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1

Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ({approx}2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2}), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study.

BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, GARY L.

2001-12-01

2

Methyl salicylate overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Methyl salicylate is a wintergreen-scented chemical found in many over-the-counter products, including muscle ache creams. Methyl salicylate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

3

Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.  

PubMed

As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery. PMID:24329991

Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

2014-01-01

4

Airborne signalling by methyl salicylate in plant pathogen resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl salicylate, a volatile liquid, also known as oil of winter-green, is made by a number of plants1-9. Here we show that methyl salicylate is a major volatile compound produced by tobacco plants inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus. Methyl salicylate is synthesized from salicylic acid, a non-volatile chemical signal required for the establishment of acquired resistance10 and local and systemic

Vladimir Shulaev; Paul Silverman; Ilya Raskin

1997-01-01

5

Rice Allelopathy Induced by Methyl Jasmonate and Methyl Salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) are important signaling molecules that induce plant defense against insect\\u000a herbivores and microbial pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that allelopathy is an inducible defense mechanism, and that\\u000a the JA and SA signaling pathways may activate allelochemicals release. Exogenous application of MeJA and MeSA to rice (Oryza sativa L.) enhanced rice allelopathic potential and

Hai Hong Bi; Ren Sen Zeng; Li Ming Su; Min An; Shi Ming Luo

2007-01-01

6

40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the...

2012-07-01

7

40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the...

2010-07-01

8

40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the...

2011-07-01

9

Review : Potential dangers from topical preparations containing methyl salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) is widely available in many over-the-counter liniments, ointments, lotions or medicated oils for the relief of musculoskeletal aches and pains. Ingestion of methyl salicylate poses the threat of severe, rapid-onset salicylate poisoning because of its liquid, concentrated form and lipid solubility. Excessive usage of these preparations in patients receiving warfarin may result in adverse interactions

Thomas YK Chan

1996-01-01

10

The fluorescence behaviour of methyl and phenyl salicylate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorcsccnce lifetimes tor the 450 nm emission of methyl and phenyl salicylate in various solvents have been measured. Qucnching studics on the 340 nm fluorescence of these molecules point to the existence of three distinct ground state conformers.

Ford, D.; Thistlethwaite, P. J.; Woolfe, G. J.

1980-01-01

11

Endogenous Methyl Salicylate in Pathogen-Inoculated Tobacco Plants1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivar Xanthi-nc (genotype NN) produces high levels of salicylic acid (SA) after inoculation with the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous methyl salicylate (MeSA), a major volatile produced in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants, was recently shown to be an airborne defense signal. Using an assay developed to measure the MeSA present in tissue, we have shown that in

Mirjana Seskar; Vladimir Shulaev; Ilya Raskin

1998-01-01

12

IR, Raman and SERS studies of methyl salicylate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IR and Raman spectra of methyl salicylate (MS) were recorded and analysed. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum was recorded in silver colloid. The vibrational wave numbers of the compound have been computed using the Hartree-Fock/6-31G * basis and compared with the experimental values. SERS studies suggest a flat orientation of the molecule at the metal surface.

Varghese, Hema Tresa; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Philip, Daizy; Mannekutla, James R.; Inamdar, S. R.

2007-04-01

13

Mobility and molecular ions of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, methyl salicylate and acetone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobilities of positive and negative reactant ions are reported for (H2O)nH(+); (H2O)2O2 and (H2O)2CO3(-) ion clusters. The formation of positive DMMP monomer and dimer is reported, and equilbria molecular reactions are reported. Acetone is reported as forming a dimer at 81 ppb with a reduced mobility (K sub o) of 1.82, Methyl salicylate is shown to form a protonated and hydrated positive monomer. Mixtures of DMMP and methyl salicylate with acetone showed a substantial change in DMMP ion clustering and little or no change in the methyl salicylate mobility spectra. Negative ions were not observed for DMMP, methyl salicylate, acetone and the mixtures under the conditions reported.

Nowak, D. M.

1983-06-01

14

Structural and biochemical studies identify tobacco SABP2 as a methyl salicylate esterase and implicate  

E-print Network

Structural and biochemical studies identify tobacco SABP2 as a methyl salicylate esterase�20) to form methyl salicylate (MeSA) and SA -glucoside, respectively. These SA derivatives appear) Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical signal for the activation of plant defense responses against pathogen

Pichersky, Eran

15

Energetics and Vibrational Analysis of Methyl Salicylate Isomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energetics and vibrational analysis study of six isomers of methyl salicylate in their singlet ground state and first excited triple state is put forward in this work at the density functional theory level and large basis sets. The ketoB isomer is the lowest energy isomer, followed by its rotamer ketoA. For both ketoB and ketoA their enolized tautomers are found to be stable as well as their open forms that lack the internal hydrogen bond. The calculated vibrational spectra are in excellent agreement with IR experiments of methyl salicylate in the vapor phase. It is demonstrated that solvent effects have a weak influence on the stability of these isomers. The ionization reaction from ketoB to ketoA shows a high barrier of 0.67 eV ensuring that thermal and chemical equilibria yield systems containing mostly the ketoB isomer at normal conditions.

Massaro, Richard D.; Dai, Yafei; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

2009-08-01

16

Theoretical investigation of the photophysics of methyl salicylate isomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photophysics of methyl salicylate (MS) isomers has been studied using time-dependent density functional theory and large basis sets. First electronic singlet and triplet excited states energies, structure, and vibrational analysis were calculated for the ketoB, enol, and ketoA isomers. It is demonstrated that the photochemical pathway involving excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the ketoB to the enol tautomer agrees well with the dual fluorescence in near-UV (from ketoB) and blue (from enol) wavelengths obtained from experiments. Our calculation confirms the existence of a double minimum in the excited state pathway along the O-H-O coordinate corresponding to two preferred energy regions: (1) the hydrogen belongs to the OH moiety and the structure of methyl salicylate is ketoB; (2) the hydrogen flips to the closest carboxyl entailing electronic rearrangement and tautomerization to the enol structure. This double well in the excited state is highly asymmetric. The Franck-Condon vibrational overlap is calculated and accounts for the broadening of the two bands. It is suggested that forward and backward ESIPT through the barrier separating the two minima is temperature-dependent and affects the intensity of the fluorescence as seen in experiments. When the enol fluoresces and returns to its ground state, a barrier-less back proton transfer repopulates the ground state of methyl salicylate ketoB. It is also demonstrated that the rotamer ketoA is not stable in an excited state close to the desired emission wavelength. This observation eliminates the conjecture that the near-UV emission of the dual fluorescence originates from the ketoA rotamer. New experimental results for pure MS in the liquid state are reported and theoretical results compared to them.

Massaro, Richard D.; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

2011-10-01

17

Photodegradation of methyl salicylate in poly(methylmethacrylate)  

SciTech Connect

Methyl salicylate (MS) has been found to undergo photo-induced decarboxylation to form phenol. The process is first order and has a reaction quantum yield of ca. 8 x 10/sup -5/ and an activation energy of 1.2 kcal./mol (5.0 kJ/mol). Kinetic data were used in computer simulations of photodegradation of MS in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) solar lenses. It was predicted that typical MS concentrations would provide effective uv screening protection for less than 2 years.

Renschler, C.L.

1984-01-01

18

The atmospheric chemistry of methyl salicylate—reactions with atomic chlorine and with ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methyl salicylate is one of a number of semiochemicals, signal molecules, emitted by herbivore-infested plants. These signal molecules attract predators of the herbivore, and the chemicals thus act indirectly as part of the defence mechanism of the plant. Previous studies have shown that ozone damage to plants can also elicit the emission of signal molecules. The fate of these signal molecules in the atmosphere is not known. Preliminary studies have been undertaken to examine the atmospheric chemistry of methyl salicylate for the first time. Rate coefficients for the reaction of methyl salicylate with atomic chlorine and with ozone have been determined; the values are (2.8±0.3)×10 -12 and ˜4×10 -21 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. These results suggest that neither reaction with atomic chlorine nor reaction with ozone will provide important loss routes for methyl salicylate in the atmosphere. The possible importance of photolysis of methyl salicylate in the atmosphere is considered.

Canosa-Mas, Carlos E.; Duffy, Justin M.; King, Martin D.; Thompson, Katherine C.; Wayne, Richard P.

19

Endogenous Methyl Salicylate in Pathogen-Inoculated Tobacco Plants1  

PubMed Central

The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivar Xanthi-nc (genotype NN) produces high levels of salicylic acid (SA) after inoculation with the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous methyl salicylate (MeSA), a major volatile produced in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants, was recently shown to be an airborne defense signal. Using an assay developed to measure the MeSA present in tissue, we have shown that in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants the level of MeSA increases dramatically, paralleling increases in SA. MeSA accumulation was also observed in upper, noninoculated leaves. In TMV-inoculated tobacco shifted from 32 to 24°C, the MeSA concentration increased from nondetectable levels to 2318 ng/g fresh weight 12 h after the temperature shift, but subsequently decreased with the onset of the hypersensitive response. Similar results were observed in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola, in which MeSA levels were highest just before the hypersensitive response-induced tissue desiccation. Transgenic NahG plants unable to accumulate SA also did not accumulate MeSA after TMV inoculation, and did not show increased resistance to TMV following MeSA treatment. Based on the spatial and temporal kinetics of its accumulation, we conclude that tissue MeSA may play a role similar to that of volatile MeSA in the pathogen-induced defense response.

Seskar, Mirjana; Shulaev, Vladimir; Raskin, Ilya

1998-01-01

20

Photorotamerization of methyl salicylate and related compounds in cryogenic matrices  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopic studies of methyl salicylate (MS), salicylamide (SAM), and o-hydroxyacetophenone (OHAP) isolated in 12 K matrices of, variously, SF{sub 6}, Ar, Kr, or Xe are presented. Irradiation in the S{sub 1} electronic absorption bands of the normal intramolecularly hydrogen bonded conformers generates matrix-stabilized rotamers. Ground-state photorotamer conformations deduced from infrared spectra are correlated with steady-state electronic absorption, excitation, and emission spectra, as well as with emission lifetime data. Matrix-isolated SAM and OHAP photolyze to yield phosphorescent, nonintramolecularly hydrogen bonded rotamers via photochemically reversible pathways. In contrast, irradiation of MS in SF{sub 6} proceeds via a photochemically irreversible pathway to generate a rotamer with a weak intramolecular hydrogen bond between the phenol hydrogen and the methoxy oxygen of the ester moiety. The MS photorotamer exhibits both UV fluorescence and visible phosphorescence.

Orton, E.; Morgan, M.A.; Pimentel, G.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1990-10-04

21

Methyl Salicylate Is a Critical Mobile Signal for Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), an organism-wide state of enhanced defense to subsequent infections, has been elusive. By stimulating immune responses in mosaic tobacco plants created by grafting different genetic backgrounds, we showed that the methyl salicylate (MeSA) esterase activity of salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2), which converts MeSA into salicylic acid (SA), is required

Sang-Wook Park; Evans Kaimoyo; Dhirendra Kumar; Stephen Mosher; Daniel F. Klessig

2007-01-01

22

Effect of salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate on antioxidant systems of Haematococcus pluvialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) on the antioxidant systems in Haematococcus\\u000a pluvialis was investigated. Both SA and MJ at 500 ?M concentration reduced the growth of alga with salicylic acid, having more pronounced\\u000a effect. Carotenoid and chlorophyll contents were decreased by SA and increased by MJ. Salicylic acid (100 ?M) increased astaxanthin\\u000a content to 6.8-fold under

Vidhyavathi Raman; Sarada Ravi

2011-01-01

23

Methyl Salicylate Production and Jasmonate Signaling Are Not Essential for Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) develops in response to local microbial leaf inoculation and renders the whole plant more resistant to subsequent pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) in noninfected plant parts is required for SAR, and methyl salicylate (MeSA) and jasmonate (JA) are proposed to have critical roles during SAR long-distance signaling from inoculated to distant leaves. Here, we

Elham Attaran; Tatiana E. Zeier; T. Griebel; J. Zeier

2009-01-01

24

Phenolic-type stabilizers as generators and quenchers of singlet molecular oxygen (O 2( 1? g)) . Part I: methyl salicylate, salicylic acid and some related compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation and quenching of singlet molecular oxygen by the widely employed photostabilizer methyl salicylate have been studied in several fluid solvents at room temperature. For comparative purposes, the following related compounds were also studied: methyl 2-methoxybenzoate, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methyl 3-hydroxybenzoate, salicylic acid, 5-methylsalicylic acid and 5-nitrosalicylic acid. The results indicate that the compounds with a phenol group are inefficient

Arnaldo T. Soltermann; Daniel de la Peña; Santiago Nonell; Francisco Amat-Guerri; Norman A. García

1995-01-01

25

Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

1980-01-01

26

Role of methyl salicylate on oviposition deterrence in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Plants attacked by herbivores have evolved different strategies that fend off their enemies. Insect eggs deposited on leaves have been shown to inhibit further oviposition through visual or chemical cues. In some plant species, the volatile methyl salicylate (MeSA) repels gravid insects but whether it plays the same role in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana is currently unknown. Here we showed that Pieris brassicae butterflies laid fewer eggs on Arabidopsis plants that were next to a MeSA dispenser or on plants with constitutively high MeSA emission than on control plants. Surprisingly, the MeSA biosynthesis mutant bsmt1-1 treated with egg extract was still repellent to butterflies when compared to untreated bsmt1-1. Moreover, the expression of BSMT1 was not enhanced by egg extract treatment but was induced by herbivory. Altogether, these results provide evidence that the deterring activity of eggs on gravid butterflies is independent of MeSA emission in Arabidopsis, and that MeSA might rather serve as a deterrent in plants challenged by feeding larvae. PMID:24973956

Groux, Raphaël; Hilfiker, Olivier; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Erb, Matthias; Reymond, Philippe

2014-07-01

27

Environmental persistence and toxicity of dimethyl malonate and methyl salicylate  

SciTech Connect

To determine the potential environmental persistence and toxic effects of agent simulants Diethyl Malonate (DEM) and Methyl Salicylate (MS), plants, soils, earthworms, and oil microbial populations were exposed to projected aerosolized simulant concentrations of {approximately}100 (low) and {approximately}1000 (high) mg/m{sup 3}. Both simulants exhibited biphasic residence times on foliar and soil surfaces following aerosol exposure. Half-times of DEM on soil and foliar surfaces were 1 to 3 h and 5 to 22 H, respectively, and 2 to 2 h and 5 to 31 h for the MS, respectively. Persistence was longer on the foliar surfaces than that of the soils. Both simulants proved phytotoxic to vegetation with a lower threshold of 1 to 2 {mu}m/cm{sup 2} for the MS versus that of 10 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} for the DEM. However, neither significantly affected chloroplast electron transport in vitro at concentrations of up to 100 {mu}g/mL. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not adversely impact soil microbial activity, while the theshold was 100 {mu}g/g dry soil for MS. Earthworm bioassays indicated survival rates of 66% at soil doses of 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2} soil and 86% at soil doses of 331 {mu}g MS/cm{sup 2}. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Ligotke, M.W.; Cataldo, D.A.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wentsel, R.S. (Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (USA))

1991-03-01

28

TDDFT study on intramolecular hydrogen bond of photoexcited methyl salicylate.  

PubMed

The equilibrium geometries, IR-spectra and transition mechanism of intramolecular hydrogen-bonded methyl salicylate in excited state were studied using DFT and TDDFT with 6-31++G (d, p) basis set. The length of hydrogen bond OH?OC is decreased from 1.73 Å in the ground state to 1.41 and 1.69 Å in the excited S1 and S3 states. The increase of bond length for HO and CO group also indicates that in excited state the hydrogen bond OH?OC is strengthened. IR spectra show HO and CO stretching bands are strongly redshifted by 1387 and 67 cm(-1) in the excited S1 and S3 states comparing to the ground state. The excitation energy and the absorption spectrum show the S3 state is the main excited state of the low-lying excited states. By analyzing the frontier molecular orbitals, the transition from the ground state to the excited S1 and S3 states was predicted to be the ???? mode. PMID:24374479

Qu, Peng; Tian, Dongxu

2014-01-01

29

Effect of exercise and heat exposure on percutaneous absorption of methyl salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of exercise, heat exposure or both on the percutaneous absorption of methyl salicylate were studied in 6 healthy volunteers. Exercise was performed to 30% ofVO2max, 45 min each hour for 6 h, at ambient temperatures of 22°C or 40°C. Systemic availability was assessed by measurement of plasma salicylate concentrations and cumulative urinary salicyluric acid excretion over an 8-h

A. Danon; S. Ben-Shimon; Z. Ben-Zvi

1986-01-01

30

Sensitive and selective gas chromatographic methods for the quantitation of camphor, menthol and methyl salicylate from human plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID) for the quantitation of camphor and menthol and GC–MS for the quantitation of methyl salicylate have been developed for measurement of low concentrations from human plasma. Anethole serves as the internal standard for camphor and menthol and ethyl salicylate serves as the internal standard for methyl salicylate. Plasma samples undergo multiple, sequential

Jennifer S Valdez; Debra K Martin; Michael Mayersohn

1999-01-01

31

Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

1994-06-01

32

Dermal Absorption of Camphor, Menthol, and Methyl Salicylate in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camphor, menthol, andmethyl salicylate occur in numerous over-the-counter products. Although extensively used, there have been no estimates of human exposure following administration via dermal application. Furthermore, there is little information about the pharmacokinetics of those compounds. The authors report the plasma concentrations of the intact compounds as a function of dose following dermal patch application. Three groups of 8 subjects

Debra Martin; Jennifer Valdez; James Boren; Michael Mayersohn

2004-01-01

33

Pharmacokinetics of methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-lactoside, a novel salicylic acid analog isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis, in dogs.  

PubMed

Methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-lactoside (MSL), a natural salicylate derivative of Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder (G. yunnanensis), has been shown to provide a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect in animal models. Studies on the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of MSL can provide both a substantial foundation for understanding its mechanism and empirical evidence to support its use in clinical practice. A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, coupled with ultraviolet analyte detection, was developed for determining the concentration of MSL and its metabolite in beagle plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (5 ?M,4.6 × 250 mm). The mobile phase consisted of aqueous solution containing 0.1% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (82:90, v/v), at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Validation of the assay demonstrated that the developed HPLC method was sensitive, accurate and selective for the determination of MSL and its metabolite in dog plasma. After orally administering three doses of MSL, it could no longer be detected in dog plasma and its metabolite, salicylic acid, was detected. Salicylic acid showed a single peak in the plasma concentration-time curves and linear pharmacokinetics following the three oral doses (r(2) > 0.99). In contrast, only MSL was detected in plasma following intravenous administration. These results will aid in understanding the pharmacological significance of MSL. The developed method was successfully used for evaluation of the oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic profile of MSL in dogs. PMID:23798357

Zhang, Dan; Ma, Xiaowei; Xin, Wenyu; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Weiku; Zhang, Tiantai; Du, Guanhua

2013-12-01

34

Reduction of chilling injury and transcript accumulation of heat shock proteins in tomato fruit by methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in heat shock protein (HSP) gene expression induced by vapor application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) in tomato fruit were investigated and compared to the well-described heat shock response. Northern hybridization experiments involving six cDNAs, encoding class I and II tomato small HSPs (sHSPs) and three members of HSP 70 family, showed that accumulation of class

Chang-Kui Ding; Chien Yi Wang; Kenneth C Gross; David L Smith

2001-01-01

35

Effects of methyl salicylate on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bee poisoning from pesticides used in agriculture, forestry, urban environments, and public health is a serious problem affecting many bee colonies worldwide. A bee repellent adjuvant would be useful in reducing the bee injury when pesticides are applied to bloom. Applications of methyl salicylate to blooming apples did not appear to repel foraging honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) or reduce

D. F. Mayer

1997-01-01

36

Effect of DMSO on the kinetic behavior of alkali catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl salicylate in aqueous DMSO medium at various compositions starting from 10 to 70 vol. % DMSO at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35°C are reported. The specific rate constant was found to decrease with increasing proportion of DMSO at all the temperatures and the prediction of Parker is not supported. Both isocomposition

Lallan Singh; A. K. Gupta; R. T. Singh; D. K. Verma; R. C. Jha

1984-01-01

37

The Role of Methyl Salicylate in Prey Searching Behavior of the Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many carnivorous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their prey. These plant volatiles are blends of up to hundreds of compounds. It is often unknown which compounds in such a complex volatile blend represent the signal to the foraging carnivore. We studied the role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) as part of the volatile blend in the foraging behavior of

Jetske G. De Boer; Marcel Dicke

2004-01-01

38

Identification of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid response elements from the nopaline synthase (nos) promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco plants carrying a fusion between the nopa- line synthase (nos) promoter and chloramphenicol acetyltransfer- ase (CAT) reporter gene (cat) were studied for their inducibility by salicylic acid (SA) or methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatments. Either chemical significantly increased CAT activity to a level much higher than that achieved by wounding. Northern blot analysis showed a corresponding increase in mRNA

Seong-Ryong Kim; Younghee Kim; Gynheung An

1993-01-01

39

Gas scavenging of insoluble vapors: Condensation of methyl salicylate vapor onto evaporating drops of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the evaporation of acoustically levitated water drops at 0 and 32% relative humidity in a moving gas stream which is nearly saturated with methyl salicylate vapor. The initial evaporation rate is characteristic of a pure water drop and gradually slows until the evaporation rate becomes that of pure methyl salicylate. The quantity of condensed methyl salicylate exceeds its Henry's law solubility in water by factors of more than 30-50. This apparent violation of Henry's law agrees with the concentration enhancements in the liquid phase found by glotfelty et al. (1987, Nature235, 602-605) during their field measurements of organophorus pesticides in fog water. Under our conditions, visual evidence demonstrates the presence of two liquid phases, thus invalidating the use of Henry's law. A continuum evaporation-condensation model for an immiscible two-component system which accounts for evaporative self-cooling of the drop correctly predicts the amount of methyl salicylate condensed onto the water drops.

Seaver, Mark; Peele, J. R.; Rubel, Glenn O.

40

Spectroscopy and intramolecular relaxation of methyl salicylate in its first excited singlet state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution fluorescence excitation experiments are reported for the blue emitting rotamer of methyl salicylate in its first excited singlet state. These experiments employ moderate expansions of methyl salicylate seeded in argon ( P0D=5-8 Torr cm) to achieve rotational and vibrational cooling in a pulsed supersonic jet. The rotational contour of the electronic origin at 30 055.3 cm-1 is shown to be consistent with a geometrically distorted ?-?* excited state, partially polarized along the A axis and with a rotational temperature of 5-7 K. A noticeable broadening of the spectral features beyond the rotational contour begins at 500 cm-1 above the origin and then increases rapidly above 900 cm-1 reaching a width of 12 cm-1 near 1200 cm-1. The constancy of fluorescence decay lifetimes in this region indicate that intramolecular vibrational relaxation in the S1 manifold is the broadening mechanism.

Kuper, Jerry W.; Perry, David S.

1984-05-01

41

Methyl salicylate, a soybean aphid-induced plant volatile attractive to the predator Coccinella septempunctata.  

PubMed

Induced volatiles provide a signal to foraging predatory insects about the location of their prey. In Iowa, early in the growing season of soybean, Glycine max, many predacious seven-spotted lady beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, were observed on plants with heavy infestations of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. We studied whether the attraction of this beetle is caused by the release of specific volatile compounds of soybean plants infested by aphids. Volatile compounds emitted by soybean plants infested by aphids were compared with those of undamaged, uninfested, and artificially damaged plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed consistent differences in the profiles of volatile compounds between aphid-infested soybean plants and undamaged ones. Significantly more methyl salicylate was released from infested plants at both the V1 and V2 plant growth stages. However, release patterns of two other induced plant volatiles, (D)-limonene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, differed between the two plant growth stages. Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection of volatile extracts from infested soybean plants showed that methyl salicylate elicited significant electrophysiological responses in C. septempunctata. In field tests, traps baited with methyl salicylate were highly attractive to adult C. septempunctata, whereas 2-phenylethanol was most attractive to the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea and syrphid flies. Another common lady beetle, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, showed no preference for the compounds. These results indicate that C. septempunctata may use methyl salicylate as the olfactory cue for prey location. We also tested the attractiveness of some selected soybean volatiles to alate soybean aphids in the field, and results showed that traps baited with benzaldehyde caught significantly higher numbers of aphids. PMID:16222805

Zhu, Junwei; Park, Kye-Chung

2005-08-01

42

Methyl salicylate is a field attractant for the goldeneyed lacewing, Chrysopa oculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green lacewing, Chrysopa oculata Say, was significantly attracted to sticky cards baited with undiluted methyl salicylate (MeSA) in an unsprayed vineyard in Washington State. During the first three weeks of the five week experiment 5–8 times as many C. oculata were trapped on MeSA-baited as on unbaited or hexane-baited cards. Diluted (10%, 1%) MeSA-baited cards did not attract C.

David G. James

2006-01-01

43

Liquid phase transesterification of methyl salicylate and phenol over solid acids: Kinetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid phase transesterification of methyl salicylate and phenol to synthesize a value added ester, salol has been studied over the catalysts, ZrO2 (Z), SO42?\\/ZrO2 (SZ) and Mo(VI)\\/ZrO2 (MZ). Physical and chemical characterization of the catalysts in the form of sulfur and Mo(VI) contents, BET surface area, total surface acidity and powder XRD were conducted. Effects of various parameters, such

S. Z. Mohamed Shamshuddin; N. Nagaraju

2007-01-01

44

Glycyrrhizin production by in vitro cultured Glycyrrhiza glabra elicited by methyl Jasmonate and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. glabra, Fabaceae) is considered as a model plant synthesizing triterpenoid secondary compounds. It is known that glycyrrhizin is\\u000a accumulated in thickened intact licorice roots. The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and salicylic acid (SA) on plant growth\\u000a and production of glycyrrhizin in the roots of in vitro cultured 65-day-old plants were studied. Increasing amounts of

L. Shabani; A. A. Ehsanpour; G. Asghari; J. Emami

2009-01-01

45

Interactive effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on floret opening in spikelets of Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floret opening of excised spikelets in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and Sorghum Sudanesis (Piper) Stapf was significantly stimulated by immersing into 2 mM methyl jasmonate (MeJA) solution. In male sterile (MS) lines of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, floret opening was more sensitive to MeJA than that in maintainer (MT) lines. Salicylic acid (SA) could abolish the effect of MeJA on the

Xiquan Gao; Xiaochun Zeng; Kai Xia; Teruhiko Yoshihara; Xie Zhou

2004-01-01

46

Induction of capsaicinoid synthesis in Capsicum chinense cell cultures by salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension cultures of Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were exposed to salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate to change secondary metabolism. Both treatments led to the accumulation\\u000a of capsaicinoids and their late biosynthetic intermediate, vanillin. Both elicitors had a positive effect on the activities\\u000a of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and coumarate O-methyltransferase, but none of them represented the main limiting step for

M. G. Gutiérrez-Carbajal; M. Monforte-González; M. de L. Miranda-Ham; G. Godoy-Hernández; F. Vázquez-Flota

2010-01-01

47

Toxicity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methyl salicylate dominated essential oils of Laportea aestuans (Gaud)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colourless essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation from the whole plant of Laportea aestuans (Gaud) were analysed by GC and GC\\/MS. The major constituents in the oil were methyl salicylate (54.50%), fenchol (10.59%), 1, 2-cyclohexanedione dioxime (9.40%), 1, 4-octadiene (8.86%) and linalool (3.26%). The toxicity results obtained from brine shrimp lethality test gave LC50 value of 367.1805?g\\/ml indicating that the

Ganiyat K. Oloyede

48

Dual fluorescence excitation spectra of methyl salicylate in a free jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separate fluorescence excitation spectra of the blue- and UV-emitting forms of methyl salicylate cooled in a free-jet expansion are reported. This study represents the first observation of the detailed vibrational structure of these transitions. The two excitation spectra have no features in common, and their intensity patterns are very different. Many individual lines are ˜2 cm-1 wide (nearly laser limited), although in the excitation spectrum of the UV emission, spectral congestion persists at high energies despite the high degree of cooling. (AIP)

Heimbrook, Lou Ann; Kenny, Jonathan E.; Kohler, Bryan E.; Scott, Gary W.

1981-11-01

49

Enhancing antioxidative capacity of Lepidium meyenii calli by addition of methyl salicylate to culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of 0.01–0.2 mM methyl salicylate (MeSA) to the culture media, the antioxidative capacities of maca fresh calli were\\u000a increased and were 1.19–1.88 times of the control. But MeSA inhibited maca cell growth and this negative effect was dose-dependent.\\u000a The dry weights of maca calli were 0.60–0.95 times of the control when addition of 0.01–0.2 mM MeSA to the culture media.\\u000a Elicited

Ya-Li Wang; Xiao-Dong Wang; Bing Zhao; Yu-Chun Wang

2007-01-01

50

Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid by gas-liquid chromatography using a new methylation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GLC method of simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid after a simple and elegant methylation is presented. Acetonic solution of these acids is refluxed with methyl iodide and potassium carbonate for 30 minutes and then gas chromatographed with a column of 3% OV 17 on Varaport 30, 70–80 mesh, AW\\/DMCS. The methylation is quantitative in 0.001–0.1 M

S. Laik Ali

1973-01-01

51

Quantification of Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Jasmonate, and Salicylic Acid in Plants by Capillary Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid have been reported to occur in plants and are thought to be essential for the regulation of systemic defense responses. This work describes a method for the quantitation in plant tissue of these regulators by reverse-phase capillary liquid chromatography interfaced to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer. Inclusion during sample preparation of hydrogenated and\\/or

Sibylle M. Wilbert; Lowell H. Ericsson; Milton P. Gordon

1998-01-01

52

Induction studies of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on taxane production in suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis var. mairei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction by methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) of taxol and relevant taxane biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis var. mairei was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical model shows that the apparent number of elicitor molecules binding with hypothetical receptor molecules for MJ in inducing taxol biosynthesis is about 75% lower than that for SA.

Yan-Dong Wang; Ying-Jin Yuan; Jin-Chuan Wu

2004-01-01

53

Phospholipidic signaling and vanillin production in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Capsicum chinense J. cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves generation of second messengers by hydrolysis or changes in phosphorylation state. Several studies have shown that the signaling pathway forms part of plant response to phytoregulators such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. An evaluation was made of the

Alma R. Altúzar-Molina; J. Armando Muñoz-Sánchez; Felipe Vázquez-Flota; Miriam Monforte-González; Graciela Racagni-Di Palma; S. M. Teresa Hernández-Sotomayor

2011-01-01

54

Functional teratogens of the rat kidney. I. Colchicine, dinoseb, and methyl salicylate.  

PubMed

Substances known or suspected to cause subtle or transient anatomical alterations in renal development were administered prenatally or neonatally to rats in order to determine whether they are capable of altering renal functional development. Colchicine alters mitotic activity and cytoskeletal structure and is teratogenic in many species. Since the kidney of the newborn rat undergoes extensive cellular proliferation and nephron differentiation, it is possible that neonatal administration of colchicine may affect nephron development. Dinoseb and methyl salicylate have previously been reported to produce a high incidence of dilated renal pelvis in the term rat fetus. Colchicine was injected sc, at 75 micrograms/kg, to Postnatal Day (PD) 1 Sprague-Dawley rats. Dinoseb was administered ip to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on Gestation Days 10-12 at doses of 8 or 10.5 mg/kg/day, and methyl salicylate was administered ip at doses of 200, 250, or 300 mg/kg/day on Gestation Days 11-12. Renal function was examined in pups from immediately after birth through weaning. Maximal urine concentrating ability was measured after DDAVP (desmopressin acetate, a vasopressin analog) injection in suckling rats, and after 24 hr of water deprivation in weanlings. Proximal tubule transport was measured in renal cortical slices. Basal urinary parameters, including urine flow, osmolality, pH, and chloride content, were measured. Colchicine treatment had no effect on body weight or kidney weight. There was a significant decrease in maximal urine osmolality in PD 30 rats measured after 24 hr of water deprivation. The urine concentrating deficit detected in functionally mature PD 30 rats suggests that colchicine treatment during renal histogenesis causes a latent deficit in medullary function in the absence of any gross morphological effects. The 10.5 mg/kg/day dose of dinoseb caused a weight reduction in neonates which persisted after weaning. Urine volume after DDAVP challenge was increased over controls in both dose groups on PD 6, but maximal urine concentration was unaffected. On PD 14, maximal urine concentration after DDAVP injection was decreased in the 10.5 mg/kg/day group. By PD 30, urine concentrating ability was comparable to controls. Renal cortical slices from the 10.5 mg/kg/day dose group had an enhanced ability to accumulate organic anions on PD 3 and 31, but opposite effects were observed in the low-dose group. No other renal functional parameters were altered. Urine osmolality after DDAVP challenge was decreased over controls in the 250 mg/kg/day methyl salicylate group on PD 6, and urine volume was increased in this group after DDAVP injection on PD 14.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3220214

Daston, G P; Rehnberg, B F; Carver, B; Rogers, E H; Kavlock, R J

1988-10-01

55

Embedded Piezoresistive Microcantilever Sensors Functionalized for the Detection of Methyl Salicylate  

SciTech Connect

Sensors designed to detect the presence of methyl salicylate (MeS) have been tested. These sensors use a sensor platform based on the embedded piezoresistive microcantilever (EPM) design. Sensing materials tested in this study included the polymer poly (ethylene vinyl acetate), or PEVA as well as a composite sensing material consisting of the enzyme SA-binding protein 2, or SABP-2. The SABP-2 was immobilized within a biocompatible Hypol gel matrix. The PEVA-based sensors exhibited slower but reversible responses to MeS vapors, recovering fully to their initial state after the analyte was removed. SABP-2 sensors exhibited faster overall response to the introduction of MeS, responding nearly instantly. These sensors, however, do not recover after exposures have ended. Sensors using the SABP-2 sensing materials act instead as integrating sensors, measuring irreversibly the total MeS dose obtained.

Porter, T. L. [UNLV; Venedam, R. J. [NSTec

2013-03-01

56

Methyl salicylate and (?)-(1 R ,5 S )-myrtenal are plant-derived repellents for black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop. (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl salicylate and (?)-(1R,5S)-myrtenal stimulate specific olfactory cells in the primary rhinaria on the sixth and fifth antennal segments, respectively, of the black bean aphid.Aphis fabae. In behavioral studies employing a linear track olfactometer, both compounds were repellent toA. fabae and also inhibited attraction to volatiles from its host, broad bean (Vicia faba). Methyl salicylate is associated with secondary metabolite-based

Jim Hardie; Rufus Isaacs; John A. Pickett; Lester J. Wadhams; Christine M. Woodcock

1994-01-01

57

A zinc(II) complex with tris(2-(N-methyl)benzimidazlylmethyl)amine and salicylate: Synthesis, crystal structure, and DNA-binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-coordinate zinc complex with tris(2-(N-methyl)benzimidazylmethyl)amine (Mentb) and salicylate, with composition [Zn(Mentb)(salicylate)](NO3), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV\\/Vis spectral measurements. The crystal structure of the zinc complex shows that Zn(II) is bonded to tris(2-(N-methyl)benzimidazylmethyl)amine (Mentb) and a salicylate through four nitrogens and one oxygen, and the coordination geometry is best described as distorted trigonal-bipyramid. The DNA-binding

Huilu Wu; Ying Bai; Jingkun Yuan; Hua Wang; Guolong Pan; Xuyang Fan; Jin Kong

2012-01-01

58

Effect of foliar salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate applications on protection against pill-bugs in lettuce plants ( Lactuca sativa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects were examined of plant-response signaling compounds, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), on resistance\\u000a to pill-bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) attack in lettuce plants. Foliar SA and MeJA applications were made at weekly intervals from the emergence of the plant until\\u000a one week before harvesting. SA and MeJA induced detectable levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at least during 5 days

Nancy Tierranegra-García; Patricia Salinas-Soto; Irineo Torres-Pacheco; Rosalia V. Ocampo-Velázquez; Enrique Rico-García; Sandra O. Mendoza-Diaz; Ana A. Feregrino-Pérez; Adán Mercado-Luna; Marcela Vargas-Hernandez; Genaro M. Soto-Zarazúa; Ramón G. Guevara-González

2011-01-01

59

The dual effects of methyl salicylate on ripening and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes in tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Sun Bright) at three ripening stages (mature green, breaker and turning) were treated with three different concentrations of methyl salicylate (MeSA) vapor to investigate the impact on ripening and ethylene production. The tomato ripening process, including the development of red color, ethylene production and respiration rate, was enhanced by 0.1 mM of MeSA during

Chang-Kui Ding; Chien Yi Wang

2003-01-01

60

Field-Testing of Methyl Salicylate for Recruitment and Retention of Beneficial Insects in Grapes and Hops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for recruitment and retention of beneficial insects in grapes and hops using controlled-release dispensers of methyl salicylate (MeSA), a component of herbivore-induced volatile blends, is presented. In a replicated experiment conducted in a juice grape vineyard, sticky cards in blocks baited with MeSA captured significantly greater numbers of five species of predatory insects (Chrysopa nigricornis, Hemerobius sp., Deraeocoris brevis,

David G. James; Tanya S. Price

2004-01-01

61

Effect of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on sesquiterpene lactone accumulation in hairy roots of Cichorium intybus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ) or salicylic acid (SA) on the sesquiterpene lactone content and biomass accumulation\\u000a were investigated in a hairy root culture of Cichorium intybus. The guaianolides crepidiaside B (1), 8-deoxylactucin (2), and the germacranolide sonchuside A (3) were quantified by RP-HPLC. Neither MJ nor SA affected the growth of examined hairy root culture. Jasmonate up-regulated\\u000a biosynthesis

Janusz Malarz; Anna Stojakowska; Wanda Kisiel

2007-01-01

62

The Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Methyl Salicylate Negatively Affects Attraction of the Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum  

PubMed Central

The indirect defense mechanisms of plants comprise the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that can attract natural enemies of plant attackers. One of the often emitted compounds after herbivory is methyl salicylate (MeSA). Here, we studied the importance of this caterpillar-induced compound in the attraction of the parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum by using a mutant Arabidopsis line. Pieris rapae infested AtBSMT1-KO mutant Arabidopsis plants, compromised in the biosynthesis of MeSA, were more attractive to parasitoids than infested wild-type plants. This suggests that the presence of MeSA has negative effects on parasitoid host-finding behavior when exposed to wild-type production of herbivore-induced Arabidopsis volatiles. Furthermore, in line with this, we recorded a positive correlation between MeSA dose and repellence of D. semiclausum when supplementing the headspace of caterpillar-infested AtBSMT1-KO plants with synthetic MeSA. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9787-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20407809

Mumm, Roland; Poelman, Erik H.; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Dicke, Marcel

2010-01-01

63

Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose grafted with polyacrylamide: application in controlled release of 5-amino salicylic acid.  

PubMed

In the present study, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose grafted with polyacrylamide (HPMC-g-PAM) hydrogel was evaluated in vitro as a potential carrier for controlled release of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). The graft copolymer was developed by grafting PAM chains onto HPMC backbone using potassium persulphate as initiator. The swelling behaviour of hydrogel based tablet was investigated as a function of pH and time in various buffer solutions similar to that of gastric and intestinal fluids. The % equilibrium swelling was found to be higher in case of simulated intestinal fluid (pH=7.4) and lower in simulated gastric fluid (pH=1.2), making an ideal matrix as required for colon specific drug delivery. The drug release study was performed at various pH values akin to the condition of GI tract. The release kinetics of 5-ASA showed non-Fickian diffusion behaviour. This indicates that the release is controlled by a combination of polymer relaxation or erosion of the matrix and diffusion of the drug from the swollen matrix. PMID:23732799

Das, Raghunath; Pal, Sagar

2013-10-01

64

Transcriptome profiling of genes induced by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Polygonum minus.  

PubMed

The importance of plant secondary metabolites for both mankind and the plant itself has long been established. However, despite extensive research on plant secondary metabolites, plant secondary metabolism and its regulation still remained poorly characterized. In this present study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) transcript profiling was applied to generate the expression profiles of Polygonum minus in response to salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitations. This study reveals two different sets of genes induced by SA and MeJA, respectively where stress-related genes were proved to lead to the expression of genes involved in plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. A total of 98 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were up-regulated, including 46 from SA-treated and 52 from MeJA-treated samples. The cDNA-AFLP transcripts generated using 64 different Mse1/Taq1 primer combinations showed that treatments with SA and MeJA induced genes mostly involved in scavenging reactive oxygen species, including zeaxanthin epoxidase, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 and peroxidase. Of these stress-related genes, 15 % of other annotated TDFs are involved mainly in secondary metabolic processes where among these, two genes encoding (+)-delta cadinene synthase and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were highlighted. PMID:23187733

Ee, Su-Fang; Oh, Ji-Min; Mohd Noor, Normah; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura; Ismail, Ismanizan; Zainal, Zamri

2013-03-01

65

Molecular modeling of the green leaf volatile methyl salicylate on atmospheric air/water interfaces.  

