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Sample records for methyl tert butyl

  1. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl tert - butyl ether ( MTBE ) ; CASRN 1634 - 04 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  2. Microbial degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Torsten C.; Schirmer, Mario; Weiß, Holger; Haderlein, Stefan B.

    2004-06-01

    The fate of fuel oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the subsurface is governed by their degradability under various redox conditions. The key intermediate in degradation of MTBE and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) which was often found as accumulating intermediate or dead-end product in lab studies using microcosms or isolated cell suspensions. This review discusses in detail the thermodynamics of the degradation processes utilizing various terminal electron acceptors, and the aerobic degradation pathways of MTBE and TBA. It summarizes the present knowledge on MTBE and TBA degradation gained from either microcosm or pure culture studies and emphasizes the potential of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) for identification and quantification of degradation processes of slowly biodegradable pollutants such as MTBE and TBA. Microcosm studies demonstrated that MTBE and TBA may be biodegradable under oxic and nearly all anoxic conditions, although results of various studies are often contradictory, which suggests that site-specific conditions are important parameters. So far, TBA degradation has not been shown under methanogenic conditions and it is currently widely accepted that TBA is a recalcitrant dead-end product of MTBE under these conditions. Reliable in situ degradation rates for MTBE and TBA under various geochemical conditions are not yet available. Furthermore, degradation pathways under anoxic conditions have not yet been elucidated. All pure cultures capable of MTBE or TBA degradation isolated so far use oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. In general, compared with hydrocarbons present in gasoline, fuel oxygenates biodegrade much slower, if at all. The presence of MTBE and related compounds in groundwater therefore frequently limits the use of in situ biodegradation as remediation option at gasoline-contaminated sites. Though degradation of MTBE and TBA in field studies has been reported under oxic conditions, there is hardly any evidence of substantial degradation in the absence of oxygen. The increasing availability of field data from CSIA will foster our understanding and may even allow the quantification of degradation of these recalcitrant compounds. Such information will help to elucidate the crucial factors of site-specific biogeochemical conditions that govern the capability of intrinsic oxygenate degradation.

  3. REDUCTIVE ACTIVATION OF DIOXYGEN FOR DEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER BY BIFUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bifunctional aluminum is prepared by sulfating aluminum metal with sulfuric acid. The use of bifunctional aluminum to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the presence of dioxygen has been examined using batch systems. Primary degradation products were tert-butyl alcohol, ...

  4. INFLUENCE OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) ON LAKE WATER ALGAE: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-01209 Kampbell*, D.H., An, Y, and Williams, VR. Influence of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) on Lake Water Algae. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 57 (4):675-681 (2001). ...

  5. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.

  6. INFLUENCE OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) ON LAKE WATER ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as an octane booster in gasoline in the United States since the 1970s. MTBE use increased greatly in the 1990s with the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The MTBE enhanced a more complete combustion of fuel hydroc...

  7. TREATMENT OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED WATER USING PHOTOCATALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of photo-oxidation treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated in three ways, 1) using a slurry falling film photo-reactor, 2) a batch solar reactor system, and 3) a combination of air-stripping and gas phase photooxidation system. MTBE-c...

  8. INHALATION EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE (DBCM) USING CONTINUOUS BREATH ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been added to gasoline to help meet national ambient air quality standards in those parts of the U.S. that are non-compliant for carbon monoxide. Although MTBE has provided important health benefits in terms of reduced haza...

  9. ATTENUATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER IN WATER USING SUNLIGHT AND A PHOTOCATALYST: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1535 Sahle-Demessie*, E., Enriquez*, J., and Gupta, G. Attenuation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether in Water using Sunlight and a Photocatalyst. Water Environment Research (Virginia: Water Environment Federation) 74 (2):122-130 (2002). EPA/600/J-02/236. 07/19/2001 The use o...

  10. ATTENUATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER IN WATER USING SUNLIGHT AND A PHOTOCATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a gasoline additive has resulted in increasing pollution of ground water. Most of the conventional treatment technologies are inefficient or costly when the initial concentration of MTBE is low (<200 ug/L). In order to find an eco-frie...

  11. BIODEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER AND BTEX AT VARYING HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of biologically degrading methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contaminated groundwater is dependent on the ability to degrade MTBE and its byproducts in the presence of other gasoline contaminants. This study investigates a mixed culture degrading both MTBE and benzene...

  12. BIODEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER USING AN INNOVATIVE BIOMASS CONCENTRATOR REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was investigated using a pilot-scale Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR). The reactor was operated for a year at a flow rate of 2500 L/d of Cincinnati dechlorinated tap water and an influent MTBE concentration o...

  13. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION OF METHYL-TERT-BUTYL ETHER FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photo-oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated to determine the feasibility of using photocatalysis for the treatment of MTBE-contaminated drinking water. The feasibility assessment was conducted using slurries of titanium dioxide in both a photo-...

  14. STRUCTURES AND BINDING ENERGIES OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER-WATER COMPLEXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a well-known environmental contaminant owing to its high solubility in water. Since the early 1990s, MTBE has been added to gasoline to improve air quality in some metropolitan areas of the United States. Improved air quality was, however, achiev...

  15. The Knock-Limited Performance of Fuel Blends Containing Spiropentane, Methylenecyclobutane, Di-Tert-Butyl Ether, Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether, and Triptane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Carl L.

    1946-01-01

    Tests show that at inlet-air temperatures of 250 deg F and 100 deg F the knock-limited performance of the base fuel of blends, leaded with 4 ml TEL per gallon and containing 20 percent spiropentane, was reduced at fuel/air ratios below 0.085. The 20 percent methylenecyclobutane reduced the knock-limited power of the base fuel at fuel/air ratios below 0.112. Di-tert-butyl ether, methyl-tert-butyl ether, and triptane increased the knock-limited power of the base fuel at all fuel/air ratios and at both temperatures.

  16. Identification of mercury methylation product by tert-butyl compounds in aqueous solution under light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Chen, Ping; He, Bin; Yin, Yongguang; Fang, Linchuan; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongtao; Yang, Lihua; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-09-15

    The methylation of mercury (Hg) is of great concern as methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic species, is produced. This study examined the possibilities of tert-butyl compounds (tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH)) and other alcohols serving as methyl donors for Hg photo-methylation under light irradiation. The yield of MeHg varied among the methyl donors, and it was also significantly influenced by salinity and pH. MeHg could be generated in the presence of TBH under visible light irradiation. The hydroxyl radical (OH) was found to promote MeHg production at low levels, but degrade MeHg in excess. The photo-production of MeHg was tentatively proposed via the complexation of Hg and methyl donors, the formation of an intermediate (O(Hg)C(CH3)3), and the intramolecular methyl transfer from methyl donors to Hg. This study implicates photoreactions between Hg and organic pollutants in understanding the fate and transformation of Hg in the aquatic environment. PMID:26165936

  17. WATER QUALITY AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA AS RELATED TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE): JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA- 02224 An, Y, Kampbell*, D.H., and Sewell*, G.W. WATER QUALITY AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA AS RELATED TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE). Environmental Pollution118: 331-336 (2002). 600/J-02/230. Occurrence of methyl tert-but...

  18. Biotransformation of methyl tert-butyl ether by human cytochrome P450 2A6.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Miran Beigi, Ali Akbar; Teymouri, Mohammad; Poursaberi, Tahereh; Mostafavi, S Mojtaba; Soleimani, Parviz; Chitsazian, Fereshteh; Tash, Shahram Abolhassan

    2012-04-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as gasoline oxygenate and octane number enhancer for more complete combustion in order to reduce the air pollution caused by motor vehicle exhaust. The possible adverse effects of MTBE on human health are of major public concern. However, information on the metabolism of MTBE in human tissues is scarce. The present study demonstrates that human cytochrome P450 2A6 is able to metabolize MTBE to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a major circulating metabolite and marker for exposure to MTBE. As CYP2A6 is known to be constitutively expressed in human livers, we infer that it may play a significant role in metabolism of gasoline ethers in liver tissue. PMID:21915685

  19. Decreased toxicity to terrestrial plants associated with a mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolite tert-butyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Lee, Woo-Mi

    2007-08-01

    The influence of the main fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its key metabolite, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), on the growth of a plant seedling was studied separately and in combination. The test plants were mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), wheat (Triticum aestivum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), kale (Brassica alboglabra), Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris), and sweet corn (Zea mays). The growth of all the plants was adversely affected by TBA and MTBE. The 5-d median effective concentration (EC50) for the plants exposed to MTBE and TBA were in the range of 680 to 1,000 mg MTBE/kg soil (dry wt) and 1,200 to 3,500 mg TBA/kg soil (dry wt), respectively. The relative order of the sensitivity rankings is almost the same for MTBE and TBA. Methyl tert-butyl ether is more toxic than TBA to most of the test species. Based on the EC50 values, MTBE is approximately 1.5 to 3 times more potent than TBA. The sum of the toxic unit (TU) at 50% inhibition of the mixture (EC50mix) was calculated from the dose (TU-based)-response relationships using the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. The combined effect of MTBE + TBA on the plant growth was less than additive because the EC50mix values were greater than I TU. This phenomenon may be due to the competition of MTBE and TBA in terms of their intake by plants. The combined effects of MTBE and TBA should be taken into account to assess their risk in gasoline-contaminated sites. PMID:17702346

  20. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether in gasoline by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Achten, C; Püttmann, W

    2001-03-01

    A simple method for the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline has been developed. The separation of MTBE from other analytes was controlled by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the full scan mode using the characteristic primary, secondary and tertiary ions m/z 73, 57 and 43. The sample mass spectrum did not show any superimposition of other analytes. The separation from the common gasoline component 2-methylpentane was sufficient for reliable quantitation. An application of the developed conditions using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was performed by the analysis of regular, euro super, super premium unleaded and 'Optimax' gasoline from petrol stations in the area of Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Regular unleaded gasoline shows an average MTBE content of 0.4% (w/w), whereas the MTBE content in euro super gasoline varies between 0.4 and 4.2% (w/w). The blending of MTBE to super premium has increased from 8.2% (w/w) in 1998 to 9.8% (w/w) on average in 1999. The recently introduced gasoline 'Optimax' shows an average MTBE content of 11.9% (w/w). The presented method might also be used for the analysis of other ethers, such as ethyl tert-butyl ether, which requires the use of another internal standard. PMID:11261733

  1. Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by a Pure Bacterial Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hatzinger, Paul B.; McClay, Kevin; Vainberg, Simon; Tugusheva, Marina; Condee, Charles W.; Steffan, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 was evaluated. ENV735 grew slowly on MTBE or tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as sole sources of carbon and energy, but growth on these substrates was greatly enhanced by the addition of a small amount of yeast extract. The addition of H2 did not enhance or diminish MTBE degradation by the strain, and MTBE was only poorly degraded or not degraded by type strains of Hydrogenophaga or hydrogen-oxidizing enrichment cultures, respectively. MTBE degradation activity was constitutively expressed in ENV735 and was not greatly affected by formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, allyl thiourea, or acetylene. MTBE degradation was inhibited by 1-amino benzotriazole and butadiene monoepoxide. TBA degradation was inducible by TBA and was inhibited by formaldehyde at concentrations of >0.24 mM and by acetylene but not by the other inhibitors tested. These results demonstrate that separate, independently regulated genes encode MTBE and TBA metabolism in ENV735. PMID:11722912

  2. Anaerobic Biodegradation Of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Under Iron-Reducing Conditions In Batch And Continuous-Flow Cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under iron-reducing conditions was explored in batch and continuous-flow systems. A porous pot completely-mixed reactor was seeded with diverse cultures and operated under iron-reducing...

  3. WATER QUALITY AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA AS RELATED TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in five marinas was monitored between June 1999 and November 2000 in Lake Texoma located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas. MTBE is a commonly used gasoline additive and a suspected carcinogen. Lake water was collected at locations i...

