application period. Plasma SA Cmax values were achieved from 1.4 to 3.5 h after topical application and from 0.5 to 1.5 h after oral aspirin. The plasma concentrations in the present study (30%; 5 min) were similar to that of a low concentration (2%) applied in a leave-on product to the same body surface area. In conclusion, our results suggest that the use of this SA facial peel should not pose any significant systemic health risks. PMID:17694544

  15. Widespread dynamic DNA methylation in response to biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Dowen, Robert H; Pelizzola, Mattia; Schmitz, Robert J; Lister, Ryan; Dowen, Jill M; Nery, Joseph R; Dixon, Jack E; Ecker, Joseph R

    2012-08-01

    Regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation is crucial for defining cellular identities and coordinating organism-wide developmental programs in many organisms. In plants, modulation of DNA methylation in response to environmental conditions represents a potentially robust mechanism to regulate gene expression networks; however, examples of dynamic DNA methylation are largely limited to gene imprinting. Here we report an unexpected role for DNA methylation in regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana immune system. Profiling the DNA methylomes of plants exposed to bacterial pathogen, avirulent bacteria, or salicylic acid (SA) hormone revealed numerous stress-induced differentially methylated regions, many of which were intimately associated with differentially expressed genes. In response to SA, transposon-associated differentially methylated regions, which were accompanied by up-regulation of 21-nt siRNAs, were often coupled to transcriptional changes of the transposon and/or the proximal gene. Thus, dynamic DNA methylation changes within repetitive sequences or transposons can regulate neighboring genes in response to SA stress. PMID:22733782

  16. Vibrational spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, SERS) and quantum chemical calculations on cyclobenzaprinium salicylate.

    PubMed

    Mary, Y Shyma; Jojo, P J; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Kaur, Manpreet; Siddegowda, M S; Yathirajan, H S; Nogueira, Helena I S; Cruz, Sandra M A

    2014-01-01

    FT-IR, FT-Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra of cyclobenzaprinium salicylate were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wavenumbers were examined theoretically using the Gaussian09 set of quantum chemistry codes, and the normal modes were assigned by potential energy distribution calculations. The downshift of the OH stretching frequency is due to strong hydrogen bonded system present in the title compound as given by XRD results. The presence of CH3, CH2 and CO2 modes in the SERS spectrum indicates the nearness of the methyl group to the metal surface which affects the orientation and metal molecule interaction. The presence of phenyl ring modes in the SERS spectrum indicates a tilted orientation with respect to the metal surface. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with XRD results. A computation of the first hyperpolarizability indicates that the compound may be a good candidate as a NLO material. PMID:24200648

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide Stimulates Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José León; Michael A. Lawton

    Hydrogen peroxide induced the accumulation of free benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) in tobacco (Nicotiana fabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaves. Six hours after infiltration with 300 mM H202, the levels of BA and SA in leaves increased 5-fold over the levels detected in control leaves. The accumulation of BA and SA was preceded by the rapid activation of

  18. Effects of Willows (Salix brachycarpa) on Populations of Salicylate-Mineralizing Microorganisms in Alpine Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Schmidt; D. A. Lipson; T. K. Raab

    2000-01-01

    We used the substrate-induced growth-response (SIGR) method to quantify salicylate-mineralizing microbes and total microbial biomass in soils from under willows (Salix brachycarpa) and in surrounding meadows dominated by the sedge Kobresia myosuroides. Willows had a strong effect on the biomass of salicylate-mineralizing microbes in both years of this study. There were always higher biomass levels of salicylate mineralizers in soils

  19. Electric Field Enhanced Diffusion of Salicylic Acid through Polyacrylamide Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niamlang, Sumonman; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2008-03-01

    The release mechanisms and the diffusion coefficients of salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels were investigated experimentally by using a modified Franz-diffusion cell at 37 ^oC to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. A significant amount of salicylic acid is released within 48 hours from the hydrogels of various crosslinking ratios, with and without electric field. The release characteristic follows the Q vs. t^1/2 linear relationship. Diffusion coefficient initially increases with increasing electric field strength and reaches the maximum value at electric field strength of 0.1 V; beyond that it decreases with electric field strength and becomes saturated at electric field strength of 5 V. The diffusion coefficient increases at low electric field strength (less 0.1 V) as a result of the electrophoresis of the salicylic acid, the expansion of pore size, and the induced pathway in pigskin. For electric field strength higher than 0.1 V, the decrease in the diffusion coefficient is due to the reduction of the polyacrylamide pore size. The diffusion coefficient obeys the scaling behavior D/Do=(drug size/pore size)^m, with the scaling exponent m equal to 0.93 and 0.42 at electric fields of 0 and 0.1 V, respectively.

  20. Methyl eucomate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linglin; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: methyl 3-carboxy-3-hydr­oxy-3-(4-hydroxy­benz­yl)propanoate], C12H14O6, is stabilized by inter­molecular O—H?O and C—H?O hydrogen bonds. The mol­ecules are arranged in layers, parallel to (001), which are inter­connected by the O—H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21202973

  1. Methyl jasmonate increases the production of valepotriates by transformed root cultures of Valerianella locusta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nisit Kittipongpatana; Darryl L. Davis; John R. Porter

    2002-01-01

    Transformed roots of V. locusta (Valerianaceae) were obtained through transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4 and ATCC 15834. Six known valepotriates, including diavaltrate, acevaltrate, didrovaltrate, IVHD-valtrate, isovaltrate, and valtrate were the major components detected. An LC\\/PDA method was used in the quantitation of these compounds in the transformed root extracts. The treatment of transformed roots with biotic (methyl jasmonate, salicylic

  2. Effect of salicylate on oxidative phosphorylation and respiration of mitochondrial fragments

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, J. T.; Karler, R.

    1965-01-01

    1. The effects of salicylate on oxidative phosphorylation and respiration were investigated in liver and brain mitochondria, and in sonically prepared mitochondrial fragments. 2. Salicylate was shown to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondrial fragments, as well as in intact mitochondria. The effects of salicylate on mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation resemble those produced by dinitrophenol. 3. The quantitative effects of salicylate on respiration in vitro were shown to be complex. The final effect may be the resultant of an interaction of a multiplicity of factors, such as the tissue, the substrate, mitochondrial and extramitochondrial influences, and the direct effect on the respiratory chain itself. PMID:16749103

  3. Salicylates of Intact Salix myrsinifolia Plantlets Do Not Undergo Rapid Metabolic Turnover1

    PubMed Central

    Ruuhola, Teija Marjaana; Julkunen-Tiitto, Maija-Riitta Kristiina

    2000-01-01

    Salicylates, the main phenolic glucosides of northern willow (Salix spp.), play an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. Salicylates are labile metabolites that are thought to undergo metabolic turnover. Salicylates are synthesized from phenylalanine (Phe) via the shikimate pathway. 2-Aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a strong inhibitor of Phe ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5), was used to block the biosynthesis of salicylates. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term turnover of salicylates in intact micropropagated plantlets of Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. The biosynthesis of salicylates was inhibited efficiently but not completely by 30 ?m 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. Inhibitor treatment, aside from leading to a high accumulation of Phe, also led to an increase in tyrosine and tryptophan, indicating that 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid may also inhibit enzymes other than Phe ammonia-lyase. Salicylates were shown to be unexpectedly stable metabolites that did not undergo marked metabolic turnover in intact plants; in leaves no significant turnover occurred, and in the stems the five salicylates studied were turned over slowly, with half-lives of 11 to 25 d. The total amount of salicylate in mature shoots decreased only 0.6% per day. PMID:10712554

  4. Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  5. Full survival of paraquat-exposed rats after treatment with sodium salicylate.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Sousa, C; Remião, F; Duarte, J A; Navarro, A Sánchez; Bastos, M L; Carvalho, F

    2007-04-01

    Over the past decades, there have been numerous fatalities resulting from accidental or voluntary ingestion of the widely used herbicide paraquat dichloride (methyl viologen; PQ). Considering that the main target organ for PQ toxicity is the lung and involves the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, inflammation, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and activation of transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, it may be hypothesized that an antidote against PQ poisonings should counteract all these effects. For this purpose, sodium salicylate (NaSAL) may constitute an adequate therapeutic drug, due to its ability to modulate inflammatory signaling systems and to prevent oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, NaSAL (200 mg/kg ip) was injected in rats 2 h after exposure to a toxic dose of PQ (25 mg/kg, ip). NaSAL treatment caused a significant reduction in PQ-induced oxidative stress, platelet activation, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation in lung. In addition, histopathological lesions induced by PQ in lung were strongly attenuated and the oxidant-induced increases of glutathione peroxidase and catalase expression became absent. These effects were associated with a full survival of the PQ-treated rats (extended for more than 30 days) in comparison with 100% of mortality by Day 6 in animals exposed only to PQ, suggesting that NaSAL constitutes an important and valuable therapeutic drug to be used against PQ-induced toxicity. Indeed, NaSAL constitutes the first compound with such degree of success (100% survival). PMID:17349929

  6. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

  7. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

  8. Cross-linked, biodegradable, cytocompatible salicylic acid based polyesters for localized, sustained delivery of salicylic acid: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chandorkar, Yashoda; Bhagat, Rajesh K; Madras, Giridhar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2014-03-10

    In order to suppress chronic inflammation while supporting cell proliferation, there has been a continuous surge toward development of polymers with the intention of delivering anti-inflammatory molecules in a sustained manner. In the above backdrop, we report the synthesis of a novel, stable, cross-linked polyester with salicylic acid (SA) incorporated in the polymeric backbone and propose a simple synthesis route by melt condensation. The as-synthesized polymer was hydrophobic with a glass transition temperature of 1 °C, which increases to 17 °C upon curing. The combination of NMR and FT-IR spectral techniques established the ester linkages in the as-synthesized SA-based polyester. The pH-dependent degradation rate and the rate of release of salicylic acid from the as-synthesized SA-based polymer were studied at physiological conditions in vitro. The polyester underwent surface erosion and exhibited linear degradation kinetics in which a change in degradation rate is observed after 4-10 days and 24% mass loss was recorded after 4 months at 37 °C and pH 7.4. The delivery of salicylic acid also showed a similar change in slopes, with a sustained release rate of 3.5% in 4 months. The cytocompatibility studies of these polyesters were carried out with C2C12 murine myoblast cells using techniques like MTT assay and flow cytometry. Our results strongly suggest that SA-based polyester supports cell proliferation for 3 days in culture and do not cause cell death (<7%), as quantified by propidium iodide (PI) stained cells. Hence, these polyesters can be used as implant materials for localized, sustained delivery of salicylic acid and have applications in adjuvant cancer therapy, chronic wound healing, and as an alternative to commercially available polymers like poly(lactic acid) and poly(glycolic acid) or their copolymers. PMID:24517727

  9. Olfactoryresponse of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to methyl salicylate in laboratory bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of Typhlodromus pyri, a key predator of grapevine rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), to MeSA was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory bioassays. Six doses ranging from 200 to 0.002 µg of diluted MeSA were tested. Significantly higher proportions of T. pyri preferred MeSA at ...

  10. FUNCTIONAL TERATOGENS OF THE RAT KIDNEY I. COCHICINE, DINOSEB, AND METHYL SALICYLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Substances known or suspected to cause subtle or transient anatomical alterations in renal development were administered prenatally or neonatally to rats in order to determine whether they are capable of altering renal functional development. olchicine alters mitotic activity and...

  11. Methyl Salicylate, a Soybean Aphid-Induced Plant Volatile Attractive to the Predator Coccinella septempunctata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junwei Zhu; Kye-Chung Park

    2005-01-01

    Induced volatiles provide a signal to foraging predatory insects about the location of their prey. In Iowa, early in the growing season of soybean, Glycine max, many predacious seven-spotted lady beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, were observed on plants with heavy infestations of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. We studied whether the attraction of this beetle is caused by the release of specific

  12. Interaction of Salicylate and a Terpenoid Plant Extract with Model Membranes: Reconciling Experiments and Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Himanshu Khandelia; Sarah Witzke; Ole G. Mouritsen

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of two structurally similar small cyclic molecules: salicylic acid and perillic acid on a zwitterionic model lipid bilayer, and show that both molecules might have biological activity related to membrane thinning. Salicylic acid is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, some of the pharmacological properties of which arise from its interaction with the lipid bilayer component of the plasma

  13. Dermal and underlying tissue pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid after topical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parminder Singh I; Michael S. Roberts

    1993-01-01

    The time course of salicylic acid at a dermal application site and in local underlying tissues below the site in rats was examined using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model assuming first-order diffusional mass transfer between the dermis and underlying tissues. The concentrations of salicylic acid in tissues below the applied site were measured and compared with plasma concentrations and concentrations

  14. Modelling the Penetration of Salicylates through Skin Using a Silicone Membrane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew; Parmenter, Emily

    2012-01-01

    A diffusion cell to model the permeation of salicylate drugs through the skin using low-cost materials and a sensitive colorimetric analytical technique is described. The diffusion apparatus has been used at a further education college by a student for her AS-level Extended Project to investigate the permeation rates of salicylic acid…

  15. A rapid biosensor-based method for quantification of free and glucose-conjugated salicylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signalling molecule in plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. It is also involved in several other processes such as heat production, flowering, and germination. SA exists in the plant as free SA and as an inert glucose conjugate (salicylic acid 2-O-ß-D-...

  16. Salicylate and catechol levels are maintained in nahG transgenic poplar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling was used to investigate the molecular phenotypes of transgenic Populus tremula x P. alba bybrids expressing the nahG transgene, a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol. Despite the efficacy of this transgenic approach to reducing...

  17. Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

    2013-05-01

    Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway. PMID:23500715

  18. Evidence for a Role of Salicylic Acid in the Oxidative Damage Generated by NaCl and Osmotic Stress in

    E-print Network

    Málaga, Universidad de

    Evidence for a Role of Salicylic Acid in the Oxidative Damage Generated by NaCl and Osmotic Stress that salicylic acid (SA) is an essential component of the plant resistance to pathogens. We now show that SA expressing a salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) gene to different abiotic stress conditions. Wild-type plants

  19. The ancient drug salicylate directly activates AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Simon A; Fullerton, Morgan D; Ross, Fiona A; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Chevtzoff, Cyrille; Walker, Katherine J; Peggie, Mark W; Zibrova, Darya; Green, Kevin A; Mustard, Kirsty J; Kemp, Bruce E; Sakamoto, Kei; Steinberg, Gregory R; Hardie, D Grahame

    2012-05-18

    Salicylate, a plant product, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. More recently, it has been replaced by synthetic derivatives such as aspirin and salsalate, both of which are rapidly broken down to salicylate in vivo. At concentrations reached in plasma after administration of salsalate or of aspirin at high doses, salicylate activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Salicylate binds at the same site as the synthetic activator A-769662 to cause allosteric activation and inhibition of dephosphorylation of the activating phosphorylation site, threonine-172. In AMPK knockout mice, effects of salicylate to increase fat utilization and to lower plasma fatty acids in vivo were lost. Our results suggest that AMPK activation could explain some beneficial effects of salsalate and aspirin in humans. PMID:22517326

  20. Evidence against specific binding of salicylic acid to plant catalase.

    PubMed

    Rüffer, M; Steipe, B; Zenk, M H

    1995-12-18

    It was demonstrated that salicylic acid (SA) not only binds to catalase from differentiated higher plants and plant cell suspension cultures but also to those of fungi and animals. SA bound specifically to iron-containing enzymes, such as catalase, aconitase, lipoxidase and peroxidase, while not to iron-free plant enzymes. On the grounds of these experiments, the claim is further challenged that SA is a signalling compound and second messenger in plants that activates plant defense-related genes through elevated H2O2 levels by specifically inhibiting catalase activity. SA may just function as a phytoalexin. PMID:8543045

  1. The Complete Molecular Geometry of Salicyl Aldehyde from Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorosh, O.; Bialkowska-Jaworska, E.; Kisiel, Z.; Pszczolkowski, L.; Kanska, M.; Krygowski, T. M.; Maeder, H.

    2013-06-01

    Salicyl aldehyde is a well known planar molecule containing an internal hydrogen bond. In preparing the publication of our previous report of the study of its rotational spectrum we have taken the opportunity to update the structure determination of this molecule to the complete r_e^{SE} geometry. The molecule contains 15 atoms and we have used supersonic expansion FTMW spectroscopy to obtain rotational constants for a total 26 different isotopic species, including all singly substitued species relative to the parent molecule. The ^{13}C and ^{18}O substitutions were measured in natural abundance, while deuterium substitutions were carried out synthetically. The r_e^{SE} determination requires the calculation of vibration-rotation changes in rotational constants from an ab initio anharmonic force field, which necessitates some compromises in the level of calculation for a molecule of the size of salicyl aldehyde. For this reason we studied the five lowest vibrationally excited states, by using the combination of room-temperature mm-wave spectroscopy and waveguide Fourier transform cm-wave spectroscopy. The experimental excited state rotational constants were then used to calibrate the anharmonic force field calculation. The resulting r_e^{SE} geometry is compared with other types of geometry determination possible from this data, with emphasis on the effect of the near zero principal coordinate of the important C_2 atom. Z.Kisiel et al., 61^{st} OSU Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, The Ohio State University, Ohio 2006, RI-12.

  2. Identification of genes regulated by UV/salicylic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Watson, C.; Milton, J.; Oryhon, J.; Salbego, D.; Milosavljevic, A.; Woloschak, G. E.; CuraGen Corp.

    2000-02-01

    Purpose : Previous work from the authors' group and others has demonstrated that some of the effects of UV irradiation on gene expression are modulated in response to the addition of salicylic acid to irradiated cells. The presumed effector molecule responsible for this modulation is NF-kappaB. In the experiments described here, differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify those cDNAs that are differentially modulated by UV radiation with and without the addition of salicylic acid. Materials and methods : Differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Results : Eight such cDNAs are presented: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-beta), nuclear encoded mitochondrial NADH ubiquinone reductase 24kDa (NDUFV2), elongation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), nuclear dots protein SP100, nuclear encoded mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor (IF1), a cDNA similar to a subunit of yeast CCAAT transcription factor HAP5, and two expressed sequence tags (AA187906 and AA513156). Conclusions : Sequences of four of these genes contained NF-kappaB DNA binding sites of the type that may attract transrepressor p55/p55 NF-kappaB homodimers. Down-regulation of these genes upon UV irradiation may contribute to increased cell survival via suppression of p53 independent apoptosis.

  3. Loss of function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 in tomato enhances basal aphid resistance in a salicylate-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Avila, Carlos A; Arévalo-Soliz, Lirio M; Jia, Lingling; Navarre, Duroy A; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Howe, Gregg A; Meng, Qing-Wei; Smith, Jonathon E; Goggin, Fiona L

    2012-04-01

    We report here that disruption of function of the ?-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 (FAD7) enhances plant defenses against aphids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which eliminates the function of FAD7, reduces the settling behavior, survival, and fecundity of the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). Likewise, the antisense suppression of LeFAD7 expression in wild-type tomato plants reduces aphid infestations. Aphid resistance in the spr2 mutant is associated with enhanced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and mRNA encoding the pathogenesis-related protein P4. Introduction of the Naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase transgene, which suppresses SA accumulation, restores wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility to spr2. Resistance in spr2 is also lost when we utilize virus-induced gene silencing to suppress the expression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1), a positive regulator of many SA-dependent defenses. These results indicate that FAD7 suppresses defenses against aphids that are mediated through SA and NPR1. Although loss of function of FAD7 also inhibits the synthesis of jasmonate (JA), the effects of this desaturase on aphid resistance are not dependent on JA; other mutants impaired in JA synthesis (acx1) or perception (jai1-1) show wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility, and spr2 retains aphid resistance when treated with methyl jasmonate. Thus, FAD7 may influence JA-dependent defenses against chewing insects and SA-dependent defenses against aphids through independent effects on JA synthesis and SA signaling. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants Atfad7-2 and Atfad7-1fad8 also show enhanced resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) compared with wild-type controls, indicating that FAD7 influences plant-aphid interactions in at least two plant families. PMID:22291202

  4. The effect of sodium salicylate on bile secretion in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Rutishauser, S C; Stone, S L

    1975-01-01

    1. The I.V. injection of sodium salicylate (100 mg/kg) in the dog caused a rapid and maintained choleresis of the order of 300-600 percent of control levels. 2. The total amount of salicylate excreted in bile was only 1-2 percent of that injected. 3. The secretion of bile salt into bile was not increased by salicylate. 4. The choleresis caused by salicylate was associated iwth a decrease in the concentrations of sodium and of bile salt in bile, and with an increase in the concentration of chloride; the biliary concentration of bicarbonate was either temporarily increased or unchanged. 5. The choleresis could not be inhibited by the intra-portal injection of of ouabain (0-1 mg/kg). 6. The secretion of bromsulphthalein into bile was not potentiated by the choleresis. 7. The choleretic efficiency of sodium taurocholate was not increased in the presence of salicylate. 8. The injection of acetazolamide (20 mg/kg) in the presence of a salicylate choleresis, caused an increase in the osmolaity of bile and an increase in biliary sodium concentration, such that the composition of bile more nearly approached that of plasma. 9. The possible mechanisms underlying the choleretic effect of sodium salicylate are discussed. PMID:1142217

  5. Potassium channel activator attenuates salicylate-induced cochlear hearing loss potentially ameliorating tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Na; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Winchester, Wendy; Miranda, Jason A; Salvi, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    High dose sodium salicylate causes moderate, reversible hearing loss and tinnitus. Salicylate-induced hearing loss is believed to arise from a reduction in the electromotile response of outer hair cells (OHCs) and/or reduction of KCNQ4 potassium currents in OHCs, which decreases the driving force for the transduction current. Therefore, enhancing OHC potassium currents could potentially prevent salicylate-induced temporary hearing loss. In this study, we tested whether opening voltage-gated potassium channels using ICA-105665, a novel small molecule that opens KCNQ2/3 and KCNQ3/5 channels, can reduce salicylate-induced hearing loss. We found that systemic application of ICA-105665 at 10?mg/kg prevented the salicylate-induced amplitude reduction and threshold shift in the compound action potentials recorded at the round window of the cochlea. ICA-105665 also prevented the salicylate-induced reduction of distortion-product otoacoustic emission. These results suggest that ICA-105665 partially compensates for salicylate-induced cochlear hearing loss by enhancing KCNQ2/3 and KCNQ3/5 potassium currents and the motility of OHCs. PMID:25904892

  6. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Karen V; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte. PMID:26055188

  7. Paper-based electroanalytical devices for in situ determination of salicylic acid in living tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Jun; Feng, Qiu-Mei; Yan, Yong-Feng; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Li, Xiao-Hui; Song, Feng-Ming; Yang, Haibing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2014-10-15

    Detection of phytohormones in situ has gained significant attention due to their critical roles in regulating developmental processes and signaling for defenses in plants at low concentration. As one type of plant hormones, salicylic acid has recently been found to be one of pivotal signal molecules for physiological behaviors of plants. Here we report the application of paper-based electroanalytical devices for sensitively in situ detection of salicylic acid in tomato leaves with the sample volume of several microliters. Specifically, disposable working electrodes were fabricated by coating carbon tape with the mixture of multiwall carbon nanotubes and nafion. We observed that the treatment of the modified carbon tape electrodes with oxygen plasma could significantly improve electrochemical responses of salicylic acid. The tomato leaves had a punched hole of 1.5mm diameter to release salicylic acid with minor influence on continuous growth of tomatoes. By incorporating the tomato leaf with the paper-based analytical device, we were able to perform in situ determination of salicylic acid based on its electrocatalytic oxidation. Our experimental results demonstrated that the amounts of salicylic acid differed statistically in normal, phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene silent and diseased (infected by Botrytis cinerea) tomato leaves. By quantifying salicylic acid at the level of several nanograms in situ, the simple paper-based electroanalytical devices could potentially facilitate the study of defense mechanism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. This study might also provide a sensitive method with spatiotemporal resolution for mapping of chemicals released from living organisms. PMID:24794407

  8. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte. PMID:26055188

  9. Neuroprotection by bromocriptine against 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity in mice 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. MURALIKRISHNAN; K. P. MOHANAKUMAR

    Mice were treated with 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP; 30 mg\\/kg i.p. twice, 16 h apart). This resulted in changes in motor performance and toxic insult of nigral neurons as evidenced by dopamine depletion in nucleus cau- datus putamen. In vitro and in vivo treatment of MPTP caused the generation of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) as measured by a sensitive salicylate hydrox- ylation

  10. In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of computer-selected analogues of carvacrol and salicylic acid on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Concepción, Ramírez L; Froylán, Ibarra V; Herminia I, Pérez M; Norberto, Manjarrez A; Héctor J, Salgado Z; Yeniel, González C

    2013-10-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a tick that causes huge economic losses in cattle. The indiscriminate use of acaricides has generated resistance to most compounds present on the market. This makes further investigation on other potential acaricides necessary, the in silico assay being an alternative to the design of new compounds. In the present study a biosilico assay was performed using TOMOCOMD-CARDD (TOpological MOlecular COMputer Design-Computer-Aided Rational Drug Design) and WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) software. Two carvacrol and four salicylic acid derivatives, synthesized by conventional methods and evaluated with the larval packet test on larvae of R. (B.) microplus were selected. All evaluated compounds presented acaricidal activity; however, ethyl 2-methoxybenzoate (91.8 ± 1.7 % mortality) and ethyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (89.1 ± 1.6 % mortality) showed greater activity than salicylic acid. With regard to the carvacrol analogues, carvacrol acetate (67.8 ± 2.1 % mortality) and carvacrol methyl ether (71.7 ± 1.6 % mortality) also showed greater activity than carvacrol (35.9 ± 3.2 % mortality). TOMOCOMD-CARDD and WEKA software were helpful tools in the search for alternative structures with potential acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23543288

  11. Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate Noriko U-lim- iting step for the formation of Ni­Al LDH is Al dissolu- Nickel contamination of soils is a serious

  12. Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization.

    PubMed

    Evans, P Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J; Maroto, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate. PMID:22824902

  13. Evaluation of the acaricide effect of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid, and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Maria da Silveira Novelino; Erik Daemon; Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves Soares

    2007-01-01

    The tick Boophilus microplus is the principal species of ectoparasite that impairs dairy cattle productivity in Brazil. Its control is mainly by using\\u000a synthetic chemical products during its parasitic phase. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acaricide activity of\\u000a four products of natural origin. Depending on solubility, tests were conducted with solutions in distilled water or emulsified

  14. A meta-analysis of salicylates for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Lu, Yu; Ma, De-lin; Du, Ting-ting; Shao, Shi-ying; Yu, Xue-feng

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects and safety of salicylates on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We searched six databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP) for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and self-control studies which investigated the effects of salicylates on T2DM. We included 34 RCTs and 17 self-control studies involving 13 464 patients with T2DM. It was demonstrated that salicylates had obvious effects on several parameters for patients with T2DM. (1) Any dose of salicylates could significantly reduce HbA1c level [mean difference (MD) -0.39%; 95% CI -0.47 to -0.32] in RCTs, but only high doses of salicylates (?3000 mg/day) could effectively reduce fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level [standardized mean difference (SMD) -1.05; 95% CI -1.47 to -0.62] for patients with T2DM in both RCTs and self-control studies. Furthermore, high doses of salicylates could also increase plasma fasting insulin level (MD 12.20 mU/L; 95% CI 3.33 to 21.07); (2) In both RCTs and self-control studies, high doses of salicylates could significantly reduce plasma triglycerides concentration. The results for RCTs were MD -0.44 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.18, and those for self-control studies were 227±29 mg/dL (pre-treatment) and 117±8 mg/dL (post-treatment) (P=0.009); (3) All trials which reported cardiovascular events were RCTs using low doses (<1000 mg/day) of salicylates, and it was revealed that aspirin could significantly reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.92); (4) Two RCTs and two self-control studies with ?3000 mg/day salicylates reported adverse effects, and the overall effects were mild, and tinnitus occurred most frequently. No evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was found in all these studies. In conclusion, from our systematic review, the anti-diabetic effect of salicylates is in a dose-dependent manner. High doses of salicylates may have beneficial effects on reducing FPG, HbA1c level and increasing fasting insulin concentration, and may also have some positive effects on lipidemia and inflammation-associated parameters for patients with T2DM, without serious adverse effects. PMID:23392700

  15. Salicylate modulates oxidative stress in the rat colon: A proteomic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice E. Drew; Sara Padidar; Graham Horgan; Garry G. Duthie; Wendy R. Russell; Martin Reid; Gary Duncan; Garry J. Rucklidge

    2006-01-01

    The dietary phenolic compound, salicylic acid, decreases oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory and potentially neo-plastic prostaglandins with a concomitant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. Salicylic acid, a dietary plant-based phenolic compound and also the main metabolite of aspirin, may contribute to the colon protective effects of plant-based diets. Oxidative stress is a characteristic of pre-cancerous and cancerous colon and inflammatory bowel

  16. Percutaneous Absorption of Salicylic Acid in Man after Topical Administration of Three Different Formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. Schwarb; B. Gabard; Th. Rufli; Ch. Surber

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the amount of drug which is absorbed during 1 day following topical application of three different preparations containing salicylic acid. Methods: Ten grams of the formulations, either (a) Kerasal™ 5% ointment, (b) salicylic acid 5% or (c) 10% in petrolatum, were administered consecutively to a 600-cm2 area on alternating sides of the back of healthy volunteers (n

  17. Trade-Off Between Synthesis of Salicylates and Growth of Micropropagated Salix pentandra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teija Ruuhola; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto

    2003-01-01

    We studied the relationship between biosynthesis of salicylates, the main chemical defenses in willow and growth of Salix pentandra by cultivating plants in the presence of 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a powerful inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL: EC 4.3.1.5.). AIP inhibited efficiently, though not totally, the endogenous synthesis of salicylates. This inhibition markedly increased plant growth. Exogenous application of the precursors

  18. Differentiated in vivo skin penetration of salicylic compounds in hairless rats measured by cutaneous microdialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lene Simonsen; Aksel Jørgensen; Eva Benfeldt; Lotte Groth

    2004-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the in vivo skin penetration of four 14C-salicylic compounds using microdialysis and to relate dermal concentrations to structural features. Furthermore, to compare two in vivo retrodialysis recovery methods for estimation of true unbound extracellular concentrations. Microdialysis probes were inserted in the dermis of hairless rats. Equimolal 14C-salicylic formulations were applied topically and dialysate sampled consecutively

  19. Salicylic acid and some of its derivatives as antibacterial agents for viscose fabric.

    PubMed

    Kantouch, A; El-Sayed, A Atef; Salama, M; El-Kheir, A Abou; Mowafi, S

    2013-11-01

    Salicylic acid and three of its derivatives were used to provide antibacterial properties to viscose fabrics. The four bactericides used were bonded to the viscose fabrics using epichlorohydrin or polymer binders. Optimization of the salicylic acid and its derivatives as well as the concentration of polymers was reported. The ability of the polymer binders to attract and bind the four bactericides was observed. The overall results show that the antibacterial reactivity of salicylic acid and its derivatives are in the following order 5-bromosalicylic acid>salicylic acid>5-chlorosalicylic acid>4-chlorosalicylic acid. Using epichlorohydrin as a binding agent, unfortunately, inhibits the bactericidal activity of the four bactericides. The FTIR study concludes that the reaction between salicylic acid as well as its derivatives with epichlorohydrin takes place through the phenolic group of the acids. The unexpected deterioration in the bactericidal properties of salicylic acid and its derivatives as a result of the treatment with epichlorohydrin could be due to the nature of interaction between the epichlorohydrin molecule and the acids molecules. PVP and PU show superior ability to sustain the four bactericides used even after 10 washing cycles. PMID:24076193

  20. [Effect of calcium on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liancheng; Wang, Cong; Dong, Juan'e; Su, Hui; Zhuo, Zequn; Xue, Yaxin

    2013-07-01

    We studied medium alkalinization in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures treated with salicylic acid and the effect of Ca2+ in this process through application of calcium channel antagonists (Verapamil, LaCl3, LiCl, 2-APB) and ionophore A23187. The results show that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture. Verapamil and LaCl3 or LiCl and 2-APB, two different groups of calcium channel antagonist, significantly inhibited the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid. However, the suppression effect of verapamil or LaCl3 on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was higher than that of LiCl or 2-APB. When two types of calcium channel inhibitor (LaCl3 and 2-APB) were used together, the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was completely suppressed and even reduced the pH in medium. On the other hand, A23187 could promote the medium alkalinization. Based on the results above, we speculated that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture, depending on the calcium from both extracell and intracell. Moreover, calcium from extracell plays a more dominant role in this process. Reveal of relationship in this research between Ca2+ and medium alkalinization can provide theory evidence for mechanism of the plant secondary metabolism. PMID:24195365

  1. Effects of salicylates on evoked otoacoustic emissions and remote masking in humans.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, A; Portalatini, P; Camporeale, M; Sallustio, V

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in young volunteer subjects, the effects of salicylates on evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs), which presumably reflect an active mechanical process in the cochlea due to outer hair cell (OHC) activity, and on remote masking (RM), which has been proposed as a useful tool in the study of the non-linear cochlear distortion products generated by high-frequency maskers. Data from the present research are consistent with the literature showing a reversible effect of salicylate leading to elevated hearing thresholds and reduced EOAE amplitudes. From the point of view of new findings, the results demonstrate a reversible effect of salicylates on RM magnitude, which decreases as serum salicylate concentration increases. As described previously by other authors, salicylate selectivity inhibits OHC motility and, in consequence, reduces the amplitude of the motion of the basilar membrane. According to these data it is very likely that the observed reduction in RM magnitude after salicylate administration is also the result of the decreased ability of the OHCs to contract and of the reduced basilar membrane motion. The results are consistent with the conclusion that the OHC system function plays a role in producing RM. PMID:10437688

  2. Radiation- and photo-induced formation of salicylic acid from phenol and CO{sub 2} in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Krapfenbauer, K.; Getoff, N. [Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Chemie und Strahlenchemie

    1996-12-31

    The concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is steady increasing because of the combustion of fossil fuels and the industrial pollution. As a result, global warming has occurred. In the present study the formation of the salicylic acid and other products, originating from the carboxylation of phenol is investigated. It has been found that the formation of salicylic acid strongly depend on several experimental conditions: pH of the solution, concentration of phenol and CO{sub 2}, and absorbed dose. The formation of salicylic acid was also studied in the presence of catalysts. Photo-induced carboxylation of phenol to salicylic acid will be also reported. Probable reaction mechanisms for the salicylic acid formation are suggested. Finally, a comparison is made between the well known industrial Kolbe-Schmitt process for salicylic acid production and the aspects of the present new method for CO{sub 2} utilization.

