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Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ({approx}2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2}), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study.




Methyl salicylate overdose  


Deep heating rubs overdose; Oil of wintergreen overdose ... Deep-heating creams (Ben Gay, Icy Hot) used to relieve sore muscles and joints Oil of wintergreen Solutions for vaporizers Note: This list may not include all products that contain methyl salicylate.


Rice Allelopathy Induced by Methyl Jasmonate and Methyl Salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) are important signaling molecules that induce plant defense against insect\\u000a herbivores and microbial pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that allelopathy is an inducible defense mechanism, and that\\u000a the JA and SA signaling pathways may activate allelochemicals release. Exogenous application of MeJA and MeSA to rice (Oryza sativa L.) enhanced rice allelopathic potential and

Hai Hong Bi; Ren Sen Zeng; Li Ming Su; Min An; Shi Ming Luo



40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on food or feed when...



Photodegradation of Methyl Salicylate in Poly(Methylmethacrylate).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methyl salicylate (MS) has been found to undergo photo-induced decarboxylation to form phenol. The process is first order and has a reaction quantum yield of ca. 8 x 10 exp -5 and an activation energy of 1.2 kcal./mol (5.0 kJ/mol). Kinetic data were used ...

C. L. Renschler



Detection of methyl salicylate using polymer-filled chemicapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl salicylate (MeS) is used as a chemical warfare agent simulant to test chemical protective garments and other individual personal protective gear. The accurate and real-time detection of this analyte is advantageous for various testing regimes. This paper reports the results of MeS vapor exposures on polymer-filled capacitance-based sensors at temperatures ranging from 15°C to 50°C under dry and humid

Sanjay V. Patel; Stephen T. Hobson; Sabina Cemalovic; Todd E. Mlsna



Theoretical investigation of the photophysics of methyl salicylate isomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photophysics of methyl salicylate (MS) isomers has been studied using time-dependent density functional theory and large basis sets. First electronic singlet and triplet excited states energies, structure, and vibrational analysis were calculated for the ketoB, enol, and ketoA isomers. It is demonstrated that the photochemical pathway involving excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the ketoB to the enol tautomer agrees well with the dual fluorescence in near-UV (from ketoB) and blue (from enol) wavelengths obtained from experiments. Our calculation confirms the existence of a double minimum in the excited state pathway along the O-H-O coordinate corresponding to two preferred energy regions: (1) the hydrogen belongs to the OH moiety and the structure of methyl salicylate is ketoB; (2) the hydrogen flips to the closest carboxyl entailing electronic rearrangement and tautomerization to the enol structure. This double well in the excited state is highly asymmetric. The Franck-Condon vibrational overlap is calculated and accounts for the broadening of the two bands. It is suggested that forward and backward ESIPT through the barrier separating the two minima is temperature-dependent and affects the intensity of the fluorescence as seen in experiments. When the enol fluoresces and returns to its ground state, a barrier-less back proton transfer repopulates the ground state of methyl salicylate ketoB. It is also demonstrated that the rotamer ketoA is not stable in an excited state close to the desired emission wavelength. This observation eliminates the conjecture that the near-UV emission of the dual fluorescence originates from the ketoA rotamer. New experimental results for pure MS in the liquid state are reported and theoretical results compared to them.

Massaro, Richard D.; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela



Dermal absorption of camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate in humans.  


Camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate occur in numerous over-the-counter products. Although extensively used, there have been no estimates of human exposure following administration via dermal application. Furthermore, there is little information about the pharmacokinetics of those compounds. The authors report the plasma concentrations of the intact compounds as a function of dose following dermal patch application. Three groups of 8 subjects (4 male, 4 female) applied a different number of commercial patches (2, 4, or 8) to the skin for 8 hours. Plasma samples were assayed using sensitive and selective gas-chromatographic methods. For the 8-patch group, the average maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax +/- SD) were 41.0 +/- 5.8 ng/mL, 31.9 +/- 8.8 ng/mL, and 29.5 +/- 10.5 ng/mL for camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate, respectively. The corresponding values for the 4-patch group were 26.8 +/- 7.2 ng/mL, 19.0 +/- 5.4 ng/mL, and 16.8 +/- 6.8 ng/mL. The harmonic mean terminal half-lives were 5.6 +/- 1.3 hours, 4.7 +/- 1.6 hours, and 3.0 +/- 1.2 hours for camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate, respectively. The 2-patch group had measurable but low plasma concentrations of each compound. Low-dose dermal application for an extended time results in low plasma concentrations of all 3 compounds. Four and 8 patches, when applied for 8 hours, gave measurable and nearly proportional plasma concentrations. Although unable to determine the absolute dermal bioavailability of these compounds, there appears to be relatively low systemic exposure to these potentially toxic compounds, even when an unrealistically large number of patches are applied for an unusually long time. PMID:15342616

Martin, Debra; Valdez, Jennifer; Boren, James; Mayersohn, Michael



Radiation chemistry of salicylic and methyl substituted salicylic acids: Models for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceutical compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salicylic acid and its derivatives are components of many medications and moieties found in numerous pharmaceutical compounds. They have been used as models for various pharmaceutical compounds in pharmacological studies, for the treatment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and, reactions with natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, the radiation chemistry of benzoic acid, salicylic acid and four methyl substituted salicylic acids (MSA) is reported. The absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants for hydroxyl radical reaction with benzoic and salicylic acids as well as 3-methyl-, 4-methyl-, 5-methyl-, and 6-methyl-salicylic acid were determined (5.86±0.54)×109, (1.07±0.07)×1010, (7.48±0.17)×109, (7.31±0.29)×109, (5.47±0.25)×109, (6.94±0.10)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The hydrated electron reaction rate constants were measured (3.02±0.10)×109, (8.98±0.27)×109, (5.39±0.21)×109, (4.33±0.17)×109, (4.72±0.15)×109, (1.42±0.02)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The transient absorption spectra for the six model compounds were examined and their role as model compounds for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceuticals investigated.

Ayatollahi, Shakiba; Kalnina, Daina; Song, Weihua; Turks, Maris; Cooper, William J.



Highly sensitive electrochemical detection of methyl salicylate using electroactive gold nanoparticles.  


Electrochemical sensing of methyl salicylate, a key plant volatile has been achieved using a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The electrochemical response of planar gold electrodes, SPCE and AuNP-SPCE in alkaline electrolyte in the presence and absence of methyl salicylate were studied to understand the amperometric response of various electrochemical reactions. The reaction mechanism includes hydrolysis of methyl salicylate and the oxidation of negative species. The electrochemical responses were recorded using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques, where the results showed characteristic signals for methyl salicylate oxidation. Among the examined electrodes, AuNP-SPCE possessed three fold better sensitivity than planar gold and 35 times better sensitivity than SPCE (at 0.5 V). The methyl salicylate sensing by AuNP-SPCE possessed <5% variation coefficient for repeatability, one week of stable performance with no more than 15% activity loss even if used multiple times (n = 8). Even in the presence of high concentration of interfering compounds such as cis-3-hexenol, hexyl acetate and cis-hexenyl acetate, AuNP-SPCE retained >95% of its methyl salicylate response. The electroanalytical results of soybean extract showed that AuNP-SPCE can be employed for the determination of methyl salicylate in real samples. PMID:24040645

Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P



Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)|

Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis



Environmental persistence and toxicity of dimethyl malonate and methyl salicylate  

SciTech Connect

To determine the potential environmental persistence and toxic effects of agent simulants Diethyl Malonate (DEM) and Methyl Salicylate (MS), plants, soils, earthworms, and oil microbial populations were exposed to projected aerosolized simulant concentrations of {approximately}100 (low) and {approximately}1000 (high) mg/m{sup 3}. Both simulants exhibited biphasic residence times on foliar and soil surfaces following aerosol exposure. Half-times of DEM on soil and foliar surfaces were 1 to 3 h and 5 to 22 H, respectively, and 2 to 2 h and 5 to 31 h for the MS, respectively. Persistence was longer on the foliar surfaces than that of the soils. Both simulants proved phytotoxic to vegetation with a lower threshold of 1 to 2 {mu}m/cm{sup 2} for the MS versus that of 10 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} for the DEM. However, neither significantly affected chloroplast electron transport in vitro at concentrations of up to 100 {mu}g/mL. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not adversely impact soil microbial activity, while the theshold was 100 {mu}g/g dry soil for MS. Earthworm bioassays indicated survival rates of 66% at soil doses of 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2} soil and 86% at soil doses of 331 {mu}g MS/cm{sup 2}. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Ligotke, M.W.; Cataldo, D.A.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wentsel, R.S. (Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (USA))



Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice  

SciTech Connect

Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

Zhao, Nan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Chern, Mawsheng [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)



Effect of Exercise and Heat Exposure on Percutaneous Absorption of Methyl Salicylate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of exercise, heat exposure or both on the percutaneous absorption of methyl salicylate were studied in 6 healthy volunteers. Exercise was performed to 30% to VO2 max, 45 min each hour for 6 hr., at ambient temperatures of 22 C or 40 C. Systemi...

A. Danon S. Ben-Shimon Z. Ben-Zvi



Effects of methyl salicylate on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bee poisoning from pesticides used in agriculture, forestry, urban environments, and public health is a serious problem affecting many bee colonies worldwide. A bee repellent adjuvant would be useful in reducing the bee injury when pesticides are applied to bloom. Applications of methyl salicylate to blooming apples did not appear to repel foraging honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) or reduce

D. F. Mayer



Methyl salicylate, a soybean aphid-induced plant volatile attractive to the predator Coccinella septempunctata.  


Induced volatiles provide a signal to foraging predatory insects about the location of their prey. In Iowa, early in the growing season of soybean, Glycine max, many predacious seven-spotted lady beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, were observed on plants with heavy infestations of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. We studied whether the attraction of this beetle is caused by the release of specific volatile compounds of soybean plants infested by aphids. Volatile compounds emitted by soybean plants infested by aphids were compared with those of undamaged, uninfested, and artificially damaged plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed consistent differences in the profiles of volatile compounds between aphid-infested soybean plants and undamaged ones. Significantly more methyl salicylate was released from infested plants at both the V1 and V2 plant growth stages. However, release patterns of two other induced plant volatiles, (D)-limonene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, differed between the two plant growth stages. Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection of volatile extracts from infested soybean plants showed that methyl salicylate elicited significant electrophysiological responses in C. septempunctata. In field tests, traps baited with methyl salicylate were highly attractive to adult C. septempunctata, whereas 2-phenylethanol was most attractive to the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea and syrphid flies. Another common lady beetle, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, showed no preference for the compounds. These results indicate that C. septempunctata may use methyl salicylate as the olfactory cue for prey location. We also tested the attractiveness of some selected soybean volatiles to alate soybean aphids in the field, and results showed that traps baited with benzaldehyde caught significantly higher numbers of aphids. PMID:16222805

Zhu, Junwei; Park, Kye-Chung



In Vitro Dermal Absorption of Methyl Salicylate, Ethyl Parathion, and Malathion: First Responder Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro tests with fresh dermatomed (0.3 to 0.4 mm thick) female breast skin and one leg skin specimen were conducted in Bronaugh flow-through Teflon diffusion cells with three chemicals used to simulate chemical warfare agents: C-radiolabeled methyl salicylate (MES), ethyl parathion (PT), and malathion (MT), at three dose levels (2, 20, and 200 mM). Tests were conducted at a

Richard P. Moody; Mohammed Akram; Eva Dickson; Ih Chu



Glycyrrhizin production by in vitro cultured Glycyrrhiza glabra elicited by methyl Jasmonate and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. glabra, Fabaceae) is considered as a model plant synthesizing triterpenoid secondary compounds. It is known that glycyrrhizin is\\u000a accumulated in thickened intact licorice roots. The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and salicylic acid (SA) on plant growth\\u000a and production of glycyrrhizin in the roots of in vitro cultured 65-day-old plants were studied. Increasing amounts of

L. Shabani; A. A. Ehsanpour; G. Asghari; J. Emami



Catechol is the major product of salicylate hydroxylation in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion treated rats.  


Salicylate hydroxylation using hydroxyl free radicals results into formation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and catechol. Inspite of the fact that in vitro experiments have shown that catechol is a minor product, we have shown by these in vivo studies that it is a substantial product. Since catechol as well as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid have not been found to be produced enzymatically from salicylates, they appear useful as in vivo indicators for monitoring hydroxyl free radicals. Administration of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) to rat striatum using microdialysis results into the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Salicylate perfusion enables the estimation of the three derivatives cited above. They increased significantly after MPP+ administration in comparison to the baseline values, with catechol being the most significant. The maximum amounts were achieved 60 min after MPP+ administration, and the mean percentage increase at this time point were 83.1% for 2,3-DBA (n = 6, P = 0.005), 81.25% for 2,5-DBA (n = 6, P = 0.011) and 1228.8% for catechol (n = 4, p = 0.00008). MPP+ caused substantial decrease of dopamine metabolites. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid decreased to 13% and homovanillic acid to 11.4%. We conclude that catechol is an important indicator of hydroxyl free radical formation in this animal model which is well suited to study the role of free radicals in Parkinsonism. PMID:9725471

Sam, E; Sarre, S; Michotte, Y; Verbeke, N


[Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on phenylethanoid glycosides synthesis in suspension cultures of Cistanche deserticola].  


The present study investigated the influence of the methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitors on the formation of phenylethanoid glycosides (PeG) in the suspension cultures of Cistanche deserticola. The results showed that methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid enhanced greatly the accumulation of PeG and echinacoside (Echin), but their optimum elicitation dosage and addition time were different. The yields of PeG and Echin were significantly increased in the presence of 5 micromol/L methyl jasmonate on day 14 (up to 2.59-fold and 3.82-fold, respectively), whereas treated with 50 micromol/L salicylic acid on day 28, the maximum content of them were, respectively, 2.71 and 3.16-fold higher than the untreated cell cultures. PMID:16108364

Xu, Liang-Sheng; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Fu, Chun-Xiang; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Yu-Quan; Zhao, De-Xiu



Sensitive and selective gas chromatographic methods for the quantitation of camphor, menthol and methyl salicylate from human plasma.  


Analytical methods using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the quantitation of camphor and menthol and GC-MS for the quantitation of methyl salicylate have been developed for measurement of low concentrations from human plasma. Anethole serves as the internal standard for camphor and menthol and ethyl salicylate serves as the internal standard for methyl salicylate. Plasma samples undergo multiple, sequential extractions with hexane in order to provide optimal recovery. For menthol and camphor, the extracting solvent is reduced in volume and directly injected onto a capillary column (Simplicity-WAX). Extracted methyl salicylate is derivatized with BSTFA prior to injection onto a capillary column (Simplicity-5). Between-day variation (% RSD) at 5 ng/ml varies from 6.2% for methyl salicylate to 13.5% for camphor. The limit of detection for each analyte is 1 ng/ml and the limit of quantitation is 5 ng/ml. These analytical methods have been used in a clinical study to assess exposure from dermally applied patches containing the three compounds. PMID:10410939

Valdez, J S; Martin, D K; Mayersohn, M



Optimization and validation of liquid chromatography and headspace-gas chromatography based methods for the quantitative determination of capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, glycol monosalicylate, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, camphor and l-menthol in a topical formulation.  


Capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol monosalicylate, camphor and l-menthol are widely used in topical formulations to relieve local pain. For each separate compound or simple mixtures, quantitative analysis methods are reported. However, for a mixture containing all above mentioned active compounds, no assay methods were found. Due to the differing physicochemical characteristics, two methods were developed and optimized simultaneously. The non-volatile capsaicinoids, salicylic acid and glycol monosalicylate were analyzed with liquid chromatography following liquid-liquid extraction, whereas the volatile compounds were analyzed with static headspace-gas chromatography. For the latter method, liquid paraffin was selected as compatible dilution solvent. The optimized methods were validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision in a range of 80% to 120% of the expected concentrations. For both methods, peaks were well separated without interference of other compounds. Linear relationships were demonstrated with R² values higher than 0.996 for all compounds. Accuracy was assessed by performing replicate recovery experiments with spiked blank samples. Mean recovery values were all between 98% and 102%. Precision was checked at three levels: system repeatability, method precision and intermediate precision. Both methods were found to be acceptably precise at all three levels. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of some real samples (cutaneous sticks). PMID:22094014

Pauwels, Jochen; D'Autry, Ward; Van den Bossche, Larissa; Dewever, Cédric; Forier, Michel; Vandenwaeyenberg, Stephanie; Wolfs, Kris; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin



Methyl salicylate: a reactive chemical warfare agent surrogate to detect reaction with hypochlorite.  


Methyl salicylate (MeS) has a rich history as an inert physical simulant for the chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard and soman, where it is used extensively for liquid- and vapor-permeation testing. Here we demonstrate possible utility of MeS as a reactivity simulant for chlorine-based decontaminants. In these experiments MeS was reacted with sodium hypochlorite varying stoichiometry, temperature, reaction time, and pH. No colored oxidation products were observed; however, chlorination of the aromatic ring occurred ortho (methyl 3-chlorosalicylate) and para (methyl 5-chlorosalicylate) to the position bearing the -OH group in both the mono- and disubstituted forms. The monosubstituted para product accumulated initially, and the ortho and 3,5-dichloro products formed over the next several hours. Yields from reactions conducted below pH 11 declined rapidly with decreasing pH. Reactions run at 40 °C produced predominantly para substitution, while those run at 0 °C produced lower yields of ortho- and para-substituted products. Reactions were also carried out on textile substrates of cotton, 50/50 nylon-cotton, and a meta aramid. The textile data broadly reproduced reaction times and stoichiometry observed in the liquid phase, but are complicated by physical and possibly chemical interactions with the fabric. These data indicate that, for hypochlorite-containing neutralizing agents operating at strongly alkaline pH, one can expect MeS to react stoichiometrically with the hypochlorite it encounters. This suggests utility of MeS in lieu of such highly hazardous surrogates as monochloroalkyl sulfides as a simulant for threat scenarios involving the stoichiometric decomposition of sulfur mustard. Specifically, the extent of coverage of the simulant on a fabric by the neutralizing agent can be directly measured. Similar reactivity toward other halogen oxidizing agents is likely but remains to be demonstrated. PMID:21981047

Salter, W Bruce; Owens, Jeffery R; Wander, Joseph D



The Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Methyl Salicylate Negatively Affects Attraction of the Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum  

PubMed Central

The indirect defense mechanisms of plants comprise the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that can attract natural enemies of plant attackers. One of the often emitted compounds after herbivory is methyl salicylate (MeSA). Here, we studied the importance of this caterpillar-induced compound in the attraction of the parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum by using a mutant Arabidopsis line. Pieris rapae infested AtBSMT1-KO mutant Arabidopsis plants, compromised in the biosynthesis of MeSA, were more attractive to parasitoids than infested wild-type plants. This suggests that the presence of MeSA has negative effects on parasitoid host-finding behavior when exposed to wild-type production of herbivore-induced Arabidopsis volatiles. Furthermore, in line with this, we recorded a positive correlation between MeSA dose and repellence of D. semiclausum when supplementing the headspace of caterpillar-infested AtBSMT1-KO plants with synthetic MeSA. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9787-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Mumm, Roland; Poelman, Erik H.; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Dicke, Marcel



Transcriptome profiling of genes induced by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Polygonum minus.  


The importance of plant secondary metabolites for both mankind and the plant itself has long been established. However, despite extensive research on plant secondary metabolites, plant secondary metabolism and its regulation still remained poorly characterized. In this present study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) transcript profiling was applied to generate the expression profiles of Polygonum minus in response to salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitations. This study reveals two different sets of genes induced by SA and MeJA, respectively where stress-related genes were proved to lead to the expression of genes involved in plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. A total of 98 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were up-regulated, including 46 from SA-treated and 52 from MeJA-treated samples. The cDNA-AFLP transcripts generated using 64 different Mse1/Taq1 primer combinations showed that treatments with SA and MeJA induced genes mostly involved in scavenging reactive oxygen species, including zeaxanthin epoxidase, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 and peroxidase. Of these stress-related genes, 15 % of other annotated TDFs are involved mainly in secondary metabolic processes where among these, two genes encoding (+)-delta cadinene synthase and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were highlighted. PMID:23187733

Ee, Su-Fang; Oh, Ji-Min; Mohd Noor, Normah; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura; Ismail, Ismanizan; Zainal, Zamri



Lipoxygenase in Caragana jubata responds to low temperature, abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.  


Lipoxygenase (LOX) catalyses oxygenation of free polyunsaturated fatty acids into oxylipins, and is a critical enzyme of the jasmonate signaling pathway. LOX has been shown to be associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses in diverse plant species, though limited data is available with respect to low temperature and the associated cues. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, a full-length cDNA (CjLOX) encoding lipoxygenase was cloned from apical buds of Caragana jubata, a temperate plant species that grows under extreme cold. The cDNA obtained was 2952bp long consisting of an open reading frame of 2610bp encoding 869 amino acids protein. Multiple alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence with those of other plants demonstrated putative LH2/ PLAT domain, lipoxygenase iron binding catalytic domain and lipoxygenase_2 signature sequences. CjLOX exhibited up- and down-regulation of gene expression pattern in response to low temperature (LT), abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA). Among all the treatments, a strong up-regulation was observed in response to MJ. Data suggests an important role of jasmonate signaling pathway in response to LT in C. jubata. PMID:21640803

Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Kaur, Jagdeep; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Kumar, Sanjay



Foliar methyl salicylate emissions indicate prolonged aphid infestation on silver birch and black alder.  


It is well documented that when plants are damaged by insects they respond by emitting a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While there have been numerous reports concerning VOCs induced by chewing herbivores, there are relatively few studies detailing the VOCs induced by aphid feeding. The effects of aphid feeding on VOCs emitted by boreal forest trees have been particularly neglected. Herbivore-induced VOCs have relevance to direct and indirect plant defence and atmospheric chemistry. In this study, we analysed the VOCs emitted by Betula pendula (Roth) and Alnus glutinosa (L.) (Gaertn.) infested by specialist aphid species under laboratory conditions. We also complemented this by collecting VOCs from leaf beetle-damaged saplings under field conditions. In addition to induction of some inducible terpenes, we detected substantial aphid-induced emissions of methyl salicylate (MeSA) in both B. pendula and A. glutinosa. MeSA emission intensity depended on the length of aphid infestation. Feeding by beetles induced emission of (E)-DMNT in both tree species and (E)-beta-ocimene in A. glutinosa but had no effect on MeSA emissions. MeSA has been shown to have aphid-repellent qualities and has been shown recently to have impact on formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. We discuss our results in relation to these two phenomena. PMID:20097686

Blande, James D; Korjus, Minna; Holopainen, Jarmo K



Use of a Synthetic Salicylic Acid Analog to Investigate the Roles of Methyl Salicylate and Its Esterases in Plant Disease Resistance*S?  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2) of tobacco is an integral component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). SABP2 is a methyl salicylate (MeSA) esterase that has high affinity for SA, which feedback inhibits its esterase activity. MeSA esterase activity is required in distal, healthy tissue of pathogen-infected plants to hydrolyze MeSA, which functions as a long-distance, phloem-mobile SAR signal; this hydrolysis releases the biologically active defense hormone SA. In this study, we examined the inhibitory interaction of SA with SABP2, and identified a synthetic SA analog, 2,2,2,2?-tetra-f luoroacetophenone (tetraFA) that, like SA, competitively inhibits the activity of SABP2 and targets esterases, which utilize MeSA as a substrate. However, in contrast to SA, tetraFA does not induce downstream defense responses and, therefore, is effective in planta at blocking SAR development in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected tobacco and Pseudomonas syringae-infected Arabidopsis. These results confirm the importance of SABP2 and MeSA for SAR development in tobacco and establish similar roles for MeSA and the orthologs of SABP2 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, they demonstrate that tetraFA can be used to determine whether MeSA and its corresponding esterase(s) play a role in SAR signaling in other plant species. In planta analyses using tetraFA, in conjunction with leaf detachment assays and MeSA quantification, were used to assess the kinetics with which MeSA is generated in pathogen-infected leaves, transmitted through the phloem, and processed in the distal healthy leaves. In TMV-infected tobacco, these studies revealed that critical amounts of MeSA are generated, transmitted, and processed between 48 and 72 h post primary infection.

Park, Sang-Wook; Liu, Po-Pu; Forouhar, Farhad; Vlot, A. Corina; Tong, Liang; Tietjen, Klaus; Klessig, Daniel F.



Use of a synthetic salicylic acid analog to investigate the roles of methyl salicylate and its esterases in plant disease resistance.  


We previously demonstrated that salicylic acid-binding protein 2 (SABP2) of tobacco is an integral component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). SABP2 is a methyl salicylate (MeSA) esterase that has high affinity for SA, which feedback inhibits its esterase activity. MeSA esterase activity is required in distal, healthy tissue of pathogen-infected plants to hydrolyze MeSA, which functions as a long-distance, phloem-mobile SAR signal; this hydrolysis releases the biologically active defense hormone SA. In this study, we examined the inhibitory interaction of SA with SABP2, and identified a synthetic SA analog, 2,2,2,2'-tetra-f luoroacetophenone (tetraFA) that, like SA, competitively inhibits the activity of SABP2 and targets esterases, which utilize MeSA as a substrate. However, in contrast to SA, tetraFA does not induce downstream defense responses and, therefore, is effective in planta at blocking SAR development in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected tobacco and Pseudomonas syringae-infected Arabidopsis. These results confirm the importance of SABP2 and MeSA for SAR development in tobacco and establish similar roles for MeSA and the orthologs of SABP2 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, they demonstrate that tetraFA can be used to determine whether MeSA and its corresponding esterase(s) play a role in SAR signaling in other plant species. In planta analyses using tetraFA, in conjunction with leaf detachment assays and MeSA quantification, were used to assess the kinetics with which MeSA is generated in pathogen-infected leaves, transmitted through the phloem, and processed in the distal healthy leaves. In TMV-infected tobacco, these studies revealed that critical amounts of MeSA are generated, transmitted, and processed between 48 and 72 h post primary infection. PMID:19131332

Park, Sang-Wook; Liu, Po-Pu; Forouhar, Farhad; Vlot, A Corina; Tong, Liang; Tietjen, Klaus; Klessig, Daniel F



Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate, but not diclofenac or celecoxib, protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the hydroxyl radical (?OH) scavenging action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), sodium salicylate (SA), diclofenac and celecoxib in Fenton’s reaction and their neuroprotective effects in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced striatal dopamine (DA) depletion in rats. Salicylate hydroxylation procedure employing HPLC-electrochemistry was used to assay formation of ?OH in Fenton’s reaction in test tubes. While SA dose- and time-dependently hydroxylated itself

Krishnamurthy Sairam; Karuppagounder S Saravanan; Rebecca Banerjee; Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have conducted a large-scale study of gene expression in the monocot Sorghum bicolor in response to the defense signaling compounds salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, and the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane tissue, and at 3 and 27 hours, using a newly developed microarray containing 16,801...


Optical bar code recognition of methyl salicylate (MES) for environmental monitoring using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a process in which energy is transferred nonradiatively from one fluorophore (the donor) in an excited electron state to another, the chromophore (the acceptor). FRET is distinctive in its ability to reveal the presence of specific recognition of select targets such as the nerve agent stimulant Methyl Salicylate (MES) upon spectroscopic excitation. We introduce a surface imprinted and non-imprinted thin film that underwent AC-Electrospray ionization for donor-acceptor pair(s) bound to InGaP quantum dots and mesoporous silicate nanoparticles. The donor-acceptor pair used in this investigation included MES (donor) and 6-(fluorescein-5-(and-6)- carboxamido) hexanoic acid, succinimidyl ester bound to InGaP quantum dots (acceptor). MES was then investigated as a donor to various acceptor fluorophore: InGaP: mesoporous silicate nanoparticle layers.

Smith, Clint; Tatineni, Balaji; Anderson, John; Tepper, Gary



Enhanced glucosinolates in root exudates of Brassica rapa ssp. rapa mediated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate.  


Elicitation studies with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) inducing a targeted rhizosecretion of high levels of anticarcinogenic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa plants were conducted. Elicitor applications not only led to an accumulation of individual indole glucosinolates and the aromatic 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in the turnip organs but also in turnip root exudates. This indicates an extended systemic response, which comprises the phyllosphere with all aboveground plant organs and the rhizosphere including the belowground root system and also root exudates. Both elicitor applications induced a doubling in 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in root exudates, whereas application of MJ enhanced rhizosecreted indole glucosinolates up to 4-fold. In addition, the time course study revealed that maximal elicitation was observed on the 10th day of SA and MJ treatment. This study may provide an essential contribution using these glucosinolates as bioactive additives in functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:21265537

Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna



Molecular Structure of Salicylic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salicylic acid is a colorless to white crystalline powder with a sweetish acrid taste that occurs naturally in many microorganisms and plants in very small amounts. It is also made synthetically and used as preservative of food products in some countries and as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and toothpastes. This chemical is also used in the manufacture of methyl salicylates, acetylasalicylic acid (aspirin) and other salicylates. Salicylic acid is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of dyestuff, salicylate esters and salts. It is prepared commercially by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure to form sodium salicylate, which is treated with sulfuric acid to liberate salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is quite irritating to skin and mucosa and it destroys epithelial cells. Absorption of large amounts can cause vomiting, abdominal pain, acidosis and mental disturbances.



Solute–solvent and solvent–solvent interactions of menthol in isopropyl alcohol and its binary mixtures with methyl salicylate by volumetric, viscometric, interferometric and refractive index techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent molar volume (V?), viscosity B-coefficient, isoentropic compressibility (?K) of menthol have been determined in binary solution of isopropyl alcohol and methyl salicylate (at 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15K) from density (?), viscosity (?) and sound speed respectively. The apparent molar volumes have been extrapolated to zero concentration to obtain the limiting values at infinite dilution using Masson equation. The

Radhey Shyam Sah; Prasanna Pradhan; Mahendra Nath Roy



Assessment of squalene synthase and beta-amyrin synthase gene expression in licorice roots treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid using real-time qPCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of two key biosynthetic enzymes for terpenoid biosynthesis (squalene synthase and beta-amyrin synthase) was analyzed\\u000a in licorice as a model organism. For two elicitors, methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and salicylic acid (SA), the roots of 65-day-old\\u000a plantlets treated with a combination of various elicitor concentrations and treatment times were used for RNA extraction and\\u000a reverse transcription to cDNA. A protocol

L. Shabani; A. A. Ehsanpour; A. Esmaeili



Solubility of salicylic acid in ethanol, propylene glycol, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone at various temperatures and their binary mixtures at 298.2 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubility of salicylic acid in ethanol (EtOH), propylene glycol (PG), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) at temperatures of 298.2, 308.2, 318.2, and 328.2K and in the binary mixtures of EtOH+PG, NMP+EtOH, and NMP+PG were reported at 298.2K. The generated data in mono-solvents at different temperatures were fitted to van't Hoff plot, the data in solvent mixtures were fitted to the Jouyban–Acree model,

Abolghasem Jouyban; Vahid Panahi-Azar; Fatemeh Khonsari



Oxidative defence reactions in sunflower roots induced by methyl-jasmonate and methyl-salicylate and their relation with calcium signalling.  


Ca(2+) plays a critical role as second messenger in the signal-response coupling of plant defence responses, and methyl-jasmonate and methyl-salicylate are important components of signal transduction cascades activating plant defences. When intact axenic non-induced seedling roots of sunflower were treated with different Ca(2+) concentrations up to 1 mM, there was no significant increase in O(2)(*-) generation or DMAB-MBTH peroxidase (extracellular, ECPOX) activities in the apoplast, probably because these roots had enough Ca(2+) in their exo- and endocellular reservoirs. Both activities were strongly inhibited by the RBOH-NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI and by the Ca(2+) surrogate antagonist La(3+), but the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil was only inhibitory at concentrations higher than those active on animal L-type Ca(2+) channels. Concentrations >5 mM EGTA (chelating Ca(2+) in the apoplast) and Li(+) (inhibiting PI cycle dependent endogenous Ca(2+) fluxes) also inhibited both activities. W7, inhibitor of binding of Ca-CaM to its target protein, enhanced both activities, but the inactive analogue W5 showed a similar effect. Our data suggest that Ca(2+) from exocellular and, to a lesser extent, from endocellular stores is involved in oxidative activities, and that RBOH-NADPH oxidase is the main system supporting them. Ca(2+) activation of the PM cytosolic side of RBOH-NADPH oxidase is probably the key to Ca(2+) involvement in these processes. Roots induced by MeJA or MeSA showed significant enhancement of both oxidative activities, as corresponding to the oxidative burst evoked by the two phytohormones in the root apoplast. But while ECPOX activity showed a response to the effectors similar to that described above for non-induced roots, O(2)(*-) generation activity in the apoplast of induced roots was insensitive to EGTA, verapamil and Li(+), the inhibitors of exogenous and endogenous Ca(2+) fluxes; only DPI and La(3+) were inhibitory. As exogenously added 0.1 mM Ca(2+) also increased O (2) (.-) generation, we propose that, in these roots, activation of RBOH-NADPH oxidase by Ca(2+) could be regulated by Ca(2+) sensors in the apoplast. PMID:19763783

Garrido, Inmaculada; Espinosa, Francisco; Alvarez-Tinaut, M Carmen



Novel S-adenosyl- l-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for biosynthesis of methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate, is not involved in floral scent production in snapdragon flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a functional genomic approach we have isolated and characterized a cDNA that encodes a salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) from Antirrhinum majus. The sequence of the protein encoded by SAMT has higher amino acid identity to Clarkia breweri SAMT than to snapdragon benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BAMT) (55 and 40% amino acid identity, respectively). Escherichia coli-expressed SAMT protein catalyzes

Florence Negre; Natalia Kolosova; Joseph Knoll; Christine M Kish; Natalia Dudareva



Synthesis of substituted chromenes through the DABCO-catalyzed reaction of but-3-yn-2-one and methyl propiolate with salicyl N-tosylimines (DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane).  


The DABCO-catalyzed (DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) reaction of but-3-yn-2-one and methyl propiolate with salicyl N-tosylimines yields highly functionalized chromenes and has been thoroughly investigated; the rational mechanism for the reaction has been demonstrated on the basis of 1H NMR spectroscopic investigation. PMID:16470561

Shi, Yong-Ling; Shi, Min



Isolation and characterization of novel defence-related genes induced by copper, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid and pathogen infection in Brassica carinata.  


Summary To examine the defence response in Brassica carinata we differentially screened a cDNA library made from CuCl(2)-treated (Cu) leaves. The sequence of 17 of the 27 cDNA clones examined that showed Cu-induction had a high similarity to defence genes from other plant species. Among other clones that showed higher expression in the Cu leaves were two cDNAs encoding polypeptides of 351 and 250 amino acids, designated BcCJS1 and BcCJAS1. BcCJS1 had similarity to S-adenosyl-l-methionine: salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase from Clarkia breweri. However, the enzyme activity was not found in extracts from E. coli expressing BcCJS1. BcCJAS1 did not show extensive similarity to any genes with known function in the databases but it did contain three regions of amino acid sequence that are frequently found in amidotransferases. A third Cu-induced mRNA, Bcp6PGL, showed very high (86%) similarity to a putative 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL) from Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition to Cu induction, BcCJS1 expression was induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA), BcCJAS1 expression by MeJA, SA and abscisic acid and Bcp6PGL expression by MeJA. The expression of all three genes increased after Alternaria brassicae infection. BcCJS1 and BcCJAS1 were induced within 1 h after MeJA- but not until 3 h after SA-treatment. The expression of both genes was systemically induced after infection with a compatible or incompatible fungal pathogen. SA systemically induced only BcCJAS1. The effects of various inhibitors of signalling pathways on expression of the three genes were studied. PMID:20573003

Zheng, Z; Uchacz, T M; Taylor, J L



[Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].  


In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate (MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling S. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of S. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat. PMID:23359948

Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Li, Pei-Ling; Lin, Fang-Jing; Chen, Ju-Lian; Liu, Yong



Methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation induces ginsenosides accumulation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant in suspension culture Panax ginseng roots in bioreactors.  


The effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) on changes of the activities of major antioxidant enzymes, superoxide anion accumulation (O2-), ascorbate, total glutathione (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ginsenoside accumulation were investigated in ginseng roots (Panax ginseng L.) in 4 l (working volume) air lift bioreactors. Single treatment of 200 microM MJ and SA to P. ginseng roots enhanced ginsenoside accumulation compared to the control and harvested 3, 5, 7 and 9 days after treatment. MJ and SA treatment induced an oxidative stress in P. ginseng roots, as shown by an increase in lipid peroxidation due to rise in O2- accumulation. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was inhibited in MJ-treated roots, while the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), SOD, guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were induced in SA-treated roots. A strong decrease in the activity of catalase (CAT) was obtained in both MJ- and SA-treated roots. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S transferase (GST) were higher in MJ than SA while the contents of reduced ascorbate (ASC), redox state (ASC/(ASC+DHA)) and TG were higher in SA- than MJ-treated roots while oxidized ascorbate (DHA) decreased in both cases. The result of these analyses suggests that roots are better protected against the O2- stress, thus mitigating MJ and SA stress. The information obtained in this work is useful for efficient large-scale production of ginsenoside by plant-root cultures. PMID:16463159

Ali, Mohammad Babar; Yu, Kee-Won; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Paek, Kee-Yoeup



The Extent to Which Methyl Salicylate Is Required for Signaling Systemic Acquired Resistance Is Dependent on Exposure to Light after Infection1[OA  

PubMed Central

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a state of heightened defense to a broad spectrum of pathogens that is activated throughout a plant following local infection. Development of SAR requires the translocation of one or more mobile signals from the site of infection through the vascular system to distal (systemic) tissues. The first such signal identified was methyl salicylate (MeSA) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Subsequent studies demonstrated that MeSA also serves as a SAR signal in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). By contrast, another study suggested that MeSA is not required for SAR in Arabidopsis and raised questions regarding its signaling role in tobacco. Differences in experimental design, including the developmental age of the plants, the light intensity, and/or the strain of bacterial pathogen, were proposed to explain these conflicting results. Here, we demonstrate that the length of light exposure that plants receive after the primary infection determines the extent to which MeSA is required for SAR signaling. When the primary infection occurred late in the day and as a result infected plants received very little light exposure before entering the night/dark period, MeSA and its metabolizing enzymes were essential for SAR development. In contrast, when infection was done in the morning followed by 3.5 h or more of exposure to light, SAR developed in the absence of MeSA. However, MeSA was generally required for optimal SAR development. In addition to resolving the conflicting results concerning MeSA and SAR, this study underscores the importance of environmental factors on the plant’s response to infection.

Liu, Po-Pu; von Dahl, Caroline C.; Klessig, Daniel F.



Membrane-bound guaiacol peroxidases from maize (Zea mays L.) roots are regulated by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and pathogen elicitors  

PubMed Central

Plant peroxidases are involved in numerous cellular processes in plant development and stress responses. Four plasma membrane-bound peroxidases have been identified and characterized in maize (Zea mays L.) roots. In the present study, maize seedlings were treated with different stresses and signal compounds, and a functional analysis of these membrane-bound class III peroxidases (pmPOX1, pmPOX2a, pmPOX2b, and pmPOX3) was carried out. Total guaiacol peroxidase activities from soluble and microsomal fractions of maize roots were compared and showed weak changes. By contrast, total plasma membrane and washed plasma membrane peroxidase activities, representing peripheral and integral membrane proteins, revealed strong changes after all of the stresses applied. A proteomic approach using 2D-PAGE analysis showed that pmPOX3 was the most abundant class III peroxidase at plasma membranes of control plants, followed by pmPOX2a >pmPOX2b >pmPOX1. The molecular mass (63 kDa) and the isoelectric point (9.5) of the pmPOX2a monomer were identified for the first time. The protein levels of all four enzymes changed in response to multiple stresses. While pmPOX2b was the only membrane peroxidase down-regulated by wounding, all four enzymes were differentially but strongly stimulated by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and elicitors (Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum extracts, and chitosan) indicating their function in pathogen defence. Oxidative stress applied as H2O2 treatment up-regulated pmPOX2b >pmPOX2a, while pmPOX3 was down-regulated. Treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor chantharidin resulted in distinct responses.

Mika, Angela; Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Hopff, David; Luthje, Sabine



Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate.

Hyung-Il Lee; Jose Leon; Ilya Raskin




PubMed Central

High doses of salicylate, the anti-inflammatory component of aspirin, induce transient tinnitus and hearing loss. Systemic injection of 250 mg/kg of salicylate, a dose that reliably induces tinnitus in rats, significantly reduced the sound evoked output of the rat cochlea. Paradoxically, salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of the sound-evoked field potential from the auditory cortex (AC) of conscious rats, but not the inferior colliculus (IC). When rats were anesthetized with isoflurane, which increases GABA-mediated inhibition, the salicylate-induced AC amplitude enhancement was abolished, whereas ketamine, which blocks N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, further increased the salicylate-induced AC amplitude enhancement. Direct application of salicylate to the cochlea, however, reduced the response amplitude of the cochlea, IC and AC, suggesting the AC amplitude enhancement induced by systemic injection of salicylate does not originate from the cochlea. To identify a behavioral correlate of the salicylate-induced AC enhancement, the acoustic startle response was measured before and after salicylate treatment. Salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of the startle response. Collectively, these results suggest that high doses of salicylate increase the gain of the central auditory system, presumably by down-regulating GABA-mediated inhibition, leading to an exaggerated acoustic startle response. The enhanced startle response may be the behavioral correlate of hyperacusis that often accompanies tinnitus and hearing loss. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.

Sun, W.; Lu, J.; Stolzberg, D.; Gray, L.; Deng, A.; Lobarinas, E.; Salvi, R. J.



Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates.  


Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates. PMID:20233542

Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An; Andersen, Klaus Ejner


Enzymatic synthesis of water-soluble derivatives of salicylic acid in organic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel enzymatic method for preparing water-soluble derivatives of salicylic acid catalyzed by immobilized lipase was described. This study is the first to describe the enzymatic transesterification of methyl salicylate in organic solvents with different hydroxyl donors. The acyl-transfer between methyl salicylate and sorbitol was best supported by solvents of log P values -0.33 to 1.4. With Candida antarctica lipase

Thierry Maugard; Melanie Boulonne; Barbara Rejasse; Marie Dominique Legoy



Salicylates in foods.  


To determine salicylate content, 333 food items were analyzed. Foods were homogenized with 25% sodium hydroxide, allowed to stand overnight, acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid, and then extracted with warm diethylether over 5 hours. The extract was dried and taken up in dilute sodium bicarbonate solution for analysis. Salicylic acid was separated by high performance liquid chromatography and quantified by reading at 235 nm. Salicylic acid standards were used throughout to standardize extractions and analyses. This is the most comprehensive set of data on food salicylates yet published; extraction appears to have been more complete for some foods, giving higher values than those previously published. Most fruits, especially berry fruits and dried fruits, contain salicylate. Vegetables show a wide range from 0 to 6 mg salicylate per 100 gm food (for gherkins). Some herbs and spices were found to contain very high amounts per 100 gm, e.g., curry powder, paprika, thyme, garam masala, and rosemary. Among beverages, tea provides substantial amounts of salicylate. Licorice and peppermint candies and some honeys contain salicylates. Cereals, meat, fish, and dairy products contain none or negligible amounts. PMID:4019987

Swain, A R; Dutton, S P; Truswell, A S



Salicylic Acid Topical  


... skin dryness and scaling), dandruff, corns, calluses, and warts on the hands or feet. Topical salicylic acid should not be used to treat genital warts, warts on the face, warts with hair growing ...


2,3,5,4'- tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glycoside biosynthesis by suspension cells cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and production enhancement by methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.  


Friable calli of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb have been induced in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and kinetin (KT). Suspension cultures were initiated from friable calli by inoculating calli in liquid MS medium in shake flasks in the dark and 25 °C on an orbital shaker at 100 rpm. The maximum dry weight (DW, 7.85 g/L) and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glycoside (THSG, 56.39 mg/L) of suspension cells was obtained in MS medium after 16 days culture. Both methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) could increase THSG production. The most appropriate concentration of MeJA was 100 ?mol/L in MS medium, in which concentration THSG content reached the maximum value of 147.79 mg/L, which represented a 162.36% increase compared to that of the control (56.33 mg/L). The most appropriate concentration of SA was 125 ?mol/L in MS medium, at which concentration THSG content reached its maximum value of 116.43 mg/L, a 106.69% increase compared to that of the control (56.33 mg/L). PMID:22357320

Shao, Li; Zhao, Shu-Jin; Cui, Tang-Bing; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Zhao, Wei



Management of salicylate intoxication.  