  4. EVALUATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AS AN INTERFERENCE ON COMMERCIAL BREATH-ALCOHOL ANALYZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anecdotal reports suggest that high environmental or occupational exposures to the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) may result in breath concentrations that are sufficiently elevated to cause a false positive on commercial breath-alcohol analyzers. We evaluated th...

  5. CO-OCCURRENCE OF METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND BTEX COMPOUNDS AT MARINAS IN A LARGE RESEVOIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is released into the environment as one of some gasoline components, not as a pure compound. BTEX compounds (benzene, tolune, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) are major volatile constituents found in gasoline and are water soluble and mobile. This study...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7T, a Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Degrader.

    PubMed

    Purswani, Jessica; Guisado, Isabel M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Pozo, Clementina

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7(T) (= CECT 8558(T) = DSM 29760(T)), isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil pilot plant in Granada, Spain. The bacterium was isolated and sequenced due to its methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading properties. PMID:26893420

  7. INTERACTION OF METHYL-TERT BUTYL ETHER AND WATER STRESS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOIL MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widespread contaminant in surface and ground water in the United States. Frequently irrigation is used to water fields to germinate planted seeds and sustain plant growth. A likely possibility exists that water used may have some MTBE. Our s...

  8. DERMAL EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE (DBCM) WHILE BATHING WITH CONTAMINATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been added to gasoline to help meet national ambient air quality standards in those parts of the U.S. that are non-compliant for carbon monoxide. Although MTBE has provided important health benefits in terms of reduced hazardous a...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7T, a Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Degrader

    PubMed Central

    Guisado, Isabel M.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Pozo, Clementina

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7T (= CECT 8558T = DSM 29760T), isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil pilot plant in Granada, Spain. The bacterium was isolated and sequenced due to its methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading properties. PMID:26893420

  10. Development of a method for extraction of methyl tert-butyl (MTBE) from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, D; Zambrowski, M; Uchrin, C

    2002-01-01

    Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) is ubiquitous in both ground and surface waters in the United States, and it can also be found in many unsaturated soil systems. Until recently, MTBE was not thought to adsorb appreciably to soil solids. MTBE, however, will adsorb to some soil types, and additionally, can be found in both soil water and soil gas. Since sorbed MTBE can serve as a long term, low level, source to water systems, a practical method for quantifying soil concentrations is needed to fully understand the environmental impact of MTBE. In this paper, we examine the analytical parameters critical to MTBE extraction methods, including extraction solvent and gas chromatograph characteristics. As the result, we have discovered toluene to be an effective solvent (exhibiting adequate recovery and excellent separation from MTBE) using a GC/FID with Suppelcowax column. PMID:11846266

  11. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by cold-adapted mixed and pure bacterial cultures.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, G M; Uotila, J S; Häggblom, M M

    2007-04-01

    An aerobic mixed bacterial culture (CL-EMC-1) capable of utilizing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the sole source of carbon and energy with a growth temperature range of 3 to 30 degrees C and optimum of 18 to 22 degrees C was enriched from activated sludge. Transient accumulation of tert-butanol (TBA) occurred during utilization of MTBE at temperatures from 3 degrees C to 14 degrees C, but TBA did not accumulate above 18 degrees C. The culture utilized MTBE at a concentration of up to 1.5 g l(-1) and TBA of up to 7 g l(-1). The culture grew on MTBE at a pH range of 5 to 9, with an optimum pH of 6.5 to 7.1. The specific growth rate of the CL-EMC-1 culture on 0.1 g l(-1) of MTBE at 22 degrees C and pH 7.1 was 0.012 h(-1), and the growth yield was 0.64 g (dry weight) g(-1). A new MTBE-utilizing bacterium, Variovorax paradoxus strain CL-8, isolated from the mixed culture utilized MTBE, TBA, 2-hydroxy isobutyrate, lactate, methacrylate, and acetate as sole sources of carbon and energy but not 2-propanol, acetone, methanol, formaldehyde, or formate. Two other isolates, Hyphomicrobium facilis strain CL-2 and Methylobacterium extorquens strain CL-4, isolated from the mixed culture were able to grow on C(1) compounds. The combined consortium could thus utilize all of the carbon of MTBE. PMID:17146651

  12. Microbial toxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) determined with fluorescent and luminescent bioassays.

    PubMed

    Roslev, Peter; Lentz, Trine; Hesselsoe, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of the fuel additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and potential degradation products tert-butanol (TBA) and formaldehyde was examined using mixed microbial biomass, and six strains of bioluminescent bacteria and yeast. The purpose was to assess microbial toxicity with quantitative bioluminescent and fluorescent endpoints, and to identify sensitive proxies suitable for monitoring MTBE contamination. Bioluminescent Aliivibrio fischeri DSM 7151 (formerly Vibrio fischeri) appeared highly sensitive to MTBE exposure, and was a superior test organisms compared to lux-tagged Escherichia coli DH5?, Pseudomonas fluorescens DF57-40E7 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYR. EC10 and EC50 for acute MTBE toxicity in A. fischeri were 1.1 and 10.9 mg L(-1), respectively. Long term (24h) MTBE exposure resulted in EC10 values of 0.01 mg L(-1). TBA was significantly less toxic with EC10 and EC50 for acute and chronic toxicity >1000 mg L(-1). Inhibition of bioluminescence was generally a more sensitive endpoint for MTBE toxicity than measuring intracellular ATP levels and heterotrophic CO2 assimilation. A weak estrogenic response was detected for MTBE at concentrations ? 3.7 g L(-1) using an estrogen inducible bioluminescent yeast strain (S. cerevisiae BLYES). Microbial hydrolytic enzyme activity in groundwater was affected by MTBE with EC10 values of 0.5-787 mg L(-1), and EC50 values of 59-3073 for alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, beta-1,4-glucanase, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, and leucine-aminopeptidase. Microbial alkaline phosphatase and beta-1,4-glucanase activity were most sensitive to MTBE exposure with EC50 ? 64.8 mg L(-1). The study suggests that bioassays with luminescent A. fischeri, and fluorescent assays targeting hydrolytic enzyme activity are good candidates for monitoring microbial MTBE toxicity in contaminated water. PMID:25128634

  13. Environmental behavior and fate of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, Paul J.; Pankow, James F.; Korte, Nic E.; Zogorski, John S.

    1996-01-01

    When gasoline that has been oxygenated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) comes in contact with water, large amounts of MTBE can dissolve; at 25 degrees Celsius the water solubility of MTBE is about 5,000 milligrams per liter for a gasoline that is 10 percent MTBE by weight. In contrast, for a nonoxygenated gasoline, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 milligrams per liter. MTBE sorbs only weakly to soil and aquifer materials; therefore, sorption will not significantly retard MTBE's transport by ground water. In addition, MTBE generally resists degradation in ground water. The half-life of MTBE in the atmosphere can be as short as 3 days in a regional airshed. MTBE in the air tends to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. However, washout of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation would not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the air. The partitioning of MTBE to precipitation is nevertheless strong enough to allow for up to 3 micrograms per liter or more inputs of MTBE to surface and ground water.

  14. [Occupational exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at an oil refinery].

    PubMed

    Perbellini, L; Pasini, F; Prigioni, P; Rosina, A

    2003-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as an additive to gasoline, to increase oxygen content and reduce tailpipe emission of carbon monoxide. Our research dealt with 37 refinery workers in order to measure their occupational exposure to MTBE during two different seasonal periods. They provided blood and urine samples before and after a work shift during which they wore an active charcoal sampler for solvents. All samples were analysed by a gas-chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer detector. The concentration in air of MTBE was very low (median: 25 micrograms/m3 in spring and 5 micrograms/m3 in autumn). The blood and urine concentrations of MTBE at the end of the work shift were higher than those found before the shift. The increment in biological samples confirmed a small intake of MTBE by refinery workers: the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to this solvent yielded reliable results. Blood and urinary concentrations of MTBE obtained from workers split in relation to their smoking habit did not give a statistic significance to say that cigarette smoke is not a confusion factor in monitoring exposure to MTBE. PMID:14979074

  15. Sources, distribution and behaviour of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the Tamar Estuary, UK.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Carlos; Bayona, Josep M; Readman, James W

    2004-11-01

    Negligible information is currently available concerning levels of the fuel additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in European estuaries or coastal environments. MTBE was measured at selected potentially contaminated harbours and marinas, and throughout an axial transect of the Tamar Estuary, UK. Headspace solid-phase microextraction was used in combination with GC-MS for its determination. MTBE was detected in water samples from all stations at concentrations ranging from a few ng/l to a maximum of 194 ng/l (in a semi-enclosed harbour). Elevated levels were generally associated with motor vehicle and boating activities. The Tamar road and rail bridges provided a major input to the lower estuary, downstream of which conservative mixing appeared depressed, probably through volatilisation and possibly through salting-out. The selected analytical system (using a Carboxen/PDMS fiber) proved both rapid and highly sensitive (with a detection limit of 6 ng/l). During method development, salinity was shown to have a major influence in controlling the extraction efficiency and it was found necessary to adjust salinity in all samples (to 75% saturation) prior to extraction. From these tests, we (for the first time) estimated the Setschenow ("salting-out") constant of MTBE to be 0.11 l/mol. PMID:15350404

  16. Kinetics of the oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Damm, Jochen H; Hardacre, Christopher; Kalin, Robert M; Walsh, Kayleen P

    2002-08-01

    The occurrence of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the environment has received considerable scientific attention. The pollutant is frequently found in the groundwater due to leaking of underground storage tanks or pipelines. Concentrations of more than several mg/L MTBE were detected in groundwater at several places in the US and Germany in the last few years. In situ chemical oxidation is a promising treatment method for MTBE-contaminated plumes. This research investigated the reaction kinetics for the oxidation of MTBE by permanganate. Batch tests demonstrated that the oxidation of MTBE by permanganate is second order overall and first order individually with respect to permanganate and MTBE. The second-order rate constant was 1.426 x 10(-6) L/mg/h. The influence of pH on the reaction rate was demonstrated to have no significant effect. However, the rate of MTBE oxidation by potassium permanganate is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than of other advanced oxidation processes. The slower rates of MTBE oxidation by permanganate limit the applicability of this process for rapid MTBE cleanup strategies. However, permanganate oxidation of MTBE has potential for passive oxidation risk management strategies. PMID:12230210

  17. Biomarkers of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether in petrol station workers.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Giuseppe; Poli, Diana; Manini, Paola; Andreoli, Roberta; Mozzoni, Paola; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at reconstructing the exposure to gasoline in 102 petrol station attendants by environmental and biological monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and biomonitoring of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Airborne BTEX were higher for manual refuelers than self-service assistants and were highly correlated with each other. Significant relationships were found between airborne BTX and the corresponding urinary solvents (U-BTX) and beween airborne B and urinary MTBE (U-MTBE). Smokers eliminated higher values of U-B, trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic (S-PMA) acids but not U-MTBE. All these biomarkers were, however, significantly raised during the shift, independently from smoking. Linear regression confirmed that occupational exposure was a main predictor of U-MTBE, U-B and S-PMA values, both the latter confounded by smoking habits. The study supports the usefulness of biomonitoring even at low exposure levels. PMID:22458326

  18. LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

  19. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators.