  3. Purification and Characterization of a Three-Component Salicylate 1Hydroxylase from Sphingomonas sp. Strain CHY1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Jouanneau; Julien Micoud; Christine Meyer

    2007-01-01

    In the bacterial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salicylate hydroxylases catalyze essential reactions at the junction between the so-called upper and lower catabolic pathways. Unlike the salicylate 1-hydroxylase from pseudomonads, which is a well-characterized flavoprotein, the enzyme found in sphingomonads appears to be a three-component Fe-S protein complex, which so far has not been character- ized. Here, the salicylate

  4. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m?×?3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless. PMID:26028743

  5. Salicylate acutely stimulates 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Yasuhiro; Oshima, Rieko; Yoshida, Mitsuki; Sakon, Ichika; Kitani, Kazuto; Goto, Ayumi; Tsuda, Satoshi; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2014-10-10

    Salicylate (SAL) has been recently implicated in the antidiabetic effect in humans. We assessed whether 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle is involved in the effect of SAL on glucose homeostasis. Rat fast-twitch epitrochlearis and slow-twitch soleus muscles were incubated in buffer containing SAL. Intracellular concentrations of SAL increased rapidly (<5 min) in both skeletal muscles, and the Thr(172) phosphorylation of the ? subunit of AMPK increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SAL increased both AMPK?1 and AMPK?2 activities. These increases in enzyme activity were accompanied by an increase in the activity of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport, and decreases in ATP, phosphocreatine, and glycogen contents. SAL did not change the phosphorylation of insulin receptor signaling including insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase. These results suggest that SAL may be transported into skeletal muscle and may stimulate AMPK and glucose transport via energy deprivation in multiple muscle types. Skeletal muscle AMPK might be part of the mechanism responsible for the metabolic improvement induced by SAL. PMID:25256746

  6. Pretreatment of Parsley Suspension Cultures with Salicylic Acid Enhances Spontaneous and Elicited Production of H2O2.

    PubMed Central

    Kauss, H.; Jeblick, W.

    1995-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) were used to study the regulation of extracellular H2O2. After resuspension, the washed cells regulated the H2O2 concentration spontaneously to a constant level that was greatly increased when the cultures were pretreated for 1 d with salicylic acid (SA). The H2O2 level was further increased on addition of a fungal elicitor preparation, macromolecular chitosan, the sterol-binding polyene macrolide amphotericin B, the G protein-activating peptide mastoparan, or La3+. In all cases, this induced H2O2 burst was also greatly enhanced in cell suspensions pretreated with SA. Both the spontaneous and the induced H2O2 production were decreased by the protein kinase inhibitor K-252a. It is suggested that production of extracellular H2O2 occurs by an endogenously controlled plasma membrane enzyme complex that requires continuous phosphorylation for function and whose activity is increased by pretreatment of the cells with SA. This system can also receive various external stimuli, including those resulting from binding of fungal elicitor. SA can induce acquired resistance against pathogens. The conditioning of the parsley suspension culture by SA represents, therefore, a model for the long-term regulation of apoplastic H2O2 concentration by this signal substance, as suggested previously for the wound hormone methyl jasmonate. PMID:12228535

  7. Aspirin and salicylates inhibit the IL-4- and IL-13-induced activation of STAT6.

    PubMed

    Perez-G, Moises; Melo, Marco; Keegan, Achsah D; Zamorano, Jose

    2002-02-01

    Allergic diseases, including asthma, represent a major threat to human health. Over the three last decades, their incidence has risen in western countries. Aspirin treatment has been shown to improve allergic diseases, especially asthma, and the decreased use of aspirin has been hypothesized to contribute to the increase in childhood asthma. Because salicylate compounds suppress a number of enzymatic activities, and signaling through IL-4R participates in the development of allergic responses, we tested the effect of salicylates on IL-4 signal transduction. We found that treatment of cell lines and primary cells with aspirin and salicylates, but not acetaminophen, inhibited the activation of STAT6 by IL-4 and IL-13. This effect correlated with the inhibition of IL-4-induced CD23 expression. Although salicylates inhibited the in vivo activation of Janus kinases, their kinase activity was not affected in vitro by salicylates, suggesting that other kinases were involved in IL-4-induced STAT6 activation. Furthermore, we found that an Src kinase was involved in STAT6 activation because 1) Src kinase activity was induced by IL-4, 2) Src kinase activity, but not Janus kinase, was inhibited by salicylates in vitro, 3) cells expressing viral Src had constitutive STAT6 phosphorylation, and 4) cells lacking Src showed low STAT6 phosphorylation in response to IL-4. Because STAT6 activation by IL-4 and IL-13 participates in the development of allergic diseases, our results provide a mechanism to explain the beneficial effects of aspirin and salicylate treatment of these diseases. PMID:11801685

  8. Intermediates of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco1

    PubMed Central

    Ribnicky, David M.; Shulaev, Vladimir; Raskin, Ilya

    1998-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important component of systemic-acquired resistance in plants. It is synthesized from benzoic acid (BA) as part of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Benzaldehyde (BD), a potential intermediate of this pathway, was found in healthy and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-inoculated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaf tissue at 100 ng/g fresh weight concentrations as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BD was also emitted as a volatile organic compound from tobacco tissues. Application of gaseous BD to plants enclosed in jars caused a 13-fold increase in SA concentration, induced the accumulation of the pathogenesis-related transcript PR-1, and increased the resistance of tobacco to TMV inoculation. [13C6]BD and [2H5]benzyl alcohol were converted to BA and SA. Labeling experiments using [13C1]Phe in temperature-shifted plants inoculated with the TMV showed high enrichment of cinnamic acids (72%), BA (34%), and SA (55%). The endogenous BD, however, contained nondetectable enrichment, suggesting that BD was not the intermediate between cinnamic acid and BA. These results show that BD and benzyl alcohol promote SA accumulation and expression of defense responses in tobacco, and provide insight into the early steps of SA biosynthesis. PMID:9765542

  9. Deciphering the link between salicylic acid signaling and sphingolipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Rivas-San Vicente, Mariana; de la Torre-Hernández, M. Eugenia; Nájera-Martínez, Manuela; Plasencia, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The field of plant sphingolipid biology has evolved in recent years. Sphingolipids are abundant in cell membranes, and genetic analyses revealed essential roles for these lipids in plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule that is required for induction of defense-related genes and rapid and localized cell death at the site of pathogen infection (hypersensitive response) during incompatible host–pathogen interactions. Conceivably, while levels of SA rapidly increase upon pathogen infection for defense activation, they must be tightly regulated during plant growth and development in the absence of pathogens. Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that the sphingolipid intermediates, long-chain sphingoid bases, and ceramides, play a role in regulating SA accumulation in plant cells. However, how signals generated from the perturbation of these key sphingolipid intermediates are transduced into the activation of the SA pathway has long remained to be an interesting open question. At least four types of molecules – MAP kinase 6, reactive oxygen species, free calcium, and nitric oxide – could constitute a mechanistic link between sphingolipid metabolism and SA accumulation and signaling. PMID:25806037

  10. Hydrogen Peroxide Stimulates Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Leon, J.; Lawton, M. A.; Raskin, I.

    1995-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide induced the accumulation of free benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaves. Six hours after infiltration with 300 mM H2O2, the levels of BA and SA in leaves increased 5-fold over the levels detected in control leaves. The accumulation of BA and SA was preceded by the rapid activation of benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H) in the H2O2-infiltrated tissues. This enzyme catalyzes the formation of SA from BA. Enzyme activation could be reproduced in vitro by addition of H2O2 or cumene hydroperoxide to the assay mixture. H2O2 was most effective in vitro when applied at 6 mM. In vitro activation of BA2H by peroxides was inhibited by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. We suggest that H2O2 activates SA biosynthesis via two mechanisms. First, H2O2 stimulates BA2H activity directly or via the formation of its substrate, molecular oxygen, in a catalase-mediated reaction. Second, higher BA levels induce the accumulation of BA2H protein in the cells and provide more substrate for this enzyme. PMID:12228572

  11. Infrared Multiple-Photon Dissociation spectroscopy of group II metal complexes with salicylate

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan P. Dain; Gary Gresham; Gary S. Groenewold; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens; Michael J. van Stipdonk

    2011-07-01

    Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation, and the combination of infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to characterize singly-charged, 1:1 complexes of Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ with salicylate. For each metal-salicylate complex, the CID pathways are: (a) elimination of CO2 and (b) formation of [MOH]+ where M=Ca2+, Sr2+ or Ba2+. DFT calculations predict three minima for the cation-salicylate complexes which differ in the mode of metal binding. In the first, the metal ion is coordinated by O atoms of the (neutral) phenol and carboxylate groups of salicylate. In the second, the cation is coordinated by phenoxide and (neutral) carboxylic acid groups. The third mode involves coordination by the carboxylate group alone. The infrared spectrum for the metal-salicylate complexes contains a number of absorptions between 1000 – 1650 cm-1, and the best correlation between theoretical and experimental spectra for the structure that features coordination of the metal ion by phenoxide and the carbonyl group of the carboxylic acid group, consistent with calculated energies for the respective species.

  12. Stable-Isotope Probing of Bacteria Capable of Degrading Salicylate, Naphthalene, or Phenanthrene in a Bioreactor Treating Contaminated Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Singleton; Sabrina N. Powell; Ramiah Sangaiah; Avram Gold; Louise M. Ball; Michael D. Aitken

    2005-01-01

    ( 13 C6)salicylate, (U- 13 C)naphthalene, and (U- 13 C)phenanthrene were synthesized and separately added to slurry from a bench-scale, aerobic bioreactor used to treat soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydro- carbons. Incubations were performed for either 2 days (salicylate, naphthalene) or 7 days (naphthalene, phenanthrene). Total DNA was extracted from the incubations, the \\

  13. The aspirin metabolite sodium salicylate causes focal cerebral hemorrhage and cell death in rats with kainic acid-induced seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Najbauer; E. M. Schuman; A. N. Mamelak

    2000-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), and its main metabolite sodium salicylate, have been shown to protect neurons from excitotoxic cell death in vitro. The objective of our study was to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of sodium salicylate in vivo in rats with kainic acid-induced seizures, a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in human patients. Male Sprague–Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injections of

  14. The Inhibition of Embryonic Histone Deacetylases as the Possible Mechanism Accounting for Axial Skeletal Malformations Induced by Sodium Salicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Di Renzo; Graziella Cappelletti; Maria Luisa Broccia; Erminio Giavini; Elena Menegola

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the large use of salicylates, introduced into clinical practice more than 100 years ago, their anti-inflammatory and cancer preventive mechanisms are still under study. Teratogenic effects of salicylates have been reported in experimental animals since 1959 but the pathogenic pathways and the mechanisms of action were never described until now. The aim of this work is to

  15. The electro-responsive drug delivery from salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niamlang, Sumonman; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2007-03-01

    The release mechanisms and the diffusion coefficients of salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels were investigated experimentally by using a modified Franz-Diffusion cell at the temperature of 37 ^0C to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. The fabricated hydrogels retain their physical shapes and sizes during the experiments along with data reproducibility. A significant amount of salicylic is released within 48 hours from the hydrogels of various crosslinking ratios with and without electric field; the release profile follows the Q vs. t^1/2 relationship. Diffusion coefficients, as determined from the Higuchi equation, increase with electric field strength and reach maximum values at electric field strength of 0.1 V due to the electrophoresis of salicylic drug and become saturated at electric field strengths between 0.5 -- 10 V.

  16. Biodegradable salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) microspheres for controlled insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Rivera, Roberto; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-08-01

    Salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters) (PAEs) chemically incorporate salicylic acid (SA) into the polymer backbone, which is then delivered in a controlled manner upon polymer hydrolysis. In this work, a salicylate-based PAE is a carrier to encapsulate and deliver insulin. Polymer microspheres were formulated using a water/oil/water double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The microspheres obtained had a smooth surface, high protein encapsulation efficiency, and relatively low emulsifier content. Insulin was released in vitro for 15 days, with no signs of aggregation or unfolding of the secondary structure. The released insulin also retained bioactivity in vitro. Concurrently, SA was released from the microspheres with polymer degradation and anti-inflammatory activity was observed. Based upon these results, the formulated microspheres enable simultaneous delivery of insulin and SA, both retaining bioactivity following processing. PMID:24027012

  17. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Caarls, Lotte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between the hormone signaling pathways allows for fine tuning of transcriptional programs, determining resistance to invaders and trade-offs with plant development. Here, we give an overview of how SA can control transcriptional reprogramming of JA-induced genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. SA can influence activity and/or localization of transcriptional regulators by post-translational modifications of transcription factors and co-regulators. SA-induced redox changes, mediated by thioredoxins and glutaredoxins, modify transcriptional regulators that are involved in suppression of JA-dependent genes, such as NPR1 and TGA transcription factors, which affects their localization or DNA binding activity. Furthermore, SA can mediate sequestering of JA-responsive transcription factors away from their target genes by stalling them in the cytosol or in complexes with repressor proteins in the nucleus. SA also affects JA-induced transcription by inducing degradation of transcription factors with an activating role in JA signaling, as was shown for the ERF transcription factor ORA59. Additionally, SA can induce negative regulators, among which WRKY transcription factors, that can directly or indirectly inhibit JA-responsive gene expression. Finally, at the DNA level, modification of histones by SA-dependent factors can result in repression of JA-responsive genes. These diverse and complex regulatory mechanisms affect important signaling hubs in the integration of hormone signaling networks. Some pathogens have evolved effectors that highjack hormone crosstalk mechanisms for their own good, which are described in this review as well. PMID:25859250

  18. AHL-priming functions via oxylipin and salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Sebastian T.; Schikora, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative action between the host plant and associated bacteria is crucial for the establishment of an efficient interaction. In bacteria, the synchronized behavior of a population is often achieved by a density-dependent communication called quorum sensing. This behavior is based on signaling molecules, which influence bacterial gene expression. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are such molecules in many Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, some AHLs are responsible for the beneficial effect of bacteria on plants, for example the long chain N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) can prime Arabidopsis and barley plants for an enhanced defense. This AHL-induced resistance phenomenon, named AHL-priming, was observed in several independent laboratories during the last two decades. Very recently, the mechanism of priming with oxo-C14-HSL was shown to depend on an oxylipin and salicylic acid (SA). SA is a key element in plant defense, it accumulates during different plant resistance responses and is the base of systemic acquired resistance. In addition, SA itself can prime plants for an enhanced resistance against pathogen attack. On the other side, oxylipins, including jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites, are lipid-derived signaling compounds. Especially the oxidized fatty acid derivative cis-OPDA, which is the precursor of JA, is a newly described player in plant defense. Unlike the antagonistic effect of SA and JA in plant–microbe interactions, the recently described pathway functions through a synergistic effect of oxylipins and SA, and is independent of the JA signaling cascade. Interestingly, the oxo-C14-HSL-induced oxylipin/SA signaling pathway induces stomata defense responses and cell wall strengthening thus prevents pathogen invasion. In this review, we summarize the findings on AHL-priming and the related signaling cascade. In addition, we discuss the potential of AHL-induced resistance in new strategies of plant protection. PMID:25642235

  19. Partial reversal by beta-D-xyloside of salicylate-induced inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Palmoski, M.J.; Brandt, K.D.

    1982-09-01

    While net /sup 35/S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis in normal canine articular cartilage was suppressed by 10(-3)M sodium salicylate to about 70% of the control value, addition of xyloside (10(-6)M-10(-3)M) to the salicylate-treated cultures led to a concentration-dependent increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which rose to 120-237% of controls. Similar results were obtained when /sup 3/H-glucosamine was used to measure glycosaminoglycan synthesis, confirming that salicylate suppresses and xyloside stimulates net glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and not merely sulfation. Salicylate (10-3)M) did not affect the activity of xylosyl or galactosyl transferase prepared from canine knee cartilage, and net protein synthesis was unaltered by either salicylate or xyloside. The proportion of newly synthesized proteoglycans existing as aggregates when cartilage was cultured with xyloside was similar to that in controls, although the average hydrodynamic size of disaggregated proteoglycans and of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was diminished.

  20. A novel naturally occurring salicylic acid analogue acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB activity in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiantai; Sun, Lan; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Dan; Lan, Xi; Huang, Chao; Xin, Wenyu; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Dongming; Du, Guanhua

    2012-03-01

    Methyl salicylate 2-O-?-D-lactoside (DL0309), is a molecule chemically related to salicylic acid that is isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (FRANCH.) REHDER (G. yunnanensis). G. yunnanensis, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely used for treating rheumatoid arthritis, swelling, pain, trauma, and chronic tracheitis. In the present study, we explored the mechanism whereby DL0309 exerts anti-inflammatory effects, using the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells. We examined the effects of DL0309 on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) activity by Western blot analysis, cell imaging analysis and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also measured. Our observations indicate that DL0309 suppressed production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), in a concentration-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of IKK-? and degradation of I?B-? by LPS were both inhibited by DL0309 in the cytoplasm. The increased protein level of NF-?B by LPS in the nucleus was also reduced by DL0309. Consistent with these results, we found that DL0309 prevents the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-?B. Finally, our results demonstrate that DL0309 exerts anti-inflammatory effects, by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressing of the activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway in LPS-treated macrophage cells. Therefore, DL0309 may have therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory diseases by regulating the NF-?B pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:22292506

  1. Jasmonate- and salicylate-induced defenses in wheat affect host preference and probing behavior but not performance of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Cao, He-He; Wang, Su-Hua; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-02-01

    Jasmonate- and salicylate-mediated signaling pathways play significant roles in induced plant defenses, but there is no sufficient evidence for their roles in monocots against aphids. We exogenously applied methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) on wheat seedlings and examined biochemical responses in wheat and effects on the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fab.). Application of MeJA significantly increased levels of wheat's polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and proteinase inhibitor 1, 2 and 6 days after treatment. In two-choice tests, adult aphids preferred control wheat leaves to MeJA- or SA-treated leaves. Electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings of aphid probing behavior revealed that on MeJA-treated plants, the duration of aphid's first probe was significantly shorter and number of probes was significantly higher than those on control plants. Also total duration of probing on MeJA-treated plants was significantly shorter than on control plants. Total duration of salivation period on SA-treated plants was significantly longer, while mean phloem ingestion period was significantly shorter than on control plants. However, no significant difference in total duration of phloem sap ingestion period was observed among treatments. The EPG data suggest that MeJA-dependent resistance factors might be due to feeding deterrents in mesophyll, whereas the SA-mediated resistance may be phloem-based. We did not observe any significant difference of MeJA and SA application on aphid development, daily fecundity, intrinsic growth rate and population growth. The results indicate that both MeJA- and SA-induced defenses in wheat deterred S. avenae colonization processes and feeding behavior, but had no significant effects on its performance. PMID:23956152

  2. Sensitive determination of salicylate and benzophenone type UV filters in water samples using solid-phase microextraction, derivatization and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Negreira, N; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Rubí, E; Cela, R

    2009-04-01

    A sensitive procedure for the determination of three UV filters: ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexyl salicylate (Homosalate, HMS), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3) and two related hydroxylated benzophenones (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, BP-1 and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-8) in water samples is presented. Analytes were first concentrated on the coating of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre, on-fibre silylated and then determined using gas chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Factors affecting the performance of extraction and derivatization steps are thoroughly evaluated and their effects on the yield of the sample preparation discussed. Under final working conditions, a PDMS-DVB coated SPME fibre was exposed directly to 10 mL of water, adjusted at pH 3, for 30 min. After that, the fibre was placed in the headspace (HS) of a 1.5 mL vial containing 20 microL of N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA). On-fibre silylation of hydroxyl groups contained in the structure of target compounds was performed at 45 degrees C for 10 min. The whole sample preparation process was completed in 40 min, providing limits of quantification from 0.5 to 10 ng L(-1) and acceptable precision (RSDs under 13%) for samples spiked at different concentrations. All compounds could be accurately determined in river and treated wastewater (relative recoveries from 89 to 115%) using standards in ultrapure water, whereas standard addition is recommended to quantify their levels in untreated wastewater. Analysis of wastewater revealed the systematic presence of BP-3 and BP-1 in raw samples with maximum concentrations close to 500 and 250 ng L(-1), respectively. PMID:19298877

  3. In vivo gene regulation in Salmonella spp. by a salicylate-dependent control circuit

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    In vivo gene regulation in Salmonella spp. by a salicylate-dependent control circuit Jose´ Luis acid (ASA) in attenuated Salmonella enterica that carries an expression module with a gene of interest in vitro and in vivo. To validate the circuit, we administered Salmonella spp., carrying an expression

  4. Solubilities of salicylic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol cosolvent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Ke; Can Mao; Minghong Zhong; Buxing Han; Haike Yan

    1996-01-01

    A circulation apparatus for simultaneously measuring the solubilities of solids in supercritical fluids and the densities of supercritical phases has been constructed. The apparatus can be used at pressures up to 20 MPa. The solubilities of salicylic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol cosolvent and the densities of the fluid phase have been measured at 308.15 K and 318.15

  5. The Arabidopsis hrl1 mutation reveals novel overlapping roles for salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene

    E-print Network

    Raina, Ramesh

    molecules: salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). The hrl1 (hypersensitive response of reactive oxygen species, constitutive expression of SA- and ET/JA-responsive defence genes, and enhanced and SA- depleted nahG plants revealed novel interactions between SA and ET/JA signalling pathways

  6. Campylobacter pyloridis and associated gastritis: investigator blind, placebo controlled trial of bismuth salicylate and erythromycin ethylsuccinate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C A McNulty; J C Gearty; B Crump; M Davis; I A Donovan; V Melikian; D M Lister; R Wise

    1986-01-01

    An investigator blind trial was performed comparing bismuth salicylate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and placebo in the treatment of Campylobacter pyloridis associated gastritis in patients without peptic ulceration. Fifty patients fulfilled the study criteria. There was a strong correlation between the presence of C pyloridis and histologically confirmed gastritis. Clearance of organisms led to improvement of the gastritis. C pyloridis was cleared

  7. Salicylic acid-induced physiological and biochemical changes in lemongrass varieties under water stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Idrees; M. Masroor A. Khan; Tariq Aftab; M. Naeem; Nadeem Hashmi

    2010-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) treatment reduces the damaging action by water deficit on growth and accelerates a restoration of growth processes. The aim of the present work was to study the physiological and biochemical alteration induced by SA in lemongrass plants under stress conditions. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted to test whether SA application at concentration of (10 M)

  8. Repeated salicylic acid peels for the treatment of hyperplastic sebaceous glands in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Sgontzou, Themis; Armyra, Kalliopi; Kouris, Anargyros; Bokotas, Charalampos; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2014-12-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Hypertrophic sebaceous glands (HSGs) are rarely present but they cause an aesthetic problem. We report a case of a patient suffering from hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, treated with salicylic acid peels for the hyperplastic sebaceous glands. PMID:25065417

  9. Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity

    E-print Network

    Dangl, Jeff

    Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity. Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate development and responses to the environment. Cytokinin signaling and react to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we asked whether cytokinin and components

  10. Roles of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, and Ethylene in cpr-Induced Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Clarke; Sigrid M. Volko; Heidi Ledford; Frederick M. Ausubel; Xinnian Dong

    2000-01-01

    Disease resistance in Arabidopsis is regulated by multiple signal transduction pathways in which salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) function as key signaling molecules. Epistasis analyses were performed between mutants that disrupt these pathways ( npr1 , eds5 , ein2 , and jar1 ) and mutants that constitutively activate these path- ways ( cpr1, cpr5 , and

  11. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Signals Glutathione-Mediated Nickel Tolerance in Thlaspi Nickel Hyperaccumulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Freeman; Daniel Garcia; Donggiun Kim; Amber Hopf; David E. Salt

    2005-01-01

    Progress is being made in understanding the biochemical and molecular basis of nickel (Ni)\\/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi; however, the molecular signaling pathways that control these mechanisms are not understood. We observed that elevated concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), a molecule known to be involved in signaling induced pathogen defense responses in plants, is a strong predictor of Ni hyperaccumulation

  12. Chloride and salicylate influence prestin-dependent specific membrane capacitance: support for the area motor model.

    PubMed

    Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Song, Lei

    2014-04-11

    The outer hair cell is electromotile, its membrane motor identified as the protein SLC26a5 (prestin). An area motor model, based on two-state Boltzmann statistics, was developed about two decades ago and derives from the observation that outer hair cell surface area is voltage-dependent. Indeed, aside from the nonlinear capacitance imparted by the voltage sensor charge movement of prestin, linear capacitance (Clin) also displays voltage dependence as motors move between expanded and compact states. Naturally, motor surface area changes alter membrane capacitance. Unit linear motor capacitance fluctuation (?Csa) is on the order of 140 zeptofarads. A recent three-state model of prestin provides an alternative view, suggesting that voltage-dependent linear capacitance changes are not real but only apparent because the two component Boltzmann functions shift their midpoint voltages (Vh) in opposite directions during treatment with salicylate, a known competitor of required chloride binding. We show here using manipulations of nonlinear capacitance with both salicylate and chloride that an enhanced area motor model, including augmented ?Csa by salicylate, can accurately account for our novel findings. We also show that although the three-state model implicitly avoids measuring voltage-dependent motor capacitance, it registers ?Csa effects as a byproduct of its assessment of Clin, which increases during salicylate treatment as motors are locked in the expanded state. The area motor model, in contrast, captures the characteristics of the voltage dependence of ?Csa, leading to a better understanding of prestin. PMID:24554714

  13. ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 and SALICYLIC ACID act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance (R) protein–associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non–race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), ...

  14. SALICYLIC ACID- AND NITRIC OXIDE-MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current advances in plant defense signaling is discussed, with emphasis on the role of nitric oxide and salicylic acid in the development of disease resistance. Nitric Oxide has recently been shown to have an important role in plant disease resistance. We show an increase in NOS-like activity in TMV...

  15. Biocontrol Elicited Systemic Resistance in Sugarbeet is Salicylic Acid Independent and NPR1 Dependent.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT: Salicylic acid (SA) and NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) are both key players in the establishment of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previously we demonstrated that biological control agents (BCAs) Bacillus mycoides isolate Bac J (BmJ) and Bacillus mojavensis isol...

  16. Inhibition of catalase activity by oxidative stress and its relationship to salicylic acid accumulation in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ie-Sung Shim; Yukie Momose; Akihiro Yamamoto; Dea-Wook Kim; Kenji Usui

    2003-01-01

    The decrease in catalase activity and its relationship to change in salicylic acid content were investigated in rice, wheat, and cucumber seedlings exposed to oxidative stresses. A decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence (?F\\/Fm'), measured as an indicator of the oxidative stress, and a drop in catalase activity were observed following treatment with NaCl in all plant seedlings tested . Furthermore, such

  17. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Hedychium bousigonianum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to induce somatic embryogenesis in Hedychium bousigonianum Pierre ex Gagnepain and assess the influence of salicylic acid (S) on somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos and subsequently regenerated plants were successfully obtained 30 days after transfer of embryogenic...

  18. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  19. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  20. MONILIOPHTHORA PERNICIOSA PRODUCES HORMONES AND ALTERS ENDOGENOUS AUXIN AND SALICYLIC ACID IN INFECTED COCOA LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) in leaves of Theobroma cacao and the pathogen, Crinipellis perniciosa. In cacao leaves, the levels of all hormones decreased with maturity and showed no preferential ...