PubMed

Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a green leaf volatile (GLV) compound that is emitted in significant amounts by plants, especially when they are under stress conditions. GLVs can then undergo chemical reactions with atmospheric oxidants, yielding compounds that contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). We investigated the adsorption of MeSA on atmospheric air/water interfaces at 298 K using thermodynamic integration (TI), potential of mean force (PMF) calculations, and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our molecular models can reproduce experimental results of the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of MeSA. A deep free energy minimum was found for MeSA at the air/water interface, which is mainly driven by energetic interactions between MeSA and water. At the interface, the oxygenated groups in MeSA tend to point toward the water side of the interface, with the aromatic group of MeSA lying farther away from water. Increases in the concentrations of MeSA lead to reductions in the height of the peaks in the MeSA-MeSA g(r) functions, a slowing down of the dynamics of both MeSA and water at the interface, and a reduction in the interfacial surface tension. Our results indicate that MeSA has a strong thermodynamic preference to remain at the air/water interface, and thus chemical reactions with atmospheric oxidants are more likely to take place at this interface, rather than in the water phase of atmospheric water droplets or in the gas phase. PMID:23668770

Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P; Hansel, Amie K; Stevens, Christopher; Ehrenhauser, Franz S; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Hung, Francisco R

2013-05-30

66

Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. PMID:24817050

Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

2014-06-01

67

[Effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].  

PubMed

A field investigation was conducted on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies under wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application. With the development of wheat plant, an alternation from aggregation to uniform was observed in the spatial distribution of S. avenae under the intercropping and methyl salicylate application, being more obvious under the interaction of the two practices. The spatial distribution of S. avenae natural enemies was in accordance with that of the aphid. These results could be used for the reference of sampling investigation and forecast of wheat aphid and its natural enemies in field. PMID:23173471

Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Guang; Liu, Yong

2012-07-01

68

Methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation induces ginsenosides accumulation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant in suspension culture Panax ginseng roots in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) on changes of the activities of major antioxidant enzymes, superoxide anion accumulation (O2\\u000a ?), ascorbate, total glutathione (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ginsenoside accumulation were investigated in ginseng roots (Panax ginseng L.) in 4 l (working volume) air lift bioreactors. Single treatment of 200 ?M MJ and SA to P.

Mohammad Babar Ali; Kee-Won Yu; Eun-Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek

2006-01-01

69

Structural and biochemical studies identify tobacco SABP2 as a methyl salicylate esterase and implicate it in plant innate immunity  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical signal for the activation of plant defense responses against pathogen infections. We recently identified SA-binding protein 2 (SABP2) from tobacco as a protein that displays high affinity for SA and plays a crucial role in the activation of systemic acquired resistance to plant pathogens. Here we report the crystal structures of SABP2, alone and in complex with SA at up to 2.1-Å resolution. The structures confirm that SABP2 is a member of the ?/? hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, with Ser-81, His-238, and Asp-210 as the catalytic triad. SA is bound in the active site and is completely shielded from the solvent, consistent with the high affinity of this compound for SABP2. Our biochemical studies reveal that SABP2 has strong esterase activity with methyl salicylate as the substrate, and that SA is a potent product inhibitor of this catalysis. Modeling of SABP2 with MeSA in the active site is consistent with all these biochemical observations. Our results suggest that SABP2 may be required to convert MeSA to SA as part of the signal transduction pathways that activate systemic acquired resistance and perhaps local defense responses as well. PMID:15668381

Forouhar, Farhad; Yang, Yue; Kumar, Dhirendra; Chen, Yang; Fridman, Eyal; Park, Sang Wook; Chiang, Yiwen; Acton, Thomas B.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Pichersky, Eran; Klessig, Daniel F.; Tong, Liang

2005-01-01

70

Optical bar code recognition of methyl salicylate (MES) for environmental monitoring using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a process in which energy is transferred nonradiatively from one fluorophore (the donor) in an excited electron state to another, the chromophore (the acceptor). FRET is distinctive in its ability to reveal the presence of specific recognition of select targets such as the nerve agent stimulant Methyl Salicylate (MES) upon spectroscopic excitation. We introduce a surface imprinted and non-imprinted thin film that underwent AC-Electrospray ionization for donor-acceptor pair(s) bound to InGaP quantum dots and mesoporous silicate nanoparticles. The donor-acceptor pair used in this investigation included MES (donor) and 6-(fluorescein-5-(and-6)- carboxamido) hexanoic acid, succinimidyl ester bound to InGaP quantum dots (acceptor). MES was then investigated as a donor to various acceptor fluorophore: InGaP: mesoporous silicate nanoparticle layers.

Smith, Clint; Tatineni, Balaji; Anderson, John; Tepper, Gary

2006-10-01

71

The Preparation of 2-(4Oxo4H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)-1-phenyl-ethanones by the Condensation\\/Cyclization of Dilithiated 1Benzoylacetone with Lithiated Methyl Salicylates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilithiated 1-benzoylacetone was prepared in excess lithium diisopropylamide and condensed with several lithiated methyl salicylates, followed by acid cyclization to 2-(4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)-1-phenylethanones (2-phenacyl-chromones).

April J. Angel; Douglas R. Hurst; Angela R. Williams; Kristen L. French; Charles F. Beam

1998-01-01

72

Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on cell growth and cryptotanshinone formation in Ti transformed Salvia miltiorrhiza cell suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MJ) or salicylic acid (SA) when applied alone failed to induce cryptotanshinone (a phytoalexin) formation in Ti-transformed Salvia miltiorrhiza cell suspension cultures. However, when applied in combination with yeast elicitor, SA at 50–500 µM enhanced the yeast elicitor-induced cryptotanshinone formation while MJ reduced the yeast elicitor-induced cryptotanshinone formation. Ibuprofen at 100 µM did not inhibit the yeast elicitor-induced cryptotanshinone

Hui Chen; Feng Chen

1999-01-01

73

Field Evaluation of Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles as Attractants for Beneficial Insects: Methyl Salicylate and the Green Lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSA), a herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV), was demonstrated to be an attractant for the green lacewing, Chrysopanigricornis, in two field experiments conducted in a Washington hop yard. Significantly greater numbers of C. nigricornis were trapped on MeSA-baited sticky cards (mean: 2.8 ± 0.4\\/card\\/week) than on unbaited cards (0.45 ± 0.15) during June–September. Cards baited with two other

David G. James

2003-01-01

74

Investigation of Tomato Plant Defence Response to Tobacco Mosaic Virus by Determination of Methyl Salicylate with SPME-Capillary GC-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Headspace SPME was applied to investigation of tomato plant defence response to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) by determination of compounds emitted from tomato plants at the extraction conditions of 25 °C and 15 min. It was found that TMV-inoculated tomato plant released large amount of methyl salicylate (MeSA) as response to TMV and MeSA concentration changed dramatically with time after

Chunhui Deng; Xiangmin Zhang; Weimin Zhu; Ji Qian

2004-01-01

75

Molecular Structure of Salicylic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salicylic acid is a colorless to white crystalline powder with a sweetish acrid taste that occurs naturally in many microorganisms and plants in very small amounts. It is also made synthetically and used as preservative of food products in some countries and as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and toothpastes. This chemical is also used in the manufacture of methyl salicylates, acetylasalicylic acid (aspirin) and other salicylates. Salicylic acid is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of dyestuff, salicylate esters and salts. It is prepared commercially by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure to form sodium salicylate, which is treated with sulfuric acid to liberate salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is quite irritating to skin and mucosa and it destroys epithelial cells. Absorption of large amounts can cause vomiting, abdominal pain, acidosis and mental disturbances.

2004-11-11

76

Encapsulation of methyl and ethyl salicylates by beta-cyclodextrin HPLC, UV-vis and molecular modeling studies.  

PubMed

The complexation of methyl salicylate (MS) and ethyl salicylate (ES), non-steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antirrheumatic drugs with beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) has been studied from thermodynamic and structural points of view. The complexation with betaCD has been investigated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Retention behavior has been analyzed on a reverse-phase column Luna 18(2) 5 microm. The mobile-phase was methanol:water in different ratios (55:45 to 70:30) in which betaCD (1-9 mM) was incorporated as a mobile-phase additive. The decrease in retention times with increasing concentrations of betaCD enables the determination of the apparent stability constant of the complexes. Values at 30 degrees C with 55% methanol were K(MS:betaCD): 15.84 M(-1) and K(ES:betaCD): 12.73 M(-1) for MS and ES, respectively. The apparent stability constants decrease as the polarity of the solvent decreases. The low solubility of MS and ES in aqueous solution has been improved by complexation with betaCD (1-9 mM). The stability constants of the complexes obtained from the phase-solubility diagrams using a UV-vis spectrophotometric method were K(MS:betaCD): 229 M(-1) and K(ES:betaCD): 166 M(-1). In addition, semi-empirical quantum mechanics calculations using AM1 and PM3 methods in vacuum were performed. The energetically favorable inclusion structures were identified and the most favorable orientation for the inclusion process was found to be the head-down orientation for both complexes. Enthalpy for encapsulation processes was found to be favorable (DeltaH degrees <0), while entropy (DeltaS degrees <0) and Gibbs free energy were unfavorable (DeltaG degrees >0). By means of HPLC and UV-vis measurements and quantum mechanics calculations, it was found that MS and ES form a 1:1 inclusion complex with betaCD. The theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental parameters associated with the encapsulation process. PMID:18650048

Filippa, Mauricio; Sancho, Matías I; Gasull, Estela

2008-11-01

77

Salicylic acid triggers genotoxic adaptation to methyl mercuric chloride and ethyl methane sulfonate, but not to maleic hydrazide in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA), 0.01mM, a signalling phytohormone, was tested for induction of adaptive response against genotoxicity of methyl mercuric chloride (MMCl), 0.013mM; ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), 2.5mM, or maleic hydrazide (MH), 5mM, in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Induction of adaptive response to EMS by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1mM, and yet another secondary signal molecule was tested for comparison. Assessed

Jita Patra; Malaya K. Sahoo; Brahma B. Panda

2005-01-01

78

Structural and biochemical studies identify tobacco SABP2 as a methyl salicylate esterase and implicate it in plant innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical signal for the activation of plant defense responses against pathogen infections. We recently identified SA-binding protein 2 (SABP2) from tobacco as a protein that displays high affinity for SA and plays a crucial role in the activation of systemic acquired resistance to plant pathogens. Here we report the crystal structures of SABP2, alone and

Farhad Forouhar; Yue Yang; Dhirendra Kumar; Yang Chen; Eyal Fridman; Sang Wook Park; Yiwen Chiang; Thomas B. Acton; Gaetano T. Montelione; Eran Pichersky; Daniel F. Klessig; Liang Tong

2005-01-01

79

Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on the production of tropane alkaloids and the expression of PMT and H6H in adventitious root cultures of Scopolia parviflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) on the production of tropane alkaloids (TA) and the expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) and hyoscyamine 6?-hydroxylase (H6H) were studied in adventitious root cultures of Scopolia parviflora. MJ treatments increased the amounts of both scopolamine and hyoscyamine, with growth inhibition of the roots, while SA increased the amount of scopolamine

Seung-Mi Kang; Hee-Young Jung; Young-Min Kang; Dae-Jin Yun; Jung-Dong Bahk; Jae-kyung Yang; Myung-Suk Choi

2004-01-01

80

Salicylic acid, ethephon, and methyl jasmonate enhance ester regeneration in 1-MCP-treated apple fruit after long-term cold storage.  

PubMed

Volatile esters, primarily synthesized in peel tissues, are major aromatic components of apple fruits [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The use of cold storage combined with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment prolongs the life of apples but represses the regeneration of esters during poststorage ripening. In this study, the regeneration of total esters was significantly increased in apple fruits treated with salicylic acid (SA) and Ethephon (ETH) that had been treated once or twice with 1-MCP. However, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment resulted in regeneration of total esters after a single 1-MCP treatment. To determine the mechanism by which SA, ETH, and MeJA regulate ester regeneration, the apple alcohol acyltransferase gene (MdAAT2) was investigated at the mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels. Genes associated with ethylene perception were also investigated by RT-PCR. The results suggest that MdAAT2 controls ester regeneration and that MdETR1 plays a key role in ethylene perception and regulation of downstream MdAAT2 gene expression during poststorage. Ester compounds and concentrations differed in peels treated with different signal molecules, indicating that regulation of the pathway upstream of straight-chain ester biosynthesis depended on the regulation of lipoxygenase (LOX) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity by SA, ETH, and MeJA during poststorage ripening. PMID:16719511

Li, Da-Peng; Xu, Yun-Feng; Sun, Li-Ping; Liu, Li-Xia; Hu, Xiao-Li; Li, De-Quan; Shu, Huai-Rui

2006-05-31

81

Paramagnetic metal effect on the ligand localized S/sub 1/. -->. T/sub 1/ intersystem crossing in the rare-earth-metal complexes and methyl salicylate  

SciTech Connect

The electronic relaxation processes in the chelates of La/sup 3 +/, Gd/sup 3 +/, Tb/sup 3 +/, and Lu/sup 3 +/ with methyl salicylate have been investigated by measurements of picosecond fluorescence, nanosecond transient absorptions, and quantum yields. The quantum yields of the S/sub 1/ ..-->.. T/sub 1/ intersystem crossing are not appreciably altered by a change in the central metal ions. However, the fluorescence lifetimes are decreased dramatically in the paramagnetic Gd/sup 3 +/ (240 ps) and Tb/sup 3 +/ (<10 ps) complexes compared with those in the diamagnetic La/sup 3 +/ (2.2 ns) and Lu/sup 3 +/ (2.4 ns) complexes. The rate constants derived from these results for the S/sub 1/ ..-->.. T/sub 1/ intersystem crossing, k/sub TM/, in ligands are 5.5 x 10/sup 7/, 7.5 x 10/sup 8/, and 7.9 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/ for the La/sup 3 +/, Gd/sup 3 +/, and Lu/sup 3 +/ complexes, respectively. A large increase of k/sub TM/ is observed in the paramagnetic Gd/sup 3 +/ complexes, which can be attributed to the electron exchange mechanism with ligand ..pi.. electrons. 27 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

Tobita, S.; Arakawa, M.; Tanaka, I.

1985-01-01

82

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

83

Ground and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Salicylic Acid: an Ab Initio Electronic Structure Investigation  

E-print Network

emission in the fluorescence spectrum of salicylic acid and methyl salicylate and attributedGround and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Salicylic Acid: an Ab Initio Electronic in salicylic acid have been studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations using the 6-31G** basis set

Chowdhury, Arindam

84

Promoter analyses and transcriptional profiling of eggplant polyphenol oxidase 1 gene (SmePPO1) reveal differential response to exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

The transcriptional regulation of multigenic eggplant (Solanum melongena) polyphenol oxidase genes (SmePPO) is orchestrated by their corresponding promoters which mediate developmentally regulated expression in response to myriad biotic and abiotic factors. However, information on structural features of SmePPO promoters and modulation of their expression by plant defense signals are lacking. In the present study, SmePPOPROMOTERs were cloned by genome walking, and their transcription start sites (TSS) were determined by RLM-RACE. Extensive sequence analyses revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved and over-represented putative cis-acting elements involved in light-regulated transcription, biosynthetic pathways (phenylpropanoid/flavonoid), hormone signaling (abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, jasmonate and salicylate), elicitor and stress responses (cold/dehydration responses), sugar metabolism and plant defense signaling (W-BOX/WRKY) that are common to SmePPOPROMOTER1 and 2. The TSS for SmePPO genes are located 9-15bp upstream of ATG with variable lengths of 5' untranslated regions. Transcriptional profiling of SmePPOs in eggplant seedlings has indicated differential response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or salicylic acid (SA) treatment. In planta, while MeJA elicited expression of all the six SmePPOs, SA was only able to induce the expression of SmePPO4-6. Interestingly, in dual treatment, SA considerably repressed the MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOs. Functional dissection of SmePPOPROMOTER1 by deletion analyses using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in tobacco leaves has shown that MeJA enhances the SmePPOPROMOTER1-?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in vivo, while SA does not. Histochemical and quantitative GUS assays have also indicated the negative effect of SA on MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1. By combining in silico analyses, transcriptional profiling and expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1-GUS fusions, the role of SA on the modulation of MeJA-induced SmePPO1 expression has been elucidated. It is concluded that similar to the coding regions of multigenic SmePPOs, the regulatory elements are also evolutionarily conserved and fall into two distinct sub-classes based on their responses to MeJA and SA. PMID:22377322

Shetty, Santoshkumar M; Chandrashekar, Arun; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

2012-05-01

85

[Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].  

PubMed

In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate (MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling S. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of S. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat. PMID:23359948

Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Li, Pei-Ling; Lin, Fang-Jing; Chen, Ju-Lian; Liu, Yong

2012-10-01

86

Transcriptional Profiling of Sorghum Induced by Methyl Jasmonate, Salicylic Acid, and Aminocyclopropane Carboxylic Acid Reveals Cooperative Regulation and Novel Gene Responses1[w  

PubMed Central

We have conducted a large-scale study of gene expression in the C4 monocot sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) L. Moench cv BTx623 in response to the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid. Expression profiles were generated from seedling root and shoot tissue at 3 and 27 h, using a microarray containing 12,982 nonredundant elements. Data from 102 slides and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR data on mRNA abundance from 171 genes were collected and analyzed and are here made publicly available. Numerous gene clusters were identified in which expression was correlated with particular signaling compound and tissue combinations. Many genes previously implicated in defense responded to the treatments, including numerous pathogenesis-related genes and most members of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and several other genes that may represent novel activities or pathways. Genes of the octadecanoic acid pathway of jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis were induced by SA as well as by MeJA. The resulting hypothesis that increased SA could lead to increased endogenous JA production was confirmed by measurement of JA content. Comparison of responses to SA, MeJA, and combined SA+MeJA revealed patterns of one-way and mutual antagonisms, as well as synergistic effects on regulation of some genes. These experiments thus help further define the transcriptional results of cross talk between the SA and JA pathways and suggest that a subset of genes coregulated by SA and JA may comprise a uniquely evolved sector of plant signaling responsive cascades. PMID:15863699

Salzman, Ron A.; Brady, Jeff A.; Finlayson, Scott A.; Buchanan, Christina D.; Summer, Elizabeth J.; Sun, Feng; Klein, Patricia E.; Klein, Robert R.; Pratt, Lee H.; Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michele; Mullet, John E.

2005-01-01

87

Effect of 6-nonadecyl salicylic acid and its methyl ester on the induction of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse peripheral blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bark of Amphipterygium adstringens is widely used in the traditional Mexican medicine for treating ailments such as gastric ulcers, gastritis and stomach cancer. The 6-nonadecyl salicylic acid (anacardic acid) was isolated from the bark of this species. In previous papers have been informed that the anacardic acids possess anti-tumour, antimicrobial, antiacne, antibacterial and many others medicinal properties. Now we

Hortensia Rosas Acevedo; Maritere Domínguez Rojas; Sandra Díaz Barriga Arceo; Marcos Soto Hernández; Mariano Martínez Vázquez; Teresa Terrazas; Gustavo Valencia del Toro

2006-01-01

88

The risk of severe salicylate poisoning following the ingestion of topical medicaments or aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from isolated reports of severe salicylate poisoning after ingesting an unusually large amount of a medicinal oil, there are no published data on the threat arising from attempted suicide with topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil compared with aspirin tablets. In this retrospective study, the admission plasma salicylate concentrations and clinical presentations were compared in 80 subjects

T. Y. Chan

1996-01-01

89

Clinical pharmacokinetics of salicylates  

PubMed Central

1 Aspirin is partly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid during absorption. Absorbed aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed systemically. Salicylic acid elimination kinetics are dependent on drug concentration due to the limited capacity of two major biotransformation pathways: formation of salicyluric acid and of salicylphenolic glucuronide. 2 The time courses of the various pharmacological effects of single doses of aspirin are not directly coincident with the plasma concentrations of either aspirin or salicylic acid but there is reasonably good evidence that the pharmacological effects are related to the concentration of aspirin, salicylic acid, or both. 3 Steady-state plasma salicylate concentrations increase more than proportionally with increasing daily dose; the time required to reach steady state increases with increasing daily dose. Dosage intervals of 8 or even 12 h are usually sufficient to maintain plasma salicylate concentrations in the anti-inflammatory concentration range. Monitoring of plasma salicylate concentrations in this range is facilitated by the relatively small drug concentration fluctuations during a dosing interval at steady-state. 4 Limited data suggest that the pharmacological activity of salicylate is produced by free (unbound) drug. As the plasma protein binding of salicylic acid is concentration-dependent and subject to pronounced interindividual differences, it is preferable, at least in principle, to monitor free rather than total concentrations of salicylate in plasma. Although salicylate concentration in saliva reflects the free rather than total salicylate concentration in plasma or serum, use of saliva for indirect monitoring of plasma salicylate concentrations seems to be impractical for technical reasons. PMID:7437270

Levy, Gerhard

1980-01-01

90

Inactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases Belonging  

E-print Network

(salicylic acid binding protein 2) hydrolyzes methyl salicylate to salicylic acid. There are 20 homologsInactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases, and peptides. We have recently shown that IAA could be converted to its methyl ester (MeIAA) by the Arabidopsis

Pichersky, Eran

91

Efficient scavenging of ?-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates.  

PubMed

The radical cation generated during photobleaching of ?-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k2 = 3.2 × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1) in 9?:?1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10(8) L mol(-1) s(-1), but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the ?-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations. PMID:24336797

Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

2014-02-01

92

Cinnarizinium 3,5-dinitro-salicylate  

PubMed Central

The title compound [systematic name: 4-diphenyl­methyl-1-(3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl)-piperazin-1-ium 2-carb­oxy-4,6-dinitro­pheno­late], C26H29N2 +·C7H3N2O7 ?, is the dinitro­salicylate salt of a tertiary amine. Deprotonation of the carb­oxy­lic acid group occurred on the phenolic hy­droxy group. The diaza­cyclo­hexane ring adopts a chair conformation. Intra­molecular O—H?O and inter­molecular C—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds are observed. The N—H?O hydrogen bonds are bifurcated at the H atom and connect the cinnarizinium and 3,5-dinitro­salicylate ions together. Inter­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonds connect the components into layers perpendicular to the crystallographic a axis. PMID:22606110

Dayananda, Alaloor S.; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.; Gerber, Thomas; Hosten, Eric; Betz, Richard

2012-01-01

93

Synthesis of the ?-primeveroside of methyl salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. An anomer of a natural glucoside — monotropitoside — has been synthesized for the first time.\\u000a \\u000a 2. This method is suitable for the synthesis of anomeric oligosides of phenols.

A. M. Yuodvirshis; A. T. Troshchenko

1965-01-01

94

Dual emission and double proton transfer in salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photophysics of salicylic acid (SA) monomer and dimer has been studied by using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Dilute solution in alkanes emits at 450 nm, which as in methyl salicylate is due to intramolecular proton transfer. In concentrated solutions and in solid state, the SA dimer shows two emissions, at 370 nm and 450 nm, with some unusual behaviour in both the steady state and the time domain fluorescence. The concept of double proton transfer and the tunneling mechanism in the excited state can rationalize the observed photophysical behaviour.

Pant, D. D.; Joshi, H. C.; Bisht, P. B.; Tripathi, H. B.

1994-07-01

95

The risk of severe salicylate poisoning following the ingestion of topical medicaments or aspirin.  

PubMed Central

Apart from isolated reports of severe salicylate poisoning after ingesting an unusually large amount of a medicinal oil, there are no published data on the threat arising from attempted suicide with topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil compared with aspirin tablets. In this retrospective study, the admission plasma salicylate concentrations and clinical presentations were compared in 80 subjects who had taken aspirin tablets (n = 42) or topical medicaments (n = 38). The proportions of subjects being symptomatic were similar in the two groups. Although the admission plasma salicylate concentrations were generally higher in subjects who had ingested aspirin tablets, the two highest readings (4.3 and 3.5 mmol/1) belonged to two of the subjects who had taken topical medicaments. Because of its liquid, concentrated form and lipid solubility, methyl salicylate poses the threat of severe, rapid-onset salicylate poisoning. The toxic potential of topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. PMID:8871462

Chan, T. Y.

1996-01-01

96

Functional Polymers. XXI. Activity of Low Molecular Weight and Polymeric Salicylic Acid Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several structural isomers of vinylsalicylic acid and the corresponding methyl vinylsalicylates have been synthesized in this laboratory previously and have been polymerized and copolymerized with methacrylic acid and with methyl methacrylate. The monomer-ic as well as the polymeric compounds have been tested for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. This article also deals with the sunscreening properties of some polymeric salicylic

A. C. Albertsson; L. G. Donaruma; A. Salamone; C. Matsui; H. Konishi; K. Wada; S. Yoshida; O. Vogl

1984-01-01

97

Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs, or aging, which affects ?14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed. PMID:22557950

Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J.; Allman, Brian L.

2012-01-01

98

Salicylate-urea based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors with high metabolic and chemical stabilities  

PubMed Central

We investigated N-adamantyl-N?-phenyl urea derivatives as simple sEH inhibitors. Salicylate ester derivatives have high inhibitory activities against human sEH, while the free benzoic acids are less active. The methyl salicylate derivative is a potent sEH inhibitor, which also has high metabolic and chemical stabilities; suggesting that such inhibitors are potential lead molecule for bioactive compounds acting in vivo. PMID:19216074

Kasagami, Takeo; Kim, In-Hae; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Nishi, Kosuke; Hammock, Bruce D.; Morisseau, Christophe

2010-01-01

99

QM\\/MM Free Energy Simulations of Salicylic Acid Methyltransferase: Effects of Stabilization of TS-like Structures on Substrate Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid methyltransferases (SAMTs) synthesize methyl salicylate (MeSA) using salicylate as the substrate. MeSA synthesized in plants may function as an airborne signal to activate the expression of defense-related genes and could also be a critical mobile signaling molecule that travels from the site of plant infection to establish systemic immunity in the induction of disease resistance. Here the results

Jianzhuang Yao; Qin Xu; Feng Chen; Hong Guo

2010-01-01

100

Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic  

E-print Network

is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant defence Mary C. Wildermuth*, Julia Dewdney*, Gang Wu .............................................................................................................................................. Salicylic acid (SA) mediates plant defences against pathogens, accumulating in both infected and distal

Ausubel, Frederick M.

101

The salicylic acid loop in plant defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is an important signal molecule in plant defense. In the past two years, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of salicylic-acid biosynthesis and signaling in plants. A pathway similar to that found in some bacteria synthesizes salicylic acid from chorismate via isochorismate. Salicylic-acid signaling is mediated by at least two mechanisms, one requiring the NON-EXPRESSOR

Jyoti Shah

2003-01-01

102

Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in soybean defence against soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN). GmSAMT1 was identified as a candidate SCN defence-related gene in our previous analysis of soybean defence against SCN using GeneChip microarray experiments. The current study started with the isolation of the full-length cDNAs of GmSAMT1 from a SCN-resistant soybean line and from a SCN-susceptible soybean line. The two cDNAs encode proteins of identical sequences. The GmSAMT1 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. Using in vitro enzyme assays, E. coli-expressed GmSAMT1 was confirmed to function as salicylic acid methyltransferase. The apparent Km value of GmSAMT1 for salicylic acid was approximately 46 ?M. To determine the role of GmSAMT1 in soybean defence against SCN, transgenic hairy roots overexpressing GmSAMT1 were produced and tested for SCN resistance. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in SCN-susceptible backgrounds significantly reduced the development of SCN, indicating that overexpression of GmSAMT1 in the transgenic hairy root system could confer resistance to SCN. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in transgenic hairy roots was also found to affect the expression of selected genes involved in salicylic acid biosynthesis and salicylic acid signal transduction. PMID:24034273

Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Junwei J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Wusheng; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Stewart, Charles N; Chen, Feng

2013-12-01

103

Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent

Corné M. J Pieterse; Leendert C van Loon

1999-01-01

104

Inhibition of Ethylene Biosynthesis by Salicylic Acid  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid inhibited ethylene formation from ACC in self-buffered (pH 3.8) pear (Pyrus communis) cell suspension cultures with a K1app of about 10 micromolar after 1 to 3 hours incubation. Inhibition appeared noncompetitive. Among 22 related phenolic compounds tested, only acetylsalicylic acid showed similar levels of inhibition. Inhibition by salicylic acid was inversely dependent on the pH of the culture medium and did not require a continuous external supply of salicylate. When compared to known inhibitors of the ethylene forming enzyme, cobalt, n-propyl gallate, and dinitrophenol, inhibition by salicylic acid most closely resembled that by dinitrophenol but salicylic acid did not produce the same degree of respiratory stimulation. Results are discussed in terms of other known effects of salicylic acid on plants, pH-dependency, and the possible influence of salicylic acid on electron transport. PMID:16666393

Leslie, Charles A.; Romani, Roger J.

1988-01-01

105

Microwave spectrum of salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational spectra of salicylic acid and of three OD deuterated species have been investigated by free jet millimiter-wave absorption spectroscopy. Only lines of the most stable conformer, the one with an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the phenolic hydrogen and the carbonyl oxygen, have been observed. The positions of the phenolic and carboxylic hydrogens have been precisely derived.

Evangelisti, Luca; Tang, Shouyuan; Velino, Biagio; Caminati, Walther

2009-03-01

106

X-ray structural analysis, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of newly synthesized salicylic acid derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

New salicylic (2-hydroxybenzoic) acid derivatives 1–6 were prepared by conventional heating or microwave irradiation of a mixture consisting of methyl salicylate and the corresponding\\u000a amino alcohol (2,2?-dihydroxydiethylamine, 2,2?,2?-trihydroxytriethylamine or N-phenyl-2,2?-dihydroxydiethylamine) and metallic sodium as catalyst. For compounds 1, 3, and 5 X-ray structure analysis was performed, as well as molecular mechanics calculations (MMC), to define their conformation in\\u000a terms of

Evgenija A. Djurendi?; Sanja V. Doj?inovi?-Vujaškovi?; Marija N. Saka?; Emilija Dj. Jovin; Vesna V. Koji?; Gordana M. Bogdanovi?; Olivera R. Klisuri?; Slobodanka M. Stankovi?; Dušan V. Lazar; Laslo Fabian; Katarina M. Penov-Gaši

2010-01-01

107

Salicylate Biosynthesis: Overexpression, Purification, and Characterization of Irp9, a Bifunctional Salicylate Synthase from Yersinia enterocolitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some bacteria, salicylate is synthesized using the enzymes isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate lyase. In contrast, gene inactivation and complementation experiments with Yersinia enterocolitica suggest the synthesis of salicylate in the biosynthesis of the siderophore yersiniabactin involves a single protein, Irp9, which converts chorismate directly into salicylate. In the present study, Irp9 was for the first time heterologously expressed

Olivier Kerbarh; Alessio Ciulli; Nigel I. Howard; Chris Abell

2005-01-01

108

Hepatotoxicity of salicylates in monolayer cell cultures.  

PubMed

The influence of graded doses of sodium salicylate on rat liver cells cultured in monolayers was assessed by measuring lactic dehydrogenase activity in a culture media after incubation. Morphological alterations were studied by electron microscopy. The influence of different albumin concentrations in the media on toxicity was also evaluated. Lactic dehydrogenase concentrations rose with increasing doses of salicylate up to 40 mg per dl. High concentrations of albumin were associated with reduced salicylate toxicity. These findings suggest that salicylate-induced hepatic injury is dose related and my be influenced by serum albumin levels PMID:620893

Tolman, K G; Peterson, P; Gray, P; Hammar, S P

1978-02-01

109

A review of toxicity from topical salicylic acid preparations.  

PubMed

Topical salicylic acid is often used in dermatologic conditions because of its keratolytic, bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and photoprotective properties. The bioavailability of salicylic acid differs depending on the vehicle used and pH of transcellular fluids. Although rare, salicylic acid toxicity (salicylism) can occur from topical application. Physicians should be mindful of the potential for salicylism or even death from topically applied salicylic acid. PMID:24472429

Madan, Raman K; Levitt, Jacob

2014-04-01

110

21 CFR 556.590 - Salicylic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Salicylic acid. 556.590 Section 556.590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.590 Salicylic acid. A tolerance of...

2010-04-01

111

The ocs element in the soybean GH2\\/4 promoter is activated by both active and inactive auxin and salicylic acid analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The octopine synthase (ocs or ocs-like) element has been previously reported to be responsive to the plant hormones, auxin, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate. Using transient assays with carrot protoplasts, we have demonstrated that an ocs element from the soybean auxin-inducible GH2\\/4 promoter is not only activated by strong auxins (i.e, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a-naphthalene acetic acid) and salicylic

Tim Ulmasov; Gretchen Hagen; Tom Guilfoyle

1994-01-01

112

The absorption of bismuth and salicylate from oral doses of Pepto-Bismol (bismuth salicylate).  

PubMed

Plasma bismuth and plasma salicylate concentrations were measured before and after three 30-ml oral doses of bismuth salicylate (Pepto-Bismol liquid) in 10 fasting healthy subjects. From 0 to 120 min following the first dose of bismuth salicylate, the plasma bismuth concentration was less than 1 ng/ml. The peak median plasma bismuth concentration was at +240 min (1.7 ng/ml; range 0.8-5.3 ng/ml). Salicylate appeared in the plasma of all subjects at +30 min, and it reached a peak at +120 min (median 61 mg/L; range 46-104 mg/L). The study demonstrates that, despite rapid and substantial absorption of salicylate, there is negligible absorption of bismuth into the bloodstream from standard oral doses of bismuth salicylate. PMID:2104082

Nwokolo, C U; Mistry, P; Pounder, R E

1990-04-01

113

Stress and Antistress Effects of Salicylic Acid and Acetyl Salicylic Acid on Potato Culture Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our own research has found a number of potentially useful effects of medium supplementation with salicylate on in vitro potato microplants. These useful effects are obtained taking advantage of the stress and antistress effects of salicylic\\u000a acid on plants. Growth inhibition is a common stress effect of salicylic acid on plants. This stress effect can be directed\\u000a to culture technology,

H. A. Lopez-Delgado; I. M. Scott; M. E. Mora-Herrera

114

Acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin) and salicylic acid induce multiple stress tolerance in bean and tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that physiologically activeconcentrations of salicylic acid (SA) and itsderivatives can confer stress tolerance in plants wasevaluated using bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) andtomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Plantsgrown from seeds imbibed in aqueous solutions (0.1--0.5 mM) of salicylic acid or acetyl salicylic acid(ASA) displayed enhanced tolerance to heat, chillingand drought stresses. Seedlings acquired similarstress tolerance when SA or ASA treatments

Tissa Senaratna; Darren Touchell; Eric Bunn; Kingsley Dixon

2000-01-01

115

196 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Biological and Molecular Analyses of the Acibenzolar-S-Methyl-  

E-print Network

), acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, a derivative of BTH), salicylic acid (SA), and phosphates have been shown196 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Virology Biological and Molecular Analyses of the Acibenzolar-S-Methyl- Induced. Biological and molecular analyses of the acibenzolar- S-methyl-induced systemic acquired resistance in flue

Pappu, Hanu R.

116

Kinetics of Salicylate Elimination by Anephric Patients  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this research were to determine the kinetics of salicylate elimination in anephric patients and particularly to establish if these patients form the major metabolite of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, at a normal rate. This investigation was initiated because of conflicting reports concerning the contribution of the kidneys to the formation of salicyluric acid in man. Six patients, 20-44 yr old, three of whom were anatomically anephric while the other three were physiologically anephric, received an intravenous injection of 500 mg salicylic acid (as sodium salicylate)/1.73 m2 body surface area on an interdialysis day. Serial blood samples were obtained for 12 or 16 h after injection and the plasma was assayed for salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, total protein, albumin, and creatinine. Detailed pharmacokinetic analysis based on an open, two-compartment linear model revealed no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution and apparent first-order distribution and elimination rate constants between the anephric patients and normal adult subjects. An estimate of salicyluric acid formation rate by the anephric patients, based on the initial rate of increase of salicylurate concentrations in plasma, indicates that the metabolite is formed at a normal rate. These results suggest that the kidneys do not contribute significantly to the formation of salicyluric acid from salicylic acid in man. PMID:4424666

Lowenthal, David T.; Briggs, William A.; Levy, Gerhard

1974-01-01

117

Salicylic acid ointment peeling of the hands and forearms. Effective nonsurgical removal of pigmented lesions and actinic damage.  

PubMed

A methyl salicylate-buffered, croton oil-containing 50% salicylic acid ointment peel, following pretreatment with topical tretinoin and localized 20% trichloroacetic acid, is extremely effective for removal of lentigines, pigmented keratoses, and actinically damaged skin from the dorsum of the hands and forearms. The ease of application, uniform results, decreased risk of scarring, and one-time application of this peel, in comparison with other methods used for treatment of these aging-skin changes, warrants consideration by the dermatologic surgeon. PMID:1534332

Swinehart, J M

1992-06-01

118

Relaxation in the glass-former acetyl salicylic acid studied by deuteron magnetic resonance and dielectric spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Supercooled liquid and glassy acetyl salicylic acid was studied using dielectric spectroscopy and deuteron relaxometry in a wide temperature range. The supercooled liquid is characterized by major deviations from thermally activated behavior. In the glass the secondary relaxation exhibits the typical features of a Johari-Goldstein process. Via measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times the selectively deuterated methyl group was used as a sensitive probe of its local environments. There is a large difference in the mean activation energy in the glass with respect to that in crystalline acetyl salicylic acid. This can be understood by taking into account the broad energy barrier distribution in the glass.

R. Nath; T. El Goresy; H. Zimmermann; R. Bohmer

2006-04-09

119

Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

2011-01-01

120

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...system is a device intended to measure salicylates, a class of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs that includes aspirin, in human specimens. Measurements obtained by this device are used in diagnosis and treatment of salicylate overdose...

2011-04-01

121

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...system is a device intended to measure salicylates, a class of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs that includes aspirin, in human specimens. Measurements obtained by this device are used in diagnosis and treatment of salicylate overdose...

2012-04-01

122

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...system is a device intended to measure salicylates, a class of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs that includes aspirin, in human specimens. Measurements obtained by this device are used in diagnosis and treatment of salicylate overdose...

2010-04-01

123

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

...system is a device intended to measure salicylates, a class of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs that includes aspirin, in human specimens. Measurements obtained by this device are used in diagnosis and treatment of salicylate overdose...

2014-04-01

124

21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...system is a device intended to measure salicylates, a class of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs that includes aspirin, in human specimens. Measurements obtained by this device are used in diagnosis and treatment of salicylate overdose...

2013-04-01

125

Iron(III) and aluminium(III) complexes with substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids.  

PubMed

The chelating properties toward iron(III) and aluminium(III) of variously substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids have been evaluated, together with the effect of methoxy and nitro substituents in ortho and para position with respect to the phenolic group. The protonation and iron and aluminium complex formation equilibria have been studied by potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The overall results highlight that salicyl-aldehydes present good chelating properties toward iron(III), with pFe ranging from 14.2 with nitro to 15.7 with methoxy substituent, being ineffective toward aluminium; the pFe values for salicylic acids are generally lower than those for salicyl-aldehydes, and about 4 units higher than the corresponding pAl values. The effect of the two substituents on the chelating properties of the ligands can be rationalized in terms of the Swain-Lupton treatment which accounts for the field and resonance effects. The structural characterization of the 1:2 iron complex with p-nitro salicylic acid shows that iron(III) ion exhibits an octahedral surrounding where two salicylate chelating ligands supply two O-phenolate and two O-carboxylate donor atoms in a roughly equatorial plane. The trans-apical sites are occupied by two aqua ligands. PMID:23932552

Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Crisponi, Guido; Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Zoroddu, M Antonietta

2013-11-01

126

Potentiation by salicylate and salicyl alcohol of cadmium toxicity and accumulation in Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of Cd{sub 2+} in Escherichia coli K-12 was potentiated by salicylate and several related compounds. The efficiency of plating on Luria broth plates was reduced by more than 10(5)-fold when 10 mM salicylate and 200 microM CdCl{sub 2} were present simultaneously but was unaffected when either compound was present by itself. Synergistic effects were found at pH 7.4 with certain other weak acids (acetyl salicylate (aspirin), benzoate, and cinnamate) and with a nonacidic salicylate analog, salicyl alcohol, but not with acetate or p-hydroxy benzoate. Thus, the synergism with Cd{sub 2+} is determined by the structure of the compounds and not merely by their acidity. The kinetics of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by cells grown and assayed in broth indicated the presence of two uptake systems with Kms of 1 and 52 microM Cd{sub 2+} and Vmaxs of 0.059 and 1.5 mumol of Cd{sub 2+} per min per g of cells, respectively. The kinetics of uptake for cells grown and assayed with 20 mM salicyl alcohol showed 2.5-fold increases in the Vmaxs of both systems but no change in the Kms. Salicylate-grown cells also exhibited increased rates of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by both systems. Thus, enhanced uptake of Cd{sub 2+} may be responsible for the potentiation of Cd{sub 2+} toxicity by salicylate and salicyl alcohol.

Rosner, J.L.; Aumercier, M. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-12-01

127

Effects of salicylate on the inflammatory genes expression and synaptic ultrastructure in the cochlear nucleus of rats.  