    PubMed

    Hartle, R

    1993-12-01

    Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of "oxygenates" with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). At the two sampled service stations that use only minimal amounts of MTBE (less than 1%), only 1 of 32 personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples from attendants was above the analytical limit of detection, reported at 0.16 ppm. The geometric mean concentration of benzene among this same population (n = 32) was 0.04 ppm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8020445

  20. Methyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation by indigenous aquifer microorganisms under natural and artificial oxic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Herlong, H.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial communities indigenous to a shallow groundwater system near Beaufort, SC, degraded milligram per liter concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under natural and artificial oxic conditions. Significant MTBE biodegradation was observed where anoxic, MTBE-contaminated groundwater discharged to a concrete-lined ditch. In the anoxic groundwater adjacent to the ditch, concentrations of MTBE were > 1 mg/L. Where groundwater discharge occurs, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations beneath the ditch exceeded 1.0 mg/L to a depth of 1.5 m, and MTBE concentrations decreased to <1 ??g/L prior to discharge. MTBE mass flux calculations indicate that 96% of MTBE mass loss occurs in the relatively small oxic zone prior to discharge. Samples of a natural microbial biofilm present in the oxic zone beneath the ditch completely degraded [U-14C]MTBE to [14C]CO2 in laboratory liquid culture studies, with no accumulation of intermediate compounds. Upgradient of the ditch in the anoxic, MTBE and BTEX-contaminated aquifer, addition of a soluble oxygen release compound resulted in oxic conditions and rapid MTBE biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms. In an observation well located closest to the oxygen addition area, DO concentrations increased from 0.4 to 12 mg/L in <60 days and MTBE concentrations decreased from 20 to 3 mg/L. In the same time period at a downgradient observation well, DO increased from <0.2 to 2 mg/L and MTBE concentrations decreased from 30 to <5 mg/L. These results indicate that microorganisms indigenous to the groundwater system at this site can degrade milligram per liter concentrations of MTBE under natural and artificial oxic conditions.

  1. Responses of the steroidogenic pathway from exposure to methyl-tert-butyl ether and tert-butanol.

    PubMed

    de Peyster, Ann; Mihaich, Ellen; Kim, Do Hyung; Elyea, William A; Nemec, Matthew J; Hirakawa, Brad P; Leggieri, Shannon E

    2014-05-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a solvent and fuel additive included in reformulated gasoline to increase combustion efficiency. While widespread use in motor fuels in the U.S. was discontinued after MTBE was detected in surface and ground waters due to concerns about environmental persistence and water quality, it is still manufactured in the U.S. for export. Questions concerning the etiology of rat Leydig cell and mouse liver tumors identified in extremely high dose cancer studies have led to an interest in evaluating potential hormonal imbalances and endocrine system involvement. To address the possibility that MTBE or its metabolite, tert-butanol (TBA), are interacting with components of the endocrine system that are involved in steroidogenesis a number of targeted experiments were performed focusing mostly on the primary gonadal steroids, estradiol and testosterone. The goal of the experiments was to gain a better understanding of potential interactions with the steroidogenic pathway, including effects specifically on aromatase, the P450 enzyme that converts testosterone to estradiol. In three GLP-compliant in vitro guideline studies, MTBE and TBA were classified as non-binders to the androgen receptor, were classified negative for effects on testosterone and estradiol in the steroidogenesis assay, and were classified as non-inhibitors of aromatase activity. In three 14-day in vivo experiments involving gavaging of male Sprague-Dawley rats with doses of MTBE ranging from 400 to 1,500 mg/kg bw/day, the lack of definitive and consistent supporting statistically significant findings in steroid hormone measurements and aromatase activity and mRNA measured in liver and testis microsomes further suggested that it is unlikely that MTBE is interacting with the endocrine system directly. Evidence of other underlying systemic effects were also seen, including reduced body weight gain, increased adrenal weights, and elevated corticosterone suggestive of a more general stress response. Taken together, the results from these studies suggest that MTBE and TBA do not directly impact the steroidogenic pathways involved in estrogen and androgen production. PMID:24560773

  2. Laboratory Method for Analysis of Small Concentrations of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Ether Gasoline Oxygenates in Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Donna L.; Connor, Brooke F.; Abney, Sonja R.; Raese, Jon W.

    1998-01-01

    This Fact Sheet presents data for analysis of nanogram-per-liter concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and three other ether gasoline oxygenates, including methyl tert-pentyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), by purge- and-trap capillary-column gas chromatography. Long-term method detection levels (LT-MDLs) for MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE ranged from 15 to 83 nanograms per liter (0.015 to 0.083 microgram per liter). Nanogram-per-liter-concentration detections are reported if all of the identification criteria are met, whereas previous methods censored detections at a pre-determined method reporting level. The reporting level for this method is defined as two times the LT-MDL, does not censor detections at less than this concentration, and is referred to as the nondetection value (NDV). Bias and variability data from multiple analyses, analysts, and instruments over a 60-day period show the oxygenate recoveries ranging from 100 to 109 percent, with 6 to 8 percent relative standard deviation. MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE were not detected in the analysis of 225 laboratory reagent blanks from January to December 1997. A preservation study in ground water and surface water indicates that all the oxygenates are stable at pH 2 for up to 216 days, with recoveries ranging from 94 to 115 percent on day 216, and relative standard deviations ranging from 5 to 9 percent for the duration of the study.

  3. Crystal structure of 4-azido­methyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one

    PubMed Central

    El-Khatatneh, Nasseem; Chandra; Shamala, D.; Shivashankar, K.; Panzi, Mukhokosi Emma; Mahendra, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H15N3O2, one of the methyl C atoms of the tert-butyl group lies almost in the plane of the chromene ring system [deviation = ?0.097?(2)?Å], one lies above and one lies below [deviations = 1.460?(3) and 1.006?(3)?Å, respectively]. The C—C—N—N torsion angle is 142.33?(17)°. In the crystal, moelcules are linked by weak C—H?O hydrogen bonds to generate C(6) chains propagating in the [010] direction. PMID:26029422

  4. Crystal structure of 4-azido-methyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one.

    PubMed

    El-Khatatneh, Nasseem; Chandra; Shamala, D; Shivashankar, K; Panzi, Mukhokosi Emma; Mahendra, M

    2015-04-01

    In the title compound, C14H15N3O2, one of the methyl C atoms of the tert-butyl group lies almost in the plane of the chromene ring system [deviation = -0.097?(2)?Å], one lies above and one lies below [deviations = 1.460?(3) and 1.006?(3)?Å, respectively]. The C-C-N-N torsion angle is 142.33?(17)°. In the crystal, moelcules are linked by weak C-H?O hydrogen bonds to generate C(6) chains propagating in the [010] direction. PMID:26029422

  5. Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Ground Water, Air, and Precipitation at North Windham, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Peckenham, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-one monitoring wells in the Windham aquifer in North Windham, Maine, were sampled for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from July 1998 to May 1999. MTBE was detected in 35 percent of the wells sampled in the Windham aquifer. MTBE was detected in 64 percent of wells in the high-yielding part of the aquifer; these wells account for 82 percent of all wells with detectable MTBE. Land cover also was found to be associated with MTBE in the wells in the study area, with the urban and low-density residential areas having more MTBE than undeveloped areas. The median concentration in wells with detectable MTBE was 1.13 micrograms per liter. Air and precipitation samples were collected in North Windham along with ground-water samples. Air samples were collected every 10 days from December 1998 to July 1999 (20 samples). MTBE was present in all 20 air samples collected, at concentrations ranging from 0.03 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) to 1.0 ppbv. Before Maine opted out of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) program in the spring of 1999, median concentrations in air at the North Windham site were 0.25 ppbv. After Maine stopped using RFG, the median concentration in air dropped to 0.09 ppbv. No MTBE was detected in four samples of precipitation at North Windham. The lack of rainfall during the study period prevented the collection of an adequate number of samples, and technical difficulties negated the results of some of the analyses of the samples that were collected. Based on the equilibrium partitioning of MTBE from the air into rain, the hypothetical average concentration of MTBE in rainfall during months when recharge typically occurs (March-April and October-December) would be approximately 0.3 to 0.4 micrograms per liter during the time that RFG was being used in Maine. After the phaseout of RFG, the maximum average concentration of MTBE in rainfall during these months would be approximately 0.1 micrograms per liter. The distribution and concentrations of MTBE that were detected in ground water indicate that recharge from precipation containing MTBE is not a likely explanation for the occurrence of MTBE in the Windham aquifer.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey laboratory method for methyl tert-Butyl ether and other fuel oxygenates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.; Rose, Donna L.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was found in shallow ground-water samples in a study of 8 urban and 20 agricultural areas throughout the United States in 1993 and 1994 (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 1). The compound is added to gasoline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels in the air. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), near Denver, uses state-of-the-art technology to analyze samples for MTBE as part of the USGS water-quality studies. In addition, the NWQL offers custom analyses to determine two other fuel oxygenates--ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The NWQL was not able to obtain a reference standard for tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), another possible fuel oxygenate (Shelley and Fouhy, 1994, p. 63). The shallow ground-water samples were collected as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These samples were collected from 211 urban wells or springs and 562 agricultural wells sampled by the USGS in 1993 and 1994. The wells were keyed to specific land-use areas to assess the effects of different uses on ground-water quality (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 2). Ground-water samples were preserved on site to pH less than or equal to 2 with a solution of 1:1 hydrochloric acid. All samples were analyzed at the NWQL within 2 weeks after collection. The purpose of this fact sheet is to explain briefly the analytical method implemented by the USGS for determining MTBE and other fuel oxygenates. The scope is necessarily limited to an overview of the analytical method (instrumentation, sample preparation, calibration and quantitation, identification, and preservation of samples) and method performance (reagent blanks, accuracy, and precision).

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 Exposed to the Fuel Oxygenates Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Ethanol? †

    PubMed Central

    Hristova, Krassimira R.; Schmidt, Radomir; Chakicherla, Anu Y.; Legler, Tina C.; Wu, Janice; Chain, Patrick S.; Scow, Kate M.; Kane, Staci R.

    2007-01-01

    High-density whole-genome cDNA microarrays were used to investigate substrate-dependent gene expression of Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, one of the best-characterized aerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading bacteria. Differential gene expression profiling was conducted with PM1 grown on MTBE and ethanol as sole carbon sources. Based on microarray high scores and protein similarity analysis, an MTBE regulon located on the megaplasmid was identified for further investigation. Putative functions for enzymes encoded in this regulon are described with relevance to the predicted MTBE degradation pathway. A new unique dioxygenase enzyme system that carries out the hydroxylation of tert-butyl alcohol to 2-methyl-2-hydroxy-1-propanol in M. petroleiphilum PM1 was discovered. Hypotheses regarding the acquisition and evolution of MTBE genes as well as the involvement of IS elements in these complex processes were formulated. The pathways for toluene, phenol, and alkane oxidation via toluene monooxygenase, phenol hydroxylase, and propane monooxygenase, respectively, were upregulated in MTBE-grown cells compared to ethanol-grown cells. Four out of nine putative cyclohexanone monooxygenases were also upregulated in MTBE-grown cells. The expression data allowed prediction of several hitherto-unknown enzymes of the upper MTBE degradation pathway in M. petroleiphilum PM1 and aided our understanding of the regulation of metabolic processes that may occur in response to pollutant mixtures and perturbations in the environment. PMID:17890343

  8. Enhanced bioremediation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by microbial consortia obtained from contaminated aquifer material.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Angela; Del Moro, Guido; Rossetti, Simona; Tandoi, Valter; Lopez, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    A microcosm study was carried out to evaluate the potential for biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) impacting groundwater at a former oil refinery site located in Naples (SW Italy). A screening of aerobic, anaerobic and co-metabolic aerobic conditions was carried out by triplicate batch reactors, using contaminated soil and groundwater from the study site. All microcosms were amended with ammonium and phosphate salts and, if aerobic, they were supplied with excess oxygen throughout the static incubation period of 6 months. Propane, pentane and n-hexane were selected as the primary substrates for co-metabolic treatments. After the initial lag phase (40-60d), quantitative MTBE decay was repeatedly observed in the aerobic set amended only with nitrogen and phosphorus and further fed with MTBE, thus suggesting that the indigenous soil bacteria have the ability to degrade MTBE. All other treatments, i.e., anaerobic and co-metabolic aerobic, resulted unsuccessful after incubation extending up to 190d. Bacterial consortia in the active microcosms were later enriched and further studied through second and third generation batch reactors with no soil, operated under continuous mixing for 5-7 months. MTBE degradation rate progressively increased with reactor operating time, following a zero order kinetics in the concentration range 1-10mgL(-1) and leading to a residual concentration of less than 10microgL(-1). The calculated maximum biodegradation rate was 20mg(MTBE)g(VSS)(-1)h(-1). An accumulation of nitrite ions also occurred after long operating times, thus inhibiting MTBE degradation. This effect was minimized by replacing ammonium with nitrate. Identified degradation intermediates were tert-butyl alcohol and tert-butyl formate. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was applied for a preliminary microbiological screening of the consortia, suggesting that the detected cocci (about 0.5 and 1.5microm diameter, respectively) and long bacilli with a narrow diameter might be as yet undescribed species. PMID:19178929

  9. Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor: a mechanistic and kinetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek C; Shamamian, Vasgen A; Callahan, John H; Denes, Ferencz S; Manolache, Sorin O; Dandy, David S

    2003-10-15

    Plasma treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. This study examines the kinetic and oxidation mechanisms of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP reactor. Rate constants are also derived for three reactor configurations and two pin array spin rates. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water in the DMP reactor were found to be predominately carbon dioxide, with smaller amounts of acetone, tert-butyl formate, and formaldehyde. The lack of stable intermediate products suggests that the MTBE is, to some extent, oxidized directly to carbon dioxide, making the DMP reactor a promising tool in the future remediation of water. Chemical and physical mechanisms together with carbon balances are used to describe the formation of the oxidation products and the important aspects of the plasma discharge. PMID:14594395

  10. Treatment Of Groundwater Contaminated With PAHs, Gasoline Hydrocarbons, And Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether In A Laboratory Biomass-Retaining Bioreactor

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigated the treatability of co-mingled groundwater contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), gasoline hydrocarbons, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) using an ex-situ aerobic biotreatment system. The PAHs of interest were nap...