Salicylate intoxication is common. It results in impaired generation of adenosine triphosphate and produces a primary respiratory alkalosis. In adults the clinical manifestations may closely simulate a cerebrovascular event or alcoholic ketoacidosis. Central nervous system dysfunction, fever, glycosuria, ketonuria, respiratory alkalosis with an elevated anion gap, tinnitus, dehydration, hypokalaemia and haemostatic defects are common. The diagnosis may be made rapidly by the ferric chloride test or Phenistix test. Standard therapy includes gastric emptying, activated charcoal and alkalinisation of the urine. Osmotic diuresis is a controversial measure. Haemodialysis is indicated for patients with serum salicylate levels more than 100 mg/100ml, severe acid-base disturbance, or deterioration despite optimum therapy. PMID:7140579

Brenner, B E; Simon, R R



Cinnarizinium 3,5-dinitro-salicylate.  


THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 4-diphenyl-methyl-1-(3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl)-piperazin-1-ium 2-carb-oxy-4,6-dinitro-pheno-late], C(26)H(29)N(2) (+)·C(7)H(3)N(2)O(7) (-), is the dinitro-salicylate salt of a tertiary amine. Deprotonation of the carb-oxy-lic acid group occurred on the phenolic hy-droxy group. The diaza-cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation. Intra-molecular O-H?O and inter-molecular C-H?O and N-H?O hydrogen bonds are observed. The N-H?O hydrogen bonds are bifurcated at the H atom and connect the cinnarizinium and 3,5-dinitro-salicylate ions together. Inter-molecular C-H?O hydrogen bonds connect the components into layers perpendicular to the crystallographic a axis. PMID:22606110

Dayananda, Alaloor S; Yathirajan, Hemmige S; Gerber, Thomas; Hosten, Eric; Betz, Richard



Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid  

SciTech Connect

Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-{beta}-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC, which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. 62 refs., 1 fig.

Lee, H.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)



Trifluoromethylation of salicyl aldimines.  


A method for the nucleophilic trifluoromethylation of salicyl aldimines, which do not contain an activating group at the nitrogen atom, has been described. The reaction proceeds through the initial generation of intramolecular boron complex followed by interaction with Me3SiCF3 activated by sodium acetate. PMID:17910508

Dilman, Alexander D; Arkhipov, Dmitry E; Levin, Vitalij V; Belyakov, Pavel A; Korlyukov, Alexander A; Struchkova, Marina I; Tartakovsky, Vladimir A



A pulse radiolysis study of salicylic acid and 5-sulpho-salicylic acid in aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactions of H, OH, eaq- and some one-electron oxidants have been studied with salicylic acid and 5-sulpho-salicylic acid in aqueous solutions. Rate constants for the reaction of eaq- with these compounds were of the order of 109 dm3 mol-1 s-1 and this reaction led to the formation of reducing radicals which could transfer electron to methyl viologen. Other one-electron reductants were not able to reduce these compounds. OH radicals reacted with these compounds by addition pathway with very high rate constants (>1010 dm3 mol-1 s-1) while O- radical anions could oxidize these molecules to give phenoxyl type of radicals. Amongst the one-electron oxidants, only N3 and SO4- could oxidize salicylic acid while 5-sulpho-salicylic acid could be oxidized only by SO4- radicals indicating that while one-electron reduction potential for semi-oxidized SA may be<1.33 V vs. NHE (the Eo1 for N3 radical), it is more than 1.33 V vs. NHE for semi-oxidized SSA species.

Kishore, Kamal; Mukherjee, T.



Determination of traces of salicylic acid in acetylsalicylic acid bulk, tablets and other preparations containing phenacetin and caffeine; Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, and acetylsalicylic acid with additional components in pharmaceutical preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A GLC method for the determination of traces of salicylic acid in acetylsalicylic acid bulk, tablets and other preparations containing phenacetin and caffeine after methylation with methyl iodide and potassium carbonate on a column of 3 % OV-17 on Varaport 30, 70–80 mesh, AW\\/DMCS is reported. A column-chromatographic separation of salicylic acid from acetylsalicylic acid is necessary prior to methylation

S. Laik Ali



Synthesis of Lead Salicylates Darstellung von Bleisalicylaten.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The synthesis of lead salicylates to be used as combustion moderators in double base rocket propellants is discussed. The lead monosalicylate was prepared from lead oxide and salicylic acid, from lead nitrate and sodium salicylate using sodium bicarbonate...

W. Engel H. Heinisch



21 CFR 556.590 - Salicylic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Salicylic acid. 556.590 Section 556...New Animal Drugs § 556.590 Salicylic acid. A tolerance of zero is established for residues of salicylic acid in milk from dairy...



The risk of severe salicylate poisoning following the ingestion of topical medicaments or aspirin.  

PubMed Central

Apart from isolated reports of severe salicylate poisoning after ingesting an unusually large amount of a medicinal oil, there are no published data on the threat arising from attempted suicide with topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil compared with aspirin tablets. In this retrospective study, the admission plasma salicylate concentrations and clinical presentations were compared in 80 subjects who had taken aspirin tablets (n = 42) or topical medicaments (n = 38). The proportions of subjects being symptomatic were similar in the two groups. Although the admission plasma salicylate concentrations were generally higher in subjects who had ingested aspirin tablets, the two highest readings (4.3 and 3.5 mmol/1) belonged to two of the subjects who had taken topical medicaments. Because of its liquid, concentrated form and lipid solubility, methyl salicylate poses the threat of severe, rapid-onset salicylate poisoning. The toxic potential of topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public.

Chan, T. Y.



The risk of severe salicylate poisoning following the ingestion of topical medicaments or aspirin.  


Apart from isolated reports of severe salicylate poisoning after ingesting an unusually large amount of a medicinal oil, there are no published data on the threat arising from attempted suicide with topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil compared with aspirin tablets. In this retrospective study, the admission plasma salicylate concentrations and clinical presentations were compared in 80 subjects who had taken aspirin tablets (n = 42) or topical medicaments (n = 38). The proportions of subjects being symptomatic were similar in the two groups. Although the admission plasma salicylate concentrations were generally higher in subjects who had ingested aspirin tablets, the two highest readings (4.3 and 3.5 mmol/1) belonged to two of the subjects who had taken topical medicaments. Because of its liquid, concentrated form and lipid solubility, methyl salicylate poses the threat of severe, rapid-onset salicylate poisoning. The toxic potential of topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. PMID:8871462

Chan, T Y



Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus.  


Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs, or aging, which affects ?14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed. PMID:22557950

Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J; Allman, Brian L



Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs, or aging, which affects ?14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J.; Allman, Brian L.



Salicylate-urea based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors with high metabolic and chemical stabilities  

PubMed Central

We investigated N-adamantyl-N?-phenyl urea derivatives as simple sEH inhibitors. Salicylate ester derivatives have high inhibitory activities against human sEH, while the free benzoic acids are less active. The methyl salicylate derivative is a potent sEH inhibitor, which also has high metabolic and chemical stabilities; suggesting that such inhibitors are potential lead molecule for bioactive compounds acting in vivo.

Kasagami, Takeo; Kim, In-Hae; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Nishi, Kosuke; Hammock, Bruce D.; Morisseau, Christophe



The salicylic acid loop in plant defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is an important signal molecule in plant defense. In the past two years, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of salicylic-acid biosynthesis and signaling in plants. A pathway similar to that found in some bacteria synthesizes salicylic acid from chorismate via isochorismate. Salicylic-acid signaling is mediated by at least two mechanisms, one requiring the NON-EXPRESSOR

Jyoti Shah



Inhibition of Ethylene Biosynthesis by Salicylic Acid  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid inhibited ethylene formation from ACC in self-buffered (pH 3.8) pear (Pyrus communis) cell suspension cultures with a K1app of about 10 micromolar after 1 to 3 hours incubation. Inhibition appeared noncompetitive. Among 22 related phenolic compounds tested, only acetylsalicylic acid showed similar levels of inhibition. Inhibition by salicylic acid was inversely dependent on the pH of the culture medium and did not require a continuous external supply of salicylate. When compared to known inhibitors of the ethylene forming enzyme, cobalt, n-propyl gallate, and dinitrophenol, inhibition by salicylic acid most closely resembled that by dinitrophenol but salicylic acid did not produce the same degree of respiratory stimulation. Results are discussed in terms of other known effects of salicylic acid on plants, pH-dependency, and the possible influence of salicylic acid on electron transport.

Leslie, Charles A.; Romani, Roger J.



Adsorption of salicylate on alumina surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of salicylic acid\\/salicylate on ?-AlOOH (Brockmann alumina, boehmite) and on ?-Al(OH)3 (alumina gel, bayerite) was investigated in aqueous electrolyte media. The results of the adsorption and electrokinetic experiments revealed that salicylate adsorption cannot be explained simply in terms of electrostatic interactions: other contributions also have to be taken into account. Application of an electrostatic model of surface speciation

Márta Szekeres; Etelka Tombácz; Kinga Ferencz; Imre Dékány



Salicylate Biosynthesis: Overexpression, Purification, and Characterization of Irp9, a Bifunctional Salicylate Synthase from Yersinia enterocolitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some bacteria, salicylate is synthesized using the enzymes isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate lyase. In contrast, gene inactivation and complementation experiments with Yersinia enterocolitica suggest the synthesis of salicylate in the biosynthesis of the siderophore yersiniabactin involves a single protein, Irp9, which converts chorismate directly into salicylate. In the present study, Irp9 was for the first time heterologously expressed

Olivier Kerbarh; Alessio Ciulli; Nigel I. Howard; Chris Abell



Isolation of a novel ABC-transporter gene from soybean induced by salicylic acid.  


This paper reports on the identification and characterization of a new ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter which was identified as a salicylic acid-induced gene from soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams 82) in a subtractive suppression hybridization approach. A fragment of an ABC-transporter gene was used to isolate a full-length cDNA clone for this gene with a length of 4750 bp. The encoded protein has a length of 1447 amino acids and is composed of two similar repeat units typical of full-size ABC transporters. The sequence displays a close relationship to plant pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR)-type transporters and, on a homology basis, clusters together with the Arabidopsis thaliana PDR12 gene, suggesting GmPDR12 as a name for the gene isolated from soybean. GmPDR12 is rapidly responsive to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. The mRNA starts to accumulate 30 min after the addition of the signalling compounds. Salicylic acid is required for the execution of the hypersensitive reaction in soybean cell suspension cultures inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. It has been demonstrated previously that salicylic acid can be substituted by a variety of functional analogues of salicylic acid. All of these compounds lead to a strong and rapid transcriptional activation of GmPDR12, suggesting a shared signalling pathway. PMID:16720608

Eichhorn, Heiko; Klinghammer, Michaela; Becht, Philip; Tenhaken, Raimund



Allergic contact dermatitis from octisalate and cis-3-hexenyl salicylate.  


A 62-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis from sunscreens containing octisalate (octyl salicylate, 2-ethylhexyl salicylate) and from a fragrance containing cis-3-hexenyl salicylate. Results of patch testing and provocative use testing confirmed that she was allergic to octisalate. Provocative use testing indicated that she was also allergic to cis-3-hexenyl salicylate. PMID:16956469

Shaw, Daniel W



Natural salicylates: foods, functions and disease prevention.  


Salicylic acid and related compounds are produced by plants as part of their defence systems against pathogen attack and environmental stress. First identified in myrtle and willow, the medical use of salicylate-rich preparations as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatments may date back to the third millennium BC. It is now known that salicylates are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom, and they are therefore present in plant products of dietary relevance. In the UK, major food sources are tomato-based sauces, fruit and fruit juice, tea, wine, and herbs and spices. In mammalian cells, salicylic acid demonstrates several bioactivities that are potentially disease-preventative, including the inhibition of production of potentially neoplastic prostaglandins, which arise from the COX-2 mediated catalysis of arachidonic acid. Moreover, it appears to be readily absorbed from the food matrix. This has led some to suggestions that the recognised effects of consuming fruit and vegetables on lowering the risk of several diseases may be due, in part, to salicylates in plant-based foods. However, published estimates of daily salicylic acid intake vary markedly, ranging from 0.4 to 200 mg day(-1), so it is unclear whether the Western diet can provide sufficient salicylates to exert a disease-preventative activity. Some ethnic cuisines that are associated with lowered disease risk may contain considerably more salicylic acid than is obtainable from a Western diet. However known protective effects of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin™) may have lead to an over-emphasis on the importance of dietary salicylates compared with other bioactive plant phenolics in the diet. PMID:21879102

Duthie, Garry G; Wood, Adrian D



The ocs element in the soybean GH2\\/4 promoter is activated by both active and inactive auxin and salicylic acid analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The octopine synthase (ocs or ocs-like) element has been previously reported to be responsive to the plant hormones, auxin, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate. Using transient assays with carrot protoplasts, we have demonstrated that an ocs element from the soybean auxin-inducible GH2\\/4 promoter is not only activated by strong auxins (i.e, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a-naphthalene acetic acid) and salicylic

Tim Ulmasov; Gretchen Hagen; Tom Guilfoyle



Stress and Antistress Effects of Salicylic Acid and Acetyl Salicylic Acid on Potato Culture Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our own research has found a number of potentially useful effects of medium supplementation with salicylate on in vitro potato microplants. These useful effects are obtained taking advantage of the stress and antistress effects of salicylic\\u000a acid on plants. Growth inhibition is a common stress effect of salicylic acid on plants. This stress effect can be directed\\u000a to culture technology,

H. A. Lopez-Delgado; I. M. Scott; M. E. Mora-Herrera


Acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin) and salicylic acid induce multiple stress tolerance in bean and tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that physiologically activeconcentrations of salicylic acid (SA) and itsderivatives can confer stress tolerance in plants wasevaluated using bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) andtomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Plantsgrown from seeds imbibed in aqueous solutions (0.1--0.5 mM) of salicylic acid or acetyl salicylic acid(ASA) displayed enhanced tolerance to heat, chillingand drought stresses. Seedlings acquired similarstress tolerance when SA or ASA treatments

Tissa Senaratna; Darren Touchell; Eric Bunn; Kingsley Dixon



Degradation of Salicylate by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

SALICYLATE continues to be a leading cause of accidental poisoning in the United States; in 1964 there were more than 16,000 cases of accidental aspirin ingestion among all age groups, accounting for 25.8 per cent of all accidental poisonings reported1. Existing methods for the treatment of salicylate poisoning are aimed at alkalinization of the urine and extrarenal removal of the

Lawrence R. Krupka; Fred A. Racle



Sensitive, selective detection and differentiation of salicylates and metabolites in urine by a simple HPTLC method.  


We present a method for salicylates which is slightly more labor intensive than the usual manual Trinder's test, but is much more sensitive and able to identify individual drugs or metabolites. A 2-mL acidified urine aliquot is briefly extracted with 5 mL ether, and the residue from evaporating the ether under nitrogen is chromatographed on a 250-microns silica gel HPTLC plate using benzene-acetic acid-diethylether-methanol (60:9:30:5) as mobile phase and 5% aqueous ferric chloride as chromogen. The hardiness of the method is evidenced by the Rf values, which vary by no more than 3% over a four-month period. The Rf values are 0.70 for salicylic acid and diflunisal, 0.67 for aspirin and methyl salicylate, 0.60 for gentisic acid, 0.57 for p-aminosalicyclic acid, and 0.40 for salicyluric acid. Detection limits of 1 ppm or less for all the analytes compared favorably to limits of more than 20 ppm for Trinder's test. Separations and spot shapes are sufficiently good to make instrumental quantitation potentially applicable. Sensitivity is sufficient to give clearcut, positive test results 48 h after a single 80-mg dose of ASA by mouth or a 100-mg dose of methyl salicylate by skin injection with a muscle rub, and more than 96 h after a 660-mg oral aspirin dose. Thus, the test is useful for detection and a good degree of differentiation, even in patients using subtherapeutic doses of these salicylates or in those with trace residues from significantly remote full therapeutic or larger doses prior to specimen collections. PMID:1960979

Kincaid, R L; McMullin, M M; Sanders, D; Rieders, F


Iron(III) and aluminium(III) complexes with substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids.  


The chelating properties toward iron(III) and aluminium(III) of variously substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids have been evaluated, together with the effect of methoxy and nitro substituents in ortho and para position with respect to the phenolic group. The protonation and iron and aluminium complex formation equilibria have been studied by potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The overall results highlight that salicyl-aldehydes present good chelating properties toward iron(III), with pFe ranging from 14.2 with nitro to 15.7 with methoxy substituent, being ineffective toward aluminium; the pFe values for salicylic acids are generally lower than those for salicyl-aldehydes, and about 4 units higher than the corresponding pAl values. The effect of the two substituents on the chelating properties of the ligands can be rationalized in terms of the Swain-Lupton treatment which accounts for the field and resonance effects. The structural characterization of the 1:2 iron complex with p-nitro salicylic acid shows that iron(III) ion exhibits an octahedral surrounding where two salicylate chelating ligands supply two O-phenolate and two O-carboxylate donor atoms in a roughly equatorial plane. The trans-apical sites are occupied by two aqua ligands. PMID:23932552

Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Crisponi, Guido; Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Zoroddu, M Antonietta



Potentiation by salicylate and salicyl alcohol of cadmium toxicity and accumulation in Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of Cd{sub 2+} in Escherichia coli K-12 was potentiated by salicylate and several related compounds. The efficiency of plating on Luria broth plates was reduced by more than 10(5)-fold when 10 mM salicylate and 200 microM CdCl{sub 2} were present simultaneously but was unaffected when either compound was present by itself. Synergistic effects were found at pH 7.4 with certain other weak acids (acetyl salicylate (aspirin), benzoate, and cinnamate) and with a nonacidic salicylate analog, salicyl alcohol, but not with acetate or p-hydroxy benzoate. Thus, the synergism with Cd{sub 2+} is determined by the structure of the compounds and not merely by their acidity. The kinetics of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by cells grown and assayed in broth indicated the presence of two uptake systems with Kms of 1 and 52 microM Cd{sub 2+} and Vmaxs of 0.059 and 1.5 mumol of Cd{sub 2+} per min per g of cells, respectively. The kinetics of uptake for cells grown and assayed with 20 mM salicyl alcohol showed 2.5-fold increases in the Vmaxs of both systems but no change in the Kms. Salicylate-grown cells also exhibited increased rates of {sup 109}Cd{sub 2+} uptake by both systems. Thus, enhanced uptake of Cd{sub 2+} may be responsible for the potentiation of Cd{sub 2+} toxicity by salicylate and salicyl alcohol.

Rosner, J.L.; Aumercier, M. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))



Rapid determination of salicylate in serum on a centrifugal analyzer.  


A bichromatic method is described for the determination of salicylate using a micro centrifugal analyzer. Salicylate was quantitated based on its reaction with ferric ion to produce a violet-colored complex. The method provides sample blanking and allows for rapid determination of salicylate levels in serum. PMID:6733896

Kwong, T; Adams, N; Young, N



A new amperometric biosensor for salicylate based on salicylate hydroxylase immobilized on polipyrrole film doped with hexacyanoferrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amperometric biosensor for salicylate detection was developed by immobilizing salicylate hydroxylase via glutaraldehyde onto a polypyrrole film doped with hexacyanoferrate, supported on a glassy carbon electrode surface. The sensor monitors the catechol produced in the enzymatic reaction on the film surface, at an applied potential of 150 mV vs. SCE. A [NADH]\\/[salicylate] ratio between 2 and 4 gave the

Benjamin G. Milagres; Graciliano de Oliveira Neto; Lauro T. Kubota; Hideko Yamanaka



Spectrophotometric Determination of Tungsten with Salicylic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method comprises the complexation of tungsten with salicylic acid in concentrated sulphuric acid yielding a reddish color. The maximum absorbance of the complex lies within 410-420 nm, 420 nm being the chosen wavelenght. The final concentration of sal...

Z. C. Goncalves



Salicylate degradation by the fungal plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.  


The fungal plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied to determine its ability to degrade salicylate, an important defense-signaling molecule in plants. S. sclerotiorum D-E7 was grown at 25 °C in an undefined medium (50 ml) containing minerals, 0.1% soytone, 50 mM MES buffer (pH 6.5), 25 mM glucose, and 1 mM salicylate. Glucose, oxalate, and salicylate concentrations were monitored by HPLC. S. sclerotiorum D-E7 was found to be active in salicylate degradation. However, salicylate alone was not growth supportive and, at higher levels (10 mM), inhibited glucose-dependent growth. Biomass formation (130 mg [dry wt] of mycelium per 50 ml of undefined medium), oxalate concentrations (~10 mM), and culture acidification (final culture pH approximated 5) were essentially the same in cultures grown with or without salicylate (1 mM). Time-course analyses revealed that salicylate degradation and glucose consumption were complete after 7 days of incubation and was concomitant with growth. Trace amounts of catechol, a known intermediate of salicylate metabolism, were detected during salicylate degradation. Overall, these results indicated that S. sclerotiorum has the ability to degrade salicylate and that the presence of low levels of salicylate did not affect growth or oxalate production by S. sclerotiorum. PMID:23512122

Penn, Cory D; Daniel, Steven L



Adult salicylate poisoning: deaths and outcome in patients with high plasma salicylate concentrations.  


The clinical features, plasma salicylate concentrations, acid-base abnormalities and other biochemical findings are presented for 97 patients who either died from acute salicylate overdosage or survived maximum recorded plasma salicylate concentrations of 700 mg/l or greater. These patients comprised 4 per cent of 2204 cases of salicylate poisoning admitted during the period 1975 to 1985 inclusive. Seven patients died (overall mortality 0.3 per cent); they were significantly older than the survivors, the mortality being as high as 33 per cent in patients over the age of 70 years. Delayed presentation, coma, hyperpyrexia, pulmonary oedema and acidaemia were more common in the fatal cases. Failure to hyperventilate appropriately may contribute to the development of acidaemia. The prognosis of acute salicylate poisoning cannot be determined from the plasma concentration of the drug alone. Clinical features, particularly impaired consciousness, and the arterial hydrogen ion concentration must be taken into consideration. Haemodialysis is the treatment of choice for severe salicylate intoxication and should be used more liberally than it is at present. PMID:2602553

Chapman, B J; Proudfoot, A T



In vivo skin penetration of salicylic compounds in hairless rats.  


The in vivo skin penetration of four salicylic compounds was investigated using a hairless rat model, which allowed for non-occluded, finite dose application, and free mobility of the rats throughout the test period. The model compounds were applied in equimolal concentrations of 0.4 mmol/g dimethyl isosorbide. At certain times (0.5-24 h) the rats were killed, and the amount of test compound on the skin surface, in the stratum corneum, and in the deeper viable skin layers was determined. Significant different skin concentrations were found with the following ranking: [(14)C]diethylamine salicylate>[(14)C]salicylic acid>[(14)C]salicylamide>[(14)C]butyl salicylate. In addition, the in vivo percutaneous rate of absorption was in the following order: [(14)C]butyl salicylate>[(14)C]salicylic acid> or =[(14)C]salicylamide>[(14)C]diethylamine salicylate. [(14)C]Butyl salicylate was rapidly absorbed and completely depleted from the surface 3 h post application. In comparison with [(14)C]salicylic acid, the ionic [(14)C]diethylamine salicylate had larger surface depots and penetrated the skin at a lower rate. The relatively hydrophilic [(14)C]salicylamide also had larger surface depots but much lower skin levels. For comparison, the in vitro permeation of the formulations was studied through freshly excised hairless rat skin using Franz diffusions cells, and an agreement between the techniques was found. PMID:12356424

Simonsen, Lene; Petersen, Mads B; Groth, Lotte



Pathogen-lnduced Systemic Activation of a Plant Defensin Gene in Arabidopsis Follows a Salicylic Acid-lndependent Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5-kD plant defensin was purified from Arabidopsis leaves challenged with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola and shown to possess antifungal properties in vitro. The corresponding plant defensin gene was induced after treatment of leaves with methyl jasmonate or ethylene but not with salicylic acid or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. When challenged with A. brassicicola, the levels of the plant defensin protein and

Penninckx; Kristel Eggermont; Franky R. G. Terras; Bart P. H. J. Thomma; Genoveva W. De Samblanx; Antony Buchala; Jean-Pierre Metraux; John M. ManneqaY; Willem F. Broekaert



Simultaneous quantification of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in plants by vapor-phase extraction and gas chromatography-chemical ionization-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid represent important signaling compounds in plant defensive responses against other organisms. Here, we present a new method for the easy, sensitive, and reproducible quantification of both compounds by vapor-phase extraction and gas chromatography-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. The method is based on a one-step extraction, phase partitioning, methylation with HCl\\/methanol, and collection of methylated and,

Juergen Engelberth; Eric A Schmelz; Hans T Alborn; Yasmin J Cardoza; Juan Huang; James H Tumlinson



Jasmonate and salicylate induce the expression of pathogenesis-related-protein genes and increase resistance to chilling injury in tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Beefstake) fruit with low concentrations of (0.01 mM) methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or methyl salicylate (MeSA) substantially enhanced their resistance to chilling temperature and decreased the incidence of decay during low-temperature storage. While studying the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, different accumulation patterns of PR-protein mRNAs in tomato fruit were observed. MeJA substantially

Chang-Kui Ding; Chien Yi Wang; Kenneth C. Gross; David L. Smith



Salicylate Biosynthesis: Overexpression, Purification, and Characterization of Irp9, a Bifunctional Salicylate Synthase from Yersinia enterocolitica  

PubMed Central

In some bacteria, salicylate is synthesized using the enzymes isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate lyase. In contrast, gene inactivation and complementation experiments with Yersinia enterocolitica suggest the synthesis of salicylate in the biosynthesis of the siderophore yersiniabactin involves a single protein, Irp9, which converts chorismate directly into salicylate. In the present study, Irp9 was for the first time heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a hexahistidine fusion protein, purified to near homogeneity, and characterized biochemically. The recombinant protein was found to be a dimer, each subunit of which has a molecular mass of 50 kDa. Enzyme assays, reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses confirmed that Irp9 is a salicylate synthase and converts chorismate to salicylate with a Km for chorismate of 4.2 ?M and a kcat of 8 min?1. The reaction was shown to proceed through the intermediate isochorismate, which was detected directly using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

Kerbarh, Olivier; Ciulli, Alessio; Howard, Nigel I.; Abell, Chris



40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...identified generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN...



40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...



40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...



QM/MM Free Energy Simulations of Salicylic Acid Methyltransferase: Effects of Stabilization of TS-like Structures on Substrate Specificity  

SciTech Connect

Salicylic acid methyltransferases (SAMTs) synthesize methyl salicylate (MeSA) using salicylate as the substrate. MeSA synthesized in plants may function as an airborne signal to activate the expression of defense-related genes and could also be a critical mobile signaling molecule that travels from the site of plant infection to establish systemic immunity in the induction of disease resistance. Here the results of QM/MM free energy simulations for the methyl transfer process in Clarkia breweri SAMT (CbSAMT) are reported to determine the origin of the substrate specificity of SAMTs. The free energy barrier for the methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to 4-hydroxybenzoate in CbSAMT is found to be about 5 kcal/mol higher than that from AdoMet to salicylate, consistent with the experimental observations. It is suggested that the relatively high efficiency for the methylation of salicylate compared to 4-hydroxybenzoate is due, at least in part, to the reason that a part of the stabilization of the transition state (TS) configuration is already reflected in the reactant complex, presumably, through the binding. The results seem to indicate that the creation of the substrate complex (e.g., through mutagenesis and substrate modifications) with its structure closely resembling TS might be fruitful for improving the catalytic efficiency for some enzymes. The results show that the computer simulations may provide important insights into the origin of the substrate specificity for the SABATH family and could be used to help experimental efforts in generating engineered enzymes with altered substrate specificity.

Yao, Jianzhuang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Xu, Qin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guo, Hong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)



Direct Ring Fission of Salicylate by a Salicylate 1,2-Dioxygenase Activity from Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans  

PubMed Central

In cell extracts of Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans strain BN12, an enzymatic activity was detected which converted salicylate in an oxygen-dependent but NAD(P)H-independent reaction to a product with an absorbance maximum at 283 nm. This metabolite was isolated, purified, and identified by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as 2-oxohepta-3,5-dienedioic acid. This metabolite could be formed only by direct ring fission of salicylate by a 1,2-dioxygenase reaction. Cell extracts from P. salicylatoxidans also oxidized 5-aminosalicylate, 3-, 4-, and 5-chlorosalicylate, 3-, 4-, and 5-methylsalicylate, 3- and 5-hydroxysalicylate (gentisate), and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate. The dioxygenase was purified and shown to consist of four identical subunits with a molecular weight of about 45,000. The purified enzyme showed higher catalytic constants with gentisate or 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate than with salicylate. It was therefore concluded that P. salicylatoxidans synthesized a gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase with an extraordinary substrate range, which also allowed the oxidation of salicylate.

Hintner, Jan-Peter; Lechner, Christa; Riegert, Ulrich; Kuhm, Andrea Elisabeth; Storm, Thomas; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Stolz, Andreas



Differential Accumulation of Salicylic Acid and Salicylic Acid-Sensitive Catalase in Different Rice Tissues1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously proposed that salicylic acid (SA)-sensitive cata- lases serve as biological targets of SA in plant defense responses. To further examine the role of SA-sensitive catalases, we have analyzed the relationship between SA levels and SA sensitivity of catalases in different rice (Oryza saliva) tissues. We show here that, whereas rice shoots contain extremely high levels of free SA,

Zhixiang Chen; Allan Caplan; Daniel F. Klessig; Baofang Fan



Nitric Oxide Interacts with Salicylate to Regulate Biphasic Ethylene Production during the Hypersensitive Response1[W  

PubMed Central

C2H4 is associated with plant defense, but its role during the hypersensitive response (HR) remains largely uncharacterized. C2H4 production in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) following inoculation with HR-eliciting Pseudomonas syringae pathovars measured by laser photoacoustic detection was biphasic. A first transient rise (C2H4-I) occurred 1 to 4 h following inoculation with HR-eliciting, disease-forming, and nonpathogenic strains and also with flagellin (flg22). A second (avirulence-dependent) rise, at approximately 6 h (C2H4-II), was only seen with HR-eliciting strains. Tobacco leaves treated with the C2H4 biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine, suggested that C2H4 influenced the kinetics of a HR. Challenging salicylate hydroxylase-expressing tobacco lines and tissues exhibiting systemic acquired resistance suggested that C2H4 production was influenced by salicylic acid (SA). Disrupted expression of a C2H4 biosynthesis gene in salicylate hydroxylase tobacco plants implicated transcriptional control as a mechanism through which SA regulates C2H4 production. Treating leaves to increase oxidative stress or injecting with SA initiated monophasic C2H4 generation, but the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside initiated biphasic rises. To test whether NO influenced biphasic C2H4 production during the HR, the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester was coinoculated with the avirulent strain of P. syringae pv phaseolicola into tobacco leaves. The first transient C2H4 rise appeared to be unaffected by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, but the second rise was reduced. These data suggest that NO and SA are required to generate the biphasic pattern of C2H4 production during the HR and may influence the kinetics of HR formation.

Mur, Luis A.J.; Laarhoven, Lucas J.J.; Harren, Frans J.M.; Hall, Michael A.; Smith, Aileen R.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato has key differences in salicylic acid (SA) metabolism and signaling from tobacco and Arabidopsis. One difference is that potato has high basal salicylic acid concentrations in all tissues examined, including roots and tubers. Despite the high total SA concentrations, some potato varieties a...


A Central Role of Salicylic Acid in Plant Disease Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the bacterial enzyme salicylate hydroxylase cannot accumulate salicylic acid (SA). This defect not only makes the plants unable to induce systemic acquired resistance, but also leads to increased susceptibility to viral, fungal, and bacterial pathogens. The enhanced susceptibility extends even to host-pathogen combinations that would normally result in genetic resistance. Therefore, SA accumulation is

Terrence P. Delaney; Scott Uknes; Bernard Vernooij; Leslie Friedrich; Kris Weymann; David Negrotto; Thomas Gaffney; Manuela Gut-Rella; Helmut Kessmann; Eric Ward; John Ryals



Effect of salicylic acid and salt on wheat seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pretreatment with salicylic acid on wheat seed germination (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Roshan), lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activity were studied under conditions of salt stress. Seeds treated with different concentrations of salicylic acid were used for measuring germination traits. Salt stress was induced by sodium chloride solution. Seeds were soaked in

Aria Dolatabadian; Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy; Mozafar Sharifi



Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi



Complexes of Ferric Ion with Salicylic Acid and Related Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN connexion with this Unit's interest in the biological actions of salicylic acid and its derivatives1a and in their physical properties1b, an investigation has been made of the association of the ferric ion with some substituted salicylic acids.

M. V. Park



AMPK: mediating the metabolic effects of salicylate-based drugs?  


Salicylates are among the oldest medicinal compounds known to humans, and have been used to reduce fever, pain, and inflammation. The major oral salicylates are aspirin and salsalate, both of which are rapidly metabolized to salicylate in vivo. Owing to its acetyl group, aspirin irreversibly inhibits cyclo-oxygenases and thus blocks platelet aggregation, whereas salsalate has been used for treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, beneficial effects of salicylates in type 2 diabetes and cancer have been proposed. This has led to renewed interest in understanding how these simple molecules have such diverse and multifaceted effects. Here we discuss the idea that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) might mediate some effects of salicylate-based drugs, particularly by modulating cellular metabolism. PMID:23871515

Steinberg, Gregory R; Dandapani, Madhumita; Hardie, D Grahame



Pathogen-induced systemic activation of a plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis follows a salicylic acid-independent pathway.  

PubMed Central

A 5-kD plant defensin was purified from Arabidopsis leaves challenged with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola and shown to possess antifungal properties in vitro. The corresponding plant defensin gene was induced after treatment of leaves with methyl jasmonate or ethylene but not with salicylic acid or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. When challenged with A. brassicicola, the levels of the plant defensin protein and mRNA rose both in inoculated leaves and in nontreated leaves of inoculated plants (systemic leaves). These events coincided with an increase in the endogenous jasmonic acid content of both types of leaves. Systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene was unaffected in Arabidopsis transformants (nahG) or mutants (npr1 and cpr1) affected in the salicylic acid response but was strongly reduced in the Arabidopsis mutants eln2 and col1 that are blocked in their response to ethylene and methyl jasmonate, respectively. Our results indicate that systemic pathogen-induced expression of the plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis is independent of salicylic acid but requires components of the ethylene and jasmonic acid response.

Penninckx, I A; Eggermont, K; Terras, F R; Thomma, B P; De Samblanx, G W; Buchala, A; Metraux, J P; Manners, J M; Broekaert, W F



Overexpression of AtSGT1, an Arabidopsis salicylic acid glucosyltransferase, leads to increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae.  


We reported previously that a recombinant salicylic acid (SA) glucosyltransferase1 (AtSGT1) from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyzes the formation of both SA 2-O-beta-D-glucoside (SAG) and the glucose ester of SA (SGE). Here, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtSGT1 have been constructed, and their phenotypes analyzed. Compared to wild-type plants, transgenic plants showed an increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae and reduced the accumulation levels of both free SA and its glucosylated forms (SAG and SGE). On the other hand, the overexpression increased the levels of methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl salicylate 2-O-beta-D-glucoside (MeSAG), and also induced SA carboxyl methyltransferase1 (AtBSMT1) expression, whose products catalyze the conversion of SA to MeSA. Our data indicate that reduced resistance by AtSGT1 overexpression results from a reduction in SA content, which is at least in part caused by increases in MeSAG and MeSA levels at the expense of SA. Our study also suggests that genetic manipulation of AtSGT1 can be utilized as an important regulatory tool for pathogen control. PMID:18226820

Song, Jong Tae; Koo, Yeon Jong; Seo, Hak Soo; Kim, Min Chul; Choi, Yang Do; Kim, Jeong Hoe



Infrared and ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled substituted salicylic acids; substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer in salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substitution effects on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in the salicylic acid (SA) frame were studied by electronic and infrared spectroscopy of jet-cooled 5-methoxylsalicylic acid (5-MeOSA), 5-methylsalicylic acid (5-MeSA), 5-fluorosalicylic acid (5-FSA), 6-fluorosalicylic acid (6-FSA), and methyl salicylate (MS). Infrared spectra were measured in the 3 µm region for both the electronic ground (S0) and first excited (S1) states. The electronic excitation/emission spectra of 5-MeSA and 6-FSA showed the typical spectral features of ESIPT, which have been found in the spectra of SA. On the other hand, 5-MeOSA and 5-FSA exhibit a mirror-image relation between their excitation and emission spectra, which has been regarded as a result of the suppression of ESIPT. Despite such a remarkable difference among the electronic spectra, IR spectroscopy shows that a drastic change of the phenolic OH stretching vibration does occur upon electronic excitation of all substituted SAs, that is, the phenolic OH band of all the SAs disappears from the 3 µm region, indicating a large elongation of the phenolic O-H bond (over 0.1 Å) in S1. This result means that the intramolecular hydrogen bond strength is remarkably enhanced by electronic excitation in all the substituted SAs. Substitution effects on ESIPT in dimers are also discussed.

Abd El-Hakam Abou El-Nasr, E.; Fujii, A.; Ebata, T.; Mikami, N.


Determination of iron(III) with salicylic acid by the fluorescence quenching method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrofluorimetric determination of Fe3+ using salicylic acid as an emission reagent has been investigated by measuring the decrease of fluorescence intensity of salicylic acid due to the complexation of Fe3+–salicylic acid. An emission peak of salicylic acid, which is decreased linearly by addition of Fe3+, occurs at 409 nm in aqueous solution with excitation at 299 nm. The determination

Ki-Won Cha; Kwang-Won Park



Salicylate and catechol levels are maintained in nahG transgenic poplar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic profiling was used to investigate the molecular phenotypes of a transgenic Populus tremula×P. alba hybrid expressing the nahG transgene, a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol. Despite the efficacy of this transgenic approach to reduce salicylic acid levels in other model systems and thereby elucidate roles for salicylic acid in plant signaling, transgenic poplars

Alison M. Morse; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; Christopher Dervinis; Paula M. Pijut; Eric A. Schmelz; Wendy Day; John M. Davis



Interactions of salicylic acid derivatives with calcite crystals.  


Investigation of basic interactions between the active pharmaceutical compounds and calcium carbonates is of great importance because of the possibility to use the carbonates as a mineral carrier in drug delivery systems. In this study the mode and extent of interactions of salicylic acid and its amino acid derivates, chosen as pharmaceutically relevant model compounds, with calcite crystals are described. Therefore, the crystal growth kinetics of well defined rhombohedral calcite seed crystals in the systems containing salicylic acid (SA), 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA), N-salicyloil-l-aspartic acid (N-Sal-Asp) or N-salicyloil-l-glutamic acid (N-Sal-Glu), were investigated. The precipitation systems were of relatively low initial supersaturation and of apparently neutral pH. The data on the crystal growth rate reductions in the presence of the applied salicylate molecules were analyzed by means of Cabrera & Vermileya's, and Kubota & Mullin's models of interactions of the dissolved additives and crystal surfaces. The crystal growth kinetic experiments were additionally supported with the appropriate electrokinetic, spectroscopic and adsorption measurements. The Langmuir adsorption constants were determined and they were found to be in a good correlation with values obtained from crystal growth kinetic analyses. The results indicated that salicylate molecules preferentially adsorb along the steps on the growing calcite surfaces. The values of average spacing between the adjacent salicylate adsorption active sites and the average distance between the neighboring adsorbed salicylate molecules were also estimated. PMID:21963207

Ukrainczyk, Marko; Gredi?ak, Matija; Jeri?, Ivanka; Kralj, Damir



Direct Ring Fission of Salicylate by a Salicylate 1,2Dioxygenase Activity from Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cell extracts of Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans strain BN12, an enzymatic activity was detected which converted salicylate in an oxygen-dependent but NAD(P)H-independent reaction to a product with an absor- bance maximum at 283 nm. This metabolite was isolated, purified, and identified by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as 2-oxohepta-3,5-dienedioic acid. This metabolite could be formed only




Iontophoresis of Salicylic Acid From Salicylic Acid Doped Poly(p-phynylene vinylene)/ Polyacrylamide Hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparent diffusion coefficients, Dapp, and the release mechanisms of salicylic acid from salicylic acid-loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-loaded PAAM, and salicylic acid-doped poly(phenylene vinylene)/polyacrylamide hydrogels, SA-doped PPV/PAAM, were investigated. In the absence of an electric field, the diffusion of SA from the SA-doped PPV/PAAM hydrogel is delayed in the first 3 hr due to the ionic interaction between the anionic drug and PPV. Beyond this period, SA can diffuse continuously into the buffer solution through the PAAM matrix. Dapp of SA-doped PPV/PAAM is higher than that of the SA-loaded PAAM, and the former increases with increasing electric field strength due to the combined mechanisms: the expansion of PPV chains inside the hydrogel; iontophoresis; and the electroporation of the matrix pore. Thus, the presence of the conductive polymer and the applied electric field can be combined to control the drug release rate at an optimal desired level.

Niamlang, Sumonman



The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.  


The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated. PMID:16235788

Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia


Deposition of salicylic acid into hamster sebaceous.  


In an earlier paper, we identified vehicles that are miscible with sebum, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this paper, the potential of these vehicles to deliver salicylic acid (SA) into the sebum-filled follicles of hamster ears is examined. The main objective of this study is to correlate the melting transitions of a model sebum with the follicular delivery of SA, using two different types of vehicles (fatty and polar). Generally, the fatty vehicles show higher deposition than the polar vehicles. Follicular delivery of salicylic acid correlates well with its solubility in the respective vehicles. This extent of deposition also shows a relationship with the effect of the vehicle on thermal behavior of the model sebum. The nature of the relationship depends on the vehicle (polar or fatty) tested. We conclude that DSC could be used to identify appropriate vehicles for drugs whose follicular delivery depends on solubility. The results also suggest that delivery into the sebaceous glands occurs by two different mechanisms, depending upon the polarity of the vehicle and the physicochemical properties of the drug. The results of these experiments are further extended to investigate follicular delivery of SA from two different types of oil-in-water emulsion formulations. From these studies we conclude that either increasing the volume of the oil phase or changing the emulsion to a water-in-oil emulsion would increase follicular deposition. Our research highlights the role of sebum, its compatibility with drug molecules, and vehicle selection in the transport of drugs into the follicles. The overall results of these experiments provide a reasonable understanding of the mechanisms underlying the transport of drugs to, and subsequently through, the sebaceous follicle. PMID:15645108

Motwani, M R; Rhein, L D; Zatz, J L


FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic studies of salicylic acid derivatives. II. Comparison of 2-hydroxy- and 2,4- and 2,5-dihydroxy derivatives.  


The 2,4- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzamides (8, 9) were synthesized from their corresponding methyl esters. The structures and the spectral properties of investigated salicylic acid (1), 2,4- and 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acids (2, 3), their methyl esters (4-6) and amides (7-9) were analyzed by means of FT-IR and one- and two-dimensional homo- and heteronuclear 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Comparison of FT-IR and NMR spectral data of investigated compounds showed that the spectral characteristics of 2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid derivatives are more similar to those of 2-hydroxy benzoic acid (salicylic acid) derivatives than to those of 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid derivatives. The results suggest that the spatial orientation of amide protons in 2,4-dihydroxy benzamide resembles more that in salicylamide than that in 2,5-dihydroxy benzamide. PMID:15610615

Jadrijevi?-Mladar Takac, Milena; Viki? Topi?, Drazen



Spectroscopic structural studies of salicylic acid, salicylamide and aspirin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic absorption spectra of the salicylic acid and the salicylamide molecules have been studied using SCF—CL calculations. The singlet and the triplet electronic transition energies have been calculated. The state functions of eight excited states for these molecules have been calculated in addition to the oscillator strengths, charge densities, ionization potentials and electron affinities. Our calculations lead to the presence of salicylic acid and salicylamide in the ?-forms in which the carboxylic hydroxyl group or the amino group is directed toward the enolic hydroxyl group. The salicylic acid and the salicylamide molecules have the Cs point group symmetry, but the aspirin molecule has the C1 point group symmetry, in which the acetyl group does not lie in the plane of the salicylic acid molecule.

El-Shahawy, Anwar S.


21 CFR 862.3830 - Salicylate test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Low barrier hydrogen bonds within salicylate mono-anions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive incorporation of electron-withdrawing substituents into the aromatic ring of salicylic acid selectively acidifies the ArOH group, until the intrinsic pKa values of the ArOH and ArCO2H groups become matched, as in the case of 3-chloro-5-nitrosalicylic acid. The corresponding salicylate mono-anion at ?50°C in aqueous deuterioacetone solution exhibits a low barrier hydrogen bond intramolecularly linking the adjacent anionic oxygens, according

William L. Mock; Layne A. Morsch



Ion Channel-Forming Alamethicin Is a Potent Elicitor of Volatile Biosynthesis and Tendril Coiling. Cross Talk between Jasmonate and Salicylate Signaling in Lima Bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alamethicin (ALA), a voltage-gated, ion channel-forming peptide mixture from Trichoderma viride, is a potent elicitor of the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Unlike elicitation with jasmonic acid or herbivore damage, the blend of substances emitted comprises only the two homoterpenes, 4,11-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, and methyl salicylate. Inhibition of octadecanoid signaling by aristolochic acid and phenidone as

Jurgen Engelberth; Thomas Koch; Gode Schuler; Nadine Bachmann; Jana Rechtenbach; Wilhelm Boland



Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on salicylate-induced tinnitus, expression of NMDA receptor and inflammatory genes.  


Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-?, and IL-1? mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-?, IL-1? mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching



Synthesis, acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of bornyl salicylate, a salicylic acid derivative.  


Bornyl salicylate (BS) is a salicylic derivative, obtained by sterification of salicylic acid and monoterpene (-)-borneol, and its topical use in inflammatory diseases was described in the early 20th century. It is also known that borneol presents neuroprotective, genoprotective and analgesic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BS in experimental models of acute inflammation. The toxicity of BS was analyzed by measuring water and food intake, weight, mortality and weight of main organs. To assess its anti-inflammatory effect, BS-treated mice were challenged with carrageenan, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), bradikynin (BK) or histamine (HIS)-induced paw edema, zymosan-induced peritonitis and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed in peritoneal macrophage cultures. There was no sign of acute toxicity of BS in male and female mice. Furthermore, treatment with BS was significantly (p < 0.05) effective in reducing paw edema induced by carrageenan in early and late phases; this effect was related to PGE2 and BK, but HIS independent. Neutrophil migration and cytokine release (TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6) induced by zymosan and fluid leakage induced by acetic acid were also reduced in BS-treated animals. In vitro, BS (10 µg/mL) reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These data suggest that BS has an anti-inflammatory effect, which is related, at least in part, with decrease of mediators as PGE2, NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, further studies should be done to explore its potential as an anti-inflammatory drug. PMID:22712758

Vasconcelos, Renata Marcia Costa; Leite, Fagner Carvalho; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Rodrigues Mascarenhas, Sandra; Rodrigues, Luis Cezar; Piuvezam, Marcia Regina



[Milestones of cardivascular pharmacotherapy: salicylates and aspirin].  


The analgesic and antipyretic effect of the bark of willow has been known in Egypt and Greece for canturies. The modem era of salicylates starts with a letter sent 1758 by Reverend Edward Stone to The Royal Society in London. He described "an account of the success of the bark of willow in the cure of agues". His report. erroneously attributed to Edmond Stone. was published five years later. The active ingredient of willow bark. "salicine". was first isolated 1828 by Joseph Buchner, then by Henri Leroux, and also prepared from the oil of wintergreen (Gaultheria) and meadowsweet (Spirea ulmaria) by J. W. Lowig 1833. and called "Spirsäure", which was already pure acetylsalicylic acid. It was also synthetised 1853 by Ch. Gerhardt and finally 1897 in Bayer's laboratoires by Felix Hoffman, who also demonstrated its antiinflammatory efficacy. After two years of clinical trials with low doses, Bayer's management decided to start the productions and launched Aspirin as an analgetic worldwide in summer 1899. The first ASPIRIN ERA bagun. A completely new epoch started when J. N. Vane and Priscilla Piner demonstrated 1971 that the main mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs is the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In later studies the potency to inhibit platelet aggregation with small doses of aspirin (30-125 mg) was demonstrated. The Physicians'Health Study 1988 confirmed this effect: aspirin significantly reduced the risk of both, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. and is now used in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. However the idea was not new: The use of salicylates and aspirin was throughly discussed more than 50 years ago: Paul C. Gibson published 1949 a well-documented case report on efficacy of aspirin in patients with angina, and Kl. Weber and P. Klein in Prague used Gibson's mixture successfully for patients with acute myocardial infarction (1951). Recently, the efficacy and security, the interactions and side-effects of low-dose aspirin have been studied and discussed. In chronic treatment, any combination of two specific platelet antiaggregants should be avoided. PMID:17323609

Jerie, P



Effects of sodium salicylate on spontaneous and evoked spike rate in the dorsal cochlear nucleus  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), particularly in fusiform cells, has been proposed as a neural generator of tinnitus. To determine if sodium salicylate, a reliable tinnitus inducer, could evoke hyperactivity in the DCN, we measured the spontaneous and depolarization-evoked spike rate in fusiform and cartwheel cells during salicylate superfusion. Five minute treatment with 1.4 mM salicylate suppressed spontaneous and evoked firing in fusiform cells; this decrease partially recovered after salicylate washout. Less suppression and greater recovery occurred with 3 minute treatment using 1.4 mM salicylate. In contrast, salicylate had no effect on the spontaneous or evoked firing of cartwheel cells indicating that salicylate’s suppressive effects are specific to fusiform cells. To determine if salicylate’s suppressive effects were a consequence of increased synaptic inhibition, spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSC) were measured during salicylate treatment. Salicylate unexpectedly reduced IPSC thereby ruling out increased inhibition as a mechanism to explain the depressed firing rates in fusiform cells. The salicylate-induced suppression of fusiform spike rate apparently arises from unidentified changes in the cell’s intrinsic excitability.

Wei, Lei; Ding, Dalian; Sun, Wei; Xu-Friedman, Matthew A.; Salvi, Richard



Concurrent release of admixed antimicrobials and salicylic acid from salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters)  

PubMed Central

A polymer blend consisting of antimicrobials (chlorhexidine, clindamycin, and minocycline) physically admixed at 10% by weight into a salicylic acid-based poly (anhydride-ester) (SA-based PAE) was developed as an adjunct treatment for periodontal disease. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends were characterized by multiple methods, including contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Static contact angle measurements showed no significant differences in hydrophobicity between the polymer and antimicrobial matrix surfaces. Notable decreases in the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg) and the antimicrobials' melting points (Tm) were observed indicating that the antimicrobials act as plasticizers within the polymer matrix. In vitro drug release of salicylic acid from the polymer matrix and for each physically admixed antimicrobial was concurrently monitored by high pressure liquid chromatography during the course of polymer degradation and erosion. Although the polymer/antimicrobial blends were immiscible, the initial 24 h of drug release correlated to the erosion profiles. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends are being investigated as an improvement on current localized drug therapies used to treat periodontal disease.

Johnson, Michelle L.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.



Vacuum ultraviolet scintillators: sodium salicylate and p-terphenyl.  


Some of the characteristic properties of sodium salicylate and p-terphenyl have been studied at a convenient incident wavelength of 253.7 nm. These include the fluorescent spectrum, relative quantum efficiency as a function of scintillator thickness, absolute quantum efficiency, and its possible decline with time. It has been shown that the rotary pump and diffusion pump oil vapors in contact with phosphors affect the stability of fluorescence in a marked but complicated manner. The effect of humidity on relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of the phosphors has also been discussed. p-Terphenyl has been found to be a useful alternative to sodium salicylate. PMID:20212860

Kumar, V; Datta, A K



Ion channel-forming alamethicin is a potent elicitor of volatile biosynthesis and tendril coiling. Cross talk between jasmonate and salicylate signaling in lima bean.  


Alamethicin (ALA), a voltage-gated, ion channel-forming peptide mixture from Trichoderma viride, is a potent elicitor of the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Unlike elicitation with jasmonic acid or herbivore damage, the blend of substances emitted comprises only the two homoterpenes, 4,11-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, and methyl salicylate. Inhibition of octadecanoid signaling by aristolochic acid and phenidone as well as mass spectrometric analysis of endogenous jasmonate demonstrate that ALA induces the biosynthesis of volatile compounds principally via the octadecanoid-signaling pathway (20-fold increase of jasmonic acid). ALA also up-regulates salicylate biosynthesis, and the time course of the production of endogenous salicylate correlates well with the appearance of the methyl ester in the gas phase. The massive up-regulation of the SA-pathway (90-fold) interferes with steps in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of 12-oxophytodienoic acid and thereby reduces the pattern of emitted volatiles to compounds previously shown to be induced by early octadecanoids. ALA also induces tendril coiling in various species like Pisum, Lathyrus, and Bryonia, but the response appears to be independent from octadecanoid biosynthesis, because inhibitors of lipoxygenase and phospholipase A(2) do not prevent the coiling reaction. PMID:11154344

Engelberth, J; Koch, T; Schüler, G; Bachmann, N; Rechtenbach, J; Boland, W



The protective effect of salicylic acid on lysozyme against riboflavin-mediated photooxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a metabolite of aspirin in vivo, salicylic acid was proved to protect lysozyme from riboflavin-mediated photooxidation in this study. The antioxidative properties of salicylic acid were further studied by using time-resolved laser flash photolysis of 355 nm. It can quench the triplet state of riboflavin via electron transfer from salicylic acid to the triplet state of riboflavin with a reaction constant of 2.25 × 10 9 M -1 s -1. Mechanism of antioxidant activities of salicylic acid on lysozyme oxidation was discussed. Salicylic acid can serve as a potential antioxidant to quench the triplet state of riboflavin and reduce oxidative pressure.

Li, Kun; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Lingli; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Mei; Wang, Shi-Long



[The Italian contributions to the history of salicylates].  


It is well-known that the modern history of salicylates began in 1899 when the compound acetylsalicylic acid was registered and introduced commercially as "aspirin" by the Bayer Company of Germany. As a matter of fact, however, remedies made from willow bark had been used to treat fever and rheumatic complaints at least since 1763, when Edward Stone described their efficacy against malarian fever. A number of Italian scientists made significant contributions during the long period of research leading up to the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid and its widespread use in rheumatic diseases. In this paper we will review the contributions of some of these researchers, beginning with Bartolomeo Rigatelli, who in 1824 used a willow bark extract as a therapeutic agent, denominating it "salino amarissimo antifebbrile" (very bitter antipyretic salt). In the same year, Francesco Fontana described this natural compound, giving it the name "salicina" (salicin). Two other Italian chemists added considerably to current knowledge of the salicylates: Raffaele Piria in 1838, while working as a research fellow in Paris, extracted the chemical compound salicylic acid, and Cesare Bertagnini in 1855 published a detailed description of the classic adverse event associated with salicylate overdoses--tinnitus--which he studied by deliberately ingesting excessive doses himself. Bertagnini and above all Piria also played conspicuous roles in the history of Italy during the period of the Italian Risorgimento, participating as volunteers in the crucial battle of Curtatone and Montanara during the first Italian War of Independence. PMID:16639491

Marson, Piero; Pasero, Giampiero


Ammonium determination in soil extracts by the salicylate method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ammonium determination, based on formation of a substituted indophenol with sodiumsalicylate as phenolic reagent, has been reexamined. An increase of 70% in absorbancy compared with existing salicylate methods in soil science, and an increase in reproducibility compared with pre?existing equivalent methods in other disciplines were obtained. The method can be applied satisfactorily for ammonium in 2M KCl soil extracts

A. J. Kempers; A. Zweers



Reye's syndrome: salicylate and mitochondrial monoamine oxidase function  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that aspirin is somehow linked with the onset of Reye's syndrome (RS). A general feature of Reye's syndrome is severe impairment of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) function. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of salicylate on platelet mitochondrial MAO activity in three groups: group A (healthy children, n = 21) and group C (healthy adults, n = 10). Platelet MAO was measured by radio-enzymatic technique with /sup 14/C-tyramine as a substrate. The results showed that salicyclate (10 mM) had a 20 to 60 percent inhibitory effect on platelet MAO function in only 1, 3 and 2 of the subjects in group A, B and C. Furthermore, there was an association between low enzyme activity and salicylate MAO inhibitory effect in these subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that salicylate may induce deterioration in mitochondrial function in susceptible individuals and that the assessment of salicylate MAO inhibitory effect may identify those who may be at risk to develop aspirin poisoning and Reye's syndrome.

Faraj, B.A.; Caplan, D.; Lolies, P.



Degradation of salicylic acid by Fenton and modified Fenton treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of salicylic acid (SA) was carried out utilizing classical Fenton reagents and modified Fenton with ferric iron salt and goethite as source of iron catalyst. The efficiency of the treatments was evaluated on the basis of SA degradation degree, COD and BOD reduction. Due to the tendency of SA to form complexes with ferric iron, decreasing the concentration

A. Goi; Y. Veressinina; M. Trapido



Differentiated in vivo skin penetration of salicylic compounds in hairless rats measured by cutaneous microdialysis.  


The purpose was to investigate the in vivo skin penetration of four 14C-salicylic compounds using microdialysis and to relate dermal concentrations to structural features. Furthermore, to compare two in vivo retrodialysis recovery methods for estimation of true unbound extracellular concentrations. Microdialysis probes were inserted in the dermis of hairless rats. Equimolal 14C-salicylic formulations were applied topically and dialysate sampled consecutively for 4h. True extracellular concentrations were estimated by retrodialysis by drug method (the 14C-salicylic compounds themselves) and by retrodialysis by calibrator method (3H-salicylic acid as internal standard). Probe depth was measured by ultrasound scanning. High dermal concentrations were found after application of 14C-salicylamide (low protein-binding) and the lipophilic ester 14C-butyl salicylate, which was completely hydrolysed to 14C-salicylic acid during skin diffusion. Protein binding and dissociation may explain the lower dermal concentrations of 14C-salicylic acid and 14C-diethylamine salicylate, respectively. Probe depth did not significantly influence dialysate concentrations. The two in vivo recovery correction methods did not reduce the variation in concentration-time curves. In conclusion, differentiated penetration kinetics was found ranking: 14C-salicylamide >/= 14C-butyl salicylate > 14C-salicylic acid > 14C-diethylamine salicylate. Dermal concentrations were related to structural features of the model compounds. The two correction methods performed alike; however, the calibrator method has the advantage of serving as a quality control during experiments. PMID:14757512

Simonsen, Lene; Jørgensen, Aksel; Benfeldt, Eva; Groth, Lotte



Methylation matters  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is not just for basic scientists any more. There is a growing awareness in the medical field that having the correct pattern of genomic methylation is essential for healthy cells and organs. If methylation patterns are not properly established or maintained, disorders as diverse as mental retardation, immune deficiency, and sporadic or inherited cancers may follow. Through inappropriate silencing of growth regulating genes and simultaneous destabilisation of whole chromosomes, methylation defects help create a chaotic state from which cancer cells evolve. Methylation defects are present in cells before the onset of obvious malignancy and therefore cannot be explained simply as a consequence of a deregulated cancer cell. Researchers are now able to detect with exquisite sensitivity the cells harbouring methylation defects, sometimes months or years before the time when cancer is clinically detectable. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of specific genes has been directly linked with the tumour response to chemotherapy and patient survival. Advances in our ability to observe the methylation status of the entire cancer cell genome have led us to the unmistakable conclusion that methylation abnormalities are far more prevalent than expected. This methylomics approach permits the integration of an ever growing repertoire of methylation defects with the genetic alterations catalogued from tumours over the past two decades. Here we discuss the current knowledge of DNA methylation in normal cells and disease states, and how this relates directly to our current understanding of the mechanisms by which tumours arise.???Keywords: methylation; cancer

Costello, J.; Plass, C.



Catecholate/salicylate heteropodands: demonstration of a catecholate to salicylate coordination change.  


While iron release from enterobactin-mediated iron transport occurs primarily via an esterase that destroys the siderophore, other catechol siderophores that are not susceptible to hydrolysis act as bacterial growth factors. Elucidating the structures of protonated ferric enterobactin may reveal the pathway by which synthetic analogues fulfill bacterial iron requirements. In order to more completely model this potential delivery pathway for ferric iron, as well as to understand the pH dependent structural dynamics of ferric enterobactin, two ligands, (2-hydroxybenzoyl-2-aminoethyl)-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-2-aminoethyl)amine (TRENCAMSAM) and (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl-2-aminoethyl)-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-2- aminoethyl)amine (TRENCAM(3M)SAM), have been synthesized as models for monoprotonated enterobactin. The coordination chemistry of these ligands with Fe3+ and Al3+ has been investigated. Fe[TRENCAMSAM]2- crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1: Z = 1, a = 11.3307(6) A, b = 12.5479(7) A, c = 15.5153(8) A, alpha = 94.513(1) degree, beta = 105.867(1) degree, gamma = 94.332(1) degree. The structure is a two-metal two-ligand dimer supported by mu-oxo bridges from two catecholate moieties. Al[TRENCAMSAM]2- crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1: Z = 2, a = 9.1404(2) A, b = 13.3570(1) A, c = 15.5950(1) A, alpha = 95.711(1) degree, beta = 104.760(1) degree, gamma = 92.603(1) degree. The complex is a monomer with a five-coordinate, square-pyramidal aluminum cation. Al[TRENCAM(3M)SAM]2- crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/m: Z = 8, a = 34.244(2) A, b = 11.6206(6) A, c = 21.9890(12) A, beta = 101.478(1) degree. The complex is also a monomer, but with a highly distorted five-coordinate, square-pyramidal aluminum cation coordination sphere. At high pH these complexes do not display a salicylate mode of binding; however, at low pH Al[TRENCAMSAM]2- converts to protonated Al[H3TRENCAMSAM]+, which is a six-coordinate, tris-salicylate complex. Al[H3TRENCAMSAM]+ crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1: Z = 2, a = 11.5475(4) A, b = 12.1681(4) A, c = 12.5094(4) A, alpha = 109.142(1) degree, beta = 104.327(1) degree, gamma = 103.636(1) degree. This is the first catecholamide enterobactin analogue that has been structurally characterized in both a catecholate and salicylate mode of coordination. PMID:11196825

Cohen, S M; Raymond, K N


Potentiometric membrane electrode for salicylate based on an organotin complex with a salicylal Schiff base of amino acid.  


A novel salicylate-selective electrode based on an organotin complex with a salicylal Schiff base of amino acid salicylaldehydeaminoacid-di-n-butyl-Sn(IV) [Sn(IV)-SAADB] as ionophore is described, which exhibits high selectivity for salicylate over many other common anions with an anti-Hofmeister selectivity sequence: Sal- > PhCOO- > SCN- > Cl04- > I- > NO3- > NO2- > Br- > Cl- > CH3COO-. The electrode, based on Sn(IV)-SAADB, with a 30.44 wt% PVC, a 65.45 wt% plasticizer (dioctyl phthalate, DOP), a 3.81 wt% ionophore and a 0.3 wt% anionic additive is linear in 6.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) mol l(-1) with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) and a slope of 62.0 +/- 1.2 mV/decade of salicylate concentration in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 5.5 at 25 degrees C. The influence on the electrode performances by lipophilic charged additives was studied, and the possible response mechanism was investigated by UV spectra. The electrode was applied to medicine analysis and the result obtained has been satisfactory. PMID:15790114

Xu, Lan; Yuan, Ruo; Fu, Ying-Zi; Chai, Ya-Qin



A novel salicylate-selective electrode based on a Sn(IV) complex of salicylal-imino acid Schiff base.  


A novel poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode with high selectivity toward salicylate (Sal-), based on the use of the salicylal-imino acid Schiff base dibenyl complex of Sn(IV) [Sn(IV)-SIADBen] as ionophore is described. The influence of lipophilic charged additives on the performance of the electrode was studied. The results suggested that Sn(IV)-SIADBen according to a positively-charged carrier mechanism. The influence of several other variables was investigated in order to optimize the potentiometric response and selectivity of the electrode. The electrode based on Sn(IV)-SIADBen, with 30.44 wt% PVC, 64.55 wt% plasticizer [dioctyl phthalate (DOP)], 3.81 wt% ionophore, and 1.2 wt% anionic additive exhibited a linear response for the Sal- ion over the concentration range 1.0x10(-1) to 2.5x10(-6) mol l-1, and displayed an anti-Hofmeister selectivity sequence as follows: salicylate>perchlorate>thiocyanate>benzoate>iodide>nitrate>chloride>nitrite approximately acetate>citrate>sulfate. UV-Visible absorption spectra were used to examine the specific interaction of salicylate with the ionophore. The electrode was applied to clinical medical analysis, and the results obtained were consistent with those obtained by conventional methods. PMID:15668810

Xu, Lan; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin; Wang, Xiu-Ling



Salicylic acid and salicylic acid glucoside in xylem sap of Brassica napus infected with Verticillium longisporum  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) and its glucoside (SAG) were detected in xylem sap of Brassica napus by HPLC–MS. Concentrations of SA and SAG in xylem sap from the root and hypocotyl of the plant, and in extracts of shoots above the hypocotyl, increased after infection with the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum. Both concentrations were correlated with disease severity assessed as the reduction in shoot length. Furthermore, SAG levels in shoot extracts were correlated with the amount of V. longisporum DNA in the hypocotyls. Although the concentration of SAG (but not SA) in xylem sap of infected plants gradually declined from 14 to 35 days post infection, SAG levels remained significantly higher than in uninfected plants during the whole experiment. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in xylem sap were not affected by infection with V. longisporum. SA and SAG extend the list of phytohormones potentially transported from root to shoot with the transpiration stream. The physiological relevance of this transport and its contribution to the distribution of SA in plants remain to be elucidated.

Ratzinger, Astrid; Riediger, Nadine; von Tiedemann, Andreas



Salicylic acid and salicylic acid glucoside in xylem sap of Brassica napus infected with Verticillium longisporum.  


Salicylic acid (SA) and its glucoside (SAG) were detected in xylem sap of Brassica napus by HPLC-MS. Concentrations of SA and SAG in xylem sap from the root and hypocotyl of the plant, and in extracts of shoots above the hypocotyl, increased after infection with the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum. Both concentrations were correlated with disease severity assessed as the reduction in shoot length. Furthermore, SAG levels in shoot extracts were correlated with the amount of V. longisporum DNA in the hypocotyls. Although the concentration of SAG (but not SA) in xylem sap of infected plants gradually declined from 14 to 35 days post infection, SAG levels remained significantly higher than in uninfected plants during the whole experiment. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in xylem sap were not affected by infection with V. longisporum. SA and SAG extend the list of phytohormones potentially transported from root to shoot with the transpiration stream. The physiological relevance of this transport and its contribution to the distribution of SA in plants remain to be elucidated. PMID:19449088

Ratzinger, Astrid; Riediger, Nadine; von Tiedemann, Andreas; Karlovsky, Petr



Salicylic acid 3-hydroxylase regulates Arabidopsis leaf longevity by mediating salicylic acid catabolism.  


The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in plant defense, stress responses, and senescence. Although SA biosynthesis is well understood, the pathways by which SA is catabolized remain elusive. Here we report the identification and characterization of an SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) involved in SA catabolism during leaf senescence. S3H is associated with senescence and is inducible by SA and is thus a key part of a negative feedback regulation system of SA levels during senescence. The enzyme converts SA (with a Km of 58.29 µM) to both 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in vitro but only 2,3-DHBA in vivo. The s3h knockout mutants fail to produce 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates, accumulate very high levels of SA and its sugar conjugates, and exhibit a precocious senescence phenotype. Conversely, the gain-of-function lines contain high levels of 2,3-DHBA sugar conjugates and extremely low levels of SA and its sugar conjugates and display a significantly extended leaf longevity. This research reveals an elegant SA catabolic mechanism by which plants regulate SA levels by converting it to 2,3-DHBA to prevent SA overaccumulation. The research also provides strong molecular genetic evidence for an important role of SA in regulating the onset and rate of leaf senescence. PMID:23959884

Zhang, Kewei; Halitschke, Rayko; Yin, Changxi; Liu, Chang-Jun; Gan, Su-Sheng



GABAergic Neural Activity Involved in Salicylate-Induced Auditory Cortex Gain Enhancement  

PubMed Central

Although high doses of sodium salicylate impair cochlear function, it paradoxically enhances sound-evoked activity in the auditory cortex (AC) and augments acoustic startle reflex responses, neural and behavioral metrics associated with hyperexcitability and hyperacusis. To explore the neural mechanisms underlying salicylate-induced hyperexcitability and “increased central gain”, we examined the effects of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists and antagonists on salicylate-induced hyperexcitability in the AC and startle reflex responses. Consistent with our previous findings, local or systemic application of salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of sound-evoked AC neural activity, but generally reduced spontaneous activity in the AC. Systemic injection of salicylate also significantly increased the acoustic startle reflex. S-baclofen or R-baclofen, GABA-B agonists, which suppressed sound-evoked AC neural firing rate and local field potentials, also suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of the AC field potential and the acoustic startle reflex. Local application of vigabatrin, which enhances GABA concentration in the brain, suppressed the salicylate-induced enhancement of AC firing rate. Systemic injection of vigabatrin also reduced the salicylate-induced enhancement of acoustic startle reflex. Collectively, these results suggest that the sound-evoked behavioral and neural hyperactivity induced by salicylate may arise from a salicylate-induced suppression GABAergic inhibition in the AC.

Lu, Jianzhong; Lobarinas, Edward; Deng, Anchun; Goodey, Ronald; Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard J.; Sun, Wei



Mutational Analysis of a Role for Salicylic Acid in Iron Metabolism of Mycobacterium smegmatis  

PubMed Central

The role of salicylic acid in iron metabolism was examined in two wild-type strains (mc2155 and NCIMB 8548) and three mutant strains (mc21292 [lacking exochelin], SM3 [lacking iron-dependent repressor protein IdeR] and S99 [a salicylate-requiring auxotroph derived in this study]) of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Synthesis of salicylate in SM3 was derepressed even in the presence of iron, as was synthesis of the siderophores exochelin, mycobactin, and carboxymycobactin. S99 was dependent on salicylate for growth and failed to grow with the three ferrisiderophores, suggesting that salicylate fulfills an additional function(s) other than being a precursor of mycobactin and carboxymycobactin. Salicylic acid at 100 ?g/ml repressed the formation of a 29-kDa cell envelope protein (putative exochelin receptor protein) in S99 grown both iron deficiently and iron sufficiently. In contrast, synthesis of this protein was affected only under iron-limited conditions in the parent strain, mc2155, and remained unaltered in SM3, suggesting an interaction between the IdeR protein and salicylate. Thus, salicylate may also function as a signal molecule for recognition of cellular iron status. Growth of all strains and mutants with p-aminosalicylate (PAS) at 100 ?g/ml increased salicylate accumulation between three- and eightfold under both iron-limited and iron-sufficient growth conditions and decreased mycobactin accumulation by 40 to 80% but increased carboxymycobactin accumulation by 50 to 55%. Thus, although PAS inhibited salicylate conversion to mycobactin, presumptively by blocking salicylate AMP kinase, PAS also interferes with the additional functions of salicylate, as its effect was heightened in S99 when the salicylate concentration was minimal.

Adilakshmi, Tadepalli; Ayling, Peter D.; Ratledge, Colin



Fate and effects of salicylic acid compounds in freshwater systems.  


The comparative fates and effects of salicylic acid (SA) and Na salicylate in algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus, Monoraphidium minutum), in Lemna minor, and in Daphnia magna were examined. Test methods were principally based on the OECD testing guidelines with modifications in the procedures. The influence of fulvic acid (FA) on bioconcentration and on toxic effects was studied. FA addition significantly reduced the bioavailability of SA in L. minor and the algae species. SA was more toxic to Lemnaceae, algae, and daphnids than to its Na salt. Bioconcentration factors in S. subspicatus, M. minutum, and L. minor were about 10(3) in 72-96 hr. The reproducibility of D. magna was reduced by 38% at a concentration of 20 mg SA/liter. PMID:2743919

Wang, W H; Lay, J P



Allergic contact dermatitis from 3-(aminomethyl)-pyridyl salicylate.  


2 patients with acute allergic contact dermatitis from 3-(aminomethyl)-pyridyl salicylate are described. Both patients were females with histories of urticaria and showed cross-sensitization to substances of the para group. Clinical manifestations included eczema, angioedema and respiratory effects. In 1 patient, airborne elicitation was suspected. A lymphocyte transformation test confirmed the allergy, with an extremely high response index. 35 normal controls were negative. PMID:2766702

Camarasa, J G; Lluch, M; Serra-Baldrich, E; Zamorano, M; Malet, A; García-Calderón, P A



Salicylate Accumulation Inhibits Growth at Chilling Temperature in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Arabidopsis plants in chilling conditions could be related to their levels of salicylic acid (SA). Plants with the SA hydroxylase NahG transgene grew at similar rates to Col-0 wild types at 23C, and growth of both genotypes was slowed by transfer to 5C. However, at 5C, NahG plants displayed relative growth rates about one-third greater than Col-0,

Ian M. Scott; Shannon M. Clarke; Jacqueline E. Wood; Luis A. J. Mur



A novel salicylic acid optical fibre probe fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical fibre salicylic acid (SA) sensor is fabricated based on immobilisation of ferric(III) nitrate on Dowex-50x8. SA forms a stable purple complex with immobilised Fe3+ at pH 2.1 with a response time of 10min. The reflectance spectra of the sensor were measured by using an optical fibre spectrophotometer. The results showed this SA sensor has a maximum reflectance at 786nm.

Han Chern Loh; Musa Ahmad; Mohd Nasir Taib



Salicylic acid is not a bacterial siderophore: a theoretical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a newly available program for calculating the concentrations and speciation of various ions (Pettit, LD & Powell KJ, `SolEq' Academic Software, 1999), we have calculated that at pH 7 the amount of free Fe(III) present in an aqueous solution is 1.4×10-9 M and not 10-18 M as is usually quoted. In the presence of salicylic acid, included in the calculations at 10-4 M,

John R. Chipperfield; Colin Ratledge



Effects of Salicylic Acid on the Bioproductivity of Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is a plant growth regulator that increases plant bioproductivity. Experiments carried out with ornamental or\\u000a horticultural plants in greenhouse conditions or in the open have clearly demonstrated that they respond to this compound.\\u000a Moreover, lower quantities of SA are needed to establish positive responses in the plants. The effect on ornamental plants\\u000a is expressed as the increase in

Alfonso Larqué-Saavedra; Rodolfo Martin-Mex


Salicylic-Acid-Mediated Enhanced Biological Treatment of Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge represents a microbial community which is responsible for reduction in pollution load from wastewaters and\\u000a whose performance depends upon the composition and the expression of degradative capacity. In the present study, the role\\u000a of salicylic acid (SA) has been evaluated for acclimatization of activated sludge collected from a combined effluent treatment\\u000a plant followed by analysis of the physiological

Anshuman A. Khardenavis; Atya Kapley; Hemant J. Purohit



Electric Field Enhanced Diffusion of Salicylic Acid through Polyacrylamide Hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release mechanisms and the diffusion coefficients of salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels were investigated experimentally by using a modified Franz-diffusion cell at 37 ^oC to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. A significant amount of salicylic acid is released within 48 hours from the hydrogels of various crosslinking ratios, with and without electric field. The release characteristic follows the Q vs. t^1/2 linear relationship. Diffusion coefficient initially increases with increasing electric field strength and reaches the maximum value at electric field strength of 0.1 V; beyond that it decreases with electric field strength and becomes saturated at electric field strength of 5 V. The diffusion coefficient increases at low electric field strength (less 0.1 V) as a result of the electrophoresis of the salicylic acid, the expansion of pore size, and the induced pathway in pigskin. For electric field strength higher than 0.1 V, the decrease in the diffusion coefficient is due to the reduction of the polyacrylamide pore size. The diffusion coefficient obeys the scaling behavior D/Do=(drug size/pore size)^m, with the scaling exponent m equal to 0.93 and 0.42 at electric fields of 0 and 0.1 V, respectively.

Niamlang, Sumonman; Sirivat, Anuvat



Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new methodology for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids is proposed. The strong overlapping of the fluorescence spectra of both analytes makes impossible the conventional fluorimetric determination. For that reason, the use of fluorescence decay curves to resolve mixtures of analytes is proposed; this is a novel technique that provides the benefits in selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence decay curves. In order to assess the goodness of the proposed method, a prediction set of synthetic samples were analyzed obtaining recuperation percentages between 98.2 and 104.6%. Finally, a study of the detection limits was done using a new criterion resulting in values for the detection limits of 8.2 and 11.6 ?g L -1 for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively. The validity of the method was tested in human serum and human urine spiked with aliquots of the analytes. Recoveries obtained were 96.2 and 94.5% for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively.

Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Sánchez-Ferrer Robles, I.



Simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids.  


A new methodology for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid and salicylamide in biological fluids is proposed. The strong overlapping of the fluorescence spectra of both analytes makes impossible the conventional fluorimetric determination. For that reason, the use of fluorescence decay curves to resolve mixtures of analytes is proposed; this is a novel technique that provides the benefits in selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence decay curves. In order to assess the goodness of the proposed method, a prediction set of synthetic samples were analyzed obtaining recuperation percentages between 98.2 and 104.6%. Finally, a study of the detection limits was done using a new criterion resulting in values for the detection limits of 8.2 and 11.6 ?g L(-1) for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively. The validity of the method was tested in human serum and human urine spiked with aliquots of the analytes. Recoveries obtained were 96.2 and 94.5% for salicylic acid and salicylamide respectively. PMID:21561802

Murillo Pulgarín, J A; Alañón Molina, A; Sánchez-Ferrer Robles, I



Salicylate intolerance: a masquerader of multiple adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

A female in her early 50s presented with a long-standing history of episodic urticaria and angioedema. She also reported urticarial reactions after ingestion of aspirin, prednisone and multiple antibiotics. These medications were all taken during upper respiratory tract infections. An elimination diet followed by a series of open challenges to food chemicals demonstrated an urticarial eruption following the ingestion of mints, which contain high levels of salicylates. A double-blinded placebo-controlled challenge to salicylate confirmed her sensitivity and explained her reaction to aspirin. The patient informed her treating physician of her copious ingestion of mints during upper respiratory tract infections. Drug hypersensitivity to antibiotics and prednisone was excluded on the basis of negative radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) and/or absent skin-test responses and/or tolerance to oral challenges. This patient had a salicylate intolerance that caused her episodic urticaria and angioedema, and also masqueraded as a drug allergy due to the concurrent ingestion of mints.

Fernando, Suran Loshana; Clarke, Lesley R



Concentration-response relationships for salicylate-induced ototoxicity in normal volunteers  

PubMed Central

1 Ototoxicity is a common and troublesome side-effect of high-dose aspirin treatment but there has been little previous study of the relationships between the degree of ototoxicity and the plasma concentrations of salicylate. 2 In order to investigate the relationships between aspirin dose, total and unbound plasma salicylate concentrations and ototoxicity, eight normal volunteers were dosed with aspirin 1.95, 3.25, 4.55 and 5.85 g day-1 for 1 week at each dose level, the doses being administered in random order and double-blind, 2 weeks apart. 3 Ototoxic effects measured were hearing loss in decibels (dB) over six frequencies and tinnitus intensity, estimated both by electronic matching and a fixed interval scale (FIS). Measurements were taken after steady-state concentrations of salicylate had been achieved. 4 Total and unbound plasma salicylate concentrations increased disproportionately with increasing daily doses of aspirin. The increase in the unbound salicylate was relatively greater since the percentage of salicylate unbound in plasma increased over the dose range investigated from a mean of 3.9% to 10.4%. 5 Hearing loss and tinnitus intensity increased progressively with the aspirin dosage and increasing concentrations of total and unbound plasma salicylate concentrations. These ototoxic symptoms were observed at lower concentrations of total salicylate than previously reported. 6 There was a linear relationship between hearing loss and unbound salicylate concentations. 7 Further work is required to test the hypothesis that unbound plasma salicylate concentration is a better predictor of salicylate-induced ototoxicity than total plasma salicylate concentration.

Day, R. O.; Graham, G. G.; Bieri, D.; Brown, M.; Cairns, D.; Harris, G.; Hounsell, J.; Platt-Hepworth, S.; Reeve, R.; Sambrook, P. N.; Smith, J.



Pharmacokinetics of aspirin and salicylate in elderly subjects and in patients with alcoholic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Plasma aspirin, salicylate and salicyluric acid concentrations were monitored in young, elderly and alcoholic subjects after\\u000a ingestion of a single 1.2 g dose of soluble aspirin. The plasma aspirin, salicylate and unbound salicylate concentration-time\\u000a profiles varied considerably between individual subjects. Most of the pharmacokinetic parameters derived from these profiles\\u000a were not significantly different between young subjects, elderly subjects and subjects

M. S. Roberts; R. H. Rumble; S. Wanwimolruk; D. Thomas; P. M. Brooks



Novel metabolic pathway for salicylate biodegradation via phenol in yeast Trichosporon moniliiforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel metabolic pathway was found in the yeast Trichosporon moniliiforme WU-0401 for salicylate degradation via phenol as the key intermediate. When 20 mM salicylate was used as the sole carbon\\u000a source for the growth of strain WU-0401, phenol was detected as a distinct metabolite in the culture broth. Analysis of the\\u000a products derived from salicylate or phenol through reactions with

Yuichiro Iwasaki; Hiroaki Gunji; Kuniki Kino; Takasumi Hattori; Yoshitaka Ishii; Kohtaro Kirimura



An evidence based flowchart to guide the management of acute salicylate (aspirin) overdose  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a flowchart to be used as a tool to guide clinicians step by step through the management of salicylate poisoning. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was carried out. Results: The evidence base was used to develop a management flowchart that guides the clinician through the three main steps in caring for the patient with salicylate poisoning: preventing further absorption, assessing the severity of poisoning and, where appropriate, increasing elimination. Conclusions: Salicylate poisoning can result in severe morbidity and mortality and this flowchart provides an evidence based guideline that will guide clinicians through the management of patients presenting to the emergency department with salicylate poisoning.

Dargan, P; Wallace, C; Jones, A



Vibrational study of the salicylate interaction with metallic ions and surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are used in this work to study the metallic complexes of salicylic acid with silver and copper, comparing the interaction between salicylate and the cations (Ag + and Cu 2+) in the metal complexes with the SERS spectra when adsorbed on colloidal metal surfaces of the same metals. The salicylate complexes with the above metals were compared to those of Na +, Fe 3+ and Al 3+ cations. A different interaction mechanism is deduced for salicylate in the metal complex and when adsorbed on the metal surface.

Alvarez-Ros, M. C.; Sánchez-Cortés, S.; Garc?´a-Ramos, J. V.



Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF.

Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.



Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways.  


Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signaling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA-dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerization within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S-nitrosylation and inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ET production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used. PMID:23818890

Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A; Hebelstrup, Kim H



A rapid biosensor-based method for quantification of free and glucose-conjugated salicylic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signalling molecule in plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. It is also involved in several other processes such as heat production, flowering, and germination. SA exists in the plant as free SA and as an inert glucose conjugate (salicylic acid 2-O-ß-D-...


Theoretical modeling of infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded crystals of salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model for the infrared spectra in the O sbnd H stretching region of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid is presented. Based on the model, infrared spectrum in the O sbnd H stretching region is calculated for salicylic acid and compared with the experimental one. The experimental and theoretical spectra are in good agreement.

Boczar, Marek; Boda, ?ukasz; Wójcik, Marek J.



Salicylate and catechol levels are maintained in nahG transgenic poplar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Metabolic profiling was used to investigate the molecular phenotypes of transgenic Populus tremula x P. alba bybrids expressing the nahG transgene, a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol. Despite the efficacy of this transgenic approach to reducing...


Regulation of Heat Production in the Inflorescences of an Arum Lily by Endogenous Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently purified calorigen, the natural trigger for heat production in the inflorescences of Sauromatum guttatum Schott (voodoo lily), a thermogenic plant, and identified it as salicylic acid. Since then an analytical assay was developed that allows the quantitation of salicylic acid in plant tissues. This assay was used to demonstrate that on the day preceding the day of

Ilya Raskin; Ivan M. Turner; Wayne R. Melander



ImprovedColorimetricDeterminationof SalicylicAcid and Its Metabolitesin Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an improvement in the Levy and Procknal method (J. Pharm. Sci 57, 1330 (1968)) for determina- tion of salicylic acid and its metabolites in urine. Salicylic acid and salicyluric acid are successively extracted from 1 or 2 ml of urine (acidified with HCI) by two 10-mI portions each of carbon tetrachloride and ethylene di- chloride. The extracts of

Nagy A. Farid; Wayne V. Kessler; S. M. Shaw; W. E. Lange


Investigation of Salicylic Acid Application to Reduce Postharvest Losses in Stored ‘Bidaneh Ghermez’ Table Grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 1, 2, and 4 mM) were applied postharvest to ‘Bidaneh Ghermez’ grapes (Vitis vinifera); to investigate their potential impact on the fruit quality and storage life. They were stored for up to 45 days at 0°C, followed by 2 days at 20°C. The results indicated that postharvest treatment of grapes with salicylic acid could

Ehsan Ranjbaran; Hassan Sarikhani; Davood Bakhshi; Mehrdad Pouya



Modelling the Penetration of Salicylates through Skin Using a Silicone Membrane  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A diffusion cell to model the permeation of salicylate drugs through the skin using low-cost materials and a sensitive colorimetric analytical technique is described. The diffusion apparatus has been used at a further education college by a student for her AS-level Extended Project to investigate the permeation rates of salicylic acid…

Wilkins, Andrew; Parmenter, Emily



Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.  


Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway. PMID:23500715

Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr



Identification of rice ?-glucosidase with high hydrolytic activity towards salicylic acid ?-D-glucoside.  


?-Glucosidases (EC split ?-glucosidic linkages at the non-reducing end of glucosides and oligosaccharides to release ?-D-glucose. One of the important functions of plant ?-glucosidase is deglucosylation of inactive glucosides of phytohormones to regulate levels of active hormones. Tuberonic acid is a jasmonate-related compound that shows tuber-inducing activity in the potato. We have identified two enzymes, OsTAGG1 and OsTAGG2, that have hydrolytic activity towards tuberonic acid ?-D-glucoside in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The expression of OsTAGG2 is upregulated by wounding and by methyl jasmonate, suggesting that this isozyme is involved in responses to biotic stresses and wounding, but the physiological substrate of OsTAGG2 remains ambiguous. In this study, we produced recombinant OsTAGG2 in Pichia pastoris (rOsTAGG2P), and investigated its substrate specificity in detail. From 1 L of culture medium, 2.1 mg of purified recombinant enzyme was obtained by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Ni-chelating column chromatography. The specific activity of rOsTAGG2P (182 U/mg) was close to that of the native enzyme (171 U/mg), unlike recombinant OsTAGG2 produced in Escherichia coli, which had approximately 3-fold lower specific activity than the native enzyme. The optimum pH and temperature for rOsTAGG2P were pH 3.4 and 60 °C. After pH and heat treatments, the enzyme retained its original activity in a pH range of 3.4-9.8 and below 55 °C. Native OsTAGG2 and rOsTAGG2P showed 4.5-4.7-fold higher activities towards salicylic acid ?-D-glucoside, an inactive storage-form of salicylic acid, than towards tuberonic acid ?-D-glucoside (TAG), although OsTAGG2 was originally isolated from rice based on TAG-hydrolytic activity. PMID:23649259

Himeno, Nami; Saburi, Wataru; Wakuta, Shinji; Takeda, Ryosuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Sansenya, Sompong; Ketudat Cairns, James R; Mori, Haruhide; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu



Salicylic acid is important for basal defense of Solanum tuberosum against Phytophthora infestans.  


The importance of the signaling compound salicylic acid for basal defense of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) against Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, was assessed using transgenic NahG potato plants which are unable to accumulate salicylic acid. Although the size of lesions caused by P. infestans was not significantly different in wild-type and transgenic NahG plants, real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a drastic enhancement of pathogen growth in potato plants depleted of salicylic acid. Increased susceptibility of NahG plants correlated with compromised callose formation and reduced early defense gene expression. NahG plants pretreated with the salicylic acid analog 2,6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid allowed pathogen growth to a similar extent as did wild-type plants, indicating that salicylic acid is an important compound required for basal defense of potato against P. infestans. PMID:17977146

Halim, Vincentius A; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Altmann, Simone; Birschwilks, Mandy; Scheel, Dierk; Rosahl, Sabine



Kinetic Model of Mitochondrial Krebs Cycle: Unraveling the Mechanism of Salicylate Hepatotoxic Effects  

PubMed Central

This paper studies the effect of salicylate on the energy metabolism of mitochondria using in silico simulations. A kinetic model of the mitochondrial Krebs cycle is constructed using information on the individual enzymes. Model parameters for the rate equations are estimated using in vitro experimental data from the literature. Enzyme concentrations are determined from data on respiration in mitochondrial suspensions containing glutamate and malate. It is shown that inhibition in succinate dehydrogenase and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase by salicylate contributes substantially to the cumulative inhibition of the Krebs cycle by salicylates. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation has little effect and coenzyme A consumption in salicylates transformation processes has an insignificant effect on the rate of substrate oxidation in the Krebs cycle. It is found that the salicylate-inhibited Krebs cycle flux can be increased by flux redirection through addition of external glutamate and malate, and depletion in external ?-ketoglutarate and glycine concentrations.

Mogilevskaya, Ekaterina; Demin, Oleg



The ancient drug salicylate directly activates AMP-activated protein kinase.  


Salicylate, a plant product, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. More recently, it has been replaced by synthetic derivatives such as aspirin and salsalate, both of which are rapidly broken down to salicylate in vivo. At concentrations reached in plasma after administration of salsalate or of aspirin at high doses, salicylate activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Salicylate binds at the same site as the synthetic activator A-769662 to cause allosteric activation and inhibition of dephosphorylation of the activating phosphorylation site, threonine-172. In AMPK knockout mice, effects of salicylate to increase fat utilization and to lower plasma fatty acids in vivo were lost. Our results suggest that AMPK activation could explain some beneficial effects of salsalate and aspirin in humans. PMID:22517326

Hawley, Simon A; Fullerton, Morgan D; Ross, Fiona A; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Chevtzoff, Cyrille; Walker, Katherine J; Peggie, Mark W; Zibrova, Darya; Green, Kevin A; Mustard, Kirsty J; Kemp, Bruce E; Sakamoto, Kei; Steinberg, Gregory R; Hardie, D Grahame



Salicylate protects hearing and kidney function from cisplatin toxicity without compromising its oncolytic action.  