  1. Salicylic acid in the machinery of hypersensitive cell death and disease resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Elena Alvarez

    2000-01-01

    Although extensive data has described the key role of salicylic acid (SA) in signaling pathogen-induced disease resistance, its function in physiological processes related to cell death is still poorly understood. Recent studies have explored the requirement of SA for mounting the hypersensitive response (HR) against an invading pathogen, where a particular cell death process is activated at the site of

  2. Role of Salicylic Acid in Alleviating Cadmium Toxicity in Rice Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Guo; Yongchao Liang; Zhaojun Li; Wei Guo

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand how salicylic acid (SA) is involved in modulating rice responses to cadmium (Cd) toxicity, particularly in Cd immobilization, a series of hydroponic experiments were conducted to examine changes in cell wall composition, activities of the enzymes related to lignin synthesis including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), subcellular Cd distribution, levels of hydrogen

  3. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  4. Supplemental Figures Figure S1: Suppressive Drug Interactions Occur Between Salicylate and Tetracycline and

    E-print Network

    Cluzel, Philippe

    and Tetracycline and Between Sodium Benzoate and Chloramphenicol a. Salicylate interacts suppressively with chloramphenicol. To estimate growth rate, stationary phase cell cultures were diluted 1000x at time t1 and grown spline interpolation of 48 approximately equally separated data points in chloramphenicol-sodium benzoate

  5. Salicylate-induced hearing loss and gap detection deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Radziwon, Kelly E; Stolzberg, Daniel J; Urban, Maxwell E; Bowler, Rachael A; Salvi, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    To test the "tinnitus gap-filling" hypothesis in an animal psychoacoustic paradigm, rats were tested using a go/no-go operant gap detection task in which silent intervals of various durations were embedded within a continuous noise. Gap detection thresholds were measured before and after treatment with a dose of sodium salicylate (200?mg/kg) that reliably induces tinnitus in rats. Noise-burst detection thresholds were also measured to document the amount of hearing loss and aid in interpreting the gap detection results. As in the previous human psychophysical experiments, salicylate had little or no effect on gap thresholds measured in broadband noise presented at high-stimulus levels (30-60?dB SPL); gap detection thresholds were always 10?ms or less. Salicylate also did not affect gap thresholds presented in narrowband noise at 60?dB SPL. Therefore, rats treated with a dose of salicylate that reliably induces tinnitus have no difficulty detecting silent gaps as long as the noise in which they are embedded is clearly audible. PMID:25750635

  6. Molecular analysis of lily leaves in response to salicylic acid effective towards protection against Botrytis elliptica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Yen Lu; Chao-Ying Chen

    2005-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis elliptica (Berk.) Cooke causes necrosis and blight symptoms in lily leaves. Development of necrotic lesions in the leaves of Oriental lily cultivar Star Gazer could be suppressed by application of salicylic acid (SA) or previous infection by B. elliptica. In our observation, accumulation of ?-1,3-glucan polymer in the guard cells and anticlinal walls of epidermis appeared

  7. Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; De Lange, Elvira S; Delker, Carolin; Wasternack, Claus; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Ritsema, Tita; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2010-11-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in the downregulation of a large set of JA-responsive genes, including the marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Induction of JA-responsive marker gene expression by different JA derivatives was equally sensitive to SA-mediated suppression. Activation of genes encoding key enzymes in the JA biosynthesis pathway, such as LOX2, AOS, AOC2, and OPR3 was also repressed by SA, suggesting that the JA biosynthesis pathway may be a target for SA-mediated antagonism. To test this, we made use of the mutant aos/dde2, which is completely blocked in its ability to produce JAs because of a mutation in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene. Mutant aos/dde2 plants did not express the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 or VSP2 in response to infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae. Bypassing JA biosynthesis by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) rescued this JA-responsive phenotype in aos/dde2. Application of SA suppressed MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression to the same level in the aos/dde2 mutant as in wild-type Col-0 plants, indicating that SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression is targeted at a position downstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway. PMID:20839007

  8. The as-1 promoter element is an oxidative stress-responsive element and salicylic acid activates it via oxidative species.

    PubMed

    Garretón, Virginia; Carpinelli, Jorge; Jordana, Xavier; Holuigue, Loreto

    2002-11-01

    The activation sequence-1 (as-1)-like element found in the promoter of some glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, has been previously described as a salicylic acid (SA)- and auxin-responsive element. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the activating effect of SA on the as-1 element is mediated by oxidative species. Supporting this hypothesis, our results show that the antioxidants dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-anizole (BHA) inhibit the SA-induced transcription of genes controlled by as-1 elements in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants [i.e. GNT35 gene coding for a GST and (as-1)(4)/beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter transgene]. DMTU and BHA also inhibit SA-activated as-1-binding activity in nuclear extracts. Further support for the hypothesis that the as-1 element is activated by oxidative species comes from our result showing that light potentiates the SA-induced activation of the as-1 element. Furthermore, methyl viologen, a known oxidative stress inducer in plants, also activates the as-1 element. Increasing H(2)O(2) levels by incubation with H(2)O(2) or with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,5-triazole does not activate the (as-1)(4)/GUS gene. On the contrary, 3-amino-1,2,5-triazole inhibits the activating effect of SA on the (as-1)(4)/GUS gene. These results suggest that oxidative species other than H(2)O(2) mediate the activation of the as-1 element by SA. Our results also suggest that even though the as-1 binding activity is stimulated by oxidative species, this is not sufficient for the transactivation of genes controlled by this element. The complex interplay between SA and reactive oxygen species in the transcriptional activation of defense genes is discussed. PMID:12428016

  9. Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; De Lange, Elvira S.; Delker, Carolin; Wasternack, Claus; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.; Ritsema, Tita

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in the downregulation of a large set of JA-responsive genes, including the marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Induction of JA-responsive marker gene expression by different JA derivatives was equally sensitive to SA-mediated suppression. Activation of genes encoding key enzymes in the JA biosynthesis pathway, such as LOX2, AOS, AOC2, and OPR3 was also repressed by SA, suggesting that the JA biosynthesis pathway may be a target for SA-mediated antagonism. To test this, we made use of the mutant aos/dde2, which is completely blocked in its ability to produce JAs because of a mutation in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene. Mutant aos/dde2 plants did not express the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 or VSP2 in response to infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae. Bypassing JA biosynthesis by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) rescued this JA-responsive phenotype in aos/dde2. Application of SA suppressed MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression to the same level in the aos/dde2 mutant as in wild-type Col-0 plants, indicating that SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression is targeted at a position downstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway. PMID:20839007

  10. Partial reversal by beta-D-xyloside of salicylate-induced inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall J. Palmoski; Kenneth D. Brandt

    1982-01-01

    While net ³⁵S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis in normal canine articular cartilage was suppressed by 10(-3)M sodium salicylate to about 70% of the control value, addition of xyloside (10(-6)M-10(-3)M) to the salicylate-treated cultures led to a concentration-dependent increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which rose to 120-237% of controls. Similar results were obtained when ³H-glucosamine was used to measure glycosaminoglycan synthesis, confirming that salicylate suppresses

  11. ENZYMOLOGY OF ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

  12. Alterations in lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic function in rat fed with saccharin and methyl-salicylates

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal Adel; AlMuzafar, Hessah Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food additives attract consumers, improve foods quality, control weight, and replace sugar in foods, while it may affect seriously children and adults health. Aim: To investigate the adverse effects of saccharin and methylsalicyltaes on lipid profile, blood glucose, renal, hepatic function, and oxidative stress/antioxidant (lipid peroxidation, Catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues). Methods: 46 young male albino rats were used. Saccharin and methylsalicylate were giving orally as low and high dose for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups, 1st control group, 2nd and 3rd low and high saccharin-treated groups and 4th and 5th low and high methylsalicylate-treated group. Results: Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose levels and body weight gain were decreased in saccharin high dose compared to control. Rats ingested high dose of saccharin presented a significant reduction in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels. Low and high doses of saccharin exhibited a significant increase in liver function marker of ALT, AST, ALP activity, total proteins and albumin levels and renal function test (urea and creatinine levels) in comparison with control group. Saccharin high dose induce a significant decline in hepatic GSH levels, catalase and SOD activities while increased in hepatic MDA level. Conclusion: It could be concluded that, saccharin affects harmfully and alters biochemical markers in hepatic and renal tissues not only at greater doses but also at low doses. Whereas uses of metylsalicylates would not pose a risk for renal function and hepatic oxidative markers. PMID:26131217

  13. Experience with methyl salicylate affects behavioural responses of a predatory mite to blends of herbivore-induced plant volatiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boer de J. G; Marcel Dicke

    2004-01-01

    Many natural enemies of herbivorous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their prey. These foraging cues consist of mixtures of compounds that show a considerable variation within and among plantherbivore combinations, a situation that favours a flexible approach in the foraging behaviour of the natural enemies. In this paper, we address the flexibility in behavioural responses of the predatory

  14. Jasmonic acid is a key regulator of spider mite-induced volatile terpenoid and methyl salicylate emission in tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ament; M. R. Kant; M. W. Sabelis; M. A. Haring; R. C. Schuurink

    2004-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type

  15. Jasmonic Acid Is a Key Regulator of Spider Mite-Induced Volatile Terpenoid and Methyl Salicylate Emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Ament; Merijn R. Kant; Maurice W. Sabelis; Michel A. Haring; Robert C. Schuurink

    2004-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type

  16. DNA methylation and differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A

    1989-01-01

    The methylation of specific cytosine residues in DNA has been implicated in regulating gene expression and facilitating functional specialization of cellular phenotypes. Generally, the demethylation of certain CpG sites correlates with transcriptional activation of genes. 5-Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methylation and has been widely used as a potent activator of suppressed genetic information. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine results in profound phenotypic alterations. The drug-induced hypomethylation of DNA apparently perturbs DNA-protein interactions that may consequently alter transcriptional activity and cell determination. The inhibitory effect of cytosine methylation may be exerted via altered DNA-protein interactions specifically or may be transduced by a change in the conformation of chromatin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cytosine methylation also plays a central role in parental imprinting, which in turn determines the differential expression of maternal and paternal genomes during embryogenesis. In other words, methylation is the mechanism whereby the embryo retains memory of the gametic origin of each component of genetic information. A memory of this type would probably persist during DNA replication and cell division as methylation patterns are stable and heritable. PMID:2466640

  17. DNA methylation and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Michalowky, L.A.; Jones, P.A. (USC Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1989-03-01

    The methylation of specific cytosine residues in DNA has been implicated in regulating gene expression and facilitating functional specialization of cellular phenotypes. Generally, the demethylation of certain CpG sites correlates with transcriptional activation of genes. 5-Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methylation and has been widely used as a potent activator of suppressed genetic information. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine results in profound phenotypic alterations. The drug-induced hypomethylation of DNA apparently perturbs DNA-protein interactions that may consequently alter transcriptional activity and cell determination. The inhibitory effect of cytosine methylation may be exerted via altered DNA-protein interactions specifically or may be transduced by a change in the conformation of chromatin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cytosine methylation also plays a central role in parental imprinting, which in turn determines the differential expression of maternal and paternal genomes during embryogenesis. In other words, methylation is the mechanism whereby the embryo retains memory of the gametic origin of each component of genetic information. A memory of this type would probably persist during DNA replication and cell division as methylation patterns are stable and heritable.

  18. The aspirin metabolite sodium salicylate causes focal cerebral hemorrhage and cell death in rats with kainic acid-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Najbauer, J; Schuman, E M; Mamelak, A N

    2000-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), and its main metabolite sodium salicylate, have been shown to protect neurons from excitotoxic cell death in vitro. The objective of our study was to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of sodium salicylate in vivo in rats with kainic acid-induced seizures, a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in human patients. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injections of kainic acid either alone, or with sodium salicylate given before and for 40h after kainic acid injections. The control group received either phosphate-buffered saline or sodium salicylate without co-administration of kainic acid. Animals developed status epilepticus, which was aborted 1.5-2h later with diazepam. On day 3 following kainic acid-induced seizures, animals received bromodeoxyuridine to measure cellular proliferation, and were killed under anesthesia 24h later. Brains were removed, sectioned, and analysed for gross histological changes, evidence of hemorrhage, DNA fragmentation, cellular proliferation, and microglial immunohistochemistry. We report that sodium salicylate did not protect neurons from seizure-induced cell death, and to the contrary, it caused focal hemorrhage and cell death in the hippocampal formation and the entorhinal/piriform cortex of rats with kainic acid-induced seizures. Hemorrhage was never observed in animals that received vehicle, kainic acid or sodium salicylate only, which indicated that sodium salicylate exerted its effect only in animals with seizures, and was confined to select regions of the brain that undergo seizure activity. Large numbers of cells displaying DNA fragmentation were detected in the hippocampal formation, entorhinal/piriform cortex and the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus of rats that received kainic acid or kainic acid in combination with sodium salicylate. Bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry revealed large numbers of proliferating cells in and around the areas with most severe neural injury induced by kainic acid or kainic acid co-administered with sodium salicylate. These same brain regions displayed intense staining with a microglia-specific marker, an indication of microglial activation in response to brain damage. In all cases, the degree of cell death, cell proliferation and microglia staining was more severe in animals that received the combination of kainic acid and sodium salicylate when compared to animals that received kainic acid alone. We hypothesize that our findings are attributable to sodium salicylate-induced blockade of cellular mechanisms that protect cells from calcium-mediated injury. These initial observations may have important clinical implications for patients with epilepsy who take aspirin while affected by these conditions, and should promote further investigation of this relationship. PMID:10924956

  19. Effect of urinary pH on the pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid, with its glycine and glucuronide conjugates in human.

    PubMed

    Vree, T B; Van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, E W; Verwey-Van Wissen, C P; Hekster, Y A

    1994-10-01

    We studied the effects of urinary pH on the kinetics of salicylic acid (SA) with its metabolites and assessed the contribution of alkaline hydrolysis of salicylic acid acyl glucuronide to the renal clearance of salicylic acid. Hydrolysis of SAAG in alkaline urine contributes marginally to the high renal clearance and excretion of salicylic acid, validating alkalinization of a patient with SA overdose. Under acidic urine conditions, salicylic acid (SA) had a terminal plasma t1/2 value of 3.29 +/- 0.52 hours while under alkaline urine conditions this t1/2 was significantly reduced to 2.50 +/- 0.41 hours (p = 0.0156). The total oral body clearance of salicylic acid under acidic conditions (1.38 +/- 0.43 l/h) is significantly lower than under alkaline urine conditions (2.27 +/- 0.83 l/h; p = 0.0410). The Km and Vmax values of SA, and its conjugates salicylic acid phenolic glucuronide (SAPG), salicyluric acid (SU) and salicyluric acid phenolic glucuronide (SUPG) did not differ statistically under acidic and alkaline urine conditions. The protein binding of SA was 93.8 +/- 1.0% and that of SU was 89.7 +/- 2.2% in vivo and in vitro. SUPG had a protein binding of 84.8 +/- 1.8%, while SAPG showed no protein binding at all. The renal excretion of salicylic acid depends strongly on the urinary pH. The percentage of the dose excreted unchanged increased from 2.3 +/- 1.5% under acidic conditions to 30.5 +/- 9.1% under alkaline conditions (p = 0.0006). Alkaline urine lowered by 50% the percentage of the dose excreted as SU (p = 0.0028), SAAG (p = 0.0013), and SUPG (p = 0.0296), while SAPG is only marginally lowered (p = 0.0589).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834163

  20. Urinary excretion of salicyluric and salicylic acids by non-vegetarians, vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J R Lawrence; R Peter; G J Baxter; J Robson; A B Graham; J R Paterson

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare amounts of salicyluric acid (SU) and salicylic acid (SA) excreted daily in the urine of non-vegetarians and vegetarians not taking salicylate drugs, and patients taking 75 or 150 mg aspirin\\/day.Methods: Urine excreted over 24 hours was collected from volunteers in the four groups. The volumes were recorded and the concentrations of SU and SA were determined electrochemically

  1. Effects of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acid alone and in combination on platelet aggregation and prostanoid synthesis in man.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, B; Fischer, C; Meese, C O; Frölich, J C

    1986-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of salicylate on the antiplatelet action of acetylsalicylic acid as well as on in vivo prostanoid formation and platelet function in healthy volunteers. In the first study six female volunteers received 350 mg acetylsalicylic acid intravenously, with and without previous oral administration of sodium salicylate (1200 mg daily for 3 days). Urinary prostanoid excretion as well as platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation were measured before and during salicylate and after acetylsalicylic acid. In the second study seven female volunteers received sodium salicylate (52.6 mg kg-1) or acetylsalicylic acid (60.7 mg kg-1) for 8 days in a randomized cross-over protocol. Urinary prostanoid excretion, platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation as well as salicylate plasma concentrations were determined before, during and after administration of each drug. Sodium salicylate did not impair the complete suppression of arachidonic acid-induced platelet thromboxane formation and aggregation obtained by the single intravenous dose of acetylsalicylic acid in the first study. Sodium salicylate in the second study did not affect urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2, its major urinary metabolite (7 alpha-hydroxy-5,11-diketo-tetranor-prostane-1,16-dioic acid), and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, the main urinary metabolite of epoprostenol (prostacyclin, PGI2). In contrast, acetylsalicylic acid significantly decreased excretion rates of these prostanoids by 64, 59 and 61%, respectively. In both studies platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation induced by collagen, thrombin or arachidonic acid were not significantly affected by salicylate administration, whereas acetylsalicylic acid inhibited platelet aggregation induced by all three agents as well as thrombin- and arachidonic acid induced thromboxane formation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3083851

  2. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  3. A new class of salicylic acid derivatives for inhibiting YopH of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Mahesh P; Wu, Li; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Spilling, Christopher D; Wong, Chung F

    2014-12-15

    Previously, we identified a class of salicylic acid derivatives that display inhibitory activity against the protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH from Yersinia pestis. Because docking study suggested that the large phenyl ring attaching to the salicylic acid core might be exposed to the solvent and might not contribute significantly to binding, we have developed a new class of compounds that no longer contain this phenyl ring. We first devised a synthetic scheme for the compounds and then developed an automated computational screening model surrounding this synthetic scheme to help select a small number of compounds for synthesis and experimental testing. Based on this computational screening model and the analysis of the structure-activity relationship of our previous class of compounds, we have synthesized eight compounds and found five that yield micromolar activity. When applying in a larger scale, the synthetic scheme and the computational screening model developed here should help to identify even more potent inhibitors in the future. PMID:25468042

  4. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  5. Salicylic acid and its location in response to biotic and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Fragnière, Cindy; Serrano, Mario; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; L'Haridon, Floriane

    2011-06-23

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal involved in the activation of plant defence responses against abiotic and biotic stress. SA may derive from the phenylpropanoid pathway or via isochorismate synthase as demonstrated in Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana. The phenylpropanoid pathway as well as isochorismate synthase are localized in the chloroplasts but it remains unknown if the end product SA is in the same organelle. We have studied the localization of SA in A. thaliana using the salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) gene expressed with a chloroplast targeting sequence. Plants expressing NahG in the chloroplasts are unable to accumulate SA induced after pathogen or UV exposure. Our data infer that SA is initially located in the chloroplasts. PMID:21530511

  6. Circadian control of jasmonates and salicylates: the clock role in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Chehab, E Wassim; Covington, Michael F; Braam, Janet

    2013-02-01

    Plants have evolved robust mechanisms to perceive and respond to diverse environmental stimuli.  The plant phytohormones jasmonates and salicylates play key roles in activating biotic stress response pathways. Recent findings demonstrate that basal levels of both jasmonates and salicylates in Arabidopsis are under the control of the circadian clock and that clock-controlled jasmonate accumulation may underlie clock- and jasmonate-dependent enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper), a generalist herbivore. Here we summarize these findings and provide further evidence that a functional plant circadian clock is required for optimal herbivore defense in Arabidopsis.  When given a choice to feed on wild-type plants or arrhythmic transgenics, T. ni prefer plants lacking robust circadian rhythms. Altogether these data provide strong evidence for circadian clock enabling anticipation of herbivore attack and thus contributing to overall plant fitness. PMID:23299428

  7. Free Radicals, Salicylic Acid and Mycotoxins in Asparagus After Inoculation with Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, Bernadeta; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Waskiewicz, Agnieszka; Irzykowska, Lidia; Bocianowski, Jan; Karolewski, Zbigniew; Kostecki, Marian; Kruczynski, Zdzislaw; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Weber, Zbigniew; Golinski, Piotr

    2011-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to monitor free radicals and paramagnetic species like Fe, Mn, Cu generation, stability and status in Asparagus officinalis infected by common pathogens Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Occurrence of F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum, level of free radicals and other paramagnetic species, as well as salicylic acid and mycotoxins content in roots and stems of seedlings were estimated on the second and fourth week after inoculation. In the first term free and total salicylic acid contents were related to free radicals level in stem (P = 0.010 and P = 0.033, respectively). Concentration of Fe(3+) ions in porphyrin complexes (g = 2.3, g = 2.9) was related to the species of pathogen. There was no significant difference between Mn(2+) concentrations in stem samples; however, the level of free radicals in samples inoculated with F. proliferatum was significantly higher when compared to F. oxysporum. PMID:21957331

  8. Effects of salicylic acid and cold on freezing tolerance in winter wheat leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esen Ta?gín; Ökke? Atící; Barbaros Nalbanto?lu

    2003-01-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM) and cold on freezing tolerance (freezing injury and ice nucleation activity) were investigated in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Dogu-88) grown under control (20\\/18 °C for 15, 30 and 45-day) and cold (15\\/10 °C for 15-day, 10\\/5 °C for 30-day and 5\\/3 °C for 45-day) conditions. Cold acclimatisation caused

  9. Activity of salicylic acid on the growth and biochemism of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romuald Czerpak; Andrzej Bajguz; Marta Gromek; Gra?yna Koz?owska; Izabela Nowak

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth and changes of nucleic acids, protein,\\u000a photosynthetic pigments, sugar content and photosynthesis levels in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae). The most significant changes in the content of nucleic acids and proteins was observed at the concentration 10?4 M SA between 8 and 12

  10. UHPLC-ESI\\/TOFMS Determination of Salicylate-like Phenolic Gycosides in Populus tremula Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilka Nacif Abreu; Maria Ahnlund; Thomas Moritz; Benedicte Riber Albrectsen

    2011-01-01

    Associations of salicylate-like phenolic glycosides (PGs) with biological activity have been reported in Salix and Populus trees, but only for a few compounds, and in relation to a limited number of herbivores. By considering the full diversity\\u000a of PGs, we may improve our ability to recognize genotypes or chemotype groups and enhance our understanding of their ecological\\u000a function. Here, we

  11. Bark salicylates and condensed tannins reduce vole browsing amongst cultivated dark-leaved willows ( Salix myrsinifolia )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Heiska; Olli-Pekka Tikkanen; Matti Rousi; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  Vole feeding amongst herbal willows that have a high concentration of salicylates in their bark and leaves, and may therefore\\u000a be cultivated for use as raw material for herbal medicine was tested in the field and in laboratory conditions. Eight clones\\u000a of dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) were cultivated for two years with six different methods combining three fertilisation levels

  12. Salicylic Acid Protects Potato Plants-from Phytoplasma-associated Stress and Improves Tuber Photosynthate Assimilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Sánchez-Rojo; Humberto A. López-Delgado; Martha E. Mora-Herrera; Humberto I. Almeyda-León; Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera; David Espinosa-Victoria

    2011-01-01

    During a pathogen attack, cells triggers the overproduction of reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress and physiological\\u000a damage. Plants develop strategies using these reactive molecules for protection against pathogen attack. Phytoplasma are bacteria\\u000a lacking cell walls that inhabit plant phloem and reduce yield, tuber quality, and commercial harvest value. Sprayed salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) activated plant defense response against phytoplasma attack

  13. Effects of cadmium and salicylic acid on growth, spectral reflectance and photosynthesis of castor bean seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caifeng Liu; Jiali Guo; Yanlan Cui; Tianfeng Lü; Xiaohuan Zhang; Gangrong Shi

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potent signaling molecule in plants and is involved in eliciting specific responses to biotic and\\u000a abiotic stresses. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the exogenous application of SA can improve cadmium (Cd)\\u000a induced inhibition of photosynthesis in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) plants. The effects of SA and Cd on plant growth,

  14. Relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, G. C.; Samson, J. A. R.; Wiliams, G.

    1986-01-01

    The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138-15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

  15. Role of Hormonal System in the Manifestation of Growth Promoting and Antistress Action of Salicylic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Shakirova

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator. When applied to wheat plants in concentration similar to that\\u000a used in case of exogenous hormones (0.05 mM), SA causes growth promoting and protective effects against an abiotic stresses.\\u000a SA was shown to cause changes in hormonal system associated with transitory parallel accumulation of IAA and ABA with no change\\u000a in

  16. The relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, G. C.; Samson, J. A. R.; Williams, G.

    1986-01-01

    The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138 -15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

  17. Study on elution ability of salicylic acid on ion exchange resins in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Yuan; Jianguo Cai; Junjie Gong; Xiu Deng

    2009-01-01

    The elution ability of salicylic acid on ion exchange resins in supercritical carbon dioxide has been studied. Some factors\\u000a influencing elution recovery, including entrainer, temperature, pressure and the flow rate of supercritical fluid CO2 are discussed in this work. The addition of a small amount of entrainer, such as ethanol, triethanolamine and their mixture\\u000a to supercritical CO2 can cause dramatic

  18. ‘Keratolytic’ Properties of Benzoyl Peroxide and Retinoic Acid Resemble Salicylic Acid in Man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Waller; F. Dreher; S. Behnam; C. Ford; C. Lee; T. Tiet; G. D. Weinstein; H. I. Maibach

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Retinoic acid (RA) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) were studied, comparing their keratolytic efficacy and water barrier disruption to that of salicylic acid (SA), a well-established keratolytic, under similar conditions. Patients\\/Methods:Six volunteers were included in this blinded study. Eleven randomized test sites were marked on the volar forearms, containing sites for untreated skin at time zero, unoccluded, occlusion, and vehicle

  19. Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils—comparison of two methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Matúš; Jana Kubová

    2006-01-01

    Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic

  20. Proteomic identification of early salicylate- and flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huoming; Yu, Boying; Xiong, Liming; Xia, Yiji

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the early defense responses against pathogen infection in plants. The mechanism about the initial and direct regulation of the defense signaling pathway by ROS remains elusive. Perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis by ROS is believed to alter functions of redox-sensitive proteins through their oxidative modifications. Here we report an OxiTRAQ-based proteomic study in identifying proteins whose cysteines underwent oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells during the early response to salicylate or flg22, two defense pathway elicitors that are known to disturb cellular redox homeostasis. Among the salicylate- and/or flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins are those involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, RNA processing, post-translational modifications, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. The identification of the salicylate-/flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins provides a foundation from which further study can be conducted toward understanding biological significance of their oxidative modifications during the plant defense response. PMID:25720653

  1. Application of salicylic acid dosimetry to evaluate hydrodynamic cavitation as an advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Arrojo, S; Nerín, C; Benito, Y

    2007-03-01

    The generation of OH* radicals inside hydrodynamic cavitation bubbles was monitored using a salicylic acid dosimeter. The reaction of this scavenger with OH* produces 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) and, to a lesser degree, 2,3-DHB. The former, is a specific reaction product that can be determined with a very high sensitivity using HPLC-IF. This method has been applied to study the influence of the flow-rate and the solution pH for a given cavitation chamber geometry. The salicylic dosimetry has proven especially suitable for the characteristic time scales of hydrodynamic cavitation (higher than those of ultrasonic cavitation), which usually gives rise to recombination of radicals before they can reach the liquid-phase. Working at low pH the hydrophobic salicylic acid migrates to the gas-liquid interface and reacts with the OH* radicals, increasing the trapping efficiency of the dosimeter. Hydrodynamic cavitation works as a very low frequency sonochemical reactor, and therefore its potential as an Advanced Oxidation Process might be limited to reactions at the gas-liquid interface and inner bubble (i.e. with volatiles and/or hydrophobic substances). PMID:17027314

  2. Experimental and theoretical charge density studies of 8-hydroxyquinoline cocrystallized with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Ha; Groundwater, Paul W; Platts, James A; Hibbs, David E

    2012-04-01

    The experimental electron density distribution (EDD) in 8-hydroxyquinoline cocrystallized with salicylic acid, 1, has been determined from a multipole refinement of high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collected at 100 K. The experimental EDD is compared with theoretical densities resulting from high-level ab initio and BHandH calculations using Atoms in Molecules theory. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system, and the asymmetric unit consists of a neutral salicylic acid molecule, a salicylate anion, and an 8-hydroxyquinolinium cation exhibiting a number of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds and ?-? interactions. Topological analysis reveals that ?-? interactions are of the "closed-shell" type, characterized by rather low and flat charge density. In general, the agreement of the topological values (?(bcp) and ?(2)?(bcp)) between experiment and theory is good, with mean differences of 0.010 e Å(-3) and 0.036 e Å(-5), respectively. The energetics of the ?-? interactions have been estimated, and excellent agreement is observed between the relative energy and the strength of ?-stacking derived from the Espinosa approach, with an average difference of only 4.4 kJ mol(-1). PMID:22329666

  3. In vitro methylation assay to study protein arginine methylation.

    PubMed

    Bikkavilli, Rama Kamesh; Avasarala, Sreedevi; Van Scoyk, Michelle; Karuppusamy Rathinam, Manoj Kumar; Tauler, Jordi; Borowicz, Stanley; Winn, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications in the nucleus. Protein arginine methylation can be identified and/or determined via proteomic approaches, and/or immunoblotting with methyl-arginine specific antibodies. However, these techniques sometimes can be misleading and often provide false positive results. Most importantly, these techniques cannot provide direct evidence in support of the PRMT substrate specificity. In vitro methylation assays, on the other hand, are useful biochemical assays, which are sensitive, and consistently reveal if the identified proteins are indeed PRMT substrates. A typical in vitro methylation assay includes purified, active PRMTs, purified substrate and a radioisotope labeled methyl donor (S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-(3)H] methionine). Here we describe a step-by-step protocol to isolate catalytically active PRMT1, a ubiquitously expressed PRMT family member. The methyl transferase activities of the purified PRMT1 were later tested on Ras-GTPase activating protein binding protein 1 (G3BP1), a known PRMT substrate, in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-(3)H] methionine as the methyl donor. This protocol can be employed not only for establishing the methylation status of novel physiological PRMT1 substrates, but also for understanding the basic mechanism of protein arginine methylation. PMID:25350748

  4. Methyl Bromide and Methyl Chloride Degradation in the Southern Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tokarczyk; K. Goodwin; E. S. Saltzman

    2002-01-01

    The oceans are both a source and sink for atmospheric methyl bromide and methyl chloride and play a significant role in the atmospheric budgets of these ozone-active gases. We have carried out a series of shipboard studies designed to characterize the loss rate of methyl halides in the surface ocean, using a 13C stable isotope incubation technique. Here we present

  5. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. PMID:23873296

  6. Dimerization and thiol sensitivity of the salicylic acid binding thimet oligopeptidases TOP1 and TOP2 define their functions in redox-sensitive cellular pathways

    PubMed Central

    Westlake, Timothy J.; Ricci, William A.; Popescu, George V.; Popescu, Sorina C.

    2015-01-01

    A long-term goal in plant research is to understand how plants integrate signals from multiple environmental stressors. The importance of salicylic acid (SA) in plant response to biotic and abiotic stress is known, yet the molecular details of the SA-mediated pathways are insufficiently understood. Our recent work identified the peptidases TOP1 and TOP2 as critical components in plant response to pathogens and programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we investigated the characteristics of TOPs related to the regulation of their enzymatic activity and function in oxidative stress response. We determined that TOP1 and TOP2 interact with themselves and each other and their ability to associate in dimers is influenced by SA and the thiol-based reductant DTT. Biochemical characterization of TOP1 and TOP2 indicated distinct sensitivities to DTT and similarly robust activity under a range of pH values. Treatments of top mutants with Methyl Viologen (MV) revealed TOP1 and TOP2 as a modulators of the plant tolerance to MV, and that exogenous SA alleviates the toxicity of MV in top background. Finally, we generated a TOP-centered computational model of a plant cell whose simulation outputs replicate experimental findings and predict novel functions of TOP1 and TOP2. Altogether, our work indicates that TOP1 and TOP2 mediate plant responses to oxidative stress through spatially separated pathways and positions proteolysis in a network for plant response to diverse stressors. PMID:26042129

  7. Kapok oil methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specificati...

  8. Kenaf methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additional or alternative feedstocks are one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel. In this paper, for the first time, the fuel properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil methyl esters are comprehensively reported. This biodiesel is also relatively unique by containing small ...

  9. [Investigations on the acute, carrageenan-induced inflammatory reaction and pharmacology of orally administered sodium salicylate in turkeys].