PubMed

Aspirin (salicylate), as a common drug that is frequently used for long-term treatment in a clinical setting, has the potential to cause reversible tinnitus. However, few reports have examined the inflammatory cytokines expression and alteration of synaptic ultrastructure in the cochlear nucleus (CN) in a rat model of tinnitus. The tinnitus-like behavior of rats were detected by the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm. We investigated the expression levels of the tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) mRNA and protein in the CN and compared synapses ultrastructure in the CN of tinnitus rats with normal ones. GPIAS showed that rats with long-term administration of salicylate were experiencing tinnitus, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-? and NR2A were up-regulated in chronic treatment groups, and they returned to baseline 14 days after cessation of treatment. Furthermore, compared to normal rats, repetitive salicylate-treated rats showed a greater number of presynaptic vesicles, thicker and longer postsynaptic densities, increased synaptic interface curvature. These data revealed that chronic salicylate administration markedly, but reversibly, induces tinnitus possibly via augmentation of the expression of TNF-? and NR2A and cause changes in synaptic ultrastructure in the CN. Long-term administration of salicylate causes neural plasticity changes at the CN level. PMID:24092407

Hu, Shou-Sen; Mei, Ling; Chen, Jian-Yong; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Wu, Hao

2014-04-01

128

Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion  

PubMed Central

As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and ?-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N.; Devi, Prabha

2013-01-01

129

Structural Basis for Substrate Recognition in the Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase Family  

PubMed Central

Recently, a novel family of methyltransferases was identified in plants. Some members of this newly discovered and recently characterized methyltransferase family catalyze the formation of small-molecule methyl esters using S-adenosyl-l-Met (SAM) as a methyl donor and carboxylic acid–bearing substrates as methyl acceptors. These enzymes include SAMT (SAM:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase), BAMT (SAM:benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase), and JMT (SAM:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase). Moreover, other members of this family of plant methyltransferases have been found to catalyze the N-methylation of caffeine precursors. The 3.0-Å crystal structure of Clarkia breweri SAMT in complex with the substrate salicylic acid and the demethylated product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine reveals a protein structure that possesses a helical active site capping domain and a unique dimerization interface. In addition, the chemical determinants responsible for the selection of salicylic acid demonstrate the structural basis for facile variations of substrate selectivity among functionally characterized plant carboxyl-directed and nitrogen-directed methyltransferases and a growing set of related proteins that have yet to be examined biochemically. Using the three-dimensional structure of SAMT as a guide, we examined the substrate specificity of SAMT by site-directed mutagenesis and activity assays against 12 carboxyl-containing small molecules. Moreover, the utility of structural information for the functional characterization of this large family of plant methyltransferases was demonstrated by the discovery of an Arabidopsis methyltransferase that is specific for the carboxyl-bearing phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:12897246

Zubieta, Chloe; Ross, Jeannine R.; Koscheski, Paul; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Noel, Joseph P.

2003-01-01

130

Salicylate-mediated interactions between pathogens and herbivores.  

PubMed

Plants employ hormone-mediated signaling pathways to defend against pathogens and insects. We tested predictions about the relative effect of jasmonate and salicylate pathways and how they mediate interactions between pathogens and herbivores. We employed two pathogens of tomato, Pseudomonas syringae (Pst) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), that are known to elicit distinct components of the two pathways, and we address the consequences of their induction for resistance in wild-type and salicylate-deficient transgenic plants in field experiments. We report that Pst infection induced jasmonic acid and proteinase inhibitors (PIs), and reduced the growth of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars on wild-type and salicylate-deficient plants. Pst and TMV both induced salicylic acid in wild-type but not salicylate-deficient plants. Although TMV did not affect jasmonic acid or PIs, infection increased caterpillar growth on wild-type plants, but not on salicylate-deficient plants. Aphid population growth was higher on salicylate-deficient compared to wild-type plants, and lower on salicylate-induced plants compared to controls. Natural aphid colonization was reduced on TMV-infected wild types, but not on salicylate-deficient plants. In sum, jasmonate-mediated resistance is induced by some pathogens, independent of salicylate, and salicylate-mediated induction by other pathogens results in induced susceptibility to a chewer and resistance to an aphid. We conclude with a predictive model for the expression of defense pathways and their consequences. PMID:20462121

Thaler, Jennifer S; Agrawal, Anurag A; Halitschke, Rayko

2010-04-01

131

SALICYLIC ACID: PROPERTIES, BIOSYNTHESIS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. A review is made of recent publications devoted to various as- pects of salicylic acid (SA) influence on different physiological processes. The role of SA on plant growth and development, flowering, ion uptake, stomatal regulation and photosynthesis is analysed. SA as a natural inducer of thermogenesis and disease resistance in plants is described. Besides the physiological functions of SA,

Losanka Popova; Tania Pancheva; Alexandra Uzunov

1997-01-01

132

FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic studies of salicylic acid derivatives. II. Comparison of 2-hydroxy- and 2,4- and 2,5-dihydroxy derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2,4- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzamides (8, 9) were syn- thesized from their corresponding methyl esters. The struc- tures and the spectral properties of investigated salicylic acid (1), 2,4- and 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acids (2, 3), their methyl esters (4-6) and amides (7-9) were analyzed by means of FT-IR and one- and two-dimensional homo- and heteronuclear 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Com- parison

MILENA JADRIJEVI; MLADAR TAKA

133

Jasmonate and salicylate induce the expression of pathogenesis-related-protein genes and increase resistance to chilling injury in tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Beefstake) fruit with low concentrations of (0.01 mM) methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or methyl salicylate (MeSA) substantially enhanced their resistance to chilling temperature and decreased the incidence of decay during low-temperature storage. While studying the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, different accumulation patterns of PR-protein mRNAs in tomato fruit were observed. MeJA substantially

Chang-Kui Ding; Chien Yi Wang; Kenneth C. Gross; David L. Smith

2002-01-01

134

Salicylate or bismuth salts enhance opsonophagocytosis of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary After treatment of encapsulatedKlebsiella pneumoniae with salicylate or bismuth compounds, phagocytic uptake by human peripheral white blood cells or rat alveolar macrophages was assessed. Without salicylate pretreatment of bacteria, a 30–60% net increase in viable bacteria resulted in phagocytic assays after a 1 hour incubation. With salicylate pretreatment, dose-related decreases in bacterial counts were seen, achieving a maximal reduction

P. Domenico; B. A. Cunha; R. J. Salo; D. C. Straus; J. C. Hutson

1992-01-01

135

40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...identified generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN...

2010-07-01

136

40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

...2014-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...identified generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN...

2014-07-01

137

40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...identified generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN...

2012-07-01

138

40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...identified generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN...

2013-07-01

139

40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...identified generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN...

2011-07-01

140

Spectroscopic studies of solid-state forms of donepezil free base and salt forms with various salicylic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polymorphic forms of donepezil free base have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. None of the free base crystal forms was observed to exhibit detectable fluorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions. Crystalline salt products were obtained by the reaction of donepezil with salicylic and methyl-substituted salicylic acids, with the salicylate and 4-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as non-solvated products, and the 3-methylsalicylate and 5-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as methanol solvated products. The intensity of solid-state fluorescence from donepezil salicylate and donepezil 4-methylsalicylate was found to be reduced relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids, while the solid-state fluorescence intensity of donepezil 3-methylsalicylate methanolate and donepezil 5-methylsalicylate methanolate was greatly increased relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids. Desolvation of the solvated salt products led to formation of glassy solids that exhibited strong green fluorescence.

Brittain, Harry G.

2014-12-01

141

Decreased protein binding of salicylates in Kawasaki disease.  

PubMed

Because patients with Kawasaki disease have low serum concentrations of salicylates despite high doses, and because the free (unbound) drug is responsible for the pharmacologic effects of salicylates, we assessed salicylate protein binding in patients with Kawasaki disease. During the acute phase of the disease, protein binding of salicylate in 36 children with Kawasaki disease was 73 +/- 12%, significantly lower than during the subacute phase (90.4 +/- 8.7%; p less than 0.0005). Mean serum albumin concentration was 29.2 +/- 6.4 gm/L during the acute phase and 36.7 +/- 7.8 gm/L during the subsequent subacute phase (p less than 0.005). Salicylate protein binding was affected independently by both serum albumin and total salicylate levels. During the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, children had an average twofold increase in free salicylate compared with normoalbuminemic control subjects. A nomogram has been devised to derive free salicylate levels from the known total salicylate and serum albumin concentrations. PMID:1999792

Koren, G; Silverman, E; Sundel, R; Edney, P; Newburger, J W; Klein, J; Robieux, I; Laxer, R; Giesbrecht, E; Burns, J C

1991-03-01

142

QM/MM Free Energy Simulations of Salicylic Acid Methyltransferase: Effects of Stabilization of TS-like Structures on Substrate Specificity  

SciTech Connect

Salicylic acid methyltransferases (SAMTs) synthesize methyl salicylate (MeSA) using salicylate as the substrate. MeSA synthesized in plants may function as an airborne signal to activate the expression of defense-related genes and could also be a critical mobile signaling molecule that travels from the site of plant infection to establish systemic immunity in the induction of disease resistance. Here the results of QM/MM free energy simulations for the methyl transfer process in Clarkia breweri SAMT (CbSAMT) are reported to determine the origin of the substrate specificity of SAMTs. The free energy barrier for the methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to 4-hydroxybenzoate in CbSAMT is found to be about 5 kcal/mol higher than that from AdoMet to salicylate, consistent with the experimental observations. It is suggested that the relatively high efficiency for the methylation of salicylate compared to 4-hydroxybenzoate is due, at least in part, to the reason that a part of the stabilization of the transition state (TS) configuration is already reflected in the reactant complex, presumably, through the binding. The results seem to indicate that the creation of the substrate complex (e.g., through mutagenesis and substrate modifications) with its structure closely resembling TS might be fruitful for improving the catalytic efficiency for some enzymes. The results show that the computer simulations may provide important insights into the origin of the substrate specificity for the SABATH family and could be used to help experimental efforts in generating engineered enzymes with altered substrate specificity.

Yao, Jianzhuang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Xu, Qin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guo, Hong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2010-01-01

143

Manipulation of salicylate content in Arabidopsis thaliana by the expression of an engineered bacterial salicylate  

E-print Network

responses against invading pathogens (for a recent review see Dempsey et al., 1999). In some plantsG gene, which encodes the SA metabolizing enzyme salicylate hydroxylase. NahG plants are unable role as a signalling molecule involved in plant defense against microbial attack. Genetic manipulation

Mauch, Felix - Department of Biology

144

Effect of salicylic acid and salt on wheat seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pretreatment with salicylic acid on wheat seed germination (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Roshan), lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activity were studied under conditions of salt stress. Seeds treated with different concentrations of salicylic acid were used for measuring germination traits. Salt stress was induced by sodium chloride solution. Seeds were soaked in

Aria Dolatabadian; Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy; Mozafar Sharifi

2009-01-01

145

Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

2000-01-01

146

Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant defense responses  

E-print Network

-carboxylic acid and 2-chlorothiazolyl- 5-carboxylic acid metabolites, respectively, induce salicylic acid (SANeonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate- associated plant defense responses Kevin A. Forda,1-carboxylic acid, which is shown here to be a po- tent inducer of PR1 and inhibitor of SA-sensitive enzymes

Wildermuth, Mary C

147

A Central Role of Salicylic Acid in Plant Disease Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the bacterial enzyme salicylate hydroxylase cannot accumulate salicylic acid (SA). This defect not only makes the plants unable to induce systemic acquired resistance, but also leads to increased susceptibility to viral, fungal, and bacterial pathogens. The enhanced susceptibility extends even to host-pathogen combinations that would normally result in genetic resistance. Therefore, SA accumulation is

Terrence P. Delaney; Scott Uknes; Bernard Vernooij; Leslie Friedrich; Kris Weymann; David Negrotto; Thomas Gaffney; Manuela Gut-Rella; Helmut Kessmann; Eric Ward; John Ryals

1994-01-01

148

Infrared and ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled substituted salicylic acids; substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer in salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in the salicylic acid (SA) frame were studied by electronic and infrared spectroscopy of jet-cooled 5-methoxylsalicylic acid (5-MeOSA), 5-methylsalicylic acid (5-MeSA), 5-fluorosalicylic acid (5-FSA), 6-fluorosalicylic acid (6-FSA), and methyl salicylate (MS). Infrared spectra were measured in the 3 µm region for both the electronic ground (S0) and first excited (S1) states. The electronic excitation/emission spectra of 5-MeSA and 6-FSA showed the typical spectral features of ESIPT, which have been found in the spectra of SA. On the other hand, 5-MeOSA and 5-FSA exhibit a mirror-image relation between their excitation and emission spectra, which has been regarded as a result of the suppression of ESIPT. Despite such a remarkable difference among the electronic spectra, IR spectroscopy shows that a drastic change of the phenolic OH stretching vibration does occur upon electronic excitation of all substituted SAs, that is, the phenolic OH band of all the SAs disappears from the 3 µm region, indicating a large elongation of the phenolic O-H bond (over 0.1 Å) in S1. This result means that the intramolecular hydrogen bond strength is remarkably enhanced by electronic excitation in all the substituted SAs. Substitution effects on ESIPT in dimers are also discussed.

Abd El-Hakam Abou El-Nasr, E.; Fujii, A.; Ebata, T.; Mikami, N.

149

4-Carbamoylpiperidinium 5-nitro-salicylate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C7H4NO5 ?, the isonipecotamide cations and the 5-nitro­salicylate anions form hydrogen-bonded chain substructures through head-to-tail piperidinium–carboxyl­ate N—H?O hydrogen bonds and through centrosymmetric cyclic head-to-head amide–amide hydrogen-bonding associations [graph set R 2 2(8)]. These chains are cross-linked by amide–carboxyl­ate N—H?O and piperidinium–nitro N—H?O associations, giving a sheet structure. PMID:21522633

Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

2011-01-01

150

Self association of sodium salicylate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aggregation behavior of sodium salicylate (SS) in aqueous solutions has been studied by positronium annihilation technique. From the change of the pick-off life time as well as the intensity of the ortho-positronium component, it has been concluded that the minimal hydrotropic concentration (MHC) of SS lies in the range 0.9-1.0 M concentration. To support the above contention, the molecular association of SS has also been investigated by the changes in light scattering intensity, conductivity as well as NMR data. These experiments conjointly infer that the stacking of SS molecules appears to start beyond 0.9 M concentration.

Das, Subir Kumar; Das, Shrabani; Ganguly, B. Nandi; Maitra, Amarnath

2003-09-01

151

Class I Chitinase and -1,3-Glucanase Are Differentially Regulated by Wounding, Methyl Jasmonate, Ethylene, and  

E-print Network

Class I Chitinase and -1,3-Glucanase Are Differentially Regulated by Wounding, Methyl Jasmonate. Wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induced Chi9 expression, whereas ethylene, abscisic acid, sodium salicylate, fusicoccin, or -aminobutyric acid were without effect. Chi9 expression occurred only

Bradford, Kent

152

Structural genes for salicylate biosynthesis from chorismate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Salicylate is a precursor of pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both compounds display siderophore activity. To elucidate the salicylate biosynthetic pathway, we have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal region of P. aeruginosa PAO1 containing two adjacent genes, designated pchB and pchA, which are necessary for salicylate formation. The pchA gene encodes a protein of 52 kDa with extensive similarity to the chorismate-utilizing enzymes isochorismate synthase, anthranilate synthase (component I) and p-aminobenzoate synthase (component I), whereas the 11 kDa protein encoded by pchB does not show significant similarity with other proteins. The pchB stop codon overlaps the presumed pchA start codon. Expression of the pchA gene in P. aeruginosa appears to depend on the transcription and translation of the upstream pchB gene. The pchBA genes are the first salicylate biosynthetic genes to be reported. Salicylate formation was demonstrated in an Escherichia coli entC mutant lacking isochorismate synthase when this strain expressed both the pchBA genes, but not when it expressed pchB alone. By contrast, an entB mutant of E. coli blocked in the conversion of isochorismate to 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate formed salicylate when transformed with a pchB expression construct. Salicylate formation could also be demonstrated in vitro when chorismate was incubated with a crude extract of P. aeruginosa containing overproduced PchA and PchB proteins; salicylate and pyruvate were formed in equimolar amounts. Furthermore, salicylate-forming activity could be detected in extracts from a P. aeruginosa pyoverdin-negative mutant when grown under iron limitation, but not with iron excess. Our results are consistent with a pathway leading from chorismate to isochorismate and then to salicylate plus pyruvate, catalyzed consecutively by the iron-repressible PchA and PchB proteins in P. aeruginosa. PMID:7500944

Serino, L; Reimmann, C; Baur, H; Beyeler, M; Visca, P; Haas, D

1995-11-15

153

Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of salicylates in aerated aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation induced degradation of acetylsalicylic acid, its hydrolysis product salicylic acid and a salicylic acid derivative 5-sulpho-salicylic acid, was investigated in dilute aqueous solutions by UV-vis spectrophotometry, HPLC separation and diode-array or MS/MS detection, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and by Vibrio fischeri toxicity measurements. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to degrade these molecules readily, and first degradation products were hydroxylated derivatives in all cases. Due to the by-products, among them hydrogen peroxide, the toxicity first increased and then decreased with the absorbed dose. With prolonged irradiation complete mineralization was achieved.

Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

2014-04-01

154

Methylation matters  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is not just for basic scientists any more. There is a growing awareness in the medical field that having the correct pattern of genomic methylation is essential for healthy cells and organs. If methylation patterns are not properly established or maintained, disorders as diverse as mental retardation, immune deficiency, and sporadic or inherited cancers may follow. Through inappropriate silencing of growth regulating genes and simultaneous destabilisation of whole chromosomes, methylation defects help create a chaotic state from which cancer cells evolve. Methylation defects are present in cells before the onset of obvious malignancy and therefore cannot be explained simply as a consequence of a deregulated cancer cell. Researchers are now able to detect with exquisite sensitivity the cells harbouring methylation defects, sometimes months or years before the time when cancer is clinically detectable. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of specific genes has been directly linked with the tumour response to chemotherapy and patient survival. Advances in our ability to observe the methylation status of the entire cancer cell genome have led us to the unmistakable conclusion that methylation abnormalities are far more prevalent than expected. This methylomics approach permits the integration of an ever growing repertoire of methylation defects with the genetic alterations catalogued from tumours over the past two decades. Here we discuss the current knowledge of DNA methylation in normal cells and disease states, and how this relates directly to our current understanding of the mechanisms by which tumours arise.???Keywords: methylation; cancer PMID:11333864

Costello, J.; Plass, C.

2001-01-01

155

Mechanistic and Structural Studies of Salicylate Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

E-print Network

by adenylation for incorporation to siderophores is associated with the growth and virulence of some pathogens. The inhibition of salicylate biosynthesis, and hence, siderophore production is considered an attractive target for the development of novel...

Luo, Qianyi

2009-04-29

156

Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes  

PubMed Central

Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-?, and IL-1? mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-?, IL-1? mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

2013-01-01

157

Expression of immediate-early genes in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rat.  

PubMed

Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC), in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus. PMID:24704997

Hu, S S; Mei, L; Chen, J Y; Huang, Z W; Wu, H

2014-01-01

158

A Modified Carbon Paste Electrode with Silica Gel Coated with Meldola's Blue and Salicylate Hydroxylase as a Biosensor for Salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biosensor for salicylate was developed using a modified carbon paste electrode with silica gel coated with Meldola's Blue and salicylate hydroxylase. This biosensor detects the catechol produced in the enzymatic reaction through its electroxidation on the mediator. The influence of NADH\\/substrate ratio was verified and the biosensor presented response when this ratio was higher than 1.8. The pH of

Lauro T. Kubota; Benjamin G. Milagres; Fabio Gouvea; Graciliano de Oliveira Neto

1996-01-01

159

Salicylates and proton transport through lipid bilayer membranes: A model for salicylate-induced uncoupling and swelling in mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mechanisms of proton transport were investigated in phospholipid bilayer membranes exposed to salicylates and benzoates. Membranes were formed from diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine in decane plus chlorodecane (50% vol\\/vol). Proton and anion conductances (GH andGA) were calculated from the total conductances and the H+ or A diffusion potentials produced by transmembrane H+ or A gradients. At low pH salicylate caused aGH

John Gutknecht

1990-01-01

160

NEW PYRIMIDENES 2AMINO6METHYL4- AMINO-SUBSTITUTES, SUPPOSED TO BE BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY There have been obtained seven new pyrimidines 2-amino-6-methyl-4- aminosubstitutes through the reaction of 2-amino-6-methyl-4-chloro-pyrimidine with amines (o-, m-, p-methyl-aniline, o- and m-trifluor-methyl-aniline, amino-salicylic acid and 3-dimethylamino-1-propylamine), with the yields between 19-93%. The obtained products have been characterized by the melting points, the Rf of the thin layer chromatography (TLC), as well as by the spectral data (UV-VIZ, FT-IR, 1

Alina Andrei; V. Badea; R. Nu

161

Biosynthesis of salicylic acid in plants  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule in plants. Two pathways of SA biosynthesis have been proposed in plants. Biochemical studies using isotope feeding have suggested that plants synthesize SA from cinnamate produced by the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Silencing of PAL genes in tobacco or chemical inhibition of PAL activity in Arabidopsis, cucumber and potato reduces pathogen-induced SA accumulation. Genetic studies, on the other hand, indicate that the bulk of SA is produced from isochorismate. In bacteria, SA is synthesized from chorismate through two reactions catalyzed by isochorismate synthase (ICS) and isochorismate pyruvate lyase (IPL). Arabidopsis contains two ICS genes but has no gene encoding proteins similar to the bacterial IPL. Thus, how SA is synthesized in plants is not fully elucidated. Two recently identified Arabidopsis genes, PBS3 and EPS1, are important for pathogen-induced SA accumulation. PBS3 encodes a member of the acyl-adenylate/thioester-forming enzyme family and EPS1 encodes a member of the BAHD acyltransferase superfamily. PBS3 and EPS1 may be directly involved in the synthesis of an important precursor or regulatory molecule for SA biosynthesis. The pathways and regulation of SA biosynthesis in plants may be more complicated than previously thought. PMID:19816125

Zheng, Zuyu; Huang, Junli; Lai, Zhibing; Fan, Baofang

2009-01-01

162

Synthesis and characterization of cobalt(II)–salicylate complexes derived from N 4-donor ligands: Stabilization of a hexameric water cluster in the lattice host of a cobalt(III)–salicylate complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntheses and structural characterization of four cobalt(II)–salicylate complexes, [(TPA)CoII(HSA)](ClO4) (1), [(isoBPMEN)CoII(HSA)](BPh4) (2), [(TPzA)CoII(HSA)](ClO4) (3) and [(6Me3TPA)CoII(HSA)](BPh4) (4) [TPA=tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, isoBPMEN=N1,N1-dimethyl-N2,N2-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, TPzA=tris((3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl)amine and 6Me3TPA=tris(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)amine] are described. While 2, 3 and 4 are unreactive towards dioxygen, 1 reacts slowly with molecular oxygen to a cobalt(III)–salicylate complex, [(TPA)CoIII(SA)](ClO4) (1a). Two different crystalline forms, 1a and 1a·4H2O were isolated depending upon the condition of

Biswarup Chakraborty; Tapan Kanti Paine

2011-01-01

163

Value of monitoring plasma salicylate levels in treating juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Observations in 42 cases.  

PubMed Central

Plasma salicylate concentration was monitored in 42 children on long-term salicylate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. A given dose of salicylate per kg resulted in large variations in plasma levels, both between individuals and for a single individual at different times. The factors responsible for such variations were studied; in 6 cases urinary metabolites of salicylate were analysed. The relation between salicylate dosage and plasma half-life accounts for the fact that small changes in dosage can result in large changes in plasma concentration. The addition of corticosteroid or ACTH therapy results in lower plasma levels of salicylate, and necessitates higher dosage of salicylate. After the introduction of routine monitoring of plasma salicylate, the incidence of toxic symptoms fell sharply. PMID:666351

Bardare, M; Cislaghi, G U; Mandelli, M; Sereni, F

1978-01-01

164

Ion Channel-Forming Alamethicin Is a Potent Elicitor of Volatile Biosynthesis and Tendril Coiling. Cross Talk between Jasmonate and Salicylate Signaling in Lima Bean1  

PubMed Central

Alamethicin (ALA), a voltage-gated, ion channel-forming peptide mixture from Trichoderma viride, is a potent elicitor of the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Unlike elicitation with jasmonic acid or herbivore damage, the blend of substances emitted comprises only the two homoterpenes, 4,11-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, and methyl salicylate. Inhibition of octadecanoid signaling by aristolochic acid and phenidone as well as mass spectrometric analysis of endogenous jasmonate demonstrate that ALA induces the biosynthesis of volatile compounds principally via the octadecanoid-signaling pathway (20-fold increase of jasmonic acid). ALA also up-regulates salicylate biosynthesis, and the time course of the production of endogenous salicylate correlates well with the appearance of the methyl ester in the gas phase. The massive up-regulation of the SA-pathway (90-fold) interferes with steps in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of 12-oxophytodienoic acid and thereby reduces the pattern of emitted volatiles to compounds previously shown to be induced by early octadecanoids. ALA also induces tendril coiling in various species like Pisum, Lathyrus, and Bryonia, but the response appears to be independent from octadecanoid biosynthesis, because inhibitors of lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 do not prevent the coiling reaction. PMID:11154344

Engelberth, Jurgen; Koch, Thomas; Schuler, Gode; Bachmann, Nadine; Rechtenbach, Jana; Boland, Wilhelm

2001-01-01

165

Experimental evidence of the chaotic regime in a salicylate biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a biosensor for salicylate, developed using a modified carbon paste electrode with silica gel coated with Meldola's Blue and salicylate hydroxylase, the current time series presented a complex oscillatory pattern, for salicylate and NADH concentrations close to 2.0 × 10 -5 and 3.6 × 10 -5 mol 1 -1, respectively. These experimental results suggest that the biosensor response presents chaotic characteristics. The complex temporal behavior of these series was diagnosed as deterministic chaos by measurement of the Grassberger-Procaccia dimension, and the calculation of the first Lyapunov exponent. The value determined for the correlational dimension is lower than 5. These results suggest a coupling of five or six differential equations to describe the redox reactions of the biosensor system.

Kubota, Lauro T.; Kleinke, Mauricio U.; Mello, Cesar; Bueno, Maria I.; de Oliveira Neto, Graciliano

1997-01-01

166

Inhibition of Activity of Catalase from Potato Tubers by Salicylic and Succinic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that salicylic acid inhibits the activity of catalase from potato tubers in vitro. Succinic acid suppressed catalase activity at the same concentrations that salicylate; however, its effect was more long-term. Bovine catalase was less sensitive to salicylic and succinic acids than potato catalase. In the past years, the attention of researchers has been attracted to studying the

Ya. S. Panina; N. I. Vasyukova; O. L. Ozeretskovskaya

2004-01-01

167

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine:Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase, an Enzyme Involved in Floral Scent  

E-print Network

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine:Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase, an Enzyme Involved in Floral Arbor, Michigan 48109 Received February 10, 1998, and in revised form April 14, 1999 S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic compound in C. breweri, from salicylic acid and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). The native en- zyme

Pichersky, Eran

168

MAP KINASE PHOSPHATASE1 and PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE1 Are Repressors of Salicylic Acid Synthesis  

E-print Network

MAP KINASE PHOSPHATASE1 and PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE1 Are Repressors of Salicylic Acid and constitutive biotic defense responses, including elevated levels of salicylic acid, camalexin, PR gene in the Wassilewskija accession. Our data thus indicate a major role of MKP1 and PTP1 in repressing salicylic acid

Hirt, Heribert

169

The GH3 Acyl Adenylase Family Member PBS3 Regulates Salicylic Acid-Dependent Defense  

E-print Network

The GH3 Acyl Adenylase Family Member PBS3 Regulates Salicylic Acid-Dependent Defense Responses, suggesting it may impact basal disease resistance. Because induced salicylic acid (SA) is a critical mediator pro- duction of PR proteins and amplifying the oxidative burst is salicylic acid (SA; Ryals et al

Wildermuth, Mary C

170

The Arabidopsis hrl1 mutation reveals novel overlapping roles for salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene  

E-print Network

The Arabidopsis hrl1 mutation reveals novel overlapping roles for salicylic acid, jasmonic acid molecules: salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). The hrl1 (hypersensitive response defence. Salicylic acid (SA) is both essential and suf®cient to induce SAR because transgenic expression

Raina, Ramesh

171

Arabidopsis Isochorismate Synthase Functional in Pathogen-induced Salicylate Biosynthesis Exhibits  

E-print Network

Park, California 94025 Salicylic acid (SA) is a phytohormone best known for its role in plant defense the synthesis of salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) or 2,3-dihy- droxybenzoic acid; these compoundsArabidopsis Isochorismate Synthase Functional in Pathogen-induced Salicylate Biosynthesis Exhibits

Wildermuth, Mary C

172

Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated  

E-print Network

Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling. PLoS Genet 5

Kachroo, Pradeep

173

Role of Salicylic Acid and Fatty Acid Desaturation Pathways in ssi2-Mediated Signaling1[W  

E-print Network

Role of Salicylic Acid and Fatty Acid Desaturation Pathways in ssi2-Mediated Signaling1[W] Pradeep for the regu- lation of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signaling in the plant, including the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) in the inoculated

Kachroo, Pradeep

174

Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity  

E-print Network

Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant Immunity oomycete pathogen, through a process that is dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and activation al. (2012) Two-Component Elements Mediate Interactions between Cytokinin and Salicylic Acid in Plant

Dangl, Jeff

175

In vivo gene regulation in Salmonella spp. by a salicylate-dependent control circuit  

E-print Network

into salicylic acid, which has a half-life of 2­4 h. An extensive body of clinical and experimental evidenceIn vivo gene regulation in Salmonella spp. by a salicylate-dependent control circuit Jose´ Luis and establishing bacteria-based therapies. We integrated a regulatory control circuit activated by acetyl salicylic

Cai, Long

176

Salicylic acid peels for the treatment of photoaging.  

PubMed

Several chemical agents are currently used to perform superficial chemical peels of the face. These include trichloracetic acid (15-30%), alpha-hydroxy acids (e.g., glycolic acid, 40-70%), and Jessner's solution (14% lactic acid, 14% resorcinol, and 14% salicylic acid). We have developed salicylic acid, a beta-hydroxy acid, at a higher strength (30% in a hydro-ethanolic vehicle) as an alternative peel. This peel has distinct advantages for resurfacing moderately photodamaged facial skin. We have peeled patients singly and multiply at 4-week intervals. The benefits are fading of pigment spots, decreased surface roughness, and reduction of fine lines. PMID:9537006

Kligman, D; Kligman, A M

1998-03-01

177

The protective effect of salicylic acid on lysozyme against riboflavin-mediated photooxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a metabolite of aspirin in vivo, salicylic acid was proved to protect lysozyme from riboflavin-mediated photooxidation in this study. The antioxidative properties of salicylic acid were further studied by using time-resolved laser flash photolysis of 355 nm. It can quench the triplet state of riboflavin via electron transfer from salicylic acid to the triplet state of riboflavin with a reaction constant of 2.25 × 10 9 M -1 s -1. Mechanism of antioxidant activities of salicylic acid on lysozyme oxidation was discussed. Salicylic acid can serve as a potential antioxidant to quench the triplet state of riboflavin and reduce oxidative pressure.

Li, Kun; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Lingli; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Mei; Wang, Shi-Long

2011-06-01

178

Effect of salicylate on the elasticity, bending stiffness, and strength of SOPC membranes.  

PubMed

Salicylate is a small amphiphilic molecule which has diverse effects on membranes and membrane-mediated processes. We have utilized micropipette aspiration of giant unilamellar vesicles to determine salicylate's effects on lecithin membrane elasticity, bending rigidity, and strength. Salicylate effectively reduces the apparent area compressibility modulus and bending modulus of membranes in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations above 1 mM, but does not greatly alter the actual elastic compressibility modulus at the maximal tested concentration of 10 mM. The effect of salicylate on membrane strength was investigated using dynamic tension spectroscopy, which revealed that salicylate increases the frequency of spontaneous defect formation and lowers the energy barrier for unstable hole formation. The mechanical and dynamic tension experiments are consistent and support a picture in which salicylate disrupts membrane stability by decreasing membrane stiffness and membrane thickness. The tension-dependent partitioning of salicylate was utilized to calculate the molecular volume of salicylate in the membrane. The free energy of transfer for salicylate insertion into the membrane and the corresponding partition coefficient were also estimated, and indicated favorable salicylate-membrane interactions. The mechanical changes induced by salicylate may affect several biological processes, especially those associated with membrane curvature and permeability. PMID:15951377

Zhou, Yong; Raphael, Robert M

2005-09-01

179

Salicylate-Independent Lesion Formation in Arabidopsis lsd Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many interactions of plants with pathogens, the pri- mary host defense reaction is accompanied by plant cell death at the site of infection. The resulting lesions are cor- related with the establishment of an inducible resistance in plants called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), for which salicylic acid (SA) accumulation is a critical signal- ing event in Arabidopsis and tobacco.

Michelle D. Hunt; Terrence P. Delaney; Robert A. Dietrich; Kris B. Weymann; Jeffery L. Dangl; John A. Ryals

1997-01-01

180

Ammonium determination in soil extracts by the salicylate method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ammonium determination, based on formation of a substituted indophenol with sodiumsalicylate as phenolic reagent, has been reexamined. An increase of 70% in absorbancy compared with existing salicylate methods in soil science, and an increase in reproducibility compared with pre?existing equivalent methods in other disciplines were obtained. The method can be applied satisfactorily for ammonium in 2M KCl soil extracts

A. J. Kempers; A. Zweers

1986-01-01

181

Reye's syndrome: salicylate and mitochondrial monoamine oxidase function  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that aspirin is somehow linked with the onset of Reye's syndrome (RS). A general feature of Reye's syndrome is severe impairment of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) function. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of salicylate on platelet mitochondrial MAO activity in three groups: group A (healthy children, n = 21) and group C (healthy adults, n = 10). Platelet MAO was measured by radio-enzymatic technique with /sup 14/C-tyramine as a substrate. The results showed that salicyclate (10 mM) had a 20 to 60 percent inhibitory effect on platelet MAO function in only 1, 3 and 2 of the subjects in group A, B and C. Furthermore, there was an association between low enzyme activity and salicylate MAO inhibitory effect in these subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that salicylate may induce deterioration in mitochondrial function in susceptible individuals and that the assessment of salicylate MAO inhibitory effect may identify those who may be at risk to develop aspirin poisoning and Reye's syndrome.

Faraj, B.A.; Caplan, D.; Lolies, P.

1986-03-01

182

Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for onl y6ho rsingle transient addition of

Ashraf Metwally; Iris Finkemeier; Manfred Georgi; Karl-Josef Dietz

2003-01-01

183

Modelling of agglomeration in suspension: Application to salicylic acid microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agglomeration in suspension technique consists of adding directly into the suspension a small amount of a second liquid which acts as an interparticle bonding agent. The system (salicylic acid particles, aqueous solution, chloroform) is studied experimentally by in situ image analysis. After a brief period of wetting of the particles by the binding liquid, the agglomerates grow by a

A. F. Blandin; D. Mangin; C. Subero-Couroyer; A. Rivoire; J. P. Klein; J. M. Bossoutrot

2005-01-01

184

Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are essential for systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.  

PubMed

Systemic resistance is induced by pathogens and confers protection against a broad range of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that salicylic acid (SA) derivative methyl salicylate (MeSA) serves as a long-distance phloem-mobile systemic resistance signal in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and potato. However, other experiments indicate that jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical mobile signal. Here, we present evidence suggesting both MeSA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are essential for systemic resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), possibly acting as the initiating signals for systemic resistance. Foliar application of JA followed by SA triggered the strongest systemic resistance against TMV. Furthermore, we use a virus-induced gene-silencing-based genetics approach to investigate the function of JA and SA biosynthesis or signaling genes in systemic response against TMV infection. Silencing of SA or JA biosynthetic and signaling genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to TMV. Genetic experiments also proved the irreplaceable roles of MeSA and MeJA in systemic resistance response. Systemic resistance was compromised when SA methyl transferase or JA carboxyl methyltransferase, which are required for MeSA and MeJA formation, respectively, were silenced. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that JA and MeJA accumulated in phloem exudates of leaves at early stages and SA and MeSA accumulated at later stages, after TMV infection. Our data also indicated that JA and MeJA could regulate MeSA and SA production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (Me)JA and (Me)SA are required for systemic resistance response against TMV. PMID:24450774

Zhu, Feng; Xi, De-Hui; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

2014-06-01

185

Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration  

SciTech Connect

In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does not influence any of the investigated parameters under hypoxia.

Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de

2012-04-15

186

Salicylic acid and salicylic acid glucoside in xylem sap of Brassica napus infected with Verticillium longisporum  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) and its glucoside (SAG) were detected in xylem sap of Brassica napus by HPLC–MS. Concentrations of SA and SAG in xylem sap from the root and hypocotyl of the plant, and in extracts of shoots above the hypocotyl, increased after infection with the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum. Both concentrations were correlated with disease severity assessed as the reduction in shoot length. Furthermore, SAG levels in shoot extracts were correlated with the amount of V. longisporum DNA in the hypocotyls. Although the concentration of SAG (but not SA) in xylem sap of infected plants gradually declined from 14 to 35 days post infection, SAG levels remained significantly higher than in uninfected plants during the whole experiment. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in xylem sap were not affected by infection with V. longisporum. SA and SAG extend the list of phytohormones potentially transported from root to shoot with the transpiration stream. The physiological relevance of this transport and its contribution to the distribution of SA in plants remain to be elucidated. PMID:19449088

Ratzinger, Astrid; Riediger, Nadine; von Tiedemann, Andreas

2009-01-01

187

Salicylic acid and salicylic acid glucoside in xylem sap of Brassica napus infected with Verticillium longisporum.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) and its glucoside (SAG) were detected in xylem sap of Brassica napus by HPLC-MS. Concentrations of SA and SAG in xylem sap from the root and hypocotyl of the plant, and in extracts of shoots above the hypocotyl, increased after infection with the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum. Both concentrations were correlated with disease severity assessed as the reduction in shoot length. Furthermore, SAG levels in shoot extracts were correlated with the amount of V. longisporum DNA in the hypocotyls. Although the concentration of SAG (but not SA) in xylem sap of infected plants gradually declined from 14 to 35 days post infection, SAG levels remained significantly higher than in uninfected plants during the whole experiment. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in xylem sap were not affected by infection with V. longisporum. SA and SAG extend the list of phytohormones potentially transported from root to shoot with the transpiration stream. The physiological relevance of this transport and its contribution to the distribution of SA in plants remain to be elucidated. PMID:19449088

Ratzinger, Astrid; Riediger, Nadine; von Tiedemann, Andreas; Karlovsky, Petr

2009-09-01

188

The salicylic acid-induced protection of non-climacteric unripe pepper fruit against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is similar to the resistance of ripe fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides deleteriously affects unripe pepper fruit, but not ripe fruit. Here, we show that the induction of local acquired resistance\\u000a (LAR) by salicylic acid (SA), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, or benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester\\u000a pretreatment protects unripe pepper fruit against the fungus, while jasmonic acid (JA) does not. The SA-mediated LAR in the\\u000a unripe fruit inhibited the fungal

Sanghyeob Lee; Jong-Chan Hong; Woong Bae Jeon; Young-Soo Chung; Soonkee Sung; Doil Choi; Young Hee Joung; Boung-Jun Oh

2009-01-01

189

Oxidation of Methyl-Substituted Naphthalenes: Pathways in a Versatile Sphingomonas paucimobilis Strain  

PubMed

Aromatic compounds with alkyl substituents are abundant in fossil fuels. These compounds become important environmental sources of soluble toxic products, developmental inhibitors, etc. principally through biological activities. To assess the effect of methyl substitution on the completeness of mineralization and accumulation of pathway products, an isolate from a phenanthrene enrichment culture, Sphingomonas paucimobilis 2322, was used. Washed cell suspensions containing cells grown on 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene in mineral medium were incubated with various mono-, di-, and trimethylnaphthalene isomers, and the products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The data revealed enzymes with relaxed substrate specificity that initiate metabolism either by methyl group monoxygenation or by ring dioxygenation. Congeners with a methyl group on each ring initially hydroxylate a methyl, and this is followed by conversion to a carboxyl; when there are two methyl groups on a single ring, the first reaction is aryl dioxygenation of the unsubstituted ring. Intermediates are channeled to primary ring fission via dihydrodiols to form methyl-substituted salicylates. Further evidence that there are multiple pathways comes from the fact that both phthalate and (methyl)salicylate are formed from 2-methylnaphthalene. PMID:9572967

Dutta; Selifonov; Gunsalus

1998-05-01

190

Glycosylation of capsaicinoids with Panax ginseng stimulated by salicylic acid.  