Salicylate has recently been demonstrated to protect against the auditory and vestibular side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Similarities in the toxic mechanisms suggest salicylate as a treatment strategy to prevent the ototoxic side effects of cisplatin (CDDP). We first tested protection of the inner ear in Wistar rats receiving a single infusion of 16 mg CDDP/kg body weight with or without treatment with 100 mg/kg salicylate (bid) for 5 days beginning one day before the CDDP infusion. Cisplatin induced a threshold shift of more than 30 dB (at 14 kHz; measured by auditory evoked brain stem response) that was significantly reduced by salicylate. We then examined the protective potential of salicylate on the cochlea, peripheral nerves, and kidney in a rat model of breast cancer--Fisher344 rats implanted with highly metastatic MTLn3 breast cancer cells. Animals received 3 x 5 mg CDDP/kg (given every third day), and salicylate was administered at 100 mg/kg (bid) from 2 days before to 3 days after CDDP treatment. Salicylate significantly attenuated the CDDP-induced threshold shift from approximately 20 dB (at 16 and 24 kHz) to approximately 5 dB, and drastically reduced the loss of cochlear outer hair cells. Likewise, salicylate protected kidney function (measured as plasma blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels) from CDDP toxicity. Protection of nerve conduction velocities of both sensory and motor nerves was minimal. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of CDDP on suppression of tumor mass and cancer cell metastasis remained unaffected by salicylate. The results suggest that administration of salicylate may become the basis of an effective therapeutic intervention against the ototoxic and nephrotoxic side effects associated with CDDP chemotherapy. PMID:12003999

Li, Geming; Sha, Su-Hua; Zotova, Elena; Arezzo, Joseph; Van de Water, Thomas; Schacht, Jochen



The effect of topically applied salicylic compounds on serotonin-induced scratching behaviour in hairless rats.  


There is a strong need for antipruritic substances for treating itch in clinical dermatology. In one recent human study, topically applied acetylsalicylic acid has been described to rapidly decrease histamine-induced itch. We have established a model for periferally elicited pruritus by injecting serotonin into the rostral back area (neck) in rats. Using this model, we aimed to investigate the antipruritic potential of four different salicylic compounds, which all possess different skin penetration characteristics. Eighteen rats were studied for 6 weeks. Prior to serotonin injections (2 mg/ml, 50 micro l), 10 micro l of test substances was applied to a circular area 18 mm in diameter. The four substances were salicylic acid, butyl salicylate, diethylamine salicylate and salicylamide, all solubilized in dimethyl isosorbide to a concentration of 5% w/w. Diethylamine salicylate and salicylamide were previously shown to be slowly absorbed through rat skin in contrast to salicylic acid and butyl salicylate. After serotonin injections, scratching was monitored by video recording for 1.5 h. Compared with the vehicle, a lower number of scratch sequences were seen when diethylamine salicylate (P < 0.001) and salicylamide (P = 0.005) had been applied. The numbers of scratch sequences were lower with diethylamine salicylate and salicylamide than with the vehicle throughout the 1.5-h study period. We conclude that topical application of diethylamine salicylate and salicylamide could suppress serotonin-induced scratching in rats. The antipruritic effect seems to be related to the slow drug release of the two substances. The results may be clinically relevant as serotonin induces itch in humans. PMID:12190947

Thomsen, J S; Simonsen, L; Benfeldt, E; Jensen, S B; Serup, J



Effects of salicylate and lanthanides on outer hair cell motility and associated gating charge.  


Salicylate, one of the most widely used drugs, is known to induce reversible tinnitus and hearing loss. Salicylate interferes with outer hair cells (OHCs), which are believed to underlie normal auditory frequency selectivity and sensitivity. In the present experiments, the effects of salicylate and lanthanides on OHC motility and nonlinear capacitance were investigated by using isolated guinea-pig OHCs while attempting to avoid inadvertent intracellular pressure change, which itself can affect OHC motility and capacitance. Either extracellularly or intracellularly applied salicylate reduced nonlinear peak capacitance (Cmpk) and shifted the voltage at peak capacitance to depolarized levels. Concentration-response curves for reduction in Cmpk by salicylate and GdCl3 revealed a half-maximal concentration and Hill coefficient of 1.6 mM and 1.0, and 0.6 mM and 1.2, respectively. In comparable groups of OHCs, the normal Cmpk values of which were near 40 pF, average Cmpk decreased to 28 and 36 pF for intracellularly and extracellularly applied salicylate, respectively. Salicylate reduced, but did not completely block, the voltage-induced length change. Extracellularly, but not intracellularly, applied lanthanide blocked voltage-induced movement and capacitance almost completely. After intracellular trypsin treatment, salicylate reduced voltage-dependent capacitance reversibly, suggesting that salicylate directly acts on the sensor/motor and not via effects on intracellular structures, such as the subsurface cisternae. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the dissociated, charged form of salicylate directly interacts with the sensor/motor on the inner aspect of the OHC plasma, whereas lanthanides interact on the outer aspect. PMID:8756420

Kakehata, S; Santos-Sacchi, J



Development of novel bepotastine salicylate salt bioequivalent to the commercial bepotastine besilate in beagle dogs.  


To develop a novel salt form of bepotastine with bioequivalent to the commericial bepostastine besilate, bepostastine salicylate was prepared and its physicochemical properties were investigated. Furthermore, the bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet was prepared by the wet granulation method, and the dissolution and bioavailability in beagle dogs were evaluated compared to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product. Bepotastine salicylate improved the solubility of bepotastine, and the extent of solubility improvement by salicylate form was similar to that by besilate form. However, this novel salt exhibited negligible hygroscopicity similar to besilate form, and showed slightly higher melting point than besilate form. It was stable in various pH solutions. Furthermore, the bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet composed of bepotastine salicylate, microcrystalline cellulose, D-mannitol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate and sodium stearyl fumarate at the weight ratio of 9.63/60.97/38/3.6/6/1.8 showed similar dissolution to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product in water, pH 1.2, pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 and was bioequivalent to the commercial product in beagle dogs. Thus, this bepotastine salicylate-loaded tablet would be a promising candidate with bioequivalence to the bepotastine besilate-loaded commercial product. PMID:22963365

Cho, Kwan Hyung; Choi, Han-Gon



Nitrate-dependent salicylate degradation by Pseudomonas butanovora under anaerobic conditions.  


Nitrate-dependent salicylate degradation by the denitrifying Pseudomonas butanovora was investigated and the molar ratio of the cometabolism under anaerobic circumstances was determined. The bacterium was able to utilize salicylate as an electron donor for the reduction of nitrate. Salicylate was eliminated via catechol, which is degraded by means of catechol 2,3-oxygenases (meta-cleavage), forming 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. The molar ratios of NO(3)(-)-N:salicylate existing during the experiment accorded well with the assumed 1:1 molar ratio. The tolerances of the growth, the salicylate degradation and the denitrification of P. butanovora to various heavy metal ions were also studied. Although the strain was tolerant to Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) up to 1 mM in complete medium, salicylate utilization took place only up to a concentration of 0.1 mM for both heavy metal ions. Of the heavy metal ions investigated, Cd(2+) (at a concentration of 0.05 mM) displayed the highest inhibitory effect on salicylate degradation by P. butanovora. PMID:15607190

Kesseru, Péter; Kiss, István; Bihari, Zoltán; Pál, Károly; Portöro, Péter; Polyák, Béla



Measurement of true salicylate concentrations in serum from patients with Reye's syndrome.  


Patients with Reye's syndrome who have been given aspirin are said to maintain higher-than-anticipated salicylate concentrations in blood, for longer than expected. We explored whether this could be attributed to spurious results from nonsalicylate compounds in the Trinder reaction for salicylates. All of 63 organic acids and amines examined that form colored complexes with Trinder's reagent had detectable absorbance at 540 nm at 0.2 g/L, including some endogenous compounds known to be increased in Reye's syndrome patients and many others endogenous in humans. By subjecting deproteinized sera to thin-layer chromatography and eluting the salicylate fraction before complexing it with ferric ion, true salicylate can be measured quantitatively and differentiated from interfering compounds. In addition, when we examined the effect of salicylate on palmitate binding to serum proteins, we found that salicylate concentrations of 0.2 g/L displaced [16-14C]palmitate binding to protein more in Reye's syndrome patients than in Reye's syndrome survivors or children with influenza. This suggests the presence of atypical binding characteristics for salicylate and palmitate in the acute disorder but not in survivors or children with influenza. PMID:6851086

Kang, E S; Todd, T A; Capaci, M T; Schwenzer, K; Jabbour, J T



Salicylate Selectively Kills Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Neurons by Paradoxically Up-regulating Superoxide.  


Aspirin and its active ingredient salicylate are potent antioxidants that have been reported to be neuro- and otoprotective. However, when consumed in large quantities, these drugs can cause temporary hearing loss and tinnitus. Moreover, recent studies indicate that after several days of treatment, salicylate selectively destroys the spiral ganglion neurons and auditory nerve fibers that relay sounds from the sensory hair cells to the brain. Why salicylate selectively damages spiral ganglion neurons while sparing the hair cells and supports cells is unclear. Here we show that high dose of salicylate trigger an apoptotic response in spiral ganglion neurons characterized morphologically by soma shrinkage and nuclear condensation and fragmentation plus activation of extrinsic initiator caspase-8 and intrinsic initiator caspase-9 several days after the onset of drug treatment. Salicylate treatment triggered an upsurge in the toxic superoxide radical only in spiral ganglion neurons, but not in neighboring hair cells and support cells. Mn TMPyP pentachloride, a cell permeable scavenger of superoxide blocked the expression of superoxide staining in spiral ganglion neurons and almost completely blocked the damage to the nerve fibers and spiral ganglion neurons. NMDA receptor activation is known to increase neuronal superoxide levels. Since NMDA receptors are mainly found on spiral ganglion neurons and since salicylate enhances NMDA receptor currents, the selective killing of spiral ganglion neurons is likely a consequence of enhanced and sustained activation of NMDA receptors by salicylate. PMID:23494753

Deng, Lili; Ding, Dalian; Su, Jiping; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard



Implications of binding mode and active site flexibility for inhibitor potency against the salicylate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  


MbtI is the salicylate synthase that catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of the iron chelating compound mycobactin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We previously developed a series of aromatic inhibitors against MbtI based on the reaction intermediate for this enzyme, isochorismate. The most potent of these inhibitors had hydrophobic substituents, ranging in size from a methyl to a phenyl group, appended to the terminal alkene of the enolpyruvyl group. These compounds exhibited low micromolar inhibition constants against MbtI and were at least an order of magnitude more potent than the parental compound for the series, which carries a native enolpyruvyl group. In this study, we sought to understand how the substituted enolpyruvyl group confers greater potency, by determining cocrystal structures of MbtI with six inhibitors from the series. A switch in binding mode at the MbtI active site is observed for inhibitors carrying a substituted enolpyruvyl group, relative to the parental compound. Computational studies suggest that the change in binding mode, and higher potency, is due to the effect of the substituents on the conformational landscape of the core inhibitor structure. The crystal structures and fluorescence-based thermal shift assays indicate that substituents larger than a methyl group are accommodated in the MbtI active site through significant but localized flexibility in the peptide backbone. These findings have implications for the design of improved inhibitors of MbtI, as well as other chorismate-utilizing enzymes from this family. PMID:22607697

Chi, Gamma; Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; O'Connor, Patrick D; Johnston, Jodie M; Evans, Genevieve L; Baker, Edward N; Payne, Richard J; Lott, J Shaun; Bulloch, Esther M M



Salicylate-induced peripheral auditory changes and tonotopic reorganization of auditory cortex  

PubMed Central

The neuronal mechanism underlying the phantom auditory perception of tinnitus remains at present elusive. For over 25 years, temporary tinnitus following acute salicylate intoxication in rats has been used as a model to understand how a phantom sound can be generated. Behavioral studies have indicated the pitch of salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat is approximately 16 kHz. In order to better understand the origin of the tinnitus pitch, in the present study, measurements were made at the levels of auditory input and output; both cochlear and cortical physiological recordings were performed in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized rats. Both compound action potentials and distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements revealed a salicylate-induced band-pass-like cochlear deficit in which the reduction of cochlear input was least at 16 kHz and significantly greater at high and low frequencies. In a separate group of rats, frequency receptive fields of primary auditory cortex neurons were tracked using multichannel microelectrodes before and after systemic salicylate treatment. Tracking frequency receptive fields following salicylate revealed a population of neurons that shifted their frequency of maximum sensitivity (i.e., characteristic frequency) towards the tinnitus frequency region of the tonotopic axis (~16 kHz). The data presented here supports the hypothesis that salicylateinduced tinnitus results from an expanded cortical representation of the tinnitus pitch determined by an altered profile of input from the cochlea. Moreover, the pliability of cortical frequency receptive fields during salicylate-induced tinnitus is likely due to salicylate’s direct action on intracortical inhibitory networks. Such a disproportionate representation of middle frequencies in the auditory cortex following salicylate may result in a finer analysis of signals within this region which may pathologically enhance the functional importance of spurious neuronal activity concentrated at tinnitus frequencies.

Stolzberg, Daniel; Chen, Guang-Di; Allman, Brian L.; Salvi, Richard J.



Pharmacokinetic and In Vivo Efficacy Studies of the Mycobactin Biosynthesis Inhibitor Salicyl-AMS in Mice.  


Mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis facilitates iron acquisition, which is required for growth and virulence. The mycobactin biosynthesis inhibitor salicyl-AMS [5'-O-(N-salicylsulfamoyl)adenosine] inhibits M. tuberculosis growth in vitro under iron-limited conditions. Here, we conducted a single-dose pharmacokinetic study and a monotherapy study of salicyl-AMS with mice. Intraperitoneal injection yielded much better pharmacokinetic parameter values than oral administration did. Monotherapy of salicyl-AMS at 5.6 or 16.7 mg/kg significantly inhibited M. tuberculosis growth in the mouse lung, providing the first in vivo proof of concept for this novel antibacterial strategy. PMID:23856770

Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Adamson, John; Cisar, Justin S; Davis, Tony D; Chavadi, Sivagami Sundaram; Warren, J David; Quadri, Luis E N; Tan, Derek S; Bishai, William R



Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding networks in cytosine salicylic acid hydrate (2 : 3 : 2) complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytosine-cytosinium base pairs are interconnected by triple hydrogen bonds thereby resembling a pseudo-Watson-Crick pattern and generates two characteristic R {2/2}(8)-motifs. Both molecules of the salicylic acids interconnect the base pair and lead to the formation of one dimensional supramolecular hexameric tape along b-axis. This hexameric tape are sandwiched by the water molecules, one of the salicylic acid and salicylate anion which form one dimensional and two dimensional supramolecular hydrogen bonded networks in the crystal packing. Macrocylic rings of cavities are also noticed in the crystal structure.

Sridhar, B.; Ravikumar, K.



Action of salicylate on membrane capacitance of outer hair cells from the guinea-pig cochlea.  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of salicylate on membrane capacitance and intracellular pH has been measured in isolated outer hair cells (OHCs) during whole cell recording. Cell membrane capacitance was measured using a lock-in amplifier technique. 2. Salicylate applied in the bath reduced the fast charge movement, equivalent to a voltage-dependent membrane capacitance, present in OHCs. Simultaneous measurement of membrane capacitance and voltage-driven cell length changes showed that salicylate reduced both together. 3. A small effect of salicylate on outward currents at 0 mV was observed. Sodium salicylate (5 mM) reduced the currents by 19% and another weak acid, sodium butyrate (10 mM), reduced outward currents in OHCs by 15%. 4. The ratiometric dye 2,7-bis(2-carboxymethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) was used to measure pHi changes in OHCs during weak acid exposure. Membrane capacitance and pHi were measured simultaneously in OHCs exposed first to 10 mM sodium butyrate and then to 5 mM sodium salicylate. Although both compounds produced a similar reduction in pHi, butyrate decreased the resting capacitance from a mean resting capacitance of 35 pF (at -30 mV) by 5.4 +/- 2.1 pF, whereas salicylate decreased it by 15.7 +/- 2.3 pF (n = 4). 5. Exposure of OHCs to 10 mM sodium benzoate, an amphiphilic anion, reduced resting membrane capacitance at -30 mV by 9.2 +/- 3.2 pF (n = 3). Outward currents, measured at 0 mV, were reduced by 0.25 +/- 0.05 nA during benzoate application, comparable with the effect of salicylate. 6. Capacitance was measured during slow bath application of salicylate. The resulting dose-capacitance curve had a Hill coefficient of 3.40 +/- 0.85 (n = 4) and a half-maximal dose of 3.95 +/- 0.34 mM. The dose-capacitance curve was not significantly voltage dependent. 7. Salicylate had no detectable effect on the resting capacitance of Deiters' cells, a non-sensory cell type of the organ of Corti. 8. It is concluded that many of the described effects of salicylate on hearing may arise from the partitioning of the salicylate molecule into the membrane of the OHC and consequent inhibition of OHC motility.

Tunstall, M J; Gale, J E; Ashmore, J F



Plasmid-Mediated Degradation of O--Phthalate and Salicylate by a Moraxellasp  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMoraxellasp. strain VG45 capable of utilizingo-phthalate and salicylate as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated. The degradation ofo-phthalate occurs via phthalate 4,5-dioxygenase, 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyphthalate dehydrogenase, 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase and protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase. Salicylate is degraded via salicylate 5-hydroxylase, gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase and then by a glutathione-independent maleylpyruvate hydrolase. Further, a plasmid of app. 60 kilobase pairs (kb) is involved in the

Mamta Rani; Dhan Prakash; Ranbir C. Sobti; Rakesh K. Jain



Salicylate-selective electrode based on a biomimetic guanidinium ionophore.  


A biomimetic strategy was employed in the development of oxoanion-selective ionophores containing the guanidinium functional group. These ionophores mimic the selective interaction observed between arginine residues of proteins and oxoanions. In previous work, it was demonstrated that a structurally rigid guanidinium ionophore exhibited excellent hydrogen sulfite selectivity (Anal. Chem. 1994, 66, 3188-3192). Herein, we describe guanidinium-containing ionophores that are selective for the oxoanion salicylate. The ability to rationally design anion-selective electrodes through this biomimetic strategy, and to both alter selectivity and improve response characteristics through structural changes to the ionophore, has been demonstrated. (1)H-NMR complexation and modeling studies were used to examine and correlate the selectivity observed with the structure of the guanidinium compounds. PMID:21639336

Hutchins, R S; Bansal, P; Molina, P; Alajarín, M; Vidal, A; Bachas, L G



Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals  

SciTech Connect

An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S



Methyl eucomate  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: methyl 3-carboxy-3-hydr­oxy-3-(4-hydroxy­benz­yl)propanoate], C12H14O6, is stabilized by inter­molecular O—H?O and C—H?O hydrogen bonds. The mol­ecules are arranged in layers, parallel to (001), which are inter­connected by the O—H?O hydrogen bonds.

Li, Linglin; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Jiang, Ren-Wang



Tunable drug release profiles from salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) matrices using small molecule admixtures  

PubMed Central

Poly(anhydride-esters) with salicylic acid, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, chemically incorporated into the polymer backbone provide high inherent drug loading. These poly(anhydride-esters) hydrolytically degrade to release salicylic acid over extended time periods (>30 days); however, an initial lag period of no salicylic acid release is observed. This lag period could be unfavorable in applications where immediate salicylic acid release is desired. Poly(anhydride-esters) with short (2 days) and long (11 days) lag periods were admixed with various small molecules as a means to shorten or eliminate the lag period. Salicylic acid, larger salicylic acid prodrugs, and 1:1 combinations of the two were physically admixed, each at 1%, 5%, and 10% (w/w). All admixtures resulted in immediate salicylic acid release and a decrease in glass transition temperatures compared to polymer alone. By varying the amounts of salicylic acid and salicylic acid prodrugs incorporated into the polymer matrix, immediate and constant salicylic acid release profiles over varied time periods were achieved.

Ouimet, Michelle A; Snyder, Sabrina S; Uhrich, Kathryn E



Chelation and Effectiveness of Salicylate Related Compounds on Pyresis, Sedimentation Rate and Hematocrit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mechanism of action and identification of sites of salicylates and related compounds in antipyresis were studied. Structure-activity investigations of antipyresis were made using Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed copper was chelated by the salicylat...

J. Schubert M. W. Rosenthal J. F. Fried



Ingestion of chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) reduces salicylate bioavailability after oral asprin administration in the rat.  


The bioavailabilities of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and of salicylic acid were studied in male Wistar rats after acute and chronic administration of a Capsicum annuum extract, containing 100 mg of capsaicin per gram. With a single administration of 100 mg/kg of the extract, aspirin blood levels remained unchanged, but salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 44% compared with control animals. With a single administration of 300 mg/kg of the extract, aspirin blood levels were undetectable while salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 59%. Chronic administration once daily for 4 weeks of 100 and 300 mg/kg of the extract resulted in undetectable aspirin blood levels, while salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 63 and 76%, respectively, compared with controls. Results show that Capsicum ingestion reduces oral drug bioavailability, likely as a result of the gastrointestinal effects of capsaicin. PMID:10537230

Cruz, L; Castañeda-Hernández, G; Navarrete, A



A rapid and simple color test for detection of salicylate in whole hemolyzed blood.  


Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is still one of the most commonly used therapeutic agents. Salicylic acid, the major metabolite of ASA, can be detected easily in urine using simple chemical spot tests such as ferric chloride or Trinder's reagent. In forensic cases, urine is often not available and the rapid detection of salicylate in whole hemolyzed blood can be difficult. This report describes the rapid and simple detection of salicylate using ferric chloride and a methanolic extract of whole blood. The color test is rapid and can detect salicylate at mid-therapeutic concentrations of 5 mg/dL. As little as 300 microL of whole blood is required and no equipment is needed. The color test can also be used with serum or plasma. PMID:2203944

Asselin, W M; Caughlin, J D


Changing surface charge with salicylate differentiates between subgroups of calcium-antagonists.  

PubMed Central

Sodium salicylate (5-10 mM) has been used to distinguish the effects of the three calcium-antagonist subgroups which had been previously differentiated in functional studies. Sodium salicylate (10 mM) reduced the antagonistic effects of verapamil and diltiazem on Ca2+-induced contractions of K+ (40 mM)-depolarized taenia preparations from the guinea-pig caecum. In contrast, salicylate had no effect on the potency of nifedipine and increased the inhibitory effects of cinnarizine and flunarizine. Sodium salicylate (10 mM) had little effect on Ca2+-induced contractions per se. In preparations pretreated with calcium-antagonists and recontracted with high concentrations of Ca2+, salicylate (5 mM) caused an additional contraction when the preparations had been pretreated with verapamil or diltiazem but had no effect in control or nifedipine-treated preparations. In contrast, salicylate relaxed Ca2+-induced contractions in tissues which had been pretreated with cinnarizine, flunarizine, pimozide, bepridil, fendiline, perhexiline and with the calmodulin antagonist W-7. The mechanism of action of salicylate was investigated. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis or of oxidative phosphorylation by salicylate was not responsible for these effects because indomethacin (28 microM) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (20 microM) did not differentiate between calcium antagonists. The effects of salicylate are ascribed to an increase in negative surface charge on the membrane because other agents changing surface charge (3,5-dichlorosalicylate, 0.3 mM; benzoate, 20 mM) have similar effects and their potency is dependent on their affinity for lipid membranes. Furthermore, salicylate increased the effectiveness of the cationic local anaesthetic, (+)-propranolol (100 microM), but did not change the effects of the neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine (1 mM). It is argued that salicylate increases the effectiveness of cinnarizine by increasing accumulation of this drug in the cell membrane or at intracellular sites whereas the reduced effectiveness of verapamil and diltiazem is secondary to a change in the state of the Ca2+ channel.

Spedding, M.



Salicylic acid in soups prepared from organically and non-organically grown vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background Salicylic acid is a chemical signal in plants infected by pathogens and it is responsible for the anti-inflammatory action\\u000a of aspirin. Patients who take aspirin have a reduced risk of developing atherosclerosis and colorectal cancer, both of these\\u000a pathologies having an inflammatory component. Dietary salicylic acid may help to prevent these conditions. We wondered if\\u000a foods made from

Gwen J. Baxter; Allan B. Graham; James R. Lawrence; David Wiles; John R. Paterson



Salicylate impacts the physiological responses to an acute handling disturbance in rainbow trout.  


While salicylates (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) have been detected in the aquatic environment, few studies have focused on the mechanism of action of these pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms. We reported previously that salicylate disrupted the acute trophic hormone-stimulated corticosteroidogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interrenal tissue in vitro. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this drug will inhibit the adaptive plasma cortisol response and the associated metabolic response to an acute stressor in trout. Fish were fed salicylate-laced feed (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 days, subjected to an acute (5 min) handling disturbance and sampled 1, 4 and 24 h after the stressor exposure. Salicylate treatment attenuated the stressor-induced plasma cortisol but not glucose or lactate elevations. The disruption of cortisol response corresponded with a significant reduction in transcript levels of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), but not peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage or 11beta-hydroxylase. Salicylate did not modify the stressor-induced elevation of brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein expression, while liver GR protein content was reduced. Salicylate impact on liver metabolic capacity involved depressed liver glycogen content, whereas no significant changes in liver hexokinase, glucokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were observed. Taken together, salicylate impairs the stressor-mediated plasma cortisol response and the associated liver metabolic capacity in trout. The mode of action of salicylate involves disruption of StAR and liver GR, two key proteins critical for cortisol production and target tissue responsiveness to this steroid, respectively. PMID:17889947

Gravel, Amélie; Vijayan, Mathilakath M



Phase formation in sodium dodecylsulfate solutions in the presence of salicylic acid for preconcentration purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of surfactant-rich phases in aqueous sodium dodecylsulfate solutions in the presence of salicylic acid was\\u000a investigated. The effect of acidity, electrolyte and salicylic acid concentrations on the parameters of phase formation were\\u000a studied. Optimal conditions for microcomponent preconcentration were found. The features of solubilization efficiency changes\\u000a of organic substances depending on their charge and hydrophobicity were established. High

Viktoriia S. Starova; Sergey A. Kulichenko



Laboratory studies on solvent extraction of low-temperature tar oils by aqueous sodium salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of aqueous saturated sodium salicylate for the extraction of tar acids from a low-temperature tar fraction is discussed. Solubility and equilibrium data for the system (neutral oil-tar acids-aqueous sodium salicylate) when plotted on a ternary diagram showed 2 types of curves: an ordinary bite type and another a loop containing solid and liquid phases. The tie-line data agree

P. Raj; M. A. K. Akmal; Y. V. S. Rao; S. M. Ahmed; R. Vaidyeswaran



Salicylate inhibits LDL oxidation initiated by superoxide\\/nitric oxide radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneously produced superoxide\\/nitric oxide radicals (O??2\\/NO?) could form peroxynitrite (OONO?) which has been found to cause atherogenic, i.e. oxidative modification of LDL. Aromatic hydroxylation and nitration of the aspirin metabolite salicylate by OONO? has been reported. Therefore we tested if salicylate may be able to protect LDL from oxidation by O??2\\/NO? by scavenging the OONO? reactive decomposition products. When LDL

Marcela Hermann; Stylianos Kapiotis; Roland Hofbauer; Markus Exner; Christian Seelos; Irmtraud Held; Bernhard Gmeiner



Active Oxygen Species in the Induction of Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance by Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complementary DNA encoding a salicylic acid (SA)-binding protein has been cloned. Its properties suggest involvement in SA-mediated induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. The sequence of the protein is similar to that of catalases and the protein exhibits catalase activity. Salicylic acid specifically inhibited the catalase activity in vitro and induced an increase in H_2O_2 concentrations in

Zhixiang Chen; Herman Silva; Daniel F. Klessig



Prevention of molecular self-association by sodium salicylate: effect on insulin and 6-carboxyfluorescein.  


The effect of sodium salicylate on the concentration-dependent self-association of insulin and 6-carboxyfluorescein (CF), as expressed by metachromasy, fluorescence, and changes in aqueous solubility, was learned. By decreasing the CF concentration from 12 to 0.48, lambda max peaks shift from the shorter wavelengths (451, 474 nm), indicating the presence of oligomers, toward the monomer wavelength region (484 nm). Sodium salicylate shifts the peaks of a 12 micrograms.mL-1 CF solution towards the monomer region, eliminating the peak at the lower wavelengths and generating a spectrum with one peak at 490 nm, the effect being concentration dependent. The fluorescence of insulin and CF solutions increases with their concentration. Quenching of these solutions was observed, up to complete elimination of fluorescence, when various concentrations of salicylate were added. The water solubility of both molecules, CF and insulin, was considerably increased with the addition of increasing concentrations of salicylate to the solutions: at 37 degrees C, 2.5 M sodium salicylate solution increases the CF solubility 532 times from 12.2 to 6.5 mg.mL-1, and 1.5 M salicylate increases the solubility of insulin 7875 times, thus an aqueous solution containing 630 mg.mL-1 of insulin may be prepared. The results obtained here, together with our previously reported data, indicate that the interference between sodium salicylate and drug self-association behavior, by increasing drug solubility, may substantially contribute to the improved drug bioavailability mediated by salicylate. PMID:3323466

Touitou, E; Alhaique, F; Fisher, P; Memoli, A; Riccieri, F M; Santucci, E



Salicylic Acid–Induced Growth and Biochemical Changes in Salt?Stressed Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive effect of salicylic acid and sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. ‘Inqlab’ (salt?sensitive) and cv. ‘S?24’ (salt?tolerant) was studied in a sand?culture pot experiment in a net house. Wheat seeds soaked in water and 100 ppm salicylic acid solution for 6 h were sown in sand salinized with 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. Pots were irrigated

Mohsina Hamid; M. Yasin Ashraf



Iron and Salicylate Induction of Cytochrome P450 BM1 in Bacillus megaterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The effects of iron and salicylate on the expression of cytochrome P450s in Bacillus megaterium were investigated in this report. Immunoblot analysis showed that the addition of 4 mM ferric iron or 10 mM salicylate to\\u000a the culture medium resulted in a significant increase in the P450BM-1 level, while the same condition had little effect on P450BM-3 expression. Substantial

Gwo-Chyuan Shaw; Hsun-Sheng Kao; Chi-Chang Sung; An-Na Chiang



Desorption of Salicylic Acid from Modified Bentonite by Using Supercritical Fluids in Packed Bed Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desorption of salicylic acid from organically modified bentonite by using supercritical fluids (SCFs) was studied. The parameters, such as pressure, temperature, SCF flow rate, and cosolvent (entrainer) concentration, were investigated. A desorption yield of 40 wt% salicylic acid was obtained by using supercritical CO2 by operating at low pressure (300 bar), low temperature (40°C), and 2 mL CO2\\/min, it reached up to 77 wt%

Nuray Y?ld?z; Ayla Çal?ml?



Salicylate modulates oxidative stress in the rat colon: A proteomic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary phenolic compound, salicylic acid, decreases oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory and potentially neo-plastic prostaglandins with a concomitant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. Salicylic acid, a dietary plant-based phenolic compound and also the main metabolite of aspirin, may contribute to the colon protective effects of plant-based diets. Oxidative stress is a characteristic of pre-cancerous and cancerous colon and inflammatory bowel

Janice E. Drew; Sara Padidar; Graham Horgan; Garry G. Duthie; Wendy R. Russell; Martin Reid; Gary Duncan; Garry J. Rucklidge



Detection of AmpC beta-lactamases using sodium salicylate.  


AmpC ?-lactamases are enzymes that hydrolyze all ?-lactam antibiotics except cefipime and imipenem. Currently, there is no standard phenotypic method for detection of such enzymes. This study aims to report the use of sodium salicylate for AmpC ?-lactamases detection and to compare its sensitivity and specificity to other commonly known inhibitors. A total of 135 clinical isolates were used to test the effectiveness of sodium salicylate in detection of plasmid- as well as chromosomally encoded AmpC ?-lactamases. All isolates were tested by multiplex PCR testing as well as inhibitor-based methods using cloxacillin, phenylboronic acid and sodium salicylate for the detection of AmpC enzymes. Four isolates were confirmed as producers of plasmid-encoded AmpC ?-lactamase and a single isolate was confirmed to have both plasmid and chromosomal genes. Cloxacillin and phenylyboronic acid failed to detect most of the plasmid-encoded enzymes. Sodium salicylate was able to detect the Escherichia coli isolates with plasmid-encoded enzymes in addition to few other isolates that were chromosomally mediated. The sensitivity and specificity of sodium salicylate was 50% and 93%, respectively, higher than those of other known inhibitors. We thus conclude that sodium salicylate can be reliably used as an inhibitor in the detection of plasmid-encoded AmpC enzymes in E. coli. PMID:23059062

Kashif, Mona T; Yassin, Aymen S; Hosny, Alaa El-Dien M S



Salicylic acid-releasing polyurethane acrylate polymers as anti-biofilm urological catheter coatings.  


Biofilm-associated infections are a major complication of implanted and indwelling medical devices like urological and venous catheters. They commonly persist even in the presence of an oral or intravenous antibiotic regimen, often resulting in chronic illness. We have developed a new approach to inhibiting biofilm growth on synthetic materials through controlled release of salicylic acid from a polymeric coating. Herein we report the synthesis and testing of a ultraviolet-cured polyurethane acrylate polymer composed, in part, of salicyl acrylate, which hydrolyzes upon exposure to aqueous conditions, releasing salicylic acid while leaving the polymer backbone intact. The salicylic acid release rate was tuned by adjusting the polymer composition. Anti-biofilm performance of the coatings was assessed under several biofilm forming conditions using a novel combination of the MBEC Assay™ biofilm multi-peg growth system and bioluminescence monitoring for live cell quantification. Films of the salicylic acid-releasing polymers were found to inhibit biofilm formation, as shown by bioluminescent and GFP reporter strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Urinary catheters coated on their inner lumens with the salicylic acid-releasing polymer significantly reduced biofilm formation by E. coli for up to 5 days under conditions that simulated physiological urine flow. PMID:22342353

Nowatzki, Paul J; Koepsel, Richard R; Stoodley, Paul; Min, Ke; Harper, Alan; Murata, Hironobu; Donfack, Joseph; Hortelano, Edwin R; Ehrlich, Garth D; Russell, Alan J



Iron and salicylate induction of cytochrome P450BM-1 in Bacillus megaterium.  


The effects of iron and salicylate on the expression of cytochrome P450s in Bacillus megaterium were investigated in this report. Immunoblot analysis showed that the addition of 4 mM ferric iron or 10 mM salicylate to the culture medium resulted in a significant increase in the P450BM-1 level, while the same condition had little effect on P450BM-3 expression. Substantial induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity by iron and salicylate in B. megaterium cells bearing a P450BM-1 promoter-cat transcriptional fusion vector suggests that the induction of P450BM-1 by iron and salicylate occurs at the transcriptional level. Unexpectedly, in contrast to the bm1P1-dependent induction of P450BM-1 by pentobarbital, disruption of bm1P1 gene did not affect induction of P450BM-1 by iron and salicylate. This result suggests that the induction of P450BM-1 by iron and salicylate occurs by a bm1P1-independent mechanism. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an iron-regulated cytochrome P450 gene in prokaryotes. PMID:9175556

Shaw, G C; Kao, H S; Sung, C C; Chiang, A N



Salicylates Inhibit Flavivirus Replication Independently of Blocking Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation  

PubMed Central

Flaviviruses comprise a positive-sense RNA genome that replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Whether flaviviruses require an activated nuclear factor(s) to complete their life cycle and trigger apoptosis in infected cells remains elusive. Flavivirus infections quickly activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), and salicylates have been shown to inhibit NF-?B activation. In this study, we investigated whether salicylates suppress flavivirus replication and virus-induced apoptosis in cultured cells. In a dose-dependent inhibition, we found salicylates within a range of 1 to 5 mM not only restricted flavivirus replication but also abrogated flavivirus-triggered apoptosis. However, flavivirus replication was not affected by a specific NF-?B peptide inhibitor, SN50, and a proteosome inhibitor, lactacystin. Flaviviruses also replicated and triggered apoptosis in cells stably expressing I?B?-?N, a dominant-negative mutant that antagonizes NF-?B activation, as readily as in wild-type BHK-21 cells, suggesting that NF-?B activation is not essential for either flavivirus replication or flavivirus-induced apoptosis. Salicylates still diminished flavivirus replication and blocked apoptosis in the same I?B?-?N cells. This inhibition of flaviviruses by salicylates could be partially reversed by a specific p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Together, these results show that the mechanism by which salicylates suppress flavivirus infection may involve p38 MAP kinase activity but is independent of blocking the NF-?B pathway.

Liao, Ching-Len; Lin, Yi-Ling; Wu, Bi-Ching; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Chiu-I; Huang, Yue-Ling; Chen, Jui-Hui; Wang, Jia-Pey; Chen, Li-Kuang



Evaluation of the acaricide effect of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid, and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tick Boophilus microplus is the principal species of ectoparasite that impairs dairy cattle productivity in Brazil. Its control is mainly by using\\u000a synthetic chemical products during its parasitic phase. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acaricide activity of\\u000a four products of natural origin. Depending on solubility, tests were conducted with solutions in distilled water or emulsified

Adriana Maria da Silveira Novelino; Erik Daemon; Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves Soares



Methyl gallate  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxy­benzoate), C8H8O5, is composed of essentially planar mol­ecules [maximum departures from the mean carbon and oxygen skeleton plane of 0.0348?(10)?Å]. The H atoms of the three hydroxyl groups, which function as hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors simultaneously, are oriented in the same direction around the aromatic ring. In addition to two intra­molecular hydrogen bonds, each mol­ecule is hydrogen bonded to six others, creating a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

Bebout, Deborah; Pagola, Silvina



Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin. Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims—To determine serum salicylic acid concentrations in non-vegetarians and vegetarians not taking salicylate drugs, and to compare these concentrations with those found in patients taking aspirin, 75 mg daily.Methods—Serum samples were obtained from vegetarians (n = 37) and non-vegetarians (n = 39) not taking salicylate drugs. Non-vegetarians and vegetarians were recruited from the community and from a Buddhist monastery, respectively,

C J Blacklock; J R Lawrence; D Wiles; E A Malcolm; I H Gibson; C J Kelly; J R Paterson



Analysis of Kjeldahl digests by the salicylate method: Optimizing pH and buffering improves both sensitivity and precision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digest acidity can interfere strongly with ammonium analysis using salicylate?indophenol colorimetry, but many methods over?neutralize acids so that buffering capacity and sensitivity are reduced. To optimize analysis of acidic digests, we replaced the phosphate buffer with salicylate. Base was added stoichiometrically to neutralize acids and dissociate one?half the salicylate to reach the phenolic pKa (approx. 13). Sample flow was 20%

Allen P. Doyle; Joshua P. Schimel



Usage of Artificial Neural Network (Back Propagation) in Optimising Salicylic Acid Determination with Ferric(III) Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of artificial neural networks (ANN) in optimizing salicylic acid (SA) determination is presented in this paper. A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for salicylic acid (SA) determination was carried out based on the complexation of salicylic acid–ferric(III) nitrate, SAFe(III). The SA forms a stable purple complex with ferric(III) nitrate at pH 2.45. The useful dynamic linear range is

Han Chern Loh; Musa Ahmad; Mohd Nasir Taib



Two tobacco genes induced by infection, elicitor and salicylic acid encode glucosyltransferases acting on phenylpropanoids and benzoic acid derivatives, including salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tobacco genes (TOGT) with homology to glucosyltransferase genes known to be induced by salicylic acid (SA) also responded rapidly to a fungal elicitor or to an avirulent pathogen. SA, although an efficient inducer, was shown not to be essential in the signal transduction pathway regulating TOGT gene expression during the resistance response. Recombinant TOGT proteins produced in Escherichia coli

Laurence Fraissinet-Tachet; Rachel Baltz; Julie Chong; Serge Kauffmann; Bernard Fritig; Patrick Saindrenan



Inhibition studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI).  


Mycobacterium tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI), a member of the chorismate-utilizing enzyme family, catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the siderophore mycobactin T. This complex secondary metabolite is essential for both virulence and survival of M. tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB). It is therefore anticipated that inhibitors of this enzyme may serve as TB therapies with a novel mode of action. Herein we describe the first inhibition study of M. tuberculosis MbtI using a library of functionalized benzoate-based inhibitors designed to mimic the substrate (chorismate) and intermediate (isochorismate) of the MbtI-catalyzed reaction. The most potent inhibitors prepared were those designed to mimic the enzyme intermediate, isochorismate. These compounds, based on a 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate scaffold, proved to be low-micromolar inhibitors of MbtI. The most potent inhibitors in this series possessed hydrophobic enol ether side chains at C3 in place of the enol-pyruvyl side chain found in chorismate and isochorismate. PMID:20512795

Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; Bulloch, Esther M M; Rutledge, Peter J; Baker, Edward N; Lott, J Shaun; Payne, Richard J



Inhibition of mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis by sodium salicylate  

PubMed Central

Sodium salicylate (NaSal) is a commonly used agent with a wide pharmacological spectrum. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of NaSal on anaphylaxis. NaSal (10?1 and 1 mm) significantly inhibited systemic anaphylaxis induced by compound 48/80 in rats. NaSal also significantly inhibited local anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE). NaSal (10?1 and 1 mm) significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated that a significantly reduced level of the mRNA of l-histidine decarboxylase was expressed in mast cells treated with NaSal, compared with that without NaSal. NaSal (10?2 and 10?1 mm) had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumour necrosis factor-? secretion from RPMC. The level of cyclic AMP in RPMC, when NaSal (1 mm) was added, transiently and significantly increased about sixfold compared with that of basal cells. These results suggest a possible use of NaSal in managing mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis.

Kim, H M; Shin, H Y; Choo, Y K; Park, J K



Salicylic acid interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytic protein trafficking.  


Removal of cargos from the cell surface via endocytosis is an efficient mechanism to regulate activities of plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, such as receptors or transporters. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that is traditionally associated with pathogen defense. Here, we describe an unanticipated effect of SA on subcellular endocytic cycling of proteins. Both exogenous treatments and endogenously enhanced SA levels repressed endocytosis of different PM proteins. The SA effect on endocytosis did not involve transcription or known components of the SA signaling pathway for transcriptional regulation. SA likely targets an endocytic mechanism that involves the coat protein clathrin, because SA interfered with the clathrin incidence at the PM and clathrin-deficient mutants were less sensitive to the impact of SA on the auxin distribution and root bending during the gravitropic response. By contrast, SA did not affect the ligand-induced endocytosis of the flagellin sensing2 (FLS2) receptor during pathogen responses. Our data suggest that the established SA impact on transcription in plant immunity and the nontranscriptional effect of SA on clathrin-mediated endocytosis are independent mechanisms by which SA regulates distinct aspects of plant physiology. PMID:23613581

Du, Yunlong; Tejos, Ricardo; Beck, Martina; Himschoot, Ellie; Li, Hongjiang; Robatzek, Silke; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jirí



Prevention of molecular self-association by sodium salicylate: effect on methylene blue.  


Sodium salicylate improves the rectal absorption of drugs which exhibit molecular self-association; it is suggested that salicylate may improve drug bioavailability by altering the drug self-association pattern. Methylene blue was chosen as a model molecule for investigating the interference of salicylate with drugs undergoing self-association. The effect of sodium salicylate on the concentration-dependent association of methylene blue as expressed by metachromasy was observed and compared with the effects of other additives: urea, sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium sulfate, and sodium benzoate. By increasing the methylene blue concentration from 10(-5) M to 2 X 10(-3) M, the lambda max peak shifts from the longer wavelength region (approximately 660 nm) of the monomer toward the shorter (approximately 600 nm) indicating the presence of dimers and other oligomers. Addition of increased concentrations of sodium salicylate had a deaggregative effect on a 10(-3) M methylene blue solution, shifting the peaks toward the monomer region. On the other hand, the addition of 0.5 M of any of the following salts: sulfate, acetate, or chloride, to a 10(-3) M, aqueous solution of methylene blue had the opposite effect, eliminating the lambda max peak at 660 nm and generating a spectrum with one peak at approximately 600 nm, which indicated a high degree of self-association. The sodium salicylate effect is concentration dependent, with a high excess (approximately 450 times on a molar scale) being necessary to reduce the self-association. At lower concentrations of salicylate, precipitation occurs in the system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3723360

Touitou, E; Fisher, P



Novel pathway of salicylate degradation by Streptomyces sp. strain WA46.  