    PubMed

    Cramer, Kerstin; Schmidt, Volker; Richter, Andreas; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Abraham, Getu; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The complex mechanisms of acute inflammation have been subject to veterinary investigations since a long time. However, knowledge on the role of specific inflammatory mediators, as well as pharmacokinetics (PK) and -dynamics (PD) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in birds is limited. The objective of this work therefore was to establish a modified tissue cage-model to investigate the acute, carrageenan-mediated inflammatory response, as well as plasma and exudate-kinetics and the antiphlogistic effect of orally administered sodium salicylate on the elicited inflammatory reaction in turkeys. Within the class Aves, comparable studies have so far only been published in chicken. Following bilateral subcutaneous implantation of carrageenan-treated synthetic sponges in the lateral thoracic region, sodium salicylate was administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (BW; therapy group) twice daily on three consecutive days, while a control group received drinking water as a placebo (n = 24 per group). Combined PK and PD of sodium salicylate were evaluated on the basis of salicylate- and prostaglandin (PG) E2-plasma- and -exudate-concentrations, exudate volumes, as well as leukocyte exudate counts. Sodium salicylate was readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and accumulated in the inflammatory exudate. At 4, 6, and 10 h after first application, sodium salicylate significantly reduced PG E2-concentrations in the inflammatory exudate when compared to the control group, whereas leukocyte exudate counts increased over time in both study groups, unaffected by sodium salicylate The described modified tissue cage-model can be beneficial for further research on the pathophysiology of avian inflammatory processes and the investigation of the combined pharmacodynamics and -kinetics of drugs in birds of adequate size. PMID:26054231

  10. Intracortical circuits amplify sound-evoked activity in primary auditory cortex following systemic injection of salicylate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stolzberg, Daniel; Chrostowski, Michael; Salvi, Richard J; Allman, Brian L

    2012-07-01

    A high dose of sodium salicylate temporarily induces tinnitus, mild hearing loss, and possibly hyperacusis in humans and other animals. Salicylate has well-established effects on cochlear function, primarily resulting in the moderate reduction of auditory input to the brain. Despite decreased peripheral sensitivity and output, salicylate induces a paradoxical enhancement of the sound-evoked field potential at the level of the primary auditory cortex (A1). Previous electrophysiologic studies have begun to characterize changes in thalamorecipient layers of A1; however, A1 is a complex neural circuit with recurrent intracortical connections. To describe the effects of acute systemic salicylate treatment on both thalamic and intracortical sound-driven activity across layers of A1, we applied current-source density (CSD) analysis to field potentials sampled across cortical layers in the anesthetized rat. CSD maps were normally characterized by a large, short-latency, monosynaptic, thalamically driven sink in granular layers followed by a lower amplitude, longer latency, polysynaptic, intracortically driven sink in supragranular layers. Following systemic administration of salicylate, there was a near doubling of both granular and supragranular sink amplitudes at higher sound levels. The supragranular sink amplitude input/output function changed from becoming asymptotic at approximately 50 dB to sharply nonasymptotic, often dominating the granular sink amplitude at higher sound levels. The supragranular sink also exhibited a significant decrease in peak latency, reflecting an acceleration of intracortical processing of the sound-evoked response. Additionally, multiunit (MU) activity was altered by salicylate; the normally onset/sustained MU response type was transformed into a primarily onset response type in granular and infragranular layers. The results from CSD analysis indicate that salicylate significantly enhances sound-driven response via intracortical circuits. PMID:22496535

  11. Understanding the relationship between DNA methylation and histone lysine methylation?

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nathan R.; Klose, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation acts as an epigenetic modification in vertebrate DNA. Recently it has become clear that the DNA and histone lysine methylation systems are highly interrelated and rely mechanistically on each other for normal chromatin function in vivo. Here we examine some of the functional links between these systems, with a particular focus on several recent discoveries suggesting how lysine methylation may help to target DNA methylation during development, and vice versa. In addition, the emerging role of non-methylated DNA found in CpG islands in defining histone lysine methylation profiles at gene regulatory elements will be discussed in the context of gene regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Methylation: A Multifaceted Modification — looking at transcription and beyond. PMID:24560929

  12. Differential changes in Fos-immunoreactivity at the auditory brainstem after chronic injections of salicylate in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiunn Liang; Chiu, Tzai Wen; Poon, Paul Wai Fung

    2003-02-01

    In human, salicylate-induced tinnitus sometimes occurs a few days after its administration, but the chronic effects of salicylate in animal models are not fully known. In this study, we revealed the distribution of active cells in the rat auditory brainstem by staining an activity marker Fos-protein after multiple daily injections of salicylate. Experimental animals were first given five daily doses of sodium salicylate (250 mg/kg, i.p.). On day 6 they were placed inside a sound room for 8 h before sacrifice. Immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in the number of Fos-positive cells at the inferior colliculus (IC), particularly its central division. At the cochlear nucleus (CN), only a few Fos-stains were found at the dorsal nucleus while no Fos-stain appeared at the ventral nucleus. The scarcity of Fos-stains at the CN reflected more a lack of external sound inputs than an adaptation in Fos-expression. Since Fos-stains in CN could still be induced on day 6 following brief tonal stimulation. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that salicylate-induced tinnitus is a phantom sound perception related to overactivity of cells at the IC. PMID:12583883

  13. Salicylate and biomass yield, and leaf phenolics of dark-leaved willow ( Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) clones under different cultivation methods after the second cultivation cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ria Paunonen; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto; Riitta Tegelberg; Matti Rousi; Susanne Heiska

    2009-01-01

    Willow based herbal products containing salicin and its derivatives can be used to alleviate aches and fevers. To guarantee the high quality of the willow drugs and moderate low cultivation and transportation costs, the willows with high salicylate concentrations are recommended for herbal production. Dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) with its high salicylate content is a promising source of herbal

  14. Signaling requirements and role of salicylic acid in HRT-and rrt-mediated resistance to turnip crinkle virus in Arabidopsis

    E-print Network

    Kachroo, Pradeep

    Signaling requirements and role of salicylic acid in HRT- and rrt-mediated resistance to turnip Inoculation of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) on the resistant Arabidopsis ecotype Di-17 elicits a hypersensitive. Keywords: turnip crinkle virus, salicylic acid, defense, Arabidopsis, signaling. Introduction Plants have

  15. Targeted delivery of salicylic acid from acne treatment products into and through skin: role of solution and ingredient properties and relationships to irritation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LINDA RHEIN; BHASKAR CHAUDHURI; NUR JIVANI; H. Fares; A. Davis

    2004-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a beta hydroxy acid and has multifunctional uses in the treatment of various diseases in skin such as acne, psoriasis, and photoaging. One problem often cited as associated with salicylic acid is that it can be quite irritating at pH 3-4, where it exhibits the highest activity in the treatment of skin diseases. We have identified

  16. Preparation of magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction and analysis of salicylic acid in Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    You, Qing-Ping; Peng, Mi-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Guo, Jun-Fang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Compounds with strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds (e.g., salicylic acid) have weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between them and functional monomers in the imprinting process. Consequently, the corresponding molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have no specific adsorption ability. Here, the first magnetic dummy MIPs (MDMIPs) based on benzonic acid as dummy template are successfully developed and evaluated with respect to the applications in selective enrichment and analysis of salicylic acid from complex mixtures. Various parameters affecting absorption/desorption were evaluated for achieving optimal recovery and reducing nonspecific interactions. The prepared MDMIPs showed high adsorption capacity, good selectivity, rapid kinetic binding (40 min) and magnetic separation (5 s), high reproducibility (RSDsalicylic acid was quantified (0.2 ?g/g of fresh mass) in Actinidia chinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:24258403

  17. Salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group for azo-bridged zinc porphyrin in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Li, Bo; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping

    2013-12-11

    Two series dyes of azo-bridged zinc porphyrins have been devised, synthesized, and performed in dye-sensitized solar cells, in which salicylic acids and azo groups were introduced as a new anchoring group and ?-conjugated bridge via a simple synthetic procedure. The representation of the new dyes has been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical means. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of their DSSC devices has been improved compared with other DSSC devices sensitized by symmetrical porphyrin dyes. The results revealed that tridentate binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles could enhance the efficiency of electron injection. The binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles may play a crucial role in the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. PMID:24229086

  18. Comparing analgesic effects of a topical herbal mixed medicine with salicylate in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zahmatkash, Mohsen; Vafaeenasab, Mohammad Reza

    2011-07-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is the most common cause of disability among people and it is a common disease of joints that can lead to cartilage damage. In this study the analgesic effects of a herbal ointment containing cinnamon, ginger, mastic (Saghez) and sesame oil is compared with Salicylate ointment in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trail study. Patients with diagnosed arthritis were involved in the study and they were divided in two groups via block randomization method. For six weeks, twice a day, intervention group applied herbal ointment and control group used Salicylate ointment. The severity of pain, morning stiffness and limited motion were measured using Visual Analog Pain Scale. In order to analyze the trends of these three indexes, repeated measurement test was used. Ninety two participates with the mean age of 52.2 (+/- 12.4) years and with the mean disease period of 30.45 (+/- 30.3) months were involved in the study. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding the distribution of sex, weight, height, BMI and the duration of illness. No statistical difference was observed between two groups regarding pain relief, morning stiffness and limited motion; nevertheless in repeated measurements during second, forth and sixth weeks in both groups the decreasing trend of these three indexes had been statistically significant (p < 0.0001). It seems that using this herbal combination is clinically effective for patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis in order to decrease their pain, morning stiffness and limited motion; its effect is comparable with Salicylate ointment. PMID:22308653

  19. Enzymatic synthesis of two salicin analogues by reaction of salicyl alcohol with Bacillus macerans cyclomaltodextrin glucanyltransferase and Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-742CB dextransucrase.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seung-Heon; Bruce Fulton, D; Robyt, John F

    2004-06-01

    Beta-Salicin is a naturally occurring glycoside found in the bark of poplar and willow trees. Ancient man used it as an analgesic and antipyretic. It has a D-glucopyranose unit attached by a beta-linkage to the phenolic hydroxyl of salicyl alcohol. Two new salicin analogues have been enzymatically synthesized by transglycosylation reactions: (a) by the reaction of Bacillus macerans cyclomaltodextrin glucanyltransferase with cyclomaltohexaose and salicyl alcohol, followed by reactions with alpha amylase and glucoamylase to give D-glucopyranose attached by an alpha-linkage to the phenolic hydroxyl of salicyl alcohol as the major product, alpha-salicin; and (b) by the reaction of Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-742CB dextransucrase with sucrose and salicyl alcohol, followed by reactions with dextranase and glucoamylase to give alpha-d-glucopyranose attached to the primary alcohol hydroxyl of salicyl alcohol as the major product, alpha-isosalicin. PMID:15178396

  20. Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E{sub 2} to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa.

  1. Effects of salicylic acid and putrescine on storability, quality attributes and antioxidant activity of plum cv. 'Santa Rosa'.

    PubMed

    Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Zarei, Mehdi; Nasrabadi, Mohamad Ebrahim; Ardakani, Elham

    2015-04-01

    Plum fruit has a short shelf life with a rapid deterioration in quality after harvest. The primary goal of this study is to investigate and compare the effect of putrescine and salicylic acid on quality properties and antioxidant activity of plum during storage. The plum fruits (cv. 'Santa Rosa') were harvested at the mature ripe stage, and dipped in different concentrations of putrescine (1, 2, 3 and 4 mmol/L) and salicylic acid (1, 2, 3 and 4 mmol/L), as well as distilled water (control) for 5 min. The fruits were then packed in boxes with polyethylene covers and stored at 4 °C with 95 % relative humidity for 25 days. A factorial trial based on completely randomized block design with 4 replications was carried out. The weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, maturity index, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after harvest were recorded. During the storage period, the weight loss, total soluble solids, pH and maturity index increased significantly while the fruit firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity decreased significantly (P?salicylic acid and control) in all measured parameters. The data showed that the weight loss and softening of the plum fruits were decreased significantly by the use of putrescine and salicylic acid. Also, exogenous treatments of putrescine and salicylic acid are found to be effective in maintaining titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity in plum fruits during storage at 4 °C. It was concluded that postharvest treatment of plum fruit with putrescine and salicylic acid were effective on delaying the ripening processes and can be used commercially to extend the shelf life of plum fruit with acceptable fruit quality. PMID:25829585

  2. Syntheses, characterization and crystal structures of novel amine adducts of metal saccharinates, orotates and salicylates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Icbudak; Halis Olmez; Okan Z Yesilel; Figen Arslan; Pance Naumov; Gligor Jovanovski; Abdul Razak Ibrahim; Anwar Usman; Hoong-Kun Fun; Suchada Chantrapromma; Seik Weng Ng

    2003-01-01

    Seven novel adducts of ethylenediamine (en), N,N?-dimethylethylenediamine (dmen) and N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (ndmen) with saccharinate, orotate and salicylate as counter-ions were synthesized and characterized with physico-chemical methods (IR and UV\\/vis spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility and thermoanalytical measurements) and X-ray diffraction. Reaction of dmen with tetraaquabis(saccharinato-N)copper(II) dihydrate yielded diaquabis(dmen)copper(II) saccharinate, whereas with the corresponding nickel derivative it afforded bis(dmen)bis(saccharinato-O)nickel(II). In the copper complex the

  3. One-stop Genomic DNA Extraction by Salicylic Acid Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified, one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by non-specific binding of the particles, as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared to traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally-friendly. PMID:23911528

  4. Synthesis and characterization of copper complexes of Schiff base derived from isatin and salicylic hydrazide

    SciTech Connect

    Lekshmy, R. K., E-mail: lekshmyulloor@gmail.com, E-mail: tharapradeepkumar@yahoo.com; Thara, G. S., E-mail: lekshmyulloor@gmail.com, E-mail: tharapradeepkumar@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University College, Thiruvananthapuram- 695 034, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    A series of novel metal complexes of Schiff base have been prepared by the interaction of Cu(II) with isatin salicylic hydrazide. All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurement, magnetic moment determination, IR, UV, NMR, Mass and EPR spectral studies, thermal studies and microbial activities. The results indicate that the ligand acts as a tridentate chelating ligand coordinating through nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The ligand and complexes show inactive against Escherichia coli and active against Staphylococcus aureus and B.substilis. By analyzing the results of spectral, thermal and elemental analysis square planar geometry is proposed for all the complexes.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of copper complexes of Schiff base derived from isatin and salicylic hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekshmy, R. K.; Thara, G. S.

    2014-10-01

    A series of novel metal complexes of Schiff base have been prepared by the interaction of Cu(II) with isatin salicylic hydrazide. All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurement, magnetic moment determination, IR, UV, NMR, Mass and EPR spectral studies, thermal studies and microbial activities. The results indicate that the ligand acts as a tridentate chelating ligand coordinating through nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The ligand and complexes show inactive against Escherichia coli and active against Staphylococcus aureus and B.substilis. By analyzing the results of spectral, thermal and elemental analysis square planar geometry is proposed for all the complexes.

  6. Synthesis, biological and physicochemical properties of Zinc(II) salicylate and 5-chlorosalicylate complexes with theophylline and urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuzana Bujdošová; Katarína Gy?ryová; Jana Ková?ová; Daniela Hudecová; Ladislav Halás

    2009-01-01

    New zinc(II) salicylate complex compounds of general formula (X-C6H3-2-(OH)COO)2Zn · Ln · xH2O (where X = H, 5-Cl; L = theophylline, urea; n = 2, 4; x = 1, 2, 4) were prepared and their thermal, spectral and biological properties were studied. It was found that the thermal\\u000a decomposition of hydrated compounds starts with the release of water. During the thermal decomposition of anhydrous compounds,\\u000a the release of salicylic acid, theophylline, urea,

  7. PIXE analysis of trace metals in selenium and copper deficient mice exposed to influenza virus and salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, J. M.; Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Small, P. A.; Maenhaut, W.; Vandenhaute, J.

    1987-03-01

    Reye's syndrome is an acute illness in children manifested by encephalopathy, fatty infiltration of liver, and thymic hypoplasia. The syndrome usually occurs in a susceptible individual with a viral illness who has ingested salicylate. We previously investigated the metal status of children with this syndrome; serum Se and Cu levels were noted to be decreased. Chronic aspirin treatment of rats also produced alterations of serum Se, and liver Se and Cu. We now report our observations for an experimental model of Reye's syndrome. Analysis by PIXE of various metals in Se- and Cu-deficient mice exposed to virus and salicylate are discussed.

  8. The role of salicylic acid in the induction of cell death in Arabidopsis acd11.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Peter; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Hématy, Kian; Newman, Mari-Anne; Mundy, John

    2005-06-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is implicated in the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) associated with pathogen defense responses because SA levels increase in response to PCD-inducing infections, and PCD development can be inhibited by expression of salicylate hydroxylase encoded by the bacterial nahG gene. The acd11 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh.) activates PCD and defense responses that are fully suppressed by nahG. To further study the role of SA in PCD induction, we compared phenotypes of acd11/nahG with those of acd11/eds5-1 and acd11/sid2-2 mutants deficient in a putative transporter and isochorismate synthase required for SA biosynthesis. We show that sid2-2 fully suppresses SA accumulation and cell death in acd11, although growth inhibition and premature leaf chlorosis still occur. In addition, application of exogenous SA to acd11/sid2-2 is insufficient to restore cell death. This indicates that isochorismate-derived compounds other than SA are required for induction of PCD in acd11 and that some acd11 phenotypes require NahG-degradable compounds not synthesized via isochorismate. PMID:15923330

  9. The Role of Salicylic Acid in the Induction of Cell Death in Arabidopsis acd111

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Peter; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Hématy, Kian; Newman, Mari-Anne; Mundy, John

    2005-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is implicated in the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) associated with pathogen defense responses because SA levels increase in response to PCD-inducing infections, and PCD development can be inhibited by expression of salicylate hydroxylase encoded by the bacterial nahG gene. The acd11 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh.) activates PCD and defense responses that are fully suppressed by nahG. To further study the role of SA in PCD induction, we compared phenotypes of acd11/nahG with those of acd11/eds5-1 and acd11/sid2-2 mutants deficient in a putative transporter and isochorismate synthase required for SA biosynthesis. We show that sid2-2 fully suppresses SA accumulation and cell death in acd11, although growth inhibition and premature leaf chlorosis still occur. In addition, application of exogenous SA to acd11/sid2-2 is insufficient to restore cell death. This indicates that isochorismate-derived compounds other than SA are required for induction of PCD in acd11 and that some acd11 phenotypes require NahG-degradable compounds not synthesized via isochorismate. PMID:15923330

  10. Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario

    2014-02-28

    Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100-1100mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15mg/gh were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum YX/S of 0.5g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16g/m(2). PMID:24413046

  11. Acute redistribution of thyroxine after the administration of univalent anions, salicylate, theophylline and barbiturates in rats.

    PubMed

    Langer, P; Kokesová, H; Gschwendtová, K

    1976-03-01

    Rats were injected with [125I]L-thyroxine (T4) ip 16 h before the experiment and samples of blood were frequently taken from polyethylene tubing inserted into the femoral artery in anaesthetized and heparin injected animals, isovolaemia being maintained. In each sample of plasma T4 counts per ml were estimated with the aid of paper chromatography. Rapid decrease of circulating T4 level was found at 20 min after iv injection of various compounds (thiocyanate, iodide, fluoroborate, theophylline and salicylate) and a dose-response relationship was established between such a decrease and the administered dose of salicylate (5-160 mg/400 g b.w.). A similar decrease was observed at 60 min after ip injection of some general anaesthetics (thio-, pento- and allo-barbiturate, urethane) or tranquilizers (Innovar-Vet). Finally, an incrase of T4 fractional disposal rate was found between 120 and 480 min after the administration of some of the above mentioned anaesthetics and this effect was abolished by the administration of thiocyanate. It was concluded that there are two different effects of drugs on the circulating T4 level: 1. the immediate effect resulting apparently from a decreased plasma protein binding; 2. the prolonged effect which presumably results from the increased turnover of T4 by peripheral tissues, the metabolic basis of which remains unexplained. PMID:814764

  12. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins induced by salicylic acid in suspension-cultured ginseng cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiaman; Fu, Junfan; Zhou, Rujun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were established for suspension-cultured ginseng cells. Three commonly used protein extraction methods (Trichloroacetic acid-acetone, urea/thiourea and phenol extraction method) were evaluated for proteomic analysis of suspension cultures of ginseng. A comparative analysis of suspension-cultured ginseng cells proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) was reported. The results demonstrated that phenol extraction method was the best method based on protein extraction efficiency and the good quality of 2-DE patterns for suspension-cultured ginseng cells. Fifteen differentially expressed proteins induced by salicylic acid in suspension-cultured ginseng cells were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. These identified proteins were involved in defense and stress response, energy metabolism, signal transduction/transcription, protein synthesis and metabolism, and photosynthesis. Chaperonin 60, related to defense responses, was more abundant in suspension-cultured ginseng cells after application of SA. Vacuolar ATPase subunit B was newly induced in SA treatment. PMID:24600313

  13. Ascorbic acid and salicylic acid mitigate nacl stress in Caralluma tuberculata Calli.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz Ur; Zia, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Lu, Gang; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz

    2014-06-01

    Plants exposed to salt stress undergo biochemical and morphological changes even at cellular level. Such changes also include activation of antioxidant enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, while morphological changes are determined as deformation of membranes and organelles. Present investigation substantiates this phenomenon for Caralluma tuberculata calli when exposed to NaCl stress at different concentrations. Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in NaCl-stressed calli dwindled upon application of non-enzymatic antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA). Many fold increased enzymes concentrations trimmed down even below as present in the control calli. Electron microscopic images accentuated several cellular changes upon NaCl stress such as plasmolysed plasma membrane, disruption of nuclear membrane, increased numbers of nucleoli, alteration in shape and lamellar membrane system in plastid, and increased number of plastoglobuli. The cells retrieved their normal structure upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the present experiments conclude that NaCl aggravate oxidative molecules that eventually alleviate antioxidant enzymatic system. Furthermore, the salt stress knocked down by applying ascorbic acid and salicylic acid manifested by normal enzyme level and restoration of cellular structure. PMID:24744157

  14. The salicylate-derived mycobactin siderophores of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are essential for growth in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    De Voss, James J.; Rutter, Kerry; Schroeder, Benjamin G.; Su, Hua; Zhu, YaQi; Barry, Clifton E.

    2000-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important pathogen of mammals that relies on 2-hydroxyphenyloxazoline-containing siderophore molecules called mycobactins for the acquisition of iron in the restrictive environment of the mammalian macrophage. These compounds have been proposed to be biosynthesized through the action of a cluster of genes that include both nonribosomal peptide synthase and polyketide synthase components. One of these genes encodes a protein, MbtB, that putatively couples activated salicylic acid with serine or threonine and then cyclizes this precursor to the phenyloxazoline ring system. We have used gene replacement through homologous recombination to delete the mbtB gene and replace this with a hygromycin-resistance cassette in the virulent strain of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The resulting mutant is restricted for growth in iron-limited media but grows normally in iron-replete media. Analysis of siderophore production by this organism revealed that the biosynthesis of all salicylate-derived siderophores was interrupted. The mutant was found to be impaired for growth in macrophage-like THP-1 cells, suggesting that siderophore production is required for virulence of M. tuberculosis. These results provide conclusive evidence linking this genetic locus to siderophore production. PMID:10655517

  15. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 ?M of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. PMID:25036598

  16. Ozone-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana: the role of salicylic acid in the accumulation of defense-related transcripts and induced resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Y K; Léon, J; Raskin, I; Davis, K R

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to ozone results in the expression of a number of defense-related genes that are also induced during a hypersensitive response. A potential common link between the activation of defense gene expression during a hypersensitive response and by ozone treatment is the production of active oxygen species and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Here we report that salicylic acid accumulation, which can be induced by hydrogen peroxide and is required for the expression of both a hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance, is also required for the induction of some, but not all, ozone-induced mRNAs examined. In addition, we show that ozone exposure triggers induced resistance of A. thaliana to infection with virulent phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains. Infection of transgenic plants expressing salicylate hydroxylase, which prevents the accumulation of salicylic acid, or npr1 mutant plants, which are defective in the expression of systemic acquired resistance at a step downstream of salicylic acid, demonstrated that the signaling pathway activated during ozone-induced resistance overlaps with the systemic acquired resistance activation pathway and is salicylic acid dependent. Interestingly, plants expressing salicylate hydroxylase exhibited increased sensitivity to ozone exposure. These results demonstrate that ozone activates at least two distinct signaling pathways, including a salicylic acid dependent pathway previously shown to be associated with the activation of pathogen defense reactions, and that this latter pathway also induces a protective response to ozone. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8643534

  17. DNA methylation and human disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith D. Robertson

    2005-01-01

    DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic modification of the genome that is involved in regulating many cellular processes. These include embryonic development, transcription, chromatin structure, X chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and chromosome stability. Consistent with these important roles, a growing number of human diseases have been found to be associated with aberrant DNA methylation. The study of these diseases has

  18. Salicylic acid and cysteine contribute to arbutin-induced alleviation of angular leaf spot disease development in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ku?niak, El?bieta; Wielanek, Marzena; Chwatko, Gra?yna; G?owacki, Rafa?; Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Pi?tek, Milena; Gajewska, Ewa; Sk?odowska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Arbutin induced suppression of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber resulting from lower populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans in the infected tissues. This study provides insight into mechanisms that may potentially account for this effect. In the absence of the pathogen, exogenous arbutin-induced expression of PR1, the marker of salicylic acid signaling, increased the content of salicylic acid and modulated the cysteine pool. This suggested that arbutin promoted cucumber plants to a "primed" state. When challenged with the pathogen, the arbutin-treated plants showed strongly reduced infection symptoms 7 days after inoculation. At this time point, they were characterized by higher contents of free and protein-bound cysteine due to higher cysteine biosynthetic capacity related to increased activities of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase when compared with plants infected without arbutin treatment. Moreover, in the arbutin-treated and infected plants the contents of free salicylic acid and its conjugates were also increased, partly owing to its biosynthesis via the phenylpropanoid pathway. We suggest that arbutin-induced abrogation of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber could be mediated by salicylic acid and cysteine-based signaling. PMID:25955697

  19. Salicylic Acid and Phenylalanine AmmoniaLyase in Potato Plants Infected with the Causal Agent of Late Blight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya. S. Panina; N. G. Gerasimova; G. I. Chalenko; N. I. Vasyukova; O. L. Ozeretskovskaya

    2005-01-01

    In tuber tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) infected with an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the contents of free and bound salicylic acid (SA) considerably exceeded the corresponding indices in the tissues infected with a compatible race of the oomycete. The accumulation of the free form of SA apparently resulted

  20. Characterisation of SalRAB a Salicylic Acid Inducible Positively Regulated Efflux System of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841

    PubMed Central

    Tett, Adrian J.; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants. PMID:25133394

  1. Vasoconstriction Caused by Cocaine is Enhanced by Sodium Salicylate: Is Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase mRNA Related?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Irene Mendoza-Baumgart; Marco Pravetoni; Sheldon B Sparber

    2004-01-01

    We have previously found that sodium salicylate (NaSal), injected into chicken eggs at nontoxic doses used for quantifying hydroxyl free radicals in hearts and brains of embryos, caused or exacerbated hemorrhages and dramatically reduced hatchability when combined with cocaine (Coc). It has also been reported that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression is altered in brain in response to

  2. Exogenous salicylic acid enhance the resistance of Wheat seedlings to Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation under heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress exerts significant impact on plant-parasite interactions. Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense against parasite attacks. Here we studied the impact of a combination of heat stress and exogenous SA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant resistanc...

  3. Effect of multiple washing in salicylic acid on the bacterial flora of the skin of processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine changes in the bacterial flora of the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in solutions of the keratolytic agent, salicylic acid. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in ...

  4. Changes in the bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler chickens washed in solutions of salicylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the number of bacteria recovered from the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in salicylic acid (SA) solutions was examined. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in distilled water (control), 10% S...

  5. Proteomic analysis of changes in pea roots caused by the apoptosis-inducing concentration of salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Tarchevsky; V. G. Yakovleva; A. M. Egorova

    2008-01-01

    274 It is known that biotic stressors may induce a rapid increase in the content of salicylic acid, a stress hormone of plants, one of the key factors involved in the systemic response of plants [1]. An increase in the content of melafen in plant tissues may lead to cell death. Earlier, we showed that exogenous melafen at a concentration

  6. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of salicylate synthase, a chorismate-utilizing enyme involved in siderophore biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, James F.; Shi, Katherine; Calabrese, Kelly; Ladner, Jane E.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved elaborate schemes that help them thrive in environments where free iron is severely limited. Siderophores such as yersiniabactin are small iron-scavenging molecules that are deployed by bacteria during iron starvation. Several studies have linked siderophore production and virulence. Yersiniabactin, produced by several Enterobacteriaceae, is derived from the key metabolic intermediate chorismic acid via its conversion to salicylate by salicylate synthase. Crystals of salicylate synthase from the uropathogen Escherichia coli CFT073 have been grown by vapour diffusion using polyethylene glycol as the precipitant. The monoclinic (P21) crystals diffract to 2.5?Å. The unit-cell parameters are a = 57.27, b = 164.07, c = 59.04?Å, ? = 108.8°. The solvent content of the crystals is 54% and there are two molecules of the 434-amino-acid protein in the asymmetric unit. It is anticipated that the structure will reveal key details about the reaction mechanism and the evolution of salicylate synthase. PMID:16511320

  7. Modulation of ethylene- and heat-controlled hyponastic leaf movement in Arabidopsis thaliana by the plant defence hormones jasmonate and salicylate.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Martijn; Ritsema, Tita; Polko, Joanna K; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Millenaar, Frank F; Pieterse, Corné M J; Peeters, Anton J M

    2012-04-01

    Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is adopted by several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, as a mechanism to escape adverse growth conditions. Among the signals that trigger hyponastic growth are, the gaseous hormone ethylene, low light intensities, and supra-optimal temperatures (heat). Recent studies indicated that the defence-related phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) synthesized by the plant upon biotic infestation repress low light-induced hyponastic growth. The hyponastic growth response induced by high temperature (heat) treatment and upon application of the gaseous hormone ethylene is highly similar to the response induced by low light. To test if these environmental signals induce hyponastic growth via parallel pathways or converge downstream, we studied here the roles of Methyl-JA (MeJA) and SA on ethylene- and heat-induced hyponastic growth. For this, we used a time-lapse camera setup. Our study includes pharmacological application of MeJA and SA and biological infestation using the JA-inducing caterpillar Pieris rapae as well as mutants lacking JA or SA signalling components. The data demonstrate that MeJA is a positive, and SA, a negative regulator of ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and that both hormones repress the response to heat. Taking previous studies into account, we conclude that SA is the first among many tested components which is repressing hyponastic growth under all tested inductive environmental stimuli. However, since MeJA is a positive regulator of ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and is inhibiting low light- and heat-induced leaf movement, we conclude that defence hormones control hyponastic growth by affecting stimulus-specific signalling pathways. PMID:22009062

  8. Methyl Halide Production by Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, G. D.; Varner, R. K.; Blanchard, R. O.; Sive, B. C.; Crill, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    Methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl iodide (CH3I) are methyl halide gases that contribute significant amounts of halogen radicals to the atmosphere. In an effort to better understand the global budget of methyl halides and their impact on the atmosphere, we need to identify the natural sources in addition to the known anthropogenic sources of these compounds. We are investigating the role of fungi in the production of methyl halides in the soils and wetlands in southern New Hampshire, USA. Previous research has shown that wood decay fungi and ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are within a group of fungi called basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. In our study, measurements of headspace gas extracted from flasks containing fungi grown in culture demonstrate that a variety of fungi, including basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. Our research sites include four ecosystems: an agricultural field, a temperate forest, a fresh water wetland, and coastal salt marshes. We have collected and isolated fungi at each site by culturing tissue samples of fruiting bodies and plant material, by using wood baits, and from the direct culture of soil. We compared the rates of methyl halide emissions from the fungi in the four ecosystems. In addition, we measured emissions from previously assayed fungal isolates after reintroducing them to sterilized soils that were collected from their original environments. Fungal biomass was determined by substrate-induced respiration (SIR). The emission rate by the fungus was determined by a linear regression of the concentration of methyl halide in the sample headspace over time divided by the fungal biomass.