PubMed

The efficient production of ?-glycosides of capsaicin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured cells of Panax ginseng is reported. Capsaicin 4-O-(6-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (?-primeveroside, 12%) together with capsaicin 4-O-?-D-glucoside (6%) was isolated from the cell suspension of P. ginseng after one week of incubation with capsaicin. On the other hand, 8-nordihydrocapsaicin was glycosylated to 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-O-?-D-glucoside (5%) and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-O-?-primeveroside (9%) by P. ginseng. Pretreatment of the cultured cells with salicylic acid greatly enhanced the glucosylation activity toward capsaicinoids. When 500 ?M of salicylic acid was added to the cultures prior to the addition of substrate, capsaicin was converted into capsaicin 4-O-?-D-glucoside (17%) and capsaicin ?-primeveroside (21%) and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin was glycosylated to 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-O-?-D-glucoside (16%) and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin ?-primeveroside (15%). PMID:21112836

Katsuragi, H; Shimoda, Kei; Ohiro, Azusa; Hamada, Hiroki

2010-12-01

191

Accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid confers drought tolerance to Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

We investigated stomatal phenotype and drought tolerance of Arabidopsis salicylic acid-accumulating mutants, acd6 and cpr5. In these mutants, the light-induced stomatal opening was impaired and the impairment of stomatal opening was restored by peroxidase inhibitors, salicylhydroxamic acid and azide. The acd6 and cpr5 mutant plants were more tolerant to drought stress than wild-type plants. Introduction of nahG gene into the acd6 and cpr5 mutants prevented the inhibition of stomatal opening and reduced the drought tolerance. Drought tolerance-related genes were more highly expressed in the cpr5 and acd6 mutant plants than in the wild-type plants. These results suggest that accumulation of salicylic acid improves drought tolerance through inhibition of light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. PMID:24603484

Okuma, Eiji; Nozawa, Rieko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Miura, Kenji

2014-01-01

192

Ocular acid burn due to 20% concentrated salicylic acid.  

PubMed

This is a case report of severe conjunctival and corneal epithelial defects resulting from accidental exposure to salicylic acid that was mistakenly used instead of artificial tears (eye drops). The patient was treated with tobramycin 0.3%-dexamethasone 1% 3 times a day, cyclopentolate 1% twice a day, and artificial tears 6 times a day and underwent daily examinations until the corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects resolved. The corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects slowly resolved over 14 days. Visual acuity improved to its preinjury level of 20/40 in the affected eye. No residual corneal scarring was evident. Slowly resolving corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects can occur from direct contact with salicylic acid; therefore, this medication should be packaged and labeled differently from eye drops. PMID:20954793

Shazly, Tarek A

2011-03-01

193

Could salicylates in food have contributed to the decline in cardiovascular disease mortality? A new hypothesis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The prophylactic effect of aspirin (at 80 mg/day) for the prevention of cardiovascular disease mortality has long been recognized. This study examined whether other salicylates are present in comparable quantities in the US food supply. METHODS: To estimate the order of magnitude for salicylates in the food supply, annual production data for selected synthetic salicylates were analyzed. RESULTS: Production figures for 1960 indicate exposure to salicylates of 250 mg/day per person, or 95 mg/day per person excluding aspirin. Trend data indicate a rise in the production of salicylates over time, reaching 341 mg/day per person, or 126 mg/day per person excluding aspirin, in 1970. CONCLUSIONS: The US ingestion of salicylates with aspirinlike properties may have increased to the point that many susceptible individuals have received a beneficial effect that has contributed to the decline in cardiovascular disease mortality. PMID:9314816

Ingster, L M; Feinleib, M

1997-01-01

194

The sequential exposure to jasmonate, salicylic acid and yeast extract promotes sanguinarine accumulation in Argemone mexicana cell cultures.  

PubMed

The effects of the sequential application of methyl jasmonate (MeJa), salicylic acid (SA) and yeast extract (YE) to Argemone mexicana cell cultures were compared to either the sole application of each elicitor, or to the three-partite mixture. The highest sanguinarine accumulation occurred using the sequential treatment (ninefold over unexposed control cultures), followed by the single application of YE (fivefold). The elicitor mixture produced less sanguinarine than sole exposure to YE but higher than MeJa alone. SA did not produce any effect. Transcripts corresponding to tyrosine decarboxylase and berberine bridge enzyme accumulated in treated cells, but did not correlate with alkaloid accumulation. Discrete epifluorescence foci, surrounding the nucleus and scattered throughout the cytoplasm of elicited cells, suggested the presence of alkaloid-accumulating vesicles which could participate in a mechanism to avoid sanguinarine toxicity. PMID:22009570

Trujillo-Villanueva, Karen; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; Monforte-González, Miriam; Ramírez-Benítez, Efraín; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe

2012-02-01

195

Vibrational spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, SERS) and quantum chemical calculations on cyclobenzaprinium salicylate.  

PubMed

FT-IR, FT-Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra of cyclobenzaprinium salicylate were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wavenumbers were examined theoretically using the Gaussian09 set of quantum chemistry codes, and the normal modes were assigned by potential energy distribution calculations. The downshift of the OH stretching frequency is due to strong hydrogen bonded system present in the title compound as given by XRD results. The presence of CH3, CH2 and CO2 modes in the SERS spectrum indicates the nearness of the methyl group to the metal surface which affects the orientation and metal molecule interaction. The presence of phenyl ring modes in the SERS spectrum indicates a tilted orientation with respect to the metal surface. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with XRD results. A computation of the first hyperpolarizability indicates that the compound may be a good candidate as a NLO material. PMID:24200648

Mary, Y Shyma; Jojo, P J; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Kaur, Manpreet; Siddegowda, M S; Yathirajan, H S; Nogueira, Helena I S; Cruz, Sandra M A

2014-01-01

196

Determination of aspirin and salicylic acid in transdermal perfusates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of aspirin and salicylic acid in transdermal perfusates. The compounds were separated on a C8 Nucleosil column (5 ?m, 250×4.6 mm) using a mobile phase containing a mixture of water–acetonitrile–orthophosphoric acid (650:350:2, v\\/v\\/v) and a flow-rate of 1 ml\\/min. The transdermal samples were in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)

Gillian P McMahon; Shane J O' Connor; Desmond J Fitzgerald; Sylvie le Roy; Mary T Kelly

1998-01-01

197

Death Due to Acute Salicylate Intoxication Despite Dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Salicylate poisoning is a common problem with appreciable morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a patient with a large aspirin ingestion who expired despite aggressive hemodialysis (HD). Case Report: A 35-year-old man arrived at the Emergency Department 7.5 h after ingesting 400 tablets of 325-mg aspirin. He was afebrile, the respiratory rate (RR) was 30 breaths\\/min, heart

Alicia B. Minns; F. Lee Cantrell; Richard F. Clark

2011-01-01

198

Hydrogen Peroxide Stimulates Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide induced the accumulation of free benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) in tobacco (Nicotiana fabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaves. Six hours after infiltration with 300 mM H202, the levels of BA and SA in leaves increased 5-fold over the levels detected in control leaves. The accumulation of BA and SA was preceded by the rapid activation of

José León; Michael A. Lawton

199

Evaluation of salicylic acid fatty ester prodrugs for UV protection.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and in vitro evaluation of fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid for ultraviolet (UV) protection. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with the following fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid: octanoyl (C8SA), nonanoyl (C9SA), decanoyl (C10SA), lauroyl (C12SA), myristoyl (C14SA) and palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA). Furthermore, their skin permeation and accumulation were evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of stratum corneum and delipidization of skin. Their k' values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these fatty esters were highly stable in 2-propanol, acetonitrile and glycerin, but unstable in methanol and ethanol. They were relatively unstable in liver and skin homogenates. In particular, C16SA was mostly hydrolyzed to its parent compound in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates, suggesting that it might be converted to salicylic acid after its topical administration. In the skin permeation and accumulation study, C16SA showed the poorest permeation in all skins, suggesting that it could not be permeated in the skin. Furthermore, C14SA and C16SA were less accumulated in delipidized skin compared with normal skin or stripped skin, suggesting that these esters had relatively strong affinities for lipids compared with the other prodrugs in the skin. C16SA showed significantly higher dermal accumulation in all skins compared with its parent salicylic acid. Thus, the palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA) might be a potential candidate for UV protection due to its absence of skin permeation, smaller uptake in the lipid phase and relatively lower skin accumulation. PMID:21244220

Im, Jong Seob; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

2011-07-01

200

Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new methodology for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids is proposed. The strong overlapping of the fluorescence spectra of both analytes makes impossible the conventional fluorimetric determination. For that reason, the use of fluorescence decay curves to resolve mixtures of analytes is proposed; this is a novel technique that provides the benefits in selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence decay curves. In order to assess the goodness of the proposed method, a prediction set of synthetic samples were analyzed obtaining recuperation percentages between 98.2 and 104.6%. Finally, a study of the detection limits was done using a new criterion resulting in values for the detection limits of 8.2 and 11.6 ?g L -1 for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively. The validity of the method was tested in human serum and human urine spiked with aliquots of the analytes. Recoveries obtained were 96.2 and 94.5% for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively.

Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Sánchez-Ferrer Robles, I.

2011-09-01

201

Electric Field Enhanced Diffusion of Salicylic Acid through Polyacrylamide Hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release mechanisms and the diffusion coefficients of salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels were investigated experimentally by using a modified Franz-diffusion cell at 37 ^oC to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. A significant amount of salicylic acid is released within 48 hours from the hydrogels of various crosslinking ratios, with and without electric field. The release characteristic follows the Q vs. t^1/2 linear relationship. Diffusion coefficient initially increases with increasing electric field strength and reaches the maximum value at electric field strength of 0.1 V; beyond that it decreases with electric field strength and becomes saturated at electric field strength of 5 V. The diffusion coefficient increases at low electric field strength (less 0.1 V) as a result of the electrophoresis of the salicylic acid, the expansion of pore size, and the induced pathway in pigskin. For electric field strength higher than 0.1 V, the decrease in the diffusion coefficient is due to the reduction of the polyacrylamide pore size. The diffusion coefficient obeys the scaling behavior D/Do=(drug size/pore size)^m, with the scaling exponent m equal to 0.93 and 0.42 at electric fields of 0 and 0.1 V, respectively.

Niamlang, Sumonman; Sirivat, Anuvat

2008-03-01

202

Novel metabolic pathway for salicylate biodegradation via phenol in yeast Trichosporon moniliiforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel metabolic pathway was found in the yeast Trichosporon moniliiforme WU-0401 for salicylate degradation via phenol as the key intermediate. When 20 mM salicylate was used as the sole carbon\\u000a source for the growth of strain WU-0401, phenol was detected as a distinct metabolite in the culture broth. Analysis of the\\u000a products derived from salicylate or phenol through reactions with

Yuichiro Iwasaki; Hiroaki Gunji; Kuniki Kino; Takasumi Hattori; Yoshitaka Ishii; Kohtaro Kirimura

2010-01-01

203

Salicylate induced tinnitus: behavioral measures and neural activity in auditory cortex of awake rats.  

PubMed

Neurophysiological studies of salicylate-induced tinnitus have generally been carried out under anesthesia, a condition that abolishes the perception of tinnitus and depresses neural activity. To overcome these limitations, measurement of salicylate induced tinnitus were obtained from rats using schedule induced polydipsia avoidance conditioning (SIPAC) and gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS). Both behavioral measures indicated that tinnitus was present after treatment with 150 and 250 mg/kg of salicylate; measurements with GPIAS indicated that the pitch of the tinnitus was near 16 kHz. Chronically implanted microwire electrode arrays were used to monitor the local field potentials and spontaneous discharge rate from multiunit clusters in the auditory cortex of awake rats before and after treatment with 150 mg/kg of salicylate. The amplitude of the local field potential elicited with 60 dB SPL tone bursts increased significantly 2h after salicylate treatment particularly at 16-20 kHz; frequencies associated with the tinnitus pitch. Field potential amplitudes had largely recovered 1-2 days post-salicylate when behavioral results showed that tinnitus was absent. The mean spontaneous spike recorded from the same multiunit cluster pre- and post-salicylate decreased from 22 spikes/s before treatment to 14 spikes/s 2h post-salicylate and recovered 1 day post-treatment. These preliminary physiology data suggest that salicylate induced tinnitus is associated with sound evoked hyperactivity in auditory cortex and spontaneous hypoactivity. PMID:16904853

Yang, Guang; Lobarinas, Edward; Zhang, Liyan; Turner, Jeremy; Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard; Sun, Wei

2007-04-01

204

Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.  

PubMed

Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

2014-09-01

205

Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

2007-01-01

206

DELLAs control plant immune responses by modulating the balance of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling.  

PubMed

In Arabidopsis, the flagellin-derived peptide flg22 elevates antibacterial resistance [1] and inhibits growth [2] upon perception via the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase Flagellin-Sensitive 2 (FLS2) [3]. DELLA proteins are plant growth repressors whose degradation is promoted by the phytohormone gibberellin [4]. Here, we show that DELLA stabilization contributes to flg22-induced growth inhibition. In addition, we show that DELLAs promote susceptibility to virulent biotrophs and resistance to necrotrophs, partly by altering the relative strength of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling. A quadruple-DELLA mutant (which lacks four out of the five Arabidopsis DELLA proteins [5]) was partially insensitive to gene induction by Methyl-Jasmonate (MeJA), whereas the constitutively active dominant DELLA mutant gai[6] was sensitized for JA-responsive gene induction, implicating DELLAs in JA-signaling and/or perception. Accordingly, the elevated resistance of gai to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola and susceptibility to the hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000) was attenuated in the JA-insensitive coi1-16 mutant [7]. These findings suggest an explanation for why the necrotrophic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, causal agent of the foolish-seedling disease of rice, makes gibberellin. PMID:18450451

Navarro, Lionel; Bari, Rajendra; Achard, Patrick; Lisón, Purificación; Nemri, Adnane; Harberd, Nicholas P; Jones, Jonathan D G

2008-05-01

207

Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene  

PubMed Central

Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

2014-01-01

208

Methyl Salicylate, a Soybean Aphid-Induced Plant Volatile Attractive to the Predator Coccinella septempunctata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced volatiles provide a signal to foraging predatory insects about the location of their prey. In Iowa, early in the growing season of soybean, Glycine max, many predacious seven-spotted lady beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, were observed on plants with heavy infestations of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. We studied whether the attraction of this beetle is caused by the release of specific

Junwei Zhu; Kye-Chung Park

2005-01-01

209

FUNCTIONAL TERATOGENS OF THE RAT KIDNEY I. COCHICINE, DINOSEB, AND METHYL SALICYLATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Substances known or suspected to cause subtle or transient anatomical alterations in renal development were administered prenatally or neonatally to rats in order to determine whether they are capable of altering renal functional development. olchicine alters mitotic activity and...

210

Methyl jasmonate increases the production of valepotriates by transformed root cultures of Valerianella locusta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformed roots of V. locusta (Valerianaceae) were obtained through transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4 and ATCC 15834. Six known valepotriates, including diavaltrate, acevaltrate, didrovaltrate, IVHD-valtrate, isovaltrate, and valtrate were the major components detected. An LC\\/PDA method was used in the quantitation of these compounds in the transformed root extracts. The treatment of transformed roots with biotic (methyl jasmonate, salicylic

Nisit Kittipongpatana; Darryl L. Davis; John R. Porter

2002-01-01

211

Comparative study of the effects of indomethacin and sodium salicylate on the renal circulation.  

PubMed

Indomethacin and salicylates are considered to be specific inhibitors of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. If their mechanism of actin is common then similar effects would be expected in organs capable of PG production. In the present investigation the effects on renal and intrarenal haemodynamics by indomethacin and Na-salicylate were studied and compared in anaesthetized (nembutal) dogs using SAPIRSTEIN's technique. Indomethacin (4 mg per kg) raised blood pressure while cardiac output remained unaffected. Sodium salicylate (200 mg per kg) also increased blood pressure, however, this was associated with increased cardiac output. Renal blood flow was depressed by indomethacin, whereas it was not influenced by Na-salicylate (RBFcontr. = 411 +/- 97; RBFindo. = 292 +/- 53, p less than 0.01; RBFNa-salic. = 468 +/- 110 ml per min per 100 g). Renal resistance was augmented after indomethacin and unaltered by Na-salicylate (Rcontr. = 1.96 +/- 0.43; Rindo. = 3.03 +/- 0.97, p less than 0.001; RNa-salic. = 1.91 +/- 0.49). Indomethacin provoked an intrarenal blood flow redistribution, while no such effect was seen by Na-salicylate. Salt and water excretion was markedly suppressed by indomethacin, whereas Na-salicylate exhibited diuretic and natriuretic actions. It is concluded that the two agents exert their actions on renal haemodynamics and salt and water excretion by different mechanisms. The differential responses might be accounted for by the finding that Na-salicylate fails to inhibit renal PG-production. PMID:754492

Bartha, J; Hably, C

1978-01-01

212

Modelling the Penetration of Salicylates through Skin Using a Silicone Membrane  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A diffusion cell to model the permeation of salicylate drugs through the skin using low-cost materials and a sensitive colorimetric analytical technique is described. The diffusion apparatus has been used at a further education college by a student for her AS-level Extended Project to investigate the permeation rates of salicylic acid…

Wilkins, Andrew; Parmenter, Emily

2012-01-01

213

Does Salicylic Acid Act as a Signal in Cotton for Induced Resistance to Helicoverpa zea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous study indicated that insect herbivory on cotton induced resistance to the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea). Here we examine the role of salicylic acid as a signal in cotton for the induced resistance. Abundant evidence has accumulated showing that salicylic acid plays a key role in coordinating the expression of systemic acquired resistance against phyto-pathogens. We report that herbivory

J. L. BI; J. B. Murphy; G. W. Felton

1997-01-01

214

Cross-talk between jasmonate and salicylate plant defense pathways: effects on several plant parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are often attacked by many herbivorous insects and pathogens at the same time. Two important suites of responses to attack are mediated by plant hormones, jasmonate and salicylate, which independently provide resistance to herbivorous insects and pathogens, respectively. Several lines of evidence suggest that there is negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate response pathways. This biochemical link between

Jennifer S. Thaler; Richard Karban; Diane E. Ullman; Karina Boege; Richard M. Bostock

2002-01-01

215

Suppression of the hypersensitive response in potato by acetyl salicylic acid.  

PubMed

Increased salicylic acid has been correlated with systemic acquired resistance in several plants. Inoculation of potato plants with the pathogen Phytophthora Infestans or inducers from the fungus, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid also induce systemic acquired resistance in the plant. We now report that treatment of potato tuber slices with acetyl salicylic acid markedly reduces the resistant response of these tissues. PMID:8670201

Lee, M; Currier, W W

1996-05-15

216

Regulation of Heat Production in the Inflorescences of an Arum Lily by Endogenous Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently purified calorigen, the natural trigger for heat production in the inflorescences of Sauromatum guttatum Schott (voodoo lily), a thermogenic plant, and identified it as salicylic acid. Since then an analytical assay was developed that allows the quantitation of salicylic acid in plant tissues. This assay was used to demonstrate that on the day preceding the day of

Ilya Raskin; Ivan M. Turner; Wayne R. Melander

1989-01-01

217

Resistance to Botrytis cinerea Induced in Arabidopsis by Elicitors Is Independent of Salicylic Acid, Ethylene,  

E-print Network

Resistance to Botrytis cinerea Induced in Arabidopsis by Elicitors Is Independent of Salicylic Acid cinerea independently of jasmonate (JA)-, salicylic acid (SA)-, and ethylene (ET)-mediated signaling macromo- lecular structures (e.g. the 22-amino acid flagellin peptide flg22; for review, see Nurnberger

Ausubel, Frederick M.

218

ORIGINAL PAPER Salicylic acid-mediated reductions in yield in Nicotiana attenuata  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Salicylic acid-mediated reductions in yield in Nicotiana attenuata challenged. To test the direct defense capacity of salicylic acid (SA) on aphid performance, we fed aphids levels, but caused only a transient decrease in jasmonic acid concentration at low aphid density. SA

DeLucia, Evan H.

219

Antibacterial activity of hydroxyalkenyl salicylic acids from sarcotesta of Ginkgo biloba against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.  

PubMed

A chloroform fraction prepared from the sarcotesta of Ginkgo biloba showed potent inhibitory activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The active compounds were elucidated to be 2-hydroxy-6-(8-pentadecenyl) salicylic acid (1) and 2-hydroxy-6-(10-heptadecenyl) salicylic acid (2) based on their spectral analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant antibacterial activities against VRE. PMID:18832017

Choi, J G; Jeong, S I; Ku, C S; Sathishkumar, M; Lee, J J; Mun, S P; Kim, S M

2009-01-01

220

Antibacterial activity of hydroxyalkenyl salicylic acids from sarcotesta of Ginkgo biloba against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chloroform fraction prepared from the sarcotesta of Ginkgo biloba showed potent inhibitory activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The active compounds were elucidated to be 2-hydroxy-6-(8-pentadecenyl) salicylic acid (1) and 2-hydroxy-6-(10-heptadecenyl) salicylic acid (2) based on their spectral analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant antibacterial activities against VRE.

J. G. Choi; S. I. Jeong; C. S. Ku; M. Sathishkumar; J. J. Lee; S. P. Mun; S. M. Kim

2009-01-01

221

Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway. PMID:23500715

Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

2013-05-01

222

Solid phase vs. solution phase differential behavior: formation of a salicylate structure from a malondialdehyde moiety.  

PubMed

Treatment of 2, solid supported synthetic equivalent of 3-formylchromone (4), and ethyl acetoacetate affords the salicylate structure 8 instead of the previously reported isophtalate 7. This is the first formation of a salicylate by a double carbonyl condensation of a malondialdehyde moiety ever reported. PMID:12197073

Borrell, J I; Teixidó, J; Schuler, E; Michelotti, E L

2000-01-01

223

Investigation of Salicylic Acid Application to Reduce Postharvest Losses in Stored ‘Bidaneh Ghermez’ Table Grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 1, 2, and 4 mM) were applied postharvest to ‘Bidaneh Ghermez’ grapes (Vitis vinifera); to investigate their potential impact on the fruit quality and storage life. They were stored for up to 45 days at 0°C, followed by 2 days at 20°C. The results indicated that postharvest treatment of grapes with salicylic acid could

Ehsan Ranjbaran; Hassan Sarikhani; Davood Bakhshi; Mehrdad Pouya

2011-01-01

224

Evidence for a Role of Salicylic Acid in the Oxidative Damage Generated by NaCl and Osmotic Stress in  

E-print Network

Evidence for a Role of Salicylic Acid in the Oxidative Damage Generated by NaCl and Osmotic Stress that salicylic acid (SA) is an essential component of the plant resistance to pathogens. We now show that SA expressing a salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) gene to different abiotic stress conditions. Wild-type plants

Málaga, Universidad de

225

The WRKY70 Transcription Factor: A Node of Convergence for Jasmonate-Mediated and Salicylate-Mediated Signals in  

E-print Network

, Division of Genetics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland Cross talk between salicylic acid and Parker, 2000). SAR is characterized by an increase in endogenous salicylic acid (SA), transcriptionalThe WRKY70 Transcription Factor: A Node of Convergence for Jasmonate-Mediated and Salicylate

Palva, Tapio

226

Arabidopsis local resistance to Botrytis cinerea involves salicylic acid and camalexin and requires EDS4 and PAD2,  

E-print Network

Arabidopsis local resistance to Botrytis cinerea involves salicylic acid and camalexin and requires@molbio.mgh.harvard.edu). Summary Salicylic acid (SA) is an important regulator of plant defense responses, and a variety±pathogen interaction, Arabidopsis, Botrytis cinerea, salicylic acid, camalexin. Introduction Plants are constantly

Ausubel, Frederick M.

227

A stress-inducible sulphotransferase sulphonates salicylic acid and confers pathogen resistance in Arabidopsispce_2156 1383..1392  

E-print Network

A stress-inducible sulphotransferase sulphonates salicylic acid and confers pathogen resistance exhibited hypersensitivity to NaCl and ABA in seed germination, and to salicylic acid (SA) in seedling is discussed. Key-words: pathogen resistance; salicylic acid; sulphotrans- ferase; systemic response

Paré, Paul W.

228

The Complete Molecular Geometry of Salicyl Aldehyde from Rotational Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salicyl aldehyde is a well known planar molecule containing an internal hydrogen bond. In preparing the publication of our previous report of the study of its rotational spectrum we have taken the opportunity to update the structure determination of this molecule to the complete r_e^{SE} geometry. The molecule contains 15 atoms and we have used supersonic expansion FTMW spectroscopy to obtain rotational constants for a total 26 different isotopic species, including all singly substitued species relative to the parent molecule. The ^{13}C and ^{18}O substitutions were measured in natural abundance, while deuterium substitutions were carried out synthetically. The r_e^{SE} determination requires the calculation of vibration-rotation changes in rotational constants from an ab initio anharmonic force field, which necessitates some compromises in the level of calculation for a molecule of the size of salicyl aldehyde. For this reason we studied the five lowest vibrationally excited states, by using the combination of room-temperature mm-wave spectroscopy and waveguide Fourier transform cm-wave spectroscopy. The experimental excited state rotational constants were then used to calibrate the anharmonic force field calculation. The resulting r_e^{SE} geometry is compared with other types of geometry determination possible from this data, with emphasis on the effect of the near zero principal coordinate of the important C_2 atom. Z.Kisiel et al., 61^{st} OSU Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, The Ohio State University, Ohio 2006, RI-12.

Dorosh, O.; Bialkowska-Jaworska, E.; Kisiel, Z.; Pszczolkowski, L.; Kanska, M.; Krygowski, T. M.; Maeder, H.

2013-06-01

229

Identification of genes regulated by UV/salicylic acid.  

SciTech Connect

Purpose : Previous work from the authors' group and others has demonstrated that some of the effects of UV irradiation on gene expression are modulated in response to the addition of salicylic acid to irradiated cells. The presumed effector molecule responsible for this modulation is NF-kappaB. In the experiments described here, differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify those cDNAs that are differentially modulated by UV radiation with and without the addition of salicylic acid. Materials and methods : Differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Results : Eight such cDNAs are presented: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-beta), nuclear encoded mitochondrial NADH ubiquinone reductase 24kDa (NDUFV2), elongation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), nuclear dots protein SP100, nuclear encoded mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor (IF1), a cDNA similar to a subunit of yeast CCAAT transcription factor HAP5, and two expressed sequence tags (AA187906 and AA513156). Conclusions : Sequences of four of these genes contained NF-kappaB DNA binding sites of the type that may attract transrepressor p55/p55 NF-kappaB homodimers. Down-regulation of these genes upon UV irradiation may contribute to increased cell survival via suppression of p53 independent apoptosis.

Paunesku, T.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Watson, C.; Milton, J.; Oryhon, J.; Salbego, D.; Milosavljevic, A.; Woloschak, G. E.; CuraGen Corp.

2000-02-01

230

Salicylate-induced pulmonary edema--a near-miss diagnosis.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with confusion, agitation, and progressive dyspnea. Chest x-ray revealed pulmonary edema. Initial diagnostic considerations were pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, central nervous system infection, substance toxicity, and heart failure. Her salicylate level was 92.6 mg/dL, and an arterial blood gas revealed a respiratory alkalosis and nonanion gap metabolic acidosis, consistent with salicylate poisoning. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is an atypical presentation of salicylate toxicity, and this case highlights the importance of an early toxicology screen to make a time-critical diagnosis and provide specific treatment. PMID:24361138

Yuklyaeva, Nataliya; Chaudhary, Ahmad; Gorantla, Ramakrishna; Bischof, Edward

2014-05-01

231

Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding networks in cytosine salicylic acid hydrate (2 : 3 : 2) complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytosine-cytosinium base pairs are interconnected by triple hydrogen bonds thereby resembling a pseudo-Watson-Crick pattern and generates two characteristic R {2/2}(8)-motifs. Both molecules of the salicylic acids interconnect the base pair and lead to the formation of one dimensional supramolecular hexameric tape along b-axis. This hexameric tape are sandwiched by the water molecules, one of the salicylic acid and salicylate anion which form one dimensional and two dimensional supramolecular hydrogen bonded networks in the crystal packing. Macrocylic rings of cavities are also noticed in the crystal structure.

Sridhar, B.; Ravikumar, K.

2010-03-01

232

The surface reaction kinetics of salicylate on alumina  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of reaction of salicylate with colloidal alumina in aqueous suspension and with Al(III) in homogeneous aqueous solution were studied by stopped-flow laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission spectra confirmed the formation of both monodentate complexes and more stable bidentate chelates. Temporal evolution of the spectra indicated that the reaction was fast (within first few minutes) for both the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions but slowed down afterwards for the latter. Reactions completed within 10 minutes in homogeneous phase at pH 3.3 but took more than 12 hours in alumina suspension. Analysis of the fluorescence intensity within first four minutes showed that in homogeneous phase the reaction followed a single pseudo-first-order kinetics. In alumina suspension log plots were nonlinear and characteristic of multiple heterogeneous reaction paths. The kinetics are interpreted in terms of the simultaneous formation of multiple species as well as subsequent conversion between species.

Wang, Z.; Ainsworth, C.C.; Friedrich, D.M.; Joly, A.G.; Gassman, P.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-12-31

233

Indomethacin and salicylate decrease epinephrine-induced glycogenolysis  

SciTech Connect

Epinephrine (E) produces an immediate (0-30 minutes) rise in hepatic glucose production (Ra), largely due to activation of glycogenolysis; thereafter, E-stimulated gluconeogenesis becomes the major factor maintaining glucose production. To investigate the possible role of arachidonic acid metabolites on Ra during E stimulation, the authors infused E in trained conscious dogs before and during administration of two inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, indomethacin (INDO) and salicylate (S). On separate days, experimental animals were treated with both oral and IV INDO and oral acetylsalicylic acid and IV sodium salicylate. Ra and glucose utilization (Rd), both in mg x kg-1 min-1, were calculated by isotope dilution using 3-/sup 3/H-glucose. After achieving steady state specific activity, control (C) and experimental animals (n . 6 per group) received E (0.1 ug x kg-1 min-1) for 150 minutes, raising plasma levels to approximately 1500 pg/mL in each group. In C, plasma glucose (G; mg/dL) rose by 17 +/- 5 at 10 minutes and 19 +/- 3 at 20 minutes due to an initial spike in Ra (2.7 +/- 0.2 to 4.9 +/- 0.5; P less than 0.01) at 10 minutes. INDO and S treatment attenuated this initial (10-20 minutes) rise in G (P less than 0.05) due to a lower stimulated Ra at 10 minutes (3.3 +/- 0.1 with INDO; 3.0 +/- 0.5 with S; P less than 0.05). After 20 minutes Ra was not different in the 3 groups; no overall differences in Rd, glucose clearance, or plasma insulin levels occurred with INDO or S treatment.

Miller, J.D.; Ganguli, S.; Artal, R.; Sperling, M.A.

1985-02-01

234

Evaluation of the acaricide effect of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid, and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tick Boophilus microplus is the principal species of ectoparasite that impairs dairy cattle productivity in Brazil. Its control is mainly by using\\u000a synthetic chemical products during its parasitic phase. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acaricide activity of\\u000a four products of natural origin. Depending on solubility, tests were conducted with solutions in distilled water or emulsified

Adriana Maria da Silveira Novelino; Erik Daemon; Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves Soares

2007-01-01

235

Both Central and Peripheral Auditory Systems Are Involved in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus in Rats: A Behavioral Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was designed to establish a low dose salicylate-induced tinnitus rat model and to investigate whether central or peripheral auditory system is involved in tinnitus. Methods Lick suppression ratio (R), lick count and lick latency of conditioned rats in salicylate group (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and saline group were first compared. Bilateral auditory nerves were ablated in unconditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared before and after ablation. The ablation was then performed in conditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared between salicylate group and saline group and between ablated and unablated salicylate groups. Results Both the R value and the lick count in salicylate group were significantly higher than those in saline group and lick latency in salicylate group was significantly shorter than that in saline group. No significant changes were observed in lick count and lick latency before and after ablation. After ablation, lick count and lick latency in salicylate group were significantly higher and shorter respectively than those in saline group, but they were significantly lower and longer respectively than those in unablated salicylate group. Conclusion A low dose of salicylate (120 mg/kg) can induce tinnitus in rats and both central and peripheral auditory systems participate in the generation of salicylate-induced tinnitus. PMID:25269067

Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yongzhu; Chang, Haifeng; Cui, Pengcheng

2014-01-01

236

Alleviation of postharvest chilling injury of tomato fruit by salicylic acid treatment.  

PubMed

Tomato fruit at the mature green stage were treated with salicylic acid at different concentration (0, 1 and 2 mM) and analyzed for chilling injury (CI), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents and phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities during cold storage. PLD and LOX activities were significantly reduced by salicylic acid treatment. Compared with the control fruit, salicylic acid treatment alleviated chilling injury, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content and increased proline content. Our result suggest that the reduce activity of PLD and LOX, by salicylic acid may be a chilling tolerance strategy in tomato fruit. Inhibition of PLD and LOX activity during low temperature storage could ameliorate chilling injury and oxidation damage and enhance membrane integrity in tomato fruit. PMID:25328231

Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Asghari, Mohammadreza; Khorsandi, Orojali; Mohayeji, Mehdi

2014-10-01

237

Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate.

Evans, P. Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J.; Maroto, Sergio

2012-08-01

238

In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of computer-selected analogues of carvacrol and salicylic acid on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a tick that causes huge economic losses in cattle. The indiscriminate use of acaricides has generated resistance to most compounds present on the market. This makes further investigation on other potential acaricides necessary, the in silico assay being an alternative to the design of new compounds. In the present study a biosilico assay was performed using TOMOCOMD-CARDD (TOpological MOlecular COMputer Design-Computer-Aided Rational Drug Design) and WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) software. Two carvacrol and four salicylic acid derivatives, synthesized by conventional methods and evaluated with the larval packet test on larvae of R. (B.) microplus were selected. All evaluated compounds presented acaricidal activity; however, ethyl 2-methoxybenzoate (91.8 ± 1.7 % mortality) and ethyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (89.1 ± 1.6 % mortality) showed greater activity than salicylic acid. With regard to the carvacrol analogues, carvacrol acetate (67.8 ± 2.1 % mortality) and carvacrol methyl ether (71.7 ± 1.6 % mortality) also showed greater activity than carvacrol (35.9 ± 3.2 % mortality). TOMOCOMD-CARDD and WEKA software were helpful tools in the search for alternative structures with potential acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23543288

Concepción, Ramírez L; Froylán, Ibarra V; Herminia I, Pérez M; Norberto, Manjarrez A; Héctor J, Salgado Z; Yeniel, González C

2013-10-01

239

Equilibrium studies on chromium(III) complexes of salicylic acid and salicylic acid derivatives in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The complexes of chromium(III) ion formed by salicylic acid, SA(H(2)L), and its derivatives (H(2)L): 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA), 5-sulphosalicylic acid (5-SSA) were investigated by means of potentiometry and spectroscopy, at 25 degrees C and in ionic strength of 0.1 M KNO(3) and 0.1 M KCl, respectively. Over the acidic pH range, the coordination of Cr(III) ion to SA and its derivatives in 1 : 1 mole ratio occurs, CrL(+) type complex is formed. In the excess of ligand, the coordination of the second ligand molecule is somewhat hindered; as a result CrL(HL) type complex occurs. Their existences were verified and their formation constants were determined. At near neutral pH, CrL(OH) and CrL(HL)(OH)(-) type hydroxo complexes formed by hydrolytic equilibria and their formation constants were also defined. The stabilities of Cr(III) complexes of SA and its derivatives decrease in the following order: SA>5-SSA>5-NSA. The formation constants of Cr(III) complexes of SA and its derivatives are in comparable ranges with the corresponding complexes of the 2,x-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,x-DHBA) of Cr(III) ion. The stabilities of SA complexes for V(IV), Cr(III) and Fe(III) ions that have similar ionic radii, increase in the order VOLsalicylate ion is four orders of magnitude higher than to transferin, which is a blood serum protein and is associated with insulin action. PMID:15516746

Aksoy, Mehmet Suat; Ozer, Ulviye

2004-11-01

240

Salicylic acid induced physiological and biochemical changes in wheat seedlings under water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule modulating plantresponses to stress. It is recently reported to induce multiple stresstolerancein plants including drought. An experiment was, therefore, conducted toascertain the effect of salicylic acid on the growth and metabolic profile ofwheat seedlings under water stress. Irrespective of the SA concentration(1–3 mM) and water stress, SA treated plants showed, ingeneral, a

Bhupinder Singh; K. Usha

2003-01-01

241

FT-Raman, FT-IR and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra of sodium salicylate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of sodium salicylate were recorded and analysed. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum was recorded is silver colloid. Comparisons of the SERS spectrum with the spectra in solution and of the solid sample are made. Sodium salicylate (an O donor ligand) is thought to adsorb in a somewhat 'tilted side on orientation' with respect to the silver surface.

Philip, Daizy; John, Annamma; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa

2001-07-01

242

A new pharmacological effect of salicylates: inhibition of NFAT-dependent transcription.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effects of salicylates, originally attributed to inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, are currently known to involve additional mechanisms. In this study we investigated the possible modulation by salicylates of NFAT-mediated transcription in lymphocytic and monocytic cell lines. RNase protection assays showed that 2-acetoxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (triflusal) inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, mRNA expression of several cytokine genes, most of which are NFAT-regulated and cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive. In Jurkat cells, the expression of IL-3, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-2, lymphotactin, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta was inhibited to different extents. In THP-1 cells, inhibition of the expression of M-CSF, G-CSF, stem cell factor, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, lymphotoxin-beta1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and IL-8 was observed. Sodium salicylate and aspirin only showed significant effects at 5 mM. The transcriptional activity of two genes that contain NFAT sites, a GM-CSF full promoter and a T cell-specific enhancer from the IL-3 locus, was also inhibited by salicylates. Transactivation experiments performed with several NFAT-dependent and AP-1-dependent reporter genes showed that triflusal strongly inhibited NFAT-dependent transcription at concentrations as low as 0.25 mM. Sodium salicylate and aspirin were less potent. The triflusal inhibitory effect was reversible and synergized with suboptimal doses of CsA. Experiments to address the mechanism of action of salicylates in the NFAT activation cascade disclosed a mechanism different from that of CsA, because salicylates inhibited DNA-binding and NFAT-mediated transactivation without affecting phosphorylation or subcellular localization of NFAT. In summary, these data describe a new pharmacological effect of salicylates as inhibitors of NFAT-dependent transcription. PMID:15494524

Aceves, Mónica; Dueñas, Ana; Gómez, Cristina; San Vicente, Edurne; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez; García-Rodríguez, Carmen

2004-11-01

243

Analysis of salicylic acid in willow barks and branches by an electrochemical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical method for measuring free salicylic acid (SA) was optimized and used to detect its content in barks and\\u000a branches of thirteen Salix species. We utilized square wave voltammetry method in combination with pencil lead, the detection limit of which was 1.7\\u000a ng\\/ml of salicylic acid. The highest contents of free SA were observed in the bark of S.

J. Petrek; L. Havel; J. Petrlova; V. Adam; D. Potesil; P. Babula; R. Kizek

2007-01-01

244

Kinetics for synthesizing benzyl salicylate by third-liquid phase-transfer catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of esterification of sodium salicylate with benzyl bromide to produce benzyl salicylate was investigated via third-liquid phase-transfer catalysis. The formation of the third-liquid phase from the interaction of aqueous reactant, inorganic salts, organic solvent, and catalyst was investigated to find the characteristics of catalytic intermediate in the tri-liquid system. The minimum quantity of tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide (TBPB) required to

Hung-Ming Yang; Ching Ching Li

2006-01-01

245

Effect of salicylate on the surgical inducement of joint degeneration in rabbit knees.  