A novel salicylate-degrading Streptomyces sp., strain WA46, was identified by UV fluorescence on solid minimal medium containing salicylate; trace amounts of gentisate were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography when strain WA46 was grown with salicylate. PCR amplification of WA46 DNA with degenerate primers for gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GDO) genes produced an amplicon of the expected size. Sequential PCR with nested GDO primers was then used to identify a salicylate degradation gene cluster in a plasmid library of WA46 chromosomal DNA. The nucleotide sequence of a 13.5-kb insert in recombinant plasmid pWD1 (which was sufficient for the complete degradation of salicylate) showed that nine putative open reading frames (ORFs) (sdgABCDEFGHR) were involved. Plasmid pWD1 derivatives disrupted in each putative gene were transformed into Streptomyces lividans TK64. Disruption of either sdgA or sdgC blocked salicylate degradation; constructs lacking sdgD accumulated gentisate. Cell extracts from Escherichia coli DH5 alpha transformants harboring pUC19 that expressed each of the sdg ORFs showed that conversions of salicylate to salicylyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and salicylyl-CoA to gentisyl-CoA required SdgA and SdgC, respectively. SdgA required CoA and ATP as cofactors, while NADH was required for SdgC activity; SdgC was identified as salicylyl-CoA 5-hydroxylase. Gentisyl-CoA underwent spontaneous cleavage to gentisate and CoA. SdgA behaved as a salicylyl-CoA ligase despite showing amino acid sequence similarity to an AMP-ligase. SdgD was identified as a GDO. These results suggest that Streptomyces sp. strain WA46 degrades salicylate by a novel pathway via a CoA derivative. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse transcriptase-PCR studies indicated that salicylate induced expression of the sdg cluster. PMID:15006746

Ishiyama, Daisuke; Vujaklija, Dusica; Davies, Julian



Percutaneous penetration of octyl salicylate from representative sunscreen formulations through human skin in vitro.  


The human skin penetration of [14C]octyl salicylate from two representative sunscreen vehicles was determined in vitro. 3H-sucrose was incorporated into all formulations and provided a marker for membrane integrity. When applied as a finite dose in an oil-in-water emulsion vehicle containing 5% (w/w) octyl salicylate, the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 0.65+/-0.16% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 1.58+/-0.36 microg/cm2). When applied as an infinite dose in the oil-in-water emulsion vehicle the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 0.47+/-0.22% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 27.54+/-13.91 microg/cm2). When applied as a finite dose in a representative hydroalcoholic formulation containing 5% (w/w) octyl salicylate, the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 0.59+/-0.09% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 1.58+/-0.25 microg/cm2). When applied as an infinite dose in the hydroalcoholic formulation the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 0.23+/-0.05% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 11.28+/-2.55 microg/cm2). The penetration of [14C]salicylic acid [applied at a concentration of 2.7% (w/w), in the oil-in-water emulsion] was also determined. When applied as a finite dose the average total absorption of 14C over 48 hr was 1.14+/-0.23% of the applied dose (representing a total amount permeated of 1.65+/-0.39 microg/cm2). These results suggest that the in vitro human skin permeation of octyl salicylate is relatively low. The amounts of octyl salicylate and salicylic acid permeated when applied in similar vehicles were remarkably similar over 48 hr (1.58 microg/cm2 and 1.65 microg/cm2, respectively). This suggests the possibility that the 14C label appearing in the receptor fluid may, in both cases, represent salicylic acid. If this is the case, then it is possible that the amount of octyl salicylate permeating through the skin is much less than that suggested by the data obtained here. This supposition is, however, entirely speculative and has yet to be confirmed experimentally. PMID:9449227

Walters, K A; Brain, K R; Howes, D; James, V J; Kraus, A L; Teetsel, N M; Toulon, M; Watkinson, A C; Gettings, S D



Involvement of jasmonate- and salicylate-related signaling pathways for the production of specific herbivore-induced volatiles in plants.  


We compared volatiles from lima bean leaves (Phaseolus lunatus) infested by either beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), common armyworm [Mythimna (Pseudaletia) separata], or two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). We also analyzed volatiles from the leaves treated with jasmonic acid (JA) and/or methyl salicylate (MeSA). The volatiles induced by aqueous JA treatment were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those induced by S. exigua or M. separata damage. Furthermore, both S. exigua and aqueous JA treatment induced the expression of the same basic PR genes. In contrast, gaseous MeSA treatment, and aqueous JA treatment followed by gaseous MeSA treatment, induced volatiles that was qualitatively and quantitatively more similar to the T. urticae-induced volatiles than those induced by aqueous JA treatment. In addition, T. urticae damage resulted in the expression of the acidic and basic PR genes that were induced by gaseous MeSA treatment and by aqueous JA treatment, respectively. Based on these data, we suggest that in lima bean leaves, the JA-related signaling pathway is involved in the production of caterpillar-induced volatiles, while both the SA-related signaling pathway and the JA-related signaling pathway are involved in the production of T. urticae-induced volatiles. PMID:10845451

Ozawa, R; Arimura, G; Takabayashi, J; Shimoda, T; Nishioka, T



Infrared Multiple-Photon Dissociation spectroscopy of group II metal complexes with salicylate  

SciTech Connect

Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation, and the combination of infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to characterize singly-charged, 1:1 complexes of Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ with salicylate. For each metal-salicylate complex, the CID pathways are: (a) elimination of CO2 and (b) formation of [MOH]+ where M=Ca2+, Sr2+ or Ba2+. DFT calculations predict three minima for the cation-salicylate complexes which differ in the mode of metal binding. In the first, the metal ion is coordinated by O atoms of the (neutral) phenol and carboxylate groups of salicylate. In the second, the cation is coordinated by phenoxide and (neutral) carboxylic acid groups. The third mode involves coordination by the carboxylate group alone. The infrared spectrum for the metal-salicylate complexes contains a number of absorptions between 1000 – 1650 cm-1, and the best correlation between theoretical and experimental spectra for the structure that features coordination of the metal ion by phenoxide and the carbonyl group of the carboxylic acid group, consistent with calculated energies for the respective species.

Ryan P. Dain; Gary Gresham; Gary S. Groenewold; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens; Michael J. van Stipdonk



Improved colorimetric determination of salicylic acid and its metabolites in urine.  


We describe an improvement in the Levy and Procknal method [J. Pharm. Sci. 57, 1330 (1968)] for determination of salicylic acid and its metabolites in urine. Salicylic acid and salicyluric acid are successively extracted from 1 or 2 ml of urine (acidified with HCl) by two 10-ml portions each of carbon tetrachloride and ethylene dichloride. The extracts of each solvent are shaken with 5 ml of ferric nitrate solution (a 10-fold dilution of 17 g of Fe(NO-3)-9H-2O in 1 liter of 70 mmol/liter HNO-3). The aqueous phases are centrifuged and their absorbances measured at 530 nm. For total salicylate, 3 ml of urine and 3 ml of HCl are heated in a partially evacuated serum vial at 100 degrees C for 16 h and then salicylic acid is assayed in the hydrolyzed sample. Recovery of a weighed oral dose of sodium salicylate in urine was 105.4%; it was 127.9% by the Levy and Procknal method for the same sample. The improved method is faster and more accurate. PMID:1137922

Farid, N A; Born, G S; Kessler, W V; Shaw, S M; Lange, W E



Systematic review of efficacy of topical rubefacients containing salicylates for the treatment of acute and chronic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of topical rubefacients containing salicylates in acute and chronic pain. Data sources Electronic databases and manufacturers of salicylates. Study selection Randomised double blind trials comparing topical rubefacients with placebo or another active treatment in adults with acute or chronic pain, and reporting dichotomous information, around a 50% reduction in pain, and analyses at

Lorna Mason; R Andrew Moore; Jayne E Edwards; Henry J McQuay; Sheena Derry; Philip J Wiffen



Salicylate Detection by Complexation with Iron(III) and Optical Absorbance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment for the undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratory involving applications of visible spectrophotometry is described. Salicylate, a component found in several medications, as well as the active by-product of aspirin decomposition, is quantified. The addition of excess iron(III) to a solution of salicylate generates a deeply…

Mitchell-Koch, Jeremy T.; Reid, Kendra R.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.



Salicylate stimulates the degradation of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas saccharophila P15  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas saccharophila P15 was isolated from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and previously was reported to degrade a variety of low- and high-molecular weight PAH. Strain P15 grows on phenanthrene by a known pathway in which salicylate is an intermediate. Preincubation with phenanthrene and downstream intermediates through salicylate stimulated PAH dioxygenase activity and initial rates of phenanthrene removal,

S. H. Chen; M. D. Aitken



The electro-responsive drug delivery from salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release mechanisms and the diffusion coefficients of salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels were investigated experimentally by using a modified Franz-Diffusion cell at the temperature of 37 ^0C to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. The fabricated hydrogels retain their physical shapes and sizes during the experiments along with data reproducibility. A significant amount of salicylic is released within 48 hours from the hydrogels of various crosslinking ratios with and without electric field; the release profile follows the Q vs. t^1/2 relationship. Diffusion coefficients, as determined from the Higuchi equation, increase with electric field strength and reach maximum values at electric field strength of 0.1 V due to the electrophoresis of salicylic drug and become saturated at electric field strengths between 0.5 -- 10 V.

Niamlang, Sumonman; Sirivat, Anuvat



Salicylic acid prevents the adherence of bacteria and yeast to silastic catheters.  


During the pathogenesis of catheter-related urinary tract infection, bacteria attach to the catheter and migrate along a biofilm into the bladder. We studied the effect of coating silastic catheters with salicylic acid on bacterial and yeast adherence. An agar roll technique, bioluminescent assay, and radiolabeling study all produced consistent results. There was a dose related inhibition of adherence with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis. Inhibition of over 90% was noted with Enterobacter and Pseudomonas. Similar results were obtained in broth and synthetic urine. A dose related reduction in adherence was seen with all gram-negative rods and yeast as measured by a radiolabeling assay. TDMAC was used to bind the salicylic acid to the catheters with > 95% inhibition of the gram-negative rods. These studies suggest the potential role of coating catheters with salicylic acid to reduce bacterial adherence and urinary tract infection. PMID:8390997

Farber, B F; Wolff, A G



Response of the bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 to analogs of naphthalene and salicylic acid.  


Pseudomonasfluorescens HK44 is a lux-based bioluminescent bioreporter capable of selective luminescence in the presence of naphthalene and/or salicylic acid intermediate of its metabolism. We attempted to induce bioluminescence (BL) in this strain with 72 compounds, viz. substituted naphthalenes, naphthalene-like compounds (e.g., quinoline), substituted salicylic acids, salicylic acid-like compounds (e.g., 2-anthranilic acid), oligocyclic aromates, and intermediates of naphthalene metabolism to better discriminate response specificity. From them, 42 induced BL significantly lower as compared to naphthalene, three (viz. isoquinoline, o-cresol, and salicylamide) induced BL significantly greater than naphthalene, and 27 yielded no bioluminescent response whatsoever. Strain HK44 is therefore not prone to extensive false-positive signaling and can serve as a fairly specific indicator organism for naphthalene bioavailability. At elevated concentrations, 41 compounds inhibited BL. Thus, the inclusion of constitutive bioreporter controls as indicators of sample toxicity is vital to successful biosensing application. PMID:17571789

Trögl, J; Kuncová, G; Kubicová, L; Parík, P; Hálová, J; Demnerová, K; Ripp, S; Sayler, G S



The kinetics of elimination of salicylic acid and the formation of gentisic acid  

PubMed Central

1. A method for the estimation of gentisic acid in urine has been devised which is based on thin-layer chromatography and fluorimetry. 2. In man the urinary excretion of gentisic acid accounted for 0·6% of a 0·32 g dose of aspirin and 1·1% of a 1·28 g dose. The increase in the percentage of the dose excreted as gentisic acid provides further evidence that the elimination of salicylic acid cannot be entirely described by first order kinetics. 3. Equations are presented which describe the amount of gentisic acid formed from various doses of salicylic acid in a model system, when elimination proceeds partly by simultaneous first order and zero order kinetics. The close agreement of the experimental and theoretical results indicates that the model provides an acceptable interpretation of salicylic acid elimination in man.

Boreham, D. R.; Martin, B. K.



Disposition of sodium salicylate, flunixin and meloxicam after intravenous administration in broiler chickens.  


Three nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [sodium salicylate, flunixin (FLU) and meloxicam (MEL)] were administered intravenously to broiler chickens. Plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography methods and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. After intravenous administration of sodium salicylate (50 mg/kg), FLU (1.1 mg/kg) and MEL (0.5 mg/kg), these drugs were eliminated from plasma with a mean half-life of 04.04, 05.45 and 03.20 h, respectively. Apparent volumes of distribution (0.39, 0.08 and 0.12 L/kg, respectively) indicated that tissue distribution was limited for the three drugs. Total body clearance was 70 mL/ for sodium salicylate and 10 and 25 mL/kg.h for FLU and MEL, respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic parameters these NSAIDs may offer possibilities for treatment of various conditions in chickens. PMID:12485350

Baert, K; De Backer, P



Salicylate disrupts interrenal steroidogenesis and brain glucocorticoid receptor expression in rainbow trout.  


Varying levels of pharmaceuticals, including salicylate, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen, have been reported in the aquatic environment, but few studies have actually addressed the impact of these drugs on aquatic organisms. We tested the hypothesis that these pharmaceuticals are endocrine disruptors in fish by examining their impact on interrenal corticosteroidogenesis in rainbow trout. Indeed, acute adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-mediated cortisol production in trout interrenal cells in vitro was significantly depressed (20-40%) by these pharmaceutical drugs. Furthermore, we investigated whether this interrenal dysfunction involved inhibition of the steroidogenic capacity in rainbow trout. To this end, we fed trout salicylate-laced feed (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 days and assessed the transcript levels of key proteins involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450scc), and 11beta-hydroxylase. Salicylate treatment did not affect the resting plasma cortisol or glucose levels, whereas the acute ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly depressed in the interrenal tissue. This disruption of steroidogenesis by salicylate corresponded to a significant drop in the gene expression of StAR and PBR, but not P450scc or 11beta-hydroxylase, compared to the sham-treated fish. Also, brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein content and not GR mRNA level was significantly reduced by salicylate. Taken together, salicylate is a corticosteroid disruptor in trout and the targets include the key rate-limiting step in interrenal steroidogenesis and brain glucocorticoid signaling. PMID:16551645

Gravel, Amélie; Vijayan, Mathilakath M



Partial reversal by beta-D-xyloside of salicylate-induced inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage  

SciTech Connect

While net /sup 35/S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis in normal canine articular cartilage was suppressed by 10(-3)M sodium salicylate to about 70% of the control value, addition of xyloside (10(-6)M-10(-3)M) to the salicylate-treated cultures led to a concentration-dependent increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which rose to 120-237% of controls. Similar results were obtained when /sup 3/H-glucosamine was used to measure glycosaminoglycan synthesis, confirming that salicylate suppresses and xyloside stimulates net glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and not merely sulfation. Salicylate (10-3)M) did not affect the activity of xylosyl or galactosyl transferase prepared from canine knee cartilage, and net protein synthesis was unaltered by either salicylate or xyloside. The proportion of newly synthesized proteoglycans existing as aggregates when cartilage was cultured with xyloside was similar to that in controls, although the average hydrodynamic size of disaggregated proteoglycans and of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was diminished.

Palmoski, M.J.; Brandt, K.D.



Degradation of the plant defence hormone salicylic acid by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis.  


Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant defence hormone which plays an important role in local and systemic defence responses against biotrophic pathogens like the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Here we identified Shy1, a cytoplasmic U.?maydis salicylate hydroxylase which has orthologues in the closely related smuts Ustilago hordei and Sporisorium reilianum. shy1 is transcriptionally induced during the biotrophic stages of development but not required for virulence during seedling infection. Shy1 activity is needed for growth on plates with SA as a sole carbon source. The trigger for shy1 transcriptional induction is SA, suggesting the possibility of a SA sensing mechanism in this fungus. PMID:23692401

Rabe, Franziska; Ajami-Rashidi, Ziba; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kahmann, Regine; Djamei, Armin



Measurement of loosely-bound iron in brain regions using redox cycling and salicylate.  


A sensitive iron assay was developed for measuring non-heme and loosely bound iron in regions of rat brain. The method is based on the salicylate trapping of hydroxyl radicals generated from ascorbate-driven redox cycling of Fe3+-EDTA. This assay has high sensitivity (about 20 nM) because of amplification obtained with redox-cycling and fluorescent detection of the salicylate hydroxylation product, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate. The assay detects iron as Fe2+ and Fe3+ combined. Values of non-heme and loosely bound iron are given for three areas of cortex, caudate, hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem of the rat brain. PMID:10872751

Nelson, S R; Pazdernik, T L; samson, F E



Herbivore-Induced SABATH Methyltransferases of Maize That Methylate Anthranilic Acid Using S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine1[W  

PubMed Central

Volatile methyl esters are common constituents of plant volatiles with important functions in plant defense. To study the biosynthesis of these compounds, especially methyl anthranilate and methyl salicylate, we identified a group of methyltransferases that are members of the SABATH enzyme family in maize (Zea mays). In vitro biochemical characterization after bacterial expression revealed three S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferases with high specificity for anthranilic acid as a substrate. Of these three proteins, Anthranilic Acid Methyltransferase1 (AAMT1) appears to be responsible for most of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase activity and methyl anthranilate formation observed in maize after herbivore damage. The enzymes may also be involved in the formation of low amounts of methyl salicylate, which are emitted from herbivore-damaged maize. Homology-based structural modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis identified two amino acid residues, designated tyrosine-246 and glutamine-167 in AAMT1, which are responsible for the high specificity of AAMTs toward anthranilic acid. These residues are conserved in each of the three main clades of the SABATH family, indicating that the carboxyl methyltransferases are functionally separated by these clades. In maize, this gene family has diversified especially toward benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases that accept anthranilic acid and benzoic acid.

Kollner, Tobias G.; Lenk, Claudia; Zhao, Nan; Seidl-Adams, Irmgard; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Chen, Feng; Degenhardt, Jorg



Salicylate elimination diets in children: is food restriction supported by the evidence?  


A review of case notes from our Sydney-based paediatric allergy services, between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2011, identified 74 children who had been prescribed diets that eliminated foods containing natural salicylates before attending our clinics. The most common indications for starting the diets were eczema (34/74) and behavioural disturbances (17/74) including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We could find no peer-reviewed evidence to support the efficacy of salicylate elimination diets in managing these diseases. We do not prescribe these diets, and in a survey of European and North American food allergy experts, only 1/23 respondents used a similar diet for eczema, with none of the respondents using salicylate elimination to treat ADHD. A high proportion (31/66) of children suffered adverse outcomes, including nutritional deficiencies and food aversion, with four children developing eating disorders. We could find no published evidence to support the safety of these diets in children. While this uncontrolled study does not prove a causal relationship between salicylate elimination diets and harm, the frequency of adverse events appears high, and in the absence of evidence of safety or efficacy, we cannot recommend the use of these diets in children. PMID:23919705

Gray, Paul E A; Mehr, Sam; Katelaris, Constance H; Wainstein, Brynn K; Star, Anita; Campbell, Dianne; Joshi, Preeti; Wong, Melanie; Frankum, Brad; Keat, Karuna; Dunne, Geraldine; Dennison, Barbara; Kakakios, Alyson; Ziegler, John B



Analgesic efficacy of sodium salicylate in an amphotericin B-induced bovine synovitis-arthritis model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the efficacy of sodium salicylate for providing analgesia in an amphotericin B-induced bovine synovitis-arthritis model using 10 male Holstein calves, 4 to 6 mo old and weighing approximately 250 kg. The study used a repeated measures partial crossover design with 2 phases, consisting of 3 treat- ment periods within each phase. Calves were blocked by body weight

JAMIE LEE KOTSCHWAR; J. F. Coetzee; D. E. Anderson; R. Gehring; B. KuKanich; M. D. Apley



Research paper Hypotonic swelling of salicylate-treated cochlear outer hair cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outer hair cell (OHC) is a hydrostat with a low hydraulic conductivity of Pf =3 · 10 ? 4 cm\\/s across the plasma membrane (PM) and subsurface cisterna that make up the OHC's lateral wall. The SSC is structurally and functionally a transport barrier in normal cells that is known to be disrupted by salicylate. The effect of sodium

Man Zhi; J. Tilak Ratnanather; Elvan Ceyhan; Aleksander S. Popel; William E. Brownell


Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is described for the rapid determination of nitrate?N in plant extracts. The complex formed by nitration of salicylic acid under highly acidic conditions absorbs maximally at 410 nm in basic (pH>12) solutions. Absorbance of the chromophore is directly proportional to the amount of nitrate?N present. Ammonium, nitrite, and chloride ions do not interfere.

D. A. Cataldo; M. Maroon; L. E. Schrader; V. L. Youngs



Interaction of salicylic acid with verrucae assessed by FT-Raman spectroscopy.  


FT-Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate treated verrucae (warts from the sole of the foot) with a local application of a salicylic acid paint. Differences in the molecular structure of the stratum corneum across the verruca sample were observed, and by comparison with normal and hyperkeratotic skin it was concluded that the tissue around the edges of the verrucae was typically hyperkeratotic skin. In the centre of the verruca, the molecular structure of the skin was altered showing evidence of the interaction with salicylic acid. Salicylic acid was not observed in its characteristic dimerised acid structure, but spectroscopic evidence suggested that fission of the intermolecular H-bonding essentially cleaved the dimer. Observed changes in the v(CCO) stretching mode of the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups indicate the inter H-bonds have broken. These spectral changes are believed to be more consistent with salicylic acid bonding within the human papillomavirus-containing verruca tissue rather than simple acid dissociation upon dissolution in water within the tissue. No evidence for the presence of the other paint components, lactic acid and flexible collodion, was found in the verrucae spectra. This Raman approach may help to elucidate the molecular basis for therapeutic agents interacting with diseased skin. PMID:9771616

Lawson, E E; Edwards, H G; Barry, B W; Williams, A C



Salicylate Disrupts Interrenal Steroidogenesis and Brain Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression in Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varying levels of pharmaceuticals, including salicylate, ibupro- fen, and acetaminophen, have been reported in the aquatic environment, but few studies have actually addressed the impact of these drugs on aquatic organisms. We tested the hypothesis that these pharmaceuticals are endocrine disruptors in fish by exam- ining their impact on interrenal corticosteroidogenesis in rainbow trout. Indeed, acute adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- mediated

Amelie Gravel; Mathilakath M. Vijayan



Inhibition of catalase activity by oxidative stress and its relationship to salicylic acid accumulation in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decrease in catalase activity and its relationship to change in salicylic acid content were investigated in rice, wheat, and cucumber seedlings exposed to oxidative stresses. A decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence (?F\\/Fm'), measured as an indicator of the oxidative stress, and a drop in catalase activity were observed following treatment with NaCl in all plant seedlings tested . Furthermore, such

Ie-Sung Shim; Yukie Momose; Akihiro Yamamoto; Dea-Wook Kim; Kenji Usui



Immediate Early Transcription Activation by Salicylic Acid via the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus as-1 Element  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco plants carrying a number of regulatory sequences derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter were tested for their response to treatment with salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous signal involved in plant defense responses. PGlucuronidase (GUS) gene fusions with the full-length (-343 to +8) 35s promoter or the -90 truncation were found to be induced by SA. Time

Xiao-Feng Qin; Loreto Holuigue; Diana M. Horvath; Nam-Hai Chua



Roles of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, and Ethylene in cpr-Induced Resistance in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease resistance in Arabidopsis is regulated by multiple signal transduction pathways in which salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) function as key signaling molecules. Epistasis analyses were performed between mutants that disrupt these pathways ( npr1 , eds5 , ein2 , and jar1 ) and mutants that constitutively activate these path- ways ( cpr1, cpr5 , and

Joseph D. Clarke; Sigrid M. Volko; Heidi Ledford; Frederick M. Ausubel; Xinnian Dong



Neuroprotection by Aspirin and Sodium Salicylate Through Blockade of NF-kappaB Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a commonly prescribed drug with a wide pharmacological spectrum. At concentrations compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy, acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite sodium salicylate were found to be protective against neurotoxicity elicited by the excitatory amino acid glutamate in rat primary neuronal cultures and hippocampal slices. The site of action of the drugs

Mariagrazia Grilli; Marina Pizzi; Maurizio Memo; Pierfranco Spano



The Absolute Quantum Efficiency of Sodium Salicylate Excited by Extreme Ultraviolet Light.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The absolute quantum efficiency of aged sodium salicylate was measured at selected wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet. The quantum efficiency was found to be of the order of 42% to 48% at the shorter wavelengths and about 80% at 1216A. The excitation ...

E. C. Bruner



Campylobacter pyloridis and associated gastritis: investigator blind, placebo controlled trial of bismuth salicylate and erythromycin ethylsuccinate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigator blind trial was performed comparing bismuth salicylate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and placebo in the treatment of Campylobacter pyloridis associated gastritis in patients without peptic ulceration. Fifty patients fulfilled the study criteria. There was a strong correlation between the presence of C pyloridis and histologically confirmed gastritis. Clearance of organisms led to improvement of the gastritis. C pyloridis was cleared

C A McNulty; J C Gearty; B Crump; M Davis; I A Donovan; V Melikian; D M Lister; R Wise



Actions and interactions of acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid and diflunisal on platelet aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is increasingly employed in the secondary prophylaxis of thromboembolic diseases, due to its capacity to inhibit platelet aggregation. The anti-aggregatory effect of ASA on platelets can be inhibited in vitro by a high concentration of salicylic acid (SA). SA is generated in vivo upon ASA administration, and the SA thus formed might impair the antiplatelet effect of

E. Nitelius; B. Brantmark; B. Fredholm; U. Hedner; G. Plym Forshell; E. Wåhlin-Boll; A. Melander



Salicylate Prevents Virus-Induced Type 1 Diabetes in the BBDR Rat  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR) rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist) develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-?, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein) in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1? and IL-12, coupled with sustained elevations of haptoglobin, were specific to KRV+pIC and not found in rats co-treated with pIC and H1, a non-diabetogenic virus. Salicylate administered concurrently with KRV+pIC inhibited the elevations in IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-? and haptoglobin almost completely, and reduced IL-12 levels significantly. Salicylate prevented diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and diabetes-free animals had no evidence of insulitis. Our data support an important role for innate immunity in virus-induced type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The ability of salicylate to prevent diabetes in this robust animal model demonstrates its potential use to prevent or attenuate human autoimmune diabetes.

Yang, Chaoxing; Jurczyk, Agata; diIorio, Philip; Norowski, Elaine; Brehm, Michael A.; Grant, Christian W.; Guberski, Dennis L.; Greiner, Dale L.; Bortell, Rita



An Easily Constructed Salicylate-Ion-Selective Electrode for Use in the Instructional Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an electrode, selective for the salicylate ion, that can be prepared and used by undergraduate students. Discusses the preparation of the electrode, typical response characteristics obtained, and results of a limited study using the electrode to estimate the selectivity coefficient for an interfering ion and to determine the amount of…

Creager, Stephen E.; And Others



Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth, Metabolic Activities and Oil Content of Basil and Marjoram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and marjoram (Majorana hortensis) plants to foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M was determined in pot experiments conducted during 2004 - 2005. SA increased plant height, number of (branches, nodes & leaves) per plant, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of herbs,



Structure and mechanism of MbtI, the salicylate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  


MbtI (rv2386c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the initial transformation in mycobactin biosynthesis by converting chorismate to salicylate. We report here the structure of MbtI at 2.5 A resolution and demonstrate that isochorismate is a kinetically competent intermediate in the synthesis of salicylate from chorismate. At pH values below 7.5 isochorismate is the dominant product while above this pH value the enzyme converts chorismate to salicylate without the accumulation of isochorismate in solution. The salicylate and isochorismate synthase activities of MbtI are Mg2+-dependent, and in the absence of Mg2+ MbtI has a promiscuous chorismate mutase activity similar to that of the isochorismate pyruvate lyase, PchB, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MbtI is part of a larger family of chorismate-binding enzymes descended from a common ancestor (the MST family), that includes the isochorismate synthases and anthranilate synthases. The lack of active site residues unique to pyruvate eliminating members of this family, combined with the observed chorismate mutase activity, suggests that MbtI may exploit a sigmatropic pyruvate elimination mechanism similar to that proposed for PchB. Using a combination of structural, kinetic, and sequence based studies we propose a mechanism for MbtI applicable to all members of the MST enzyme family. PMID:17240979

Zwahlen, Jacque; Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Zhou, Rong; Kisker, Caroline; Tonge, Peter J



Assessment of a point-of-care test for paracetamol and salicylate in blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Paracetamol and salicylate are com- monly taken in acute overdose. Clinicians have a low threshold for excluding the presence of these two drugs, by ordering laboratory tests in any patient suspected of ingesting an overdose or with an altered mental state. Aim: To test the effectiveness of a new point of care test that qualitatively detects paracetamol and




Influence of Salicylic Acid on Stress Tolerance During Seed Germination of Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between compatible solutes (osmolytes) and antioxidants are the strategies that plants have developed to tolerate salt stress. Pre-treatment of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv) with Salicylic acid (SA) can be enhanced their tolerance to saline stress during germination. The alleviation of oxidative damage and increased resistance to salt stress induced by 150

Hanan E. Deef



Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is focused on the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) under cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Cadmium treatments resulted in the inhibition of root dry biomass, root elongation and increased Cd accumulation in roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA (500 ?M) for 20 hrs resulted in protection against Cd, increased root dry biomass, root elongation and minimal accumulation

Helal Ragab Moussa; Sabah Mohamed El-Gamal



Biocontrol Elicited Systemic Resistance in Sugarbeet is Salicylic Acid Independent and NPR1 Dependent.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABSTRACT: Salicylic acid (SA) and NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) are both key players in the establishment of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previously we demonstrated that biological control agents (BCAs) Bacillus mycoides isolate Bac J (BmJ) and Bacillus mojavensis isol...


Resistance to rice blast induced by ferric chloride, di-potassium hydrogen phosphate and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferric chloride, di-potassium hydrogen phosphate and salicylic acid were tested for their capacity to suppress rice blast under greenhouse and field conditions. In greenhouse experiments, the chemicals significantly reduced disease severity when applied as a soil drench, thus demonstrating a systemic effect. Foliar spray, but not seed treatment, also caused a reduction in blast severity. In field experiments conducted at

H. K. Manandhar; H. J. Lyngs Jørgensen; S. B. Mathur; V. Smedegaard-Petersen



Properties of salicylate hydroxylase and hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase purified from Trichosporon cutaneum.  


Salicylate hydroxylase (salicylate 1-monooxygenase, EC was purified from the soil yeast Trichosporon cutaneum. The enzyme contained flavin adenine dinucleotide and was monomeric, with a molecular weight of 45,300. In addition to salicylate, the four isomeric dihydroxybenzoates having one hydroxyl adjacent to carboxyl in the benzene nucleus were oxidatively decarboxylated without formation of hydrogen peroxide. One of these isomers, gentisate, was rapidly oxidized to hydroxyquinol by the enzyme but did not serve as an effective single carbon source for T. cutaneum; however, when growing with salicylate, cells also readily utilized gentisate for growth. Hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11....) is a newly investigated enzyme which was purified from T. cutaneum grown with 4-hydroxybenzoate. The enzyme was red, contained ferric iron, and was specific for hydroxyquinol; catechol and pyrogallol were oxidized at less than 1% of the rate for hydroxyquinol, and no activity could be detected against seven other catechols. The enzyme was composed of two nonidentical subunits having molecular weights of 39,600 and 38,200 and was apparently dimeric. PMID:6539772

Sze, I S; Dagley, S



Urine Trinder Spot Test: A Rapid Salicylate Screen for the Emergency Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To determine whether the urine Trinder spot test, performed by emergency physicians, is a sensitive bedside screen for salicylates. Design: Prospective, blinded human protocol with subjects serving as their own controls. Setting: Urban Level I medical center. Participants: Ten male and two female volunteers with negative urine toxicologic screen results before the start of the study. Interventions: Each

James A King; Alan B Storrow; Jeff A Finkelstein



Cell proliferation depends on mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake: inhibition by salicylate  

PubMed Central

Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a ubiquitous Ca2+ influx pathway involved in control of multiple cellular and physiological processes including cell proliferation. Recent evidence has shown that SOCE depends critically on mitochondrial sinking of entering Ca2+ to avoid Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Thus, a role of mitochondria in control of cell proliferation could be anticipated. We show here that activation of SOCE induces cytosolic high [Ca2+] domains that are large enough to be sensed and avidly taken up by a pool of nearby mitochondria. Prevention of mitochondrial clearance of the entering Ca2+ inhibited both SOCE and cell proliferation in several cell types including Jurkat and human colon cancer cells. In addition, we find that therapeutic concentrations of salicylate, the major metabolite of aspirin, depolarize partially mitochondria and inhibit mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, as revealed by mitochondrial Ca2+ measurements with targeted aequorins. This salicylate-induced inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ sinking prevented SOCE and impaired cell growth of Jurkat and human colon cancer cells. Finally, direct blockade of SOCE by the pyrazole derivative BTP-2 was sufficient to arrest cell growth. Taken together, our results reveal that cell proliferation depends critically on mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and suggest that inhibition of tumour cell proliferation by salicylate may be due to interference with mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, which is essential for sustaining SOCE. This novel mechanism may contribute to explaining the reported anti-proliferative and anti-tumoral actions of aspirin and dietary salicylates.

Nunez, Lucia; Valero, Ruth A; Senovilla, Laura; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Garcia-Sancho, Javier; Villalobos, Carlos



Cytochrome and Alternative Pathway Respiration in Tobacco (Effects of Salicylic Acid).  

PubMed Central

In suspension cultures of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow) cells the cytochrome pathway capacity increased between d 3 and d 4 following subculturing and reached the highest level observed on d 7. The capacity decreased significantly by d 10 and was at the same level on d 14. Both alternative pathway capacity and the amount of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein increased significantly between d 5 and d 6, reached the highest point observed on d 7, remained constant until d 10, and decreased by d 14. The highest capacities of the alternative and cytochrome pathways and the highest amount of the 35-kD protein were attained on the day that cell cultures reached a stationary phase of growth. Addition of salicylic acid to cell cultures on d 4 caused a significant increase in alternative pathway capacity and a dramatic accumulation of the 35-kD protein by 12 h. The alternative pathway capacity and the protein level reached the highest level observed by 16 h after salicylic acid addition, and the cytochrome pathway capacity was at about the same level at each time point. The accumulation of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein was significantly decreased by addition of actinomycin D 1 h before salicylic acid and was blocked by addition of cycloheximide. These results indicate that de novo transcription and translation were necessary for salicylic acid to cause the maximum accumulation of the 35-kD protein.

Rhoads, D. M.; McIntosh, L.



Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...


Hybrid organic-inorganic crystals based on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium salicylate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADP-NH4Sal hybrid crystals are grown from aqueous solutions. The influence of the acidity of the mixed solution on the conditions of co-crystallization of the components is studied. The spectral and scintillation characteristics are determined. Co-crystallization of ammonium salicylate (NH4Sal) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP, NH4H2PO4) is shown to be feasible, the structure of the doping addition being defined by the solution ??.In basic and weak acidic media the hybrid crystals ADP:NH4Sal are formed in which salicylate anions are located in the interplanar space between the {110}-type planes in the lattice of ADP. The luminescence spectra contain an emission band maximum with ?max=360 nm.In acidic solutions there are ADP:HSal crystals in which salicylic acid molecules captured by the growth macrosteps are located in the interplanar space of the prismatic {100} and pyramidal {101} growth sectors. The luminescence band undergoes bathochromic shift to ?max=400 nm.The sensitivity of ADP:NH4Sal scintillation crystals to fast neutrons depends on the concentration of ammonium salicylate in ADP matrix. The highest neutron sensitivity is characteristic of the co-doped ADP:NH4Sal/Tl scintillation crystals.

Voronov, A. P.; Salo, V. I.; Puzikov, V. M.; Babenko, G. N.; Roshal, A. D.; Tkachenko, V. F.



Structure and Mechanism of MbtI, the Salicylate Synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

MbtI (rv2386c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the initial transformation in mycobactin biosynthesis by converting chorismate to salicylate. We report here the structure of MbtI at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and demonstrate that isochorismate is a kinetically competent intermediate in the synthesis of salicylate from chorismate. At pH values below 7.5 isochorismate is the dominant product while above this pH value the enzyme converts chorismate to salicylate without the accumulation of isochorismate in solution. The salicylate and isochorismate synthase activities of MbtI are Mg{sup 2+}-dependent, and in the absence of Mg{sup 2+} MbtI has a promiscuous chorismate mutase activity similar to that of the isochorismate pyruvate lyase, PchB, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MbtI is part of a larger family of chorismate-binding enzymes descended from a common ancestor (the MST family), that includes the isochorismate synthases and anthranilate synthases. The lack of active site residues unique to pyruvate eliminating members of this family, combined with the observed chorismate mutase activity, suggests that MbtI may exploit a sigmatropic pyruvate elimination mechanism similar to that proposed for PchB. Using a combination of structural, kinetic, and sequence based studies we propose a mechanism for MbtI applicable to all members of the MST enzyme family.

Zwahlen,J.; Kolappan, S.; Zhou, R.; Kisker, C.; Tonge, P.



Pathway of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Healthy and Vi rus- Inoculated Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SAI is a likely endogenous regulator of localized and systemic disease resistance in plants. During the hypersensitive response of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), SA levels rise dramatically. We studied SA biosynthesis in healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco by monitoring the levels of SA and its likely precursors in extracts of leaves and cell

Nasser Yalpani; Michael A. Lawton


Characteristics of the binary faceted eutectic: benzoic acid - salicylic acid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consistent symmetry relations computed from the heterogeneous nucleation data of the non-ideal benzoic acid - salicylic acid eutectic system verifies the validity of nucleation theory. The kinetics of crystal growth from the molten state of the system follows the dislocation mechanism. Anomalous behaviour of both viscosity and activation energy for the eutectic melt confirms the essence of specific interactions

B. L. Sharma; S. Tandon; S. Gupta



Salicylate Downregulates 11?-HSD1 Expression in Adipose Tissue in Obese Mice and in Humans, Mediating Insulin Sensitization  

PubMed Central

Recent trials show salicylates improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Expression of the glucocorticoid-generating enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) in adipose tissue is increased in vitro by proinflammatory cytokines and upregulated in obesity. 11?-HSD1 inhibition enhances insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that salicylates downregulate 11?-HSD1 expression, contributing to their metabolic efficacy. We treated diet-induced obese (DIO) 11?-HSD1–deficient mice and C57Bl/6 mice with sodium salicylate for 4 weeks. Glucose tolerance was assessed in vivo. Tissue transcript levels were assessed by quantitative PCR and enzyme activity by incubation with 3H-steroid. Two weeks’ administration of salsalate was also investigated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study in 16 men, with measurement of liver 11?-HSD1 activity in vivo and adipose tissue 11?-HSD1 transcript levels ex vivo. In C57Bl/6 DIO mice, salicylate improved glucose tolerance and downregulated 11?-HSD1 mRNA and activity selectively in visceral adipose. DIO 11?-HSD1–deficient mice were resistant to these metabolic effects of salicylate. In men, salsalate reduced 11?-HSD1 expression in subcutaneous adipose, and in vitro salicylate treatment reduced adipocyte 11?-HSD1 expression and induced adiponectin expression only in the presence of 11?-HSD1 substrate. Reduced intra-adipose glucocorticoid regeneration by 11?-HSD1 is a novel mechanism that contributes to the metabolic efficacy of salicylates.

Nixon, Mark; Wake, Deborah J.; Livingstone, Dawn E.; Stimson, Roland H.; Esteves, Cristina L.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Chapman, Karen E.; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.



Resistance of Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) to the Root Parasitic Plant Orobanche minor is Activated by Salicylate but not by Jasmonate  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Obligate root holoparasites of the genus Orobanche attack dicotyledonous crops and cause severe losses in many parts of the world. Chemical induction of plant defence systems such as systemic acquired resistance was proposed to be an available strategy to control the root parasite, but the detailed mechanisms involved have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and their analogues on resistance of red clover to Orobanche parasitism. Methods Roots of red clover grown in plastic chambers were applied with SA, S-methyl benzo[1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and n-propyl dihydrojasmonate (PDJ), and then were inoculated with O. minor seeds. Attachments of the parasite were observed after 5 weeks. Key Results SA and BTH, inducers of SA-mediated defences, significantly reduced the number of established parasites by more than 75 %. By contrast, MeJA and PDJ, inducers of JA-mediated defences, did not affect parasitism. The reduction in the number of established parasites by SA and BTH was due to the inhibited elongation of O. minor radicles and the activation of defence responses in the host root including lignification of the endodermis. Conclusions These results suggest that SA-induced resistance, but not JA-induced resistance, is effective in inhibiting Orobanche parasitism and that the resistance is expressed by the host root both externally and internally.

Kusumoto, Dai; Goldwasser, Yaakov; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi



In vivo electrochemical monitoring of the change of cochlear perilymph ascorbate during salicylate-induced tinnitus.  


As one of the most important neurochemicals in biological systems, ascorbate plays vital roles in many physiological and pathological processes. In order to understand the roles of ascorbate in the pathological process of tinnitus, this study demonstrates an in vivo method for real time monitoring of the changes of ascorbate level in the cochlear perilymph of guinea pigs during the acute period of tinnitus induced by local microinfusion of salicylate with carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). To accomplish in vivo electrochemical monitoring of ascorbate in the microenvironment of the cochlear perilymph, the MWNT-modified CFME is used as working electrode, a microsized Ag/AgCl is used as reference electrode, and Pt wire is used as counter electrode. Three electrodes are combined together around a capillary to form integrated capillary-electrodes. The integrated capillary-electrode is carefully implanted into the cochlear perilymph of guinea pigs and used both for externally microinfusing of salicylate into the cochlear perilymph and for real time monitoring of the change of ascorbate levels. The in vivo voltammetric method based on the integrated capillary-electrodes possesses a high selectivity and a good linearity for ascorbate determination in the cochlear perilymph of guinea pigs. With such a method, the basal level of cochlear perilymph ascorbate is determined to be 45.0 ± 5.1 ?M (n = 6). The microinfusion of 10 mM salicylate (1 ?L/min, 5 min) into the cochlear decreases the ascorbate level to 28 ± 10% of the basal level (n = 6) with a statistical significance (P < 0.05), implying that the decrease in ascorbate level in the cochlear may be associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus. This study essentially offers a new method for in vivo monitoring of the cochlear perilymph ascorbate following the salicylate-induced tinnitus and can thus be useful for investigation on chemical essences involved in tinnitus. PMID:22703231

Liu, Junxiu; Yu, Ping; Lin, Yuqing; Zhou, Na; Li, Tao; Ma, Furong; Mao, Lanqun



Loss of Function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 in Tomato Enhances Basal Aphid Resistance in a Salicylate-Dependent Manner1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We report here that disruption of function of the ?-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 (FAD7) enhances plant defenses against aphids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which eliminates the function of FAD7, reduces the settling behavior, survival, and fecundity of the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). Likewise, the antisense suppression of LeFAD7 expression in wild-type tomato plants reduces aphid infestations. Aphid resistance in the spr2 mutant is associated with enhanced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and mRNA encoding the pathogenesis-related protein P4. Introduction of the Naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase transgene, which suppresses SA accumulation, restores wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility to spr2. Resistance in spr2 is also lost when we utilize virus-induced gene silencing to suppress the expression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1), a positive regulator of many SA-dependent defenses. These results indicate that FAD7 suppresses defenses against aphids that are mediated through SA and NPR1. Although loss of function of FAD7 also inhibits the synthesis of jasmonate (JA), the effects of this desaturase on aphid resistance are not dependent on JA; other mutants impaired in JA synthesis (acx1) or perception (jai1-1) show wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility, and spr2 retains aphid resistance when treated with methyl jasmonate. Thus, FAD7 may influence JA-dependent defenses against chewing insects and SA-dependent defenses against aphids through independent effects on JA synthesis and SA signaling. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants Atfad7-2 and Atfad7-1fad8 also show enhanced resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) compared with wild-type controls, indicating that FAD7 influences plant-aphid interactions in at least two plant families.

Avila, Carlos A.; Arevalo-Soliz, Lirio M.; Jia, Lingling; Navarre, Duroy A.; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Howe, Gregg A.; Meng, Qing-Wei; Smith, Jonathon E.; Goggin, Fiona L.



Sensitive determination of salicylate and benzophenone type UV filters in water samples using solid-phase microextraction, derivatization and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  


A sensitive procedure for the determination of three UV filters: ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexyl salicylate (Homosalate, HMS), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3) and two related hydroxylated benzophenones (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, BP-1 and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-8) in water samples is presented. Analytes were first concentrated on the coating of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre, on-fibre silylated and then determined using gas chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Factors affecting the performance of extraction and derivatization steps are thoroughly evaluated and their effects on the yield of the sample preparation discussed. Under final working conditions, a PDMS-DVB coated SPME fibre was exposed directly to 10 mL of water, adjusted at pH 3, for 30 min. After that, the fibre was placed in the headspace (HS) of a 1.5 mL vial containing 20 microL of N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA). On-fibre silylation of hydroxyl groups contained in the structure of target compounds was performed at 45 degrees C for 10 min. The whole sample preparation process was completed in 40 min, providing limits of quantification from 0.5 to 10 ng L(-1) and acceptable precision (RSDs under 13%) for samples spiked at different concentrations. All compounds could be accurately determined in river and treated wastewater (relative recoveries from 89 to 115%) using standards in ultrapure water, whereas standard addition is recommended to quantify their levels in untreated wastewater. Analysis of wastewater revealed the systematic presence of BP-3 and BP-1 in raw samples with maximum concentrations close to 500 and 250 ng L(-1), respectively. PMID:19298877

Negreira, N; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Rubí, E; Cela, R



Salicylate-inducible antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas cepacia associated with absence of a pore-forming outer membrane protein.  