  9. A new salicylate synthase AmS is identified for siderophores biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis methanolica 239(T).

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Dai, Shengwang; Shen, Jinzhao; Ren, Biao; Huang, Pei; Wang, Qiushui; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Buchang; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-07-01

    Siderophores are important for the growth of bacteria or the applications in treatment of iron overload-associated diseases due to the iron-chelating property. Salicylate synthase played a key role in the biosynthesis of some NRPS-derived siderophores by the providing of an iron coordination moiety as the initial building block. A new salicylate synthase, namely AmS, was identified in the biosynthesis pathway of siderophore amychelin in Amycolatopsis methanolica 239(T), since it shunt chorismate, an integrant precursor, from primary to secondary metabolite flow. The amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that AmS grouped into a new cluster. In vitro assays of AmS revealed its wide temperature tolerance ranged from 0 to 40 °C and narrow pH tolerant ranged from 7.0 to 9.0. AmS was resistant to organic solvents and non-ionic detergents. Moreover, AmS converted chorismate to salicylate with K m of 129.05 ?M, k cat of 2.20 min(-1) at optimal conditions, indicating its low substrate specificity and comparable velocity to reported counterparts (Irp9 and MbtI). These properties of AmS may improve the iron-seizing ability of A. methanolica to compete with its neighbors growing in natural environments. Most importantly, serine and cysteine residues were found to be important for the catalytic activity of AmS. This study presented AmS as a new cluster of salicylate synthase and the reaction mechanism and potential applications of salicylate synthase were highlighted as well. PMID:25586582

  10. Salicylic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrence P. Delaney

    \\u000a Plants are the source of many substances used in treating human disease and discomfort. One of the earliest known plant-derived\\u000a therapeutic compounds originated from the bark of willow trees (Salixspp.) (Fig. 1), which in traditional medicine was chewed to provide relief from pain and inflammation, a practice that can\\u000a be traced to over two thousand years ago. This ancient remedy

  11. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Guo-zhang; Wang, Zheng-xun; Xia, Kuai-fei; Sun, Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 °C) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 °C could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 °C chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion: SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling. PMID:17444604

  12. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response. PMID:25763618

  13. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response. PMID:25763618

  14. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-05-29

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response. PMID:24874267

  15. The structures of salicylate surfactants with long alkyl chains in non-aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chern Leing; Dowding, Peter J; Doyle, Allyson R; Bakker, Katrina M; Lam, Su Shiung; Rogers, Sarah E; Routh, Alexander F

    2013-12-01

    The self-assembled structures formed by alkyl salicylate surfactants, as a function of metal headgroup counterion, in dodecane and toluene have been investigated. Results from optical microscopy are combined with small angle neutron scattering to show that moisture in the organic phase can have a dramatic effect on the observed structures. A simple acidic cation produces a cluster of surfactant chains irrespective of the oil type or presence of water. However, systems with an alkali metal counterion (potassium or sodium) result in cylindrical micelles in dry dodecane changing to lamellar structures in the wet case and fuzzy spheres in dry toluene changing to bidisperse emulsions with the presence of water. However, if magnesium or calcium counterions are used, this leads to different structures, depending on the oil type and the presence of moisture. PMID:24228896

  16. Efficacy of Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. Versus Salicylic Acid for Wart Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ghadami Yazdi, Elham; Minaei, Mohamad Bagher; Hashem Dabaghian, Fataneh; Ebrahim Zadeh Ardakani, Mohamad; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Rastegari, Mohamad; Ghadami Yazdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wart is a skin disease with circular appendages, which is called “suloul” in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). According to ITM literature, warts have different types and causes. The most important mechanism is excretion of materials (Khelt) from body to skin and mucus; its causative material is often phlegm, black bile or a combination of them. To treat warts, it is necessary to consider the patient’s life style, modify his dietary intake and moisturize his temperament. Objectives: This study aimed to compare Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. as a method of ITM, versus salicylic acid in treatment of wart. Patients and Methods: In this study, conducted in Yazd, Iran, 100 patients were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group 1) salicylic acid, group 2) salicylic acid and D. sophia L. group 3) M. communis L. group 4) M. communis L. and D. sophia L. Numbers, sizes of lesions and symptoms, on days 0, 20, 40 and 90 were examined and analyzed. The relapse rate was investigated three months after. Changes of sizes and numbers of warts in each period of time in each group, compared to baseline, were assessed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. To compare these changes between the groups, Kruskal Wallis test was used. Results: In this study 100 patients participated, 69% of which were female. Compared to baseline, mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 40 were 1.12 ± 4.2, 0.96 ± 2.5, 1.32 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.2 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.02). Mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 90 were 1.84 ± 4.5, 1.56 ± 2.8, 1.24 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.6 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.03). In addition mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 40 were 0.96 ± 1.8, 1.03 ± 2.4, 2.47 ± 3.0 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 90 were 1.24 ± 2.1, 1.3 ± 2.3, 2.45 ± 3.1 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Relapse was not seen in any groups after three months. The frequency of side effects was similar after three months. Conclusions: M. communis L. can be used as a topical treatment for warts. It not only shows more rapid response than salicylic acid, but also has fewer side effects. It seems that D. sophia L. can modify the digestion process and patients can excrete large amounts of the substance that causes warts. Therefore, it is better to use it more than 40 days. According to our investigation, in ITM, considering the cause and mechanism of disease generation and the causing materials of the disease, different treatments should be applied for each patient. Although applying an appropriate treatment is necessary, a unique treatment for all the patients cannot be available. PMID:25558385

  17. Salicylic acid-dependent gene expression is activated by locomotion mucus of different molluscan herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Meldau, Stefan; Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Baldwin, Ian T

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails specifically secrete mucus to aid their locomotion. This mucus is the contact material between molluscan herbivores and plants. We have recently shown that the locomotion mucus of the slug Deroceras reticulatum contains salicylic acid (SA).1 When applied to wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana this mucus induces the activity of the SA-responsive pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) promotor1. Here we analyzed PR1 promotor activity in response to treatments with locomotion mucus of eight slugs and snails. Although none of the mucus contained SA, their application still elicited PR1 promotor activity. These data provide further insights into the complex interactions between molluscan herbivores and plants. PMID:25346792

  18. Microbial effectors target multiple steps in the salicylic acid production and signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shigeyuki; Han, Xiaowei; Kahmann, Regine

    2015-01-01

    Microbes attempting to colonize plants are recognized through the plant immune surveillance system. This leads to a complex array of global as well as specific defense responses, which are often associated with plant cell death and subsequent arrest of the invader. The responses also entail complex changes in phytohormone signaling pathways. Among these, salicylic acid (SA) signaling is an important pathway because of its ability to trigger plant cell death. As biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens need to invade living plant tissue to cause disease, they have evolved efficient strategies to downregulate SA signaling by virulence effectors, which can be proteins or secondary metabolites. Here we review the strategies prokaryotic pathogens have developed to target SA biosynthesis and signaling, and contrast this with recent insights into how plant pathogenic eukaryotic fungi and oomycetes accomplish the same goal. PMID:26042138

  19. Storage Stability Study of Salicylate-based Poly(anhydride-esters)

    PubMed Central

    deRonde, Brittany M.; Carbone, Ashley L.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Storage stability was evaluated on a biodegradable salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) to elucidate the effects of storage conditions over time. The hydrolytically labile polymer samples were stored in powdered form at five relevant storage temperatures (?12 °C, 4 °C, 27 °C, 37 °C, 50 °C) and monitored over four weeks for changes in color, glass transition temperature, molecular weight, and extent of hydrolysis. Samples stored at lower temperatures remained relatively constant with respect to bond hydrolysis and molecular weight. Whereas, samples stored at higher temperatures displayed significant hydrolysis. For hydrolytically degradable polymers, such as these poly(anhydride-esters), samples are best stored at low temperatures under an inert atmosphere. PMID:21152105

  20. Kinetics and Mechanism of Nanoparticles-Catalyzed Piperidinolysis of Anionic Phenyl Salicylate

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Niyaz

    2014-01-01

    The values of the relative counterion (X) binding constant RXBr (=KX/KBr, where KX and KBr represent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTABr, micellar binding constants of Xv? (in non-spherical micelles), v = 1,2, and Br? (in spherical micelles)) are 58, 68, 127, and 125 for Xv? = 1?, 12?, 2?, and 22?, respectively. The values of 15?mM CTABr/[NavX] nanoparticles-catalyzed apparent second-order rate constants for piperidinolysis of ionized phenyl salicylate at 35°C are 0.417, 0.488, 0.926, and 0.891?M?1?s?1 for NavX = Na1, Na21, Na2, and Na22, respectively. Almost entire catalytic effect of nanoparticles catalyst is due to the ability of nonreactive counterions, Xv?, to expel reactive counterions, 3?, from nanoparticles to the bulk water phase. PMID:25478597

  1. Salicylic acid and reactive oxygen species interplay in the transcriptional control of defense genes expression

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Vásquez, Ariel; Salinas, Paula; Holuigue, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in the transcriptional reprograming that occurs during the plant defense response against biotic and abiotic stress. In the course of the defense response, the transcription of different sets of defense genes is controlled in a spatio-temporal manner via SA-mediated mechanisms. Interestingly, different lines of evidence indicate that SA interplays with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in stressed plants. In this review we focus on the evidence that links SA, ROS, and GSH signals to the transcriptional control of defense genes. We discuss how redox modifications of regulators and co-regulators involved in SA-mediated transcriptional responses control the temporal patterns of gene expression in response to stress. Finally, we examine how these redox sensors are coordinated with the dynamics of cellular redox changes occurring in the defense response to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25852720

  2. Salicylic acid biosynthesis is enhanced and contributes to increased biotrophic pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Li, Bosheng; Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Li, Jigang; Yang, Mei; Dong, Xinnian; He, Guangming; An, Chengcai; Deng, Xing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, the phenotypic superiority of a hybrid over its parents, has been demonstrated for many traits in Arabidopsis thaliana, but its effect on defence remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that hybrids between some A. thaliana accessions show increased resistance to the biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Comparisons of transcriptomes between these hybrids and their parents after inoculation reveal that several key salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis genes are significantly upregulated in hybrids. Moreover, SA levels are higher in hybrids than in either parent. Increased resistance to Pst DC3000 is significantly compromised in hybrids of pad4 mutants in which the SA biosynthesis pathway is blocked. Finally, increased histone H3 acetylation of key SA biosynthesis genes correlates with their upregulation in infected hybrids. Our data demonstrate that enhanced activation of SA biosynthesis in A. thaliana hybrids may contribute to their increased resistance to a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. PMID:26065719

  3. Salicylic acid biosynthesis is enhanced and contributes to increased biotrophic pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Li, Bosheng; Zheng, Xiao-yu; Li, Jigang; Yang, Mei; Dong, Xinnian; He, Guangming; An, Chengcai; Deng, Xing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, the phenotypic superiority of a hybrid over its parents, has been demonstrated for many traits in Arabidopsis thaliana, but its effect on defence remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that hybrids between some A. thaliana accessions show increased resistance to the biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Comparisons of transcriptomes between these hybrids and their parents after inoculation reveal that several key salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis genes are significantly upregulated in hybrids. Moreover, SA levels are higher in hybrids than in either parent. Increased resistance to Pst DC3000 is significantly compromised in hybrids of pad4 mutants in which the SA biosynthesis pathway is blocked. Finally, increased histone H3 acetylation of key SA biosynthesis genes correlates with their upregulation in infected hybrids. Our data demonstrate that enhanced activation of SA biosynthesis in A. thaliana hybrids may contribute to their increased resistance to a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. PMID:26065719

  4. Molecular Structure of Methyl mercaptan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-03

    Methyl mercaptan is a colorless, flammable and volatile sulfur compound that is responsible for the rotten cabbage or burnt rubber aroma. This substance can be found in the blood, brain, and other tissues of humans and other animals, it is released from animal feces and occurs naturally in foods such as nuts and cheeses. The formation of methyl mercaptan is commonly noted as a problem in the process of the post-fermentation of wine. Despite the repulsive smell methyl mercaptan is used as a gas odorant, as an intermediate in the production of fungicides, as jet fuel additives, flavoring agents, plastics, as well as in the synthesis of methionines, and as catalysts.

  5. Chromatographic analysis of salicylic compounds in different species of the genus Salix.

    PubMed

    Pob?ocka-Olech, Loretta; van Nederkassel, Anne-Marie; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Krauze-Baranowska, Miros?awa; Glód, Daniel; Baczek, Tomasz

    2007-11-01

    The separation of nine phenol glycosides--salicin, salicortin, 2'-acetylsalicortin, populin, tremulacin, salidroside, triandrin, picein and helicin--by normal phase (NP), reversed phase (RP) HPLC techniques and a coupling of NP and RP monolithic silica columns was studied. Among the above nine compounds only five--salicin, populin, tremulacin, salidroside and triandrin--were resolved in an NP system with a mobile phase comprising hexane/isopropanol/methanol (87:12:1, v/v/v). Optimized separation was performed with two coupled monolithic silica columns of different polarity (bare silica and RP-18). The method was applied to verify the presence of salicylic compounds and other phenolic derivatives in the bark of six species from the genus Salix, namely S. purpurea, S. daphnoides clone 1095, S. alba clone 1100, S. triandra, S. viminalis, and S. herbacea. Gradient elution with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.05% of trifluoroacetic acid, with increasing acetonitrile concentration from 3% to 48%, was chosen as optimal. For the selective detection of the salicylic compounds, an evaporative light scattering detector was employed along with a UV detector. The differences in the composition of phenols in the different plant materials were confirmed. Additionally, it must be emphasized that for the first time the presence of 2'-acetylsalicortin was revealed in S. alba clone 1100. Furthermore, an SPE-HPLC method was developed for the rapid analysis of the salicin content, analyzed as free and total fraction, in willow barks. The determined concentrations of total salicin varied from 25.4 mg/g in S. alba clone 1100 to 96.47 mg/g in S. daphnoides clone 1095. PMID:17880029

  6. Hydrogen peroxide does not function downstream of salicylic acid in the induction of PR protein expression.

    PubMed

    Bi, Y M; Kenton, P; Mur, L; Darby, R; Draper, J

    1995-08-01

    The roles of salicylic acid (SA) and H2O2 in the induction of PR proteins in tobacco have been examined. Studies were conducted on wild-type tobacco and plants engineered to express a bacterial salicylate hydroxylase capable of metabolizing SA to catechol (SH-L plants). Wild-type and PR-1a-GUS-transformed plants express PR-1a following challenge with Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae, SA or 2,6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA). In contrast, SH-L plants failed to respond to SA but did express PR-1a following INA treatment. H2O2 and the irreversible catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) were found to be weak inducers of PR-1a expression (relative to SA) in wild-type tobacco but were unable to induce PR-1a in SH-L plants, suggesting that the action of these compounds depends upon the accumulation of SA. A model has been proposed suggesting that SA binds to and inhibits a catalase inducing an increase in H2O2 leading to PR protein expression. Catalase activity has been measured in tobacco and no significant changes in activity following infection with P. syringae pv. syringae were detected. Furthermore, inhibition of catalase activity in vitro in plant extracts requires pre-incubation and only occurs at SA concentrations above 250 microM. Leaf disks preincubated with 1 mM SA do accumulate SA to these levels and PR-1a is efficiently induced but there is no apparent inhibition of catalase activity. It is also shown that a SA-responsive gene, PR-1a, and a H2O2-sensitive gene, AoPR-1, are both relatively insensitive to 3-AT suggesting that induction of these genes is unlikely to be due entirely to inhibition of an endogenous catalase. PMID:7670505

  7. Hydrogen bonds in 1:1 complex of piperidine-3-carboxylic acid with salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszak-Adamska, El?bieta; Dega-Szafran, Zofia; Krociak, Magdalena; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Szafran, Miros?aw

    2009-02-01

    The 1:1 complex between the zwitterionic piperidinium-3-carboxylate (P3C) and salicylic acid (SAL), P3C·SAL, has been characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and by DFT calculations. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with a = 11.6477(7), b = 9.1754(6), c = 23.5833(12) Å. An O sbnd H⋯O bridge (2.537(1) Å) links the SAL and P3C moieties. The proton in this H bond is located closer to the salicylic carboxylate group. In the P3C moiety, the piperidine ring adopts the chair conformation, and the carboxylate group is in the axial orientation and is stabilized by an intramolecular N +sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond of 2.847(1) Å. In the crystal packing, two P3C·SAL units form a centrosymmetric dimer through a pair of intermolecular N +sbnd H⋯O bonds of 2.801(1) Å. The dimers form a zigzag chain linked via another N +sbnd H⋯O bond (2.799(1) Å). In the structures of the monomeric [P3C·SAL] and dimeric [(P3C·SAL) 2] species optimized by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations, both the inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are shorter than in the crystal. The FTIR spectrum shows a broad absorption in the 3100-2400 cm -1 region attributed to ?NH and ?OH vibrations. The broad absorption in the 1500-600 cm -1 region is attributed to the O sbnd H·O hydrogen bonds. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been analyzed to elucidate the structure of the P3C·SAL complex in solution. The GIAO magnetic isotropic shielding tensors have been used to predict the 1H and 13C chemical shifts in DMSO solution.

  8. Formation of methyl methacrylate from methyl propionate and methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Ai

    2006-01-01

    The formation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was studied in a vapor-phase reaction between methyl propionate (MP) and methanol without using any sources of formaldehyde. Silica-supported CsOH doped with a small amount of silver Ag was found to be the best catalyst. The optimum Ag\\/Cs\\/Si atomic ratio was 4–10\\/20–25\\/1000. When the reaction was performed in the absence of oxygen in the

  9. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide degradation in the Southern Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryszard Tokarczyk; Kelly D. Goodwin; Eric S. Saltzman

    2003-01-01

    This study presents shipboard measurements of the loss rate constants of methyl bromide and methyl chloride in surface seawater in the Southern Ocean, using a 13C stable isotope incubation technique. The measurements were made during October-December, 2001, on a cruise track extending from Hobart, Tasmania to Buchanan Bay (Mertz Glacier) at the coast of Antarctica (46-67°S, 138-145°E). Significant loss rates

  10. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide degradation in the Southern Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryszard Tokarczyk; Kelly D. Goodwin; Eric S. Saltzman

    2003-01-01

    This study presents shipboard measurements of the loss rate constants of methyl bromide and methyl chloride in surface seawater in the Southern Ocean, using a 13C stable isotope incubation technique. The measurements were made during October–December, 2001, on a cruise track extending from Hobart, Tasmania to Buchanan Bay (Mertz Glacier) at the coast of Antarctica (46–67°S, 138–145°E). Significant loss rates

  11. Methylation of cysteine in hemoglobin following exposure to methylating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, E.; Connors, T.A.; Farmer, P.B.; Gorf, S.M.; Rickard, J.

    1981-06-01

    In addition to reacting with biologically important nucleophilic sites in DNA, alkylating agents also interact with amino acids in proteins. Measurements of the extent of formation of these alkyl amino acids may be used as a means of determining exposure to these compounds. The degree of S-methylation of cysteine in hemoglobin was studied following in vivo exposure of rats to methyl methanesulfonate, dimethylnitrosamine, and 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide. A linear dose-response curve was observed for methyl methanesulfonate over a 100-fold dose range. For dimethylnitrosamine, there was a threshold of doses where no methylation could be detected, and a curved dose-response curve was obtained. At high doses, the degree of methylation of hemoglobin cysteine was 7-fold lower than that with methyl methanesulfonate. In vivo, no alkylation could be observed with 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide; however, the existence of naturally occurring S-methylcysteine in the rat hemoglobin may have overshadowed small increases in alkylation arising from exposure to this compound. The natural occurrence of S-methylcysteine was studied in 13 species, and amounts ranging from 5.6 nmol/g globin (hamster) to 481 nmol/g globin (partridge) were observed. The reason for its occurrence is unknown but is under investigation.

  12. DNA methylation in breast and colorectal cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anshu Agrawal; Richard F Murphy; Devendra K Agrawal

    2007-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of several epigenetic changes observed in cells. Aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, and vital cell cycle genes has led many scientists to investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms of DNA methylation under normal and pathological conditions. Although DNA methylation is necessary for normal mammalian embryogenesis, both hypo- and hypermethylation of DNA are frequently observed in

  13. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol...cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum,...

  14. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol...cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum,...

  15. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol...cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum,...

  16. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol...cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum,...

  17. Blocking caspase-3-dependent pathway preserves hair cells from salicylate-induced apoptosis in the guinea pig cochlea.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hao; Yin, Shi-Hua; Tang, An-Zhou

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, we aim to explore whether the caspase-3-dependent pathway is involved in the apoptotic cell death that occurs in the hair cells (HCs) of guinea pig cochlea following a salicylate treatment. Guinea pigs received sodium salicylate (Na-SA), at a dose of 200 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) i.p., as a vehicle for 5 consecutive days. In some experiments, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zDEVD-FMK), a specific apoptosis inhibitor, was directly applied into the cochlea via the round window niche (RWN) prior to salicylate treatment for determination of caspase-3 activation. Alterations in auditory function were evaluated with auditory brainstem responses (ABR) thresholds. Caspase-3 activity was determined by measuring the proteolytic cleavage product of caspase-3 (N-terminated peptide substrate). DNA fragmentation within the nuclei was examined with a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. Ultrastructure variation in the target cell was assessed by electron microscopy (EM). Salicylate treatment initiated an obvious elevation in ABR thresholds with a maximum average shift of 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL), and caused significant apoptosis in both inner (IHCs) and outer (OHCs) hair cells resulted from an evident increasing in immunoreactivity to caspase-3 protease. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) displayed chromatin condensation and nucleus margination accompanied by cell body shrinkage in the OHCs, but not in the IHCs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed breakdown, fusion, and loss in the stereociliary bundles at the apex of OHCs rather than IHCs. zDEVD-FMK pretreatment prior to salicylate injection substantially attenuated an expression of the apoptotic protease and protected HCs against apoptotic death, followed by a moderate relief in the thresholds of ABR, an alleviation in the submicroscopic structure was also identified. In particular, disorientation and insertion in the hair bundles at the apex of OHCs was exhibited though no classic apoptotic change found. The above changes were either prevented or significantly attenuated by zDEVD-FMK. These findings indicate that salicylate could damage cochlear hair cells via inducing apoptosis associated with caspase-3 activation. PMID:21503676

  18. Arabidopsis GH3.12 (PBS3) Conjugates Amino Acids to 4-Substituted Benzoates and Is Inhibited by Salicylate*S?

    PubMed Central

    Okrent, Rachel A.; Brooks, Matthew D.; Wildermuth, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Salicylate (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoate) is a phytohormone best known for its role as a critical mediator of local and systemic plant defense responses. In response to pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae, SA is synthesized and activates widespread gene expression. In gh3.12/pbs3 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, induced total SA accumulation is significantly compromised as is SA-dependent gene expression and plant defense. AtGH3 subfamily I and II members have been shown to conjugate phytohormone acyl substrates to amino acids in vitro, with this role supported by in planta analyses. Here we sought to determine the in vitro biochemical activity and kinetic properties of GH3.12/avrPphB susceptible 3 (PBS3), a member of the uncharacterized AtGH3 subfamily III. Using a novel high throughput adenylation assay, we characterized the acyl substrate preference of PBS3. We found PBS3 favors 4-substituted benzoates such as 4-aminobenzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate, with moderate activity on benzoate and no observed activity with 2-substituted benzoates. Similar to known GH3 enzymes, PBS3 catalyzes the conjugation of specific amino acids (e.g. Glu) to its preferred acyl substrates. Kinetic analyses indicate 4-aminobenzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate are preferred acyl substrates as PBS3 exhibits both higher affinities (apparent Km = 153 and 459 ?m, respectively) and higher catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km = 0.0179 and 0.0444 ?m–1 min–1, respectively) with these acyl substrates compared with benzoate (apparent Km = 867 ?m, kcat/Km = 0.0046 ?m–1 min–1). Notably, SA specifically and reversibly inhibits PBS3 activity with an IC50 of 15 ?m. This suggests a general mechanism for the rapid, reversible regulation of GH3 activity and small molecule cross-talk. For PBS3, this may allow for coordination of flux through diverse chorismate-derived pathways. PMID:19189963

  19. Adenine Methylation in Eukaryotic DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. F. Vanyushin

    2005-01-01

    N6-Methyladenine (m6A) has been found in DNAs of various eukaryotes (algae, fungi, protozoa, and higher plants). Like bacterial DNA, DNAs of these organisms are subject to enzymatic modification (methylation) not only at cytosine, but also at adenine bases. There is indirect evidence that adenine methylation of the genome occurs in animals as well. In plants, m6A was detected in total,

  20. DNA methylation increases nucleosome compaction and rigidity.

    PubMed

    Choy, John S; Wei, Sijie; Lee, Ju Yeon; Tan, Song; Chu, Steven; Lee, Tae-Hee

    2010-02-17

    Cytosine methylation on CpG dinucleotides is an essential epigenetic modification in eukaryotes. How DNA methylation modulates nucleosome structure and dynamics has been a long-standing question. We implemented a single-molecule method to monitor the effects of DNA methylation on the structure and dynamics of mononucleosomes. Our studies show that DNA methylation induces a more compact and rigid nucleosome structure, providing a physical basis for how DNA methylation might contribute to regulating chromatin structure. PMID:20095602

  1. Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae) are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA) 95% CI: 85.09-117.26) more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [controlled-trials.com] and National Research Register N0484189151. PMID:22369511

  2. The Structure of MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the First Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Siderophore Mycobactin, Reveals It To Be a Salicylate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Anthony J.; Yu, Minmin; Gårdenborg, Therés; Middleditch, Martin; Ramsay, Rochelle J.; Baker, Edward N.; Lott, J. Shaun

    2006-01-01

    The ability to acquire iron from the extracellular environment is a key determinant of pathogenicity in mycobacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis acquires iron exclusively via the siderophore mycobactin T, the biosynthesis of which depends on the production of salicylate from chorismate. Salicylate production in other bacteria is either a two-step process involving an isochorismate synthase (chorismate isomerase) and a pyruvate lyase, as observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or a single-step conversion catalyzed by a salicylate synthase, as with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here we present the structure of the enzyme MbtI (Rv2386c) from M. tuberculosis, solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at a resolution of 1.8 Å, and biochemical evidence that it is the salicylate synthase necessary for mycobactin biosynthesis. The enzyme is critically dependent on Mg2+ for activity and produces salicylate via an isochorismate intermediate. MbtI is structurally similar to salicylate synthase (Irp9) from Y. enterocolitica and the large subunit of anthranilate synthase (TrpE) and shares the overall architecture of other chorismate-utilizing enzymes, such as the related aminodeoxychorismate synthase PabB. Like Irp9, but unlike TrpE or PabB, MbtI is neither regulated by nor structurally stabilized by bound tryptophan. The structure of MbtI is the starting point for the design of inhibitors of siderophore biosynthesis, which may make useful lead compounds for the production of new antituberculosis drugs, given the strong dependence of pathogenesis on iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis. PMID:16923875

  3. Genome-wide methylation study on depression: differential methylation and variable methylation in monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Córdova-Palomera, A; Fatjó-Vilas, M; Gastó, C; Navarro, V; Krebs, M-O; Fañanás, L

    2015-01-01

    Depressive disorders have been shown to be highly influenced by environmental pathogenic factors, some of which are believed to exert stress on human brain functioning via epigenetic modifications. Previous genome-wide methylomic studies on depression have suggested that, along with differential DNA methylation, affected co-twins of monozygotic (MZ) pairs have increased DNA methylation variability, probably in line with theories of epigenetic stochasticity. Nevertheless, the potential biological roots of this variability remain largely unexplored. The current study aimed to evaluate whether DNA methylation differences within MZ twin pairs were related to differences in their psychopathological status. Data from the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip was used to evaluate peripheral blood DNA methylation of 34 twins (17 MZ pairs). Two analytical strategies were used to identify (a) differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and (b) variably methylated probes (VMPs). Most DMPs were located in genes previously related to neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Remarkably, one of these DMPs (cg01122889) was located in the WDR26 gene, the DNA sequence of which has been implicated in major depressive disorder from genome-wide association studies. Expression of WDR26 has also been proposed as a biomarker of depression in human blood. Complementarily, VMPs were located in genes such as CACNA1C, IGF2 and the p38 MAP kinase MAPK11, showing enrichment for biological processes such as glucocorticoid signaling. These results expand on previous research to indicate that both differential methylation and differential variability have a role in the etiology and clinical manifestation of depression, and provide clues on specific genomic loci of potential interest in the epigenetics of depression. PMID:25918994

  4. Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis

    PubMed Central

    Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants. PMID:22567327

  5. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of a Potential Transition-State Inhibitor of the Salicylate Synthase MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2015-07-01

    Mycobactins are small-molecule iron chelators (siderophores) produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for iron mobilization. The bifunctional salicylate synthase MbtI catalyzes the first step of mycobactin biosynthesis through the conversion of the primary metabolite chorismate into salicylic acid via isochorismate. We report the design, synthesis, and biochemical evaluation of an inhibitor based on the putative transition state (TS) for the isochorismatase partial reaction of MbtI. The inhibitor mimics the hypothesized charge buildup at C-4 of chorismate in the TS as well as C-O bond formation at C-6. Another important design element of the inhibitor is replacement of the labile pyruvate side chain in chorismate with a stable C-linked propionate isostere. We developed a stereocontrolled synthesis of the highly functionalized cyclohexene inhibitor that features an asymmetric aldol reaction using a titanium enolate, diastereoselective Grignard addition to a tert-butanesulfinyl aldimine, and ring closing olefin metathesis as key steps. PMID:26035083

  6. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Salicylic Acid in Water-ethanol Mixtures from Titanium Dioxide Grafted with Hexadecyltrichlorosilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassir, Mounir; Roques-Carmes, Thibault; Assaker, Karine; Hamieh, Tayssir; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Toufaily, Joumana; Villiéras, Frédéric

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the chemical modification on the photocatalytic properties of TiO2. The TiO2 Degussa-P25 nanoparticles are chemically modified using the hydrophobic organosilane hexadecyltrichlorosilane (HTS). The samples are employed as catalysts for salicylic acid photocatalytic oxidation in water-ethanol mixtures. The kinetics of salicylic acid photodegradation is investigated as a function of ethanol content in water-ethanol mixtures and initial HTS concentrations. The results indicate that the HTS groups are not degraded during the photocatalytic process. The TiO2 grafted by HTS is more efficient than bare TiO2 for the photodegradation process in presence of ethanol. The photodegradation process follows first order kinetics and the apparent rate constant increases linearly with the initial HTS concentration (amount of HTS grafted).