PubMed

Degenerative joint changes were produced in one knee of each of fourteen rabbits by surgical induction of instability. The involved knee in rabbits with and without systemic salicylate treatment was compared with the knee not operated on. Salicylate did not significantly change the activities of lysosomal enzymes in cartilage or synovial fluid, the uptake of tritiated thymidine, glycine, or 35S-inorganic sulphate by cartilage, or the histological manifestations of cartilage degeneration. PMID:985639

Gold, E W; Anderson, L B; Miller, C W; Schwartz, E R

1976-10-01

246

Salicylate-induced degeneration of cochlea spiral ganglion neurons-apoptosis signaling  

PubMed Central

Aspirin, whose active ingredient is sodium salicylate, is the most widely used drugs worldwide, but it is not recommend for children because it may causes Reye’s syndrome. High doses of salicylate also induce temporary hearing loss and tinnitus; while these disorders are believed to disappear when treatment is discontinued some data suggest that prolonged treatment may be neurotoxic. To investigate its ototoxicity, immature, postnatal day 3 rat cochlear organotypic cultures were treated with salicylate. Salicylate did not damage the sensory hair cells, but instead damaged the spiral ganglion neurons and their peripheral fibers in a dose-dependent manner. The cross sectional area of spiral ganglion neurons decreased from 205 ?m2 in controls to 143, 116 and 91 ?m2 in cultures treated with 1, 3 or 5 mM salicylate respectively. Morphological changes and caspase upregulation were indicative of caspase-mediated apoptosis. A quantitative RT-PCR apoptosis array identified a subset of genes up or down regulated by salicylate. Eight genes showed a biologically relevant change (P < 0.05, ? 2 fold change) after 3 h treatment with salicylate; 7 genes (Tp53, Birc3, Tnfrsf5, Casp7, Nfkb1, Fas, Lta, Tnfsf10) were upregulated and 1 gene (Pycard) was downregulated. After 6 h treatment, only 1 gene (Nol3) was upregulated and 2 genes were downregulated (Cideb and Lhx4) while after 12 h treatment, 2 genes (Il10, Gadd45a) were upregulated and 4 (Prok2, Card10, Ltbr, Dapk1) were downregulated. High doses of salicylate in a physiologically relevant range can induce caspase-mediated cell death in immature spiral ganglion neurons; changes in the expression of apoptotic genes particularly among members of the TNF family appear to play an important role in the degeneration. PMID:20298761

Wei, Lei; Ding, Dalian; Salvi, Richard

2010-01-01

247

Renal accumulation of salicylate and phenacetin: possible mechanisms in the nephropathy of analgesic abuse  

PubMed Central

Since either aspirin or phenacetin might be causative in the nephropathy of analgesic abuse, studies were designed to examine the renal accumulation and distribution of the major metabolic products of these compounds, salicylate and N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP) respectively, in dogs. Nineteen hydropenic animals were studied, of which seven were given phenacetin, nine received acetyl salicylic acid, two were given both aspirin and phenacetin, and one received APAP directly. Two of three hydrated animals were given phenacetin and one was given aspirin. During peak blood levels of salicylate and (or) APAP, the kidneys were rapidly removed, frozen, sliced from cortex to papillary tip, and analyzed for water, urea, APAP, and salicylate. No renal medullary gradient for salicylate was demonstrable during both hydropenic and hydrated states. In contrast, both free and conjugated APAP concentrations rose sharply in the inner medulla during hydropenia, reaching a mean maximal value at the papillary tip exceeding 10 times the cortical concentration (P < 0.001), a distribution similar to that of urea. Salicylate had no effect on the APAP gradient, but hydration markedly reduced both the APAP and urea gradients in the medulla. The data indicate that APAP probably shares the same renal mechanisms of transport and accumulation as urea and acetamide, and that papillary necrosis from excessive phenacetin may be related to high papillary concentration of APAP. PMID:5813230

Bluemle, Lewis W.; Goldberg, Martin

1968-01-01

248

Salicylic acid and some of its derivatives as antibacterial agents for viscose fabric.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid and three of its derivatives were used to provide antibacterial properties to viscose fabrics. The four bactericides used were bonded to the viscose fabrics using epichlorohydrin or polymer binders. Optimization of the salicylic acid and its derivatives as well as the concentration of polymers was reported. The ability of the polymer binders to attract and bind the four bactericides was observed. The overall results show that the antibacterial reactivity of salicylic acid and its derivatives are in the following order 5-bromosalicylic acid>salicylic acid>5-chlorosalicylic acid>4-chlorosalicylic acid. Using epichlorohydrin as a binding agent, unfortunately, inhibits the bactericidal activity of the four bactericides. The FTIR study concludes that the reaction between salicylic acid as well as its derivatives with epichlorohydrin takes place through the phenolic group of the acids. The unexpected deterioration in the bactericidal properties of salicylic acid and its derivatives as a result of the treatment with epichlorohydrin could be due to the nature of interaction between the epichlorohydrin molecule and the acids molecules. PVP and PU show superior ability to sustain the four bactericides used even after 10 washing cycles. PMID:24076193

Kantouch, A; El-Sayed, A Atef; Salama, M; El-Kheir, A Abou; Mowafi, S

2013-11-01

249

Detection of AmpC beta-lactamases using sodium salicylate.  

PubMed

AmpC ?-lactamases are enzymes that hydrolyze all ?-lactam antibiotics except cefipime and imipenem. Currently, there is no standard phenotypic method for detection of such enzymes. This study aims to report the use of sodium salicylate for AmpC ?-lactamases detection and to compare its sensitivity and specificity to other commonly known inhibitors. A total of 135 clinical isolates were used to test the effectiveness of sodium salicylate in detection of plasmid- as well as chromosomally encoded AmpC ?-lactamases. All isolates were tested by multiplex PCR testing as well as inhibitor-based methods using cloxacillin, phenylboronic acid and sodium salicylate for the detection of AmpC enzymes. Four isolates were confirmed as producers of plasmid-encoded AmpC ?-lactamase and a single isolate was confirmed to have both plasmid and chromosomal genes. Cloxacillin and phenylyboronic acid failed to detect most of the plasmid-encoded enzymes. Sodium salicylate was able to detect the Escherichia coli isolates with plasmid-encoded enzymes in addition to few other isolates that were chromosomally mediated. The sensitivity and specificity of sodium salicylate was 50% and 93%, respectively, higher than those of other known inhibitors. We thus conclude that sodium salicylate can be reliably used as an inhibitor in the detection of plasmid-encoded AmpC enzymes in E. coli. PMID:23059062

Kashif, Mona T; Yassin, Aymen S; Hosny, Alaa El-Dien M S

2012-12-01

250

Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin. Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims—To determine serum salicylic acid concentrations in non-vegetarians and vegetarians not taking salicylate drugs, and to compare these concentrations with those found in patients taking aspirin, 75 mg daily.Methods—Serum samples were obtained from vegetarians (n = 37) and non-vegetarians (n = 39) not taking salicylate drugs. Non-vegetarians and vegetarians were recruited from the community and from a Buddhist monastery, respectively,

C J Blacklock; J R Lawrence; D Wiles; E A Malcolm; I H Gibson; C J Kelly; J R Paterson

2001-01-01

251

Radiation- and photo-induced formation of salicylic acid from phenol and CO{sub 2} in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is steady increasing because of the combustion of fossil fuels and the industrial pollution. As a result, global warming has occurred. In the present study the formation of the salicylic acid and other products, originating from the carboxylation of phenol is investigated. It has been found that the formation of salicylic acid strongly depend on several experimental conditions: pH of the solution, concentration of phenol and CO{sub 2}, and absorbed dose. The formation of salicylic acid was also studied in the presence of catalysts. Photo-induced carboxylation of phenol to salicylic acid will be also reported. Probable reaction mechanisms for the salicylic acid formation are suggested. Finally, a comparison is made between the well known industrial Kolbe-Schmitt process for salicylic acid production and the aspects of the present new method for CO{sub 2} utilization.

Krapfenbauer, K.; Getoff, N. [Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Chemie und Strahlenchemie

1996-12-31

252

Preparation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity Studies on Some Ternary Complexes of Cu(II) with Acetylacetone and Various Salicylic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ternary complexes of Cu(II) with acetylacetone and various salicylic acids (viz., salicylic, 5-chloro-, 3,5-dibromo-, 3,5-dinitro-, thio-, and acetyl-salicylic acids) were synthesised in pure state and these complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, conductivity, IR data and optical absorption. The antibacterial and antifungal activity studies on these complexes revealed that the ternary complexes are better toxic agents than the binary complexes

Y. Anjaneyulu; R. Prabhakara Rao

1986-01-01

253

Purification and Characterization of a Three-Component Salicylate 1Hydroxylase from Sphingomonas sp. Strain CHY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the bacterial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salicylate hydroxylases catalyze essential reactions at the junction between the so-called upper and lower catabolic pathways. Unlike the salicylate 1-hydroxylase from pseudomonads, which is a well-characterized flavoprotein, the enzyme found in sphingomonads appears to be a three-component Fe-S protein complex, which so far has not been character- ized. Here, the salicylate

Yves Jouanneau; Julien Micoud; Christine Meyer

2007-01-01

254

High-affinity salicylic acid-binding protein 2 is required for plant innate immunity and has salicylic acid-stimulated lipase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical hormone for signaling innate immunity in plants. Here we present the purification and characterization of SA-binding protein 2 (SABP2), a tobacco protein that is present in low abundance and specifically binds SA with high affinity. Sequence analysis predicted that SABP2 is a lipase belonging to the \\/ fold hydrolase super family. Confirming this prediction,

Dhirendra Kumar; Daniel F. Klessig

2003-01-01

255

Salicylic acid interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytic protein trafficking  

PubMed Central

Removal of cargos from the cell surface via endocytosis is an efficient mechanism to regulate activities of plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, such as receptors or transporters. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that is traditionally associated with pathogen defense. Here, we describe an unanticipated effect of SA on subcellular endocytic cycling of proteins. Both exogenous treatments and endogenously enhanced SA levels repressed endocytosis of different PM proteins. The SA effect on endocytosis did not involve transcription or known components of the SA signaling pathway for transcriptional regulation. SA likely targets an endocytic mechanism that involves the coat protein clathrin, because SA interfered with the clathrin incidence at the PM and clathrin-deficient mutants were less sensitive to the impact of SA on the auxin distribution and root bending during the gravitropic response. By contrast, SA did not affect the ligand-induced endocytosis of the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) receptor during pathogen responses. Our data suggest that the established SA impact on transcription in plant immunity and the nontranscriptional effect of SA on clathrin-mediated endocytosis are independent mechanisms by which SA regulates distinct aspects of plant physiology. PMID:23613581

Du, Yunlong; Tejos, Ricardo; Beck, Martina; Himschoot, Ellie; Li, Hongjiang; Robatzek, Silke; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jiri

2013-01-01

256

Salicylic acid interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytic protein trafficking.  

PubMed

Removal of cargos from the cell surface via endocytosis is an efficient mechanism to regulate activities of plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, such as receptors or transporters. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that is traditionally associated with pathogen defense. Here, we describe an unanticipated effect of SA on subcellular endocytic cycling of proteins. Both exogenous treatments and endogenously enhanced SA levels repressed endocytosis of different PM proteins. The SA effect on endocytosis did not involve transcription or known components of the SA signaling pathway for transcriptional regulation. SA likely targets an endocytic mechanism that involves the coat protein clathrin, because SA interfered with the clathrin incidence at the PM and clathrin-deficient mutants were less sensitive to the impact of SA on the auxin distribution and root bending during the gravitropic response. By contrast, SA did not affect the ligand-induced endocytosis of the flagellin sensing2 (FLS2) receptor during pathogen responses. Our data suggest that the established SA impact on transcription in plant immunity and the nontranscriptional effect of SA on clathrin-mediated endocytosis are independent mechanisms by which SA regulates distinct aspects of plant physiology. PMID:23613581

Du, Yunlong; Tejos, Ricardo; Beck, Martina; Himschoot, Ellie; Li, Hongjiang; Robatzek, Silke; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jirí

2013-05-01

257

Salicylic acid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats. PMID:22666115

Randjelovic, Pavle; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Sokolovic, Dusan; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Ilic, Ivan

2012-01-01

258

Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula).  

PubMed

Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing. PMID:15725287

Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

2005-02-01

259

Differential volatile emissions and salicylic acid levels from tobacco plants in response to different strains of Pseudomonas syringae.  

PubMed

Pathogen-induced plant responses include changes in both volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites. To characterize the role of bacterial pathogenesis in plant volatile emissions, tobacco plants, Nicotiana tabacum L. K326, were inoculated with virulent, avirulent, and mutant strains of Pseudomonas syringae. Volatile compounds released by pathogen-inoculated tobacco plants were collected, identified, and quantified. Tobacco plants infected with the avirulent strains P. syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 (Psm ES4326) or pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), emitted quantitatively different, but qualitatively similar volatile blends of (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, methyl salicylate (MeSA), indole, caryophyllene, beta-elemene, alpha-farnesene, and two unidentified sesquiterpenes. Plants treated with the hrcC mutant of Pst DC3000 (hrcC, deficient in the type-III secretion system) released low levels of many of the same volatile compounds as in Psm ES4326- or Pst DC3000-infected plants, with the exception of MeSA, which occurred only in trace amounts. Interaction of the virulent pathogen P. syringae pv. tabaci (Pstb), with tobacco plants resulted in a different volatile blend, consisting of MeSA and two unidentified sesquiterpenes. Overall, maximum volatile emissions occurred within 36 h post-inoculation in all the treatments except for the Pstb infection that produced peak volatile emissions about 60 h post-inoculation. (E)-beta-Ocimene was released in a diurnal pattern with the greatest emissions during the day and reduced emissions at night. Both avirulent strains, Psm ES4326 and Pst DC3000, induced accumulation of free salicylic acid (SA) within 6 h after inoculation and conjugated SA within 60 h and 36 h respectively. In contrast, SA inductions by the virulent strain Pstb occurred much later and conjugated SA increased slowly for a longer period of time, while the hrcC mutant strain did not trigger free and conjugated SA accumulations in amounts significantly different from control plants. Jasmonic acid, known to induce plant volatile emissions, was not produced in significantly higher levels in inoculated plants compared to the control plants in any treatments, indicating that induced volatile emissions from tobacco plants in response to P. syringae are not linked to changes in jasmonic acid. PMID:12712338

Huang, Juan; Cardoza, Yasmin J; Schmelz, Eric A; Raina, Ramesh; Engelberth, Jürgen; Tumlinson, James H

2003-09-01

260

Salicylate Detection by Complexation with Iron(III) and Optical Absorbance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment for the undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratory involving applications of visible spectrophotometry is described. Salicylate, a component found in several medications, as well as the active by-product of aspirin decomposition, is quantified. The addition of excess iron(III) to a solution of salicylate generates a deeply…

Mitchell-Koch, Jeremy T.; Reid, Kendra R.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

2008-01-01

261

The electro-responsive drug delivery from salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release mechanisms and the diffusion coefficients of salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels were investigated experimentally by using a modified Franz-Diffusion cell at the temperature of 37 ^0C to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. The fabricated hydrogels retain their physical shapes and sizes during the experiments along with data reproducibility. A significant amount of salicylic is released within 48 hours from the hydrogels of various crosslinking ratios with and without electric field; the release profile follows the Q vs. t^1/2 relationship. Diffusion coefficients, as determined from the Higuchi equation, increase with electric field strength and reach maximum values at electric field strength of 0.1 V due to the electrophoresis of salicylic drug and become saturated at electric field strengths between 0.5 -- 10 V.

Niamlang, Sumonman; Sirivat, Anuvat

2007-03-01

262

Biodegradable salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) microspheres for controlled insulin delivery.  

PubMed

Salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters) (PAEs) chemically incorporate salicylic acid (SA) into the polymer backbone, which is then delivered in a controlled manner upon polymer hydrolysis. In this work, a salicylate-based PAE is a carrier to encapsulate and deliver insulin. Polymer microspheres were formulated using a water/oil/water double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The microspheres obtained had a smooth surface, high protein encapsulation efficiency, and relatively low emulsifier content. Insulin was released in vitro for 15 days, with no signs of aggregation or unfolding of the secondary structure. The released insulin also retained bioactivity in vitro. Concurrently, SA was released from the microspheres with polymer degradation and anti-inflammatory activity was observed. Based upon these results, the formulated microspheres enable simultaneous delivery of insulin and SA, both retaining bioactivity following processing. PMID:24027012

Delgado-Rivera, Roberto; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

2014-08-01

263

Salicylate-induced changes in auditory thresholds of adolescent and adult rats.  

PubMed

Shifts in auditory intensity thresholds after salicylate administration were examined in postweanling and adult pigmented rats at frequencies ranging from 1 to 35 kHz. A total of 132 subjects from both age levels were tested under two-way active avoidance or one-way active avoidance paradigms. Estimated thresholds were inferred from behavioral responses to presentations of descending and ascending series of intensities for each test frequency value. Reliable threshold estimates were found under both avoidance conditioning methods, and compared to controls, subjects at both age levels showed threshold shifts at selective higher frequency values after salicylate injection, and the extent of shifts was related to salicylate dose level. PMID:8719183

Brennan, J F; Brown, C A; Jastreboff, P J

1996-01-01

264

The Plant Cell, Vol. 15, 760770, March 2003, www.plantcell.org 2003 American Society of Plant Biologists NPR1 Modulates Cross-Talk between Salicylate-and  

E-print Network

in which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play key roles. In this study, we investigated transduction pathways in which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) function as key signaling molecules Biologists NPR1 Modulates Cross-Talk between Salicylate- and Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Pathways through

Spoel, Steven

265

Signaling requirements and role of salicylic acid in HRT-and rrt-mediated resistance to turnip crinkle virus in Arabidopsis  

E-print Network

Signaling requirements and role of salicylic acid in HRT- and rrt-mediated resistance to turnip is compromised in plants with reduced salicylic acid (SA) content as a consequence of mutations eds5, pad4. Keywords: turnip crinkle virus, salicylic acid, defense, Arabidopsis, signaling. Introduction Plants have

Kachroo, Pradeep

266

Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Role of Salicylic Acid and NIM1/NPR1 in Race-Specific  

E-print Network

Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Role of Salicylic Acid and NIM1/NPR1 in Race, 2002 ABSTRACT Salicylic acid (SA) and the NIM1/NPR1 protein have both been demonstrated to be required pathogens that carry a corresponding aviru- associated with accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and lence

Delaney, Terrence

267

Methyl rotors in flavoproteins.  

PubMed

In this contribution we present the study of the thermal dependence of the ENDOR spectra of flavodoxin at low temperatures which reveals the dynamics of the methyl groups bound to the flavin moiety in flavoproteins. The methyl groups behave as quantum rotors locked by a deep rotational well and undergoing a tunneling process. At room temperature, methyl rotors are locked and the hopping motion is slow. This picture of the dynamics of the methyl groups of the flavin ring is quite different from the one usually accepted and has relevant consequences on the understanding of the mechanisms of flavoproteins. PMID:25363087

Martínez, Jesús I; Alonso, Pablo J; García-Rubio, Inés; Medina, Milagros

2014-12-21

268

Study of the transformation of two salicylates used in personal care products in chlorinated water.  

PubMed

Disinfection of swimming pool water is essential to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. However chlorine based disinfectants, the most commonly used, are known to lead to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which have been associated with adverse health effects. Precursors of DBPs include the organic matter present in the water used to fill the swimming pool, human body fluids and personal care products (PCPs) used by swimmers and bathers. The increased use, in the last years, of PCPs lead to an increased concern about the fate of PCPs in swimming pool waters and potential health risks of formed DBPs. In this study, the chemical transformations of two salicylates, benzyl salicylate (BzS) and phenyl salicylate (PS), incorporated in several PCPs, in chlorinated water were investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-diode-array detection (HPLC-UV-DAD) was used to follow the reaction kinetics and HPLC with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was used to tentatively identify the major transformation by-products. Under the experimental conditions used in this work both salicylates reacted with chlorine following pseudo-first order kinetics: rate constant k = (0.0038 ± 0.0002) min(-1) and half-life t1/2 = (182 ± 10) min for BzS and rate constant k = (0.0088 ± 0.0005) min(-1) and half-life t1/2 = (79 ± 4) min for PS (mean ± standard deviation). The reactions of the two salicylates in chlorinated water led to the formation of DBPs that were tentatively identified as mono- and dichloro- substituted compounds. Most probably they result from an electrophilic substitution of one or two hydrogen atoms in the phenolic ring of both salicylates by one or two chlorine atoms. PMID:25086797

de Oliveira e Sá, Mariana M; Miranda, Margarida S; da Silva, Joaquim C G Esteves

2014-11-15

269

Partial reversal by beta-D-xyloside of salicylate-induced inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage  

SciTech Connect

While net /sup 35/S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis in normal canine articular cartilage was suppressed by 10(-3)M sodium salicylate to about 70% of the control value, addition of xyloside (10(-6)M-10(-3)M) to the salicylate-treated cultures led to a concentration-dependent increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which rose to 120-237% of controls. Similar results were obtained when /sup 3/H-glucosamine was used to measure glycosaminoglycan synthesis, confirming that salicylate suppresses and xyloside stimulates net glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and not merely sulfation. Salicylate (10-3)M) did not affect the activity of xylosyl or galactosyl transferase prepared from canine knee cartilage, and net protein synthesis was unaltered by either salicylate or xyloside. The proportion of newly synthesized proteoglycans existing as aggregates when cartilage was cultured with xyloside was similar to that in controls, although the average hydrodynamic size of disaggregated proteoglycans and of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was diminished.

Palmoski, M.J.; Brandt, K.D.

1982-09-01

270

Enhanced Growth and Activity of a Biocontrol Bacterium Genetically Engineered To Utilize Salicylate  

PubMed Central

Plasmid NAH7 was transferred from Pseudomonas putida PpG7 to P. putida R20 [R20(NAH7)], an antagonist of Pythium ultimum. The plasmid did not affect growth or survival of R20(NAH7) and was stably maintained under nonselective conditions in broth and soil and on sugar beet seeds. Plasmid NAH7 conferred to R20(NAH7) the ability to utilize salicylate in culture, agricultural field soil, and on sugar beet seeds. The metabolic activity of R20(NAH7), but not the wild-type R20, was greatly increased in soil by amendment with salicylate (250 ?g/g) as measured by induced respiration. Population densities of R20(NAH7) were also enhanced in salicylate-amended soil, increasing from approximately 1 × 105 CFU/g to approximately 3 × 108 CFU/g after 35 h of incubation. In contrast, population densities of R20(NAH7) in nonamended soil were approximately 3 × 106 CFU/g of soil after 35 h of incubation. The concentration of salicylate in soil affected the rate and extent of population increase by R20(NAH7). At 50 to 250 ?g of salicylate per g of soil, population densities of R20(NAH7) increased to approximately 108 CFU/g of soil by 48 h of incubation, with the fastest increase at 100 ?g/g. A lag phase of approximately 24 h occurred before the population density increased in the presence of salicylate at 500 ?g/g; at 1,000 ?g/g, population densities of R20(NAH7) declined over the time period of the experiment. Population densities of R20(NAH7) on sugar beet seeds in soils amended with 100 ?g of salicylate per g were not increased while ample carbon was present in the spermosphere. However, after carbon from the seed had been utilized, population densities of R20(NAH7) decreased significantly less (P = 0.005) on sugar beet seeds in soil amended with salicylate than in nonamended soil. PMID:16348985

Colbert, Stephen F.; Hendson, Mavis; Ferri, Mario; Schroth, Milton N.

1993-01-01

271

Molecular Design and Synthesis of Novel Salicyl Glycoconjugates as Elicitors against Plant Diseases  

PubMed Central

A new series of salicyl glycoconjugates containing hydrazide and hydrazone moieties were designed and synthesized. The bioassay indicated that the novel compounds had no in vitro fungicidal activity but showed significant in vivo antifungal activity against the tested fungal pathogens. Some compounds even had superior activity than the commercial fungicides in greenhouse trial. The results of RT-PCR analysis showed that the designed salicyl glycoconjugates could induce the expression of LOX1 and Cs-AOS2, which are the specific marker genes of jasmonate signaling pathway, to trigger the plant defense resistance. PMID:25259805

Cui, Zining; Ito, Jun; Dohi, Hirofumi; Amemiya, Yoshimiki; Nishida, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

272

Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin. Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin  

PubMed Central

Aims—To determine serum salicylic acid concentrations in non-vegetarians and vegetarians not taking salicylate drugs, and to compare these concentrations with those found in patients taking aspirin, 75 mg daily. Methods—Serum samples were obtained from vegetarians (n = 37) and non-vegetarians (n = 39) not taking salicylate drugs. Non-vegetarians and vegetarians were recruited from the community and from a Buddhist monastery, respectively, in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. Patients (n = 14) taking aspirin (75 mg daily) were recruited from the Dumfries diabetic clinic. Serum salicylic acid concentrations were determined using a high performance liquid chromatography method with electrochemical detection. Results—Salicylic acid was detected in every serum sample analysed. Higher serum concentrations of salicylic acid were found in vegetarians than non-vegetarians: median concentrations of 0.11 (range, 0.04–2.47) µmol/litre and 0.07 (range, 0.02–0.20) µmol/litre, respectively; the median of the difference was 0.05 µmol/litre (95% confidence interval for difference, 0.03 to 0.08; p < 0.0001). The median serum concentration of salicylic acid in patients taking aspirin (75 mg daily) was 10.03 (range, 0.23–25.40) µmol/litre, which was significantly higher than that found in non-vegetarians and vegetarians. There was overlap in serum salicylic acid concentrations between the vegetarians and patients taking aspirin. Conclusions—Salicylic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is present in fruits and vegetables and is found in higher concentrations in vegetarians than non-vegetarians. This suggests that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables contributes to the presence of salicylic acid in vivo. There is overlap between the serum concentrations of salicylic acid in vegetarians and patients taking aspirin, 75 mg daily. These findings may explain, in part, the health promoting effects of dietary fruits and vegetables. Key Words: salicylic acid • salicylates • diet • low dose aspirin PMID:11429429

Blacklock, C; Lawrence, J; Wiles, D; Malcolm, E; Gibson, I; Kelly, C; Paterson, J

2001-01-01

273

Resistance of Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) to the Root Parasitic Plant Orobanche minor is Activated by Salicylate but not by Jasmonate  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Obligate root holoparasites of the genus Orobanche attack dicotyledonous crops and cause severe losses in many parts of the world. Chemical induction of plant defence systems such as systemic acquired resistance was proposed to be an available strategy to control the root parasite, but the detailed mechanisms involved have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and their analogues on resistance of red clover to Orobanche parasitism. Methods Roots of red clover grown in plastic chambers were applied with SA, S-methyl benzo[1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and n-propyl dihydrojasmonate (PDJ), and then were inoculated with O. minor seeds. Attachments of the parasite were observed after 5 weeks. Key Results SA and BTH, inducers of SA-mediated defences, significantly reduced the number of established parasites by more than 75 %. By contrast, MeJA and PDJ, inducers of JA-mediated defences, did not affect parasitism. The reduction in the number of established parasites by SA and BTH was due to the inhibited elongation of O. minor radicles and the activation of defence responses in the host root including lignification of the endodermis. Conclusions These results suggest that SA-induced resistance, but not JA-induced resistance, is effective in inhibiting Orobanche parasitism and that the resistance is expressed by the host root both externally and internally. PMID:17660517

Kusumoto, Dai; Goldwasser, Yaakov; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi

2007-01-01

274

Disposable terbium (III) salicylate complex imprinted membrane using solid phase surface fluorescence method for fast separation and detection of salicylic acid in pharmaceuticals and human urine.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple, low cost, selective and sensitive complex imprinted membrane (CIM) for solid-phase fluorescent detection was developed with terbium (III) salicylate as complex template. Terbium-sensitized luminescence was employed for monitoring salicylic acid (SA) based on the fluorescence enhancement effect of benzoic acid derivatives on lanthanide ion Tb (III). The resulting CIM showed good fluorescent response and high selectivity towards SA with Tb as pivot in protic solvents, while demonstrating better analytical performance than the controlled membranes. The optimized adsorption time was 10 min, indicating rapid kinetics of the imprinted membrane. The linear response of CIM to SA was from 0.20 to 10mg/L with limit of detection (LOD) of 0.040 mg/L. The prepared CIM was successfully applied to the analysis of salicylic acid in pharmaceuticals and spiked human urine with recoveries of 80.6%-88.1%. The analytical results of the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, indicating that the developed membrane has acceptable practicability for fast determination of SA in real samples. PMID:23598191

Huang, Jianxiang; Hu, Yufei; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke

2013-03-30

275

Loss of Function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 in Tomato Enhances Basal Aphid Resistance in a Salicylate-Dependent Manner1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We report here that disruption of function of the ?-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 (FAD7) enhances plant defenses against aphids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which eliminates the function of FAD7, reduces the settling behavior, survival, and fecundity of the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). Likewise, the antisense suppression of LeFAD7 expression in wild-type tomato plants reduces aphid infestations. Aphid resistance in the spr2 mutant is associated with enhanced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and mRNA encoding the pathogenesis-related protein P4. Introduction of the Naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase transgene, which suppresses SA accumulation, restores wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility to spr2. Resistance in spr2 is also lost when we utilize virus-induced gene silencing to suppress the expression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1), a positive regulator of many SA-dependent defenses. These results indicate that FAD7 suppresses defenses against aphids that are mediated through SA and NPR1. Although loss of function of FAD7 also inhibits the synthesis of jasmonate (JA), the effects of this desaturase on aphid resistance are not dependent on JA; other mutants impaired in JA synthesis (acx1) or perception (jai1-1) show wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility, and spr2 retains aphid resistance when treated with methyl jasmonate. Thus, FAD7 may influence JA-dependent defenses against chewing insects and SA-dependent defenses against aphids through independent effects on JA synthesis and SA signaling. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants Atfad7-2 and Atfad7-1fad8 also show enhanced resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) compared with wild-type controls, indicating that FAD7 influences plant-aphid interactions in at least two plant families. PMID:22291202

Avila, Carlos A.; Arevalo-Soliz, Lirio M.; Jia, Lingling; Navarre, Duroy A.; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Howe, Gregg A.; Meng, Qing-Wei; Smith, Jonathon E.; Goggin, Fiona L.

2012-01-01

276

Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

2010-07-01

277

Role of Salicylic Acid in Alleviating Cadmium Toxicity in Rice Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand how salicylic acid (SA) is involved in modulating rice responses to cadmium (Cd) toxicity, particularly in Cd immobilization, a series of hydroponic experiments were conducted to examine changes in cell wall composition, activities of the enzymes related to lignin synthesis including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), subcellular Cd distribution, levels of hydrogen

Bin Guo; Yongchao Liang; Zhaojun Li; Wei Guo

2007-01-01

278

Controlled levels of salicylic acid are required for optimal photosynthesis and redox homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden exposure of plants to high light (HL) leads to metabolic and physiological disruption of the photo- synthetic cells. Changes in ROS content, adjustment of photosynthetic processes and the antioxidant pools and, ultimately, gene induction are essential compon- ents for a successful acclimation to the new light conditions. The influence of salicylic acid (SA) on plant growth, short-term acclimation to

Alfonso Mateo; Dietmar Funck; Per Muhlenbock; Baldeep Kular; Philip M. Mullineaux; Stanislaw Karpinski

2006-01-01

279

Structure and Mechanism of MbtI, the Salicylate Synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

MbtI (rv2386c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the initial transformation in mycobactin biosynthesis by converting chorismate to salicylate. We report here the structure of MbtI at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and demonstrate that isochorismate is a kinetically competent intermediate in the synthesis of salicylate from chorismate. At pH values below 7.5 isochorismate is the dominant product while above this pH value the enzyme converts chorismate to salicylate without the accumulation of isochorismate in solution. The salicylate and isochorismate synthase activities of MbtI are Mg{sup 2+}-dependent, and in the absence of Mg{sup 2+} MbtI has a promiscuous chorismate mutase activity similar to that of the isochorismate pyruvate lyase, PchB, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MbtI is part of a larger family of chorismate-binding enzymes descended from a common ancestor (the MST family), that includes the isochorismate synthases and anthranilate synthases. The lack of active site residues unique to pyruvate eliminating members of this family, combined with the observed chorismate mutase activity, suggests that MbtI may exploit a sigmatropic pyruvate elimination mechanism similar to that proposed for PchB. Using a combination of structural, kinetic, and sequence based studies we propose a mechanism for MbtI applicable to all members of the MST enzyme family.

Zwahlen,J.; Kolappan, S.; Zhou, R.; Kisker, C.; Tonge, P.

2007-01-01

280

Ethylene-dependent salicylic acid regulates an expanded cell death response to a plant pathogen  

E-print Network

Ethylene-dependent salicylic acid regulates an expanded cell death response to a plant pathogen@gnv.ifas.u¯.edu). Summary The molecular events associated with susceptible plant responses to disease-causing organisms stress. Because the metabolic cost of producing a battery of gene products is high, defense responses

Klee, Harry J.

281

Salicylic acid inhibits the biosynthesis of ethylene in detached rice leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on ethylene biosynthesis in detached rice leaves were investigated. SA at pH 3.5 effectively inhibited ethylene production within 2 h of its application. It inhibited the conversion of ACC to ethylene, but did not affect the levels of ACC and conjugated ACC. Thus, the inhibitory effect of SA resulted from the inhibition of both

Y F. Huang; C. T. Chen; C. H. Kao

1993-01-01

282

Neuroprotection by Aspirin and Sodium Salicylate Through Blockade of NF-kappaB Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a commonly prescribed drug with a wide pharmacological spectrum. At concentrations compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy, acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite sodium salicylate were found to be protective against neurotoxicity elicited by the excitatory amino acid glutamate in rat primary neuronal cultures and hippocampal slices. The site of action of the drugs

Mariagrazia Grilli; Marina Pizzi; Maurizio Memo; Pierfranco Spano

1996-01-01

283

An Easily Constructed Salicylate-Ion-Selective Electrode for Use in the Instructional Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an electrode, selective for the salicylate ion, that can be prepared and used by undergraduate students. Discusses the preparation of the electrode, typical response characteristics obtained, and results of a limited study using the electrode to estimate the selectivity coefficient for an interfering ion and to determine the amount of…

Creager, Stephen E.; And Others

1995-01-01

284

Polyaniline Doped with Sulphosalicylic, Salicylic and Citric Acid in Solution and Solid-state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress has been made in characterizing and understanding the properties of polyaniline doped with some protonic acids . In this work polyaniline was synthesized by chemical method in the presence of HCI, then undoped polyanilinewas obtained with NH3solution. The undoped polyaniline was doped with the protonic acid such as sulphosalicylic acid, salicylic acid and citric acid. The protonic acids

Farideh Ghadimi; Kazem Dindar Safa; Bakhshali Massoumi

285

Host plant preference based on salicylate chemistry in a willow leaf beetle ( Chrysomela aeneicollis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chrysomela aeneicollis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) uses salicin from its host plant (Salix spp.) to produce a defensive secretion, salicylaldehyde. Because it requires salicin for this secretion, I predicted that C. aeneicollis should be attracted to willows which possess salicin and other salicylates. To test this prediction, I determined the host-plant preferences of C. aeneicollis among four potential hosts which occur in

Nathan Egan Rank

1992-01-01

286

Effect of salicylic acid treatment on alleviating postharvest chilling injury of ‘Qingnai’ plum fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on chilling injury, disease incidence, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, respiration rate and ethylene production, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and polyamine (PA) content of ‘Qingnai’ plum fruit were examined. Chilling injury, disease incidence, electrolyte leakage, MDA content, respiration and ethylene production of control fruit increased after about 15–30days cold storage.

Zisheng Luo; Chun Chen; Jing Xie

2011-01-01

287

Hybrid organic-inorganic crystals based on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium salicylate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADP-NH 4Sal hybrid crystals are grown from aqueous solutions. The influence of the acidity of the mixed solution on the conditions of co-crystallization of the components is studied. The spectral and scintillation characteristics are determined. Co-crystallization of ammonium salicylate (NH 4Sal) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP, NH 4H 2PO 4) is shown to be feasible, the structure of the doping addition being defined by the solution ??. In basic and weak acidic media the hybrid crystals ADP:NH 4Sal are formed in which salicylate anions are located in the interplanar space between the {110}-type planes in the lattice of ADP. The luminescence spectra contain an emission band maximum with ? max=360 nm. In acidic solutions there are ADP:HSal crystals in which salicylic acid molecules captured by the growth macrosteps are located in the interplanar space of the prismatic {100} and pyramidal {101} growth sectors. The luminescence band undergoes bathochromic shift to ?max=400 nm. The sensitivity of ADP:NH 4Sal scintillation crystals to fast neutrons depends on the concentration of ammonium salicylate in ADP matrix. The highest neutron sensitivity is characteristic of the co-doped ADP:NH 4Sal/Tl scintillation crystals.

Voronov, A. P.; Salo, V. I.; Puzikov, V. M.; Babenko, G. N.; Roshal, A. D.; Tkachenko, V. F.

2011-11-01

288

Roles of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, and Ethylene in cpr-Induced Resistance in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease resistance in Arabidopsis is regulated by multiple signal transduction pathways in which salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) function as key signaling molecules. Epistasis analyses were performed between mutants that disrupt these pathways ( npr1 , eds5 , ein2 , and jar1 ) and mutants that constitutively activate these path- ways ( cpr1, cpr5 , and

Joseph D. Clarke; Sigrid M. Volko; Heidi Ledford; Frederick M. Ausubel; Xinnian Dong

2000-01-01

289

Repeated salicylic acid peels for the treatment of hyperplastic sebaceous glands in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.  

PubMed

Abstract Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Hypertrophic sebaceous glands (HSGs) are rarely present but they cause an aesthetic problem. We report a case of a patient suffering from hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, treated with salicylic acid peels for the hyperplastic sebaceous glands. PMID:25065417

Sgontzou, Themis; Armyra, Kalliopi; Kouris, Anargyros; Bokotas, Charalampos; Kontochristopoulos, George

2014-12-01

290

Immediate Early Transcription Activation by Salicylic Acid via the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus as-1 Element  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco plants carrying a number of regulatory sequences derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter were tested for their response to treatment with salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous signal involved in plant defense responses. PGlucuronidase (GUS) gene fusions with the full-length (-343 to +8) 35s promoter or the -90 truncation were found to be induced by SA. Time

Xiao-Feng Qin; Loreto Holuigue; Diana M. Horvath; Nam-Hai Chua

1994-01-01

291

Salicylic Acid Regulation of Respiration in Higher Plants: Alternative Oxidase Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative respiratory pathway capacity increases during the development of the thermogenic appendix of a voodoo lily inflorescence. The levels of the alternative oxidase proteins increased dramatically between D-4 (4 days prior to the day of anthesis) and D-3 and continued to increase until the day of anthesis (D-day). The level of salicylic acid (SA) in the appendix is very low

David M. Rhoads; Lee Mclntosh

1992-01-01

292

Resistance to rice blast induced by ferric chloride, di-potassium hydrogen phosphate and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferric chloride, di-potassium hydrogen phosphate and salicylic acid were tested for their capacity to suppress rice blast under greenhouse and field conditions. In greenhouse experiments, the chemicals significantly reduced disease severity when applied as a soil drench, thus demonstrating a systemic effect. Foliar spray, but not seed treatment, also caused a reduction in blast severity. In field experiments conducted at

H. K. Manandhar; H. J. Lyngs Jørgensen; S. B. Mathur; V. Smedegaard-Petersen

1998-01-01

293

Salicylic acid in the machinery of hypersensitive cell death and disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extensive data has described the key role of salicylic acid (SA) in signaling pathogen-induced disease resistance, its function in physiological processes related to cell death is still poorly understood. Recent studies have explored the requirement of SA for mounting the hypersensitive response (HR) against an invading pathogen, where a particular cell death process is activated at the site of

María Elena Alvarez

2000-01-01

294

Endogenous salicylic acid potentiates cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the role of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) in plants exposed to abiotic stresses known to generate oxidative damage, the response to cadmium treatment of a wild Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype and a SA-deficient transgenic line was investigated. After 5 days of Cd treatment, chlorophyll content was significantly reduced and TBARS significantly increased in wild type seedlings but not

Myriam S. Zawoznik; María D. Groppa; María L. Tomaro; María P. Benavides

2007-01-01

295

Salicylic acid inhibits jasmonic acid-induced resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to Spodoptera exigua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of salicylic acid (SA) in plant responses to pathogens has been well documented, but its direct and indirect effects on plant responses to insects are not so well understood. We examined the effects of SA, alone and in combination with jasmonic acid (JA), on the per- formance of the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua , in wild-type and mutant

D. CIPOLLINI; S. ENRIGHT; M. B. T RAW; J. BERGELSON

296

Bis(di-methyl-formamide)-penta-kis-(?-N,2-dioxido-benzene-1-carb-ox-imidato)tetra-kis-(1-methyl-imidazole)di-?-propionato-penta-manganese(III)manganese(II)-di-methyl-formamide-methanol (1/0.24/1.36)  

PubMed Central

The title compound [Mn6(C7H4NO3)5(C3H5O2)2(C4H6N2)4.17(C3H7NO)1.83]·0.24C3H7NO·1.36CH3OH or Mn(II)(C3H5O2)2[15-MCMn(III)N(shi)-5](Me—Im)4.17(DMF)1.83·0.24DMF·1.36MeOH (where MC is metallacrown, shi3? is salicyl­hydroximate, Me—Im is 1-methyl­imidazole, DMF is N,N-di­methyl­formamide, and MeOH is methanol), contains an MnII ion in the central cavity and five MnIII ions in the MC ring. The central MnII ion is seven coordinate and has a geometry best described as distorted face-capped trigonal prismatic with ? angles of 6.13, 10.36, and 11.73° and an estimated average s/h ratio of 1.03±0.11. Four of the ring MnIII ions are six coordinate with distorted octa­hedral geometries. Two of the MnIII ions have ? absolute stereoconfiguration, while the other two MnIII ions have a planar configuration. The fifth MnIII ion is five coordinate and has a distorted square pyramidal geometry with ? = 0.20. Three of the MnIII ions bind one 1-methyl­imidazole ligand. Two of the ring MnIII ions have a 1-methyl­imidazole and a DMF disordered over a coordination site. For one of the ring MnIII ions, the occupancy ratio of the ligands refines to 0.51?(1):0.49?(1) in favor of the DMF. For the other ring MnIII ion, the occupancy ratio of the ligands refines to 0.68?(1):0.32?(1) in favor of the 1-methyl­imidazole. Two propionate anions serve to bridge the central MnII ion between two different MnIII ions. The methyl groups of the bridging propionate anions are disordered over two positions. The methyl group disorder also induces disorder in the H atoms of the adjacent methyl­ene C atom to the same degree. For one of the propionate anions, the occupancy ratio refines to 0.752?(8):0.248?(8) and for the second, the occupancy ratio refines to 0.604?(6):0.396?(6). In addition, the disorder of the methyl group of the latter propionate anion is correlated with a partially occupied [0.604?(6)] methanol mol­ecule. Furthermore, a methanol mol­ecule and a DMF mol­ecule are positionally disordered in the lattice. The occupancy refines to 0.757?(7):0.243?(7) in favor of the methanol mol­ecule. Correlated to the occupancy of the methanol and DMF mol­ecules is a disordered benzene ring of one salicyl­hydroximate ligand. The benzene ring is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.757?(7):0.243?(7). Lastly, the two lattice methanol mol­ecules are hydrogen bonded to the 15-MC-5 mol­ecule. For the partially occupied methanol mol­ecule associated with the disordered propionate anion, the hydroxyl group of the methanol is hydrogen bonded to a carboxyl­ate O atom of the propionate anion. For the partially occupied methanol mol­ecule associated with the partially occupied lattice DMF mol­ecule, the hydroxyl group of the methanol is hydrogen bonded to the phenolate O atom of a salicyl­hydroximate ligand and to the carbonyl O atom of a coordinated DMF mol­ecule. PMID:24426984

Lutter, Jacob C.; Kampf, Jeff W.; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M.