PubMed Central

The most common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in multiply resistant Pseudomonas cepacia is decreased porin-mediated outer membrane permeability. In some gram-negative organisms this form of antibiotic resistance can be induced by growth in the presence of weak acids, such as salicylates, which suppress porin synthesis. To determine the effects of salicylates on outer membrane permeability of P. cepacia, a susceptible laboratory strain, 249-2, was grown in 10 mM sodium salicylate. Antibiotic susceptibility and uptake, as well as outer membrane protein patterns, were compared between strain 249-2 grown with and without salicylates. The MICs of chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ceftazidime were compared between organisms grown in standard and salicylate-containing medium and are as follows: chloramphenicol, 12.5 versus 100 micrograms/ml; trimethoprim, 0.78 versus 3.125 micrograms/ml; ciprofloxacin, 0.4 versus 1.56 micrograms/ml; ceftazidime, 3.125 versus 3.125 micrograms/ml. The permeability of beta-lactam antibiotics was calculated from the rate of hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin, PADAC. There was no significant difference between strains grown in the presence and absence of salicylate. By using high-pressure liquid chromatography quantitation of loss from culture medium, the effect of 10 mM salicylate on the cellular permeability of chloramphenicol was measured in strain 249-2 by introduction of a plasmid which encodes production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. After 1 h of incubation, 18.5% +/- 1.54% versus 70.1% +/- 3.52%, and after 2 h, 4.20% +/- 1.65% versus 41.90% +/- 2.16% remained in supernatants from organisms grown in the absence and presence of 10 mM salicylate, respectively. Outer membrane protein pattern analysis demonstrated the absence of a protein of apparent molecular weight of 40,000 when strain 249-2 was grown in the presence of 10 mM salicylate. To determine whether this protein functioned as a porin, reconstituted membrane vesicles were constructed to assess antibiotic permeability. Vesicles constructed with this salicylate-suppressible outer membrane protein (OpcS) were permeable to chloramphenicol but not to penicillin G. These findings suggest that OpcS is a selective, antibiotic-permeable porin which can be suppressed by growth in the presence of salicylate. Further investigation will be required to determine the biochemical effects of salicylate on porin synthesis. Images

Burns, J L; Clark, D K



In vivo hydroxyl radical generation in the striatum following systemic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the in vivo hydroxyl radical (OH) generation in the striatum of mice following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). This resulted in a time (1.5–6.5 h) and dose dependent (0–45 mg\\/kg) increase in the content of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), a reliable indicator of OH adduct of salicylate, as measured by HPLC and electrochemical detector. Severe depletion of dopamine

Bobby Thomas; Dhanasekharan Muralikrishnan; Kochupurackal P. Mohanakumar



DNA methylation in insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosine DNA methylation has been demonstrated in numerous eukaryotic organisms and has been shown to play an important role in human disease. The func- tion of DNA methylation has been studied extensively in vertebrates, but establishing its primary role has proved difficult and controversial. Analysing methyl- ation in insects has indicated an apparent functional diversity that seems to argue against

L. M. Field; F. Lyko; M. Mandrioli; G. Prantera



Heterometallic CeIII-FeIII-salicylate networks: models for corrosion mitigation of steel surfaces by the 'green' inhibitor, Ce(salicylate)3.  


The syntheses and structures of the novel Ce-Fe bimetallic complexes [[Fe(sal)2(bpy)]2Ce(NO3)(H2O)3].EtOH and [[Fe(sal)2(bpy)]4Ce2(H2O)11][salH]2.EtOH.3H2O (salH2 = salicylic acid) suggest Fe(3+)-sal2- units and Ce-OC(R)O-Fe bridging contribute to the formation of corrosion inhibitive layers on steel surfaces exposed to [Ce(salH)3(H2O)]. PMID:12478763

Deacon, Glen B; Forsyth, Craig M; Behrsing, Thomas; Konstas, Kristina; Forsyth, Maria



Negative cross-talk between salicylate- and jasmonate-mediated pathways in the Wassilewskija ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants often respond to attack by insect herbivores and necrotrophic pathogens with induc- tion of jasmonate-dependent resistance traits, but respond to attack by biotrophic patho- gens with induction of salicylate-dependent resistance traits. To assess the degree to which the jasmonate- and salicylate-dependent pathways interact, we compared pathogenesis- related protein activity and bacterial performance in four mutant Arabidopsis thaliana lines relative

M. B. Traw; J. Kim; S. Enright; D. F. Cipollini; J. Bergelson



Urinary excretion of salicyluric and salicylic acids by non-vegetarians, vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To compare amounts of salicyluric acid (SU) and salicylic acid (SA) excreted daily in the urine of non-vegetarians and vegetarians not taking salicylate drugs, and patients taking 75 or 150 mg aspirin\\/day.Methods: Urine excreted over 24 hours was collected from volunteers in the four groups. The volumes were recorded and the concentrations of SU and SA were determined electrochemically

J R Lawrence; R Peter; G J Baxter; J Robson; A B Graham; J R Paterson



Release of 5-amino salicylic acid from acrylic type polymeric prodrugs designed for colon-specific drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

New acrylic type polymeric systems having degradable ester or amide bonds linked to the bioactive agent 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA), were prepared and evaluated as materials for colon-specific drug delivery. Methacryloyloxyethyl 5-amino salicylate (MOES), and N-methacryloylaminoethyl 5-amino salicylamide (MAES) were prepared as the polymerizable derivatives of 5-ASA using activated ester methodology. The drug-containing monomers were free radically copolymerized with methacrylic

Soodabeh Davaran; Jalal Hanaee; Abbas Khosravi



Lanthanide Oxide Doped Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysts: Effective Photocatalysts for the Enhanced Degradation of Salicylic Acid and t-Cinnamic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid and t-cinnamic acid has been investigated in aqueous suspensions of lanthanide oxide doped TiO2 photocatalysts. Complete mineralization has been achieved in the case of lanthanide oxide doped TiO2 photocatalysts in total contrast to the formation of intermediates in case of nonmodified TiO2. The equilibrium dark adsorption of salicylic acid and t-cinnamic acid is ca.

K. T Ranjit; I Willner; S. H Bossmann; A. M Braun



Experience with methyl salicylate affects behavioural responses of a predatory mite to blends of herbivore-induced plant volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many natural enemies of herbivorous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their prey. These foraging cues consist of mixtures of compounds that show a considerable variation within and among plantherbivore combinations, a situation that favours a flexible approach in the foraging behaviour of the natural enemies. In this paper, we address the flexibility in behavioural responses of the predatory

Boer de J. G; Marcel Dicke



Imidazole salicylate versus piroxicam in the treatment of arthrosis in elderly patients. A double-blind clinical and endoscopic trial.  


The clinical efficacy and gastroduodenal tolerability of imidazole salicylate (imidazole 2-hydroxybenzoate, ITF 182), a new synthetic drug with an anti-inflammatory action, was evaluated endoscopically in comparison with those of piroxicam in elderly patients suffering from osteoarthrosis. Of the 41 patients entering the trial, only 38 completed the protocol (6 men and 32 women; mean age, 71; range, 65-80 years). After upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for the purpose of excluding gastric and duodenal mucosal lesions, the patients were allocated at random, according to a double-blind, double-dummy protocol, to treatment either with imidazole salicylate 750 mg three times daily or with piroxicam 20 mg once daily for a period of 4 weeks. Imidazole salicylate proved active in controlling a number of the pain symptoms caused by arthrosis, although its efficacy was inferior to that of piroxicam. Grade 2 gastric mucosal lesions were detected in 1 of 20 patients (5%) treated with imidazole salicylate; lesions corresponding to grades 2, 3, and 4 were found in 6 of 18 (33%) of those treated with piroxicam (P = .034). Painful dyspepsia was reported by 15% of the patients in the imidazole salicylate group and by 28% of those in the piroxicam group. On the basis of these results and under the experimental conditions adopted in this trial, the authors concluded that imidazole salicylate is characterized by good gastric tolerability and can thus be used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases in the elderly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2212452

Montrone, F; Petrillo, M; Ardizzone, S; Scaricabarozzi, I; Scotti, A; Caruso, I; Bianchi Porro, G



Salicylate stimulates the degradation of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas saccharophila P15  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas saccharophila P15 was isolated from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and previously was reported to degrade a variety of low- and high-molecular weight PAH. Strain P15 grows on phenanthrene by a known pathway in which salicylate is an intermediate. Preincubation with phenanthrene and downstream intermediates through salicylate stimulated PAH dioxygenase activity and initial rates of phenanthrene removal, suggesting that salicylate is the inducer of these activities. Salicylate also greatly enhanced initial rates of removal of fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene, high-molecular weight substrates that strain P15 does not use for growth.The specific rate of removal of benzo[a]pyrene was at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the four-ring compounds and nearly 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of phenanthrene. The mineralization of phenanthrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene was stimulated by preincubation with phenanthrene or salicylate, although significant mineralization of phenanthrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene occurred in uninduced cultures. Further experiments with chrysene indicated that chrysene does not appear to induce its own mineralization. The results suggest that P. saccharophila P15 expresses a low level of constitutive PAH metabolism which is inducible to much higher levels and that high-molecular weight PAH metabolism by this organism is induced by the low-molecular weight substrate phenanthrene and by salicylate.

Chen, S.H.; Aitken, M.D. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)



Salicylate de bismuth pour la diarrh?e chez l'enfant  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question J’ai reçu récemment un patient de 5 ans à qui, lors d’un voyage en Amérique du Sud, un médecin de famille local a prescrit du sous-salicylate de bismuth pour une diarrhée. Est-ce une pratique que nous devrions encourager? Réponse La recherche réalisée dans les pays en développement a fait valoir que l’utilisation du sous-salicylate de bismuth était efficace pour raccourcir la durée de la diarrhée. En dépit de ces constatations, son efficacité limitée, des préoccupations à propos du fait qu’il pourrait potentiellement causer le syndrome de Reye, les problèmes d’observance et son coût sont les principales raisons pour lesquelles on ne le recommande pas systématiquement pour les enfants.

Goldman, Ran D.



Simultaneous activation of salicylate production and fungal resistance in transgenic chrysanthemum producing caffeine  

PubMed Central

Caffeine functions in the chemical defense against biotic attackers in a few plant species including coffee and tea. Transgenic tobacco plants that endogenously produced caffeine by expressing three N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway exhibited a strong resistance to pathogens and herbivores. Here we report that transgenic Chrysanthemum, which produced an equivalent level of caffeine as the tobacco plants at approximately 3 µg g?1 fresh tissues, also exhibited a resistance against grey mold fungal attack. Transcripts of PR-2 gene, a marker for pathogen response, were constitutively accumulated in mature leaves without pathogen attack. The levels of salicylic acid and its glucoside conjugate in mature leaves of the transgenic lines were found to be 2.5-fold higher than in the wild type control. It is suggested that endogenous caffeine stimulated production and/or deposition of salicylates, which possibly activated a series of defense reactions even under non-stressed conditions.

Kim, Yun-Soo; Lim, Soon; Yoda, Hiroshi; Choi, Chang-Sun; Choi, Yong-Eui



Is the High Basal Level of Salicylic Acid Important for Disease Resistance in Potato?  

PubMed Central

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants contain a high basal level of salicylic acid (SA), the role of which in disease resistance is currently unclear. Here we report that, in spite of a drastic reduction in total SA levels in transgenic potato plants expressing the bacterial salicylate hydroxylase gene (nahG), there was no significant increase in disease severity when infected by Phytophthora infestans. Therefore, the high basal level of SA does not lead to constitutive resistance in healthy potato plants. However, in contrast to control plants, arachidonic acid failed to induce systematic acquired resistance (SAR) in nahG plants against P. infestans, indicating an essential role of SA in potato SAR. These results suggest that in potato the development of SAR against P. infestans may involve increased sensitivity of the plant to SA.

Yu, D.; Liu, Y.; Fan, B.; Klessig, D. F.; Chen, Z.



Stability of a salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) to electron beam and gamma radiation  

PubMed Central

The effect of electron beam and gamma radiation on the physicochemical properties of a salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) was studied by exposing polymers to 0 (control), 25 and 50 kGy. After radiation exposure, salicylic acid release in vitro was monitored to assess any changes in drug release profiles. Molecular weight, glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature were evaluated for polymer chain scission and/or crosslinking as well as changes in thermal properties. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies were also used to determine polymer degradation and/or chain scission. In vitro cell studies were performed to identify cytocompatibility following radiation exposure. These studies demonstrate that the physicochemical properties of the polymer are not substantially affected by exposure to electron beam and gamma radiation.

Rosario-Melendez, Roselin; Lavelle, Linda; Bodnar, Stanko; Halperin, Frederick; Harper, Ike; Griffin, Jeremy; Uhrich, Kathryn E.



Design and evaluation of 4-aminophenol and salicylate derivatives as free-radical scavenger.  


This theoretical and experimental study describes the design and evaluation of the free-radical scavenging effect for the molecular association of 4-aminophenol and salicylate derivatives. For this purpose, we employed theoretical methods for the selection of antioxidant drugs and the rapid methods of evaluation: the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the lipid peroxidation initiated by Fe(2+) and ascorbic acid in human erythrocytes. The associate derivatives exhibited a more potent inhibition than the salicylic acid, while the benzoyl compound exhibited a more potent inhibition than paracetamol. The molecular parameters related to the electron distribution and structure (ionization potential and energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital) correlated very well with the antioxidant action of the compounds studied here in different tests. PMID:23405943

Borges, Rosivaldo S; Pereira, Glaécia A N; Vale, Joyce K L; França, Luiz C S; Monteiro, Marta C; Alves, Cláudio N; da Silva, Albérico B F



Effects of salicylic acid on growth, biochemical constituents in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings.  


In the present study, the effect of different concentrations of salicylic acid which is an endogenous organic acid in plants and which is commonly cited as a hormone, on the growth and some other parameters of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv.) seedlings was investigated. The solutions were applied to the roots of seedlings using hydroponic method. In general, 1.5 mM concentration of salicylic acid had a stimulating effect while 5 and 10 mM concentrations had varying degrees of inhibitive effects on the seedlings. Although 0.3 mM SA application produced prominent results in the case of all parameters, the difference was not found statistically significant. The inhibitive effect produced by high SA was found much more dominant than the stimulating effect of low SA concentrations. Thus, it was established that SA had a bidirectional physiological effect on the seedlings in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:21870633

Canakci, S



49 CFR 173.193 - Bromoacetone, methyl bromide, chloropicrin and methyl bromide or methyl chloride mixtures, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and methyl bromide or methyl chloride mixtures, etc. 173.193 Section 173.193...and methyl bromide or methyl chloride mixtures, etc. (a) Bromoacetone must...bromide, chloropicrin and methyl bromide mixtures, chloropicrin and methyl chloride...



Activity of salicylic acid on the growth and biochemism of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth and changes of nucleic acids, protein,\\u000a photosynthetic pigments, sugar content and photosynthesis levels in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae). The most significant changes in the content of nucleic acids and proteins was observed at the concentration 10?4 M SA between 8 and 12

Romuald Czerpak; Andrzej Bajguz; Marta Gromek; Gra?yna Koz?owska; Izabela Nowak



Effects of salicylic acid and cold on freezing tolerance in winter wheat leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM) and cold on freezing tolerance (freezing injury and ice nucleation activity) were investigated in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Dogu-88) grown under control (20\\/18 °C for 15, 30 and 45-day) and cold (15\\/10 °C for 15-day, 10\\/5 °C for 30-day and 5\\/3 °C for 45-day) conditions. Cold acclimatisation caused

Esen Ta?gín; Ökke? Atící; Barbaros Nalbanto?lu



Picomolar concentrations of salicylates induce cellular growth and enhance somatic embryogenesis in Coffea arabica tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic cell suspension cultures of Coffea arabica cv. Caturra Rojo were treated with salicylic acid (SA). Two concentrations, 10-12 and 10-10 M, had a significant effect on the growth rate of the cell cultures when compared to the control, and this effect was concentration-dependent. These two SA concentrations also had a dramatic effect on both the number of somatic embryos

F. Quiroz-Figueroa; M. Méndez-Zeel; A. Larqué-Saavedra; V. Loyola-Vargas



Salicylic Acid Reduces Napropamide Toxicity by Preventing Its Accumulation in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Napropamide is a widely used herbicide for controlling weeds in crop production. However, extensive use of the herbicide has\\u000a led to its accumulation in ecosystems, thus causing toxicity to crops and reducing crop production and quality. Salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) plays multiple roles in regulating plant adaptive responses to biotic and environmental stresses. However, whether\\u000a SA regulates plant response to herbicides

Jing Cui; Rui Zhang; Guo Lin Wu; Hong Mei Zhu; Hong Yang



Salicylic acid-mediated hydrogen peroxide accumulation and protection against Cd toxicity in rice leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of H2O2 in salicylic acid (SA)-induced protection of rice leaves against subsequent Cd toxicity was investigated. SA pretreatment\\u000a resulted in an increase in the contents of endogenous SA, as judged by the expression of OsWRKY45 (a SA responsive gene), and H2O2 in rice leaves. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and imidazole (IMD), inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, prevented SA-increased H2O2 production, suggesting

Yun-Yang Chao; Chao-Yeh Chen; Wen-Dar Huang; Ching Huei Kao



Isolation of a novel ABC-transporter gene from soybean induced by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the identification and character- ization of a new ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter which was identified as a salicylic acid-induced gene from soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams 82) in a sub- tractive suppression hybridization approach. A frag- ment of an ABC-transporter gene was used to isolate a full-length cDNA clone for this gene with a length of

Heiko Eichhorn; Michaela Klinghammer; Philip Becht; Raimund Tenhaken



Endurance training and chronic intermittent hypoxia modulate in vitro salicylate-induced hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction.  


Mitochondrial function is modulated by multiple approaches including physical activity, which can afford cross-tolerance against a variety of insults. We therefore aimed to analyze the effects of endurance-training (ET) and chronic-intermittent hypobaric-hypoxia (IHH) on liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and whether these effects translate into benefits against in vitro salicylate mitochondrial toxicity. Twenty-eight young-adult male rats were divided into normoxic-sedentary (NS), normoxic-exercised (NE), hypoxic-sedentary (HS) and hypoxic-exercised (HE). ET consisted of 1h/days of treadmill running and IHH of simulated atmospheric pressure of 49.3 kPa 5h/days during 5weeks. Liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption, transmembrane-electric potential (??) and permeability transition pore induction (MPTP) were evaluated in the presence and absence of salicylate. Aconitase, MnSOD, caspase-3 and 8 activities, SH, MDA, SIRT3, Cyp D, HSP70, and OXPHOS subunit contents were assessed. ET and IHH decreased basal mitochondrial state-3 and state-4 respiration, although no alterations were observed in ?? endpoints evaluated in control mitochondria. In the presence of salicylate, ET and IHH decreased state-4 and lag-phase of ADP-phosphorylation. Moreover, ADP-lag phase in hypoxic was further lower than in normoxic groups. Neither ET nor IHH altered the susceptibility to calcium-induced MPTP. IHH lowered MnSOD and increased aconitase activities. ET and IHH decreased caspase 8 activity whereas no effect was observed on caspase 3. The levels of SIRT3 increased with ET and IHH and Cyp D decreased with IHH. Data suggest that ET and IHH do not alter general basal liver mitochondrial function, but may attenuate some adverse effects of salicylate. PMID:23069012

Ascensão, A; Gonçalves, I O; Lumini-Oliveira, J; Marques-Aleixo, I; Dos Passos, E; Rocha-Rodrigues, S; Machado, N G; Moreira, A C; Oliveira, P J; Torrella, J R; Magalhães, J



The use of salicylate hydroxylation to detect hydroxyl radical generation in ischemic and traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen free radicals have been implicated as a causal factor in posttraumatic neuronal cell loss following cerebral ischemia\\u000a and head injury. The conversion of salicylate to dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) in vivo was employed to study the formation\\u000a of hydroxyl radical (·OH) following central nervous system (CNS) injury. Bilateral carotid occlusion (BCO) in gerbils and\\u000a concussive head trauma in mice were

John S. Althaus; Paula K. Andrus; Carl M. Williams; Philip F. VonVoigtlander; Alexander R. Cazers; Edward D. Hall



Ion-exchange properties of a salicylic acid–melamine–formaldehyde terpolymer resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terpolymer resins, synthesized by the condensation of salicylic acid and melamine with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid catalyst, proved to be a selective chelating ion-exchange polymer for certain metals. The chelating ion-exchange properties of this polymer were studied for Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions. A batch equilibrium method was employed in the study of

Wasudeo B Gurnule; H. D Juneja; L. J Paliwal



Induction, Modification, and Transduction of the Salicylic Acid Signal in Plant Defense Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in our laboratory as well as others strongly suggest that salicylic acid (SA) plays an important signaling role in plant defense against pathogens. We have found that increases in endogenous SA levels correlates with both resistance of tobacco to infection with tobacco mosaic virus and induction of defense-related genes such as that encoding pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1). Some of

Zhixiang Chen; Jocelyn Malamy; Jacek Henning; Uwe Conrath; Paloma Sanchez-Casas; Herman Silva; Jseph Ricigliano; Daniel K. Klessig



Relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV  

SciTech Connect

The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138 -15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

Angel, G.C.; Samson, J.A.R.; Williams, G.



Changes in Salicylic Acid and Antioxidants during Induced Thermotolerance in Mustard Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-acclimation or salicylic acid (SA) treatments were previ- ously shown to induce thermotolerance in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings from 1.5 to 4 h after treatment. In the present study we investigated changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants in relation to induced thermotolerance. Thirty minutes into a 1-h heat- acclimation treatment glucosylated SA had increased 5.5-fold and then declined during

James F. Dat; Christine H. Foyer; Ian M. Scott



Purification and Characterization of a Soluble Salicylic Acid-Binding Protein from Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we identified a soluble salicylic acid (SA)-binding protein (SABP) in tobacco whose properties suggest that it may play a role in transmitting the SA signal during plant defense responses. This SA-binding activity has been purified 250-fold by conventional chromatography and was found to copurify with a 280-kDa protein. Monoclonal antibodies capable of immunoprecipitating the SA-binding activity also immunoprecipitated the

Zhixiang Chen; Joseph W. Ricigliano; Daniel F. Klessig



Passive permeability of salicylic acid in renal proximal S2 and S3 tubules  

SciTech Connect

The role of nonionic diffusion in the transport of salicylic acid across rabbit proximal S2 and S3 segments was investigated using the in vitro isolated perfused tubule technique. The ({sup 14}C) salicylic acid apparent reabsorptive permeability (P'I-b, 10(-5) cm/s) was measured at 19 degrees C with luminal solutions kept at different pH and bath maintained at pH 7.4. In S2 tubules, P'I-b was 25.0 +/- 3.5 when luminal pH was 6.0; P'I-b decreased to 8.1 +/- 1.4 and to 4.4 +/- 1.2 at a luminal pH of 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. In S3 tubules, P'I-b was 17.6 +/- 2.4, 5.3 +/- 1.1 and 3.4 +/- 1.1 at a luminal pH of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. There was a close correlation between P'I-b and the calculated proportion of nonionized salicylic acid present at each pH, indicating that only the nonionized molecule could diffuse in our conditions. We calculated the apparent permeability of nonionic salicylic acid and found 0.248 +/- 0.032 cm/s for S2 and 0.176 +/- 0.022 cm/s for S3 tubules. These calculated permeabilities were independent of pH.

Chatton, J.Y.; Roch-Ramel, F. (Institut de Pharmacologie, Lausanne (Switzerland))



Inhibition of NF-kappaB by Sodium Salicylate and Aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is critical for the inducible expression of multiple cellular and viral genes involved in inflammation and infection including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and adhesion molecules. The anti-inflammatory drugs sodium salicylate and aspirin inhibited the activation of NF-kappa B, which further explains the mechanism of action of these drugs. This inhibition prevented the degradation

Elizabeth Kopp; Sankar Ghosh



Task-specific ionic liquid trioctylmethylammonium salicylate as extraction solvent for transition metal ions.  


A quaternary ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid trioctylmethylammonium salicylate (TOMAS) has been studied as an extractant of transition metal ions (Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+)) in aqueous solutions. The effect of pH value on the recovery of metal ions has been investigated. The mechanism of extraction into the ionic liquid has been proposed. The possibility of stripping voltammetric determination of transition metals in aqueous solutions using TOMAS-modified electrodes has been demonstrated. PMID:20006071

Egorov, Vladimir M; Djigailo, Dmitry I; Momotenko, Dmitry S; Chernyshov, Denis V; Torocheshnikova, Irina I; Smirnova, Svetlana V; Pletnev, Igor V



Suppression of red light-induced resistance in broad beans to Botrytis cinerea by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on red light-induced resistance in broad beans to Botrytis cinerea. Both lesion formation and fungal development were suppressed on broad bean leaves kept under red light, producing anti-fungal compound(s). However, SA pre-treatment inhibited expression of red light-induced resistance dose-dependently, generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Red light-induced resistance was recovered in the presence of

Nurun Nahar Khanam; Makoto Ueno; Junichi Kihara; Yuichi Honda; Sakae Arase



Degradation of phenol and salicylic acid by ultraviolet radiation\\/hydrogen peroxide\\/oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the oxidation reactions of u.v. radiation\\/hydrogen peroxide\\/oxygen with either phenol or salicylic acid a spectra library was established. The reaction products contain hydroxylated phenols, benzoquinone and aliphatic acids with up to six carbon atoms. Many of the substances have been identified by means of chromatography and spectra comparison. From the observed concentrations of the substances and the known

Christoph K. Scheck; Fritz H. Frimmel



Salicylic Acid-induced Nitric Oxide and ROS Generation Stimulate Ginsenoside Accumulation in Panax ginseng Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced accumulation of ginsenoside in adventitious\\u000a roots of Panax ginseng and its mediation by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Related effects of SA on components of the antioxidant system were also\\u000a sought. Adventitious roots of P. ginseng were grown in suspension culture for 3 weeks in MS medium and treated over

Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Kee-Yoeup Paek


Salicylic Acid Protects Potato Plants-from Phytoplasma-associated Stress and Improves Tuber Photosynthate Assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a pathogen attack, cells triggers the overproduction of reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress and physiological\\u000a damage. Plants develop strategies using these reactive molecules for protection against pathogen attack. Phytoplasma are bacteria\\u000a lacking cell walls that inhabit plant phloem and reduce yield, tuber quality, and commercial harvest value. Sprayed salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) activated plant defense response against phytoplasma attack

Silvia Sánchez-Rojo; Humberto A. López-Delgado; Martha E. Mora-Herrera; Humberto I. Almeyda-León; Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera; David Espinosa-Victoria



The mechanism of stomatal closing by salicylic acid in Commelina communis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of stomatal closing by salicylic acid (SA) has been investigated. The addition of 1 mM SA to fully opened stomata\\u000a resulted in a significant reduction of 75% in stomatal aperture. Stomata in the treatment of SA with EGTA closed as observed\\u000a in the treatment of SA. However, the addition of catalase with SA completely inhibited stomatal closing. Stomatal



Role of Salicylic Acid and Fatty Acid Desaturation Pathways in ssi2-Mediated Signaling1(W)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase-mediated conversion of stearic acid to oleic acid (18:1) is the key step that regulates the levels of unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) in cells. Our previous work with the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ssi2\\/fab2 mutant and its suppressors demonstrated that a balance between glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and 18:1 levels is critical for the regu- lation of salicylic acid (SA)-

Pradeep Kachroo; Srivathsa C. Venugopal; Duroy A. Navarre; Ludmila Lapchyk; Aardra Kachroo


Salicylic Acid Activates a 48-kD MAP Kinase in Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of phosphorylalion\\/dephosphorylation in the salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway leading to pathogenesis-related gene induction has previously been demonstrated using kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Here, we show that in tobacco suspension cells, SA induced a rapid and transient activation of a 48-kD kinase that uses my- elin basic protein as a substrate. This kinase is called the p48

Shuqun Zhang; Daniel F. Klessig



Salicylic acid alleviated pathogen-induced oxidative stress in harvested sweet cherry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in regulating an antioxidative defense response of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum was investigated by immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. After inoculation with P. expansum, carbonylated proteins accumulated to a lesser extent in SA-treated fruit than in control fruit, ranging from molecular mass 29–45kDa. Higher activities of

Xiangbin Xu; Shiping Tian



An Optimization of Optical Fiber Salicylic Acid Sensor Using Artificial Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of an artificial neural network (ANN) in optimizing the response of an optical fiber salicylic acid (SA) sensor is presented in this paper. This sensor is fabricated based on immobilization of ferric(III) nitrate on Dowex?50 × 8. The reflectance spectra of the sensor were measured by using an optical fiber spectrophotometer. A backpropagation (BP) ANN was used to analyze the

Han Chern Loh; Musa Ahmad; Mohd Nasir Taib



Fabrication and Characterization of Novel Salicylic Acid Sensors Using Different Reagents (Ferric and Copper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fabrication of optical fiber salicylic acid (SA) sensors based on immobilization of ferric(III) nitrate and copper(II) acetate on Dowex?50x8 is presented in this paper. The SA forms a stable purple complex with immobilized Fe at pH 2.1 with a response time of 10 min while it forms a stable yellowish green complex with immobilized Cu at pH 6.5 with a response

Han Chern Loh; Musa Ahmad; Mohd Nasir Taib



Fabrication, characterisation and optimisation of novel salicylic acid sensors using different reagents and artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two optical fiber chemical sensors for salicylic acid (SA) have been fabricated using ferric(III) nitrate and copper(II) nitrate as reagent. Ion exchange resin, Dowex 50×8 had been used as solid support and optimisation was done by using artificial neural network (ANN). SA sensor using immobilised Fe(III) gave maximum reflectance at wavelength of 786 nm and pH 2.1. Dynamic range of

Han Chern Loh; M. Ahmad; M. Nasir Taib



ATR characterisation of synergistic corrosion inhibition of mild steel surfaces by cerium salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of deposits on mild steel surfaces formed by exposure to corrosive and inhibiting solutions has been examined by attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. For cerium-based inhibitors, e.g. CeCl3 the formation of cerium-containing coatings was detected whilst the cerium carboxylate Ce(sal)3 (sal=salicylate), which combines the Ce3+ with the known organic inhibitor sal?, was shown to involve substantial deposition of both

Maria Forsyth; Craig M Forsyth; Kerryn Wilson; Tom Behrsing; Glen B Deacon



Bark salicylates and condensed tannins reduce vole browsing amongst cultivated dark-leaved willows ( Salix myrsinifolia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Vole feeding amongst herbal willows that have a high concentration of salicylates in their bark and leaves, and may therefore\\u000a be cultivated for use as raw material for herbal medicine was tested in the field and in laboratory conditions. Eight clones\\u000a of dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.) were cultivated for two years with six different methods combining three fertilisation levels

Susanne Heiska; Olli-Pekka Tikkanen; Matti Rousi; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto



lnfluence of Salicylic Acid on H202 Production, Oxidative Stress, and H,O,-Metabolizing Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how salicylic acid (SA) enhances H,O, and the relative significance of SA-enhanced H202 in Arabidopsis fhaliana. SA treatments enhanced H,O, production, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative damage to proteins, and resulted in the formation of chlorophyll and carotene isomers. SA-enhanced H,O, levels were related to increased activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and were independent of changes in catalase and ascorbate

Mulpuri V. Rao; Gopinadhan Paliyath; Douglas P. Ormrod; Dennis P. Murr; Chris B. Watkins


Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress\\u000a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were

Bin Zhou; Xuexi Tang; You Wang



Salicylic acid induced the expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene in grape berry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many evidences had indicated that both salicylic acid (SA), a likely signal in resistance responses of plants to stresses, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC, a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway, could perform defense-related functions. However, whether to regulate PAL activity by SA has been to date obscure. The present experiment, using the technique of in vivo incubation of

Peng-Fei Wen; Jian-Ye Chen; Wei-Fu Kong; Qiu-Hong Pan; Si-Bao Wan; Wei-Dong Huang



Effect of salicylic acid on phenylpropanoids and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in harvested grape berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research indicates that both salicylic acid (SA), a likely signal in the response of plants to stress, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid metabolism, perform defense-related functions within plants. However, very little is yet know about the role SA might play in regulating PAL expression and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The present experiment was performed using

Jian-Ye Chen; Peng-Fei Wen; Wei-Fu Kong; Qiu-Hong Pan; Ji-Cheng Zhan; Jing-Ming Li; Si-Bao Wan; Wei-Dong Huang



Silicon Nitride Boundary Lubrication: Effect of Sulfonate, Phenate and Salicylate Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundary lubrication characteristics of sulfonates, phenates, and salicylates in a silicon nitride on silicon nitride contact were investigated. The additives were blended at one percent by weight solution in a purified paraffinic base oil and tested on a ball-on-three flat geometry in the Four-Ball Tester. These compounds all exhibited effective lubricating properties for silicon nitride, including both low base

Richard S. Gates; Stephen M. Hsu



Preparation and characterization of the poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)–salicylic acid conjugate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new polymeric system containing hydrolysable ester bond linked to salicylic acid to be used for controlled drug release\\u000a was synthesized. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) functionalized with chloroacetate groups was obtained by the reaction\\u000a between PHEMA and chloroacetyl chloride using the N,N-dimethylacetamide\\/5% lithium chloride system as a solvent and pyridine as a catalyst. The degree of substitution was calculated\\u000a from the

Roman Jantas; Lucyna Herczy?ska



Potato tuber-inducing activities of salicylic acid and related compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) induced potato tuberization in vitro at concentrations greater than 10?5 M. A comparison of the tuber-inducing activities of various related compounds suggested that derivatives of benzoic acid\\u000a with a free carboxyl group and a substituent at the C-2 position of the benzene ring have this activity. Although SA had the\\u000a strongest activity among the compounds tested, the

Yasunori Koda; Kiyoshi Takahashi; Yoshio Kikuta



Inhibition of phenolsulphotransferase by salicylic acid: a possible mechanism by which aspirin may reduce carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Recent epidemiological evidence has shown that chronic use of aspirin decreases susceptibility to bowel cancer. Animal studies have shown that sulphotransferase inhibitors coadministered with sulphation activated carcinogens dramatically reduce the incidence of cancer.Aims—To investigate the effect of the main aspirin breakdown product, salicylic acid, on the P and M isoforms of phenolsulphotransferase from human platelets and colonic mucosa.Methods—Platelets were obtained

R M Harris; R J Hawker; M J S Langman; S Singh; R H Waring



Salicylic acid modulates oxidative stress and glutathione peroxidase activity in the rat colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is a characteristic of cancerous colon tissue and inflammatory bowel diseases that increase colon cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence supports a protective effect of plant-derived compounds. Aspirin is also protective against colon cancer. The mechanism of action is unclear although salicylic acid, the main metabolite of aspirin, has been shown to decrease the synthesis of pro-inflammatory and potentially neo-plastic

Janice E. Drew; John R. Arthur; Andrew J. Farquharson; Wendy R. Russell; Philip C. Morrice; Garry G. Duthie



The Role of Salicylates in RHIZOBIUM Legume Symbiosis and Abiotic Stresses in Higher Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator. SA is involved in various physiological processes of plant growth\\u000a and development and plays an active role in plant defense responses. SA also plays a major role during the early stages of\\u000a Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Nod factors produced by rhizobia, in response to legume produced flavonoids, affect SA content of the host

Fazli Mabood; Donald Smith


Salicylate Hydroxylation as an Indicator of Hydroxyl Radical Generation in Dextran Sulfate-Induced Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated as mediators of mucosal injury in inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated hydroxyl radical (•OH) generation in the inflamed colon of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis by measuring the •OH-specific product of salicylate hydroxylation, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). Colitis was induced in 6–7 week old CBA\\/H male mice by supplementing the drinking water

Anneke C Blackburn; William F Doe; Gary D Buffinton



Myocardial microdialysis of salicylic acid to detect hydroxyl radical generation during ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined in vivo monitoring of hydroxyl radical ('OH) generation during myocardial ischemia for 30 min by occluding the left anterior descending (LAD) in dog heart using a microdialysis technique. The hydroxyl radical reacts with salicylate and generates 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids (DHBA) which can be measured electrochemically in picomole quantity by a high pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical (HPLC-EC) procedure. When

Toshio Obata; Hiroshi Hosokawa; Toru Soeda; Kenji Karashima; Yuzo Uchida; Yasumitsu Yamanaka



Cardiac microdialysis of salicylic acid to detect hydroxyl radical generation associated with sympathetic nerve stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between norepinephrine (NE) and hydroxyl free radical (dotOH) generation on cardiac nerve stimulation. Salicylic acid in Ringer's solution (0.5 nmol,?l?1 min?1) was infused directly through a microdialysis probe to detect the generation of hydroxyl radicals (dotOH) as reflected by the formation of dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) in the myocardium of anesthetized rats. Sympathetic nerve stimulation increased the

Toshio Obata; Yasumitsu Yamanaka



Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic

Sonia I. Zarate; L ouisa A. Kempema; Linda L. Walling



Preparation and characterization of an anti-inflammatory agent based on a zinc-layered hydroxide-salicylate nanohybrid and its effect on viability of Vero-3 cells.  


A new organic-inorganic nanohybrid based on zinc-layered hydroxide intercalated with an anti-inflammatory agent was synthesized through direct reaction of salicylic acid at various concentrations with commercially available zinc oxide. The basal spacing of the pure phase nanohybrid was 15.73 Å, with the salicylate anions arranged in a monolayer form and an angle of 57 degrees between the zinc-layered hydroxide interlayers. Fourier transform infrared study further confirmed intercalation of salicylate into the interlayers of zinc-layered hydroxide. The loading of salicylate in the nanohybrid was estimated to be around 29.66%, and the nanohybrid exhibited the properties of a mesoporous-type material, with greatly enhanced thermal stability of the salicylate compared with its free counterpart. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that free salicylic acid, pure zinc oxide, and the nanohybrid have a mild effect on viability of African green monkey kidney (Vero-3) cells. PMID:23345976

Ramli, Munirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Yusoff, Khatijah



A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).  


A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.). PMID:21391500

Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra


Experimental and theoretical charge density studies of 8-hydroxyquinoline cocrystallized with salicylic acid.  


The experimental electron density distribution (EDD) in 8-hydroxyquinoline cocrystallized with salicylic acid, 1, has been determined from a multipole refinement of high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collected at 100 K. The experimental EDD is compared with theoretical densities resulting from high-level ab initio and BHandH calculations using Atoms in Molecules theory. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system, and the asymmetric unit consists of a neutral salicylic acid molecule, a salicylate anion, and an 8-hydroxyquinolinium cation exhibiting a number of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds and ?-? interactions. Topological analysis reveals that ?-? interactions are of the "closed-shell" type, characterized by rather low and flat charge density. In general, the agreement of the topological values (?(bcp) and ?(2)?(bcp)) between experiment and theory is good, with mean differences of 0.010 e Å(-3) and 0.036 e Å(-5), respectively. The energetics of the ?-? interactions have been estimated, and excellent agreement is observed between the relative energy and the strength of ?-stacking derived from the Espinosa approach, with an average difference of only 4.4 kJ mol(-1). PMID:22329666

Nguyen, Thanh Ha; Groundwater, Paul W; Platts, James A; Hibbs, David E



ESR study of irradiated single crystals of the cocrystalline complex of cytidine: Salicylic acid  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation at 77 K of single crystals of the 1:1 complex of cytidine and salicylic acid produces a phenoxyl radical formed by oxidation of the salicylic acid. Anisotropic hyperfine coupling tensors have been determined for this radical which are associated with the para and ortho hydrogens. No cytidine oxidation products (alkoxy or hydroxyalkyl radicals) were observed at 77 K. Following the decay of the phenoxyl radical at room temperature, four radicals were detected. These include the cytosine 5--yl and 6--yl radicals, formed by H addition to the cytosine ring, and an anisotropic doublet. By UV irradiation at room temperature, it is possible to convert a significant fraction of 6-yl radicals into 5-yl radicals. Hyperfine coupling and g tensors determined for the anisotropic doublet indicate that this radical is formed in the C/sub 1'/-C/sub 2'/ region of the sugar moiety. These results indicate a shift in radiation damage away from the salicylic acid upon warming, and show that the radiation chemistry of the cocrystalline complex is different from that of the isolated bases.

Close, D.M.; Sagstuen, E.



Hydrothermal synthesis spherical TiO2 and its photo-degradation property on salicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatase TiO2 spheres have been prepared using hydrothermal synthesis. The prepared spheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). The TiO2 consisted of well-defined spheres with size of 3-5 ?m. The photocatalytic activity of spherical TiO2 was determined by degradation of salicylic acid under visible light irradiation. It was revealed that the degradation rate of the spherical TiO2 which was processed at 150 °C for 48 h could reach 81.758%. And the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation obeyed first-order kinetic, which the rate constant value was 0.01716 S-1 of the salicylic acid onto TiO2 (temperature: 150, time: 48 h). The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the rate constant was 1.2695 g mg-1 of the salicylic acid onto TiO2 (temperature: 150, time: 48 h).

Guo, Wenlu; Liu, Xiaolin; Huo, Pengwei; Gao, Xun; Wu, Di; Lu, Ziyang; Yan, Yongsheng



DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies CG Methylation Clusters in Arabidopsis Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosine DNA methylation in vertebrates is widespread, but methylation in plants is found almost exclusively at transposable elements and repetitive DNA [1]. Within regions of methylation, methylcytosines are typically found in CG, CNG, and asymmetric contexts. CG sites are maintained by a plant homolog of mammalian Dnmt1 acting on hemi-methylated DNA after replication. Methylation of CNG and asymmetric sites appears

Robert K. Tran; Jorja G. Henikoff; Daniel Zilberman; Renata F. Ditt; Steven E. Jacobsen; Steven Henikoff



Orchestration of DNA Methylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA methylation plays an important role in gene regulation. In order to gain a better understanding of the rules governing\\u000a this epigenetic modification, we have used microarray technology to map DNA methylation in the human genome. This analysis\\u000a has helped decipher the DNA sequences involved in setting up the basic global methylation pattern in the early embryo and\\u000a has revealed

Howard Cedar



S-Adenosyl- l-Methionine:Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase, an Enzyme Involved in Floral Scent Production and Plant Defense, Represents a New Class of Plant Methyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

S-Adenosyl-l-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) was partially purified from petals of the annual California plant Clarkia breweri. SAMT catalyzes the formation of methylsalicylate, an important floral scent compound in C. breweri, from salicylic acid and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The native enzyme is a dimer with a subunit molecular weight of 40.3 kDa, and it has a Km for salicylic acid of

Jeannine R. Ross; Kyoung Hee Nam; John C. D'Auria; Eran Pichersky



Irp9, Encoded by the High-Pathogenicity Island of Yersinia enterocolitica, Is Able To Convert Chorismate into Salicylate, the Precursor of the Siderophore Yersiniabactin  

PubMed Central

The Irp9 protein of Yersinia enterocolitica participates in the synthesis of salicylate, the precursor of the siderophore yersiniabactin. In Pseudomonas species, salicylate synthesis is mediated by two enzymes: isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate-lyase. Both enzymes are required for complementation of a Yersinia irp9 mutant. However, irp9 is not able to complement Escherichia coli entC for the production of enterobactin, which requires isochorismate as a precursor. These results suggest that Irp9 directly converts chorismate into salicylate.

Pelludat, Cosima; Brem, Daniela; Heesemann, Jurgen



Effects of mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway on heat shock protein 27 expression in human lens epithelial cells exposed to sodium salicylate in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway in sodium salicylate-induced expression of heat shock\\u000a protein 27 (HSP27) in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs-B3) in vitro were investigated. HLECs-B3 were incubated in the fresh media containing sodium salicylate at different concentrations for\\u000a different durations, and allowed to be recovered in fresh medium without sodium salicylate for different durations with

Zhi Wang; Ruiying Gao; Yukan Huang; Bo Tian; Yanli Zhou



Dosage de l'octyl dimethyl PABA, de l'homosalate et de l'octyl salicylate dans les produits de protection solaire.  