  11. Energy analysis for the production of biodiesel in a spiral reactor using supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE).

    PubMed

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-11-01

    In this study, energy analysis was conducted for the production of biodiesel in a spiral reactor using supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE). This study aims to determine the net energy ratio (NER) and energy efficiency for the production of biodiesel using supercritical MTBE and to verify the effectiveness of the spiral reactor in terms of heat recovery efficiency. The analysis results revealed that the NER for this process was 0.92. Meanwhile, the energy efficiency was 0.98, indicating that the production of biodiesel in a spiral reactor using supercritical MTBE is an energy-efficient process. By comparing the energy supply required for biodiesel production between spiral and conventional reactors, the spiral reactor was more efficient than the conventional reactor. PMID:26231125

  12. A comparative study of biodiesel production using methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) under supercritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodiesel production under supercritical conditions among methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) was compared in order to elucidate the differences in their reaction behavior. A continuous reactor was employed, and experiments were conducted at various reaction temperatures (270-400 °C) and reaction times (3-30 min) and at a fixed pressure of 20 MPa and an oil-to-reactant molar ratio of 1:40. The results showed that under the same reaction conditions, the supercritical methanol method provided the highest yield of biodiesel. At 350 °C and 20 MPa, canola oil was completely converted to biodiesel after 10, 30, and 30 min in the case of - supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE, respectively. The reaction kinetics of biodiesel production was also compared for supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE. PMID:26004381

  13. Dissociative electron impact ionization of methyl tert-butyl ether: total ionization cross-section and kinetic energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Palma, T. M.; Apicella, B.; Armenante, M.; Velotta, R.; Wang, X.; Spinelli, N.

    2004-12-01

    Kinetic energy distributions and yields of the ions produced in the electron impact ionization of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been measured by TOF mass spectrometry. The detection efficiency as a function of the initial ion kinetic energy has been carefully evaluated by means of a Montecarlo simulation of the experimental conditions. The resulting kinetic energy spectra show that almost all the heaviest ions are produced with quasi-thermal energy distribution, while the smaller fragment ions H + and CH3+ exhibit in addition substantial non-thermal components. As a final result, the total ionization cross-section of MTBE in the range 20-150 eV of the ionizing-electron energy has been derived and calibrated against the argon, chosen as a reference gas.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a wetland constructed for benzene-, methyl tert-butyl ether- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Fester, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are present in most natural environments, have demonstrated capacity to promote biodegradation of organic pollutants in the greenhouse. However, it is not certain whether AMF can spontaneously establish in phytoremediation systems constructed to decontaminate groundwater, because of the unusual conditions during the construction and operation of such systems. To assess this possibility, root samples from a wetland constructed for the phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with benzene, methyl tert-butyl ether and ammonia were analysed. Substantial AMF colonization was observed in plant roots sampled close to the inlet of a basin filled with fine gravel and planted with Phragmites australis. In addition, analysis of a fragment of the nuclear large ribosomal subunit, amplified by nested PCR, revealed the presence of AMF molecular operational taxonomic units closely related to Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis in the samples. These findings demonstrate the capacity of generalist AMF strains to establish spontaneously, rapidly and extensively in groundwater bioremediation technical installations. PMID:22846140

  15. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-?5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tri­methyl­hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Varela-Izquierdo, Víctor; Yélamos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV) com­pound, [Hf(CH3)3(C13H21)] or [HfMe3(?5-C5H3-1,3-tBu2)], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for mono­cyclo­penta­dienylhafnium(IV) derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV) atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) ring are 0.132?(5) and 0.154?(6)?Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions present between the mol­ecules in the crystal structure. PMID:25995884

  16. Local and systemic effects of intraduodenal exposure to topical gallstone solvents ethyl propionate and methyl tert-butyl ether in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Clerici, C; Gentili, G; Zakko, S F; Balò, S; Miglietti, M; Giansanti, M; Modesto, R; Guttermuth, C F; Morelli, A

    1997-03-01

    During topical dissolution of gallstones, solvent can escape to the duodenum causing toxic effects that have not yet been adequately quantified. We compared the local intestinal cytotoxic and systemic hepatotoxic effects of two gallstone solvents, methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl propionate, on the rabbit's duodenum. Methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl propionate, or saline (control) was infused intraduodenally for 3 hr in 32 male New Zealand rabbits. The solvents were infused either at a high infusion rate of 8.5 microl/min or at a low rate of 4.0 microl/min. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis from each animal before and after the 3-hr infusion period. A standardized histologic scoring system was used by a pathologist blinded to the treatments to quantify liver and intestinal tissue injury. None of the animals studied showed any significant changes in serum alkaline phosphatase, amylase, bilirubin, or their hepatic histology or histologic scoring for mucosal necrosis and ulceration. At the higher dose, methyl tert-butyl ether produced significantly more submucosal inflammation (P = 0.0017) and showed a trend of causing more submucosal edema than ethyl propionate, but ethyl propionate led to significantly higher elevations of aminotransferases than methyl tert-butyl ether as compared to saline. There were no detectable blood levels of methanol or ethanol in any of the animals studied. Ethyl propionate may be less damaging to the intestinal mucosa of the rabbit than methyl tert-butyl ether, but at the higher dose (equivalent to 60 ml/3 hr in a 70-kg human) it appears to produce more biochemical liver injury when administered intraduodenally. PMID:9073130

  17. Anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether under iron-reducing conditions in batch and continuous-flow cultures.

    PubMed

    Pruden, Amy; Sedran, Marie A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under iron-reducing conditions was explored in batch and continuous-flow systems. A porous pot completely-mixed reactor was seeded with diverse cultures and operated under iron-reducing conditions. For batch studies, culture from the reactor was transferred anaerobically to serum bottles containing either MTBE alone or MTBE with ethanol (EtOH) and excess electron acceptor. In the continuous-flow reactor, MTBE conversion to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) was observed after 181 days of operation, and stable removal was achieved throughout the remainder of the study. Simultaneously, both the MTBE only and the MTBE and EtOH iron-reducing batch serum bottles also began to degrade MTBE. Bottles were respiked and the degradation rate was determined to be 2.36 +/- 0.10 x 10(-4) mmol MTBE/min-kgVSS. The EtOH present with MTBE degraded faster (7.76 +/- 0.08 x 10(-3) mmol EtOH/min-kg VSS) but did not have a noticeable effect on the rate of MTBE degradation. No evidence of TBA degradation was observed by the iron-reducing cultures. Stoichiometry of iron utilization was determined from the iron balance of the continuous-flow reactor, and it was found that the bulk of the electron acceptor was required for energy and maintenance with little remaining for cell synthesis. This is consistent with a yield coefficient of less than 0.1. Molecular analysis of the iron-reducing culture by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that uncultured strains of delta-Proteobacteria were dominant in the reactor. PMID:15969296

  18. Distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Marie; Guertal, William R.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001, to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site. This report provides a summary assessment of the distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and a preliminary screening of selected constituents that may affect natural attenuation and remediation demonstrations at the Dover National Test Site. The information gathered during this study is designed to assist potential remedial investigators who are considering conducting a methyl tert-butyl ether remedial demonstration at the test site. In addition, the study supported a planned enhanced bioremediation demonstration and assisted the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. A direct-push drill rig was used to collect a total of 147 ground-water samples (115 VOC samples and 32 quality-assurance samples) at varying depths. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloro-ethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloro-ethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloro-ethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether were detected in the surficial aquifer from ?4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level; however, methyl tert-butyl ether was detected as deep as ?9.5 feet mean sea level. Increased methane concentrations and decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations that were found in association with the ground-water samples that contained methyl tert-butyl ether are preliminary indicators that will assist in determining if natural attenuation of methyl tert-butyl ether is occurring in the surficial aquifer. A full assessment of natural attenuation of methyl tert-butyl ether at the site is beyond the scope of this study, but the data collected during the study will be useful in selecting appropriate remedial methyl tert-butyl ether demonstrations.

  19. Effects of co-substrates and inhibitors on the anaerobic O-demethylation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

    PubMed

    Youngster, Laura K G; Somsamak, Piyapawn; Häggblom, Max M

    2008-10-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination is widespread in aquifers near urban areas around the world. Since this synthetic fuel oxygenate is resistant to most physical methods of treating fuel-contaminated water, biodegradation may be a useful means of remediation. Currently, information on anaerobic MTBE degradation is scarce. Depletion has been observed in soil and sediment microcosms from a variety of locations and under several redox conditions, but the responsible organisms are unknown. We are studying anaerobic consortia, enriched from contaminated sediments for MTBE-utilizing microorganisms for over a decade. MTBE degradation occurred in the presence of other fuel components and was not affected by toluene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, or gasoline. Many aryl O-methyl ethers, such as syringic acid, that are O-demethylated by acetogenic bacteria, were also O-demethylated by the MTBE-utilizing enrichment cultures. The addition of these compounds as co-substrates increased the rate of MTBE degradation, offering a potentially useful method of stimulating the MTBE degradation rate in situ. Propyl iodide caused light-reversible inhibition of MTBE degradation, suggesting that the MTBE degradation process is corrinoid dependent. The anaerobic MTBE degradation process was not directly coupled to methanogenesis or sulfidogenesis and was inhibited by the bactericidal antibiotic, rifampicin. These results suggest that MTBE degradation is mediated by acetogenic bacteria. PMID:18797864

  20. Lung toxicity and tumor promotion by hydroxylated derivatives of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and 2-tert-butyl-4-methyl-6-iso-propylphenol: correlation with quinone methide reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Rene; Dwyer-Nield, Lori D; Malkinson, Alvin M; Thompson, John A