2013-01-01

297

In search of pure liquid salt forms of aspirin: ionic liquid approaches with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

We present an ionic liquid (IL) approach towards a dual functional liquid salt form of aspirin using different pharmaceutically active cations composed of antibacterials, analgesics, local anesthetics, and antiarrhythmic drugs in combination with acetylsalicylic acid or its metabolite salicylic acid and discuss stability of these ILs in comparison to solid salts. Several low-melting or liquid salts of salicylic acid with dual functionality and promising properties were isolated and characterized; however, although such ILs with aspirin could be prepared, they suffer from limited stability and slowly decompose into the corresponding salicylate ILs when exposed to moisture. PMID:20145871

Bica, Katharina; Rijksen, Christiaan; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Rogers, Robin D

2010-02-28

298

Kinetics of Salicylate-Mediated Suppression of Jasmonate Signaling Reveal a Role for Redox Modulation1[OA  

PubMed Central

Cross talk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways plays an important role in the regulation and fine tuning of induced defenses that are activated upon pathogen or insect attack. Pharmacological experiments revealed that transcription of JA-responsive marker genes, such as PDF1.2 and VSP2, is highly sensitive to suppression by SA. This antagonistic effect of SA on JA signaling was also observed when the JA pathway was biologically activated by necrotrophic pathogens or insect herbivores, and when the SA pathway was triggered by a biotrophic pathogen. Furthermore, all 18 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions tested displayed SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression, highlighting the potential significance of this phenomenon in induced plant defenses in nature. During plant-attacker interactions, the kinetics of SA and JA signaling are highly dynamic. Mimicking this dynamic response by applying SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) at different concentrations and time intervals revealed that PDF1.2 transcription is readily suppressed when the SA response was activated at or after the onset of the JA response, and that this SA-JA antagonism is long lasting. However, when SA was applied more than 30 h prior to the onset of the JA response, the suppressive effect of SA was completely absent. The window of opportunity of SA to suppress MeJA-induced PDF1.2 transcription coincided with a transient increase in glutathione levels. The glutathione biosynthesis inhibitor l-buthionine-sulfoximine strongly reduced PDF1.2 suppression by SA, suggesting that SA-mediated redox modulation plays an important role in the SA-mediated attenuation of the JA signaling pathway. PMID:18539774

Koornneef, Annemart; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Ritsema, Tita; Verhage, Adriaan; Den Otter, Floor C.; Van Loon, L.C.; Pieterse, Corne M.J.

2008-01-01

299

Experience with methyl salicylate affects behavioural responses of a predatory mite to blends of herbivore-induced plant volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many natural enemies of herbivorous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their prey. These foraging cues consist of mixtures of compounds that show a considerable variation within and among plantherbivore combinations, a situation that favours a flexible approach in the foraging behaviour of the natural enemies. In this paper, we address the flexibility in behavioural responses of the predatory

Boer de J. G; Marcel Dicke

2004-01-01

300

Jasmonic acid is a key regulator of spider mite-induced volatile terpenoid and methyl salicylate emission in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type

K. Ament; M. R. Kant; M. W. Sabelis; M. A. Haring; R. C. Schuurink

2004-01-01

301

Jasmonic Acid Is a Key Regulator of Spider Mite-Induced Volatile Terpenoid and Methyl Salicylate Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type

Kai Ament; Merijn R. Kant; Maurice W. Sabelis; Michel A. Haring; Robert C. Schuurink

2004-01-01

302

ENZYMOLOGY OF ARSENIC METHYLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

303

DNA methylation and differentiation.  

PubMed Central

The methylation of specific cytosine residues in DNA has been implicated in regulating gene expression and facilitating functional specialization of cellular phenotypes. Generally, the demethylation of certain CpG sites correlates with transcriptional activation of genes. 5-Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methylation and has been widely used as a potent activator of suppressed genetic information. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine results in profound phenotypic alterations. The drug-induced hypomethylation of DNA apparently perturbs DNA-protein interactions that may consequently alter transcriptional activity and cell determination. The inhibitory effect of cytosine methylation may be exerted via altered DNA-protein interactions specifically or may be transduced by a change in the conformation of chromatin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cytosine methylation also plays a central role in parental imprinting, which in turn determines the differential expression of maternal and paternal genomes during embryogenesis. In other words, methylation is the mechanism whereby the embryo retains memory of the gametic origin of each component of genetic information. A memory of this type would probably persist during DNA replication and cell division as methylation patterns are stable and heritable. PMID:2466640

Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A

1989-01-01

304

Roles of trpE2, entC and entD in salicylic acid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium smegmatis acquires extracellular iron using exochelin, mycobactin and carboxymycobactin. The latter two siderophores are synthesized from salicylic acid, which, in turn, is derived from chorismic acid in the shikimic acid pathway. To understand the conversion mechanism of chorismic acid to salicylic acid in M. smegmatis, knockout mutants of the putative key genes, trpE2, entC and entD, were created by targeted mutagenesis. By enzymatic assays with the cell-free extracts of the various knockout mutants, we have shown that TrpE2 converts chorismic acid into isochorismic acid and is thus an isochorismate synthase. The gene products of both entC and entD are involved in the conversion of isochorismic acid into salicylic acid, and hence correspond to salicylate synthase. PMID:20487026

Nagachar, Nivedita; Ratledge, Colin

2010-07-01

305

Method for Determination of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid in Rat Whole Blood by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to simultaneously determine aspirin and salicylic acid in rat whole blood. Aspirin and salicylic acid are extracted from acidified whole blood into a 50\\/50 v\\/v ethylacetate\\/butylchloride organic solvent system containing internal standard (meta-anisic acid). Following controlled evaporation of the organic extract under partial vacuum, the dried residue is reconstituted with mobile phase. Chromatography is ion

Chau-Hwei J. Fu; Srikumaran Melethil; William D. Mason

1985-01-01

306

Negative cross-talk between salicylate- and jasmonate-mediated pathways in the Wassilewskija ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants often respond to attack by insect herbivores and necrotrophic pathogens with induc- tion of jasmonate-dependent resistance traits, but respond to attack by biotrophic patho- gens with induction of salicylate-dependent resistance traits. To assess the degree to which the jasmonate- and salicylate-dependent pathways interact, we compared pathogenesis- related protein activity and bacterial performance in four mutant Arabidopsis thaliana lines relative

M. B. Traw; J. Kim; S. Enright; D. F. Cipollini; J. Bergelson

2003-01-01

307

Allopurinol suppresses 2-bromoethylamine and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP +)-induced hydroxyl radical generation in rat striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was examined whether or not 2-bromoethyamine, a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO, EC; 1.4.3.6) inhibitor, would increase an active dopaminergic neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+)-induced hydroxyl radical (OH) generation in the rat striatum. Rats were anesthetized, and sodium salicylate (0.5mM or 0.5nmol\\/?l\\/min) was infused through a microdialysis probe to detect the generation of OH as reflected by the non-enzymatic

Toshio Obata

2006-01-01

308

Salicylate stimulates the degradation of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas saccharophila P15  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas saccharophila P15 was isolated from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and previously was reported to degrade a variety of low- and high-molecular weight PAH. Strain P15 grows on phenanthrene by a known pathway in which salicylate is an intermediate. Preincubation with phenanthrene and downstream intermediates through salicylate stimulated PAH dioxygenase activity and initial rates of phenanthrene removal, suggesting that salicylate is the inducer of these activities. Salicylate also greatly enhanced initial rates of removal of fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene, high-molecular weight substrates that strain P15 does not use for growth.The specific rate of removal of benzo[a]pyrene was at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the four-ring compounds and nearly 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of phenanthrene. The mineralization of phenanthrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene was stimulated by preincubation with phenanthrene or salicylate, although significant mineralization of phenanthrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene occurred in uninduced cultures. Further experiments with chrysene indicated that chrysene does not appear to induce its own mineralization. The results suggest that P. saccharophila P15 expresses a low level of constitutive PAH metabolism which is inducible to much higher levels and that high-molecular weight PAH metabolism by this organism is induced by the low-molecular weight substrate phenanthrene and by salicylate.

Chen, S.H.; Aitken, M.D. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1999-02-01

309

Free Radicals, Salicylic Acid and Mycotoxins in Asparagus After Inoculation with Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum.  

PubMed

Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to monitor free radicals and paramagnetic species like Fe, Mn, Cu generation, stability and status in Asparagus officinalis infected by common pathogens Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Occurrence of F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum, level of free radicals and other paramagnetic species, as well as salicylic acid and mycotoxins content in roots and stems of seedlings were estimated on the second and fourth week after inoculation. In the first term free and total salicylic acid contents were related to free radicals level in stem (P = 0.010 and P = 0.033, respectively). Concentration of Fe(3+) ions in porphyrin complexes (g = 2.3, g = 2.9) was related to the species of pathogen. There was no significant difference between Mn(2+) concentrations in stem samples; however, the level of free radicals in samples inoculated with F. proliferatum was significantly higher when compared to F. oxysporum. PMID:21957331

Dobosz, Bernadeta; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Waskiewicz, Agnieszka; Irzykowska, Lidia; Bocianowski, Jan; Karolewski, Zbigniew; Kostecki, Marian; Kruczynski, Zdzislaw; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Weber, Zbigniew; Golinski, Piotr

2011-09-01

310

Promysalin, a salicylate-containing Pseudomonas putida antibiotic, promotes surface colonization and selectively targets other Pseudomonas.  

PubMed

Under control of the Gac regulatory system, Pseudomonas putida RW10S1 produces promysalin to promote its own swarming and biofilm formation, and to selectively inhibit many other pseudomonads, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This amphipathic antibiotic is composed of salicylic acid and 2,8-dihydroxymyristamide bridged by a unique 2-pyrroline-5-carboxyl moiety. In addition to enzymes for salicylic acid synthesis and activation, the biosynthetic gene cluster encodes divergent type II fatty acid biosynthesis components, unusual fatty acid-tailoring enzymes (two Rieske-type oxygenases and an amidotransferase), an enzyme resembling a proline-loading module of nonribosomal peptide synthetases, and the first prokaryotic member of the BAHD family of plant acyltransferases. Identification of biosynthetic intermediates enabled to propose a pathway for synthesis of this bacterial colonization factor. PMID:22035801

Li, Wen; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina; Matthijs, Sandra; Xie, Guan-Lin; Busson, Roger; Cornelis, Pierre; Rozenski, Jef; De Mot, René

2011-10-28

311

Salicylate de bismuth pour la diarrh?e chez l'enfant  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question J’ai reçu récemment un patient de 5 ans à qui, lors d’un voyage en Amérique du Sud, un médecin de famille local a prescrit du sous-salicylate de bismuth pour une diarrhée. Est-ce une pratique que nous devrions encourager? Réponse La recherche réalisée dans les pays en développement a fait valoir que l’utilisation du sous-salicylate de bismuth était efficace pour raccourcir la durée de la diarrhée. En dépit de ces constatations, son efficacité limitée, des préoccupations à propos du fait qu’il pourrait potentiellement causer le syndrome de Reye, les problèmes d’observance et son coût sont les principales raisons pour lesquelles on ne le recommande pas systématiquement pour les enfants.

Goldman, Ran D.

2013-01-01

312

Preparation and characterization of an anti-inflammatory agent based on a zinc-layered hydroxide-salicylate nanohybrid and its effect on viability of Vero-3 cells  

PubMed Central

A new organic-inorganic nanohybrid based on zinc-layered hydroxide intercalated with an anti-inflammatory agent was synthesized through direct reaction of salicylic acid at various concentrations with commercially available zinc oxide. The basal spacing of the pure phase nanohybrid was 15.73 Å, with the salicylate anions arranged in a monolayer form and an angle of 57 degrees between the zinc-layered hydroxide interlayers. Fourier transform infrared study further confirmed intercalation of salicylate into the interlayers of zinc-layered hydroxide. The loading of salicylate in the nanohybrid was estimated to be around 29.66%, and the nanohybrid exhibited the properties of a mesoporous-type material, with greatly enhanced thermal stability of the salicylate compared with its free counterpart. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that free salicylic acid, pure zinc oxide, and the nanohybrid have a mild effect on viability of African green monkey kidney (Vero-3) cells. PMID:23345976

Ramli, Munirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Yusoff, Khatijah

2013-01-01

313

Salicylic acid-mediated hydrogen peroxide accumulation and protection against Cd toxicity in rice leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of H2O2 in salicylic acid (SA)-induced protection of rice leaves against subsequent Cd toxicity was investigated. SA pretreatment\\u000a resulted in an increase in the contents of endogenous SA, as judged by the expression of OsWRKY45 (a SA responsive gene), and H2O2 in rice leaves. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and imidazole (IMD), inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, prevented SA-increased H2O2 production, suggesting

Yun-Yang Chao; Chao-Yeh Chen; Wen-Dar Huang; Ching Huei Kao

2010-01-01

314

Salicylic acid enhances antifungal resistance to Magnaporthe grisea in rice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) may play an important role in induced disease resistance in rice but its mode of action in plant defence\\u000a remains unclear. In this study,we examined the effect of exogenous SA treatment on host resistance and biochemistry of four\\u000a near-isogenic lines of rice to the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Host resistance, as indicated by suppressed blast lesion formation,

B. D. Daw; L. H. Zhang; Z. Z. Wang

2008-01-01

315

Anticorrosive properties of electrosynthesized poly(o-anisidine) coatings on copper from aqueous salicylate medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(o-anisidine) (POA) coatings were electrosynthesized on copper (Cu) from an aqueous solution containing o-anisidine and sodium salicylate by using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic and potentiostatic modes. The extent of corrosion protection offered by these coatings to Cu in aqueous 3% NaCl solution was evaluated by the open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical

Sudeshna Chaudhari; S. R. Sainkar; P. P. Patil

2007-01-01

316

Endurance training and chronic intermittent hypoxia modulate in vitro salicylate-induced hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial function is modulated by multiple approaches including physical activity, which can afford cross-tolerance against a variety of insults. We therefore aimed to analyze the effects of endurance-training (ET) and chronic-intermittent hypobaric-hypoxia (IHH) on liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and whether these effects translate into benefits against in vitro salicylate mitochondrial toxicity. Twenty-eight young-adult male rats were divided into normoxic-sedentary (NS), normoxic-exercised (NE), hypoxic-sedentary (HS) and hypoxic-exercised (HE). ET consisted of 1h/days of treadmill running and IHH of simulated atmospheric pressure of 49.3 kPa 5h/days during 5weeks. Liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption, transmembrane-electric potential (??) and permeability transition pore induction (MPTP) were evaluated in the presence and absence of salicylate. Aconitase, MnSOD, caspase-3 and 8 activities, SH, MDA, SIRT3, Cyp D, HSP70, and OXPHOS subunit contents were assessed. ET and IHH decreased basal mitochondrial state-3 and state-4 respiration, although no alterations were observed in ?? endpoints evaluated in control mitochondria. In the presence of salicylate, ET and IHH decreased state-4 and lag-phase of ADP-phosphorylation. Moreover, ADP-lag phase in hypoxic was further lower than in normoxic groups. Neither ET nor IHH altered the susceptibility to calcium-induced MPTP. IHH lowered MnSOD and increased aconitase activities. ET and IHH decreased caspase 8 activity whereas no effect was observed on caspase 3. The levels of SIRT3 increased with ET and IHH and Cyp D decreased with IHH. Data suggest that ET and IHH do not alter general basal liver mitochondrial function, but may attenuate some adverse effects of salicylate. PMID:23069012

Ascensão, A; Gonçalves, I O; Lumini-Oliveira, J; Marques-Aleixo, I; Dos Passos, E; Rocha-Rodrigues, S; Machado, N G; Moreira, A C; Oliveira, P J; Torrella, J R; Magalhães, J

2012-11-01

317

Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verrucae): a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts.Design A multicentre, open, two arm randomised controlled trial.Setting University podiatry school clinics, NHS podiatry clinics, and primary care in England, Scotland, and Ireland.Participants 240 patients aged 12 years and over, with a plantar wart that in the opinion of the healthcare professional was

Sarah Cockayne; Catherine Hewitt; Kate Hicks; Shalmini Jayakody; Arthur Ricky Kang’ombe; Eugena Stamuli; Gwen Turner; Kim Thomas; Mike Curran; Gary Denby; Farina Hashmi; Caroline McIntosh; Nichola McLarnon; David Torgerson; Ian Watt

2011-01-01

318

Kinetic and safety assessment for salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid system.  

PubMed

The nitration process of salicylic acid for the production of the important intermediate 5-nitrosalicylic acid is studied from thermokinetic and safety points of view. Investigations carried out by considering, as process deviations, the loss of the thermal control point out the possibility of runaway phenomena due to the occurrence of polynitration reactions. Isothermal experiments are carried out in various conditions to assess the involved reaction network and reaction kinetics. PMID:16343755

Andreozzi, R; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R

2006-06-30

319

Comparative bioequivalence study of different brands of acetyl salicylic acid in human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A double blind cross over randomized study was conducted in 7 normal healthy volunteers. Single dose (700 mg) of buffered\\u000a aspirin or aspirin with calcium carbonate or aspirin with caffeine was administered orally, at least 3 days apart. Blood samples\\u000a were drawn at different time intervals after administration of drug for estimation of salicylate levels. The values of different\\u000a pharmacokinetic

N. Valecha; U. Gupta; V. L. Mehta

1993-01-01

320

Response of barley grains to the interactive e.ect of salinity and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of grain soaking presowing in 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) and NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) on barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Gerbel) was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage, the growth parameters (fresh and dry weight), potassium, calcium, phosphorus and insoluble sugars content in both shoots and roots of 15-day old seedlings. Leaf relative water

M. A. El-Tayeb

2005-01-01

321

Salicylic acid-induced adaptive response to copper stress in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA: 0.5 mM) on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under Cu stress (5 mg l?1) was studied. Excess Cu reduced the fresh and dry weights of different organs (roots, stems and leaves) and photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) in four-week-old plants. There was a considerable increase in Chl a\\/b ratio and lipid peroxidation in both the

M. A. El-Tayeb; A. E. El-Enany; N. L. Ahmed

2006-01-01

322

The P-7 Incompatibility Group Plasmids Responsible for Biodegradation of Naphthalene and Salicylate in Fluorescent Pseudomonads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of seven plasmids (77 to 135 kb in size) of the P-7 incompatibility group that are responsible for the biodegradation of naphthalene and salicylate has shown that the main natural host of IncP-7 plasmids is the species Pseudomonas fluorescens. The IncP-7 plasmids are structurally diverse and do not form groups, as is evident from their cluster analysis. The naphthalene

T. Yu. Izmalkova; O. I. Sazonova; S. L. Sokolov; I. A. Kosheleva; A. M. Boronin

2005-01-01

323

Induction, Modification, and Transduction of the Salicylic Acid Signal in Plant Defense Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in our laboratory as well as others strongly suggest that salicylic acid (SA) plays an important signaling role in plant defense against pathogens. We have found that increases in endogenous SA levels correlates with both resistance of tobacco to infection with tobacco mosaic virus and induction of defense-related genes such as that encoding pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1). Some of

Zhixiang Chen; Jocelyn Malamy; Jacek Henning; Uwe Conrath; Paloma Sanchez-Casas; Herman Silva; Jseph Ricigliano; Daniel K. Klessig

1995-01-01

324

Salicylic Acid-induced Nitric Oxide and ROS Generation Stimulate Ginsenoside Accumulation in Panax ginseng Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced accumulation of ginsenoside in adventitious\\u000a roots of Panax ginseng and its mediation by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Related effects of SA on components of the antioxidant system were also\\u000a sought. Adventitious roots of P. ginseng were grown in suspension culture for 3 weeks in MS medium and treated over

Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Kee-Yoeup Paek

325

Salicylic Acid Protects Potato Plants-from Phytoplasma-associated Stress and Improves Tuber Photosynthate Assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a pathogen attack, cells triggers the overproduction of reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress and physiological\\u000a damage. Plants develop strategies using these reactive molecules for protection against pathogen attack. Phytoplasma are bacteria\\u000a lacking cell walls that inhabit plant phloem and reduce yield, tuber quality, and commercial harvest value. Sprayed salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) activated plant defense response against phytoplasma attack

Silvia Sánchez-Rojo; Humberto A. López-Delgado; Martha E. Mora-Herrera; Humberto I. Almeyda-León; Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera; David Espinosa-Victoria

2011-01-01

326

Salicylic Acid Reduces Napropamide Toxicity by Preventing Its Accumulation in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Napropamide is a widely used herbicide for controlling weeds in crop production. However, extensive use of the herbicide has\\u000a led to its accumulation in ecosystems, thus causing toxicity to crops and reducing crop production and quality. Salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) plays multiple roles in regulating plant adaptive responses to biotic and environmental stresses. However, whether\\u000a SA regulates plant response to herbicides

Jing Cui; Rui Zhang; Guo Lin Wu; Hong Mei Zhu; Hong Yang

2010-01-01

327

Inhibition of NF-kappaB by Sodium Salicylate and Aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is critical for the inducible expression of multiple cellular and viral genes involved in inflammation and infection including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and adhesion molecules. The anti-inflammatory drugs sodium salicylate and aspirin inhibited the activation of NF-kappa B, which further explains the mechanism of action of these drugs. This inhibition prevented the degradation

Elizabeth Kopp; Sankar Ghosh

1994-01-01

328

Isolation of a novel ABC-transporter gene from soybean induced by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the identification and character- ization of a new ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter which was identified as a salicylic acid-induced gene from soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams 82) in a sub- tractive suppression hybridization approach. A frag- ment of an ABC-transporter gene was used to isolate a full-length cDNA clone for this gene with a length of

Heiko Eichhorn; Michaela Klinghammer; Philip Becht; Raimund Tenhaken

2006-01-01

329

The Pathway and Regulation of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Probenazole-Treated Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probenazole (PBZ; 3-allyloxy-1,2-benzisothiazole-1,1-dioxide) is a highly effective chemical inducer of systemic-acquired\\u000a resistance (SAR). It has been used widely to protect rice plants against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Previous studies have shown that PBZ induces SAR through enhanced accumulation of salicylic acid (SA). Plants synthesize\\u000a SA by either a pathway that uses phenylalanine as substrate or another that involves

Jin Yu; Jiong Gao; Xiao Yan Wang; Qiang Wei; Li Feng Yang; Kai Qiu; Ben Ke Kuai

2010-01-01

330

Identification of a Soluble, High-Affinity Salicylic Acid-Binding Protein in Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is a key component in the signal transduction pathway(s), leading to the activation of certain defense responses in plants after pathogen attack. Previous studies have identified sev- era1 proteins, including catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, through which the SA signal might act. Here we describe a new SA-binding protein. This soluble protein is present in low abundance in

Daniel F. Klessig

1997-01-01

331

Effects of salicylic acid and cold on freezing tolerance in winter wheat leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM) and cold on freezing tolerance (freezing injury and ice nucleation activity) were investigated in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Dogu-88) grown under control (20\\/18 °C for 15, 30 and 45-day) and cold (15\\/10 °C for 15-day, 10\\/5 °C for 30-day and 5\\/3 °C for 45-day) conditions. Cold acclimatisation caused

Esen Ta?gín; Ökke? Atící; Barbaros Nalbanto?lu

2003-01-01

332

Effect of salicylic acid (SA) on delaying fruit senescence of Huang Kum pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was undertaken to explore the effect of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations on regulating fruit\\u000a senescence of Huang Kum pear. Through dipping fruits and fruit discs for a series of hours in SA solution, enzyme activities\\u000a and physiological characteristics of Huang Kum pear were determined. The results revealed that SA enhanced the activity of\\u000a superoxide dismutase (SOD)

Hassan Imran; Yuxing Zhang; Guoqiang Du; Guoying Wang; Jianghong Zhang

2007-01-01

333

Thermodynamic and NMR study of aggregation of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium salicylate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex aggregation processes of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) have been studied in dilute solutions of sodium\\u000a salicylate (NaSal) by isothermal titration calorimetry and electrical conductivity at temperatures between 278.15 K and 318.15 K.\\u000a A structural transformation that was dependent on the concentrations of DTAC and NaSal was observed. The micellization process\\u000a in dilute solutions of DTAC has been subjected to a detailed

Bojan Šarac; Janez Cerkovnik; Bernard Ancian; Guillaume Mériguet; Gaëlle M. Roger; Serge Durand-Vidal; Marija Bešter-Roga?

334

Topical acetylsalicylic, salicylic acid and indomethacin suppress pain from experimental tissue acidosis in human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topically applied acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), salicylic acid (SA) and indomethacin were tested in an experimental pain model that provides direct nociceptor excitation through cutaneous tissue acidosis. In 30 volunteers, sustained burning pain was produced in the palmar forearm through a continuous intradermal pressure infusion of a phosphate-buffered isotonic solution (pH 5.2). In 5 different, double-blind, randomized cross-over studies with 6

Kay H. Steen; Peter W. Reeh; Hans W. Kreysel

1995-01-01

335

Passive permeability of salicylic acid in renal proximal S2 and S3 tubules  

SciTech Connect

The role of nonionic diffusion in the transport of salicylic acid across rabbit proximal S2 and S3 segments was investigated using the in vitro isolated perfused tubule technique. The ({sup 14}C) salicylic acid apparent reabsorptive permeability (P'I-b, 10(-5) cm/s) was measured at 19 degrees C with luminal solutions kept at different pH and bath maintained at pH 7.4. In S2 tubules, P'I-b was 25.0 +/- 3.5 when luminal pH was 6.0; P'I-b decreased to 8.1 +/- 1.4 and to 4.4 +/- 1.2 at a luminal pH of 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. In S3 tubules, P'I-b was 17.6 +/- 2.4, 5.3 +/- 1.1 and 3.4 +/- 1.1 at a luminal pH of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. There was a close correlation between P'I-b and the calculated proportion of nonionized salicylic acid present at each pH, indicating that only the nonionized molecule could diffuse in our conditions. We calculated the apparent permeability of nonionic salicylic acid and found 0.248 +/- 0.032 cm/s for S2 and 0.176 +/- 0.022 cm/s for S3 tubules. These calculated permeabilities were independent of pH.

Chatton, J.Y.; Roch-Ramel, F. (Institut de Pharmacologie, Lausanne (Switzerland))

1991-03-01

336

Purification and Characterization of a Soluble Salicylic Acid-Binding Protein from Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we identified a soluble salicylic acid (SA)-binding protein (SABP) in tobacco whose properties suggest that it may play a role in transmitting the SA signal during plant defense responses. This SA-binding activity has been purified 250-fold by conventional chromatography and was found to copurify with a 280-kDa protein. Monoclonal antibodies capable of immunoprecipitating the SA-binding activity also immunoprecipitated the

Zhixiang Chen; Joseph W. Ricigliano; Daniel F. Klessig

1993-01-01

337

Salicylic Acid Activates a 48-kD MAP Kinase in Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of phosphorylalion\\/dephosphorylation in the salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway leading to pathogenesis-related gene induction has previously been demonstrated using kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Here, we show that in tobacco suspension cells, SA induced a rapid and transient activation of a 48-kD kinase that uses my- elin basic protein as a substrate. This kinase is called the p48

Shuqun Zhang; Daniel F. Klessig

1997-01-01

338

Relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV  

SciTech Connect

The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138 -15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

Angel, G.C.; Samson, J.A.R.; Williams, G.

1986-01-01

339

Degradation of phenol and salicylic acid by ultraviolet radiation\\/hydrogen peroxide\\/oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the oxidation reactions of u.v. radiation\\/hydrogen peroxide\\/oxygen with either phenol or salicylic acid a spectra library was established. The reaction products contain hydroxylated phenols, benzoquinone and aliphatic acids with up to six carbon atoms. Many of the substances have been identified by means of chromatography and spectra comparison. From the observed concentrations of the substances and the known

Christoph K. Scheck; Fritz H. Frimmel

1995-01-01

340

Possible Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide and Salicylic Acid in the Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

H2O2 content was studied in the roots and epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L.) with normal (cultivar Marat) and disturbed (non-nodulating mutant K14a and hypernodulating mutant Nod3) regulation of root nodulation after inoculation with active industrial strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae 250a\\/CIAM 1026. Pea biotypes differed by H2O2 content in roots and epicotyls. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) (0.2 mM)

A. K. Glyan’ko; L. E. Makarova; G. G. Vasil’eva; N. V. Mironova

2005-01-01

341

The relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138 -15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

Angel, G. C.; Samson, J. A. R.; Williams, G.

1986-01-01

342

Salicylic Acid Modulates Aluminum-induced Oxidative Stress in Roots of Cassia tora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in mediating some biotic and abiotic stress-induced oxidative stresses in plants. However, it remains unknown about the role of SA in mediating oxidative stress induced by aluminum. In this study, we investigated the changes in concentrations of H2O2 and O2-, some antioxidative enzyme activities and several physiological parameters involved in oxidative damage to

WANG You-Sheng; WANG Jin; YANG Zhi-Min; WANG Qing-Ya; LÜ Bo; LI Shao-Qiong; LU Ya-Ping; WANG Song-Hua; SUN Xin

343

Effect of salicylic acid potentiates cadmium-induced oxidative damage in Oryza sativa L. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, we studied the possible potentiating effect of salicylic acid (SA) under Cd toxicity in Oryza sativa L. leaves. Cd treatments for 24 h reduced the shoot length, dry biomass and total chlorophyll content followed by high Cd\\u000a accumulation in shoots. About 16 h presoaking with SA resulted in partial protection against Cd, as observed by minor changes\\u000a in

Sanjib Kumar Panda; Hemanta Kumar Patra

2007-01-01

344

Salicylic acid alleviates NaCl-induced changes in the metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of 100 mM NaCl and 50 ?M salicylic acid (SA) and their combination on the metabolism of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) during 7 days was studied. NaCl reduced growth and selected physiological parameters and SA in combined treatment (NaCl + SA)\\u000a reversed majority of these symptoms. Application of SA reduced NaCl-induced increase of Na+ in the rosettes, but not in the roots. Accumulation of total

Jozef Ková?ik; Bo?ivoj Klejdus; Josef Hedbavny; Martin Ba?kor

2009-01-01

345

Electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid by a cobalt hydrotalcite-like compound modified Pt electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a study of the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) at a Pt electrode coated with a Co\\/Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Co\\/Al HTLC coated-Pt) film is presented. The voltammetric behaviour of the modified electrode in 0.1M NaOH shows two different redox couples: Co(II)\\/Co(III) and Co(III)\\/Co(IV). The electrocatalysis occurs at the same potential of the latter couple, showing that

Isacco Gualandi; Erika Scavetta; Sergio Zappoli; Domenica Tonelli

2011-01-01

346

Regulation of Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue and Systemic Inflammation by Salicylates and Pioglitazone  

PubMed Central

It is increasingly accepted that chronic inflammation participates in obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Salicylates and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) both have anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. The present study compared the effects of these drugs on obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) and AT macrophages (ATMs), as well as the metabolic and immunological phenotypes of the animal models. Both drugs improved high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. However, salicylates did not affect AT and ATM inflammation, whereas Pioglitazone improved these parameters. Interestingly, HFD and the drug treatments all modulated systemic inflammation as assessed by changes in circulating immune cell numbers and activation states. HFD increased the numbers of circulating white blood cells, neutrophils, and a pro-inflammatory monocyte subpopulation (Ly6Chi), whereas salicylates and Pioglitazone normalized these cell numbers. The drug treatments also decreased circulating lymphocyte numbers. These data suggest that obesity induces systemic inflammation by regulating circulating immune cell phenotypes and that anti-diabetic interventions suppress systemic inflammation by normalizing circulating immune phenotypes. PMID:24376593

Kamei, Nozomu; Shimada, Takeshi; Liu, Libin; Moore, Kristin; Woo, Ju Rang; Shoelson, Steven E.; Lee, Jongsoon

2013-01-01

347

Adverse effects associated with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid and sodium salicylate treatment in broilers.  

PubMed

1. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and sodium salicylate (SS) are considered safe for poultry and often used in avian medicine. However, information on tolerance and specific side effects of these drugs in birds is lacking. 2. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 14?d administration of high doses (200 or 400?mg/kg) of either ASA or SS on body weight gain, blood biochemistry, white and red blood cell counts and pathology in broilers. In addition, minimal plasma salicylate concentrations were determined on the 1st, 5th, 10th and 14th d of treatment. 3. The results showed that the dose of 400?mg/kg of either ASA or SS decreased weight gain and induced gizzard ulceration. Kidney to body weight ratio was increased in a dose-dependent manner, but serum concentrations of creatinine and uric acid were not affected. A time-dependent decrease in the minimal plasma salicylate concentration was evident. PMID:23398422

Po?niak, B; Swita?a, M; Bobrek, K; Graczyk, S; Dzimira, S

2012-01-01

348

Changes in actin dynamics are involved in salicylic acid signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Changes in actin cytoskeleton dynamics are one of the crucial players in many physiological as well as non-physiological processes in plant cells. Positioning of actin filament arrays is necessary for successful establishment of primary lines of defense toward pathogen attack, depolymerization leads very often to the enhanced susceptibility to the invading pathogen. On the other hand it was also shown that the disruption of actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of defense response leading to the expression of PATHOGENESIS RELATED proteins (PR). In this study we show that pharmacological actin depolymerization leads to the specific induction of genes in salicylic acid pathway but not that involved in jasmonic acid signaling. Life imaging of leafs of Arabidopsis thaliana with GFP-tagged fimbrin (GFP-fABD2) treated with 1 mM salicylic acid revealed rapid disruption of actin filaments resembling the pattern viewed after treatment with 200 nM latrunculin B. The effect of salicylic acid on actin filament fragmentation was prevented by exogenous addition of phosphatidic acid, which binds to the capping protein and thus promotes actin polymerization. The quantitative evaluation of actin filament dynamics is also presented. PMID:24767113

Matoušková, Jind?iška; Janda, Martin; Fišer, Radovan; Sašek, Vladimír; Kocourková, Daniela; Burketová, Lenka; Dušková, Ji?ina; Martinec, Jan; Valentová, Olga

2014-06-01

349

Knocking out salicylate biosynthesis genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis induces hypersensitivity to p-aminosalicylate (PAS).  

PubMed

Because of the emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to first-line antituberculosis agents, one of the second-line drugs, p-aminosalicylate (PAS), has regained importance in the treatment of tuberculosis. The mode of action of PAS, however, remains controversial as to whether it inhibits mycobactin or folate biosynthesis. To unravel this, we have studied the effect of PAS on wild-type Mycobacterium smegmatis and its mutants (gene knockouts of the salicylate pathway -trpE2, entC and entD). The wild type had no sensitivity to PAS (MIC>400 ?g mL(-1) ), whereas the mutants were hypersensitive, with 1 ?g mL(-1) inhibiting growth. The sulphonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone, had little effect on the growth of either the mutants or the wild type. In addition, PAS at 0.5 ?g mL(-1) increased the accumulation of salicylate with the wild type and mutants. These results support our hypothesis that PAS targets the conversion of salicylate to mycobactin, thus preventing iron acquisition from the host. PMID:20735479

Nagachar, Nivedita; Ratledge, Colin

2010-10-01

350

Specific and quantitative assessment of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability by using a bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium  

SciTech Connect

A bioassay was developed and standardized for the rapid, specific, and quantitative assessment of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability by use of bioluminescence monitoring of catabolic gene expression. The bioluminescent reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, which carries a transcriptional nahG-luxCDABE fusion for naphthalene and salicylate catabolism, was used. The physiological state of the reporter cultures as well as the intrinsic regulatory properties of the naphthalene degradation operon must be taken into account to obtain a high specificity at low target substrate concentrations. Experiments have shown that the use of exponentially growing reporter cultures has advantages over the use of carbon-starved, resting cultures. In aqueous solutions for both substrates, naphthalene and salicylate, linear relationships between initial substrate concentration and bioluminescence response were found over concentration ranges of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Naphthalene could be detected at a concentration of 45 ppb. Studies conducted under defined conditions with extracts and slurries of experimentally contaminated sterile soils and identical uncontaminated soil controls demonstrated that this method can be used for specific and quantitative estimations of target pollutant presence and bioavailability in soil extracts and for specific and qualitative estimations of napthalene in soil slurries.

Heitzer, A.; Thonnard, J.E.; Sayler, G.S.; Webb, O.F. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

1992-06-01

351

Hydrothermal synthesis spherical TiO2 and its photo-degradation property on salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatase TiO2 spheres have been prepared using hydrothermal synthesis. The prepared spheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). The TiO2 consisted of well-defined spheres with size of 3-5 ?m. The photocatalytic activity of spherical TiO2 was determined by degradation of salicylic acid under visible light irradiation. It was revealed that the degradation rate of the spherical TiO2 which was processed at 150 °C for 48 h could reach 81.758%. And the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation obeyed first-order kinetic, which the rate constant value was 0.01716 S-1 of the salicylic acid onto TiO2 (temperature: 150, time: 48 h). The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the rate constant was 1.2695 g mg-1 of the salicylic acid onto TiO2 (temperature: 150, time: 48 h).

Guo, Wenlu; Liu, Xiaolin; Huo, Pengwei; Gao, Xun; Wu, Di; Lu, Ziyang; Yan, Yongsheng

2012-07-01

352

ESR study of irradiated single crystals of the cocrystalline complex of cytidine: Salicylic acid  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation at 77 K of single crystals of the 1:1 complex of cytidine and salicylic acid produces a phenoxyl radical formed by oxidation of the salicylic acid. Anisotropic hyperfine coupling tensors have been determined for this radical which are associated with the para and ortho hydrogens. No cytidine oxidation products (alkoxy or hydroxyalkyl radicals) were observed at 77 K. Following the decay of the phenoxyl radical at room temperature, four radicals were detected. These include the cytosine 5--yl and 6--yl radicals, formed by H addition to the cytosine ring, and an anisotropic doublet. By UV irradiation at room temperature, it is possible to convert a significant fraction of 6-yl radicals into 5-yl radicals. Hyperfine coupling and g tensors determined for the anisotropic doublet indicate that this radical is formed in the C/sub 1'/-C/sub 2'/ region of the sugar moiety. These results indicate a shift in radiation damage away from the salicylic acid upon warming, and show that the radiation chemistry of the cocrystalline complex is different from that of the isolated bases.

Close, D.M.; Sagstuen, E.

1983-12-01

353

Speciation of salicylate surface complexes in aqueous alumina suspensions by polarized fluorescence excitation spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Organic acids can accelerate the dissolution of soil minerals and the release of metal ions into the aqueous environment. This chemistry is integral to many processes occurring in soils, including contaminant transport, soil formation, and diagenesis. In order to model these geochemical processes, it is necessary to know the chemical identity and distribution of organic sorbates at aqueous mineral surfaces. In this study, time-resolved and CW polarized fluorescence are used to elucidate the surface speciation of salicylate anions in highly turbid media. Laser excitation of fluorescence enables detection of alumina-salicylate complexes at geochemically relevant concentrations (10{sup -7} M; approximately one molecular complex per colloidal particle). Two types of surface complexes are observed: short wavelength emission is assigned to the bidentate salicylate-aluminum complex and long wavelength emission is assigned to either monodentate or ion-associated complexes, which can undergo intramolecular excited state proton-transfer. Fluorescence polarization anisotropy measurements demonstrate that both types of surface species are rotationally restricted. It is demonstrated that quantitative evaluation of polarized fluorescence is fruitful even in the presence of the depolarizing effects of multiple light scattering in the turbid suspensions.