The method describes the quantitative determination of octyl dimethyl PABA (2-ethylhexyl 4- (dimethylamino)benzoate) (CAS RN 21245-02-3), homosalate (3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexyl salicylate) (CAS RN 118-56-9) and octyl salicylate (2-ethylhexyl salicylate) (CAS RN 118-60-5) in cosmetic sunscreen products. The sample is suspended in methanol and after appropriate treatment the determination is made by HPLC/UV. Accuracy, yield and viability of the method were resolved. PMID:18498482

Masse, M O; Herpol-Borremans, M



High doses of salicylate and aspirin are inhibitory on acid-sensing ion channels and protective against acidosis-induced neuronal injury in the rat cortical neuron.  


Aspirin and its main metabolite salicylate are widely used to relieve pain, treat inflammatory diseases, and prevent ischemic stroke. Multiple pathways are responsible for the therapeutic actions exerted by these drugs. One of the pathways is targeting neuronal receptors/ion channels in the central nervous system. Correspondingly, increasing evidence has implicated acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the processes of the diseases that are medicated by aspirin and salicylate. We therefore employed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to examine the effects of salicylate as well as aspirin on ASICs in cultured cortical neurons of the rat. We recorded rapid and reversible inhibition of ASIC current by millimolar concentrations of aspirin and salicylate and found that salicylate reduced acidosis-induced membrane depolarization. These data suggest that ASICs in the cortex are molecular targets of high doses of aspirin and salicylate. In addition, the results from lactate dehydrogenase release measurement showed that high doses of aspirin and salicylate protected the cortical neuron from acidosis-induced neuronal injury. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of aspirin and salicylate actions in the brain and provide new evidence on aspirin and salicylate used as neuroprotective agents in the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:21969311

Wang, Wei; Ye, Shan-Dong; Zhou, Ke-Qing; Wu, Li-Min; Huang, Yi-Na



Ground-state proton-transfer tautomer of the salicylate anion  

SciTech Connect

Solutions of sodium salicylate in anhydrous polar solvents exhibit a weak, temperature-dependent absorption band ({lambda}{sub max} {approx} 325 nm) lying in the Stokes gap between the main absorption (296 nm) and the fluorescence band (396 nm, acetonitrile). This weak, longer wavelength absorption band is hardly observable in aqueous solution, but its intensity increases with temperature and increases with polarity in anhydrous organic solvents in the order of ethanol < acetonitrile < dimethyl sulfoxide at room temperature. After correction for solvent thermal contraction, the temperature-dependent absorption spectrum of salicylate in acetonitrile solutions reveals a clear isosbestic point ({epsilon}{sub 310}= 2,000 M{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}) characteristic of an equilibrium between two salicylate species with band-maximum extinction coefficients of {epsilon}{sub 325} = 3,400 M{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} and {epsilon}{sub 296} = 3,586 M{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}. In acetonitrile at room temperature (298 K) the concentration equilibrium constant (minor/major) for the interconversion reaction between the two species is K{sub 298} = 0.11, with {Delta}H = 1.6 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} and {Delta}S = 0.97 cal{center{underscore}dot}mol{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}. The fluorescence lifetime (4.8 ns in acetonitrile) and the shape of the fluorescence spectrum are independent of excitation wavelength. The fluorescence quantum yield for excitation in the long-wavelength shoulder (340 nm) is approximately 60% larger than the yield for excitation in the main band at 296 nm ({phi}{sub 340} = 0.29, {phi}{sub 296} = 0.18) in acetonitrile at room temperature. These results are consistent with assignment of the shoulder band to the proton-transfer tautomer of the salicylate anion. Electronic structure calculations support assignment of the 325 nm absorption band to the ground-state tautomer (phenoxide anion form) of the salicylate anion. Absorption transition moments for both the normal and tautomer forms are parallel to the emission transition moment, are electronically allowed, and are consistent with {sup 1}L{sub b} assignment for both absorbing and emitting transitions. The static dipole moments are in the order of {mu}(N*) {ge} {mu}(N) > {mu}(T*) > {mu}(T) for the normal (N) and tautomer (T) ground and electronic excited states.

Friedrich, D.M.; Wang, Z.; Joly, A.G.; Peterson, K.A.; Callis, P.R.



Temperature dependence of chloride, bromide, iodide, thiocyanate and salicylate transport in human red cells  

PubMed Central

1. The temperature dependence of the steady-state self-exchange of chloride between human red cells and a plasma-like electrolyte medium has been studied by measuring the rate of 36Cl- efflux from radioactively labelled cells. Between 0 and 10° C the rate increased by a factor of eight corresponding to an Arrhenius activation energy of 33 kcal/mole. 2. The rate of chloride exchange decreased significantly in experiments where 95% of the chloride ions in cells and medium were replaced by other monovalent anions of a lyotropic series. The rate of chloride self-exchange was increasingly reduced by bromide, bicarbonate, nitrate, iodide, thiocyanate, and salicylate. The latter aromatic anion was by far the most potent inhibitor, reducing the rate of chloride self-exchange to 0·2% of the value found in a chloride medium. 3. The temperature sensitivity of the chloride self-exchange was not affected significantly by the anionic inhibitors. The Arrhenius activation energies of chloride exchange were between 30 and 40 kcal/mole in the presence of the six inhibitory anions mentioned above. 4. The rate of self-exchange of bromide, thiocyanate, and iodide between human red cells and media was determined after washing and labelling cells in media containing 120 mM bromide, thiocyanate, or iodide respectively. The rate of self-exchange of the three anions were 12, 3, and 0·4% of the rate of chloride self-exchange found in the chloride medium. 5. The Arrhenius activation energies of the self-exchange of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate were all between 29 and 37 kcal/mole, the same magnitude as found for the self-exchange of chloride. 6. Although approximately 40% of the intracellular iodide and salicylate ions appeared to be adsorbed to intracellular proteins, the rate of tracer anion efflux followed first order kinetics until at least 98% of the intracellular anions had been exchanged. 7. The self-exchange of salicylate across the human red cell membrane occurred by a different mechanism than the one utilized by the inorganic monovalent anions. The activation energy of salicylate exchange (13·2 kcal/mole) was significantly lower than that of inorganic anion exchange. Salicylate exchange increased with decreasing pH in contrast to the exchange of chloride, which decreases when pH is lowered.

Dalmark, Mads; Wieth, Jens Otto



Intracortical circuits amplify sound-evoked activity in primary auditory cortex following systemic injection of salicylate in the rat  

PubMed Central

A high dose of sodium salicylate temporarily induces tinnitus, mild hearing loss, and possibly hyperacusis in humans and other animals. Salicylate has well-established effects on cochlear function, primarily resulting in the moderate reduction of auditory input to the brain. Despite decreased peripheral sensitivity and output, salicylate induces a paradoxical enhancement of the sound-evoked field potential at the level of the primary auditory cortex (A1). Previous electrophysiologic studies have begun to characterize changes in thalamorecipient layers of A1; however, A1 is a complex neural circuit with recurrent intracortical connections. To describe the effects of acute systemic salicylate treatment on both thalamic and intracortical sound-driven activity across layers of A1, we applied current-source density (CSD) analysis to field potentials sampled across cortical layers in the anesthetized rat. CSD maps were normally characterized by a large, short-latency, monosynaptic, thalamically driven sink in granular layers followed by a lower amplitude, longer latency, polysynaptic, intracortically driven sink in supragranular layers. Following systemic administration of salicylate, there was a near doubling of both granular and supragranular sink amplitudes at higher sound levels. The supragranular sink amplitude input/output function changed from becoming asymptotic at approximately 50 dB to sharply nonasymptotic, often dominating the granular sink amplitude at higher sound levels. The supragranular sink also exhibited a significant decrease in peak latency, reflecting an acceleration of intracortical processing of the sound-evoked response. Additionally, multiunit (MU) activity was altered by salicylate; the normally onset/sustained MU response type was transformed into a primarily onset response type in granular and infragranular layers. The results from CSD analysis indicate that salicylate significantly enhances sound-driven response via intracortical circuits.

Chrostowski, Michael; Salvi, Richard J.; Allman, Brian L.



Purification and characterization of salicylate 5-hydroxylase, a three-component monooxygenase from Ralstonia sp. strain U2.  


Salicylate is an important intermediate in the bacterial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and salicylate hydroxylases play essential roles in linking the peripheral and ring-cleavage catabolic pathways. Unlike the well-characterized salicylate 1-hydroxylases, the rarely occurred salicylate 5-hydroxylase (S5H) has not been characterized in detail. In this study, the three-component Fe-S protein complex (NagAaGHAb) of S5H from Ralstonia sp. strain U2 was purified, and its biochemical and catalytic properties were characterized. The oxygenase component NagGH exhibited an ?3?3 heterohexameric structure and contained one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear iron per ? subunit. NagAa is the ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase component containing flavin and plant type [2Fe-2S] cluster. The ferredoxin component NagAb was characterized as a [2Fe-2S] dimer which remains remarkably stable in denaturing gel electrophoresis after being heated at 100 °C for 1 h. Purified NagAa and NagAb, NagGH catalyzed the hydroxylation of salicylate to gentisate with a specific activity of 107.12?±?14.38 U/g and showed an apparent K m for salicylate of 102.79?±?27.20 ?M and a similar K m value for both NADH and NADPH (59.76?±?7.81 ?M versus 56.41?±?12.76 ?M). The hydroxylase exhibited different affinities for two hydroxysalicylates (2,4-dihydroxybenzoate K m of 93.54?±?18.50 ?M versus 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate K m of 939.80?±?199.46 ?M). Interestingly, this S5H also showed catalytic activity to the pollutant 2-nitrophenol and exhibited steady-state kinetic data of the same order of magnitude as those for salicylate. This study will allow further comparative studies of structure-function relationships of the ring hydroxylating mono- and di-oxygenase systems. PMID:23624660

Fang, Ti; Zhou, Ning-Yi



The Promoter of Rv0560c Is Induced by Salicylate and Structurally-Related Compounds in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is a major global health threat. During infection, bacteria are believed to encounter adverse conditions such as iron depletion. Mycobacteria synthesize iron-sequestering mycobactins, which are essential for survival in the host, via the intermediate salicylate. Salicylate is a ubiquitous compound which is known to induce a mild antibiotic resistance phenotype. In M. tuberculosis salicylate highly induces the expression of Rv0560c, a putative methyltransferase. We identified and characterized the promoter and regulatory elements of Rv0560c. PRv0560c activity was highly inducible by salicylate in a dose-dependent manner. The induction kinetics of PRv0560c were slow, taking several days to reach maximal activity, which was sustained over several weeks. Promoter activity could also be induced by compounds structurally related to salicylate, such as aspirin or para-aminosalicylic acid, but not by benzoate, indicating that induction is specific to a structural motif. The ?10 and ?35 promoter elements were identified and residues involved in regulation of promoter activity were identified in close proximity to an inverted repeat spanning the ?35 promoter element. We conclude that Rv0560c expression is controlled by a yet unknown repressor via a highly-inducible promoter.

Schuessler, Dorothee L.; Parish, Tanya



Lipid metabolism is differentially modulated by salicylic acid and heptanoyl salicylic acid during the induction of resistance in wheat against powdery mildew.  


Heptanoyl salicylic acid (HSA) is a salicylic acid (SA) derivative obtained by esterification of 2-OH benzoic acid with heptanoic acid. In wheat, the protection levels obtained against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) increased from 50% with SA to 95% with HSA. Using molecular, biochemical and cytological approaches, we investigated here how wheat lipid metabolism is differentially activated by SA and HSA in both infectious and non-infectious conditions, and how Bgt infectious process is altered by both inducers. First, in the absence of Bgt, continuous lipoxygenase (LOX)-encoding gene expression and corresponding activity were specifically induced by HSA. Moreover, compared to SA, HSA treatment resulted in earlier up-regulations of the phospholipase C2-encoding gene expression and it specifically affected the expression of a lipid transfer protein-encoding gene. In infectious context, both HSA and SA sprayings impaired penetration events and therefore haustorium formation, leading to less frequent fungal colonies. While this alteration only slowed down the evolution of Bgt infectious process in SA-sprayed leaves, it completely impaired the establishment of successful infectious events in HSA-sprayed leaves. In addition, HSA induced continuous increases of a LOX-encoding gene expression and of the corresponding LOX activity when compared to SA-sprayed leaves. Lipid metabolism is therefore overall highly responsive to HSA spraying and could represent effective defence mechanism triggered during the induction of resistance in wheat toward Bgt. The concepts of priming and energy costs of the defences induced by SA and HSA are also discussed. PMID:23880093

Tayeh, Christine; Randoux, Béatrice; Bourdon, Natacha; Reignault, Philippe



Methylation of DNA  

PubMed Central

The methylated bases of DNA are formed by the transfer of the methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to a polynucleotide acceptor. This transfer is catalyzed by highly specific enzymes which recognize a limited number of available sites in the DNA. The mechanism for the recognition is presently unknown. In some instances, there is evidence that other cellular components, such as lipopolysaccharides, can influence the methylation reaction. Certain bacteriophages induce new methylases upon infection of their hosts. Phage T3 is unique in establishing an environment in which methylation of neither the phage nor the host nucleic acid can occur. By superinfecting T3-infected cells with other phages, the latter can be obtained with methyl-deficient DNA. Although a great deal is known about the enzymology of the methylation reaction, and there appears to be a strong correlation between the in vitro and in vivo reactions, studies in which DNA is either supermethylated or totally unmethylated have not yielded any insight as to what the possible function of the methylated bases may be.

Gold, Marvin; Gefter, Malcolm; Hausmann, Rudolph; Hurwitz, Jerard



Combined effects of salicylic acid and furosemide and noise on hearing  

PubMed Central

Background A major cause of the hearing loss following exposure to intense noise involves release of free radicals resulting from the elevated metabolism. The free radicals induce damage to several of the components of the cochlear amplifier including the outer hair cells and indirectly to the transduction currents. Salicylic acid induces a reversible hearing loss since it binds to the motor protein prestin in the outer hair cells, reducing electromotility. Furosemide also induces a reversible hearing loss since it reduces the endocochlear potential which is a major component of the cochlear transduction currents. On the other hand, each of these drugs also provides protection from a noise induced hearing loss if they are injected just before a noise exposure, probably as a result of the decreased metabolism induced in their presence, with release of lower levels of free radicals. In this study, both drugs were administered in order to assess whether their protective effects would be additive. Methods The study was conducted on normal hearing albino mice of the Sabra strain. They were injected with either salicylic acid alone (N = 11), or furosemide alone (N = 14), or both together (N = 14), or with saline control (N = 11) and exposed to broad band noise for 3.5 hours. An additional group of 9 mice was injected with both salicylic acid and furosemide, but not exposed to noise. The degree of the resulting hearing loss was assessed by recording thresholds of the auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses to broad band clicks before the injections and noise, and 7, 14 and 21 days after. Results The noise induced hearing loss in the mice injected with salicylic acid alone or furosemide alone was smaller than in those injected with saline, i.e. these drugs provided protection, as in previous studies in this laboratory. There was no threshold elevation after two weeks in the mice injected with both drugs without noise exposure, i.e. the effects of the two drugs given together was reversible. On the other hand, there was a significant hearing loss (i.e. threshold elevation) in the group which received both drugs and was also exposed to noise, with mean threshold elevations of 38.8 ± 19.0 dB and 28.3 ± 11.7 dB 7 days after noise exposure. Conclusions This result is very surprising, if not paradoxical. Drugs which provide protection from a noise induced hearing loss when administered alone, not only do not provide protection when given together, but also induce a greater hearing loss when accompanied by noise. This observation may be related to the finding that the depression of the endocochlear potential normally caused by furosemide is reduced in the presence of salicylic acid, so that the protection usually provided by furosemide is not present when it is administered together with salicylic acid. Thus it seems that each drug may interfere with the protective action of the other when coupled with noise.



49 CFR 173.193 - Bromoacetone, methyl bromide, chloropicrin and methyl bromide or methyl chloride mixtures, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chloropicrin and methyl bromide or methyl chloride mixtures, etc. 173.193 Section...chloropicrin and methyl bromide or methyl chloride mixtures, etc. (a) Bromoacetone...bromide mixtures, chloropicrin and methyl chloride mixtures, and chloropicrin...



Molecular dynamics simulations of threadlike cetyltrimethylammonium chloride micelles: effects of sodium chloride and sodium salicylate salts.  


We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to probe the effects of added sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) salts on the spherical-to-threadlike micelle shape transition in aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) surfactants. Long threadlike micelles are found to be unstable and break into spherical micelles at low concentrations of NaCl, but remain stable for 20 ns above a threshold value of [NaCl] approximately 3.0 M, which is about 2.5 times larger than the experimental salt concentration at which the transition between spherical and rodlike micelles occurs. The chloride counterions associate weakly on the surface of the CTAC micelles with the degree of counterion dissociation decreasing slightly with increasing [NaCl] on spherical micelles, but dropping significantly on the threadlike micelles at high [NaCl]. This effect indicates that the electrolyte ions drive the micellar shape transition by screening the electrostatic repulsions between the micellar headgroups. The aromatic salicylate counterions, on the other hand, penetrate inside the micelle with their hydrophilic groups staying in the surfactant headgroup region and the hydrophobic groups partially embedded into the hydrophobic core of the micelle. The strong association of the salicylate ions with the surfactant headgroups leads to dense packing of the surfactant molecules, which effectively reduces the surface area per surfactant, and increases intramicellar ordering of the surfactant headgroups, favoring the formation of long threadlike micelles. Simulation predictions of the geometric and electrostatic properties of the spherical and threadlike micelles are in good agreement with experiments. PMID:19476369

Wang, Zuowei; Larson, Ronald G



Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that…

Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.



Comparative analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of sodium salicylate and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

1. Enteric coated sodium salicylate 4.8 g daily was compared with the same dose of enteric coated aspirin in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 2. After an initial washout period lasting 3 days, patients were randomly allocated to treatment with sodium salicylate or aspirin. After 2 weeks the two treatments were crossed over. 3. Pain relief, reduction in articular index of joint tenderness, increase in grip strength, decrease in digital joint circumference and patients' assessment showed significant improvement with both treatments compared with the washout period. No significant differences were found between the two therapies. 4. No correlation was found in the degree of improvement in any of the clinical outcomes and the salicylate concentrations at steady state.

Preston, S J; Arnold, M H; Beller, E M; Brooks, P M; Buchanan, W W



One-stop genomic DNA extraction by salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.  


Salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by nonspecific binding of the particles as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30min. Compared with traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally friendly. PMID:23911528

Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas S; Irudayaraj, Joseph



Sorption of weak organic acids in soils: clofencet, 2,4-D and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption behaviour of a new wheat hybridising agent (clofencet, 2-4-(chlorophenyl)-3-ethyl-2,5-dihydro-5-oxopyridazine-4-carboxylic acid) was investigated in batch equilibrium experiments and compared to that of two other organic acids (2,4-D and salicylic acid). Sorption coefficients Kd for the three compounds were determined in 18 Cambisols and Ferralsols. Kd values for clofencet were 0.3–9.4 l\\/kg for Cambisols and 2.1–68 l\\/kg for Ferralsols. Sorption

I. G Dubus; E Barriuso; R Calvet



Enterobactin protonation and iron release: structural characterization of the salicylate coordination shift in ferric enterobactin.  


The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by many species of enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. This iron scavenger can be reincorporated by the bacteria as the ferric complex [Fe(III)(Ent)](3)(-) and is subsequently hydrolyzed by an esterase to facilitate intracellular iron release. Recent literature reports on altered protein recognition and binding of modified enterobactin increase the significance of understanding the structural features and solution chemistry of ferric enterobactin. The structure of the neutral protonated ferric enterobactin complex [Fe(III)(H(3)Ent)](0) has been the source of some controversy and confusion in the literature. To demonstrate the proposed change of coordination from the tris-catecholate [Fe(III)(Ent)](3)(-) to the tris-salicylate [Fe(III)(H(3)Ent)](0) upon protonation, the coordination chemistry of two new model compounds N,N',N''-tris[2-(hydroxybenzoyl)carbonyl]cyclotriseryl trilactone (SERSAM) and N,N',N''-tris[2-hydroxy,3-methoxy(benzoyl)carbonyl]cyclotriseryl trilactone (SER(3M)SAM) was examined in solution and solid state. Both SERSAM and SER(3M)SAM form tris-salicylate ferric complexes with spectroscopic and solution thermodynamic properties (with log beta(110)() values of 39 and 38 respectively) similar to those of [Fe(III)(H(3)Ent)](0). The fits of EXAFS spectra of the model ferric complexes and the two forms of ferric enterobactin provided bond distances and disorder factors in the metal coordination sphere for both coordination modes. The protonated [Fe(III)(H(3)Ent)](0) complex (d(Fe)(-)(O) = 1.98 A, sigma(2)(stat)(O) = 0.00351(10) A(2)) exhibits a shorter average Fe-O bond length but a much higher static Debye-Waller factor for the first oxygen shell than the catecholate [Fe(III)(Ent)](3)(-) complex (d(Fe)(-)(O) = 2.00 A, sigma(2)(stat)(O) = 0.00067(14) A(2)). (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the amide bond rotation between the catecholate and salicylate geometries using the gallic complexes of enterobactin: [Ga(III)(Ent)](3)(-) and [Ga(III)(H(3)Ent)](0). The ferric salicylate complexes display quasi-reversible reduction potentials from -89 to -551 mV (relative to the normal hydrogen electrode NHE) which supports the feasibility of a low pH iron release mechanism facilitated by biological reductants. PMID:16819888

Abergel, Rebecca J; Warner, Jeffrey A; Shuh, David K; Raymond, Kenneth N



Kinetics and mechanism of reduction of Fe (III) salicylate complex by hydroquinone.  


The violet color complex FeSal+ was prepared by reaction of Salicylic acid and Ferric Chloride in acidic medium up to pH 3.5 in formate buffer at ionic strength 0.1 M. Reduction kinetics of FeSal+ complex at pseudo first order condition have been studied spectrophotometrically by a reductant i.e. Hydroquinone. Reduction behaviour shows that reduction is much fast and pH dependent. A mechanism to account for observation is also proposed along with the rate law. PMID:21190915

Waqar, Dilshad; Hussein, Waqar



Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin  

SciTech Connect

The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E{sub 2} to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa.

Goddard, P.J.




EPA Science Inventory

Enzymology of Arsenic Methylation David J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...


Effect of ointment bases on topical and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid in rats: evaluation by skin microdialysis.  


Microdialysis has been used to determine the concentration of salicylic acid in skin tissue and plasma periodically for 4 h to evaluate the effect of ointment bases on topical and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid. The ointment bases examined were solbase (water-soluble), poloid and white petrolatum (oleaginous), hydrophilic poloid (water in oil (w/o) type emulsion lacking water) and absorptive ointment (w/o-type emulsion containing water). The ointments (0.1 g) containing 25 micromol salicylic acid were applied for 2 h to the surface of rat skin (1 cm2) with (intact) or without the stratum corneum. For intact skin, the extent of topical delivery from different ointments, evaluated by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of salicylic acid in the skin tissue (AUCskin), increased in the order solbase < white petrolatum, poloid, hydrophilic poloid < absorptive ointment. The ratio of AUCskin (topical delivery) to the AUC of salicylic acid in plasma (AUCplasma, transdermal delivery) varied remarkably among the different bases, the greatest ratio being observed for absorptive ointment. When the ointments were applied to skin surface without stratum corneum, AUCskin for solbase was much higher (about 45 times that for intact skin), whereas only a small (two-fold) increase was observed for poloid and hydrophilic poloid and the increase was negligible for white petrolatum and absorptive ointment. For skin without the stratum corneum, the ratio AUCskin/AUCplasma for the different ointments was comparable, although the magnitudes of AUCskin and AUCplasma still varied substantially. The variance of AUC values arises as a result of the different rates of release of salicylic acid from the bases. These results indicate that: the topical and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid in intact skin varies substantially among different ointment bases, and the greatest topical delivery is observed for absorptive ointment; use of absorptive ointment increases the retention of salicylic acid in the stratum corneum; and the stratum corneum functions strongly as a penetration barrier for solbase, moderately for poloid and hydrophilic poloid, and less for absorptive ointment and white petrolatum. PMID:9504435

Murakami, T; Yoshioka, M; Okamoto, I; Yumoto, R; Higashi, Y; Okahara, K; Yata, N



Favoritism in DNA methylation.  


This perspective on Candiloro and Dobrovic (beginning on p. 862 in this issue of the journal) highlights the interplay between epigenetic aberrations and underlying DNA sequence changes and illustrates how these alterations may predispose individuals to cancer. Candiloro and Dobrovic clearly show that particular genotypes of the MGMT gene are associated with its methylation in healthy individuals. Aberrant MGMT methylation may identify individuals who could be targeted for cancer screening and chemoprevention strategies. PMID:19789293

Hitchins, Megan P; Ward, Robyn L



DNA methylation and differentiation.  

PubMed Central

The methylation of specific cytosine residues in DNA has been implicated in regulating gene expression and facilitating functional specialization of cellular phenotypes. Generally, the demethylation of certain CpG sites correlates with transcriptional activation of genes. 5-Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methylation and has been widely used as a potent activator of suppressed genetic information. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine results in profound phenotypic alterations. The drug-induced hypomethylation of DNA apparently perturbs DNA-protein interactions that may consequently alter transcriptional activity and cell determination. The inhibitory effect of cytosine methylation may be exerted via altered DNA-protein interactions specifically or may be transduced by a change in the conformation of chromatin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cytosine methylation also plays a central role in parental imprinting, which in turn determines the differential expression of maternal and paternal genomes during embryogenesis. In other words, methylation is the mechanism whereby the embryo retains memory of the gametic origin of each component of genetic information. A memory of this type would probably persist during DNA replication and cell division as methylation patterns are stable and heritable.

Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A



Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus  

PubMed Central

Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.



Derivatives of salicylic acid as inhibitors of YopH in Yersinia pestis.  


Yersinia pestis causes diseases ranging from gastrointestinal syndromes to bubonic plague and could be misused as a biological weapon. As its protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH has already been demonstrated as a potential drug target, we have developed two series of forty salicylic acid derivatives and found sixteen to have micromolar inhibitory activity. We designed these ligands to have two chemical moieties connected by a flexible hydrocarbon linker to target two pockets in the active site of the protein to achieve binding affinity and selectivity. One moiety possessed the salicylic acid core intending to target the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket. The other moiety contained different chemical fragments meant to target a nearby secondary pocket. The two series of compounds differed by having hydrocarbon linkers with different lengths. Before experimental co-crystal structures are available, we have performed molecular docking to predict how these compounds might bind to the protein and to generate structural models for performing binding affinity calculation to aid future optimization of these series of compounds. PMID:20560978

Huang, Zunnan; He, Yantao; Zhang, Xian; Gunawan, Andrea; Wu, Li; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Wong, Chung F



Derivatives of Salicylic Acid as Inhibitors of YopH in Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis causes diseases ranging from gastrointestinal syndromes to bubonic plague and could be misused as a biological weapon. As its protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH has already been demonstrated as a potential drug target, we have developed two series of forty salicylic acid derivatives and found sixteen to have micromolar inhibitory activity. We designed these ligands to have two chemical moieties connected by a flexible hydrocarbon linker to target two pockets in the active site of the protein to achieve binding affinity and selectivity. One moiety possessed the salicylic acid core intending to target the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket. The other moiety contained different chemical fragments meant to target a nearby secondary pocket. The two series of compounds differed by having hydrocarbon linkers with different lengths. Before experimental co-crystal structures are available, we have performed molecular docking to predict how these compounds might bind to the protein and to generate structural models for performing binding affinity calculation to aid future optimization of these series of compounds.

Huang, Zunnan; He, Yantao; Zhang, Xian; Gunawan, Andrea; Wu, Li; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Wong, Chung F.



Proteomic analysis of changes in pea roots caused by the apoptosis-inducing concentration of salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

274 It is known that biotic stressors may induce a rapid increase in the content of salicylic acid, a stress hormone of plants, one of the key factors involved in the systemic response of plants [1]. An increase in the content of melafen in plant tissues may lead to cell death. Earlier, we showed that exogenous melafen at a concentration

I. A. Tarchevsky; V. G. Yakovleva; A. M. Egorova



Comparison of the effects of salicylic acid and ethephon with virus-induced hypersensitivity and acquired resistance in tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of a hypersensitive reaction in Samsun NN tobacco by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) at 20°C leads to the development of both localized and systemic acquired resistance, and is associated with the appearance of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR's) and large increases in peroxidase activity and ethylene production. Salicylic acid (SA) induced a similar resistance in treated plant parts and occasionally

L. C. Van Loon; J. F. Antoniw



Changes in the bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler chickens washed in solutions of salicylic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in the number of bacteria recovered from the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in salicylic acid (SA) solutions was examined. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in distilled water (control), 10% S...


Effect of multiple washing in salicylic acid on the bacterial flora of the skin of processed broiler chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments were conducted to determine changes in the bacterial flora of the skin of processed broilers after each of five consecutive washings in solutions of the keratolytic agent, salicylic acid. Skin samples from commercially processed broiler carcasses were divided into 3 groups and washed in ...


Inhibition of Ascorbate Peroxidase by Salicylic Acid and 2,6- Dichloroisonicotinic Acid, Two Inducers of Plant Defense Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, it has become apparent that salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant defense responses to pathogen attack. Previous studies have suggested that one of SA's mechanisms of action is the inhibition of catalase, resulting in elevated levels of H_2 O_2, which activate defense-related genes. Here we demonstrate that SA also inhibits ascorbate peroxidase (APX), the

Jorg Durner; Daniel F. Klessig



Salicylic Acid Is Not the Translocated Signal Responsible for Inducing Systemic Acquired Resistance but Is Required in Signal Transduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

lnfection of plants by necrotizing pathogens can induce broad-spectrum resistance to subsequent pathogen Infection. This systemlc acquired resistance (SAR) is thought to be trlggered by a vascular-mobile signal that moves throughout the plant from the infected leaves. A conslderable amount of evldence suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is involved in the induction of SAR. Because SA is found in phloem

Bernard Vernooij; Roland Reist; Rachida KolditzJawhar; Eric Ward; Scott Uknes; Helmut Kessmann; John Ryals



Ultraviolet light and ozone stimulate accumulation of salicylic acid, pathogenesis-related proteins and virus resistance in tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthinc), salicylic acid (SA) levels increase in leaves inoculated by necrotizing pathogens and in healthy leaves located above the inoculated site. Systemic SA increase may trigger disease resistance and synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins). Here we report that ultraviolet (UV)-C light or ozone induced biochemical responses similar to those induced by necrotizing pathogens.

Nasser Yalpani; Alexander J. Enyedi; Jose León; Ilya Raskin



Temperature-Dependent Induction of Salicylic Acid and Its Conjugates during the Resistance Response to Tobacco Mosaic Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

lncreases in endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and induction of several families of pathogenesis-related genes (PR-1 through PR-5) occur during the resistance response of tobacco to tobacco mosaic virus infection. We found that at tem- peratures that prevent the induction of PR genes and resistance, the increases in SA levels were eliminated. The addition of exogenous SA to infected plants

Jocelyn Malamy; Jacek Hennig; Daniel F. Klessig




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salicylic acid (SA)-mediated host immunity plays a central role in combating microbial pathogens in plants. It was shown that mutations in conserved effector loci (CEL) in the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae (the DCEL mutation), Erwinia amylovora (the dspA/E mutation), and Pantoea stewartii sub...


Biocontrol of blue and gray mold diseases of pear fruit by integration of antagonistic yeast with salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the biocontrol yeast Cryptococcus laurentii and salicylic acid (SA) in suppressing the blue and gray mould rots in pear fruit and to explore possible mode of action involved. Our results showed that the combined treatment of pear fruit with C. laurentii with SA at 100 ?g ml?1 resulted in a remarkably improved

Ting Yu; Jishuang Chen; Rongle Chen; Bin Huang; Donghong Liu; Xiaodong Zheng



Cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mustard [ Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.] plants can be alleviated by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to examine the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on growth, activities of antioxidant enzymes and some physio-biochemical attributes in mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.] plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) stress. Increasing concentrations of Cd led to decreased growth, shoot biomass, relative water content (RWC) and rate of photosynthesis (A). SA allayed the

P. Ahmad; G. Nabi; M. Ashraf



Characterization of tribofilms derived from zinc dialkyldithiophosphate and salicylate detergents by X-ray absorbance near edge structure spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorous and sulfur L- and K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded to characterize the surface chemistry of the tribofilms derived from a commercial zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and its blends with overbased calcium and magnesium salicylate detergents. The results show that the chemical structure of the tribofilms generated from the mixture of ZDDP and detergents is different

Y. Wan; M. Kasrai; G. M. Bancroft; J. Zhang



Inabenfide-Induced Alleviation of Salt Stress in Rice as Linked to Changes in Salicylic Acid Content and Catalase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inabenfide was investigated in rice seedlings subjected to salt stress in relation to changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (? F\\/Fm'), lipid peroxidation, salicylic acid (SA) content, and catalase (CAT) activity. A reduction in shoot growth of rice seedlings by 120 mM NaCl treatment was significantly alleviated by pretreatment with 30 ? M inabenfide. Sodium ion content was not

Hiroko Sawada; Dea-Wook Kim; Katsuichiro Kobayashi


Optical biosensor for environmental on-line monitoring of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability with an immobilized bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium.  

PubMed Central

An optical whole-cell biosensor based on a genetically engineered bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium was developed for continuous on-line monitoring of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability and microbial catabolic activity potential in waste streams. The bioluminescent reporter bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, carries a transcriptional nahG-luxCDABE fusion for naphthalene and salicylate catabolism. Exposure to either compound resulted in inducible bioluminescence. The reporter culture was immobilized onto the surface of an optical light guide by using strontium alginate. This biosensor probe was then inserted into a measurement cell which simultaneously received the waste stream solution and a maintenance medium. Exposure under defined conditions to both naphthalene and salicylate resulted in a rapid increase in bioluminescence. The magnitude of the response and the response time were concentration dependent. Good reproducibility of the response was observed during repetitive perturbations with either naphthalene or salicylate. Exposure to other compounds, such as glucose and complex nutrient medium or toluene, resulted in either minor bioluminescence increases after significantly longer response times compared with naphthalene or no response, respectively. The environmental utility of the biosensor was tested by using real pollutant mixtures. A specific bioluminescence response was obtained after exposure to either an aqueous solution saturated with JP-4 jet fuel or an aqueous leachate from a manufactured-gas plant soil, since naphthalene was present in both pollutant mixtures.

Heitzer, A; Malachowsky, K; Thonnard, J E; Bienkowski, P R; White, D C; Sayler, G S



Laccase-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond formation: oxidative dimerization of salicylic esters by air in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laccase catalyzed oxidative dimerization of salicylic esters, a rare example of a laccase-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond formation, was studied. This reaction allows the use of air as stoichiometric oxidant and proceeds in aqueous solution. The preparative scope and the mechanism of the method, which provides a new and convenient access to functionalized biaryls under mild conditions, were investigated.

Sabine Ciecholewski; Elke Hammer; Katrin Manda; Gopal Bose; Van T. H. Nguyen; Peter Langer; Frieder Schauer



Influence of particle size on the quantitative determination of salicylic acid in a pharmaceutical ointment using FT-Raman spectroscopy.  


A second order polynomial calibration model was developed and statistically validated for the direct and non-destructive quantitative analysis - without sample preparation - of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) salicylic acid in a pharmaceutical ointment using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The calibration curve was modeled by plotting the peak intensity of the vector normalized spectral band between 757 and 784cm(-1) against the known salicylic acid concentrations in standards. At this band, no spectral interferences from the ointment vehiculum (white vaseline) are observed. For the validation of the polynomial model, its fit and its predictive properties were evaluated. The validated model was used for the quantification of 25 ointments, compounded by different retail pharmacists. The same standards and samples were used, both for development and validation of a regression model and for quantitative determination by HPLC - with sample preparation - as described for the related substances of salicylic acid in the Ph. Eur. IV. The quantification results obtained by the FT-Raman method corresponded with the HPLC results (p=0.22), provided that the particle size of salicylic acid in the standards is the same as in the analyzed samples. The non-destructive FT-Raman method is a reliable alternative for the destructive HPLC method, as it is faster and does not require sample pre-treatment procedures. PMID:17161940

De Beer, T R M; Baeyens, W R G; Heyden, Y Vander; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; Verpoort, F



Estimation of hydroxyl radical generation by salicylate hydroxylation method in kidney of mice exposed to ferric nitrilotriacetate and potassium bromate.  


Hydroxyl radical (*OH) generation in the kidney of mice treated with ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) or potassium bromate (KBrO3) in vivo was estimated by the salicylate hydroxylation method, using the optimal experimental conditions we recently reported. Induction of DNA lesions and lipid peroxidation in the kidney by these nephrotoxic compounds was also examined. The salicylate hydroxylation method revealed significant increases in the *OH generation after injection of Fe-NTA or KBrO3 in the kidneys. A significant increase in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in nuclei of the kidney was detected only in the KBrO3 treated mice, while the comet assay showed that the Fe-NTA and KBrO3 treatments both resulted in significant increases in DNA breakage in the kidney. With respect to lipid peroxidation, the Fe-NTA treatment enhanced lipid peroxidation and ESR signals of the alkylperoxy radical adduct. These DNA breaks and lipid peroxidation mediated by *OH were diminished by pre-treatment with salicylate in vivo. These results clearly demonstrated the usefulness of the salicylate hydroxylation method as well as the comet assay in estimating the involvement of *OH generation in cellular injury induced by chemicals in vivo. PMID:17907000

Ueno, Shunji; Kashimoto, Takashige; Susa, Nobuyuki; Shiho, Kensuke; Seki, Takashi; Ito, Nobuhiko; Takeda-Homma, Shino; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Masayasu



First derivative spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic simultaneous determination of benzoic and salicylic acids in pharmaceutical preparations.  


Two methods are presented for the simultaneous determination of benzoic and salicylic acids in pharmaceutical preparations using first (1D) derivative spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Benzoic and salicylic acids were determined by measurement of first derivative amplitude at the zero crossing points 283 and 310 nm respectively. Methanolic solutions obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range of 20-60 and 10-30 microg/ml for benzoic and salicylic acids respectively. The HPLC method depends upon using a Vydac reversed-phase column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of 20:80 (ACN:H2O) at a flow rate 0.5 ml min(-1) Quantitation was achieved with UV detection of 230 nm at 0 min and 204 nm at 4 min based on peak area. For the two methods the regression line equations were derived with correlation coefficient better than 0.995. The two methods were successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of benzoic and salicylic acids in laboratory-prepared mixtures and in creams with good accuracy and precision. No significant differences were found between the results obtained both by the HPLC and derivative procedures. PMID:19068560

Silva, B O


Increasing Resistance to Oxidative Damage in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants by Exogenous Application of Salicylic Acid and Paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Pot experiments were conducted on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants in the green house of the National Research Center. Dokki, Giza, Egypt to assess the impacts of low temperature on cucumber plants cultivated in January 2007 and 2008 to achieve early production during April. To alleviate the harmful effect of low temperature, salicylic acid (2, 4mM) and paclobutrazol

S. A. Orabi; S. R. Salman; Magda A. F. Shalaby



Down Regulation of Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Salicylic Acid Attenuates Its Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic metabolite produced by plants and is known to play an important role in several physiological processes, such as the induction of plant defense responses against pathogen attack. Here, using the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathosystem, we provide evidence that SA acts directly on the pathogen, down regulating fitness and virulence factor production of the bacteria.

B. Prithiviraj; H. P. Bais; T. Weir; B. Suresh; E. H. Najarro; B. V. Dayakar; H. P. Schweizer; J. M. Vivanco



Endothelial cell injury in cardiac surgery: salicylate may be protective by reducing expression of endothelial adhesion molecules1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass induces ischemia to the heart, hypoxemia to various tissues and release of endotoxins. The endothelial cell may suffer from hypoxia and trigger cascades of adverse reactions by activation of neutrophils through adhesion molecules. The authors measured expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), during hypoxia and normoxia and hypothesized that salicylate, which inhibits the nuclear

Gregor Zun; Andrea L. Dzus; Urs Niederhauser; Paul Vogt; Marko Turina


In vitro protection of auditory hair cells by salicylate from the gentamicin-induced but not neomycin-induced cell loss.  


Salicylate has been shown to protect animals and people from the gentamicin-induced hearing loss. The objective of our study was to determine if salicylate is otoprotective in vitro. In this fashion, we wanted to validate the use of explant culture system for future studies on the ototoxicity prevention. In addition, we wanted to find out if salicylate protects from the ototoxicity of other aminoglycosides. As a model, we used the membranous cochlear tissues containing the organ of Corti, spiral limbus and spiral ganglion neurons dissected from the cochleas of p3-p5 Wistar pups. The explants were divided into apical, medial and basal parts and cultured in presence or absence of 100?M gentamicin, 100?M neomycin and 5mM salicylate. Following the tissue fixation and staining with phalloidin-TRITC, the number of inner and outer hair cells (IHCs, OHCs) was scored under the fluorescent microscope. Presence of 5mM salicylate in explants cultures exposed to 100?M gentamicin significantly reduced the loss of IHCs and OHCs, as compared to explants exposed to gentamicin alone. In contrast, neomycin-induced auditory hair cell loss remained unaffected by the presence of salicylate. Our results corroborate earlier in vivo findings and validate the use of cochlear explants for future studies on ototoxicity and its prevention. Moreover, the inability of salicylate to prevent neomycin-induced ototoxicity implies possible differences between the mechanisms of auditory hair cell loss induced by gentamicin and neomycin. PMID:22075224

Mazurek, Birgit; Lou, Xiangxin; Olze, Heidi; Haupt, Heidemarie; Szczepek, Agnieszka J



The effect of high-dose sodium salicylate on chronically elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction in overweight and obese nondiabetic men.  


Prolonged elevation of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) induces insulin resistance and impairs pancreatic ?-cell adaptation to insulin resistance. Studies in rodents suggest that inflammation may play a role in this "lipotoxicity." We studied the effects of sodium salicylate, an anti-inflammatory agent, on lipid-induced alterations in ?-cell function and insulin sensitivity in six overweight and obese nondiabetic men. Each subject underwent four separate studies, 4-6 wk apart, in random order: 1) SAL, 1-wk placebo followed by intravenous (iv) infusion of saline for 48 h; 2) IH, 1-wk placebo followed by iv infusion of intralipid plus heparin for 48 h to raise plasma NEFA approximately twofold; 3) IH + SS, 1-wk sodium salicylate (4.5 g/day) followed by 48-h IH infusion; and 4) SS, 1-wk oral sodium salicylate followed by 48-h saline infusion. After 48-h saline or lipid infusion, insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed by hyperglycemic clamp and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, respectively, in sequential order. Insulin sensitivity was reduced by lipid infusion (IH = 67% of SAL) and was not improved by salicylate (IH + SS = 56% of SAL). Lipid infusion also reduced the disposition index (P < 0.05), which was not prevented by sodium salicylate. Salicylate reduced insulin clearance. These data suggest that oral sodium salicylate at this dose impairs insulin clearance but does not ameliorate lipid-induced insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction in overweight and obese nondiabetic men. PMID:19755670

Xiao, Changting; Giacca, Adria; Lewis, Gary F



HSP-72 Accelerated Expression in Mononuclear Cells Induced In Vivo by Acetyl Salicylic Acid Can Be Reproduced In Vitro when Combined with H2O2  

PubMed Central

Background Among NSAIDs acetyl salicylic acid remains as a valuable tool because of the variety of benefic prophylactic and therapeutic effects. Nevertheless, the molecular bases for these responses have not been complete understood. We explored the effect of acetyl salicylic acid on the heat shock response. Results Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from rats challenged with acetyl salicylic acid presented a faster kinetics of expression of HSP-72 messenger RNA and protein in response to in vitro heat shock. This effect reaches its maximum 2 h after treatment and disappeared after 5 h. On isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from untreated rats, incubation with acetyl salicylic acid was ineffective to produce priming, but this effect was mimicked when the cells were incubated with the combination of H2O2+ ASA. Conclusions Administration of acetyl salicylic acid to rats alters HSP-72 expression mechanism in a way that it becomes more efficient in response to in vitro heat shock. The fact that in vitro acetyl salicylic acid alone did not induce this priming effect implies that in vivo other signals are required. Priming could be reproduces in vitro with the combination of acetyl salicylic acid+H2O2.

Sandoval-Montiel, Alvaro A.; Zentella-de-Pina, Martha; Ventura-Gallegos, Jose L.; Frias-Gonzalez, Susana; Lopez-Macay, Ambar; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro



Neurotoxicity of methyl chloride.  


Methyl chloride is encountered in the chemical industry as a methylating agent in the production of butyl rubber, tetramethyl lead, and other products as well as a blowing agent for some polystyrene foams. It is a potent CNS depressant whose principal route of absorption is by inhalation, although it can be absorbed through the skin. Symptoms of the neurotoxicity include headache, drowsiness, giddiness, ataxia, convulsion, and coma. This review focuses on the human case reports of acute and chronic exposures as well as some of the more important inhalation studies conducted with animals. The chemical and physical properties and the more important industrial uses are also discussed. PMID:7038527

Repko, J D



Phenytoin-initiated hydroxyl radical formation: characterization by enhanced salicylate hydroxylation.  