  7. Eradication of Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis (RP62A) by a Combination of Sodium Salicylate and Vancomycin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROY E. POLONIO; LEONARD A. MERMEL; GREGORY E. PAQUETTE; JAY F. SPERRY

    2001-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major cause of infections associated with indwelling medical devices. Biofilm production is an important virulence attribute in the pathogenesis of device-related infections. Therefore, elimination of these biofilms is an ideal treatment. Salicylate (5 mM) combined with 1 g of vancomycin per ml inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis (RP62A) by >99.9%. When biofilm-coated polystyrene beads were

  8. Effect of Foliar Salicylic Acid Applications on Growth, Chlorophyll, and Mineral Content of Cucumber Grown Under Salt Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ertan Yildirim; Metin Turan; Ismail Guvenc

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA) applications on growth, chlorophyll, and mineral content of cucumber grown under salt stress. The study was conducted in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Cucumber seedlings were treated with foliar SA applications at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mM). Salinity treatments were established by

  9. Role of Salicylic Acid in Promoting Salt Stress Tolerance and Enhanced Artemisinin Production in Artemisia annua L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tariq Aftab; M. Masroor A. Khan; Mohd. Idrees; M. Naeem; Moinuddin

    In the present investigation, the role of salicylic acid (SA) in inducing salinity tolerance was studied in Artemisia annua L., which is a major source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. SA, when applied at 1.00 mM, provided considerable protection\\u000a against salt stress imposed by adding 50, 100, or 200 mM NaCl to soil. Salt stress negatively affected plant growth as assessed\\u000a by

  10. Functions of hydrotropes (sodium salicylate, proline, pyrogallol, resorcinol and urea) in solution with special reference to amphiphile behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K Roy; S. P Moulik

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of self-aggregation of the hydrotropes, sodium salicylate, proline, resorcinol, pyrogallol and urea has been tested by viscometric and calorimetric methods. The influence of hydrotropes on: (a) the phase forming behavior of water\\/Triton X-100+BuOH (1:1 w\\/w)\\/isooctane; (b) the percolation of conductance of w\\/o microemulsion system (water\\/AOT\\/isooctane); (c) the micellization of cetylpyridiniumchloride; and (d) the clouding behavior of TX-100 and

  11. Decrease of Proinflammatory Molecules Correlates With Neuroprotective Effect of the Fluorinated Salicylate Triflusal After Postnatal Excitotoxic Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laia Acarin; Berta González; Bernardo Castellano

    Background and Purpose—The fluorinated salicylate triflusal has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect after an excitotoxic lesion to the postnatal brain. In this regard, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether neuroprotection was associated with changes in the expression of proinflammatory molecules such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), or cyclooxygenase-2

  12. Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Leon-Reyes; Dieuwertje Van der Does; Elvira S. De Lange; Carolin Delker; Claus Wasternack; Saskia C. M. Van Wees; Tita Ritsema; Corné M. J. Pieterse

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses\\u000a against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory\\u000a potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in

  13. Two Inducers of Plant Defense Responses, 2,6-Dichloroisonicotinec Acid and Salicylic Acid, Inhibit Catalase Activity in Tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Conrath; Zhixiang Chen; Joseph R. Ricigliano; Daniel F. Klessig

    1995-01-01

    2,6-Dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) and salicylic acid (SA) are potent inducers of plant defense responses including the synthesis of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the development of enhanced disease resistance. A soluble SA-binding protein has been purified from tobacco with an affinity and specificity of binding that suggest it is a SA receptor. Recently, this protein has been shown to be a

  14. Exogenous Salicylic Acid Alleviates Growth Inhibition and Oxidative Stress Induced by Hypoxia Stress in Malus robusta Rehd

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuanhui Bai; Cuiying Li; Fengwang Ma; Huairui Shu; Mingyu Han

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) as a signal molecule mediates many biotic and environmental stress-induced physiologic responses in plants.\\u000a In this study we investigated the role of SA in regulating growth and oxidative stress in Malus robusta Rehd under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia stress inhibited plant growth and dramatically reduced biomass.\\u000a Addition of SA significantly alleviated the plant growth inhibition.

  15. Detector for the VUV to the IR using sodium salicylate as a combined fluorescent and reflective coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Seedorf; H. J. Eichler; H. Koch

    1985-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of sodium salicylate in the 360-1500 nm range, and the angular distribution of the reflected and fluorescent radiation, were investigated using sprayed and pressed samples with thicknesses between 5 and 220 mg\\/sq cm. Reflectance is dependent on the surface structure, and is greater than 0.85 between 360 and 1500 nm for a pressed sample with a thickness

  16. The as-1 Promoter Element Is an Oxidative Stress Responsive Element and Salicylic Acid Activates It via Oxidative Species1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia Garreton; Jorge Carpinelli; Xavier Jordana; Loreto Holuigue

    2002-01-01

    The activation sequence-1 (as-1)-like element found in the promoter of some glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, has been previously described as a salicylic acid (SA)- and auxin-responsive element. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the activating effect of SA on the as-1 element is mediated by oxidative species. Supporting this hypothesis, our results show that the antioxidants dimethylthiourea (DMTU)

  17. Salicylic Acid Influences Net Photosynthetic Rate, Carboxylation Efficiency, Nitrate Reductase Activity, and Seed Yield in Brassica juncea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Fariduddin; S. Hayat; A. Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid (SA) were applied to the foliage of 30-d-old plants of mustard (Brassica juncea Czern & Coss cv. Varuna). The plants sprayed with the lowest used concentration (10?5 M) of SA were healthier than those sprayed with water only or with higher concentrations of SA (10?4 or 10?3 M). 60-d-old plants possessed 8.4, 9.8, 9.3, 13.0

  18. UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS determination of salicylate-like phenolic gycosides in Populus tremula leaves.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ilka Nacif; Ahnlund, Maria; Moritz, Thomas; Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber

    2011-08-01

    Associations of salicylate-like phenolic glycosides (PGs) with biological activity have been reported in Salix and Populus trees, but only for a few compounds, and in relation to a limited number of herbivores. By considering the full diversity of PGs, we may improve our ability to recognize genotypes or chemotype groups and enhance our understanding of their ecological function. Here, we present a fast and efficient general method for salicylate determination in leaves of Eurasian aspen that uses ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS). The time required for the liquid chromatography separations was 13.5 min per sample, compared to around 60 min per sample for most HPLC protocols. In leaf samples from identical P. tremula genotypes with diverse propagation and treatment histories, we identified nine PGs. We found the compound-specific mass chromatograms to be more informative than the UV-visible chromatograms for compound identification and when quantitating samples with large variability in PG content. Signature compounds previously reported for P. tremoloides (tremulacin, tremuloidin, salicin, and salicortin) always were present, and five PGs (2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicin, acetyl-tremulacin, and salicyloyl-salicin) were detected for the first time in P. tremula. By using information about the formic acid adduct that appeared for PGs in the LTQ-Orbitrap MS environment, novel compounds like acetyl-tremulacin could be tentatively identified without the use of standards. The novel PGs were consistently either present in genotypes regardless of propagation and damage treatment or were not detectable. In some genotypes, concentrations of 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin and 2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin were similar to levels of biologically active PGs in other Salicaceous trees. Our study suggests that we may expect a wide variation in PG content in aspen populations which is of interest both for studies of interactions with herbivores and for mapping population structure. PMID:21748301

  19. Novel neurological and immunological targets for salicylate-based phytopharmaceuticals and for the anti-depressant imipramine.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Merzenich, G; Kelber, O; Koptina, A; Freischmidt, A; Heilmann, J; Müller, J; Zeitler, H; Seidel, M F; Ludwig, M; Heinrich, E U; Winterhoff, H

    2012-07-15

    Inflammatory processes are increasingly recognised to contribute to neurological and neuropsychatric disorders such as depression. Thus we investigated whether a standardized willow bark preparation (WB) which contains among other constituents salicin, the forerunner of non-steroidal antiphlogistic drugs, would have an effect in a standard model of depression, the forced swimming test (FST), compared to the antidepressant imipramine. Studies were accompanied by gene expression analyses. In order to allocate potential effects to the different constituents of WB, fractions of the extract with different compositions of salicyl alcohol derivative and polyphenols were also investigated. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12/group) were treated for 14 days (p.o.) with the WB preparation STW 33-I (group A) and its fractions (FR) (groups FR-B to E) in concentrations of 30 mg/kg. The FRs were characterized by a high content of flavone and chalcone glycosides (FR-B), flavonoid glycosides and salicyl alcohol derivatives (FR-C), salicin and related salicyl alcohol derivatives (FR-D) and proanthocyanidines (FR-E). The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (20 mg/kg) (F) was used as positive control. The FST was performed on day 15. The cumulative immobility time was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in group A (36%), group FR-D (44%) and by imipramine (16%) compared to untreated controls. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood. RNA samples (group A, group FR-D, and imipramine) were further analysed by rat whole genome microarray (Agilent) in comparison to untreated controls. Quantitative PCR for selected genes was performed. Genes (>2 fold, p<0.01), affected by WB and/or FR-D and imipramine, included both inflammatory (e.g. IL-3, IL-10) and neurologically relevant targets. Common genes regulated by WB, FR-D and imipramine were GRIA 2 ?, SRP54 ?, CYP26B ?, DNM1L ? and KITLG ?. In addition, the hippocampus of rats treated (27 d) with WB (15-60 mg/kg WB) or imipramine (15 mg/kg bw) showed a slower serotonin turnover (5-hydroxyindol acetic acid/serotonin (p<0.05)) depending on the dosage. Thus WB (30 mg/kg), its ethanolic fraction rich in salicyl alcohol derivatives (FR-D) (30 mg/kg) and imipramine, by being effective in the FST, modulated known and new targets relevant for neuro- and immunofunctions in rats. These findings contribute to our understanding of the link between inflammation and neurological functions and may also support the scope for the development of co-medications from salicylate-containing phytopharmaceuticals as multicomponent mixtures with single component synthetic drugs. PMID:22743246

  20. 40 CFR 721.10121 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10121 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10121 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10121 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10121 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-, branched...2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-methyl-.omega.-(4-nonylphenoxy)-,...

  5. Direct and indirect inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase by salicylic acid and anthocyanidins reactivates intercellular ROS signaling and allows for synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Salicylic acid and anthocyanidins are known as plant-derived antioxidants, but also can provoke paradoxically seeming prooxidant effects in vitro. These prooxidant effects are connected to the potential of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. Several epidemiological studies have shown that salicylic acid and its prodrug acetylsalicylic acid are tumor-preventive for humans. The mechanism of salicylic acid- and anthocyanidin-dependent antitumor effects has remained enigmatic so far. Extracellular apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl signaling pathway specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells. Tumor cells have acquired resistance against intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Here, we show that salicylic acid and anthocyanidins inactivate tumor cell protective catalase and thus reactive apoptosis-inducing intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling of tumor cells and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis Salicylic acid inhibits catalase directly through its potential to transform compound I of catalase into the inactive compound II. In contrast, anthocyanidins provoke a complex mechanism for catalase inactivation that is initiated by anthocyanidin-mediated inhibition of NO dioxygenase. This allows the formation of extracellular singlet oxygen through the reaction between H(2)O(2) and peroxynitrite, amplification through a caspase8-dependent step and subsequent singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of catalase. The combination of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins allows for a remarkable synergistic effect in apoptosis induction. This effect may be potentially useful to elaborate novel therapeutic approaches and crucial for the interpretation of epidemiological results related to the antitumor effects of secondary plant compounds. PMID:25653236

  6. Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future. PMID:23873294

  7. Vibrational spectroscopy of Methyl benzoate.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Kiran Sankar

    2015-08-14

    Methyl benzoate is studied as a model compound for the development of new IR pulse schemes with possible applicability to biomolecules. Anharmonic vibrational modes of Methyl benzoate are calculated on different level (MP2, SCS, CCSD(T) with varying basis sets) ab initio PESs using the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) method and its correlation corrected extensions. Dual level schemes, combining different quantum chemical methods for diagonal and coupling potentials, are systematically studied and applied successfully to reduce the computational cost. Isotopic substitution of ?-hydrogen by deuterium is studied to obtain a better understanding of the molecular vibrational coupling topology. PMID:26050760

  8. The effect of fluctuations on the transversal heat transfort in layered superconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Varlamov; L. Reggiani; D. V. Livanov

    1992-01-01

    The influence of thermodynamical fluctuations on the heat transport in the direction normal to the plane of the layers in a layered superconductor is studied. A decrease of the electronic parts of the transversal heat conductivity and thermoelectric power is predicted as the temperature approaches Tc.

  9. Methylation of cysteine in hemoglobin following exposure to methylating agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Bailey; Thomas A. Connors; Peter B. Farmer; Susan M. Gorf; Janet Rickard

    1981-01-01

    In addition to reacting with biologically important nucleophilic sites in DNA, alkylating agents also interact with amino acids in proteins. Measurements of the extent of formation of these alkyl amino acids may be used as a means of determining exposure to these compounds. The degree of S-methylation of cysteine in hemoglobin was studied following in vivo exposure of rats to

  10. Salicylate-Induced Auditory Perceptual Disorders and Plastic Changes in Nonclassical Auditory Centers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Di; Radziwon, Kelly E.; Manohar, Senthilvelan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sodium salicylate (SS) activates not only central auditory structures, but also nonauditory regions associated with emotion and memory. To identify electrophysiological changes in the nonauditory regions, we recorded sound-evoked local field potentials and multiunit discharges from the striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate cortex after SS-treatment. The SS-treatment produced behavioral evidence of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Physiologically, the treatment significantly enhanced sound-evoked neural activity in the striatum, amygdala, and hippocampus, but not in the cingulate. The enhanced sound evoked response could be linked to the hyperacusis-like behavior. Further analysis showed that the enhancement of sound-evoked activity occurred predominantly at the midfrequencies, likely reflecting shifts of neurons towards the midfrequency range after SS-treatment as observed in our previous studies in the auditory cortex and amygdala. The increased number of midfrequency neurons would lead to a relative higher number of total spontaneous discharges in the midfrequency region, even though the mean discharge rate of each neuron may not increase. The tonotopical overactivity in the midfrequency region in quiet may potentially lead to tonal sensation of midfrequency (the tinnitus). The neural changes in the amygdala and hippocampus may also contribute to the negative effect that patients associate with their tinnitus. PMID:24891959

  11. Acceleration of the herbicide isoproturon degradation in wheat by glycosyltransferases and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Hong

    2015-02-11

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a herbicide widely used to prevent weeds in cereal production. Due to its extensive use in agriculture, residues of IPU are often detected in soils and crops. Overload of IPU to crops is associated with human health risks. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an approach to mitigate its accumulation in crops. In this study, the IPU residues and its degradation products in wheat were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time of fight tandem-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS/MS). Most detected IPU-derivatives were sugar-conjugated. Degradation and glycosylation of IPU-derivatives could be enhanced by applying salicylic acid (SA). While more sugar-conjugated IPU-derivatives were identified in wheat with SA application, lower levels of IPU were detected, indicating that SA is able to accelerate intracellular IPU catabolism. All structures of IPU-derivatives and sugar-conjugated products were characterized. Comparative data were provided with specific activities and gene expression of certain glucosyltransferases. A pathway with IPU degradation and glucosylation was discussed. Our work indicates that SA-accelerated degradation is practically useful for wheat crops growing in IPU-contaminated soils because such crops with SA application can potentially lower or minimize IPU accumulation in levels below the threshold for adverse effects. PMID:25464323

  12. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed. PMID:26057076

  13. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected. PMID:25779084

  14. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant–pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses, including drought, low temperature, and salinity stresses. It has been suggested that SA has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops. However, the utility of SA is dependent on the concentration of the applied SA, the mode of application, and the state of the plants (e.g., developmental stage and acclimation). Generally, low concentrations of applied SA alleviate the sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and high concentrations of applied induce high levels of oxidative stress, leading to a decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this article, the effects of SA on the water stress responses and regulation of stomatal closure are reviewed. PMID:24478784

  15. Salicylic acid mediates the reduced growth of lignin down-regulated plants.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Escamilla-Trevino, Luis; Jackson, Lisa A; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-12-20

    Down-regulation of the enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leads to strongly reduced lignin levels, reduced recalcitrance of cell walls to sugar release, but severe stunting of the plants. Levels of the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA) are inversely proportional to lignin levels and growth in a series of transgenic alfalfa plants in which lignin biosynthesis has been perturbed at different biosynthetic steps. Reduction of SA levels by genetically blocking its formation or causing its removal restores growth in HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis, although the plants maintain reduced lignin levels. SA-mediated growth inhibition may occur via interference with gibberellic acid signaling or responsiveness. Our data place SA as a central component in growth signaling pathways that either sense flux into the monolignol pathway or respond to secondary cell-wall integrity, and indicate that it is possible to engineer plants with highly reduced cell-wall recalcitrance without negatively impacting growth. PMID:22123972

  16. Salicylic acid mediates the reduced growth of lignin down-regulated plants

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Escamilla-Trevino, Luis; Jackson, Lisa A.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Down-regulation of the enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leads to strongly reduced lignin levels, reduced recalcitrance of cell walls to sugar release, but severe stunting of the plants. Levels of the stress hormone salicylic acid (SA) are inversely proportional to lignin levels and growth in a series of transgenic alfalfa plants in which lignin biosynthesis has been perturbed at different biosynthetic steps. Reduction of SA levels by genetically blocking its formation or causing its removal restores growth in HCT–down-regulated Arabidopsis, although the plants maintain reduced lignin levels. SA-mediated growth inhibition may occur via interference with gibberellic acid signaling or responsiveness. Our data place SA as a central component in growth signaling pathways that either sense flux into the monolignol pathway or respond to secondary cell-wall integrity, and indicate that it is possible to engineer plants with highly reduced cell-wall recalcitrance without negatively impacting growth. PMID:22123972

  17. Salicylic Acid, a Plant Defense Hormone, Is Specifically Secreted by a Molluscan Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

  18. Brassinosteroids Antagonize Gibberellin- and Salicylate-Mediated Root Immunity in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Van Buyten, Evelien; Satoh, Kouji; Balidion, Johny; Mauleon, Ramil; Choi, Il-Ryong; Vera-Cruz, Casiana; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Höfte, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a unique class of plant steroid hormones that orchestrate myriad growth and developmental processes. Although BRs have long been known to protect plants from a suite of biotic and abiotic stresses, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still rudimentary. Aiming to further decipher the molecular logic of BR-modulated immunity, we have examined the dynamics and impact of BRs during infection of rice (Oryza sativa) with the root oomycete Pythium graminicola. Challenging the prevailing view that BRs positively regulate plant innate immunity, we show that P. graminicola exploits BRs as virulence factors and hijacks the rice BR machinery to inflict disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that this immune-suppressive effect of BRs is due, at least in part, to negative cross talk with salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA) pathways. BR-mediated suppression of SA defenses occurred downstream of SA biosynthesis, but upstream of the master defense regulators NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and OsWRKY45. In contrast, BR alleviated GA-directed immune responses by interfering at multiple levels with GA metabolism, resulting in indirect stabilization of the DELLA protein and central GA repressor SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1). Collectively, these data favor a model whereby P. graminicola coopts the plant BR pathway as a decoy to antagonize effectual SA- and GA-mediated defenses. Our results highlight the importance of BRs in modulating plant immunity and uncover pathogen-mediated manipulation of plant steroid homeostasis as a core virulence strategy. PMID:22353574

  19. Ultraviolet-B radiation alters phenolic salicylate and flavonoid composition of Populus trichocarpa leaves.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Bassman, John H; Fellman, John K; Mattinson, D Scott; Eigenbrode, Sanford

    2003-06-01

    We investigated foliar phenolic composition of field- and greenhouse-grown Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray (black cottonwood) ramets subjected to near zero (0x), ambient (1x) or twice ambient (2x) concentrations of biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. After a 3-month treatment period, several age classes of foliage samples were harvested and the phenolic compounds extracted, separated by high performance liquid chromatography and identified and quantified by diode-array spectrometry and mass spectrometry. Foliar phenolic concentration was greater in 1x- and 2x-treated tissue than in 0x-treated tissue. Phenolic compounds that increased in response to UV-B radiation were predominantly flavonoids, primarily quercetin and kaempferol glycosides. Enhancement of UV-B radiation from 1x to 2x ambient concentration did not result in further flavonoid accumulation in either greenhouse or field ramets; however, a non-flavonoid phenolic glycoside, salicortin, increased in response to an increase in UV-B radiation from 1x to 2x ambient concentration. Increased salicortin concentrations accounted for at least 30-40% of the total (5%) increase in UV-absorption potential of 2x-treated tissue. Because salicortin and other salicylates are important in plant-herbivore-predator relationships, these increases are discussed in the context of collateral feeding studies. We conclude that enhanced solar UV-B radiation may significantly alter trophic structure in some ecosystems by stimulating specific phenolic compounds. PMID:12730044

  20. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Fatma, Mehar; Per, Tasir S.; Anjum, Naser A.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses (such as metals/metalloids, salinity, ozone, UV-B radiation, extreme temperatures, and drought) are among the most challenging threats to agricultural system and economic yield of crop plants. These stresses (in isolation and/or combination) induce numerous adverse effects in plants, impair biochemical/physiological and molecular processes, and eventually cause severe reductions in plant growth, development and overall productivity. Phytohormones have been recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants. In particular, the significance of salicylic acid (SA) has been increasingly recognized in improved plant abiotic stress-tolerance via SA-mediated control of major plant-metabolic processes. However, the basic biochemical/physiological and molecular mechanisms that potentially underpin SA-induced plant-tolerance to major abiotic stresses remain least discussed. Based on recent reports, this paper: (a) overviews historical background and biosynthesis of SA under both optimal and stressful environments in plants; (b) critically appraises the role of SA in plants exposed to major abiotic stresses; (c) cross-talks potential mechanisms potentially governing SA-induced plant abiotic stress-tolerance; and finally (d) briefly highlights major aspects so far unexplored in the current context. PMID:26175738

  1. Design and synthesis of resveratrol-salicylate hybrid derivatives as CYP1A1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aldawsari, Fahad S; Elshenawy, Osama H; El Gendy, Mohamed A M; Aguayo-Ortiz, Rodrigo; Baksh, Shairaz; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A

    2014-11-19

    Abstract Resveratrol and aspirin are known to exert potential chemopreventive effects through modulation of numerous targets. Considering that the CYP450 system is responsible for the activation of environmental procarcinogens, the aim of this study was to design a new class of hybrid resveratrol-aspirin derivatives possessing the stilbene and the salicylate scaffolds. Using HepG2 cells, we evaluated (a) the inhibition of TCDD-mediated induction of CYP1A1 exerted by resveratrol-aspirin derivatives using the EROD assay, and (b) CYP1A1 mRNA in vitro. We observed significant inhibition (84%) of CYP1A1 activity and a substantial decrease in CYP1A1 mRNA with compound 3, compared to control. Resveratrol did not exert inhibition under the same experimental conditions. This inhibitory profile was supported by docking studies using the crystal structure of human CYP1A1. The potential effect exerted by compound 3 (the most active), provide preliminary evidence supporting the design of hybrid molecules combining the chemical features of resveratrol and aspirin. PMID:25407017

  2. Salicylic Acid Regulates Arabidopsis Microbial Pattern Receptor Kinase Levels and Signaling[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tateda, Chika; Zhang, Zhongqin; Shrestha, Jay; Jelenska, Joanna; Chinchilla, Delphine; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are mediated by cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and include the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition in the cell wall, and the generation of the signal molecule salicylic acid (SA). SA acts in a positive feedback loop with ACCELERATED CELL DEATH6 (ACD6), a membrane protein that contributes to immunity. This work shows that PRRs associate with and are part of the ACD6/SA feedback loop. ACD6 positively regulates the abundance of several PRRs and affects the responsiveness of plants to two PAMPs. SA accumulation also causes increased levels of PRRs and potentiates the responsiveness of plants to PAMPs. Finally, SA induces PRR- and ACD6-dependent signaling to induce callose deposition independent of the presence of PAMPs. This PAMP-independent effect of SA causes a transient reduction of PRRs and ACD6-dependent reduced responsiveness to PAMPs. Thus, SA has a dynamic effect on the regulation and function of PRRs. Within a few hours, SA signaling promotes defenses and downregulates PRRs, whereas later (within 24 to 48 h) SA signaling upregulates PRRs, and plants are rendered more responsive to PAMPs. These results implicate multiple modes of signaling for PRRs in response to PAMPs and SA. PMID:25315322

  3. Induction of salicylic acid-mediated defense response in perennial ryegrass against infection by Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Alamgir; Kuldau, Gretchen A; Uddin, Wakar

    2014-06-01

    Incorporation of plant defense activators is an innovative approach to development of an integrated strategy for the management of turfgrass diseases. The effects of salicylic acid (SA), benzothiadiazole (BTH, chemical analog of SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethephon (ET, an ethylene-releasing compound) on development of gray leaf spot in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were evaluated. Gray leaf spot disease incidence and severity were significantly decreased when plants were treated prior to inoculation with SA, BTH, and partially by ET but not by JA. Accumulation of endogenous SA and elevated expression of pathogenesis-related (PR)-1, PR-3.1, and PR-5 genes were associated with inoculation of plants by M. oryzae. Treatment of plants with SA enhanced expression levels of PR-3.1 and PR-5 but did not affect the PR-1 level, whereas BTH treatment enhanced relative expression levels of all three PR genes. Microscopic observations of leaves inoculated with M. oryzae revealed higher frequencies of callose deposition at the penetration sites in SA- and BTH-treated plants compared with the control plants (treated with water). These results suggest that early and higher induction of these genes by systemic resistance inducers may provide perennial ryegrass with a substantial advantage to defend against infection by M. oryzae. PMID:24328494

  4. Constitutively elevated salicylic acid signals glutathione-mediated nickel tolerance in Thlaspi nickel hyperaccumulators.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Garcia, Daniel; Kim, Donggiun; Hopf, Amber; Salt, David E

    2005-03-01

    Progress is being made in understanding the biochemical and molecular basis of nickel (Ni)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi; however, the molecular signaling pathways that control these mechanisms are not understood. We observed that elevated concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), a molecule known to be involved in signaling induced pathogen defense responses in plants, is a strong predictor of Ni hyperaccumulation in the six diverse Thlaspi species investigated, including the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi goesingense, Thlaspi rosulare, Thlaspi oxyceras, and Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators Thlaspi arvense and Thlaspi perfoliatum. Furthermore, the SA metabolites phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, salicyloyl-glucose, and catechol are also elevated in the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense when compared to the nonaccumulators Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and T. arvense. Elevation of free SA levels in Arabidopsis, both genetically and by exogenous feeding, enhances the specific activity of serine acetyltransferase, leading to elevated glutathione and increased Ni resistance. Such SA-mediated Ni resistance in Arabidopsis phenocopies the glutathione-based Ni tolerance previously observed in Thlaspi, suggesting a biochemical linkage between SA and Ni tolerance in this genus. Intriguingly, the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense also shows enhanced sensitivity to the pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum) and fails to induce SA biosynthesis after infection. Nickel hyperaccumulation reverses this pathogen hypersensitivity, suggesting that the interaction between pathogen resistance and Ni tolerance and hyperaccumulation may have played a critical role in the evolution of metal hyperaccumulation in the Thlaspi genus. PMID:15734913

  5. Early membrane events induced by salicylic acid in motor cells of the Mimosa pudica pulvinus.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Saed; Rocher, Françoise; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) induced a rapid dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization (within seconds) and a modification of the proton secretion (within minutes) of Mimosa pudica pulvinar cells at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. Observations on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from pulvinar tissues showed that SA acted directly at the membrane level through a protonophore action as suggested by the inhibition of the proton gradient and the lack of effect on H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity. Comparative data obtained with protonophores (carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and inhibitors of ATPases (vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol) corroborated this conclusion. Consequently, the collapse of the proton motive force led to an impairment in membrane functioning. This impairment is illustrated by the inhibition of the ion-driven turgor-mediated seismonastic reaction of the pulvinus following SA treatment. SA acted in a specific manner as its biosynthetic precursor benzoic acid induced much milder effects and the m- and p-OH benzoic acid derivatives did not trigger similar characteristic effects. Therefore, SA may be considered both a membrane signal molecule and a metabolic effector following its uptake in the cells. PMID:23487303

  6. Molecular dynamics of paclitaxel encapsulated by salicylic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) derivatives have attracted significant interest in drug delivery systems because of their well-known low toxicity, excellent biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles based on salicylic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (COS/SA) were synthesized and characterized. Then, in order to understand the mechanism of the actions of the paclitaxel (PTX) encapsulated by COS/SA, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were performed to analyze the aggregation of COS/SA molecules. The van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions are the major driving forces for the drug encapsulation process. Electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions also play helpful roles in the COS/SA aggregation. Analyses of the radial distribution function and solvent accessible surface area indicate that the COS/SA nanoparticles are highly hydrosoluble and that the nanoparticles can significantly enhance the aqueous solubility of a hydrophobic drug. Different drug loading systems are also investigated in this work, and the best theoretical drug loading is found to be 10% (w/w). The present work provides insights into the mechanism of the atomic structures of drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles and presents new perspective for the design of drug delivery systems with desirable properties. PMID:23219327

  7. Nuclear jasmonate and salicylate signaling and crosstalk in defense against pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Solano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    An extraordinary progress has been made over the last two decades on understanding the components and mechanisms governing plant innate immunity. After detection of a pathogen, effective plant resistance depends on the activation of a complex signaling network integrated by small signaling molecules and hormonal pathways, and the balance of these hormone systems determines resistance to particular pathogens. The discovery of new components of hormonal signaling pathways, including plant nuclear hormone receptors, is providing a picture of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and resistance through several protein families that perceive hormones within the nucleus and lead to massive gene induction responses often achieved by de-repression. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of positive and negative regulators of these hormones signaling pathways that are crucial regulatory targets of hormonal crosstalk in disease and defense. We focus on the most recent discoveries on the jasmonate and salicylate pathway components that explain their crosstalk with other hormonal pathways in the nucleus. We discuss how these components fine-tune defense responses to build a robust plant immune system against a great number of different microbes and, finally, we summarize recent discoveries on specific nuclear hormonal manipulation by microbes which exemplify the ingenious ways by which pathogens can take control over the plant’s hormone signaling network to promote disease. PMID:23577014

  8. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations. PMID:21954193

  9. Salicylic acid signal transduction: the initiation of biosynthesis, perception and transcriptional reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Seyfferth, Carolin; Tsuda, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is a small phenolic compound that regulates diverse physiological processes, in particular plant resistance against pathogens. Understanding SA-mediated signaling has been a major focus of plant research. Pathogen-induced SA is mainly synthesized via the isochorismate pathway in chloroplasts, with ICS1 (ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1) being a critical enzyme. Calcium signaling regulates activities of a subset of transcription factors thereby activating nuclear ICS1 expression. The produced SA triggers extensive transcriptional reprogramming in which NPR1 (NON-EXPRESSOR of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1) functions as the central coactivator of TGA transcription factors. Recently, two alternative but not exclusive models for SA perception mechanisms were proposed. The first model is that NPR1 homologs, NPR3 and NPR4, perceive SA thereby regulating NPR1 protein accumulation. The second model describes that NPR1 itself perceives SA, triggering an NPR1 conformational change thereby activating SA-mediated transcription. Besides the direct SA binding, NPR1 is also regulated by SA-mediated redox changes and phosphorylation. Emerging evidence show that pathogen virulence effectors target SA signaling, further strengthening the importance of SA-mediated immunity. PMID:25538725

  10. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum?GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. PMID:24684632

  11. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and ?-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance. PMID:24025239

  12. Full survival of paraquat-exposed rats after treatment with sodium salicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Dinis-Oliveira; C. Sousa; F. Remião; J. A. Duarte; A. Sánchez Navarro; M. L. Bastos; F. Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades, there have been numerous fatalities resulting from accidental or voluntary ingestion of the widely used herbicide paraquat dichloride (methyl viologen; PQ). Considering that the main target organ for PQ toxicity is the lung and involves the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, inflammation, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and activation of transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, it may be

  13. Conformational properties of Methyl ?-maltoside and Methyl ?- and ?-cellobioside disaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Elizabeth; Säwén, Elin; Widmalm, Göran; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the conformational properties of methyl ?-maltoside, methyl ?-cellobioside and methyl ?-cellobioside disaccharides, using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) techniques, is presented. Emphasis is placed on validation of a recently presented force field for hexopyranose disaccharides followed by elucidation of the conformational properties of two different types of glycosidic linkages, ?-(1?4) and ?-(1?4). Both gas-phase and aqueous-phase simulations are performed to gain insight into the effect of solvent on the conformational properties. A number of transglycosidic J-coupling constants and proton-proton distances are calculated from the simulations and are used to identify the percent sampling of the three glycosidic conformations, syn, anti-? and anti-?, and, in turn, describe the flexibility around the glycosidic linkage. The results show the force field to be in overall good agreement with experiment, though some very small limitations are evident. Subsequently, a thorough hydrogen bonding analysis is performed to obtain insights into the conformational properties of the disaccharides. In methyl ?-maltoside competition between HO2?-O3 intramolecular hydrogen bonding and intermolecular hydrogen bonding of those groups with solvent lead to increased sampling of syn ?,? conformations and better agreement with NMR J-coupling constants. In methyl ? and ?-cellobioside, O5?-HO6 and HO2?-O3 hydrogen bonding interactions are in competition with intermolecular hydrogen bonding involving the solvent molecules. This competition leads to retention of the O5?-HO3 hydrogen bond and increased sampling of the syn region of the ?/? map. Moreover, glycosidic torsions are correlated to the intramolecular hydrogen bonding occurring in the molecules. The present results verify that in the ?-(1?4)-linkage intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the aqueous phase is due to the decreased ability of water to successfully compete for the O5? and HO3 hydrogen bonding moieties in contrast to that occurring between the O5? and HO6 atoms in this ?-(1?4)-linkage. PMID:21158455

  14. METHYLATION OF MERCURY IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methylation of applied divalent mercury ion was found to occur in agricultural soils. The production of methylmercury was affected by soil texture, soil moisture content, soil temperature, concentration of the ionic mercury amendment, and time. Methylation was directly proportion...