    2002-08-01

    Acute pulmonary toxicity and tumor promotion by the food additive 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) in mice are well documented. These effects have been attributed to either of two quinone methides, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylenecyclohexa-2,5-dienone (BHT-QM) formed through direct oxidation of BHT by pulmonary cytochrome P450 or a quinone methide formed by hydroxylation of a tert-butyl group of BHT (to form BHTOH) followed by oxidation of this metabolite to BHTOH-QM. BHTOH-QM is a more reactive electrophile compared to BHT-QM due to intramolecular interactions of the side-chain hydroxyl with the carbonyl oxygen. To further examine this bioactivation pathway, an analogue of BHTOH was prepared, 2-tert-butyl-6-(1'-hydroxy-1'-methyl)ethyl-4-methylphenol (BPPOH), that is structurally very similar to BHTOH but forms a quinone methide (BPPOH-QM) capable of more efficient intramolecular hydrogen bonding and, therefore, higher electrophilicity than BHTOH-QM. BPPOH-QM was synthesized and its reactivity with water, methanol, and glutathione determined to be >10-fold higher than that of BHTOH-QM. The conversions of BPPOH and BHTOH to quinone methides in lung microsomes from male BALB/cByJ mice were quantitatively similar, but in vivo the former was pneumotoxic at one-half of the dose required for the latter and one-eighth of the dose required for BHT, as determined by increased lung weight:body weight ratios following a single i.p. injection. Similar differences were found in the doses of BHT, BHTOH, or BPPOH required for tumor promotion after a single initiating dose of 3-methylcholanthrene followed by three weekly injections of the phenol. The downregulaton of calpain II, previously shown to accompany lung tumor promotion by BHT and BHTOH, also occurred with BPPOH. The correlation between biologic activities of these phenols and the reactivities of their corresponding quinone methides provides additional support for the role of BHTOH-QM as the principal metabolite responsible for the effects of BHT on mouse lung. PMID:12184795

  1. Anaerobic Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Microorganisms Identified in Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples by Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weimin; Sun, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation potential was investigated in samples from a range of sources. From these 22 experimental variations, only one source (from wastewater treatment plant samples) exhibited MTBE degradation. These microcosms were methanogenic and were subjected to DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted to both bacteria and archaea to identify the putative MTBE degraders. For this purpose, DNA was extracted at two time points, subjected to ultracentrifugation, fractioning, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP). In addition, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed. The SIP experiments indicated bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes (family Ruminococcaceae) and Alphaproteobacteria (genus Sphingopyxis) were the dominant MTBE degraders. Previous studies have suggested a role for Firmicutes in anaerobic MTBE degradation; however, the putative MTBE-degrading microorganism in the current study is a novel MTBE-degrading phylotype within this phylum. Two archaeal phylotypes (genera Methanosarcina and Methanocorpusculum) were also enriched in the heavy fractions, and these organisms may be responsible for minor amounts of MTBE degradation or for the uptake of metabolites released from the primary MTBE degraders. Currently, limited information exists on the microorganisms able to degrade MTBE under anaerobic conditions. This work represents the first application of DNA-based SIP to identify anaerobic MTBE-degrading microorganisms in laboratory microcosms and therefore provides a valuable set of data to definitively link identity with anaerobic MTBE degradation. PMID:22327600

  2. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-06-24

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

  3. Method detection limit determination and application of a convenient headspace analysis method for methyl tert-butyl ether in water.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Dennis T; Rochette, Elizabeth A; Ramsey, Philip J

    2002-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common groundwater contaminant, introduced to the environment by leaking petroleum storage tanks, urban runoff, and motorized watercraft. In this study. a simplified (static) headspace analysis method was adapted for determination of MTBE in water samples and soil water extracts. The MDL of the headspace method was calculated to be 2.0 microg L(-1) by the EPA single-concentration design method(1) and 1.2 microg L(-1) by a calibration method developed by Hubaux and Vos (Hubaux, A.; Vos, G. Anal. Chem. 1970,42, 849-855). The MDL calculated with the Hubaux and Vos method was favored because it considers both a true positive and a false positive. The static headspace method was applied to analysis of a tap water sample and a monitoring well sample from a gasoline service station, a river sample, and aqueous extracts from soil excavated during removal of a leaking underground storage tank (LUST). The water samples examined in this study had MTTBE concentrations ranging from 6 to 19 microg L(-1). Aqueous extracts of a soil sample taken from the LUST site had 8 microg L(-1) MTBE. PMID:12463380

  4. Identification of a Ruminococcaceae Species as the Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) Degrading Bacterium in a Methanogenic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Ahn, Hyeri; Sun, Weimin; McGuinness, Lora R; Kerkhof, Lee J; Häggblom, Max M

    2016-02-01

    The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has caused major contamination of groundwater sources and is a concern due to its taste and odor problems, as well as its toxicity. MTBE can be degraded anaerobically which makes bioremediation of contaminated aquifers a potential solution. Nevertheless, the organisms and mechanisms that are responsible for anaerobic MTBE degradation are still unknown. The aim of our research was to identify the organisms actively degrading MTBE. For this purpose we characterized an anaerobic methanogenic culture enriched with MTBE as the sole carbon source from the New Jersey Arthur Kill intertidal strait sediment. The cultures were analyzed using stable isotope probing (SIP) combined with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), high-throughput sequencing and clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The sequence data indicated that phylotypes belonging to the Ruminococcaceae in the Firmicutes were predominant in the methanogenic cultures. SIP experiments also showed sequential incorporation of the (13)C labeled MTBE by the bacterial community with a bacterium most closely related to Saccharofermentans acetigenes identified as the bacterium active in O-demethylation of MTBE. Identification of the microorganisms responsible for the activity will help us better understand anaerobic MTBE degradation processes in the field and determine biomarkers for monitoring natural attenuation. PMID:26727046

  5. Methylibium petroleiphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading methylotroph of the Betaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Cindy H; Hristova, Krassimira; Hanada, Satoshi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Hanson, Jessica R; Scow, Kate M; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2006-05-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-pigmented, facultative aerobe that grew optimally at pH 6.5 and 30 degrees C (strain PM1T) was isolated for its ability to completely degrade the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this bacterium was a member of the class Betaproteobacteria in the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group. The 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to other genera in this group, Leptothrix, Aquabacterium, Roseateles, Sphaerotilus, Ideonella and Rubrivivax, ranged from 93 to 96 %. The chemotaxonomic data including Q-8 as the major quinone, C16 : 1omega7c and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids and a DNA G+C content of 69 mol%, support the inclusion of strain PM1T in the class Betaproteobacteria. It differed from other members of the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group by being a facultative methylotroph that used methanol as a sole carbon source, and by also being able to grow heterotrophically in defined media containing ethanol, toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene and dihydroxybenzoates as sole carbon sources. On the basis of the morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic information, a new genus and species, Methylibium petroleiphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed, with PM1T (=ATCC BAA-1232T=LMG 22953T) as the type strain. PMID:16627642

  6. Methyl tert-butyl ether occurrence and related factors in public and private wells in Southeast New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, J.D.; Argue, D.M.; McGarry, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water from public wells in New Hampshire has increased steadily over the past several years. Using a laboratory reporting level of 0.2 ??g/L, 40% of samples from public wells and 21% from private wells in southeast New Hampshire have measurable concentrations of MTBE. The rate of occurrence of MTBE varied significantly for public wells by establishment type; for example, 63% of public wells serving residential properties have MTBE concentrations above 0.2 ??g/L, whereas lower rates were found for schools (21%). MTBE concentrations correlate strongly with urban factors, such as population density. Surprisingly, MTBE was correlated positively with well depth for public supply wells. Well depth is inversely related to yield in New Hampshire bedrock wells, which may mean that there is less opportunity for dilution of MTBE captured by deep wells. Another possibility is that the source(s) of water to low-yield wells may be dominated by leakage from potentially contaminated shallow groundwater through near-surface fractures or along the well casing. These wells may also have relatively large contributing areas (due to low recharge at the bedrock surface) and therefore have a greater chance of intersecting MTBE sources. This finding is significant because deep bedrock wells are often considered to be less vulnerable to contamination than shallow wells, and in southeast New Hampshire, wells are being drilled deeper in search of increased supply.

  7. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in public and private wells in New Hampshire: Occurrence, factors, and possible implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, J.D.; Argue, D.M.; McGarry, F.J.; Degnan, J.R.; Hayes, L.; Flanagan, S.M.; Helsel, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations ???0.2 ??g/L were found in samples of untreated water in 18% of public-supply wells (n = 284) and 9.1% of private domestic wells (n = 264) sampled in 2005 and 2006 in New Hampshire. In counties that used reformulated gasoline (RFG), MTBE occurred at or above 0.2 ??g/L in 30% of public- and 17% of private-supply wells. Additionally, 52% of public-supply wells collocated with fuel storage and 71% of mobile home park wells had MTBE. MTBE occurrence in public-supply wells was predicted by factors such as proximity to sources of fuel, land use, and population density, as well as low pH and distance from mapped lineaments. RFG use, land-use variables, and pH were important predictors of private-well MTBE occurrence. Variables representing sources of MTBE, such as the distance to known fuel sources, were not significant predictors of MTBE occurrence in private-supply wells. It is hypothesized that private wells may become contaminated from the collective effects of sources in high population areas and from undocumented incidental releases from onsite or proximal gasoline use. From 2003 to 2005, MTBE occurrence decreased in 63 public-supply wells and increased in 60 private-supply wells, but neither trend was statistically significant. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Whole-genorne analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Staci R.; Chakicherla, Anu Y.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Schmidt, Radomir; Shin, M; Legler, Tina C.; Scow, Kate M.; Larimer, Frank W; Lucas, Susan; Richardson, P M; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2007-03-01

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C, to C,,) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an similar to 4-Mb circular chromosome and an similar to 600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (similar to 99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria.

  9. Carbon Isotope Fractionation during Anaerobic Degradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether under Sulfate-Reducing and Methanogenic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Somsamak, Piyapawn; Richnow, Hans H.; Häggblom, Max M.

    2006-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), an octane enhancer and a fuel oxygenate in reformulated gasoline, has received increasing public attention after it was detected as a major contaminant of water resources. Although several techniques have been developed to remediate MTBE-contaminated sites, the fate of MTBE is mainly dependent upon natural degradation processes. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis has been proposed as a tool to distinguish the loss of MTBE due to biodegradation from other physical processes. Although MTBE is highly recalcitrant, anaerobic degradation has been demonstrated under different anoxic conditions and may be an important process. To accurately assess in situ MTBE degradation through carbon isotope analysis, carbon isotope fractionation during MTBE degradation by different cultures under different electron-accepting conditions needs to be investigated. In this study, carbon isotope fractionation during MTBE degradation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions was studied in anaerobic cultures enriched from two different sediments. Significant enrichment of 13C in residual MTBE during anaerobic biotransformation was observed under both sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. The isotopic enrichment factors (?) estimated for each enrichment were almost identical (?13.4 to ?14.6; r2 = 0.89 to 0.99). A ? value of ?14.4 ± 0.7 was obtained from regression analysis (r2 = 0.97, n = 55, 95% confidence interval), when all data from our MTBE-transforming anaerobic cultures were combined. The similar magnitude of carbon isotope fractionation in all enrichments regardless of culture or electron-accepting condition suggests that the terminal electron-accepting process may not significantly affect carbon isotope fractionation during anaerobic MTBE degradation. PMID:16461662

  10. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Enhancing Transport of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 for Bioaugmentation of Aquifers Contaminated with Methyl tert-Butyl Ether

    PubMed Central

    Streger, Sheryl H.; Vainberg, Simon; Dong, Hailiang; Hatzinger, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    The gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has become a widespread contaminant in groundwater throughout the United States. Bioaugmentation of aquifers with MTBE-degrading cultures may be necessary to enhance degradation of the oxygenate in some locations. However, poor cell transport has sometimes limited bioaugmentation efforts in the past. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transport characteristics of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735, a pure culture capable of growth on MTBE, and to improve movement of the strain through aquifer solids. The wild-type culture moved only a few centimeters in columns of aquifer sediment. An adhesion-deficient variant (H. flava ENV735:24) of the wild-type strain that moved more readily through sediments was obtained by sequential passage of cells through columns of sterile sediment. Hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction chromatography revealed that the wild-type strain is much more hydrophobic than the adhesion-deficient variant. Electrophoretic mobility assays and transmission electron microscopy showed that the wild-type bacterium contains two distinct subpopulations, whereas the adhesion-deficient strain has only a single, homogeneous population. Both the wild-type strain and adhesion-deficient variant degraded MTBE, and both were identified by 16S rRNA analysis as pure cultures of H. flava. The effectiveness of surfactants for enhancing transport of the wild-type strain was also evaluated. Many of the surfactants tested were toxic to ENV735; however, one nonionic surfactant, Tween 20, enhanced cell transport in sand columns. Improving microbial transport may lead to a more effective bioaugmentation strategy for MTBE-contaminated sites where indigenous oxygenate degraders are absent. PMID:12406751

  12. [Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to monoaromatic hydrocarbons and to methyl tert-butyl ether in a group of petrol station workers].