Friedrich, D.M.; Wang, Z.; Ainsworth, C.C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-10-01

354

S-Adenosyl- l-Methionine:Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase, an Enzyme Involved in Floral Scent Production and Plant Defense, Represents a New Class of Plant Methyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

S-Adenosyl-l-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) was partially purified from petals of the annual California plant Clarkia breweri. SAMT catalyzes the formation of methylsalicylate, an important floral scent compound in C. breweri, from salicylic acid and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The native enzyme is a dimer with a subunit molecular weight of 40.3 kDa, and it has a Km for salicylic acid of

Jeannine R. Ross; Kyoung Hee Nam; John C. D'Auria; Eran Pichersky

1999-01-01

355

Catalytic esterification of sodium salicylate in third-liquid phase under ultrasound-assisted tri-liquid phase-transfer catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The esterification of sodium salicylate to synthesize n-butyl salicylate was investigated via ultrasound-assisted tri-liquid phase-transfer catalysis. The third-liquid phase containing the catalytic intermediate tetra-n-butylphosphonium salicylate (ArCOOQ) was prepared from the reaction of sodium salicylate and tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide with a large excess of NaBr in the aqueous phase. Under ultrasonic irradiation at 28kHz\\/300W, the product yield in the organic phase was

Hung-Ming Yang; Chien-Hsing Chen

2009-01-01

356

Isolation of the new anacardic acid 6-[16?Z-nonadecenyl]-salicylic acid and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new anacardic acid, 6-[16?Z-nonadecenyl]-salicylic acid (1), along with seven known compounds, 6-[8?Z-pentadecenyl] salicylic acid (15:1 anacardic acid) (2), 6-nonadecenyl salicylic acid (anacardic acid 19:0) (3), 6-pentadecyl salicylic acid (anacardic acid 15:0) (4), masticadienonic acid (5), 3?-hydroxymasticadienonic acid (6), 3-epi-oleanolic acid (7) and ?-sitosterol, were isolated from the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens using a bioassay-guided fractionation method. The structure of

Blanca E. Rivero-Cruz; Nuria Esturau; Sobeida Sánchez-Nieto; Irma Romero; Israel Castillo-Juárez; J. Fausto Rivero-Cruz

2011-01-01

357

Histone methylation in higher plants.  

PubMed

Histone methylation plays a fundamental role in regulating diverse developmental processes and is also involved in silencing repetitive sequences in order to maintain genome stability. The methylation marks are written on lysine or arginine by distinct enzymes, namely, histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) or protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Once established, the methylation marks are specifically recognized by the proteins that act as readers and are interpreted into specific biological outcomes. Histone methylation status is dynamic; methylation marks can be removed by eraser enzymes, the histone demethylases (HDMs). The proteins responsible for writing, reading, and erasing the methylation marks are known mostly in animals. During the past several years, a growing body of literature has demonstrated the impact of histone methylation on genome management, transcriptional regulation, and development in plants. The aim of this review is to summarize the biochemical, genetic, and molecular action of histone methylation in two plants, the dicot Arabidopsis and the monocot rice. PMID:20192747

Liu, Chunyan; Lu, Falong; Cui, Xia; Cao, Xiaofeng

2010-01-01

358

DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. PMID:23873296

Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme

2013-01-01

359

Chemical changes in Ulmus minor xylem tissue after salicylic acid or carvacrol treatments are associated with enhanced resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  

PubMed

Application of endogenous plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) or essential oil component carvacrol (CA) in elms enhances tree resistance to the Dutch elm disease pathogen, although the effect of these compounds on tree metabolism is unknown. The chemical changes induced by SA or CA treatments in Ulmus minor were studied through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of xylem tissues. Treatments consisted of fortnightly irrigating seedlings with water, SA or CA at 600 mg L?¹. The chemical composition of the xylem tissues sampled from treated trees was significantly altered depending on the treatment type. SA treatment induced an accumulation of the sinapyl alcohol, a precursor of lignin and other phenylpropanoid-derived products. CA treatment induced an accumulation of the methyl esters of palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids. Both treatments resulted in early bud burst and SA significantly reduced sapwood radial growth, possibly as a consequence of a trade-off between tree growth and tree defence. The enhanced resistance provided by these treatments is discussed. PMID:22910373

Martín, Juan A; Solla, Alejandro; García-Vallejo, María C; Gil, Luis

2012-11-01

360

Synthesis of carbohydrate methyl phosphoramidates.  

PubMed

A two-step route for introducing methyl phosphoramidate moieties onto carbohydrates is reported. The approach uses methyl pivolyl H-phosphonate as the phosphorylating reagent to produce an isolable carbohydrate H-phosphonate intermediate that is then oxidized by a Todd-Atherton reaction. The stability of the product methyl phosphoramidates was subsequently evaluated using various deprotection strategies. PMID:24783964

Ashmus, Roger A; Lowary, Todd L

2014-05-01

361

DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE AS METHYLATING REAGENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methylating properties of dimethyl methylphosphonate have been investigated. Aromatic mono- and polycarboxylic acids were converted into their methyl esters by heating with dimethyl methylphosphonate. Similarly phenols or amines gave their respective O- or N-methyl derivatives. The sodium salts of sulfinic acids also reacted yielding sulfones in high yield.

Peter Sutter; Claus D. Weis

1978-01-01

362

fullRecord:"sulfo OR methylate" OR "sulfo OR methylated" OR "sulfo OR methylates" OR "sulfo OR methylating" OR "sulfo OR methylation" OR sulfomethylate OR sulfomethylated OR sulfomethylates OR sulfomethylating OR sulfomethylation  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for fullRecord:"sulfo OR methylate" OR "sulfo OR methylated" OR "sulfo OR methylates" OR "sulfo OR methylating" OR "sulfo OR methylation" OR sulfomethylate OR sulfomethylated OR sulfomethylates OR sulfomethylating OR sulfomethylation ?

363

Salicylic acid deficiency in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants increases seed yield in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid-deficient NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants were used to evaluate the role of this compound in the development of the short-lived, annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana, with a particular focus on the interplay between salicylic acid and other phytohormones. Low salicylic acid levels led to increased growth, as well as to smaller abscisic acid levels and reduced damage to PSII (as indicated by Fv/Fm ratios) during the reproductive stages in rosette leaves of NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, salicylic acid deficiency highly influenced seed yield and composition. Seed production increased by 4.4-fold and 3.5-fold in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, respectively, compared to the wild type. Salicylic acid deficiency also improved seed composition in terms of antioxidant vitamin concentrations, seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants showing higher levels of ?- and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E) and ?-carotene (pro-vitamin A) than seeds of wild-type plants. Seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants also showed higher nitrogen concentrations than seeds of wild-type plants. It is concluded that (i) the sid2 gene, which encodes for isochorismate synthase, plays a central role in salicylic acid biosynthesis during plant development in A. thaliana, (ii) salicylic acid plays a role in the regulation of growth, senescence, and seed production, (iii) there is a cross-talk between salicylic acid and other phytohormones during plant development, and (iv) the concentrations of antioxidant vitamins in seeds may be influenced by the endogenous levels of salicylic acid in plants. PMID:19188277

Abreu, Maria Elizabeth; Munne-Bosch, Sergi

2009-01-01

364

Blockade of prostaglandin E1 hyperthermia by sodium salicylate given into the ventral septal area of the rat brain.  

PubMed Central

1. Sodium salicylate (30.0 micrograms microliter-1) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) was infused bilaterally into the ventral septal area (v.s.a.) of the unrestrained rat for 1 h before and 1 h after the injection of prostaglandin E1 at a concentration of 20.0 ng microliter-1 into a lateral cerebral ventricle. 2. During control (ACSF) infusions, 200.0 ng of prostaglandin E1 evoked a hyperthermic response (0.95 +/- 0.16 degrees C). During sodium salicylate infusions, the prostaglandin E1-evoked hyperthermia was significantly reduced (P less than 0.025) to 0.31 +/- 0.16 degrees C. 3. The fever index (degrees C h for 1.0 h) during the infusion of sodium salicylate was reduced 66% below that of control infusions (P less than 0.01). 4. These data indicate that sodium salicylate infused in the v.s.a. of rats can antagonize a prostaglandin E-evoked hyperthermia. This suggests that there may be an additional mechanism of action for sodium salicylate antipyresis other than inhibition of prostaglandin E synthesis. PMID:3656145

Alexander, S J; Cooper, K E; Veale, W L

1987-01-01

365

DNA Methylation Screening and Analysis  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is an epigenetic form of gene regulation that is universally important throughout the life course, especially during in utero and postnatal development. DNA methylation aids in cell cycle regulation and cellular differentiation processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation profiles may be altered by diet and the environment, and that these profiles are especially vulnerable during development. Thus, it is important to understand the role of DNA methylation in developmental governance and subsequent disease progression. A variety of molecular methods exist to assay for global, gene-specific, and epigenome-wide methylation. Here we describe these methods and discuss their relative strengths and limitations. PMID:22669678

Sant, Karilyn E.; Nahar, Muna S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.

2013-01-01

366

Domains of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b silencing suppressor protein affecting inhibition of salicylic acid-induced resistance and priming of salicylic acid accumulation during infection.  

PubMed

The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b silencing suppressor protein allows the virus to overcome resistance to replication and local movement in inoculated leaves of plants treated with salicylic acid (SA), a resistance-inducing plant hormone. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants systemically infected with CMV, the 2b protein also primes the induction of SA biosynthesis during this compatible interaction. We found that CMV infection of susceptible tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) also induced SA accumulation. Utilization of mutant 2b proteins expressed during infection of tobacco showed that the N- and C-terminal domains, which had previously been implicated in regulation of symptom induction, were both required for subversion of SA-induced resistance, while all mutants tested except those affecting the putative phosphorylation domain had lost the ability to prime SA accumulation and expression of the SA-induced marker gene PR-1. PMID:24633701

Zhou, Tao; Murphy, Alex M; Lewsey, Mathew G; Westwood, Jack H; Zhang, Heng-Mu; González, Inmaculada; Canto, Tomás; Carr, John P

2014-06-01

367

Domains of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b silencing suppressor protein affecting inhibition of salicylic acid-induced resistance and priming of salicylic acid accumulation during infection  

PubMed Central

The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b silencing suppressor protein allows the virus to overcome resistance to replication and local movement in inoculated leaves of plants treated with salicylic acid (SA), a resistance-inducing plant hormone. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants systemically infected with CMV, the 2b protein also primes the induction of SA biosynthesis during this compatible interaction. We found that CMV infection of susceptible tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) also induced SA accumulation. Utilization of mutant 2b proteins expressed during infection of tobacco showed that the N- and C-terminal domains, which had previously been implicated in regulation of symptom induction, were both required for subversion of SA-induced resistance, while all mutants tested except those affecting the putative phosphorylation domain had lost the ability to prime SA accumulation and expression of the SA-induced marker gene PR-1. PMID:24633701

Zhou, Tao; Murphy, Alex M.; Lewsey, Mathew G.; Westwood, Jack H.; Zhang, Heng-Mu; Gonzalez, Inmaculada; Canto, Tomas

2014-01-01

368

Flavivirus RNA methylation.  

PubMed

The 5' end of eukaryotic mRNA contains the type-1 (m7GpppNm) or type-2 (m7GpppNmNm) cap structure. Many viruses have evolved various mechanisms to develop their own capping enzymes (e.g. flavivirus and coronavirus) or to 'steal' caps from host mRNAs (e.g. influenza virus). Other viruses have developed 'cap-mimicking' mechanisms by attaching a peptide to the 5' end of viral RNA (e.g. picornavirus and calicivirus) or by having a complex 5' RNA structure (internal ribosome entry site) for translation initiation (e.g. picornavirus, pestivirus and hepacivirus). Here we review the diverse viral RNA capping mechanisms. Using flavivirus as a model, we summarize how a single methyltransferase catalyses two distinct N-7 and 2'-O methylations of viral RNA cap in a sequential manner. For antiviral development, a structural feature unique to the flavivirus methyltransferase was successfully used to design selective inhibitors that block viral methyltransferase without affecting host methyltransferases. Functionally, capping is essential for prevention of triphosphate-triggered innate immune activation; N-7 methylation is critical for enhancement of viral translation; and 2'-O methylation is important for subversion of innate immune response during viral infection. Flaviviruses defective in 2'-O methyltransferase are replicative, but their viral RNAs lack 2'-O methylation and are recognized and eliminated by the host immune response. Such mutant viruses could be rationally designed as live attenuated vaccines. This concept has recently been proved with Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus. The findings obtained with flavivirus should be applicable to other RNA viruses. PMID:24486628

Dong, Hongping; Fink, Katja; Züst, Roland; Lim, Siew Pheng; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Shi, Pei-Yong

2014-04-01

369

Salicylate and biomass yield, and leaf phenolics of dark-leaved willow ( Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) clones under different cultivation methods after the second cultivation cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willow based herbal products containing salicin and its derivatives can be used to alleviate aches and fevers. To guarantee the high quality of the willow drugs and moderate low cultivation and transportation costs, the willows with high salicylate concentrations are recommended for herbal production. Dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) with its high salicylate content is a promising source of herbal

Ria Paunonen; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto; Riitta Tegelberg; Matti Rousi; Susanne Heiska

2009-01-01

370

Removal of salicylic acid on perovskite-type oxide LaFeO3 catalyst in catalytic wet air oxidation process.  

PubMed

It has been found that salicylic acid can be removal effectively at the lower temperature of 140 degrees C on perovskite-type oxide LaFeO3 catalyst in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) process. Under the same condition, the activities for the CWAO of phenol, benzoic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid have been also investigated. The results indicated that, with compared to the very poor activities for phenol and benzoic acid, the activities for salicylic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid were very high, which are attributed to their same intramolecular H-bonding structures. With the role of hard acidity of intramolecular H-bonding, salicylic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid can be adsorbed effectively on the basic center of LaFeO3 catalyst and are easy to take place the total oxidation reaction. However, at temperatures higher than 140 degrees C, the intramolecular H-bonding structure of salicylic acid was destroyed and the activities at 160 and 180 degrees C decreased greatly, which confirms further the key role of intramolecular H-bonding in the CWAO. Moreover, the LaFeO3 catalyst also indicated a superior stability of activity and structure in CWAO of salicylic acid. PMID:16870333

Yang, Min; Xu, Aihua; Du, Hongzhang; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Can

2007-01-01

371

Sequential determination of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids by amperometric multisite detection flow injection analysis.  

PubMed

An amperometric multisite detection flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for sequential determination of 2 analytes with a single sample injection and single detector. Tubular composite carbon electrodes with an inner diameter similar to that of the FIA manifold tubing were constructed so that measurements could be made without impairing the sample plug hydrodynamic characteristics. The electrochemical behavior of the tubular voltammetric cell in a low-dispersion FIA manifold and the behavior of the FIA system incorporating this type of voltammetric cell intended for multisite detection were evaluated by performing measurements with potassium hexacyanoferrate(II). Feasibility of the approach was demonstrated in the sequential determination of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids in pharmaceutical products at a fixed potential of 0.98 V. The system allows sequential determination of salicylic acid concentrations ranging from 1.0 x 10(-5) to 5.0 x 10(-5) M and acetylsalicylic acid concentrations between 1.0 x 10(-3) and 5.0 x 10(-3) M with good precision on both detection sites and with relative standard deviations (RSDs) > or = 1.5% (n = 10) and 2.1% (n = 10), respectively. A comparison of these results with those of the U.S. Pharmacopeia procedure showed RSDs <5.0 and 1.0% for salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively. The proposed method enables 15 determinations per hour, which corresponds to the analysis of approximately 8 samples per hour. The detection limits of the methodology were approximately 3.5 x 10(-6) and 1.1 x 10(-5) M, respectively, for the first and second monitoring sites. PMID:12477186

Catarino, Rita I L; Garcia, M Beatriz Q; Lapa, Rui A S; Lima, José L F C; Barrado, Enrique

2002-01-01

372

Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored M0 to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to M0 was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P=0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1%, respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P=0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P=0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P=0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P<0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. PMID:24268474

Schultz, N; Capion, N

2013-11-01

373

Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments. PMID:23545907

Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

2013-03-01

374

Synthesis and characterization of copper complexes of Schiff base derived from isatin and salicylic hydrazide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel metal complexes of Schiff base have been prepared by the interaction of Cu(II) with isatin salicylic hydrazide. All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurement, magnetic moment determination, IR, UV, NMR, Mass and EPR spectral studies, thermal studies and microbial activities. The results indicate that the ligand acts as a tridentate chelating ligand coordinating through nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The ligand and complexes show inactive against Escherichia coli and active against Staphylococcus aureus and B.substilis. By analyzing the results of spectral, thermal and elemental analysis square planar geometry is proposed for all the complexes.

Lekshmy, R. K.; Thara, G. S.

2014-10-01

375

Neuroprotection by Aspirin and Sodium Salicylate Through Blockade of NF-kappaB Activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a commonly prescribed drug with a wide pharmacological spectrum. At concentrations compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy, acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite sodium salicylate were found to be protective against neurotoxicity elicited by the excitatory amino acid glutamate in rat primary neuronal cultures and hippocampal slices. The site of action of the drugs appeared to be downstream of glutamate receptors and to involve specific inhibition of glutamate-mediated induction of nuclear factor kappa B. These results may contribute to the emerging theme of anti-inflammatory drugs and neurodegeneration.

Grilli, Mariagrazia; Pizzi, Marina; Memo, Maurizio; Spano, Pierfranco

1996-11-01

376

Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin  

SciTech Connect

The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E{sub 2} to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa.

Goddard, P.J.

1989-01-01

377

Event extraction for DNA methylation  

PubMed Central

Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts including a representative sample of all PubMed citations relevant to DNA methylation, and introduce manual annotation for this corpus marking nearly 3000 gene/protein mentions and 1500 DNA methylation and demethylation events. We retrain a state-of-the-art event extraction system on the corpus and find that automatic extraction of DNA methylation events, the methylated genes, and their methylation sites can be performed at 78% precision and 76% recall. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that reliable extraction methods for DNA methylation events can be created through corpus annotation and straightforward retraining of a general event extraction system. The introduced resources are freely available for use in research from the GENIA project homepage http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GENIA. PMID:22166595

2011-01-01

378

Studies on Zinc(II) Perchlorate Complex with Tripod Ligand Tris(N-methylbenzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)Amine and Salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel five-coordinate zinc(II) complex with the tripod ligand tris(N-methylbenzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)amine (Mentb) and salicylate, with the composition [Zn(Mentb)(salicylate)](ClO4) · 1.5DMF, was synthesized and characterized by means of elemental analyses, electrical conductivities, thermal analyses, i.r., u.v. and H-n.m.r. spectra. The crystal structure of the complex has been determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction method, and shows that the Zn atom is bonded

Huilu Wu; Kaitong Wang; Xingcai Huang; Ruirui Yun; Tao Sun; Ke Li; Xuyang Fan

2009-01-01

379

Genetic architecture of plastic methyl jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed Central

The ability of a single genotype to generate different phenotypes in disparate environments is termed phenotypic plasticity, which reflects the interaction of genotype and environment on developmental processes. However, there is controversy over the definition of plasticity genes. The gene regulation model states that plasticity loci influence trait changes between environments without altering the means within a given environment. Alternatively, the allelic sensitivity model argues that plasticity evolves due to selection of phenotypic values expressed within particular environments; hence plasticity must be controlled by loci expressed within these environments. To identify genetic loci controlling phenotypic plasticity and address this controversy, we analyzed the plasticity of glucosinolate accumulation under methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found genetic variation influencing multiple MeJa signal transduction pathways. Analysis of MeJa responses in the Landsberg erecta x Columbia recombinant inbred lines identified a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that regulate plastic MeJa responses. All significant plasticity QTL also impacted the mean trait value in at least one of the two "control" or "MeJa" environments, supporting the allelic sensitivity model. Additionally, we present an analysis of MeJa and salicylic acid cross-talk in glucosinolate regulation and describe the implications for glucosinolate physiology and functional understanding of Arabidopsis MeJa signal transduction. PMID:12196411

Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Figuth, Antje; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2002-01-01

380

DNA methylation program during development  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark when occurring in the promoter and enhancer regions regulates the accessibility of the binding protein and gene transcription. DNA methylation is inheritable and can be de novo-synthesized, erased and reinstated, making it arguably one of the most dynamic upstream regulators for gene expression and the most influential pacer for development. Recent progress has demonstrated that two forms of cytosine methylation and two pathways for demethylation constitute ample complexity for an instructional program for orchestrated gene expression and development. The forum of the current discussion and review are whether there is such a program, if so what the DNA methylation program entails, and what environment can change the DNA methylation program. The translational implication of the DNA methylation program is also proposed. PMID:23687512

ZHOU, Feng C.

2013-01-01

381

An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase Capable of Methylating Farnesoic Acid  

SciTech Connect

We previously reported the identification of a new family of plant methyltransferases (MTs), named the SABATH family, that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to methylate a carboxyl moiety or a nitrogen-containing functional group on a diverse array of plant compounds. The Arabidopsis genome alone contains 24 distinct SABATH genes. To identify the catalytic specificities of members of this protein family in Arabidopsis, we screened recombinantly expressed and purified enzymes with a large number of potential substrates. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene At3g44860 encodes a protein with high catalytic specificity towards farnesoic acid (FA). Under steady-state conditions, this farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (FAMT) exhibits K{sub M} values of 41 and 71 {mu}M for FA and SAM, respectively. A three-dimensional model of FAMT constructed based upon similarity to the experimentally determined structure of Clarkia breweri salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) suggests a reasonable model for FA recognition in the FAMT active site. In plants, the mRNA levels of At3g44860 increase in response to the exogenous addition of several compounds previously shown to induce plant defense responses at the transcriptional level. Although methyl farnesoate (MeFA) has not yet been detected in Arabidopsis, the presence of a FA-specific carboxyl methyltransferase in Arabidopsis capable of producing MeFA, an insect juvenile hormone made by some plants as a presumed defense against insect herbivory, suggests that MeFA or chemically similar compounds are likely to serve as new specialized metabolites in Arabidopsis.

Yang,Y.; Yuan, J.; Ross, J.; Noel, J.; Pichersky, E.

2006-01-01

382

Ascorbic acid and salicylic acid mitigate nacl stress in Caralluma tuberculata Calli.  

PubMed

Plants exposed to salt stress undergo biochemical and morphological changes even at cellular level. Such changes also include activation of antioxidant enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, while morphological changes are determined as deformation of membranes and organelles. Present investigation substantiates this phenomenon for Caralluma tuberculata calli when exposed to NaCl stress at different concentrations. Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in NaCl-stressed calli dwindled upon application of non-enzymatic antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA). Many fold increased enzymes concentrations trimmed down even below as present in the control calli. Electron microscopic images accentuated several cellular changes upon NaCl stress such as plasmolysed plasma membrane, disruption of nuclear membrane, increased numbers of nucleoli, alteration in shape and lamellar membrane system in plastid, and increased number of plastoglobuli. The cells retrieved their normal structure upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the present experiments conclude that NaCl aggravate oxidative molecules that eventually alleviate antioxidant enzymatic system. Furthermore, the salt stress knocked down by applying ascorbic acid and salicylic acid manifested by normal enzyme level and restoration of cellular structure. PMID:24744157

Rehman, Riaz Ur; Zia, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Lu, Gang; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz

2014-06-01

383

Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus  

PubMed Central

Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin. PMID:21871058

2011-01-01

384

Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins induced by salicylic acid in suspension-cultured ginseng cells  

PubMed Central

In this study, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were established for suspension-cultured ginseng cells. Three commonly used protein extraction methods (Trichloroacetic acid-acetone, urea/thiourea and phenol extraction method) were evaluated for proteomic analysis of suspension cultures of ginseng. A comparative analysis of suspension-cultured ginseng cells proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) was reported. The results demonstrated that phenol extraction method was the best method based on protein extraction efficiency and the good quality of 2-DE patterns for suspension-cultured ginseng cells. Fifteen differentially expressed proteins induced by salicylic acid in suspension-cultured ginseng cells were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. These identified proteins were involved in defense and stress response, energy metabolism, signal transduction/transcription, protein synthesis and metabolism, and photosynthesis. Chaperonin 60, related to defense responses, was more abundant in suspension-cultured ginseng cells after application of SA. Vacuolar ATPase subunit B was newly induced in SA treatment. PMID:24600313

Sun, Jiaman; Fu, Junfan; Zhou, Rujun

2013-01-01

385

Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.  

PubMed

The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 ?M of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. PMID:25036598

Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

2014-09-01

386

Derivatives of salicylic acid as inhibitors of YopH in Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

Yersinia pestis causes diseases ranging from gastrointestinal syndromes to bubonic plague and could be misused as a biological weapon. As its protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH has already been demonstrated as a potential drug target, we have developed two series of forty salicylic acid derivatives and found sixteen to have micromolar inhibitory activity. We designed these ligands to have two chemical moieties connected by a flexible hydrocarbon linker to target two pockets in the active site of the protein to achieve binding affinity and selectivity. One moiety possessed the salicylic acid core intending to target the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket. The other moiety contained different chemical fragments meant to target a nearby secondary pocket. The two series of compounds differed by having hydrocarbon linkers with different lengths. Before experimental co-crystal structures are available, we have performed molecular docking to predict how these compounds might bind to the protein and to generate structural models for performing binding affinity calculation to aid future optimization of these series of compounds. PMID:20560978

Huang, Zunnan; He, Yantao; Zhang, Xian; Gunawan, Andrea; Wu, Li; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Wong, Chung F

2010-08-01

387

Electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid by a cobalt hydrotalcite-like compound modified Pt electrode.  

PubMed

In this paper a study of the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) at a Pt electrode coated with a Co/Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Co/Al HTLC coated-Pt) film is presented. The voltammetric behaviour of the modified electrode in 0.1M NaOH shows two different redox couples: Co(II)/Co(III) and Co(III)/Co(IV). The electrocatalysis occurs at the same potential of the latter couple, showing that Co(IV) centers act as the oxidant. The CV investigation demonstrates that the process is controlled both by mass and charge transfer and that the Co(IV) centers involved in the oxidation are two for each SA molecule. The estimated value of the catalytic constant is 4×10(4) M(-1) s(-1). The determination of salicylic acid was performed both by DPV and chronoamperometry. The linearity ranges and the LOD values resulted 1×10(-5) to 5×10(-4), 5×10(-7) to 1×10(-4), 6×10(-6) and 2×10(-7) M, respectively. The Co/Al HTLC electrode has been used for SA determination in BAYER Aspirina® and the obtained results are consistent with an independent HPLC analysis. PMID:21237633

Gualandi, Isacco; Scavetta, Erika; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica

2011-03-15

388

Changes in antioxidant enzymes, hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid and oxidative stress in compatible and incompatible host-tobamovirus interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tobamovirus (TMV and ToMV) infection on changes in antioxidant enzymes, endogenous salicylic acid, endogenous hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation was studied in compatible (tomato and bell pepper) and incompatible hosts (Nicotiana glutinosa and Nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi). A time course study of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidase and catalase was studied in both interactions. Along

K. N. Madhusudhan; B. M. Srikanta; M. D. Shylaja; H. S. Prakash; H. S. Shetty

2009-01-01

389

Inabenfide-Induced Alleviation of Salt Stress in Rice as Linked to Changes in Salicylic Acid Content and Catalase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inabenfide was investigated in rice seedlings subjected to salt stress in relation to changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (? F\\/Fm'), lipid peroxidation, salicylic acid (SA) content, and catalase (CAT) activity. A reduction in shoot growth of rice seedlings by 120 mM NaCl treatment was significantly alleviated by pretreatment with 30 ? M inabenfide. Sodium ion content was not

Hiroko Sawada; Dea-Wook Kim; Katsuichiro Kobayashi

390

Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress by abscisic acid and salicylic acid in wheat genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) were sprayed on leaves of wheat genotypes C 306 and Hira at 25 and 40 d after sowing under moderate water stress (?0.8 MPa) imposed by adding PEG-6000 in nutrient solution. ABA and SA increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase in comparison to unsprayed control plants. Both

S. Agarwal; R. K. Sairam; G. C. Srivastava; R. C. Meena

2005-01-01

391

Ab initio model of salicylate adsorbed onto Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and illite clay  

SciTech Connect

Organic-mineral surface chemistry plays a significant role in numerous geochemical processes such as global carbon cycling, weathering, and contaminant fate and transport. Knowledge of bonding mechanisms between naturally-occurring organic matter (NOM) and minerals is necessary in environmental science. This research examines surface complexation of salicylic acid (which is often used as an analog for NOM) adsorbed onto Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and illite. ATR-FTIR spectra of the adsorbed complexes were measured and compared to theoretical vibrational spectra of possible surface configurations derived form molecular orbital (MO) calculations. A variety of Al- and Si-salicylate complexes were modeled with ab initio MO calculations. The theoretical vibrational spectrum that best fits the observed spectra corresponds to a salicylate anion bonded to an octahedral Al{sup 3+} ion via a C-O-Al ester-type linkage. These results support the configuration proposed in Biber and Stumm for salicylate adsorbed onto Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Kubicki, J.D.; Itoh, M.J.; Apitz, S.E. [NCCOSC RDTE, San Diego, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

392

Influence of exogenous salicylic acid on flavonolignans and lipoxygenase activity in the hairy root cultures of Silybum marianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silymarin is one of the most potent antioxidant so far developed from plant sources used as hepatoprotectants. Influence of different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8mg\\/50ml culture) and exposure time (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h) of salicylic acid on lipoxygenase activity, linoleic acid content, growth and production of silymarin in hairy root cultures of S. marianum were

Masumeh Khalili; Tahereh Hasanloo; Seyyed Kamal Kazemi Tabar; Hassan Rahnama

2009-01-01

393

Optical biosensor for environmental on-line monitoring of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability with an immobilized bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium.  

PubMed

An optical whole-cell biosensor based on a genetically engineered bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium was developed for continuous on-line monitoring of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability and microbial catabolic activity potential in waste streams. The bioluminescent reporter bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, carries a transcriptional nahG-luxCDABE fusion for naphthalene and salicylate catabolism. Exposure to either compound resulted in inducible bioluminescence. The reporter culture was immobilized onto the surface of an optical light guide by using strontium alginate. This biosensor probe was then inserted into a measurement cell which simultaneously received the waste stream solution and a maintenance medium. Exposure under defined conditions to both naphthalene and salicylate resulted in a rapid increase in bioluminescence. The magnitude of the response and the response time were concentration dependent. Good reproducibility of the response was observed during repetitive perturbations with either naphthalene or salicylate. Exposure to other compounds, such as glucose and complex nutrient medium or toluene, resulted in either minor bioluminescence increases after significantly longer response times compared with naphthalene or no response, respectively. The environmental utility of the biosensor was tested by using real pollutant mixtures. A specific bioluminescence response was obtained after exposure to either an aqueous solution saturated with JP-4 jet fuel or an aqueous leachate from a manufactured-gas plant soil, since naphthalene was present in both pollutant mixtures. PMID:8017932

Heitzer, A; Malachowsky, K; Thonnard, J E; Bienkowski, P R; White, D C; Sayler, G S

1994-05-01

394

Protection against Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Damage in Arabidopsis Involves Calcium, Abscisic Acid, Ethylene, and Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants, in common with all organisms, have evolved mechanisms to cope with the problems caused by high temperatures. We examined specifically the involvement of calcium, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and salicylic acid (SA) in the protection against heat-induced oxidative damage in Arabidopsis. Heat caused increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (an indicator of oxidative damage to membranes) and reduced survival.

Jane Larkindale; Marc R. Knight

2002-01-01

395

Comparison of the effects of salicylic acid and ethephon with virus-induced hypersensitivity and acquired resistance in tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of a hypersensitive reaction in Samsun NN tobacco by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) at 20°C leads to the development of both localized and systemic acquired resistance, and is associated with the appearance of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR's) and large increases in peroxidase activity and ethylene production. Salicylic acid (SA) induced a similar resistance in treated plant parts and occasionally

L. C. Van Loon; J. F. Antoniw

1982-01-01

396

Ultraviolet light and ozone stimulate accumulation of salicylic acid, pathogenesis-related proteins and virus resistance in tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthinc), salicylic acid (SA) levels increase in leaves inoculated by necrotizing pathogens and in healthy leaves located above the inoculated site. Systemic SA increase may trigger disease resistance and synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins). Here we report that ultraviolet (UV)-C light or ozone induced biochemical responses similar to those induced by necrotizing pathogens.

Nasser Yalpani; Alexander J. Enyedi; Jose León; Ilya Raskin

1994-01-01

397

Temperature-Dependent Induction of Salicylic Acid and Its Conjugates during the Resistance Response to Tobacco Mosaic Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

lncreases in endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and induction of several families of pathogenesis-related genes (PR-1 through PR-5) occur during the resistance response of tobacco to tobacco mosaic virus infection. We found that at tem- peratures that prevent the induction of PR genes and resistance, the increases in SA levels were eliminated. The addition of exogenous SA to infected plants

Jocelyn Malamy; Jacek Hennig; Daniel F. Klessig

1992-01-01

398

Salicylic Acid Is Not the Translocated Signal Responsible for Inducing Systemic Acquired Resistance but Is Required in Signal Transduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

lnfection of plants by necrotizing pathogens can induce broad-spectrum resistance to subsequent pathogen Infection. This systemlc acquired resistance (SAR) is thought to be trlggered by a vascular-mobile signal that moves throughout the plant from the infected leaves. A conslderable amount of evldence suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is involved in the induction of SAR. Because SA is found in phloem

Bernard Vernooij; Roland Reist; Rachida KolditzJawhar; Eric Ward; Scott Uknes; Helmut Kessmann; John Ryals

1994-01-01

399

Down Regulation of Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Salicylic Acid Attenuates Its Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic metabolite produced by plants and is known to play an important role in several physiological processes, such as the induction of plant defense responses against pathogen attack. Here, using the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathosystem, we provide evidence that SA acts directly on the pathogen, down regulating fitness and virulence factor production of the bacteria.

B. Prithiviraj; H. P. Bais; T. Weir; B. Suresh; E. H. Najarro; B. V. Dayakar; H. P. Schweizer; J. M. Vivanco

2005-01-01

400

Changes in the Bacterial Flora of Skin of Processed Broiler Chickens Washed in Solutions of Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the number of bacteria recovered from the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in salicylic acid (SA) solutions was examined. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in distilled water (control), 10% SA, or 20% SA by agitating skin in wash solutions in a Stomacher laboratory blender.

A. Hinton Jr.; J. A. Cason

2007-01-01

401

Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants. PMID:25133394

Tett, Adrian J; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S

2014-01-01

402

Pretreatment effects of moxibustion on the skin permeation and skin and muscle concentrations of salicylate in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of moxibustion on the in vitro and in vivo skin permeation of salicylate was evaluated in rats. First, the effect of moxibustion pretreatment on the elimination pharmacokinetics of salicylate after i.v. injection in rats was determined: no clear difference was observed in the plasma profiles of salicylate (SA) with or without moxibustion pretreatment. However, much higher skin and muscle concentrations of salicylate were observed after its i.v. injection. Next, an in vitro skin permeation study of SA was performed after moxibustion pretreatment. Moxibustion pretreatment increased the skin permeation of SA, and the extent of the increase in SA skin permeation was related to the strength of moxibustion ignition. More intense treatments produced higher skin permeation. A similar enhancement effect on the skin permeation of SA was observed in in vivo studies. Interestingly, the skin/plasma and muscle/plasma ratios of SA were markedly increased by moxibustion pretreatment. These results were due to the induction of enhanced skin permeation and lower clearance into the cutaneous vessels by moxibustion ignition. Combination treatment involving moxibustion and the topical application of drugs such as NSAID may be useful for increasing local pharmaceutical effects by enhancing the drug concentration in the skin and muscle underneath the topical application site. PMID:21256938

Cao, Dianxiu; Tazawa, Yuko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

2011-04-01

403

Salicylic Acid 6% in an ammonium lactate emollient foam vehicle in the treatment of mild-to-moderate scalp psoriasis.  

PubMed

Scalp psoriasis is a common life-altering skin condition causing a great deal of distress. It significantly affects quality of life and is difficult to manage. Treatment can provide variable results, often impacting patient compliance with therapy. Salicylic acid is used as adjunctive therapy to other topical treatments because of its marked keratolytic effect. Its effectiveness as a monotherapy is not fully understood. An emollient foam formulation of 6% salicylic acid (Salkera) in an ammonium lactate vehicle has recently become available. Efficacy, tolerability and patient acceptability of salicylic acid 6% emollient foam were assessed in an open-label pilot study of 10 subjects with scalp psoriasis. All psoriasis severity parameters were reduced with a significant decrease in Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) score from 15.3 to 3.0 after four weeks of monotherapy (P<0.001). Sixty percent of subjects were either "completely cleared" or "almost cleared" of their psoriasis. No adverse events (AEs) were reported. All signs and symptom tolerability measures demonstrated statistically significant score decreases with the exception of oiliness severity and patient-reported burning tolerability. Salicylic acid 6% emollient foam provides a useful option in the treatment of psoriasis that is highly effective, well tolerated and acceptable to patients. PMID:21369643

Kircik, Leon

2011-03-01

404

Inhibition of Ascorbate Peroxidase by Salicylic Acid and 2,6- Dichloroisonicotinic Acid, Two Inducers of Plant Defense Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, it has become apparent that salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant defense responses to pathogen attack. Previous studies have suggested that one of SA's mechanisms of action is the inhibition of catalase, resulting in elevated levels of H_2 O_2, which activate defense-related genes. Here we demonstrate that SA also inhibits ascorbate peroxidase (APX), the

Jorg Durner; Daniel F. Klessig

1995-01-01

405

Histone methylation marks play important roles in predicting the methylation status of CpG islands  

E-print Network

Histone methylation marks play important roles in predicting the methylation status of CpG islands CpG island Histone methylation Epigenetics a b s t r a c t The methylation status of CpG islands histone methylation marks to predict the methylation status of CpG islands, and improved the accuracy

406

DNA methylation and human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic modification of the genome that is involved in regulating many cellular processes. These include embryonic development, transcription, chromatin structure, X chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and chromosome stability. Consistent with these important roles, a growing number of human diseases have been found to be associated with aberrant DNA methylation. The study of these diseases has

Keith D. Robertson

2005-01-01

407

Molecular Structure of Methyl benzoate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl benzoate is used mainly as a perfume; it has a very pleasant smell and mixes well with scents of ylang ylang, musk, rose, and geranium. Methyl benzoate also acts as a solvent for cellulose esters, as a dying carrier, disinfectant additive, penetrating agent, and as a pesticide.

2002-10-11

408

Methods of DNA methylation detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

2010-01-01

409

Influence of exogenous salicylic acid on flavonolignans and lipoxygenase activity in the hairy root cultures of Silybum marianum.  

PubMed

Silymarin is one of the most potent antioxidant so far developed from plant sources used as hepatoprotectants. Influence of different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8mg/50ml culture) and exposure time (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h) of salicylic acid on lipoxygenase activity, linoleic acid content, growth and production of silymarin in hairy root cultures of S. marianum were investigated. Detection and identification of flavonolignans was carried out by high performance liquid chromatograph method. Salicylic acid enhanced silymarin production (1.89mgg(-1) DW). The optimal feeding condition was the addition of salicylic acid (6 mg/50 ml culture) after 24h in which the silymarin content was 2.42 times higher than the control (0.78mgg(-1) DW). The content of silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, silydianin and taxifolin were 0.703, 0.017, 0.289, 0.02 and 0.863mgg(-1) DW respectively in these samples, while in non-treated hairy roots were 0.027, 0.046, 0.23, 0.022 and 0.453 respectively. Lipoxygenase activity also affected by elicitation. lipoxygenase activity increased 24h after treatment by approximately 1.57- fold (0.21 Delta OD(234)/mgproteinmin(-1)). Upon elicitation with salicylic acid, linoleic acid content of hairy roots (38.26mgg(-1) DW) were also elevated after 24h, in which the linoleic acid content was 2.37 times higher than the control (16.1mgg(-1) DW). It is feasible that elicitation with salicylic acid regulates the jasmonate pathway, which in turn mediates the elicitor-induced accumulation of silymarin. PMID:19524695

Khalili, Masumeh; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Kazemi Tabar, Seyyed Kamal; Rahnama, Hassan

2009-09-01

410

Irp9, encoded by the high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia enterocolitica, is able to convert chorismate into salicylate, the precursor of the siderophore yersiniabactin.  

PubMed

The Irp9 protein of Yersinia enterocolitica participates in the synthesis of salicylate, the precursor of the siderophore yersiniabactin. In Pseudomonas species, salicylate synthesis is mediated by two enzymes: isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate-lyase. Both enzymes are required for complementation of a Yersinia irp9 mutant. However, irp9 is not able to complement Escherichia coli entC for the production of enterobactin, which requires isochorismate as a precursor. These results suggest that Irp9 directly converts chorismate into salicylate. PMID:12949119

Pelludat, Cosima; Brem, Daniela; Heesemann, Jürgen

2003-09-01

411

Use of the water-soluble fluor sodium salicylate for fluorographic detection of tritium in thin-layer chromatograms and nitrocellulose blots  

SciTech Connect

We have determined that sodium salicylate, a water-soluble fluor which we use routinely for fluorography with polyacrylamide gels, is also useful for fluorography with thin-layer media. Detection of /sup 3/H-labeled material applied to thin-layer chromatography plates, or nitrocellulose membranes, can be enhanced up to 150-fold after treatment with an aqueous solution of 2 M sodium salicylate, while detection of /sup 35/S-labeled material is enhanced only about 2-fold. We demonstrate the utility of sodium salicylate fluorography in detecting 3H-labeled palmitic acid following thin-layer chromatography and /sup 3/H-labeled proteins following blotting to nitrocellulose.

Lucher, L.A.; Lego, T.