  15. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideshi Seki; Akira Suzuki

    2003-01-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid–liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption

  16. [(Methyl­carbamothio­yl)disulfan­yl]methyl N-methyl­carbamodithio­ate

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hizbullah; Aziz, Muhammad; Neuhausen, Christine; Murtaza, Ghulam; Shaheen, Farkhanda

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C5H10N2S5, was unintentionally obtained as the product of an attempted synthesis of a methyl­carbamodithioic acid using methyl­amine and carbon disulfide. In the mol­ecule, two dithio­carbamate groups are bridged by a –CH2S– unit. The C—S—S—C torsion angle is ?90.13?(11)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by N—H?S inter­actions between neighbouring mol­ecules. An intra­molecular N—H?S hydrogen bond also occurs. PMID:21587641

  17. Direct gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of salicylic acid, with the corresponding glycine and glucuronide conjugates in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Vree, T B; van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, E W; Verwey-van Wissen, C P; Hekster, Y A

    1994-02-11

    A gradient reversed-phase HPLC analysis for the direct measurement of salicylic acid (SA) with the corresponding glycine and glucuronide conjugates in plasma and urine of humans was developed. The glucuronides were isolated by preparative HPLC from human urine samples. The concentration of the glucuronides in the isolated fraction were determined after enzymatic hydrolysis. Salicylic acid acyl glucuronide (SAAG) was not present in plasma. No isoglucuronides were present in acidic and alkaline urine of the volunteer. The limits of quantitation in plasma are: SA 0.2 microgram/ml, salicyluric acid (SU) 0.1 microgram/ml, salicylic acid phenolic glucuronide (SAPG) 0.4 microgram/ml and salicyluric acid phenolic glucuronide (SUPG) 0.2 microgram/ml. The limit of quantitation in urine is for all compounds 5 micrograms/ml. Salicylic acid acyl glucuronide is stable in phosphate buffer pH 4.9 during 8 h at 37 degrees C; thereafter it declines to 80% after 24 h. The subject's urine was therefore acidified by the oral intake of 4 x 1.2 g of ammonium chloride/day. With acidic urine, hardly any salicylic acid is excreted unchanged (0.6%). It is predominantly excreted as salicyluric acid (68.7%). PMID:8006100

  18. Quantitative in situ assay of salicylic acid in tobacco leaves using a genetically modified biosensor strain of Acinetobacter sp. ADP1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei E; Huang, Linfeng; Preston, Gail M; Naylor, Martin; Carr, John P; Li, Yanhong; Singer, Andrew C; Whiteley, Andrew S; Wang, Hui

    2006-06-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in plants, most notably in the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against pathogens. A non-destructive in situ assay for SA would provide new insights into the functions of SA in SAR and other SA-regulated phenomena. We assessed a genetically engineered strain of Acinetobacter sp. ADP1, which proportionally produces bioluminescence in response to salicylates including SA and methylsalicylate, as a reporter for salicylate accumulation in the apoplast of plant leaves. SA was measured quantitatively in situ in NN genotype tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaves inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The biosensor revealed accumulation of apoplastic SA before the visible appearance of hypersensitive response (HR) lesions. When the biosensor was infiltrated into TMV-inoculated leaves displaying HR lesions at 90 and 168 h post-inoculation, salicylate accumulation was detected predominantly in tissues surrounding the lesions and in veins adjacent to HR lesions. These images are consistent with previous data demonstrating that SA accumulation occurs prior to and following the onset of visible HR lesions. We also used the biosensor to observe apoplastic SA accumulation in tobacco leaves inoculated with virulent and HR-eliciting strains of the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The work demonstrates that the Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 biosensor is a useful new tool to non-destructively assay salicylates in situ and to map their spatial distribution in plant tissues. PMID:16805738

  19. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and reduces in vitro biofilm formation in uropathogenic Escherichia coli by decreasing type 1 fimbriae expression

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Jordi; Soto, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent bacteria implicated in biofilm formation, which is a dynamic process whose first step consists in bacteria adhesion to surfaces through type 1 fimbriae. Salicylate induces a number of morphological and physiological alterations in bacteria including the activation of the transcriptional regulator MarA. In this report the effects of salicylate on biofilm formation and their relationship with MarA were studied. An inverse relationship was observed between in vitro biofilm formation and salicylate concentration added to the culture medium. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and decreases the expression of fimA and fimB genes in the wild-type strain. In addition, the fimA and fimB expression was decreased in a MarR mutant in which marA was also overexpressed. In conclusion, the expression of type 1 fimbriae in presence of salicylate may be regulated by the level of marA expression through fimB regulator, albeit through neither the ompX nor the tolC genes. PMID:22546909

  20. Water Column Methylation in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartup, A. T.; Calder, R.; Soerensen, A. L.; Mason, R. P.; Balcom, P. H.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and affects humans and wildlife through fish consumption. Many studies have measured active methylation/demethylation in ocean margin sediments but few have reported similar rates for the marine water column. This presentation will review available evidence for water column methylation in estuaries, including new experimental measurements of methylation/demethylation rates from a deep subarctic fjord in Labrador Canada collected in Spring and Fall of 2012-2013. We used these and other data to construct a mass budget for MeHg in the estuary and show that water column methylation (with rates ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 % day-1), is the largest contributor, followed by inputs from rivers (4.9 mol year-1), to the in situ pool of MeHg available for uptake by biota. By contrast, the sediment in this system is a net sink for MeHg (-1.5 mol year-1). We discuss the relationship between observed MeHg and other ancillary environmental factors (organic carbon, sulfur and nutrients) as well as implications for the response time of fish to future changes in mercury inputs.

  1. Modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters--Validation for methyl hexanoate, methyl heptanoate, and methyl decanoate in a

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sources (e.g., rapeseed oil in Europe, soybean oil in the United States, and palm oil in Asia%), with small amounts of mono- and di-glycerides. The fatty acid composition of rapeseed oil is 64.4% oleic acid data, this detailed mechanism has only been tested for reproducing the oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl

  2. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

  3. DNA Methylation and Its Basic Function

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lisa D; Le, Thuc; Fan, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian genome, DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism involving the transfer of a methyl group onto the C5 position of the cytosine to form 5-methylcytosine. DNA methylation regulates gene expression by recruiting proteins involved in gene repression or by inhibiting the binding of transcription factor(s) to DNA. During development, the pattern of DNA methylation in the genome changes as a result of a dynamic process involving both de novo DNA methylation and demethylation. As a consequence, differentiated cells develop a stable and unique DNA methylation pattern that regulates tissue-specific gene transcription. In this chapter, we will review the process of DNA methylation and demethylation in the nervous system. We will describe the DNA (de)methylation machinery and its association with other epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications and noncoding RNAs. Intriguingly, postmitotic neurons still express DNA methyltransferases and components involved in DNA demethylation. Moreover, neuronal activity can modulate their pattern of DNA methylation in response to physiological and environmental stimuli. The precise regulation of DNA methylation is essential for normal cognitive function. Indeed, when DNA methylation is altered as a result of developmental mutations or environmental risk factors, such as drug exposure and neural injury, mental impairment is a common side effect. The investigation into DNA methylation continues to show a rich and complex picture about epigenetic gene regulation in the central nervous system and provides possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22781841

  4. ELUCIDATING THE PATHWAY FOR ARSENIC METHYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enzymatically-catalyzed methylation of arsenic is part of a metabolic pathway that converts inorganic arsenic into methylated products. Hence, in humans chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic, methyl and dimethyl arsenic account for most of the arsenic that is excreted in the ...

  5. 5, 13611378, 2008 Methyl arsenic and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 5, 1361­1378, 2008 Methyl arsenic and antimony species in suspended matter L. Duester et al of Biogeosciences Methylated arsenic and antimony species in suspended matter of the river Ruhr, Germany L. Duester1 of the European Geosciences Union. 1361 #12;BGD 5, 1361­1378, 2008 Methyl arsenic and antimony species

  6. Pancancer analysis of DNA methylation-driven genes using MethylMix | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Aberrant DNA methylation is an important mechanism that contributes to oncogenesis. Yet, few algorithms exist that exploit this vast dataset to identify hypo- and hyper-methylated genes in cancer. We developed a novel computational algorithm called MethylMix to identify differentially methylated genes that are also predictive of transcription. We apply MethylMix to twelve individual cancer sites, and additionally combine all cancer sites in a pancancer analysis. We discover pancancer hypo- and hyper-methylated genes and identify novel methylation-driven subgroups with clinical implications.

  7. Pancancer analysis of DNA methylation-driven genes using MethylMix

    Cancer.gov

    Aberrant DNA methylation is an important mechanism that contributes to oncogenesis. Yet, few algorithms exist that exploit this vast dataset to identify hypo- and hyper-methylated genes in cancer. We developed a novel computational algorithm called MethylMix to identify differentially methylated genes that are also predictive of transcription. We apply MethylMix to twelve individual cancer sites, and additionally combine all cancer sites in a pancancer analysis. We discover pancancer hypo- and hyper-methylated genes and identify novel methylation-driven subgroups with clinical implications.

  8. Identification of Differentially Methylated Sequences in Colorectal Cancer by Methylated CpG Island Amplification1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Toyota; Coty Ho; Nita Ahuja; Kam-Wing Jair; Qing Li; Mutsumi Ohe-Toyota; Stephen B. Baylin; Jean-Pierre J. Issa

    1999-01-01

    CpG island methylation has been linked to tumor suppressor gene inactivation in neoplasia and may serve as a useful marker to clone novel cancer-related genes. We have developed a novel PCR-based method, methylated CpG island amplification (MCA), which is useful for both methylation analysis and cloning differentially methylated genes. Using restriction enzymes that have differential sensitivity to 5-methyl-cytosine, followed by

  9. The diversion of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate from the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway to hemiterpene glycosides mediates stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    González-Cabanelas, Diego; Wright, Louwrance P; Paetz, Christian; Onkokesung, Nawaporn; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Phillips, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP) is an intermediate of the plastid-localized 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway which supplies isoprenoid precursors for photosynthetic pigments, redox co-factor side chains, plant volatiles, and phytohormones. The Arabidopsis hds-3 mutant, defective in the 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase step of the MEP pathway, accumulates its substrate MEcDP as well as the free tetraol 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (ME) and glucosylated ME metabolites, a metabolic diversion also occurring in wild type plants. MEcDP dephosphorylation to the free tetraol precedes glucosylation, a process which likely takes place in the cytosol. Other MEP pathway intermediates were not affected in hds-3. Isotopic labeling, dark treatment, and inhibitor studies indicate that a second pool of MEcDP metabolically isolated from the main pathway is the source of a signal which activates salicylic acid induced defense responses before its conversion to hemiterpene glycosides. The hds-3 mutant also showed enhanced resistance to the phloem-feeding aphid Brevicoryne brassicae due to its constitutively activated defense response. However, this MEcDP-mediated defense response is developmentally dependent and is repressed in emerging seedlings. MEcDP and ME exogenously applied to adult leaves mimics many of the gene induction effects seen in the hds-3 mutant. In conclusion, we have identified a metabolic shunt from the central MEP pathway that diverts MEcDP to hemiterpene glycosides via ME, a process linked to balancing plant responses to biotic stress. PMID:25704332

  10. Crystal structure of 4-[(5-methyl-isoxazol-3-yl)amino-sulfon-yl]anilinium 3,5-di-nitro-salicylate.

    PubMed

    Malathy, Sevaiyan; Nirmalram, Jeyaraman Selvaraj; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The title mol-ecular salt, C10H12N3O3S(+)·C7H3N2O7 (-), protonation occurs at the amino N atom attached to the benzene ring of sulfamethoxazole. In the anion, there is an intra-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bond and the cation is linked to the anion by an N-H?O hydrogen bond. In the extended structure, the cations and anions are linked via N-H?O, N-H?N and C-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. PMID:26090134

  11. Effect of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon and cantharidin on anthraquinone production by Rubia cordifolia callus cultures transformed with the rolB and rolC genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Bulgakov; G. K. Tchernoded; N. P. Mischenko; M. V. Khodakovskaya; V. P. Glazunov; S. V. Radchenko; E. V. Zvereva; S. A. Fedoreyev; Yu. N Zhuravlev

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes could play an essential role in the activation of secondary metabolite production in plant transformed cultures. This study investigated whether the content of anthraquinone phytoalexins was changed in callus cultures of Rubia cordifolia transgenic for the 35S-rolB and 35S-rolC genes in comparison with a non-transformed callus culture. The anthraquinone

  12. Crystal structure of 4-[(5-methyl­isoxazol-3-yl)amino­sulfon­yl]anilinium 3,5-di­nitro­salicylate

    PubMed Central

    Malathy, Sevaiyan; Nirmalram, Jeyaraman Selvaraj; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The title mol­ecular salt, C10H12N3O3S+·C7H3N2O7 ?, protonation occurs at the amino N atom attached to the benzene ring of sulfamethoxazole. In the anion, there is an intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond and the cation is linked to the anion by an N—H?O hydrogen bond. In the extended structure, the cations and anions are linked via N—H?O, N—H?N and C—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework.

  13. Dynamics of the enhanced emissions of monoterpenes and methyl salicylate, and decreased uptake of formaldehyde, by Quercus ilex leaves after application of jasmonic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iolanda Filella; Josep Penuelas; Joan Llusia

    2006-01-01

    Summary • Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signalling compound with a key role in both stress and development in plants, and is reported to elicit the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we studied the dynamics of such emissions and the linkage with photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. •W e sprayed JA on leaves of the Mediterranean tree species

  14. In vivo sodium salicylate causes tolerance to acute morphine exposure and alters the ability of high frequency stimulation to induce long-term potentiation in hippocampus area CA1.

    PubMed

    Hosseinmardi, Narges; Azimi, Lila; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Javan, Mohammad; Naghdi, Naser

    2011-11-30

    Effects of morphine on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus area CA1 following in vivo sodium salicylate and the potential molecular mechanism were investigated. Population spikes (PS) were recorded from stratum pylamidale of area CA1 following stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in slices taken from control and sodium salicylate injected rats. To induce long term potentiation (LTP), a 100Hz tetanic stimulation was used. Acute in vitro morphine increased baseline PS amplitude in control slices but not in slices taken from sodium salicylate treated rats. In vivo chronic salicylate did slightly decrease and/or destabilize LTP of CA1 synaptic transmission. We also found that mRNA of NR2A subunit of NMDA receptor was reduced in the hippocampus of sodium salicylate treated rats as compared to control ones. Following LTP induction, the mRNA of NR2A and PP1 (protein phosphatase 1) in slices taken from salicylate-treated rats were more than those of control ones. After long-term exposure to in vitro morphine, high frequency stimulation (HFS) decreased NR2A mRNA level significantly in sodium salicylate treated slices. It is concluded that in vivo sodium salicylate causes tolerance to excitatory effect of morphine and changes the ability of HFS to induce PS LTP in the hippocampus area CA1 in vitro. These changes in synaptic response may be due to alterations in NR2A and PP1 expression. PMID:21946116

  15. In vivo sodium salicylate causes tolerance to acute morphine exposure and alters the ability of high frequency stimulation to induce long-term potentiation in hippocampus area CA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narges Hosseinmardi; Lila Azimi; Yaghoub Fathollahi; Mohammad Javan; Naser Naghdi

    2011-01-01

    Effects of morphine on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus area CA1 following in vivo sodium salicylate and the potential molecular mechanism were investigated. Population spikes (PS) were recorded from stratum pylamidale of area CA1 following stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in slices taken from control and sodium salicylate injected rats. To induce long term potentiation (LTP), a 100Hz tetanic

  16. Toxicological profile for methyl parathion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Statement was prepared to give information about methyl parathion and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,177 sites on its National Priorities List (NPL). Methyl parathion has been found at 3 of these sites. As EPA evaluates more sites, the number of sites at which methyl parathion is found may change. The information is important because methyl parathion may cause harmful health effects and because these sites are potential or actual sources of human exposure to methyl parathion.

  17. Resistant and susceptible responses in tomato to cyst nematode are differentially regulated by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Taketo; Sugiyama, Shunpei; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Arie, Tsutomu; Masuta, Chikara

    2010-09-01

    To understand the machinery underlying a tomato cultivar harboring the Hero A gene against cyst nematode using microarrays, we first analyzed tomato gene expression in response to potato cyst nematode (PCN; Globodera rostochiensis) during the early incompatible and compatible interactions at 3 and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). Transcript levels of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and Myb-related genes were up-regulated at 3?dpi in the incompatible interaction. Transcription of the genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was also up-regulated at 3?dpi in the incompatible interaction. On the other hand, the four genes (PAL, Myb, PDC and ADH) were down-regulated in the compatible interaction at 3?dpi. When the expression levels of several pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes in tomato roots were compared between the incompatible and compatible interactions, the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PR genes were found to be induced in the incompatible interaction at 3?dpi. The PR-1(P4) transcript increased to an exceptionally high level at 3?dpi in the cyst nematode-infected resistant plants compared with the uninoculated controls. The free SA levels were elevated to similar levels in both incompatible and compatible interactions. We then confirmed that PR-1(P4) was not significantly induced in the NahG tomato harboring the Hero A gene, compared with the resistant cultivar. We thus found that PR-1(P4) was a hallmark for the cultivar resistance conferred by Hero A against PCN and that nematode parasitism resulted in the inhibition of the SA signaling pathway in the susceptible cultivars. PMID:20660227

  18. Sodium Salicylate Suppresses GABAergic Inhibitory Activity in Neurons of Rodent Dorsal Raphe Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yan; Luo, Bin; Su, Yan-Yan; Wang, Xin-Xing; Chen, Liang; Wang, Ming; Wang, Wei-Wen; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Sodium salicylate (NaSal), a tinnitus inducing agent, can activate serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and can increase serotonin (5-HT) level in the inferior colliculus and the auditory cortex in rodents. To explore the underlying neural mechanisms, we first examined effects of NaSal on neuronal intrinsic properties and the inhibitory synaptic transmissions in DRN slices of rats by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that NaSal hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, decreased the input resistance, and suppressed spontaneous and current-evoked firing in GABAergic neurons, but not in 5-HTergic neurons. In addition, NaSal reduced GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in 5-HTergic neurons. We next examined whether the observed depression of GABAergic activity would cause an increase in the excitability of 5-HTergic neurons using optogenetic technique in DRN slices of the transgenic mouse with channelrhodopsin-2 expressed in GABAergic neurons. When the GABAergic inhibition was enhanced by optical stimulation to GABAergic neurons in mouse DRN, NaSal significantly depolarized the resting membrane potential, increased the input resistance and increased current-evoked firing of 5-HTergic neurons. However, NaSal would fail to increase the excitability of 5-HTergic neurons when the GABAergic synaptic transmission was blocked by picrotoxin, a GABA receptor antagonist. Our results indicate that NaSal suppresses the GABAergic activities to raise the excitability of local 5-HTergic neural circuits in the DRN, which may contribute to the elevated 5-HT level by NaSal in the brain. PMID:25962147

  19. A putative RNA-binding protein positively regulates salicylic acid-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yiping; Tsuda, Kenichi; Joe, Anna; Sato, Masanao; Nguyen, Le V; Glazebrook, Jane; Alfano, James R; Cohen, Jerry D; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2010-12-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBP) can control gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Plants respond to pathogen infection with rapid reprogramming of gene expression. However, little is known about how plant RBP function in plant immunity. Here, we describe the involvement of an RBP, Arabidopsis thaliana RNA-binding protein-defense related 1 (AtRBP-DR1; At4g03110), in resistance to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. AtRBP-DR1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced susceptibility to P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Overexpression of AtRBP-DR1 led to enhanced resistance to P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 strains and dwarfism. The hypersensitive response triggered by P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpt2 was compromised in the Atrbp-dr1 mutant and enhanced in the AtRBP-DR1 overexpression line at early time points. AtRBP-DR1 overexpression lines showed higher mRNA levels of SID2 and PR1, which are salicylic acid (SA) inducible, as well as spontaneous cell death in mature leaves. Consistent with these observations, the SA level was low in the Atrbp-dr1 mutant but high in the overexpression line. The SA-related phenotype in the overexpression line was fully dependent on SID2. Thus, AtRBP-DR1 is a positive regulator of SA-mediated immunity, possibly acting on SA signaling-related genes at a post-transcriptional level. PMID:20636102

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Salicylate and Dibenzofuran Metabolism in Sphingomonas Wittichii RW1

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Edith; Roggo, Clémence; Johnson, David R.; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2012-01-01

    Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium isolated for its ability to degrade the xenobiotic compounds dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (DBF). A number of genes involved in DBF degradation have been previously characterized, such as the dxn cluster, dbfB, and the electron transfer components fdx1, fdx3, and redA2. Here we use a combination of whole genome transcriptome analysis and transposon library screening to characterize RW1 catabolic and other genes implicated in the reaction to or degradation of DBF. To detect differentially expressed genes upon exposure to DBF, we applied three different growth exposure experiments, using either short DBF exposures to actively growing cells or growing them with DBF as sole carbon and energy source. Genome-wide gene expression was examined using a custom-made microarray. In addition, proportional abundance determination of transposon insertions in RW1 libraries grown on salicylate or DBF by ultra-high throughput sequencing was used to infer genes whose interruption caused a fitness loss for growth on DBF. Expression patterns showed that batch and chemostat growth conditions, and short or long exposure of cells to DBF produced very different responses. Numerous other uncharacterized catabolic gene clusters putatively involved in aromatic compound metabolism increased expression in response to DBF. In addition, only very few transposon insertions completely abolished growth on DBF. Some of those (e.g., in dxnA1) were expected, whereas others (in a gene cluster for phenylacetate degradation) were not. Both transcriptomic data and transposon screening suggest operation of multiple redundant and parallel aromatic pathways, depending on DBF exposure. In addition, increased expression of other non-catabolic genes suggests that during initial exposure, S. wittichii RW1 perceives DBF as a stressor, whereas after longer exposure, the compound is recognized as a carbon source and metabolized using several pathways in parallel. PMID:22936930

  1. "On-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing salicylic acid applied to maize seeds for chilling tolerance.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yajing; Li, Zhan; He, Fei; Huang, Yutao; Song, Wenjian; Hu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of "on-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate) (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA)) hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA) hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and butylmethacrylate (BMA). Salicylic acid (SA) was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA) was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive), to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w). The temperature of 12°C was considered the "on-off" temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C), higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA), a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds. PMID:25807522

  2. Salicylic acid modulates ozone-induced hypersensitive cell death in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Della Torre, Guido; Ferranti, Francesco; Ederli, Luisa; Piccioni, Claudia; Reale, Lara; Antonielli, Marisa

    2002-06-01

    Ozone-tolerant Bel B and ozone-sensitive Bel W3 tobacco cultivars were subjected to acute ozone fumigation (200 p.p.b. for 3 h) and the subcellular localization of H2O2 was then studied. H2O2 accumulated on the cell walls and plasma membrane of both cultivars but the accumulation pattern differed greatly. H2O2 production was high in both cultivars immediately after fumigation, but, in the tolerant Bel B cultivar, after 7 h was only detected in some spongy cells adjacent to epidermal cells. Instead, in the sensitive Bel W3 cultivar, accumulation was still abundant in the cell walls of palisade, spongy and epidermal cells at this time. Significant changes in apoplastic ascorbate pool were noted in both cultivars in the first hours after fumigation. As the reduced ascorbate content remained unchanged, the marked increase in total ascorbate must have originated from the striking increase in dehydroascorbate, particularly in the ozone-sensitive Bel W3. Exposure of plants to ozone resulted in a marked transient increase in both free and conjugated salicylic acid (SA) as well as an increase in the activity of benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase which catalyses SA biosynthesis. SA induction differed greatly in the two cultivars, in that: (1) SA accumulation was far greater in the ozone-sensitive Bel W3 cv. and (2) the maximum SA peak was delayed in Bel W3 and observed only 7 h after fumigation ended. These results suggest that a high SA content, as documented in the ozone-sensitive Bel W3 cultivar, could trigger the production of ROS with subsequent SA-mediated cell-death. PMID:12060237

  3. Identification of multiple salicylic acid-binding proteins using two high throughput screens.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Murli; Tian, Miaoying; Moreau, Magali; Park, Sang-Wook; Choi, Hyong Woo; Fei, Zhangjun; Friso, Giulia; Asif, Muhammed; Manosalva, Patricia; von Dahl, Caroline C; Shi, Kai; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P; O'Doherty, Inish; Schroeder, Frank C; van Wijk, Klass J; Klessig, Daniel F

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important hormone involved in many diverse plant processes, including floral induction, stomatal closure, seed germination, adventitious root initiation, and thermogenesis. It also plays critical functions during responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. The role(s) of SA in signaling disease resistance is by far the best studied process, although it is still only partially understood. To obtain insights into how SA carries out its varied functions, particularly in activating disease resistance, two new high throughput screens were developed to identify novel SA-binding proteins (SABPs). The first utilized crosslinking of the photo-reactive SA analog 4-AzidoSA (4AzSA) to proteins in an Arabidopsis leaf extract, followed by immuno-selection with anti-SA antibodies and then mass spectroscopy-based identification. The second utilized photo-affinity crosslinking of 4AzSA to proteins on a protein microarray (PMA) followed by detection with anti-SA antibodies. To determine whether the candidate SABPs (cSABPs) obtained from these screens were true SABPs, recombinantly-produced proteins were generated and tested for SA-inhibitable crosslinking to 4AzSA, which was monitored by immuno-blot analysis, SA-inhibitable binding of the SA derivative 3-aminoethylSA (3AESA), which was detected by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay, or SA-inhibitable binding of [(3)H]SA, which was detected by size exclusion chromatography. Based on our criteria that true SABPs must exhibit SA-binding activity in at least two of these assays, nine new SABPs are identified here; nine others were previously reported. Approximately 80 cSABPs await further assessment. In addition, the conflicting reports on whether NPR1 is an SABP were addressed by showing that it bound SA in all three of the above assays. PMID:25628632

  4. Ion-exchange membrane assisted transdermal iontophoretic delivery of salicylate and acyclovir

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingfang; Ibrahim, Sarah A.; Higuchi, William I.; Li, S. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The presence of endogenous competing counterions is a main reason for the generally low efficiency of transdermal iontophoretic drug delivery. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the incorporation of an ion-exchange membrane (Ionac) in an iontophoresis system to hinder transdermal transport of these counterions can enhance iontophoretic delivery. The properties of Ionac were characterized in passive and iontophoretic transport experiments. Iontophoretic transport across human epidermal membrane (HEM) and across HEM in series with Ionac was then studied. To assess the effect of HEM electrical resistance upon Ionac-assisted iontophoresis, HEM resistance was reduced in the iontophoresis experiments with alternating current (AC). Salicylate (SA) was the negatively charged permeant first tested in this study. Mannitol was the model permeant to examine the effects of electroosmosis. At the completion of the SA study, experiments were performed with acyclovir (ACV), an antiviral drug with limited water solubility. When Ionac was used to enhance SA transdermal fluxes, higher SA .uxes were observed with HEM of lower resistances in Ionac-assisted iontophoresis. Up to a four-fold flux enhancement was achieved when the electrical resistance of HEM was reduced using an AC iontophoresis method. For ACV, two-fold flux enhancement was observed in Ionac-assisted iontophoresis compared with the conventional iontophoresis baseline. In all experiments, the contribution of electroosmosis to drug transport was less than 10%. The present study has demonstrated the potential of a new approach using a positively charged ion-exchange membrane to enhance transdermal iontophoretic transport of negatively charged drugs. PMID:19041698

  5. Synthetically modified bioisosteres of salicyl alcohol and their gastroulcerogenic assessment versus aspirin: biochemical and histological correlates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Gowhar; Subhan, Fazal; Islam, Nazar Ul; Ullah, Nasir; Sewell, Robert D E; Shahid, Muhammad; Khan, Ikhtiar

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to synthesize nitrogen containing derivatives of salicyl alcohol and to investigate in vivo their ulcerogenic potential in comparison with aspirin in rats. The compounds [4-(2-hydroxybenzyl) morpholin-4-iumchloride (I)] and [1,4-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl) piperazine-1,4-diium chloride (II)] were synthesized and their chemical structures were characterized using spectral data. In our previous study (Ali et al., Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 7:585-596, 2013), both compounds showed anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic properties in standard animal models and a greater binding affinity for cyclooxygenase-2 versus cyclooxygenase-1 in molecular docking and dynamics analysis. For in vivo studies, animals were randomly divided into four groups. The synthetic compounds (both at 100 or 150 mg/kg), aspirin (150 mg/kg), or saline vehicle was administered orally, once daily for 6 days and then tested for ulcerogenic activity. At the end of the procedure, gastric juice and tissues were collected and subjected to biochemical and histological analyses. The results of the study revealed that in the case of the aspirin-treated group, there was a significant increase in gastric juice volume, free acidity, total acidity, and ulcer score and a decrease in gastric pH. Moreover, histological examination of the gastric mucosa of the aspirin-treated group indicated morphological changes while neither of the synthetic compounds showed any significant ulcerogenic or cytotoxic properties. The results of the present study suggest that both compounds are free from ulcerogenic side effects and may represent a better alternative to aspirin. PMID:24292286

  6. Uptake and metabolic effects of salicylic acid on the pulvinar motor cells of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) uptake by the pulvinar tissues of Mimosa pudica L. pulvini was shown to be strongly pH-dependent, increasing with acidity of the assay medium. This uptake was performed according to a unique affinity system (K(m) = 5.9 mM, V(m) = 526 pmol mgDW(-1)) in the concentration range of 0.1-5 mM. The uptake rate increased with increasing temperature (5-35 °C) and was inhibited following treatment with sodium azide (NaN3) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), suggesting the involvement of an active component. Treatment with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) did not modify the uptake, indicating that external thiol groups were not necessary. KCl, which induced membrane depolarization had no significant effect, and fusicoccin (FC), which hyperpolarized cell membrane, stimulated the uptake, suggesting that the pH component of the proton motive force was likely a driving force. These data suggest that the SA uptake by the pulvinar tissues may be driven by two components: an ion-trap mechanism playing a pivotal role and a putative carrier-mediated mechanism. Unlike other benzoic acid derivatives acting as classical respiration inhibitors (NaN3 and KCN), SA modified the pulvinar cell metabolism by increasing the respiration rate similar to CCCP and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Furthermore, SA inhibited the osmoregulated seismonastic reaction in a pH dependent manner and induced characteristic damage to the ultrastructural features of the pulvinar motor cells, particularly at the mitochondrial level. PMID:24292275

  7. Identification of multiple salicylic acid-binding proteins using two high throughput screens

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Murli; Tian, Miaoying; Moreau, Magali; Park, Sang-Wook; Choi, Hyong Woo; Fei, Zhangjun; Friso, Giulia; Asif, Muhammed; Manosalva, Patricia; von Dahl, Caroline C.; Shi, Kai; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.; O'Doherty, Inish; Schroeder, Frank C.; van Wijk, Klass J.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important hormone involved in many diverse plant processes, including floral induction, stomatal closure, seed germination, adventitious root initiation, and thermogenesis. It also plays critical functions during responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. The role(s) of SA in signaling disease resistance is by far the best studied process, although it is still only partially understood. To obtain insights into how SA carries out its varied functions, particularly in activating disease resistance, two new high throughput screens were developed to identify novel SA-binding proteins (SABPs). The first utilized crosslinking of the photo-reactive SA analog 4-AzidoSA (4AzSA) to proteins in an Arabidopsis leaf extract, followed by immuno-selection with anti-SA antibodies and then mass spectroscopy-based identification. The second utilized photo-affinity crosslinking of 4AzSA to proteins on a protein microarray (PMA) followed by detection with anti-SA antibodies. To determine whether the candidate SABPs (cSABPs) obtained from these screens were true SABPs, recombinantly-produced proteins were generated and tested for SA-inhibitable crosslinking to 4AzSA, which was monitored by immuno-blot analysis, SA-inhibitable binding of the SA derivative 3-aminoethylSA (3AESA), which was detected by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay, or SA-inhibitable binding of [3H]SA, which was detected by size exclusion chromatography. Based on our criteria that true SABPs must exhibit SA-binding activity in at least two of these assays, nine new SABPs are identified here; nine others were previously reported. Approximately 80 cSABPs await further assessment. In addition, the conflicting reports on whether NPR1 is an SABP were addressed by showing that it bound SA in all three of the above assays. PMID:25628632

  8. Protection by aspirin of indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in rats: mediation by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Hase, S; Mizoguchi, H; Komoike, Y; Tanaka, A

    2001-01-01

    Most of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) except aspirin (ASA) produce intestinal damage in rats. In the present study, we re-examined the intestinal toxic effect of ASA in rats, in comparison with various NSAIDs, and investigated why ASA does not cause damage in the small intestine, in relation to its metabolite salicylic acid (SA). Various NSAIDs (indomethacin; 10 mg/kg; flurbiprofen; 20 mg/kg; naproxen; 40 mg/kg; dicrofenac; 40 mg/kg; ASA; 20-200 mg/kg) were administered s.c., and the small intestinal mucosa was examined macroscopically 24 h later. All NSAIDs tested, except ASA, caused hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine, with a decrease of mucosal PGE(2) contents. ASA did not provoke any damage, despite inhibiting (prostaglandin) PG production, and prevented the occurrence of intestinal lesions induced by indomethacin, in a dose-related manner. This protective action of ASA was mimicked by the equimolar doses of SA (17.8-178 mg/kg). Indomethacin caused intestinal hypermotility, in preceding to the occurrence of lesion, and this event was followed by increases of enterobacterial translocation in the mucosa. Both ASA and SA prevented both the intestinal hypermotility and the bacterial translocation seen after indomethacin treatment. In addition, the protective effect of SA was not significantly influenced by either the adenosine deaminase or the adenosine receptor antagonists. Following administration of ASA, the blood SA levels reached a peak within 30 min and remained elevated for more than 7 h. These results suggest that SA has a cytoprotective action against indomethacin-induced small intestinal lesions, and this action may be associated with inhibition of the intestinal hypermotility and the bacterial translocation, but not mediated by endogenous adenosine. Failure of ASA to induce intestinal damage may be explained, at least partly, by a protective action of SA, the metabolite of ASA. PMID:11595418

  9. Pathway of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Healthy and Virus-Inoculated Tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Yalpani, N.; Leon, J.; Lawton, M. A.; Raskin, I.