    PubMed

    De Palma, G; Poli, D; Manini, P; Andreoli, R; Mozzoni, P; Apostoli, P; Mutti, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate biomarkers of exposure to gasoline in petrol station workers by a combined approach of environmental and biological monitoring. The personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and the urinary levels of BTEX, methyl tert-butyl ether (U-MTBE), trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic acids (S-PMA) and cotinine were determined by mass spectrometry coupled chromatographic techniques. U-MTBE levels were strictly influenced by occupational exposure to gasoline, whereas both U-B and S-PMA levels depended from smoking habits and occupational exposure. PMID:23393799

  13. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonventre, Josephine A.; Kung, Tiffany S.; White, Lori A.; Cooper, Keith R.

    2013-12-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  14. Isolate PM1 populations are dominant and novel methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading bacterial in compost biofilter enrichments.

    PubMed

    Bruns, M A; Hanson, J R; Mefford, J; Scow, K M

    2001-03-01

    The gasoline additive MTBE, methyl tert-butyl ether, is a widespread and persistent groundwater contaminant. MTBE undergoes rapid mineralization as the sole carbon and energy source of bacterial strain PM1, isolated from an enrichment culture of compost biofilter material. In this report, we describe the results of microbial community DNA profiling to assess the relative dominance of isolate PM1 and other bacterial strains cultured from the compost enrichment. Three polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based profiling approaches were evaluated: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 230 bp 16S rDNA fragments; thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of 575 bp 16S rDNA fragments; and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 300-1,500 bp fragments containing 16S/23S ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Whereas all three DNA profiling approaches indicated that PM1-like bands predominated in mixtures from MTBE-grown enrichments, ITS profiling provided the most abundant and specific sequence data to confirm strain PM1's presence in the enrichment. Moreover, ITS profiling did not produce non-specific PCR products that were observed with T/DGGE. A further advantage of ITS community profiling over other methods requiring restriction digestion (e.g. terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms) was that it did not require an additional digestion step or the use of automated sequencing equipment. ITS bands, excised from similar locations in profiles of the enrichment and PM1 pure culture, were 99.9% identical across 750 16S rDNA positions and 100% identical across 691 spacer positions. BLAST comparisons of nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequences showed 96% similarity between isolate PM1 and representatives of at least four different genera in the Leptothrix subgroup of the beta-Proteobacteria (Aquabacterium, Leptothrix, Rubrivivax and Ideonella). Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of 1,249 nucleotide positions supported isolate PM1's position in a separate lineage within the Leptothrix subgroup. PMID:11321538

  15. Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

    2003-10-02

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

  16. Occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in riverbank fiftered water and drnking water produced by riverbank filtration. 2.

    PubMed

    Achten, Christine; Kolb, Axel; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2002-09-01

    Bank filtration of river or lake water represents an efficient and natural purification process used for the drinking water production in many countries and at an amount of about 15-16% in Germany. From experiences over decades particularly at the river Rhine and Elbe, it is known that the occurrence of persistent pollutants in river water can represent a problem for the quality of drinking water produced by bank filtration. The common detection of the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water and the announced phase-out of the oxygenate in the U.S. show that MTBE can contaminate large water amounts due to its physicochemical properties. The MTBE situation in the U.S differs from Europe, and significantly lower concentrations in the German environment can be expected. Average MTBE concentrations of 200-250 ng/L in the Lower Main and Lower Rhine river in 2000/2001 were reported. At two sites at the Lower Rhine and Lower Main rivers MTBE concentrations in bank filtered water (n = 22), recovering well water, raw water, and drinking water produced by the water utility at the Lower Rhine site (n = 30) and tap water at Frankfurt/M City (n = 13) were analyzed from 1999 to 2001. Sample analysis is performed by a combination of headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with a detection limit of 10 ng/L and a relative standard deviation of 11%. At the Lower Rhine site up to 80 m from the river an average MTBE concentration of 88 ng/L in riverbank filtered water, recovering well water, and raw water (n = 7) and of 43-110 ng/L in drinking water (n = 3) result. At the Lower Main site up to 400 m from the river MTBE concentrations from 52 to 250 ng/L (n = 7) were measured. Tap water samples at Frankfurt/M (mean of 35 ng/L, maximum of 71 ng/L) were in the same range as MTBE amounts in drinking water at the Lower Rhine site. Measured MTBE amounts eliminated by bank filtration at the Lower Rhine site are comparable to other contaminants. The results of this study show that concentrations measured in river water and drinking water are approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the U.S. drinking water standard of 20-40 microg/L, represent trace-level concentrations, and are not of major concern nowadays. However, the unfavorable combination of the occurrence of nonpoint MTBE emissions and the persistent behavior of the ether in water even at low concentrations should not be neglected in future discussion. The reported MTBE concentrations are relevant for precautionary aspects. MTBE concentrations in German river water show a tendency toward increasing concentrations since 1999, and in the future possible higher concentrations could represent a risk for the quality of drinking water that is being produced by water utility using bank filtered river water. PMID:12322735

  17. Expression of an alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene and methyl tert-butyl ether co-metabolic oxidation in Pseudomonas citronellolis.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Ana Luisa; Sigala, Juan Carlos; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Morales, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas citronellolis UAM-Ps1 co-metabolically transforms methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to tert-butyl alcohol with n-pentane (2.6 mM), n-octane (1.5 mM) or dicyclopropylketone (DCPK) (4.4 mM), a gratuitous inducer of alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) activity. The reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify the alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene expression. The alkB gene was expressed in the presence of n-alkanes and DCPK and MTBE oxidation occurred only in cultures when alkB was transcribed. A correlation between the number of alkB transcripts and MTBE consumption was found (???? consumption in ?mol = 1.44e(-13) x DNA copies, R(2) = 0.99) when MTBE (0.84 mM) was added. Furthermore, alkB was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli and the recombinant AlkB had a molecular weight of 42 kDa. This is the first report where the expression of alkB is related to the co-metabolic oxidation of MTBE. PMID:25432418

  18. Methyl tert-butyl ether degradation in the unsaturated zone and the relation between MTBE in the atmosphere and shallow groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, A.L.; Charles, E.G.; Baker, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations in southern New Jersey generally exceeded concentrations in samples taken from the unsaturated zone. A simple unsaturated zone transport model indicates that MTBE degradation can explain the attenuation with half-lives from a few months to a couple of years. Tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a possible degradation product of MTBE, was detected in unsaturated-zone samples at concentrations exceeding atmospheric levels at some sites, suggesting the possible conversion of MTBE to TBA. At sites where MTBE was detected in shallow groundwater, the concentration was typically higher than the overlying unsaturated-zone concentration. This observation is consistent with outgassing from the aquifer and combined with the unsaturated-zone attenuation suggests some of the MTBE detections in shallow groundwater are nonatmospheric in origin, coming from leaking tanks, road runoff, or other sources. The identification of sources of MTBE in groundwater and attenuation mechanisms through the hydrologic cycle is critical in developing an understanding of the long-term effect of MTBE releases.

  19. METHYL TERT-BUTYLETHER-WATER INTERACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a well-known environmental contaminant owing to its high solubility in water. Since the early 1990s, MTBE has been added to gasoline to improve air quality in some metropolitan areas of the United States. Improved air quality was, however, achiev...

  20. 4-[(tert-Butyl­dimethyl­sil­yl)­oxy]-6-meth­oxy-7-methyl-5-(oxiran-2-ylmeth­yl)-2-benzofuran-3(1H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Malachowska-Ugarte, Magdalena; Cholewinski, Grzegorz; Chojnacki, Jaroslaw; Dzierzbicka, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C19H28O5Si, was obtained in the reaction of 1,3-dihydro-4-[(tert-butyl­dimethyl­sil­yl)­oxy]-6-meth­oxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-5-(prop-2-en­yl)isobenzofuran with meta-chloro­perbenzoic acid. This reaction is one of the stages of the total synthesis of mycophenolic acid, which we attempted to modify. The title compound forms crystals with only weak inter­molecular inter­actions. The strongest stacking inter­action is found between the benzene and furan rings of inversion-related mol­ecules with a distance of 3.8773?(13)?Å between the ring centroids. PMID:22199882

  1. Groundwater remediation by an in situ biobarrier: a bench scale feasibility test for methyl tert-butyl ether and other gasoline compounds.

    PubMed

    Saponaro, Sabrina; Negri, Marco; Sezenna, Elena; Bonomo, Luca; Sorlini, Claudia

    2009-08-15

    Most gasoline contains high percentages of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an additive. The physico-chemical properties of this substance (high water solubility, low sorption in soil) result in high mobility and dissolved concentrations in soil. In situ permeable biological barriers (biobarriers, BBs) can remediate MTBE polluted groundwater by allowing pure cultures or microbial consortia to degrade MTBE when aerobic conditions are present, either by direct metabolism or cometabolism. Lab-scale batch and column tests were carried out to assess a selected microbial consortium in biodegrading MTBE and other gasoline compounds (benzene B, toluene T, ethylbenzene E, xylenes X) and to measure the parameters affecting the efficacy of a BB treatment of polluted groundwater. During the aerobic phase of the batch tests, the simultaneous biodegradation of MTBE, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), B, T, E and o-X was observed. The rapid biodegradation of BTEXs resulted in decreased oxygen availability, but MTBE degradation was nevertheless measured in the presence of BTEXs. Stationary concentrations of MTBE and TBA were measured when anoxic conditions occurred in the systems. Values for a first order kinetic removal process were obtained for MTBE (0.031+/-0.001 d(-1)), B (0.045+/-0.002 d(-1)) and T (0.080+/-0.004 d(-1)) in the inoculated column tests. The estimate of the BB design parameters suggested that inoculation could significantly modify (double) the longitudinal dispersivity value of the biomass support medium. No effect was observed in the retardation factors for MTBE, B and T. PMID:19200654

  2. Light-emitting thin films of glassy forming organic compounds containing 2-tert-butyl-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembris, Aivars; Pudzs, Kaspars; Muzikante, Inta

    2012-06-01

    Low molecular mass organic compounds which make thin films from volatile organic solutions would be great benefit in future organic light emitting systems. Two most important advantages could be mentioned. First - the repetition of synthesis of small molecules is better than for polymers. Second - wet casting methods could be used. In this work we are presenting optical, electroluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission properties of four original glassy forming compounds containing 2-tert-butyl-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene fragment as backbone of the molecule. They has the same N,N-dialkylamino electron donating group with incorporated bulky trityloxy ethyl groups. The difference of these compounds is in electron acceptor group. One has 1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione group, second has pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione group, third has malononitrile group and fourth has 2-ethyl-2-cyanoacetate. Absorption maximum of the compounds is between 420 and 500 nm and is red shifted from weaker acceptor group to stronger one. The electroluminescence efficiency for simple device ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Organic compound/BaF/Al is low. For the best one with malononitrile group it was 0.13 cd/A and 0.036 lm/W. It could be increased by optimising the sample geometry or adding addition layers for charge carrier transport and exciton blocking. But nevertheless the use of these compounds in organic light emitting devices in neat films is unlikely. Attached bulky trityloxy ethyl groups and tert-butyl group decrease interaction between the molecules thus allowing to obtain amplified spontaneous emission in neat thin films for all investigated compounds.