1989-05-01

412

The as-1 Promoter Element Is an Oxidative Stress-Responsive Element and Salicylic Acid Activates It via Oxidative Species1  

PubMed Central

The activation sequence-1 (as-1)-like element found in the promoter of some glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, has been previously described as a salicylic acid (SA)- and auxin-responsive element. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the activating effect of SA on the as-1 element is mediated by oxidative species. Supporting this hypothesis, our results show that the antioxidants dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-anizole (BHA) inhibit the SA-induced transcription of genes controlled by as-1 elements in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants [i.e. GNT35 gene coding for a GST and (as-1)4/?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter transgene]. DMTU and BHA also inhibit SA-activated as-1-binding activity in nuclear extracts. Further support for the hypothesis that the as-1 element is activated by oxidative species comes from our result showing that light potentiates the SA-induced activation of the as-1 element. Furthermore, methyl viologen, a known oxidative stress inducer in plants, also activates the as-1 element. Increasing H2O2 levels by incubation with H2O2 or with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,5-triazole does not activate the (as-1)4/GUS gene. On the contrary, 3-amino-1,2,5-triazole inhibits the activating effect of SA on the (as-1)4/GUS gene. These results suggest that oxidative species other than H2O2 mediate the activation of the as-1 element by SA. Our results also suggest that even though the as-1 binding activity is stimulated by oxidative species, this is not sufficient for the transactivation of genes controlled by this element. The complex interplay between SA and reactive oxygen species in the transcriptional activation of defense genes is discussed. PMID:12428016

Garreton, Virginia; Carpinelli, Jorge; Jordana, Xavier; Holuigue, Loreto

2002-01-01

413

Ethylene Modulates the Role of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 in Cross Talk between Salicylate and Jasmonate Signaling1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) play crucial roles in the signaling network that regulates induced defense responses against biotic stresses. Antagonism between SA and JA operates as a mechanism to fine-tune defenses that are activated in response to multiple attackers. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) was demonstrated to be required for SA-mediated suppression of JA-dependent defenses. Because ET is known to enhance SA/NPR1-dependent defense responses, we investigated the role of ET in the SA-JA signal interaction. Pharmacological experiments with gaseous ET and the ET precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid showed that ET potentiated SA/NPR1-dependent PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 transcription, while it rendered the antagonistic effect of SA on methyl jasmonate-induced PDF1.2 and VSP2 expression NPR1 independent. This overriding effect of ET on NPR1 function in SA-JA cross talk was absent in the npr1-1/ein2-1 double mutant, demonstrating that it is mediated via ET signaling. Abiotic and biotic induction of the ET response similarly abolished the NPR1 dependency of the SA-JA signal interaction. Furthermore, JA-dependent resistance against biotic attackers was antagonized by SA in an NPR1-dependent fashion only when the plant-attacker combination did not result in the production of high levels of endogenous ET. Hence, the interaction between ET and NPR1 plays an important modulating role in the fine tuning of the defense signaling network that is activated upon pathogen and insect attack. Our results suggest a model in which ET modulates the NPR1 dependency of SA-JA antagonism, possibly to compensate for enhanced allocation of NPR1 to function in SA-dependent activation of PR genes. PMID:19176718

Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Spoel, Steven H.; De Lange, Elvira S.; Abe, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Tsuda, Shinya; Millenaar, Frank F.; Welschen, Rob A.M.; Ritsema, Tita; Pieterse, Corne M.J.

2009-01-01

414

Salicylic acid permeation: a comparative study with different vehicles and membranes.  

PubMed

Considering the skin's function, different dermal pharmaceutical forms can be developed according to the type of therapeutic activity, active principle and excipients involved in the formulation, such as "transdermal preparations". In the present study, the permeation parameters of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, salicylic acid (SA) through synthetic membrane, polyvinyliden difluoride, and a biological membrane, egg shell membrane, with different vehicles, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol and carbopol gel, were determined. The reported physicochemical parameters of SA from CG were significantly higher than those obtained using PG and IP. This is attributed to the lipophilic nature of the vehicle that facilitates the release and penetration of the active principle, thus acting sinergically. The permeation profiles of SA allow us to state that permeation kinetics is of first order, so that the flux values obtained are in direct proportion to the specific rates of drug release. PMID:16972557

Olivella, Mónica S; Debattista, Nora B; Pappano, Nora B

2006-08-01

415

Trypanocidal activity of 4 isopropyl salicylaldehyde and 4-isopropyl salicylic acid on Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

We synthesized and study the possible trypanocidal activity of 4-isopropyl salicylaldehyde and 4-isopropyl salicylic acid, these compounds were chemical derivatives of gossypol, a drug that inhibits the growth of T. cruzi in culture. These derivatives were tested in two T. cruzi strains with different in vitro susceptibility to benznidazole and nifurtimox, used as a reference drugs. It was found that they were better inhibitors of T. cruzi alpha-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase than gossypol, in both strains. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological tests were performed and in both test, the gossypol derivatives showed a higher and better trypanocidal effect than gossypol, and a higher and much better trypanocidal effect than nifurtimox and benznidazole in the two studied T. cruzi strains. The trypanocidal effect was higher in the NINOA strain than in the MIGUZ strain. PMID:17061565

Nogueda-Torres, B; Rodríguez-Paez, L; Ramírez, I B; Ramírez, C W

2001-01-01

416

Exogenous treatment with indole-3-acetic acid and salicylic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat seedlings.  

PubMed

The seedlings of wheat were grown in the presence of CdCl2 (500 or 1000 ?M Cd), were applied with 500 ?M of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 500 ?M salicylic acid (SA) as seed soaking and were sampled at 56 days after sowing. The plants exposed to Cd exhibited a substantial decline in growth, pigment content, relative water content (RWC) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) and leaf structure. However, pretreatment with IAA or SA mitigated the stress generated by Cd and markedly improved the aforesaid parameters. The Cd increased proline content, electrolyte leakage and plant Cd content. However, the IAA or SA treatment attenuated the adverse effects of Cd on these attributes. The results showed that pretreatment with IAA or SA enhanced the antioxidant defense activities in Cd stressed wheat, thus alleviating Cd induced oxidative damage and enhancing Cd tolerance and leaf anatomy. PMID:23684274

Agami, Ramadan A; Mohamed, Gamal F

2013-08-01

417

Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.  

PubMed

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

2014-10-01

418

Salicylic Acid sans Aspirin in Animals and Man: Persistence in Fasting and Biosynthesis from Benzoic Acid  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA), which is central to defense mechanisms in plants and the principal metabolite of aspirin, occurs naturally in man with higher levels of SA and its urinary metabolite salicyluric acid (SU) in vegetarians overlapping with levels in patients on low-dose aspirin regimens. SA is widely distributed in animal blood. Fasting for major colorectal surgery did not cause disappearance of SA from plasma, even in patients following total proctocolectomy. A 13C6 benzoic acid load ingested by six volunteers led, between 8 and 16 h, to a median 33.9% labeling of urinary salicyluric acid. The overall contribution of benzoic acid (and its salts) to the turnover of circulating SA thus requires further assessment. However, that SA appears to be, at least partially, an endogenous compound should lead to reassessment of its role in human (and animal) pathophysiology. PMID:19053387

2008-01-01

419

Preparation and investigation the release behaviour of wax microspheres loaded with salicylic acid.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid-beeswax microspheres were prepared by melt dispersion technique. The effects of formulation parameters on the microscopic characteristic, drug loading and cumulative amount of released drug were investigated by experimental design. Results showed that all of the microparticles were spherical with porous surfaces. The average size of microspheres was 24-48 microm, the drug content was in the range of 22-45% and the encapsulation efficiency was 46-93%. Drug loading was influenced by emulsification speed as a main factor. All the microspheres had a burst release initially. The emulsifier concentration did not have a significant effect on drug release. The release behaviour of microspheres conformed best to Korsmeyer-Peppas semi-empirical model and the release of SA from beeswax microspheres was Fickian (n < 0.45). PMID:18791907

Gifani, Aida; Taghizadeh, Mojtaba; Seifkordi, Ali A; Ardjmand, Mehdi

2009-09-01

420

Grasshopper oral secretions increase salicylic acid and abscisic acid levels in wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Recent investigations showed that the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana specifically responds to herbivory-associated molecular patterns by activating a sophisticated signaling network. The lipase activity of insect oral secretions was shown to elevate oxylipin levels when applied to puncture wounds in leaves. The results also demonstrated that the oral secretions of the generalist Schistocerca gregaria contained other, probably non-proteinous, elicitors of plant defense responses which induced mitogen-activated protein kinases, calcium signaling and ethylene levels. This addendum presents data on the levels of additional phytohormones that are elevated after application of S. gregaria oral secretion to wounded leaves. Abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels are significantly elevated after elicitation with S. gregaria oral secretions, adding another layer of complexity to the herbivory-induced response of A. thaliana. PMID:21847018

Schäfer, Martin; Fischer, Christine; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

2011-09-01

421

Grasshopper oral secretions increase salicylic acid and abscisic acid levels in wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Recent investigations showed that the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana specifically responds to herbivory-associated molecular patterns by activating a sophisticated signaling network. The lipase activity of insect oral secretions was shown to elevate oxylipin levels when applied to puncture wounds in leaves. The results also demonstrated that the oral secretions of the generalist Schistocerca gregaria contained other, probably non-proteinous, elicitors of plant defense responses which induced mitogen-activated protein kinases, calcium signaling and ethylene levels.1 This addendum presents data on the levels of additional phytohormones that are elevated after application of S. gregaria oral secretion to wounded leaves. Abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels are significantly elevated after elicitation with S. gregaria oral secretions, adding another layer of complexity to the herbivory-induced response of A. thaliana. PMID:21847018

Baldwin, Ian T

2011-01-01

422

Fluorescence characteristics of 5-amino salicylic acid: An iodide recognition study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the effect of iodide on the fluorescence of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). In the absence of iodide, prominent blue green (BG) emission band at ˜465 nm (broad) is observed in aprotic solvents whereas violet (V) emission at ˜408 nm, blue green (BG) at ˜480 nm and green (G) at ˜500 nm are observed in case of protic solvents. On the addition of iodide ion (I-), the intensity of BG fluorescence is enhanced in case of aprotic solvents. On the other hand the G band is enhanced in protic solvents and decrease in the intensity of the V band is observed. The effect of hydrogen bonding as well as the interplay of neutral and ionic species is invoked to explain the observed results. The study projects the application of this system in iodide recognition in protic/aprotic environments.

Arora, Priyanka; Suyal, Kanchan; Joshi, Neeraj K.; Joshi, Hem Chandra; Pant, Sanjay

423

Salicylic acid-dependent gene expression is activated by locomotion mucus of different molluscan herbivores.  

PubMed

Slugs and snails specifically secrete mucus to aid their locomotion. This mucus is the contact material between molluscan herbivores and plants. We have recently shown that the locomotion mucus of the slug Deroceras reticulatum contains salicylic acid (SA).(1) When applied to wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana this mucus induces the activity of the SA-responsive pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) promotor1. Here we analyzed PR1 promotor activity in response to treatments with locomotion mucus of eight slugs and snails. Although none of the mucus contained SA, their application still elicited PR1 promotor activity. These data provide further insights into the complex interactions between molluscan herbivores and plants. PMID:25346792

Meldau, Stefan; Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Baldwin, Ian T

2014-01-01

424

Salicylic acid-dependent gene expression is activated by locomotion mucus of different molluscan herbivores  

PubMed Central

Slugs and snails specifically secrete mucus to aid their locomotion. This mucus is the contact material between molluscan herbivores and plants. We have recently shown that the locomotion mucus of the slug Deroceras reticulatum contains salicylic acid (SA).1 When applied to wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana this mucus induces the activity of the SA-responsive pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) promotor1. Here we analyzed PR1 promotor activity in response to treatments with locomotion mucus of eight slugs and snails. Although none of the mucus contained SA, their application still elicited PR1 promotor activity. These data provide further insights into the complex interactions between molluscan herbivores and plants. PMID:25346792

Meldau, Stefan; Kastner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Baldwin, Ian T

2014-01-01

425

Combined patch containing salicylic acid and nicotinamide: role of drug interaction.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to formulate a combined patch containing salicylic (SA) acid and nicotinamide (NA), useful for the treatment of mild acne, and to verify their mutual effect on drug permeation and skin retention. The performance of the patch was tested in vitro in permeation experiments using pig ear skin as barrier. To better understand the data obtained from the film, permeation from solutions and isopropyl myristate/water partition coefficient were also determined. The results obtained in the present work suggest a mutual influence of NA and SA on their permeation across the skin from an innovative transdermal film. The partition coefficient obtained when the two molecules were simultaneously present was typically lower than the respective value obtained with NA and SA alone. PMID:20950260

Padula, Cristina; Ferretti, Chiara; Nicoli, Sara; Santi, Patrizia

2010-12-01

426

Effect of salicylate on outer hair cell plasma membrane viscoelasticity: studies using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma membrane (PM) of mammalian outer hair cells (OHCs) generates mechanical forces in response to changes in the transmembrane electrical potential. The resulting change in the cell length is known as electromotility. Salicylate (Sal), the anionic, amphipathic derivative of aspirin induces reversible hearing loss and decreases electromotile response of the OHCs. Sal may change the local curvature and mechanical properties of the PM, eventually resulting in reduced electromotility or it may compete with intracellular monovalent anions, particularly Cl-, which are essential for electromotility. In this work we have used optical tweezers to study the effects of Sal on viscoelastic properties of the OHC PM when separated from the underlying composite structures of the cell wall. In this procedure, an optically trapped microsphere is brought in contact with PM and subsequently pulled away to form a tether. We measured the force exerted on the tether as a function of time during the process of tether growth at different pulling rates. Effective tether viscosity, steady-state tethering force extrapolated to zero pulling rate, and the time constant for tether growth were estimated from the measurements of the instantaneous tethering force. The time constant for the tether growth measured for the OHC basal end decreased 1.65 times after addition of 10 mM Sal, which may result from an interaction between Sal and cholesterol, which is more prevalent in the PM of OHC basal end. The time constants for the tether growth calculated for the OHC lateral wall and control human embryonic kidney cells as well as the other calculated viscoelastic parameters remained the same after Sal perfusion, favoring the hypothesis of competitive inhibition of electromotility by salicylate.

Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

2004-06-01

427

Hydrogen bonds in 1:1 complex of piperidine-3-carboxylic acid with salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1:1 complex between the zwitterionic piperidinium-3-carboxylate (P3C) and salicylic acid (SAL), P3C·SAL, has been characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and by DFT calculations. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with a = 11.6477(7), b = 9.1754(6), c = 23.5833(12) Å. An O sbnd H⋯O bridge (2.537(1) Å) links the SAL and P3C moieties. The proton in this H bond is located closer to the salicylic carboxylate group. In the P3C moiety, the piperidine ring adopts the chair conformation, and the carboxylate group is in the axial orientation and is stabilized by an intramolecular N +sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond of 2.847(1) Å. In the crystal packing, two P3C·SAL units form a centrosymmetric dimer through a pair of intermolecular N +sbnd H⋯O bonds of 2.801(1) Å. The dimers form a zigzag chain linked via another N +sbnd H⋯O bond (2.799(1) Å). In the structures of the monomeric [P3C·SAL] and dimeric [(P3C·SAL) 2] species optimized by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations, both the inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are shorter than in the crystal. The FTIR spectrum shows a broad absorption in the 3100-2400 cm -1 region attributed to ?NH and ?OH vibrations. The broad absorption in the 1500-600 cm -1 region is attributed to the O sbnd H·O hydrogen bonds. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been analyzed to elucidate the structure of the P3C·SAL complex in solution. The GIAO magnetic isotropic shielding tensors have been used to predict the 1H and 13C chemical shifts in DMSO solution.

Bartoszak-Adamska, El?bieta; Dega-Szafran, Zofia; Krociak, Magdalena; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Szafran, Miros?aw

2009-02-01

428

Chromatographic analysis of salicylic compounds in different species of the genus Salix.  

PubMed

The separation of nine phenol glycosides--salicin, salicortin, 2'-acetylsalicortin, populin, tremulacin, salidroside, triandrin, picein and helicin--by normal phase (NP), reversed phase (RP) HPLC techniques and a coupling of NP and RP monolithic silica columns was studied. Among the above nine compounds only five--salicin, populin, tremulacin, salidroside and triandrin--were resolved in an NP system with a mobile phase comprising hexane/isopropanol/methanol (87:12:1, v/v/v). Optimized separation was performed with two coupled monolithic silica columns of different polarity (bare silica and RP-18). The method was applied to verify the presence of salicylic compounds and other phenolic derivatives in the bark of six species from the genus Salix, namely S. purpurea, S. daphnoides clone 1095, S. alba clone 1100, S. triandra, S. viminalis, and S. herbacea. Gradient elution with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.05% of trifluoroacetic acid, with increasing acetonitrile concentration from 3% to 48%, was chosen as optimal. For the selective detection of the salicylic compounds, an evaporative light scattering detector was employed along with a UV detector. The differences in the composition of phenols in the different plant materials were confirmed. Additionally, it must be emphasized that for the first time the presence of 2'-acetylsalicortin was revealed in S. alba clone 1100. Furthermore, an SPE-HPLC method was developed for the rapid analysis of the salicin content, analyzed as free and total fraction, in willow barks. The determined concentrations of total salicin varied from 25.4 mg/g in S. alba clone 1100 to 96.47 mg/g in S. daphnoides clone 1095. PMID:17880029

Pob?ocka-Olech, Loretta; van Nederkassel, Anne-Marie; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Krauze-Baranowska, Miros?awa; Glód, Daniel; Baczek, Tomasz

2007-11-01

429

Anti-inflammatory salicylate treatment alters the metabolic adaptations to lactation in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in physiological state. To investigate the role of inflammation-associated pathways in these homeorhetic adaptations, we treated cows with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (SS) for the first 7 days of lactation. Administration of SS decreased liver TNF-? mRNA and marginally decreased plasma TNF-? concentration, but plasma eicosanoids and liver NF-?B activity were unaltered during treatment. Despite the mild impact on these inflammatory markers, SS clearly altered metabolic function. Plasma glucose concentration was decreased by SS, but this was not explained by a shift in hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression or by altered milk lactose secretion. Insulin concentrations decreased in SS-treated cows on day 7 compared with controls, which was consistent with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was then used to assess whether altered insulin sensitivity may have influenced glucose utilization rate with SS. The RQUICKI estimate of insulin sensitivity was significantly elevated by SS on day 7, coincident with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. Salicylate prevented postpartum insulin resistance, likely causing excessive glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and hypoglycemia. These results represent the first evidence that inflammation-associated pathways are involved in homeorhetic adaptations to lactation. PMID:23678026

Farney, Jaymelynn K.; Mamedova, Laman K.; Coetzee, Johann F.; KuKanich, Butch; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Stoakes, Sara K.; Minton, J. Ernest; Hollis, Larry C.

2013-01-01

430

DNA methylation and gene expression.  

PubMed Central

A large body of evidence demonstrates that DNA methylation plays a role in gene regulation in animal cells. Not only is there a correlation between gene transcription and undermethylation, but also transfection experiments clearly show that the presence of methyl moieties inhibits gene expression in vivo. Furthermore, gene activation can be induced by treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine, a potent demethylating agent. Methylation appears to influence gene expression by affecting the interactions with DNA of both chromatin proteins and specific transcription factors. Although methylation patterns are very stable in somatic cells, the early embryo is characterized by large alterations in DNA modification. New methodologies are now becoming available for studying methylation at this stage and in the germ line. During development, tissue-specific genes undergo demethylation in their tissue of expression. In tissue culture cells this process is highly specific and appears to involve an active mechanism which takes place in the absence of DNA replication. The X chromosome undergoes inactivation during development; this is accompanied by de novo methylation, which appears necessary to stably maintain its silent state. As opposed to the programmed changes in DNA methylation which occur in vivo, immortalized tissue culture cells demonstrate alterations in DNA modification which take place over a long time scale and which appear to be the result of selective pressures present during the growth of these cells in culture. PMID:1943996

Razin, A; Cedar, H

1991-01-01

431

Molecular Structure of Methyl mercaptan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl mercaptan is a colorless, flammable and volatile sulfur compound that is responsible for the rotten cabbage or burnt rubber aroma. This substance can be found in the blood, brain, and other tissues of humans and other animals, it is released from animal feces and occurs naturally in foods such as nuts and cheeses. The formation of methyl mercaptan is commonly noted as a problem in the process of the post-fermentation of wine. Despite the repulsive smell methyl mercaptan is used as a gas odorant, as an intermediate in the production of fungicides, as jet fuel additives, flavoring agents, plastics, as well as in the synthesis of methionines, and as catalysts.

2003-06-03

432

21 CFR 201.303 - Labeling of drug preparations containing significant proportions of wintergreen oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wintergreen oil. (a) Because methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil...containing more than 5 percent methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil), the...interpretation in no way exempts methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) or its...

2012-04-01

433

21 CFR 201.303 - Labeling of drug preparations containing significant proportions of wintergreen oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wintergreen oil. (a) Because methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil...containing more than 5 percent methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil), the...interpretation in no way exempts methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) or its...

2013-04-01

434

Isolation of the new anacardic acid 6-[16'Z-nonadecenyl]-salicylic acid and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis.  

PubMed

A new anacardic acid, 6-[16'Z-nonadecenyl]-salicylic acid (1), along with seven known compounds, 6-[8'Z-pentadecenyl] salicylic acid (15:1 anacardic acid) (2), 6-nonadecenyl salicylic acid (anacardic acid 19:0) (3), 6-pentadecyl salicylic acid (anacardic acid 15:0) (4), masticadienonic acid (5), 3?-hydroxymasticadienonic acid (6), 3-epi-oleanolic acid (7) and ?-sitosterol, were isolated from the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens using a bioassay-guided fractionation method. The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The known compounds (2-7) were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with reported values in the literature. Compounds 1-4 exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 7 to 104?µg?mL and from 12 to 126?µg?mL, respectively. PMID:21815722

Rivero-Cruz, Blanca E; Esturau, Nuria; Sánchez-Nieto, Sobeida; Romero, Irma; Castillo-Juárez, Israel; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto

2011-08-01

435

In-situ CIR-FTIR (cylindrical internal reflection/Fourier transform infrared) characterization of salicylate complexes at the goethite/aqueous solution interface  

SciTech Connect

The types of complexes that salicylate (2-hydroxy-benzoate) forms with the surface of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) in aqueous medium were studied in situ by using cylindrical internal reflection (CIR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results obtained from CIR-FTIR studies were compared with adsorption isotherm experiments in order to relate the level of salicylate coverage to the nature of the surface complex. At lower surface coverages all the interfacial salicylate has a chelate structure in which one carboxylic oxygen and the ortho phenolic oxygen bind one Fe atom of the goethite surface. At higher surface coverages this chelate complex coexists with salicylate ions, which are weakly bound in the double layer.

Yost, E.C.; Tejedor-Tejedor, M.I.; Anderson, M.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

1990-06-01

436

Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

King, Angela G.

2009-08-01

437

Evidence for a Role of Salicylic Acid in the Oxidative Damage Generated by NaCl and Osmotic Stress in Arabidopsis Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that salicylic acid (SA) is an essential component of the plant resistance to pathogens. We now show that SA plays a role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions, such as salt and osmotic stresses. We have studied the responses of wild-type Arabidopsis and an SA-deficient transgenic line expressing a salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) gene to

Omar Borsani; Victoriano Valpuesta; Miguel A. Botella

2001-01-01

438

Phototransformation of herbicide metsulfuron methyl.  

PubMed

Phototransformation of the herbicide metsulfuron methyl was investigated on glass surface under sunlight and ultraviolet (UV) light and compared with dark condition. The half-lives of metsulfuron methyl under UV light and sunlight were found to be 0.5 and 7.8 days respectively. Rate of phototransformation followed first order kinetics with significant correlation coefficient. The major photoproducts were identified as methyl-2-sulfonyl-amino-benzoate, 2-amino-6-methoxy-4-methyltriazine and saccharin (O-sulfobenzoimide). Various metabolites from this study were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Authentic samples required for HPLC comparison were prepared in laboratory and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infra red (IR) spectral data. These metabolites were also identified from metsulfuron methyl treated wheat field soil. PMID:18665987

Paul, Rupak; Singh, Shashi B

2008-08-01

439

Salicylate-induced depletion of endogenous inorganic sulfate. Potential role in the suppression of sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in murine articular cartilage.  

PubMed

Sodium salicylate has been shown to suppress glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by articular hyaline cartilage in vitro. We investigated the in vivo effect of sodium salicylate on murine patellar cartilage, using incorporation of intraperitoneally administered 35S-sulfate as a measure of sulfated GAG synthesis. Our results indicated that a single dose of sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) inhibited in vivo sulfated GAG synthesis by 56%, compared with controls, and had no effect on sulfated GAG breakdown. A striking finding was that sodium sulfate treatment reduced the serum concentration of inorganic sulfate from 1.1 mM to approximately 0.3 mM, and that this serum reduction was associated with a twofold increase in urinary excretion of sulfate. Using anatomically intact patellar cartilage, in vitro studies clearly showed that, in concentrations reached in vivo (greater than or equal to 1 mM), salicylate suppressed murine chondrocyte GAG synthesis. However, in the presence of serum, the effects of 1 mM salicylate were abolished. We also found that sulfated GAG synthesis was clearly inhibited at low concentrations of sulfate (less than 0.5 mM). Our data indicate that sodium salicylate can suppress articular chondrocyte sulfated GAG synthesis in vivo, and that this effect may particularly be due to a drug-induced reduction of endogenous sulfate. PMID:4026888

de Vries, B J; van den Berg, W B; van de Putte, L B

1985-08-01

440

Effect of salicylic acid upon trace-metal sorption (Cd, Zn, Co, and Mn) onto alumina, silica, and kaolinite as a function of pH  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of four trace metals (Cd, Zn, Co, and Mn) onto alumina, silica, and kaolinite, in the presence or absence of salicylic acid was investigated in batch experiments in the pH range from 4 to 9. The sorption was interpreted in terms of surface complexation using the diffuse layer model (DLM). Equilibrium parameters were optimized using the FITEQL program. The salicylic acid was only significantly sorbed onto the alumina and the sorption was modeled using the anionic monodentate surface complex. In the absence of salicylic acid, the sorption of the trace metals presented different pH edge behaviors, depending on the substrate. Using the cationic monodendate surface complex, the model fitted the experimental data well. In the presence of salicylic acid, at a given pH and depending on the substrate, the sorption of metals was (1) increased, suggesting the occurrence of ternary complexes; (2) reduced (sometimes totally inhibited), due to the complexation with dissolved salicylic acid; or (3) very weakly changed in terms of net effect compared to free-organic-ligand systems. Modeling of the trace-metal sorption in the presence of salicylic acid was performed using ternary surface complexes. In the acidic pH range, this allowed the experimental data to be simulated, but in the alkaline pH range, the model failed to simulate the decrease in sorption. Probable causes of the discrepancies between the experimental data and modeling results are discussed.

Benyahya, L.; Garnier, J.M. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Montrouge (France). Inst. de Biogeochimie Marine] [Ecole Normale Superieure, Montrouge (France). Inst. de Biogeochimie Marine

1999-05-01

441

Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases. PMID:23882278

Lee, Ken W. K.; Pausova, Zdenka

2013-01-01

442

Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Methylation of Alkyl Halides and Acid Chlorides with Methyl p-Tosylate.  

PubMed

Methylation of unactivated alkyl halides and acid chlorides under Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling conditions led to efficient formation of methylated alkanes and ketones using methyl p-methyl tosylate as the methylation reagent. Moderate to excellent coupling yields as well as excellent functional group tolerance were observed under the present mild and easy-to-operate reaction conditions. PMID:25333482

Liang, Zhuye; Xue, Weichao; Lin, Kunhua; Gong, Hegui

2014-11-01

443

Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Salicylic Acid in Water-ethanol Mixtures from Titanium Dioxide Grafted with Hexadecyltrichlorosilane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the chemical modification on the photocatalytic properties of TiO2. The TiO2 Degussa-P25 nanoparticles are chemically modified using the hydrophobic organosilane hexadecyltrichlorosilane (HTS). The samples are employed as catalysts for salicylic acid photocatalytic oxidation in water-ethanol mixtures. The kinetics of salicylic acid photodegradation is investigated as a function of ethanol content in water-ethanol mixtures and initial HTS concentrations. The results indicate that the HTS groups are not degraded during the photocatalytic process. The TiO2 grafted by HTS is more efficient than bare TiO2 for the photodegradation process in presence of ethanol. The photodegradation process follows first order kinetics and the apparent rate constant increases linearly with the initial HTS concentration (amount of HTS grafted).

Kassir, Mounir; Roques-Carmes, Thibault; Assaker, Karine; Hamieh, Tayssir; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Toufaily, Joumana; Villiéras, Frédéric

444

Thermotolerance and Related Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Induced by Heat Acclimation and Salicylic Acid in Grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermotolerance and related antioxidant enzyme activities induced by both heat acclimation and exogenous salicylic acid (SA)\\u000a application were studied in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu). Heat acclimation and exogenous SA application induced comparable changes in thermotolerance, ascorbic acid\\u000a (AsA), glutathione (GSH), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, and in activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione

Li-Jun Wang; Shao-Hua Li

2006-01-01

445

Electrochemical polymerization of o-anisidine on low carbon steel from aqueous salicylate solution: Corrosion protection study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical polymerization of o-anisidine was carried out on low carbon steel from an aqueous salicylate medium using cyclic voltammetry. The resulting poly(o-anisidine) coatings were uniform and adherent to the steel substrates. These coatings were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the poly(o-anisidine) coatings to

M. G. Wankhede; A. B. Gaikwad; P. P. Patil

2006-01-01

446

Accumulation of wound-inducible ACC synthase transcript in tomato fruit is inhibited by salicylic acid and polyamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of wound-inducible 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase expression was studied in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Pik-Red). A 70 base oligonucleotide probe homologous to published ACC synthase cDNA sequences was successfully used to identify and analyze regulation of a wound-inducible transcript. The 1.8 kb ACC synthase transcript increased upon wounding the fruit as well as during fruit ripening. Salicylic acid,

Ning Li; Barbara L. Parsons; Derong Liu; Autar K. Mattoo

1992-01-01

447

Role of Salicylic Acid in Promoting Salt Stress Tolerance and Enhanced Artemisinin Production in Artemisia annua L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, the role of salicylic acid (SA) in inducing salinity tolerance was studied in Artemisia annua L., which is a major source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. SA, when applied at 1.00 mM, provided considerable protection\\u000a against salt stress imposed by adding 50, 100, or 200 mM NaCl to soil. Salt stress negatively affected plant growth as assessed\\u000a by

Tariq Aftab; M. Masroor A. Khan; Mohd. Idrees; M. Naeem; Moinuddin

448

Two Inducers of Plant Defense Responses, 2,6-Dichloroisonicotinec Acid and Salicylic Acid, Inhibit Catalase Activity in Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,6-Dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) and salicylic acid (SA) are potent inducers of plant defense responses including the synthesis of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the development of enhanced disease resistance. A soluble SA-binding protein has been purified from tobacco with an affinity and specificity of binding that suggest it is a SA receptor. Recently, this protein has been shown to be a

Uwe Conrath; Zhixiang Chen; Joseph R. Ricigliano; Daniel F. Klessig

1995-01-01

449

Counteraction of Salinity Stress on Wheat Plants by Grain Soaking in Ascorbic Acid, Thiamin or Sodium Salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive effects of salinity stress (40, 80, 120 and 160 mM NaCl) and ascorbic acid (0.6 mM), thiamin (0.3 mM) or sodium salicylate (0.6 mM) were studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The contents of cellulose, lignin of either shoots or roots, pectin of root and soluble sugars of shoots were lowered with the rise of NaCl concentration. On

A. M. A. Al-Hakimi; A. M. Hamada

2001-01-01

450

Combined effect of salicylic acid and salinity on some antioxidant activities, oxidative stress and metabolite accumulation in Phaseolus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that salicylic acid (SA) acts as an endogenous signal molecule responsible for inducing abiotic stress tolerance\\u000a in plants. The effect of SA and sodium chloride (NaCl) on growth, metabolite accumulation, oxidative stress and enzymatic\\u000a and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris, cv. F-15) was studied. Results revealed that either SA or NaCl decrease,

Francisco Palma; Carmen Lluch; Carmen Iribarne; Jose M. García-Garrido; Noel A. Tejera García

2009-01-01

451

Salt Stress Mitigation by Seed Priming with Salicylic Acid in Two Faba Bean Genotypes Differing in Salt Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential responses of two faba bean (Vicia faba L.) local Egyptian genotypes to salinity (0 or 140 mM NaCl) and seed priming with 0.2 mM salicylic acid (SA) were studied. Salinity caused no significant changes in dry weight and tissue water content of genotype 115, whereas they were significantly reduced in genotype 125. Genotype 115 exhibited higher accumulation of

M. M. AZOOZ

452

Salicylic Acid Influences Net Photosynthetic Rate, Carboxylation Efficiency, Nitrate Reductase Activity, and Seed Yield in Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid (SA) were applied to the foliage of 30-d-old plants of mustard (Brassica juncea Czern & Coss cv. Varuna). The plants sprayed with the lowest used concentration (10?5 M) of SA were healthier than those sprayed with water only or with higher concentrations of SA (10?4 or 10?3 M). 60-d-old plants possessed 8.4, 9.8, 9.3, 13.0

Q. Fariduddin; S. Hayat; A. Ahmad

2003-01-01

453

Eradication of Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis (RP62A) by a Combination of Sodium Salicylate and Vancomycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major cause of infections associated with indwelling medical devices. Biofilm production is an important virulence attribute in the pathogenesis of device-related infections. Therefore, elimination of these biofilms is an ideal treatment. Salicylate (5 mM) combined with 1 g of vancomycin per ml inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis (RP62A) by >99.9%. When biofilm-coated polystyrene beads were

ROY E. POLONIO; LEONARD A. MERMEL; GREGORY E. PAQUETTE; JAY F. SPERRY

2001-01-01

454

Removal of cobalt from human serum and environmental samples by adsorption using Amberlite XAD-2–salicylic acid–iminodiacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new chelating resin was prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-2 with salicylic acid (SAL) through an azo spacer. Then the polymer support was coupled with iminodiacetic acid (IDA). The resulting sorbent has been characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, and studied for the preconcentration and determination of trace Co(II) ion from human biological fluid and

Homayon Ahmad Panahi; Hayedeh Bagheri Sadeghi; Nasim Farahmandnejad; Ali Rezaii Badr; Elham Moniri

2012-01-01

455

Exogenous Salicylic Acid Alleviates Growth Inhibition and Oxidative Stress Induced by Hypoxia Stress in Malus robusta Rehd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) as a signal molecule mediates many biotic and environmental stress-induced physiologic responses in plants.\\u000a In this study we investigated the role of SA in regulating growth and oxidative stress in Malus robusta Rehd under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia stress inhibited plant growth and dramatically reduced biomass.\\u000a Addition of SA significantly alleviated the plant growth inhibition.

Tuanhui Bai; Cuiying Li; Fengwang Ma; Huairui Shu; Mingyu Han

2009-01-01

456

Studies on the superoxide anion production and peroxidase activity in potato leaf cell suspension exposed to salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely accepted that salicylic acid (SA) signaling is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We have\\u000a studied the effect of SA on peroxidase activity and superoxide anion production in potato leaf cell suspension. The results\\u000a show that potato cells are insensitive to low concentrations of exogenous SA (< 1 mM) and the effect is observed at

Leila Faravardeh; Azra Rabbani

2006-01-01

457

Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses\\u000a against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory\\u000a potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in

Antonio Leon-Reyes; Dieuwertje Van der Does; Elvira S. De Lange; Carolin Delker; Claus Wasternack; Saskia C. M. Van Wees; Tita Ritsema; Corné M. J. Pieterse

2010-01-01

458

Nicotiana tabacum overexpressing ?-ECS exhibits biotic stress tolerance likely through NPR1-dependent salicylic acid-mediated pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elaborate networks and the crosstalk of established signaling molecules like salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA),\\u000a ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) play key role in plant defense response.\\u000a To obtain further insight into the mechanism through which GSH is involved in this crosstalk to mitigate biotic stress, transgenic\\u000a Nicotiana tabacum overexpressing Lycopersicon

Srijani Ghanta; Dipto Bhattacharyya; Ragini Sinha; Anindita Banerjee; Sharmila Chattopadhyay

2011-01-01

459

Salicylate prevents hepatic insulin resistance caused by short-term elevation of free fatty acids in vivo.  

PubMed

Recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways are causally involved in insulin resistance. In particular, Ikappa Balpha kinase beta (IKKbeta ), which can impair insulin signaling directly via serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) and/or indirectly via induction of transcription of proinflammatory mediators, has been implicated in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. However, it is unclear whether liver IKKbeta activation plays a causal role in hepatic insulin resistance caused by acutely elevated FFA. In the present study, we wished to test the hypothesis that sodium salicylate, which inhibits IKKbeta , prevents hepatic insulin resistance caused by short-term elevation of FFA. To do this, overnight-fasted Wistar rats were subject to 7-h i.v. infusion of either saline or Intralipid plus 20 U/ml heparin (IH; triglyceride emulsion that elevates FFA levels in vivo) with or without salicylate. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with tracer infusion was performed to assess insulin-induced stimulation of peripheral glucose utilization and suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP). Infusion of IH markedly decreased (P < 0.05) insulin-induced stimulation of peripheral glucose utilization and suppression of EGP, which were completely prevented by salicylate co-infusion. Furthermore, salicylate reversed IH-induced 1) decrease in Ikappa Balpha content; 2) increase in serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser 307) and IRS-2 (Ser 233); 3) decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2; and 4) decrease in serine 473-phosphorylated Akt in the liver. These results demonstrate that inhibition of IKKbeta prevents FFA-induced impairment of hepatic insulin signaling, thus implicating IKKbeta as a causal mediator of hepatic insulin resistance caused by acutely elevated plasma FFA. PMID:17951543

Park, Edward; Wong, Victor; Guan, Xinyu; Oprescu, Andrei I; Giacca, Adria

2007-11-01

460

A novel application of Onyx™ monolithic column for simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and triamcinolone acetonide by sequential injection chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and fast simultaneous determination of triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) and salicylic acid (SA) in topical pharmaceutical formulations by sequential injection chromatography (SIC) as an alternative to classical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. A recently introduced Onyx™ monolithic C18 (50mm×4.6mm, Phenomenex®) with 5mm monolithic precolumn were used for the first time for creating sequential injection chromatography system

Petr Chocholouš; Pavel Holík; Dalibor Šatínský; Petr Solich

2007-01-01

461

Salicylic Acid Is a Systemic Signal and an Inducer of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in Virus-Infected Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in tobacco, which occurs during the hypersensitive response to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), may be caused by a minimum 10-fold systemic increase in endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA). This rise in SA parallels PR-1 protein induction and occurs in TMV-resistant Xanthi-nc tobacco carrying the N gene, but not in TMV-susceptible (nn) tobacco. By

Nasser Yalpani; Paul Silverman; T. Michael; A. Wilson; Daniel A. Kleier

1991-01-01

462

Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis induced by biocontrol bacteria is independent of salicylic acid accumulation and pathogenesis-related gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic acquired resistance is a pathogen-inducible defense mechanism in plants. The resistant state is dependent on endogenous accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and is characterized by the activation of genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Recently, selected nonpathogenic, root-colonizing biocontrol bacteria have been shown to trigger a systemic resistance response as well. To study the molecular basis underlying this type of

C. M. J. Pieterse; A. C. M. van Wees; E. Hoffland; J. A. van Pelt; L. C. van Loon

1996-01-01

463

Theoretical model for a tetrad of hydrogen bonds and its application to interpretation of infrared spectra of salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical model of vibrational interactions in hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid dimer is presented which takes into account the adiabatic couplings between high- and low-frequency O-H and O...O stretching vibrations, resonance interactions between both intermolecular hydrogen bonds and between inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and Fermi resonance between the O-H stretching fundamental and the first overtone of the O-H in-plane bending vibrations. The model is used for theoretical simulation of the ?s stretching bands of salicylic acid and its OD derivative at 300 K. The effect of deuteration is successfully reproduced by our model. Infrared, far infarared, Raman, and low-frequency Raman spectra of the polycrystalline salicylic acid and its deuterated derivative have been measured. The geometry and experimental frequencies are compared with the results of density-functional theory calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-31++G**, B3LYP/cc-pVTZ, B3PW91/6-31++G**, and B3PW91/cc-pVTZ levels. O-H, O-D, and O...O stretching frequencies are used in theoretical simulation of the ?s stretching bands.

Boczar, Marek; Boda, ?ukasz; Wójcik, Marek J.

2006-02-01

464

Evaluation of physicochemical properties, skin permeation and accumulation profiles of salicylic acid amide prodrugs as sunscreen agent.  

PubMed

Various amide prodrugs of salicylic acid were synthesised, and their physicochemical properties including lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. In vivo skin permeation and accumulation profiles were also evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a supersaturated solution of permeants in an enhancer vehicle, a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of the stratum corneum and delipidisation of skin. Their capacity factor values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these amides were highly s