Bioactivation of phenytoin and related teratogens by peroxidases such as prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) may initiate hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation that is teratogenic. Salicylate is hydroxylated by .OH at the third and fifth carbon atoms, forming 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids (DHBA). In vivo salicylate metabolism produces only the 2,5-isomer, so 2,3-DHBA formation may reflect .OH production. In the present study, we validated the salicylate assay using the known .OH generator paraquat and evaluated .OH production by phenytoin. Female CD-1 mice were treated with paraquat (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) given 30 min after acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Blood was collected at 5, 15, and 30 min and 1 and 2 hr after paraquat, and plasma was analyzed for DHBA isomers and glucuronide conjugates by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Paraquat increased 2,3-DHBA formation 19.2-fold, with substantial inter-individual variability in the time of maximal formation (p = 0.0001). The 2,3-DHBA glucuronide conjugates in vivo and in hepatic microsomal studies amounted to approximately 11% and 0.43%, respectively, of total 2,3-DHBA equivalents. To investigate putative .OH production initiated via PHS-catalyzed phenytoin bioactivation, ASA was given 30 min before phenytoin (65 or 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), resulting in respective 7.6-fold (p = 0.02) and 14.2-fold (p = 0.003) increases in phenytoin-initiated maximal 2,3-DHBA formation. Maximal 2,3-DHBA formation was 2.1-fold higher when ASA was administered after rather than before the same dose (65 mg/kg) of phenytoin (p = 0.03), indicating ASA inhibition of PHS-catalyzed phenytoin bioactivation. Urinary analysis was much less sensitive, and the 2,5-isomer reflected enzymatic rather than .OH-mediated hydroxylation. The paraquat studies demonstrate the importance of timing in accurately quantifying 2,3-DHBA formation and suggest that glucuronidation does not interfere. The substantial, dose-dependent initiation of 2,3-DHBA formation by phenytoin, and its inhibition by ASA, provide the first in vivo evidence that PHS-dependent .OH formation could contribute to the molecular mechanism of phenytoin teratogenesis. PMID:8569704

Kim, P M; Wells, P G



Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Methods Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Results Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%–51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%–35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%–25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%–64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%–30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%–21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Interpretation For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. ( registration no. ISRCTN42730629)

Bruggink, Sjoerd C.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; de Waal, Margot W.M.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W.; Eekhof, Just A.H.



Systematic review of efficacy of topical rubefacients containing salicylates for the treatment of acute and chronic pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of topical rubefacients containing salicylates in acute and chronic pain. Data sources Electronic databases and manufacturers of salicylates. Study selection Randomised double blind trials comparing topical rubefacients with placebo or another active treatment, in adults with acute or chronic pain, and reporting dichotomous information, around a 50% reduction in pain, and analyses at one week for acute conditions and two weeks for chronic conditions. Data extraction Relative benefit and number needed to treat, analysis of adverse events, and withdrawals. Data synthesis Three double blind placebo controlled trials had information on 182 patients with acute conditions. Topical salicylate was significantly better than placebo (relative benefit 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.4 to 5.6; number needed to treat 2.1, 1.7 to 2.8). Six double blind placebo controlled trials had information on 429 patients with chronic conditions. Topical salicylate was significantly better than placebo (relative benefit 1.5, 1.3 to 1.9; number needed to treat 5.3, 3.6 to 10.2), but larger, more valid studies were without significant effect. Local adverse events and withdrawals were generally rare in trials that reported them. Conclusions Based on limited information, topically applied rubefacients containing salicylates may be efficacious in the treatment of acute pain. Trials of musculoskeletal and arthritic pain suggested moderate to poor efficacy. Adverse events were rare in studies of acute pain and poorly reported in those of chronic pain. Efficacy estimates for rubefacients are unreliable owing to a lack of good clinical trials.

Mason, Lorna; Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne E; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J



Early senescence and cell death in Arabidopsis saul1 mutants involves the PAD4-dependent salicylic acid pathway.  


Age-dependent leaf senescence and cell death in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) requires activation of the transcription factor ORESARA1 (ORE1) and is not initiated prior to a leaf age of 28 d. Here, we investigate the conditional execution of events that regulate early senescence and cell death in senescence-associated ubiquitin ligase1 (saul1) mutants, deficient in the PLANT U-BOX-ARMADILLO E3 ubiquitin ligase SAUL1. In saul1 mutants challenged with low light, the switch of age-dependent cell death was turned on prematurely, as indicated by the accumulation of ORE1 transcripts, induction of the senescence marker gene SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE12, and cell death. However, ORE1 accumulation by itself was not sufficient to cause saul1 phenotypes, as demonstrated by double mutant analysis. Exposure of saul1 mutants to low light for only 24 h did not result in visible symptoms of senescence; however, the senescence-promoting transcription factor genes WRKY53, WRKY6, and NAC-LIKE ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI were up-regulated, indicating that senescence in saul1 seedlings was already initiated. To resolve the time course of gene expression, microarray experiments were performed at narrow intervals. Differential expression of the genes involved in salicylic acid and defense mechanisms were the earliest events detected, suggesting a central role for salicylic acid in saul1 senescence and cell death. The salicylic acid content increased in low-light-treated saul1 mutants, and application of exogenous salicylic acid was indeed sufficient to trigger saul1 senescence in permissive light conditions. Double mutant analyses showed that PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) but not NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES1 (NPR1) is essential for saul1 phenotypes. Our results indicate that saul1 senescence depends on the PAD4-dependent salicylic acid pathway but does not require NPR1 signaling. PMID:22706448

Vogelmann, Katja; Drechsel, Gabriele; Bergler, Johannes; Subert, Christa; Philippar, Katrin; Soll, Jürgen; Engelmann, Julia C; Engelsdorf, Timo; Voll, Lars M; Hoth, Stefan



On the bromination of methyl 2-methyl-3-furoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl 2-methyl-3-furoate was subjected to bromination with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), a milder brominating reagent, under different reaction conditions to obtain a variety of selective brominated products.

Haripada Khatuya



Use of the water-soluble fluor sodium salicylate for fluorographic detection of tritium in thin-layer chromatograms and nitrocellulose blots  

SciTech Connect

We have determined that sodium salicylate, a water-soluble fluor which we use routinely for fluorography with polyacrylamide gels, is also useful for fluorography with thin-layer media. Detection of /sup 3/H-labeled material applied to thin-layer chromatography plates, or nitrocellulose membranes, can be enhanced up to 150-fold after treatment with an aqueous solution of 2 M sodium salicylate, while detection of /sup 35/S-labeled material is enhanced only about 2-fold. We demonstrate the utility of sodium salicylate fluorography in detecting 3H-labeled palmitic acid following thin-layer chromatography and /sup 3/H-labeled proteins following blotting to nitrocellulose.

Lucher, L.A.; Lego, T.



Metabolic production of methylated selenium species requires adequate methylation status  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obesity negatively impacts methylation status and markers of methylation status vary according to selenium status in supplemented subjects. We have proposed that disruptions in methylation capacity induced by obesity compromise demonstrable anti-cancer effects of Se supplementation. In order to addr...


Fluorescence characteristics of 5-amino salicylic acid: An iodide recognition study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the effect of iodide on the fluorescence of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). In the absence of iodide, prominent blue green (BG) emission band at ˜465 nm (broad) is observed in aprotic solvents whereas violet (V) emission at ˜408 nm, blue green (BG) at ˜480 nm and green (G) at ˜500 nm are observed in case of protic solvents. On the addition of iodide ion (I-), the intensity of BG fluorescence is enhanced in case of aprotic solvents. On the other hand the G band is enhanced in protic solvents and decrease in the intensity of the V band is observed. The effect of hydrogen bonding as well as the interplay of neutral and ionic species is invoked to explain the observed results. The study projects the application of this system in iodide recognition in protic/aprotic environments.

Arora, Priyanka; Suyal, Kanchan; Joshi, Neeraj K.; Joshi, Hem Chandra; Pant, Sanjay


Terahertz Vibrational Modes of Crystalline Salicylic Acid by Numerical Model Using Periodic Density Functional Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terahertz vibrational modes of crystalline salicylic acid at 1-6 THz were investigated using a vibrational calculation method in which the diagonalization of force constant matrix was estimated by periodic density functional calculations. The result proved sufficient to enable the terahertz vibrational modes to be assigned to lattice modes at 32.2-64.9 cm-1 coupled with translational and rotational modes, intermolecular bending modes at 67.0-132.1 cm-1 including the torsion of carboxyl groups, and out-of-plane intramolecular bending modes at 162.0-175.4 cm-1. The theoretical model presented allows for the interpretation of the terahertz spectra of organic crystals with a hydrogen-bonded dimer lacking the molecular vibrations of a large amplitude, by including effects arising from crystal periodicity.

Saito, Shigeki; Inerbaev, Talgat M.; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Nobuaki; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki



Salicylic Acid sans Aspirin in Animals and Man: Persistence in Fasting and Biosynthesis from Benzoic Acid  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA), which is central to defense mechanisms in plants and the principal metabolite of aspirin, occurs naturally in man with higher levels of SA and its urinary metabolite salicyluric acid (SU) in vegetarians overlapping with levels in patients on low-dose aspirin regimens. SA is widely distributed in animal blood. Fasting for major colorectal surgery did not cause disappearance of SA from plasma, even in patients following total proctocolectomy. A 13C6 benzoic acid load ingested by six volunteers led, between 8 and 16 h, to a median 33.9% labeling of urinary salicyluric acid. The overall contribution of benzoic acid (and its salts) to the turnover of circulating SA thus requires further assessment. However, that SA appears to be, at least partially, an endogenous compound should lead to reassessment of its role in human (and animal) pathophysiology.



Grasshopper oral secretions increase salicylic acid and abscisic acid levels in wounded leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.  


Recent investigations showed that the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana specifically responds to herbivory-associated molecular patterns by activating a sophisticated signaling network. The lipase activity of insect oral secretions was shown to elevate oxylipin levels when applied to puncture wounds in leaves. The results also demonstrated that the oral secretions of the generalist Schistocerca gregaria contained other, probably non-proteinous, elicitors of plant defense responses which induced mitogen-activated protein kinases, calcium signaling and ethylene levels. This addendum presents data on the levels of additional phytohormones that are elevated after application of S. gregaria oral secretion to wounded leaves. Abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels are significantly elevated after elicitation with S. gregaria oral secretions, adding another layer of complexity to the herbivory-induced response of A. thaliana. PMID:21847018

Schäfer, Martin; Fischer, Christine; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan



One-step immunoassay for acetaminophen and salicylate in serum, plasma, and whole blood.  


Acetaminophen (APAP, n-acetyl-p-aminophenol) and salicylate (ASA, acetylsalicylic acid) are two of the most frequently overdosed drugs reported in the emergency room. Most APAP and ASA tests are performed with analytical instruments in laboratories, which are not always ideal for emergency situations. A rapid membrane and gold particle-based immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of APAP and ASA has been developed. Validation studies verified the cutoffs for the assay as 25 microg/mL for APAP and 100 microg/mL for ASA, respectively, and the accuracy study indicated that the agreement between the APAP and the ASA test and reference methods is 99%. One hundred thirty-three structurally unrelated chemicals and metabolites that may be present in human blood specimens were tested and found not to cross-react with the test. PMID:14516490

Song, Wu; Dou, Chao



Anodic oxidation of salicylic acid on BDD electrode: variable effects and mechanisms of degradation.  


The degradation of 100mL of solution with salicylic acid (SA) in the pH range 3.0-10.0 has been studied by anodic oxidation in a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel cathode, both of 3 cm(2) area, by applying a current of 100, 300 and 450 mA at 25°C. Completed mineralization is always achieved due to the great concentration of hydroxyl radical (OH) generated at the BDD surface. The mineralization rate increases with increasing applied current, but decreases when drug concentration rises from 200 mg L(-1). Nevertheless, the pH effect was not significant. During oxidation it was observed that catechol, 2,5-dihydroxylated benzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxylated benzoic acid and hydroquinone were formed as aromatic intermediates. In addition, ion-exclusion chromatography allowed the detection of fumaric, maleic, oxalic and formic as the ultimate carboxylic acid. PMID:23158689

Rabaaoui, Nejmeddine; Allagui, Mohamed Salah



Synthesis and metal binding properties of salicylate-, catecholate-, and hydroxypyridinonate-functionalized dendrimers.  


The synthesis, characterization, and metal-binding studies of chelate-functionalized dendrimers is reported. Salicylate, catecholate, and hydroxypyridinonate bidentate chelators have been coupled to the surface of both poly(propyleneimine) (Astramol) and poly(amidoamine) (Starburst, PAMAM) dendrimers up to the fifth generation (64 endgroups). A general method has been developed for the facile and high quality chromatographic purification of poly(propyleneimine) and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer derivatives. One- and two-dimensional (TOCSY) 1H NMR experiments and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) have confirmed the exhaustive coupling of these chelators to the primary amine functionalities of the dendrimers. Spectrophotometric titrations were used to investigate the metal binding ability of these macrochelates. Spectral analysis shows that ferric iron binding to these ligands is localized to the chelating endgroups. The ability of these dendritic polymers to bind large numbers of metal ions may lead to applications as metal sequestering agents for waste remediation technologies. PMID:11205020

Cohen, S M; Petoud, S; Raymond, K N



Root-fed salicylic acid in grape involves the response caused by aboveground high temperature.  


In order to investigate the transportation and distribution of salicylic acid (SA) from root to aboveground tissues in response to high temperature, the roots of grape plant were fed with (14)C-SA before high temperature treatment. Radioactivity results showed that progressive increase in SA transportation from root to aboveground as compared with the control varied exactly with the heat treatment time. Radioactivity results of leaves at different stem heights indicated that the increase in SA amount at the top and middle leaves during the early period was most significant in comparison with the bottom leaves. The up-transportation of SA from root to aboveground tissues was dependent on xylem rather than phloem. Auto-radiographs of whole grape plants strongly approved the conclusions drawn above. Root-derived SA was believed to be a fundamental source in response to aboveground high temperature. PMID:18713417

Liu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Yue-Ping; Huang, Wei-Dong



Salicylic acid sans aspirin in animals and man: persistence in fasting and biosynthesis from benzoic acid.  


Salicylic acid (SA), which is central to defense mechanisms in plants and the principal metabolite of aspirin, occurs naturally in man with higher levels of SA and its urinary metabolite salicyluric acid (SU) in vegetarians overlapping with levels in patients on low-dose aspirin regimens. SA is widely distributed in animal blood. Fasting for major colorectal surgery did not cause disappearance of SA from plasma, even in patients following total proctocolectomy. A (13)C(6) benzoic acid load ingested by six volunteers led, between 8 and 16 h, to a median 33.9% labeling of urinary salicyluric acid. The overall contribution of benzoic acid (and its salts) to the turnover of circulating SA thus requires further assessment. However, that SA appears to be, at least partially, an endogenous compound should lead to reassessment of its role in human (and animal) pathophysiology. PMID:19053387

Paterson, John R; Baxter, Gwendoline; Dreyer, Jacob S; Halket, John M; Flynn, Robert; Lawrence, James R



DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results.

Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jerome



Effect of salicylate on outer hair cell plasma membrane viscoelasticity: studies using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma membrane (PM) of mammalian outer hair cells (OHCs) generates mechanical forces in response to changes in the transmembrane electrical potential. The resulting change in the cell length is known as electromotility. Salicylate (Sal), the anionic, amphipathic derivative of aspirin induces reversible hearing loss and decreases electromotile response of the OHCs. Sal may change the local curvature and mechanical properties of the PM, eventually resulting in reduced electromotility or it may compete with intracellular monovalent anions, particularly Cl-, which are essential for electromotility. In this work we have used optical tweezers to study the effects of Sal on viscoelastic properties of the OHC PM when separated from the underlying composite structures of the cell wall. In this procedure, an optically trapped microsphere is brought in contact with PM and subsequently pulled away to form a tether. We measured the force exerted on the tether as a function of time during the process of tether growth at different pulling rates. Effective tether viscosity, steady-state tethering force extrapolated to zero pulling rate, and the time constant for tether growth were estimated from the measurements of the instantaneous tethering force. The time constant for the tether growth measured for the OHC basal end decreased 1.65 times after addition of 10 mM Sal, which may result from an interaction between Sal and cholesterol, which is more prevalent in the PM of OHC basal end. The time constants for the tether growth calculated for the OHC lateral wall and control human embryonic kidney cells as well as the other calculated viscoelastic parameters remained the same after Sal perfusion, favoring the hypothesis of competitive inhibition of electromotility by salicylate.

Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman



Anti-inflammatory salicylate treatment alters the metabolic adaptations to lactation in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in physiological state. To investigate the role of inflammation-associated pathways in these homeorhetic adaptations, we treated cows with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (SS) for the first 7 days of lactation. Administration of SS decreased liver TNF-? mRNA and marginally decreased plasma TNF-? concentration, but plasma eicosanoids and liver NF-?B activity were unaltered during treatment. Despite the mild impact on these inflammatory markers, SS clearly altered metabolic function. Plasma glucose concentration was decreased by SS, but this was not explained by a shift in hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression or by altered milk lactose secretion. Insulin concentrations decreased in SS-treated cows on day 7 compared with controls, which was consistent with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was then used to assess whether altered insulin sensitivity may have influenced glucose utilization rate with SS. The RQUICKI estimate of insulin sensitivity was significantly elevated by SS on day 7, coincident with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. Salicylate prevented postpartum insulin resistance, likely causing excessive glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and hypoglycemia. These results represent the first evidence that inflammation-associated pathways are involved in homeorhetic adaptations to lactation.

Farney, Jaymelynn K.; Mamedova, Laman K.; Coetzee, Johann F.; KuKanich, Butch; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Stoakes, Sara K.; Minton, J. Ernest; Hollis, Larry C.



Anti-inflammatory salicylate treatment alters the metabolic adaptations to lactation in dairy cattle.  


Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in physiological state. To investigate the role of inflammation-associated pathways in these homeorhetic adaptations, we treated cows with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (SS) for the first 7 days of lactation. Administration of SS decreased liver TNF-? mRNA and marginally decreased plasma TNF-? concentration, but plasma eicosanoids and liver NF-?B activity were unaltered during treatment. Despite the mild impact on these inflammatory markers, SS clearly altered metabolic function. Plasma glucose concentration was decreased by SS, but this was not explained by a shift in hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression or by altered milk lactose secretion. Insulin concentrations decreased in SS-treated cows on day 7 compared with controls, which was consistent with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was then used to assess whether altered insulin sensitivity may have influenced glucose utilization rate with SS. The RQUICKI estimate of insulin sensitivity was significantly elevated by SS on day 7, coincident with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. Salicylate prevented postpartum insulin resistance, likely causing excessive glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and hypoglycemia. These results represent the first evidence that inflammation-associated pathways are involved in homeorhetic adaptations to lactation. PMID:23678026

Farney, Jaymelynn K; Mamedova, Laman K; Coetzee, Johann F; KuKanich, Butch; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Stoakes, Sara K; Minton, J Ernest; Hollis, Larry C; Bradford, Barry J



Chromatographic analysis of salicylic compounds in different species of the genus Salix.  


The separation of nine phenol glycosides--salicin, salicortin, 2'-acetylsalicortin, populin, tremulacin, salidroside, triandrin, picein and helicin--by normal phase (NP), reversed phase (RP) HPLC techniques and a coupling of NP and RP monolithic silica columns was studied. Among the above nine compounds only five--salicin, populin, tremulacin, salidroside and triandrin--were resolved in an NP system with a mobile phase comprising hexane/isopropanol/methanol (87:12:1, v/v/v). Optimized separation was performed with two coupled monolithic silica columns of different polarity (bare silica and RP-18). The method was applied to verify the presence of salicylic compounds and other phenolic derivatives in the bark of six species from the genus Salix, namely S. purpurea, S. daphnoides clone 1095, S. alba clone 1100, S. triandra, S. viminalis, and S. herbacea. Gradient elution with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.05% of trifluoroacetic acid, with increasing acetonitrile concentration from 3% to 48%, was chosen as optimal. For the selective detection of the salicylic compounds, an evaporative light scattering detector was employed along with a UV detector. The differences in the composition of phenols in the different plant materials were confirmed. Additionally, it must be emphasized that for the first time the presence of 2'-acetylsalicortin was revealed in S. alba clone 1100. Furthermore, an SPE-HPLC method was developed for the rapid analysis of the salicin content, analyzed as free and total fraction, in willow barks. The determined concentrations of total salicin varied from 25.4 mg/g in S. alba clone 1100 to 96.47 mg/g in S. daphnoides clone 1095. PMID:17880029

Pob?ocka-Olech, Loretta; van Nederkassel, Anne-Marie; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Krauze-Baranowska, Miros?awa; Glód, Daniel; Baczek, Tomasz



40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...Substances § 721.6920 Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...substance identified as butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene,...



DNA methylation and transcriptional noise  

PubMed Central

Background DNA methylation is one of the most phylogenetically widespread epigenetic modifications of genomic DNA. In particular, DNA methylation of transcription units (‘gene bodies’) is highly conserved across diverse taxa. However, the functional role of gene body methylation is not yet fully understood. A long-standing hypothesis posits that gene body methylation reduces transcriptional noise associated with spurious transcription of genes. Despite the plausibility of this hypothesis, an explicit test of this hypothesis has not been performed until now. Results Using nucleotide-resolution data on genomic DNA methylation and abundant microarray data, here we investigate the relationship between DNA methylation and transcriptional noise. Transcriptional noise measured from microarrays scales down with expression abundance, confirming findings from single-cell studies. We show that gene body methylation is significantly negatively associated with transcriptional noise when examined in the context of other biological factors. Conclusions This finding supports the hypothesis that gene body methylation suppresses transcriptional noise. Heavy methylation of vertebrate genomes may have evolved as a global regulatory mechanism to control for transcriptional noise. In contrast, promoter methylation exhibits positive correlations with the level of transcriptional noise. We hypothesize that methylated promoters tend to undergo more frequent transcriptional bursts than those that avoid DNA methylation.



Arabidopsis GH3.12 (PBS3) Conjugates Amino Acids to 4-Substituted Benzoates and Is Inhibited by Salicylate*S?  

PubMed Central

Salicylate (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoate) is a phytohormone best known for its role as a critical mediator of local and systemic plant defense responses. In response to pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae, SA is synthesized and activates widespread gene expression. In gh3.12/pbs3 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, induced total SA accumulation is significantly compromised as is SA-dependent gene expression and plant defense. AtGH3 subfamily I and II members have been shown to conjugate phytohormone acyl substrates to amino acids in vitro, with this role supported by in planta analyses. Here we sought to determine the in vitro biochemical activity and kinetic properties of GH3.12/avrPphB susceptible 3 (PBS3), a member of the uncharacterized AtGH3 subfamily III. Using a novel high throughput adenylation assay, we characterized the acyl substrate preference of PBS3. We found PBS3 favors 4-substituted benzoates such as 4-aminobenzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate, with moderate activity on benzoate and no observed activity with 2-substituted benzoates. Similar to known GH3 enzymes, PBS3 catalyzes the conjugation of specific amino acids (e.g. Glu) to its preferred acyl substrates. Kinetic analyses indicate 4-aminobenzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate are preferred acyl substrates as PBS3 exhibits both higher affinities (apparent Km = 153 and 459 ?m, respectively) and higher catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km = 0.0179 and 0.0444 ?m–1 min–1, respectively) with these acyl substrates compared with benzoate (apparent Km = 867 ?m, kcat/Km = 0.0046 ?m–1 min–1). Notably, SA specifically and reversibly inhibits PBS3 activity with an IC50 of 15 ?m. This suggests a general mechanism for the rapid, reversible regulation of GH3 activity and small molecule cross-talk. For PBS3, this may allow for coordination of flux through diverse chorismate-derived pathways.

Okrent, Rachel A.; Brooks, Matthew D.; Wildermuth, Mary C.



Roles of salicylic acid-responsive cis-acting elements and W-boxes in salicylic acid induction of VCH3 promoter in transgenic tobaccos.  


A salicylic acid (SA)-inducible VCH3 promoter was recently identified from grapevine (Vitis amurensis) that contains two inverse SA-responsive cis-acting elements and four W-boxes. To further demonstrate the roles of these elements, four fragments with lengths from -1187, -892, -589, -276 to +7 bp were fused with the b-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and transferred to Nicotiana tobacum, together with another four VCH3 promoter fragments with mutation in the two inverse SA-responsive elements. The functions of each promoter fragment were examined by analysis of GUS activity in the transgenic tobacco root treated with SA. Enhanced GUS activity was shown in the roots of transgenic tobaccos with the VCH3 (-1187)-GUS construct containing two SA-responsive cis-acting elements and four W-boxes. However, GUS activity directed by the VCH3 (-892)-GUS construct, containing one SA cis-acting element and four W-boxes, was reduced by up to 35% compared with that in tobaccos transformed with the VCH3 (-1187)-GUS construct, indicating that the SA cis-acting element plays an important role in SA induction of the VCH3 promoter. Neither the m2VCH3 (-1187)-GUS nor the mVCH3 (-892)-GUS construct, with mutation on the SA-responsive elements, abolished the expression of GUS activity, demonstrating that the W-boxes in the VCH3 promoter are also involved in SA induction. Histochemical analysis of GUS activity directed by each of the eight VCH3 promoter fragments showed that GUS was expressed specifically in vascular tissue. It was concluded that both the SA-responsive cis-acting elements and the W-boxes are important for the SA induction of the VCH3 promoter. This promoter might have a potential use in plant genetic engineering. PMID:16395526

Li, Hai-Yan; Wei, Wei; Li, Yu



Rate-controlled rectal absorption enhancement of cefoxitin by co-administration of sodium salicylate or sodium octanoate in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of sodium octanoate and sodium salicylate on the rectal absorption of cefoxitin were investigated in healthy volunteers. Drug solutions were given either as a bolus or as a zero-order infusion. 2. On rectal infusion sodium octanoate and sodium salicylate both enhanced mean cefoxitin bioavailability (+/- s.d.) from 5.0 +/- 1.2% to 9.1 +/- 1.3% and 9.2 +/- 1.5%, respectively. After rectal bolus delivery octanoate increased the mean cefoxitin bioavailability from 7 +/- 3% to 17 +/- 3%, whereas bolus salicylate did not produce a statistically significant effect. All formulations were well tolerated by the volunteers. 3. It is concluded that both octanoate and salicylate are capable of enhancing rectal cefoxitin absorption in man; rate of delivery seems to be an important factor.

Van Hoogdalem, E J; Wackwitz, A T; De Boer, A G; Cohen, A F; Breimer, D D



In-situ CIR-FTIR (cylindrical internal reflection/Fourier transform infrared) characterization of salicylate complexes at the goethite/aqueous solution interface  

SciTech Connect

The types of complexes that salicylate (2-hydroxy-benzoate) forms with the surface of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) in aqueous medium were studied in situ by using cylindrical internal reflection (CIR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results obtained from CIR-FTIR studies were compared with adsorption isotherm experiments in order to relate the level of salicylate coverage to the nature of the surface complex. At lower surface coverages all the interfacial salicylate has a chelate structure in which one carboxylic oxygen and the ortho phenolic oxygen bind one Fe atom of the goethite surface. At higher surface coverages this chelate complex coexists with salicylate ions, which are weakly bound in the double layer.

Yost, E.C.; Tejedor-Tejedor, M.I.; Anderson, M.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))



DNA methylation profiling in nanochannels  

PubMed Central

We report the profiling of the 5-methyl cytosine distribution within single genomic-sized DNA molecules at a gene-relevant resolution. This method linearizes and stretches DNA molecules by confinement to channels with a dimension of about 250×200 nm2. The methylation state is detected using fluorescently labeled methyl-CpG binding domain proteins (MBD), with high signal contrast and low background. DNA barcodes consisting of methylated and non-methylated segments are generated, with both short and long concatemers demonstrating spatially resolved MBD binding. The resolution of the technique is better than 10 kbp, and single-molecule read-lengths exceeding 140 kbp have been achieved.

Fang Lim, Shuang; Karpusenko, Alena; Sakon, John J.; Hook, Joseph A.; Lamar, Tyra A.; Riehn, Robert



Evidence for a Role of Salicylic Acid in the Oxidative Damage Generated by NaCl and Osmotic Stress in Arabidopsis Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that salicylic acid (SA) is an essential component of the plant resistance to pathogens. We now show that SA plays a role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions, such as salt and osmotic stresses. We have studied the responses of wild-type Arabidopsis and an SA-deficient transgenic line expressing a salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) gene to

Omar Borsani; Victoriano Valpuesta; Miguel A. Botella



Use of the water-soluble fluor sodium salicylate for fluorographic detection of tritium in thin-layer chromatograms and nitrocellulose blots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined that sodium salicylate, a water-soluble fluor which we use routinely for fluorography with polyacrylamide gels, is also useful for fluorography with thin-layer media. Detection of ³H-labeled material applied to thin-layer chromatography plates, or nitrocellulose membranes, can be enhanced up to 150-fold after treatment with an aqueous solution of 2 M sodium salicylate, while detection of ³⁵S-labeled material

L. A. Lucher; T. Lego



Aspirin and salicylate bind to immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and inhibit its ATPase activity in human fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous sig- naling molecule of plants, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic actions in human. Its derivative, aspirin, is the most commonly used anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug. Aspirin and sodium salicylate (sa- licylates) have been reported to have multiple pharma- cological actions. However, it is unclear whether they bind to a cellular protein. Here, we report for the




Photocatalyzed degradation on a TiO 2-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Adsorption\\/desorption processes in real time in the degradation of benzoic acid and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic degradations of benzoic acid, phenol and salicylic acid were examined subsequent to in situ adsorption\\/desorption of the organic substrates on a TiO2-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The amount of substrate adsorbed from the bulk aqueous solution on the TiO2-coated QCM sensor was investigated at different pH under dark conditions. The order of adsorption was salicylic acid>phenol?benzoic acid on

Hisao Hidaka; Haruo Honjo; Satoshi Horikoshi; Nick Serpone



Metabolic profiling of oxylipins upon salicylate treatment in barley leaves — preferential induction of the reductase pathway by salicylate 1 1 Dedicated to Prof. Dr. W. Ullrich on the occasion of his 65th birthday  

Microsoft Academic Search

In barley leaves, 13-lipoxygenases (13-LOXs) are induced by salicylate (SA) and jasmonate. Here, we show by metabolic profiling that upon SA treatment, free linolenic acid and linoleic acid accumulate in a 10:1 ratio reflecting their relative occurrence in leaf tissues. Furthermore, 13-LOX-derived products are formed and specifically directed into the reductase branch of the LOX pathway leading mainly to the

Heiko Weichert; Irene Stenzel; Ekkehardt Berndt; Claus Wasternack; Ivo Feussner



Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae) are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA) 95% CI: 85.09-117.26) more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [] and National Research Register N0484189151.



Effect of salicylic acid upon trace-metal sorption (Cd, Zn, Co, and Mn) onto alumina, silica, and kaolinite as a function of pH  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of four trace metals (Cd, Zn, Co, and Mn) onto alumina, silica, and kaolinite, in the presence or absence of salicylic acid was investigated in batch experiments in the pH range from 4 to 9. The sorption was interpreted in terms of surface complexation using the diffuse layer model (DLM). Equilibrium parameters were optimized using the FITEQL program. The salicylic acid was only significantly sorbed onto the alumina and the sorption was modeled using the anionic monodentate surface complex. In the absence of salicylic acid, the sorption of the trace metals presented different pH edge behaviors, depending on the substrate. Using the cationic monodendate surface complex, the model fitted the experimental data well. In the presence of salicylic acid, at a given pH and depending on the substrate, the sorption of metals was (1) increased, suggesting the occurrence of ternary complexes; (2) reduced (sometimes totally inhibited), due to the complexation with dissolved salicylic acid; or (3) very weakly changed in terms of net effect compared to free-organic-ligand systems. Modeling of the trace-metal sorption in the presence of salicylic acid was performed using ternary surface complexes. In the acidic pH range, this allowed the experimental data to be simulated, but in the alkaline pH range, the model failed to simulate the decrease in sorption. Probable causes of the discrepancies between the experimental data and modeling results are discussed.

Benyahya, L.; Garnier, J.M. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Montrouge (France). Inst. de Biogeochimie Marine



Salicylic Acid Biosynthetic Genes Expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain P3 Improve the Induction of Systemic Resistance in Tobacco Against Tobacco Necrosis Virus.  


ABSTRACT Application of salicylic acid induces systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. pchA and pchB, which encode for the biosynthesis of salicylic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were cloned into two expression vectors, and these constructs were introduced into two root-colonizing strains of P. fluorescens. Introduction of pchBA into strain P3, which does not produce salicylic acid, rendered this strain capable of salicylic acid production in vitro and significantly improved its ability to induce systemic resistance in tobacco against tobacco necrosis virus. Strain CHA0 is a well-described biocontrol agent that naturally produces salicylic acid under conditions of iron limitation. Introduction of pchBA into CHA0 increased the production of salicylic acid in vitro and in the rhizosphere of tobacco, but did not improve the ability of CHA0 to induce systemic resistance in tobacco. In addition, these genes did not improve significantly the capacity of strains P3 and CHA0 to suppress black root rot of tobacco in a gnotobiotic system. PMID:18944940

Maurhofer, M; Reimmann, C; Schmidli-Sacherer, P; Heeb, S; Haas, D; Défago, G



The Structure of MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the First Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Siderophore Mycobactin, Reveals It To Be a Salicylate Synthase  

PubMed Central

The ability to acquire iron from the extracellular environment is a key determinant of pathogenicity in mycobacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis acquires iron exclusively via the siderophore mycobactin T, the biosynthesis of which depends on the production of salicylate from chorismate. Salicylate production in other bacteria is either a two-step process involving an isochorismate synthase (chorismate isomerase) and a pyruvate lyase, as observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or a single-step conversion catalyzed by a salicylate synthase, as with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here we present the structure of the enzyme MbtI (Rv2386c) from M. tuberculosis, solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at a resolution of 1.8 Å, and biochemical evidence that it is the salicylate synthase necessary for mycobactin biosynthesis. The enzyme is critically dependent on Mg2+ for activity and produces salicylate via an isochorismate intermediate. MbtI is structurally similar to salicylate synthase (Irp9) from Y. enterocolitica and the large subunit of anthranilate synthase (TrpE) and shares the overall architecture of other chorismate-utilizing enzymes, such as the related aminodeoxychorismate synthase PabB. Like Irp9, but unlike TrpE or PabB, MbtI is neither regulated by nor structurally stabilized by bound tryptophan. The structure of MbtI is the starting point for the design of inhibitors of siderophore biosynthesis, which may make useful lead compounds for the production of new antituberculosis drugs, given the strong dependence of pathogenesis on iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis.

Harrison, Anthony J.; Yu, Minmin; Gardenborg, Theres; Middleditch, Martin; Ramsay, Rochelle J.; Baker, Edward N.; Lott, J. Shaun



The structure of MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of the siderophore mycobactin, reveals it to be a salicylate synthase.  


The ability to acquire iron from the extracellular environment is a key determinant of pathogenicity in mycobacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis acquires iron exclusively via the siderophore mycobactin T, the biosynthesis of which depends on the production of salicylate from chorismate. Salicylate production in other bacteria is either a two-step process involving an isochorismate synthase (chorismate isomerase) and a pyruvate lyase, as observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or a single-step conversion catalyzed by a salicylate synthase, as with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here we present the structure of the enzyme MbtI (Rv2386c) from M. tuberculosis, solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at a resolution of 1.8 A, and biochemical evidence that it is the salicylate synthase necessary for mycobactin biosynthesis. The enzyme is critically dependent on Mg2+ for activity and produces salicylate via an isochorismate intermediate. MbtI is structurally similar to salicylate synthase (Irp9) from Y. enterocolitica and the large subunit of anthranilate synthase (TrpE) and shares the overall architecture of other chorismate-utilizing enzymes, such as the related aminodeoxychorismate synthase PabB. Like Irp9, but unlike TrpE or PabB, MbtI is neither regulated by nor structurally stabilized by bound tryptophan. The structure of MbtI is the starting point for the design of inhibitors of siderophore biosynthesis, which may make useful lead compounds for the production of new antituberculosis drugs, given the strong dependence of pathogenesis on iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis. PMID:16923875

Harrison, Anthony J; Yu, Minmin; Gårdenborg, Therés; Middleditch, Martin; Ramsay, Rochelle J; Baker, Edward N; Lott, J Shaun



Targeting DNA Methylation  

PubMed Central

Two nucleoside inhibitors of DNA methylation, azacitidine and decitabine, are now standard of care for the treatment of the myelodysplastic syndrome, a deadly form of leukemia. These old drugs, developed as cytotoxic agents and nearly abandoned decades ago were resurrected by the renewed interest in DNA methylation. They have now provided proof of principle for epigenetic therapy, the final chapter in the long saga to provide legitimacy to the field of epigenetics in cancer. But challenges remain; we don’t understand precisely how or why the drugs work or stop working after an initial response. Extending these promising findings to solid tumors face substantial hurdles from drug uptake to clinical trial design. We do not know yet how to select patients for this therapy and how to move it from life extension to cure. The epigenetic potential of DNA methylation inhibitors may be limited by other epigenetic mechanisms that are also worth exploring as therapeutic targets. But the idea of stably changing gene expression in-vivo has transformative potential in cancer therapy and beyond.

Issa, Jean-Pierre J.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.



Direct DNA Methylation Profiling Using Methyl Binding Domain Proteins  

PubMed Central

Methylation of DNA is responsible for gene silencing by establishing heterochromatin structure that represses transcription, and studies have shown that cytosine methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions acts as a precursor to early cancer development. The naturally occurring methyl binding domain (MBD) proteins from mammals are known to bind to the methylated CpG dinucleotide (mCpG), and subsequently recruit other chromatin-modifying proteins to suppress transcription. Conventional methods of detection for methylated DNA involve bisulfite treatment or immunoprecipitation prior to performing an assay. We focus on proof-of-concept studies for a direct microarray-based assay using surface-bound methylated probes. The recombinant protein 1xMBD-GFP recognizes hemi-methylation and symmetric methylation of the CpG sequence of hybridized dsDNA, while displaying greater affinity for the symmetric methylation motif, as evaluated by SPR. From these studies, for symmetric mCpG, the KD for 1xMBD-GFP ranged from 106 nM to 870 nM, depending upon the proximity of the methylation site to the sensor surface. The KD values for non-symmetrical methylation motifs were consistently greater (> 2 µM), but the binding selectivity between symmetric and hemi-methylation motifs ranged from 4 to 30, with reduced selectivity for sites close to the surface or multiple sites in proximity, which we attribute to steric effects. Fitting skew normal probability density functions to our data, we estimate an accuracy of 97.5% for our method in identifying methylated CpG loci, which can be improved through optimization of probe design and surface density.

Yu, Yinni; Blair, Steve; Gillespie, David; Jensen, Randy; Myszka, David G.; Badran, Ahmed H.; Ghosh, Indraneel; Chagovetz, Alexander



Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis  

PubMed Central

Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants.

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail



Structural and Biochemical Changes in Salicylic-Acid-Treated Date Palm Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis.  


Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (SA) then inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). Flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of SA-treated plants after challenge by Foa. These reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to Foa. Host reactions induced after inoculation of SA-treated plants with Foa included the plugging of intercellular spaces, the deposition of electron-dense materials at the sites of pathogen penetration, and several damages to fungal cells. On the other hand, untreated inoculated plants showed marked cell wall degradation and total cytoplasm disorganization, indicating the protective effects provided by salicylic acid in treated plants. PMID:22567327

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Serghini, Mohammed Amine; Jaiti, Fatima; Daayf, Fouad; Driouich, Azeddine; Dihazi, Hassan; El Hadrami, Ismail



An Iron-Based Molecular Redox Switch as a Model for Iron Release from Enterobactin via the Salicylate Binding Mode.  


The iron release mechanism from protonated ferric enterobactin [Fe(III)(enterobactinH(3))] via the salicylate binding mode was probed. For this purpose, a tripodal dodecadentate ligand incorporating three salicylamide (OO) and three bipyridine (NN) binding sites was synthesized as well as iron complexes thereof. It was shown that a ferric ion coordinates selectively to the hard salicylamides and a ferrous ion binds to the softer bipyridines. Upon reduction or oxidation, the iron translocates reversibly and intramolecularly from one site to the other, thus displaying switchlike properties. Both states were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and visible and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Mössbauer spectrum for the ferric complex is fully consistent with that obtained by Pecoraro et al. upon lowering the pH of [Fe(III)(enterobactin)](3)(-) solutions (Pecoraro, V. L., et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983, 105, 4617), thus supporting the alternative iron release mechanism from enterobactin via the salicylate binding mode. PMID:11671244

Ward, Thomas R.; Lutz, Andreas; Parel, Serge P.; Ensling, Jürgen; Gütlich, Philipp; Buglyó, Péter; Orvig, Chris



Salicylate determined with a microcentrifugal analyzer, and compared with Du Pont aca, trinder, and liquid-chromatographic methods.  


We describe a new automated method for measuring serum salicylate in the Multistat III microcentrifugal analyzer. Ferric nitrate reagent and serum blanking are used. We compare this new method, the automated Du Pont aca method, and the manual Trinder method with a "high-performance" liquid-chromatographic method. The unblanked Trinder method had the poorest correlation (r = 0.980, Sy X x = 19.1) with the chromatographic method. The serum-blanked aca and Multistat III methods showed better correlation (r = 0.995, Sy X x = 9.5 mg/L, and r = 0.991, Sy X x = 13.0 mg/L, respectively) with the chromatographic method. However, we conclude that all three colorimetric methods give clinically useful results and that the increased time, expense, and expertise required for chromatographic salicylate analysis are difficult to justify in a routine clinical laboratory. PMID:6839461

Eckfeldt, J H; Nelson, K M



An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase Capable of Methylating Farnesoic Acid  

SciTech Connect

We previously reported the identification of a new family of plant methyltransferases (MTs), named the SABATH family, that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to methylate a carboxyl moiety or a nitrogen-containing functional group on a diverse array of plant compounds. The Arabidopsis genome alone contains 24 distinct SABATH genes. To identify the catalytic specificities of members of this protein family in Arabidopsis, we screened recombinantly expressed and purified enzymes with a large number of potential substrates. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene At3g44860 encodes a protein with high catalytic specificity towards farnesoic acid (FA). Under steady-state conditions, this farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (FAMT) exhibits K{sub M} values of 41 and 71 {mu}M for FA and SAM, respectively. A three-dimensional model of FAMT constructed based upon similarity to the experimentally determined structure of Clarkia breweri salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) suggests a reasonable model for FA recognition in the FAMT active site. In plants, the mRNA levels of At3g44860 increase in response to the exogenous addition of several compounds previously shown to induce plant defense responses at the transcriptional level. Although methyl farnesoate (MeFA) has not yet been detected in Arabidopsis, the presence of a FA-specific carboxyl methyltransferase in Arabidopsis capable of producing MeFA, an insect juvenile hormone made by some plants as a presumed defense against insect herbivory, suggests that MeFA or chemically similar compounds are likely to serve as new specialized metabolites in Arabidopsis.

Yang,Y.; Yuan, J.; Ross, J.; Noel, J.; Pichersky, E.



Salicylate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans: crystal structure of a peculiar ring-cleaving dioxygenase.  


The crystallographic structure of salicylate 1,2-dioxygenase (SDO), a new ring fission dioxygenase from the naphthalenesulfonate-degrading strain Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans BN12, which oxidizes salicylate to 2-oxohepta-3,5-dienedioic acid by a novel ring fission mechanism, has been solved by molecular replacement techniques and refined at 2.9 A resolution (R(free) 26.1%; R-factor 19.3%). SDO is a homo-tetramer member of type III extradiol-type dioxygenases with a subunit topology characteristic of the bicupin beta-barrel folds. The catalytic center contains a mononuclear iron(II) ion coordinated to three histidine residues (His119, His121, and His160), located within the N-terminal domain in a solvent-accessible pocket. SDO is markedly different from the known gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases (GDO) or 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate dioxygenase because of its unique ability to oxidatively cleave numerous salicylates, gentisates and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate with high catalytic efficiency. The comparison of the structure and substrate specificity for a series of different substrates with the corresponding data for several GDOs and the docking of salicylates/gentisates in the active site of SDO, allowed the identification of several active site residues responsible for differences of substrate specificity. In particular, a more defined electron density of the N-terminal region allowed the discovery of a novel structure fragment in SDO previously unobserved in GDO. This region contributes several residues to the active site that influence substrate specificity for both of these enzymes. Implications on the catalytic mechanism are discussed. PMID:18572191

Matera, Irene; Ferraroni, Marta; Bürger, Sibylle; Scozzafava, Andrea; Stolz, Andreas; Briganti, Fabrizio



Analysis of Regulatory Elements lnvolved in the lnduction of Two Tobacco Genes by Salicylate Treatment and Virus lnfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco genes encoding the PR-la protein and a glycine-rich protein are expressed after treatment of plants with salicylate or infection with to