    1993-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a likely endogenous regulator of localized and systemic disease resistance in plants. During the hypersensitive response of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), SA levels rise dramatically. We studied SA biosynthesis in healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco by monitoring the levels of SA and its likely precursors in extracts of leaves and cell suspensions. In TMV-inoculated leaves, stimulation of SA accumulation is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the levels of benzoic acid. 14C-Tracer studies with cell suspensions and mock-or TMV-inoculated leaves indicate that the label moves from trans-cinnamic acid to SA via benzoic acid. In healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco leaves, benzoic acid induced SA accumulation. o-Coumaric acid, which was previously reported as a possible precursor of SA in other species, did not increase SA levels in tobacco. In healthy tobacco tissue, the specific activity of newly formed SA was equal to that of the supplied [14C]benzoic acid, whereas in TMV-inoculated leaves some isotope dilution was observed, presumably because of the increase in the pool of endogenous benzoic acid. We observed accumulation of pathogen-esis-related-1 proteins and increased resistance to TMV in benzoic acid- but not in o-coumaric acid-treated tobacco leaves. This is consistent with benzoic acid being the immediate precursor of SA. We conclude that in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco, SA is formed from cinnamic acid via benzoic acid. PMID:12231938

  10. In situ detection of salicylic acid binding sites in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Wen; Deng, Da-Yi; Yu, Ying; Liu, Fang-Fei; Lin, Bi-Xia; Cao, Yu-Juan; Hu, Xiao-Gang; Wu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    The determination of hormone-binding sites in plants is essential in understanding the mechanisms behind hormone function. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that regulates responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to label SA-binding sites in plant tissues, a quantum dots (QDs) probe functionalized with a SA moiety was successfully synthesized by coupling CdSe QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (PAS), using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as the coupling agent. The probe was then characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, as well as UV/vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The results confirmed the successful conjugation of PAS to CdSe QDs and revealed that the conjugates maintained the properties of the original QDs, with small core diameters and adequate dispersal in solution. The PAS-CdSe QDs were used to detect SA-binding sites in mung bean and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in vitro and in vivo. The PAS-CdSe QDs were effectively transported into plant tissues and specifically bound to SA receptors in vivo. In addition, the effects of the PAS-CdSe QDs on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in the tips of A. thaliana seedlings were investigated. Both SA and PAS-CdSe QDs had similar effects on the trend in cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentrations, suggesting that the PAS-CdSe QDs maintained the bioactivity of SA. To summarize, PAS-CdSe QDs have high potential as a fluorescent probe for the in vitro/in vivo labeling and imaging of SA receptors in plants. PMID:24833131

  11. “On-Off” Thermoresponsive Coating Agent Containing Salicylic Acid Applied to Maize Seeds for Chilling Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Huang, Yutao; Song, Wenjian; Hu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of “on-off” thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate) (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA)) hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA) hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and butylmethacrylate (BMA). Salicylic acid (SA) was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA) was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive), to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w). The temperature of 12°C was considered the “on-off” temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C), higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA), a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds. PMID:25807522

  12. EDR2 negatively regulates salicylic acid-based defenses and cell death during powdery mildew infections of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Vorwerk, Sonja; Schiff, Celine; Santamaria, Marjorie; Koh, Serry; Nishimura, Marc; Vogel, John; Somerville, Chris; Somerville, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    Background The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively little is known about the plant components that execute the cell death program or about its regulation in response to pathogen attack. Results We isolated the edr2-6 mutant, an allele of the previously described edr2 mutants. We found that edr2-6 exhibited an exaggerated chlorosis and necrosis response to attack by three pathogens, two powdery mildew and one downy mildew species, but not in response to abiotic stresses or attack by the bacterial leaf speck pathogen. The chlorosis and necrosis did not spread beyond inoculated sites suggesting that EDR2 limits the initiation of cell death rather than its spread. The pathogen-induced chlorosis and necrosis of edr2-6 was correlated with a stimulation of the salicylic acid defense pathway and was suppressed in mutants deficient in salicylic acid signaling. EDR2 encodes a novel protein with a pleckstrin homology and a StAR transfer (START) domain as well as a plant-specific domain of unknown function, DUF1336. The pleckstrin homology domain binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in vitro and an EDR2:HA:GFP protein localizes to endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and endosomes. Conclusion EDR2 acts as a negative regulator of cell death, specifically the cell death elicited by pathogen attack and mediated by the salicylic acid defense pathway. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate may have a role in limiting cell death via its effect on EDR2. This role in cell death may be indirect, by helping to target EDR2 to the appropriate membrane, or it may play a more direct role. PMID:17612410

  13. Oestrogenic activity of benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and butylphenylmethylpropional (Lilial) in MCF7 human breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Charles, A K; Darbre, P D

    2009-07-01

    Benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and butylphenylmethylpropional (Lilial) are added to bodycare cosmetics used around the human breast. We report here that all three compounds possess oestrogenic activity in assays using the oestrogen-responsive MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. At 3 000 000-fold molar excess, they were able to partially displace [(3)H]oestradiol from recombinant human oestrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta, and from cytosolic ER of MCF7 cells. At concentrations in the range of 5 x 10(-5) to 5 x 10(-4 )m, they were able to increase the expression of a stably integrated oestrogen-responsive reporter gene (ERE-CAT) and of the endogenous oestrogen-responsive pS2 gene in MCF7 cells, albeit to a lesser extent than with 10(-8 )m 17beta-oestradiol. They increased the proliferation of oestrogen-dependent MCF7 cells over 7 days, which could be inhibited by the antioestrogen fulvestrant, suggesting an ER-mediated mechanism. Although the extent of stimulation of proliferation over 7 days was lower with these compounds than with 10(-8 )m 17beta-oestradiol, given a longer time period of 35 days the extent of proliferation with 10(-4 )m benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate or butylphenylmethylpropional increased to the same magnitude as observed with 10(-8 )m 17beta-oestradiol over 14 days. This demonstrates that benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and butylphenylmethylpropional are further chemical components of cosmetic products which give oestrogenic responses in a human breast cancer cell line in culture. Further research is now needed to investigate whether oestrogenic responses are detectable using in vivo models and the extent to which these compounds might be absorbed through human skin and might enter human breast tissues. PMID:19338011

  14. Altered DNA methylation in PAH deficient phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Steven F; Lyons-Weiler, James; Spridik, Kayla; Biery, Amy; Breck, Jane; Vockley, Jerry; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Sultana, Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    While phenylalanine (PHE) is the toxic insult in phenylketonuria (PKU), mechanisms underlying PHE toxicity remain ill-defined. Altered DNA methylation in response to toxic exposures is well-recognized. DNA methylation patterns were assessed in blood and brain from PKU patients to determine if PHE toxicity impacts methylation. Methylome assessment, utilizing methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and paired-end sequencing, was performed in DNA obtained from brain tissue of classical PKU patients, leukocytes from poorly controlled PKU patients, leukocytes from well controlled PKU patients, and appropriate control tissues. In PKU brain tissue, expression analysis determined the impact of methylation on gene function. Differential methylation was observed in brain tissue of PKU patients and expression studies identified downstream impact on gene expression. Altered patterns of methylation were observed in leukocytes of well controlled and poorly controlled patients with more extensive methylation in patients with high PHE exposure. Differential methylation of noncoding RNA genes was extensive in patients with high PHE exposure but minimal in well controlled patients. Methylome repatterning leading to altered gene expression was present in brain tissue of PKU patients, suggesting a role in neuropathology. Aberrant methylation is observed in leukocytes of PKU patients and is influenced by PHE exposure. DNA methylation may provide a biomarker relating to historic PHE exposure. PMID:25990862

  15. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

    2013-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 ?M), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (?-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (?-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants. PMID:23479061

  16. Computer-guided design, synthesis, and protein kinase C affinity of a new salicylate-based class of bryostatin analogs.

    PubMed

    Wender, Paul A; Nakagawa, Yu; Near, Katherine E; Staveness, Daryl

    2014-10-01

    Bryostatin 1 is in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer and Alzheimer's disease and is a candidate for a first-in-class approach to HIV/AIDS eradication. It is neither readily available nor optimally suited for clinical use. Using a function oriented synthesis strategy, a new class of bryostatin-inspired analogs was designed with a simplified salicylate-derived subunit, enabling step-economical synthesis (23 total steps) of agents exhibiting bryostatin-like affinity to protein kinase C (PKC). PMID:25238583

  17. J. Plant Physiol. 159. 925934 (2002) Urban & Fischer Verlag

    E-print Network

    Pichersky, Eran

    2002-01-01

    , -farnesene, linalool, linalool oxide, methyl benzoate (MBA), methyl salicylate (MSA), -ocimene, phenylethyl (SAMT), which catalyses the synthesis of methyl salicylate from salicylic acid and S oscillations ­ S-adenosyl-L-methio- nine:salicylic acid carboxyl methyl transferase (SAMT) ­ SAMT m

  18. MethylMix: an R package for identifying DNA methylation-driven genes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary: DNA methylation is an important mechanism regulating gene transcription, and its role in carcinogenesis has been extensively studied. Hyper and hypomethylation of genes is an alternative mechanism to deregulate gene expression in a wide range of diseases. At the same time, high-throughput DNA methylation assays have been developed generating vast amounts of genome wide DNA methylation measurements. Yet, few tools exist that can formally identify hypo and hypermethylated genes that are predictive of transcription and thus functionally relevant for a particular disease. To accommodate this lack of tools, we developed MethylMix, an algorithm implemented in R to identify disease specific hyper and hypomethylated genes. MethylMix is based on a beta mixture model to identify methylation states and compares them with the normal DNA methylation state. MethylMix introduces a novel metric, the ‘Differential Methylation value’ or DM-value defined as the difference of a methylation state with the normal methylation state. Finally, matched gene expression data are used to identify, besides differential, transcriptionally predictive methylation states by focusing on methylation changes that effect gene expression. Availability and implementation: MethylMix was implemented as an R package and is available in bioconductor. Contact: olivier.gevaert@stanford.edu PMID:25609794

  19. DNA Methylation in Colorectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy R. Jass; Vicki L. J. Whitehall; Joanne Young; Barbara A. Leggett

    In this chapter, it is pointed out that colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease. The case is made for a ‘serrated pathway’\\u000a of neoplasia that would evolve relatively rapidly through the early acquisition of DNA instability. DNA hypermethylation is\\u000a likely to be of critical importance in driving this pathway. Inhibition of apoptosis is conceived as the first step. Thereafter,\\u000a methylation

  20. Comprehensive and quantitative multilocus methylation analysis reveals the susceptibility of specific imprinted differentially methylated regions to aberrant methylation in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome with epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshiyuki; Higashimoto, Ken; Jozaki, Kosuke; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Makita, Yoshio; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Takada, Fumio; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Migita, Makoto; Kosaki, Rika; Matsubara, Keiko; Ogata, Tsutomu; Matsuo, Muneaki; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Ohtsuka, Yasufumi; Nishioka, Kenichi; Joh, Keiichiro; Mukai, Tsunehiro; Hata, Kenichiro; Soejima, Hidenobu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Expression of imprinted genes is regulated by DNA methylation of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome is an imprinting disorder caused by epimutations of DMRs at 11p15.5. To date, multiple methylation defects have been reported in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome patients with epimutations; however, limited numbers of DMRs have been analyzed. The susceptibility of DMRs to aberrant methylation, alteration of gene expression due to aberrant methylation, and causative factors for multiple methylation defects remain undetermined. Methods: Comprehensive methylation analysis with two quantitative methods, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and bisulfite pyrosequencing, was conducted across 29 DMRs in 54 Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome patients with epimutations. Allelic expressions of three genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed. All DMRs with aberrant methylation were sequenced. Results: Thirty-four percent of KvDMR1–loss of methylation patients and 30% of H19DMR–gain of methylation patients showed multiple methylation defects. Maternally methylated DMRs were susceptible to aberrant hypomethylation in KvDMR1–loss of methylation patients. Biallelic expression of the genes was associated with aberrant methylation. Cis-acting pathological variations were not found in any aberrantly methylated DMR. Conclusion: Maternally methylated DMRs may be vulnerable to DNA demethylation during the preimplantation stage, when hypomethylation of KvDMR1 occurs, and aberrant methylation of DMRs affects imprinted gene expression. Cis-acting variations of the DMRs are not involved in the multiple methylation defects. PMID:24810686

  1. Calorimetric and Light Scattering Investigations of the Transition from Spherical to Wormlike Micelles of C14TAB Triggered by Salicylate.

    PubMed

    Ito, Thiago Heiji; Rodrigues, Roberta Kamei; Loh, Watson; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2015-06-01

    Although wormlike micelles (WLM) were first described more than 30 years ago, many aspects of their formation process are still unclear. Herein, a systematic experimental investigation of the process for wormlike micelle (WLM) formation in mixtures of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C14TAB) and salicylate (2-hydroxybenzoate) was carried out. This system was used as a model to investigate the conditions for the formation of the giant aggregate. For comparison, the other two isomers of salicylate (3- and 4-hydroxybenzoate) were also investigated, once in these cases wormlike micelles are not formed. The studies were based on calorimetric titration, static light scattering, and rheological measurements. Enthalpy changes upon titration of C14TAB into 2-hydroxybenzoate solutions revealed a highly cooperative and exothermic process that was associated with micelle growth. The size of the aggregates, obtained by static light scattering measurements, confirms the shape transition. In addition, the correlation of these two sets of results with measurements of micelle charge surface indicates that this transition occurs around the point of charge neutralization. PMID:25978073

  2. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillen, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sanchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-Gonzalez, Miriam; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  3. Apoplastic peroxidases are required for salicylic acid-mediated defense against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Nicole D; Cheng, Zhenyu; Fu, Zheng Qing; Daudi, Arsalan; Bolwell, G Paul; Dong, Xinnian; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases or apoplastic peroxidases play an important role in the plant defense response. Diminished expression of at least two Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase encoding genes, PRX33 (At3g49110) and PRX34 (At3g49120), as a consequence of anti-sense expression of a heterologous French bean peroxidase gene (asFBP1.1), were previously shown to result in reduced levels of ROS following pathogen attack, enhanced susceptibility to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and reduced levels of callose production and defense-related gene expression in response to the microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules flg22 and elf26. These data demonstrated that the peroxidase-dependent oxidative burst plays an important role in the elicitation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Further work reported in this paper, however, shows that asFBP1.1 antisense plants are not impaired in all PTI-associated responses. For example, some but not all flg22-elicited genes are induced to lower levels by flg22 in asFPB1.1, and callose deposition in asFPB1.1 is similar to wild-type following infiltration with a Pseudomonas syringae hrcC mutant or with non-host P. syringae pathovars. Moreover, asFPB1.1 plants did not exhibit any apparent defect in their ability to mount a hypersensitive response (HR). On the other hand, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR1 was dramatically impaired in asFPB1.1 plants. In addition, P. syringae-elicited expression of many genes known to be SA-dependent was significantly reduced in asFBP1.1 plants. Consistent with this latter result, in asFBP1.1 plants the key regulator of SA-mediated responses, NPR1, showed both dramatically decreased total protein abundance and a failure to monomerize, which is required for its translocation into the nucleus. PMID:25096754

  4. Alleviation of osmotic stress effects by exogenous application of salicylic or abscisic Acid on wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Marci?ska, Izabela; Czyczy?o-Mysza, Ilona; Skrzypek, Edyta; Grzesiak, Maciej T; Janowiak, Franciszek; Filek, Maria; Dziurka, Micha?; Dziurka, Kinga; Waligórski, Piotr; Juzo?, Katarzyna; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Stanis?aw

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. The investigation was unique in its comprehensiveness, examining changes under osmotic stress and other conditions, and testing a number of parameters simultaneously. In both drought susceptible (SQ1) and drought resistant (CS) wheat cultivars, significant physiological and biochemical changes were observed upon the addition of SA (0.05 mM) or ABA (0.1 ?M) to solutions containing half-strength Hoagland medium and PEG 6000 (-0.75 MPa). The most noticeable result of supplementing SA or ABA to the medium (PEG + SA and PEG + ABA) was a decrease in the length of leaves and roots in both cultivars. While PEG treatment reduced gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content in CS, and osmotic potential, and conversely, increased lipid peroxidation, soluble carbohydrates in SQ1, proline content in both cultivars and total antioxidants activity in SQ1, PEG + SA or PEG + ABA did not change the values of these parameters. Furthermore, PEG caused a two-fold increase of endogenous ABA content in SQ1 and a four-fold increase in CS. PEG + ABA increased endogenous ABA only in SQ1, whereas PEG + SA caused a greater increase of ABA content in both cultivars compared to PEG. In PEG-treated plants growing until the harvest, a greater decrease of yield components was observed in SQ1 than in CS. PEG + SA, and particularly PEG + ABA, caused a greater increase of these yield parameters in CS compared to SQ1. In conclusion, SA and ABA ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant wheat cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by PEG in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment achieved by an increase in proline and carbohydrate content as well as by an increase in antioxidant activity. PMID:23803653

  5. The physiological and biochemical effects of salicylic acid on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) exposed to flurochloridone.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Armagan; Yigit, Emel

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of the flurochloridone as well as flurochloridone and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on Helianthus annuus L. to find out herbicide-induced toxicity reducing influence of SA. We examined and compared the physiological and biochemical effects of different concentrations of flurochloridone (11, 32 and 72 mM) in both the SA pre-treated and non-treated plants. The plants treated with flurochloridone exhibited reduced total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and relative water content compared to the control group, whereas the plants that were pre-treated with SA exhibited relatively higher values for the same physiological parameters. In the SA non-treated plants, the superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were increased in the treatment groups compared to the control group. In the treatment groups, these enzyme activities were decreased in the SA-pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in the flurochloridone-treated plants compared to the control plants. The ascorbate peroxidase activity increased in the control groups but decreased in the treatment groups in the SA pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. However, SA treatment decreased the activity of catalase in the control and treatment groups compared to the plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased the malondialdehyde content in the treated groups compared to the control groups, whereas SA-pretreatment decreased malondialdehyde content compared to plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased endogenous SA content compared to the control. Although the residual levels of herbicide in the plants increased proportionately with increasing herbicide concentrations, the SA-pre-treated plants exhibited reduced residual herbicide levels compared to the plants that were not treated with SA. These results indicate that the flurochloridone induces various physiological and biochemical responses in non-target plants and that treatment with exogenous SA can increase stress resistance by altering these responses. PMID:24859709

  6. A large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered salicylic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yezhang; Shaholli, Danjela; Mou, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens in plants, but how SA is synthesized in plant cells still remains elusive. Identification of new components involved in pathogen-induced SA accumulation would help address this question. To this end, we performed a large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered SA accumulation during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis using a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification method. A total of 35,000 M2 plants in the npr1-3 mutant background have been individually analyzed for the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) ES4326-induced SA accumulation. Among the mutants isolated, 19 had SA levels lower than npr1 (sln) and two exhibited increased SA accumulation in npr1 (isn). Complementation tests revealed that seven of the sln mutants are new alleles of eds5/sid1, two are sid2/eds16 alleles, one is allelic to pad4, and the remaining seven sln and two isn mutants are new non-allelic SA accumulation mutants. Interestingly, a large group of mutants (in the npr1-3 background), in which Psm ES4326-induced SA levels were similar to those in the wild-type Columbia plants, were identified, suggesting that the signaling network fine-tuning pathogen-induced SA accumulation is complex. We further characterized the sln1 single mutant and found that Psm ES4326-induced defense responses were compromised in this mutant. These defense response defects could be rescued by exogenous SA, suggesting that SLN1 functions upstream of SA. The sln1 mutation was mapped to a region on the north arm of chromosome I, which contains no known genes regulating pathogen-induced SA accumulation, indicating that SLN1 likely encodes a new regulator of SA biosynthesis. Thus, the new sln and isn mutants identified in this genetic screen are valuable for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced SA accumulation in plants. PMID:25610446

  7. An integrated workflow for DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingchuan; Demirci, Feray; Mahalingam, Gayathri; Demirci, Caghan; Nakano, Mayumi; Meyers, Blake C

    2013-05-20

    The analysis of cytosine methylation provides a new way to assess and describe epigenetic regulation at a whole-genome level in many eukaryotes. DNA methylation has a demonstrated role in the genome stability and protection, regulation of gene expression and many other aspects of genome function and maintenance. BS-seq is a relatively unbiased method for profiling the DNA methylation, with a resolution capable of measuring methylation at individual cytosines. Here we describe, as an example, a workflow to handle DNA methylation analysis, from BS-seq library preparation to the data visualization. We describe some applications for the analysis and interpretation of these data. Our laboratory provides public access to plant DNA methylation data via visualization tools available at our "Next-Gen Sequence" websites (http://mpss.udel.edu), along with small RNA, RNA-seq and other data types. PMID:23706300

  8. Methyl parathion: a review of health effects.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Stephanie J; Abu-Qare, Aqel W; Meeker-O'Connell, Winifred A; Borton, Anita J; Abou-Donia, Mohamed B

    2003-01-01

    Methyl parathion is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide with insecticidal properties derived from acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition; this same property is also the root of its toxicity in humans. Poisoning with methyl parathion leads to cholinergic overstimulation with signs of toxicity including sweating, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and, in extreme cases, death. Reports of methyl parathion intoxication, usually seen only in field pesticide applicators, have increased throughout the United States as a result of unauthorized application of methyl parathion inside homes. The health concerns of the use of methyl parathion have resulted in cancellation of its use in most food crops in the United States. This review examines the well-documented neurotoxicity of methyl parathion as well as effects on other organ systems. PMID:12554434

  9. Methyl esters in the fatty acid industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Farris

    1979-01-01

    Methyl esters, derived from natural fats or oils, can be used as alternatives to fatty acids in the production of a number\\u000a of derivatives. The derivatives that can be made from methyl esters include fatty alkanolamides, fatty alcohols, isopropyl\\u000a esters, and sucrose polyesters. By using methyl esters as the raw materials, several benefits may be realized, such as, the\\u000a ability

  10. Enzymatic methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Ramamurthi; Prakash R. Bhirud; Alan R. McCurdy

    1991-01-01

    Methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate catalyzed by a nonspecific lipase was investigated. The conversion of fatty\\u000a acids to methyl esters has been optimized by using a statistical design. Up to 96.5% conversion of fatty acids to their methyl\\u000a esters has been achieved without the aid of vacuum or any water-removing agent. The effects of temperature, ratio of the reactants

  11. Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Dodge; D. Naegeli

    1994-01-01

    Methylal, CHâOCHâOCHâ, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane

  12. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2010-01-22

    New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

  13. Adaptive mechanism of Echinochloa crus-galli Beauv. var. formosensis Ohwi under salt stress: Effect of salicylic acid on salt sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Sawada; Ie-Sung Shim; Kenji Usui; Katsuichiro Kobayashi; Shinsuke Fujihara

    2008-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that salicylic acid (SA) accumulates in salt-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) seedlings, and we hypothesized that the accumulation of SA might potentiate oxidative injury in rice seedlings since the inhibition of SA synthesis alleviated the growth inhibition under high salinity. To further clarify the action of SA under salt stress, we investigated the changes

  14. Whey Protein/Polysaccharide-Stabilized Oil Powders for Topical Application-Release and Transdermal Delivery of Salicylic Acid from Oil Powders Compared to Redispersed Powders.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-08-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared to those of the respective template emulsions and redispersed oil powders. Physical characterization of the various formulations was performed, such as droplet size analysis and oil leakage, and relationships drawn with regards to release and trans(dermal) delivery. The experimental outcomes revealed that the oil powders could be redispersed in water without changing the release characteristics of salicylic acid. pH and polymer type affected the release of salicylic acid from the oil powders, template emulsions, and redispersed powders similarly. Contrary, the transdermal delivery from the oil powders and from their respective redispersed oil powders was differently affected by pH and polymer type. It was hypothesized that the release had been influenced by the electrostatic interactions between salicylic acid and emulsifiers, whereas the transdermal performance could have been determined by the particle or aggregate sizes of the formulations. PMID:25573437

  15. Dietary advice combined with a salicylate, mineral and vitamin supplement (CV247) has some tumour static properties: a phase II study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Thomas; Mabel Blades; Madeleine Williams; Sara Godward

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This pilot study seeks to evaluate whether dietary intervention combined with an oral formulation of sodium salicylate, mineral and vitamin supplements (CV247) altered the rate of progression in patients with malignant disease. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 37 patients were recruited from March 2001 to November 2001 and ran to September 2004. All patients had progressive malignancy at

  16. Structure and thermal properties of salicylate-based-protic ionic liquids as new heat storage media. COSMO-RS structure characterization and modeling of heat capacities.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Johan; Feder-Kubis, Joanna; Zor?bski, Micha?; Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Chor??ewski, Miros?aw; Hensel-Bielówka, Stella; Zor?bski, Edward; Paluch, Marian; Dzida, Marzena

    2014-02-28

    During this research, we present a study on the thermal properties, such as the melting, cold crystallization, and glass transition temperatures as well as heat capacities from 293.15 K to 323.15 K of nine in-house synthesized protic ionic liquids based on the 3-(alkoxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium salicylate ([H-Im-C1OC(n)][Sal]) with n = 3-11. The 3D structures, surface charge distributions and COSMO volumes of all investigated ions are obtained by combining DFT calculations and the COSMO-RS methodology. The heat capacity data sets as a function of temperature of the 3-(alkoxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium salicylate are then predicted using the methodology originally proposed in the case of ionic liquids by Ge et al. 3-(Alkoxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium salicylate based ionic liquids present specific heat capacities higher in many cases than other ionic liquids that make them suitable as heat storage media and in heat transfer processes. It was found experimentally that the heat capacity increases linearly with increasing alkyl chain length of the alkoxymethyl group of 3-(alkoxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium salicylate as was expected and predicted using the Ge et al. method with an overall relative absolute deviation close to 3.2% for temperatures up to 323.15 K. PMID:24413748

  17. Influence of Salicylic Acid on In Vitro Micropropagation and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species, H. acetosella and H. moscheutos (cv ‘Luna Red’)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. It has been reported to improve in vitro regeneration as well as induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effects of varying SA concentrations (0, 0.5, and 1 mM) on i...

  18. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  19. SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF JASMONIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID IN PLANTS BY VAPOR PHASE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-CHEMICAL IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid represent important signaling compounds in plant defensive responses against other organisms. Here, we present a new method for the easy, sensitive and reproducible quantification of both compounds by vapor phase extraction and gas chromatography-positive ion chemic...

  20. Effect of Emulsifiers and Their Liquid Crystalline Structures in Emulsions on Dermal and Transdermal Delivery of Hydroquinone, Salicylic Acid and Octadecenedioic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Otto; J. W. Wiechers; C. L. Kelly; J. C. Dederen; J. Hadgraft; J. du Plessis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of emulsifiers and their liquid crystalline structures on the dermal and transdermal delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC). Emulsions containing liquid crystalline phases were compared with an emulsion without liquid crystals. Skin permeation experiments were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells and human abdominal skin dermatomed to a thickness of 400