  3. Differential toxic effects of methyl tertiary butyl ether and tert-butanol on rat fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, A; Iavicoli, I; De Paola, B; Bianchino, G; Boninsegna, A; Bergamaschi, A; Pietroiusti, A; Cittadini, A

    2009-03-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used motor vehicle fuel oxygenate since it reduces harmful emissions due to gasoline combustion. However, the significant increase in its use in recent years has raised new questions related to its potential toxicity. In fact, although available data are somehow conflicting, there is evidence that MTBE is a toxic substance that may have harmful effects on both animals and humans and an unresolved problem is the role played by MTBE metabolites, especially tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), in determining toxic effects due to MTBE exposure. In this study, the toxic effects of MTBE have been analyzed on a normal diploid rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) and compared to the effects of TBA. The results obtained suggest that both MTBE and TBA inhibit cell growth in vitro but with different mechanisms in terms of effects on the cell cycle progression and on the modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. In fact, MTBE caused an accumulation of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, whereas TBA caused an accumulation in the G0/G1-phase with different effects on the expression of cyclin D1, p27Kip1, and p53. Moreover, both MTBE and TBA were also shown to induce DNA damage, as assessed in terms of oxidative DNA damage and nuclear DNA fragmentation, that appeared to be susceptible of repair by the cell DNA-repair machinery. In conclusion, these findings suggest that both MTBE and TBA can exert, by acting through different molecular mechanisms, important biological effects on fibroblasts in vitro. Further studies are warranted to shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the observed effects and on their potential significance for the in-vivo exposure. PMID:19458137

  4. Synthesis, optical, and thermal properties of glassy trityl group containing luminescent derivatives of 2-tert-butyl-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarins, Elmars; Siltane, Karina; Misina, Elina; Kokars, Valdis; Lazdovica, Kristine; Vembris, Aivars; Kampars, Valdis; Muzikante, Inta; Rutkis, Martins

    2012-06-01

    In this work we present simple preparation of original trityl group containing glassy luminescent 6-styryl substituted derivatives of 2-(2-tert-butyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)malononitrile (DWK-1TB), 2-(2-tert-butyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-2- ethyl-2-cyanoacetate (KWK-1TB), 2-(2-tert-butyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione (ZWK-1TB) and 5-(2-tert-butyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (JWK-1TB). Their optical properties have been investigated. The absorption maxima of synthesized glasses is in region from 425 nm to 515 nm and emission maxima is from 470 nm to 625 nm in solution of dichloromethane. But absorption maxima of their solid films is from 425 nm to 500 nm and emission maxima is in range from 570 nm to 710 nm. Incorporation of bulky trityloxy ethyl groups combining with existing tert-butyl groups results in thin solid films formation of synthesized glasses from volatile organic solvents (chloroform, dichloromethane) without them being doped in any polymer. This makes them perspective for potential applications in organic light-emitting diodes and organic lasers by simple luminescent layer composition with cheap wet-casting approaches. All glasses show good thermal stability with thermal decomposition temperatures from 264° to 318°C and glass transition values up to 158°C for DWK-1TB. These thermal properties of synthesized glasses could make them also useful for potential applications in other optical materials such as materials for nonlinear optics.

  5. Interaction of insulin with methyl tert-butyl ether promotes molten globule-like state and production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Valipour, Masoumeh; Maghami, Parvaneh; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Sadeghpour, Mostafa; Khademian, Mohamad Ali; Mosavi, Khadijeh; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-09-01

    Interaction of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) with proteins is a new look at its potential adverse biological effects. When MTBE is released to the environment it enters the blood stream through inhalation, and could affect the properties of various proteins. Here we investigated the interaction of MTBE with insulin and its effect on insulin structural changes. Our results showed that insulin formed a molten globule (MG)-like structure in the presence of 8 ?M MTBE under physiological pH. The insulin structural changes were studied using spectroscopy methods, viscosity calculation, dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. To delineate the mechanisms involved in MTBE-protein interactions, the formation of reactive oxygen specious (ROS) and formation of protein aggregates were measured. The chemiluminscence experiments revealed an increase in ROS production in the presence of MTBE especially in the MG-like state. These results were further confirmed by the aggregation tests, which indicated more aggregation of insulin at 40 ?M MTBE compared with 8 ?M. Thus, the formation of initial aggregates and exposure of the hydrophobic patches upon formation of the MG-like state in the presence of MTBE drives protein oxidation and ROS generation. PMID:26193678

  6. Response surface analysis of photocatalytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by core/shell Fe3O4/ZnO nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was investigated in the aqueous solution of coated ZnO onto magnetite nanoparticale based on an advanced photocatalytic oxidation process. The photocatalysts were synthesized by coating of ZnO onto magnetite using precipitation method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). Besides, specific surface area was also determined by BET method. The four effective factors including pH of the reaction mixture, Fe3O4/ZnO magnetic nanoparticles concentration, initial MTBE concentration and molar ratio of [H2O2]/ [MTBE] were optimized using response surface modeling (RSM). Using the four-factor-three-level Box–Behnken design, 29 runs were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential factors. The optimized values for the operational parameters under the respective constraints were obtained at PH of 7.2, Fe3O4/ZnO concentration of 1.78 g/L, initial MTBE concentration of 89.14 mg/L and [H2O2]/ [MTBE] molar ratio of 2.33. Moreover, kinetics of MTBE degradation was determined under optimum condition. The study about core/shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) recycling were also carried out and after about four times, the percentage of the photocatalytic degradation was about 70%. PMID:24393372

  7. Spectroscopic investigation, natural bond orbital analysis, HOMO-LUMO and thermodynamic functions of 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl anisole using DFT (B3LYP) calculations.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Santhi, G; Karpagam, V; Revathi, B; Karabacak, M

    2015-02-01

    The optimized molecular structure and corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl anisole (TBMA) have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets investigation of the relative orientation of the methoxy group has shown two conformers (O-cis) and (O-trans) exist. The vibrational analysis of the stable conformer of the title compound is performed by means of infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy in combination with theoretical simultaneously. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis is useful to understand the intra-molecular hyper conjugative interaction lone pair and π(∗)(C-C), σ(∗)(C-H) bond orbital. HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecule, therefore; HOMO, LUMO and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and analyzed. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra by using gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) method of studied compound were compared with experimental data. The thermodynamic functions of TBMA were calculated by B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) basis set. PMID:25448946

  8. Spectroscopic investigation, natural bond orbital analysis, HOMO-LUMO and thermodynamic functions of 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl anisole using DFT (B3LYP) calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, V.; Santhi, G.; Karpagam, V.; Revathi, B.; Karabacak, M.

    2015-02-01

    The optimized molecular structure and corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl anisole (TBMA) have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets investigation of the relative orientation of the methoxy group has shown two conformers (O-cis) and (O-trans) exist. The vibrational analysis of the stable conformer of the title compound is performed by means of infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy in combination with theoretical simultaneously. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis is useful to understand the intra-molecular hyper conjugative interaction lone pair and π∗(Csbnd C), σ∗(Csbnd H) bond orbital. HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecule, therefore; HOMO, LUMO and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and analyzed. 1H and 13C NMR spectra by using gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) method of studied compound were compared with experimental data. The thermodynamic functions of TBMA were calculated by B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) basis set.

  9. Use of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether for the Treatment of Refractory Intrahepatic Biliary Strictures and Bile Casts: A Modern Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gregory; Malayaman, Saninuj N.; Green, Michael Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is a prevalent problem in the United States with 14% or more adults affected. Definitive treatment of cholelithiasis is cholecystectomy. When cholecystectomy yields minimal resolution treatment options include expectant management of asymptomatic gallstones or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram. We present a case of intrahepatic biliary casts where surgical option was not possible, interventional radiology was unsuccessful, and methyl tert-butyl ether was used to dissolve the biliary obstruction. Dissolution therapy of gallstones was first reported in 1722 when Vollisnieri used turpentine in vitro. While diethyl ether has excellent solubilizing capacity, its low boiling point limited its use surgically as it vaporizes immediately. Diethyl ether can expand 120-fold during warming to body temperature after injection into the biliary system making it impractical for routine use. The use of dissolution is out of favor due to the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Epidemiological studies have shown the general population should have minimal concerns from passive exposure. Dissolution using MTBE remains a viable option if surgical or endoscopic options are not available. However, because of risks involved to both the patient and the staff, careful multidisciplinary team approach must be undertaken to minimize the risks and provide the best possible care to the patient. PMID:26236535

  10. The study of binding of methyl tert-butyl ether to human telomeric G-quadruplex and calf thymus DNA by gas chromatography, a thermodynamic discussion.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Sahar; Ahmadi, Farhad

    2014-11-15

    Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as an antiknock additive for increasing octane number of gasoline. Recently, the in vivo studies demonstrated that MTBE has genotoxic potential and able to form adducts with DNA. In the work, the interactions of MTBE with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and the Na(+) form of G-quadruplex DNA (wtTel22) were studied by using of head space-solid phase microextraction technique coupled to gas chromatography. The binding equilibrium constants were measured through the equilibriums of a four phase system. In addition, the MTBE Henry's law constants for two different buffers in the temperature range of 283-303K were measured. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the complexation of MTBE to both DNAs is enthalpy favored and entropy disfavored. The thermodynamic results revealed that MTBE may have interaction with ct-DNA via the minor groove of DNA. Also, MTBE may be complexed into the basket of G-quadruplex structure. In addition, the low difference in the binding constants of MTBE for both different DNA targets may confirm that MTBE is poorly selective for different conformations of DNA. PMID:25280162

  11. Use of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether for the Treatment of Refractory Intrahepatic Biliary Strictures and Bile Casts: A Modern Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gregory; Malayaman, Saninuj N; Green, Michael Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is a prevalent problem in the United States with 14% or more adults affected. Definitive treatment of cholelithiasis is cholecystectomy. When cholecystectomy yields minimal resolution treatment options include expectant management of asymptomatic gallstones or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram. We present a case of intrahepatic biliary casts where surgical option was not possible, interventional radiology was unsuccessful, and methyl tert-butyl ether was used to dissolve the biliary obstruction. Dissolution therapy of gallstones was first reported in 1722 when Vollisnieri used turpentine in vitro. While diethyl ether has excellent solubilizing capacity, its low boiling point limited its use surgically as it vaporizes immediately. Diethyl ether can expand 120-fold during warming to body temperature after injection into the biliary system making it impractical for routine use. The use of dissolution is out of favor due to the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Epidemiological studies have shown the general population should have minimal concerns from passive exposure. Dissolution using MTBE remains a viable option if surgical or endoscopic options are not available. However, because of risks involved to both the patient and the staff, careful multidisciplinary team approach must be undertaken to minimize the risks and provide the best possible care to the patient. PMID:26236535

  12. Tetra­chlorido­[N 2,N 2?-(di­methyl­silanedi­yl)bis­(N-tert-butyl-3-methyl­benzimid­amid­ato)-?2 N 2,N 2?]hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Jian-Ping; Bai, Sheng-Di

    2013-01-01

    The symmetric title mol­ecule, [Hf(C26H40N4Si)Cl4], lies about a twofold rotation axis. The HfIV and Si atoms lie on the rotation axis with all other atoms being in general positions. The HfIV atom is six-coordinated by two N atoms from the N 2,N 2?-(di­methyl­silanedi­yl)bis­(N-tert-butyl-3-methyl­benz­imid­amidate) ligand and four Cl? ions in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. The two amidinate moieties are connected through the central Si atom with Si—N bond length of 1.762?(3)?Å, generating the characteristic N—C—N—Si—N—C—N skeleton of a silyl-linked ansa-bis­(amidine) species. PMID:24454166

  13. Occurrence and temporal variability of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in select sources of drinking water : results of the focused survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delzer, Gregory C.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale use of the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and its high solubility, low soil adsorption, and low biodegradability, has resulted in its detection in ground water and surface water in many places throughout the United States. Studies by numerous researchers, as well as many State and local environmental agencies, have discovered high levels of MTBE in soils and ground water at leaking underground gasoline-storage-tank sites and frequent occurrence of low to intermediate levels of MTBE in reservoirs used for both public water supply and recreational boating.In response to these findings, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation sponsored an investigation of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Nation?s sources of drinking water. The goal of the investigation was to provide additional information on the frequency of occurrence, concentration, and temporal variability of MTBE and other VOCs in source water used by community water systems (CWSs). The investigation was completed in two stages: (1) reviews of available literature and (2) the collection of new data. Two surveys were associated with the collection of new data. The first, termed the Random Survey, employed a statistically stratified design for sampling source water from 954 randomly selected CWSs. The second, which is the focus of this report, is termed the Focused Survey, which included samples collected from 134 CWS source waters, including ground water, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, and streams, that were suspected or known to contain MTBE. The general intent of the Focused Survey was to compare results with the Random Survey and provide an improved understanding of the occurrence, concentration, temporal variability, and anthropogenic factors associated with frequently detected VOCs. Each sample collected was analyzed for 66 VOCs, including MTBE and three other ether gasoline oxygenates (hereafter termed gasoline oxygenates). As part of the Focused Survey, 451 source-water samples and 744 field quality-control (QC) samples were collected from 78 ground-water, 39 reservoir and (or) lake, and 17 river and (or) stream source waters at fixed intervals for a period of 1 year.Using a common assessment level of 0.2 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) (2.0 ?g/L for methyl ethyl ketone), 37 of the 66 VOCs analyzed were detected in both surveys. However, VOCs, especially MTBE and other gasoline oxygenates, were detected more frequently in the Focused Survey than in the Random Survey. MTBE was detected in 55.5 percent of the CWSs sampled in the Focused Survey and in 8.7 percent of those sampled in the Random Survey. Little difference in occurrence, however, was observed for trihalomethanes (THMs), which were detected in 16.4 and 14.8 percent of Focused Survey and The large-scale use of the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and its high solubility, low soil adsorption, and low biodegradability, has resulted in its detection in ground water and surface water in many places throughout the United States. Studies by numerous researchers, as well as many State and local environmental agencies, have discovered high levels of MTBE in soils and ground water at leaking underground gasoline-storage-tank sites and frequent occurrence of low to intermediate levels of MTBE in reservoirs used for both public water supply and recreational boating.In response to these findings, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation sponsored an investigation of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Nation?s sources of drinking water. The goal of the investigation was to provide additional information on the frequency of occurrence, concentration, and temporal variability of MTBE and other VOCs in source water used by community water systems (CWSs). The investigation was completed in two stages: (1) reviews of available literature and (2) the collection of new data. Two surveys wer

  14. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.101 tert-Butyl alcohol. (a) Acidity...

  15. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.101 tert-Butyl alcohol. (a) Acidity...

  16. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, summer 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    1998-01-01

    Water samples were collected from four lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, N.J., in the summer of 1998 as part of an investigation of the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in domestic wells of lakeside communities. Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna are surrounded by densely populated communities where the use of gasoline-powered watercraft is prevalent, and water is supplied by lakeside wells. Forest Lake is surrounded by a densely populated community where the use of gasoline-powered watercraft is prohibited. Stag Pond is privately owned, is situated in a sparsely populated area, and is not navigated by gasoline-powered watercraft. Samples were collected from Cranberry Lake in early summer and again in late summer 1998. Concentrations of the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) ranged from 1.6 to 15.0 mg/L (micrograms per liter) on June 24 and decreased with depth. The depth-related concentration gradient is attributed to density stratification caused by the temperature gradient that is present in the lake during the early summer. MTBE concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 29.0 mg/L on September 8 and were uniform with depth, as was water temperature, indicating that the lake was vertically mixed. On the basis of these concentration profiles, the mass of MTBE in Cranberry Lake was estimated to be 15 kilograms on June 24 and 27 kilograms on September 8. These mass estimates are equal to the amount of MTBE in 52 and 95 gallons, respectively, of gasoline that contains 10 percent MTBE by volume. Concentrations of another gasoline oxygenate, tert-amyl-methyl ether (TAME), ranged from 0.07 to 0.43 mg/L on June 24 and from 0.2 to 0.69 mg/L on September 8. The highest concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) were 0.18, 1.2, 0.18, and 0.97 mg/L, respectively, on June 24. All BTEX concentrations in Cranberry Lake on September 8 were less than 0.2 mg/L. Samples were collected from Lake Lackawanna on September 9. Concentrations of MTBE and TAME ranged from 3.7 to 14.0 mg/L and from 0.17 to 0.38 mg/L, respectively. Like those in Cranberry Lake the previous day, BTEX concentrations were less than 0.2 mg/L, and VOC concentrations and water temperatures were nearly uniform with depth. The mass of MTBE in Lake Lackawanna on September 9 was estimated to be 6 kilograms, which is equal to the amount of MTBE in 21 gallons of gasoline that contains10 percent MTBE by volume. All VOC concentrations were less than 0.2 mg/L in samples collected from Forest Lake on September 8, 1998, and from Stag Pond on the following day. Oxygenated gasoline is used in watercraft on lakes across northern New Jersey. Many of these lakes are surrounded by communities similar to those at Cranberry Lake and at Lake Lackawanna, which depend largely on wells for water supply. Therefore, a regional assessment of the occurrence of these compounds in lakes and ground water is needed to determine the effect of the use of oxygenated gasoline on water quality in lakeside environments throughout northern New Jersey.

  17. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....101 tert-Butyl alcohol. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.003 percent by weight maximum. (b) Color... (dissolve 5 grams of red mercuric oxide in 20 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid; add this solution to 80...

  18. Ionic-liquid-mediated poly(dimethylsiloxane)- grafted carbon nanotube fiber prepared by the sol-gel technique for the head space solid-phase microextraction of methyl tert-butyl ether using GC.

    PubMed

    Vatani, Hossein; Yazdi, Ali Sarafraz

    2014-01-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction method was developed for the preconcentration and extraction of methyl tert-butyl ether. An ionic-liquid-mediated multiwalled carbon nanotube-poly(dimethylsiloxane) hybrid coating, which was prepared by covalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with hydroxyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) using the sol-gel technique, was used as solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. This innovative fiber exhibited a highly porous surface structure, high thermal stability (at least 320°C) and long lifespan (over 210 uses). Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method LOD (S/N = 3) was 0.007 ng/mL and the LOQ (S/N = 10) was 0.03 ng/mL. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.03-200 ng/mL. The RSDs for one fiber (repeatability, n = 5) at three different concentrations (0.05, 1, and 150 ng/mL) were 5.1, 4.2, and 4.6% and for the fibers obtained from different batches (reproducibility, n = 3) were 6.5, 5.9, and 6.3%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether in different real water samples on three consecutive days. The relative recoveries for the spiked samples with 0.05, 1, and 150 ng/mL were between 94-104%. PMID:24285506

  19. OCCURRENCE OF METYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA

    EPA Science Inventory



    Occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in five marinas was monitored between June 1999 and November 2000 in Lake Texoma located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas. MTBE is a commonly used gasoline additive and a suspected carcinogen. Lake water was collected at loc...

  20. Crystal structure of (tert-butyl­carbamo­yl)(4-chloro-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)methyl acetate

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Tetsuji; Jalli, Venkataprasad; Krishnamurthy, Suvratha; Tsuge, Akihiko; Yoja, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C17H18ClNO5, which was synthesized by reacting 4-chloro-3-formyl­coumarin, acetic acid and tert-butyl isocyanide, the acetamido side chain is convoluted with ring-to-side chain C—C—C—C, C—C—C—N and C—C—N—C torsion angles of −123.30 (14), −135.73 (12) and 176.10 (12)°, respectively. In the crystal, N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present, which together with π–π coumarin-ring inter­actions [ring centroid separations = 3.4582 (8) and 3.6421 (9) Å], give rise to a layered structure lying parallel to (001). PMID:26870464

  1. (2R,6S)-tert-Butyl 2-(benzhydryl­carbamo­yl)-6-methyl­morpholine-4-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyang; Xia, Guangxin; Liu, Xuejun; Shen, Jingkang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C24H30N2O4, was obtained by the reaction of (2R,6S)-4-(tert-but­oxy­carbon­yl)-6-methyl­morpho­line-2-carb­oxy­lic acid with diphenyl­methanamine in dimethyl­formamide solution. The morpholine ring is in a chair conformation. In the crystal, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link mol­ecules into chains along the b axis. PMID:21754815

  2. National survey of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and other Volatile Organic Compounds in drinking-water sources: Results of the random source-water survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected in source water used by 8.7 percent of randomly selected community water systems (CWSs) in the United States at concentrations that ranged from 0.2 to 20 micrograms per liter (?g/L). The Random Survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and the Oregon Health & Science University, was designed to provide an assessment of the frequency of detection, concentration, and distribution of MTBE, three other ether gasoline oxygenates, and 62 other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground- and surface-water sources used for drinking-water supplies. The Random Survey was the first of two components of a national assessment of the quality of source water supplying CWSs sponsored by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. A total of 954 CWSs were selected for VOC sampling from the population of nearly 47,000 active, self-supplied CWSs in all 50 States, Native American Lands, and Puerto Rico based on a statistical design that stratified on CWS size (population served), type of source water (ground and surface water), and geographic distribution (State).At a reporting level of 0.2 ?g/L, VOCs were detected in 27 percent of source-water samples collected from May 3, 1999 through October 23, 2000. Chloroform (in 13 percent of samples) was the most frequently detected of 42 VOCs present in the source-water samples, followed by MTBE. VOC concentrations were generally less than 10 ?g/L?95 percent of the 530 detections?and 63 percent were less than 1.0 ?g/L. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, vinyl chloride, and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), however, exceeded drinking-water regulations in eight samples.Detections of most VOCs were more frequent in surface-water sources than in ground-water sources, with gasoline compounds collectively and MTBE individually detected significantly more often in surface water. Use of personal and commercial motorized watercraft on surface-water bodies that are drinking-water sources is probably the reason for the elevated detections of gasoline contaminants relative to ground water. MTBE detections demonstrated a seasonal pattern with more frequent detections in surface water in summer months, which is consistent with seasonal watercraft use.The detection frequency of most VOCs was significantly related to urban land use and population density. Detections of any VOC, non-trihalo-methane compounds, gasoline compounds collectively, the specific gasoline compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), MTBE, solvents, and refrigerants were significantly greater in areas with more than 60 percent urban land use and (or) population density greater than 1,000 people per square mile than in source waters from less urbanized or lower population-density areas. MTBE detections were five times more frequent in source waters from areas with high MTBE use than in source waters from low or no MTBE use, but, unlike other gasoline compounds, MTBE detections were not significantly related to the density of gasoline storage tanks near drinking-water sources.

  3. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline- contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

  4. Methyl tert-butyl ether in ground and surface water of the United States: National-scale relations between MTBE occurrence in surface and ground water and MTBE use in gasoline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The detection frequency of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground and surface water of the United States is positively related to the content of MTBE in gasoline in various metropolitan areas of the U.S. The frequency of detection of MTBE is generally higher in areas that use larger amounts of MTBE in gasoline. Sampling of surface and ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program between 1993 and 1998 revealed a frequent detection of low concentrations of MTBE. In this analysis, data from several national-scale gasoline surveys are examined and data from one survey that is most extensive in geographic and temporal coverage is used to relate the detection of MTBE in ground and surface water to the volumetric content of MTBE in gasoline.

  5. Synthesis, molecular structure, spectral analysis and nonlinear optical studies on 4-(4-bromophenyl)-1-tert-butyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine: A combined experimental and DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamer, Ömer; Arslan, Barış Seçkin; Avcı, Davut; Nebioğlu, Mehmet; Atalay, Yusuf; Çoşut, Bünyemin

    2016-02-01

    4-(4-bromophenyl)-1-tert-butyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine (BPTBMPA) crystal was synthesized for the first time and its structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction method. The spectroscopic characterization was also performed by the applying of FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. In order to support experimental results, density functional theory calculations have been performed. All of the obtained theoretical results are in a perfect agreement with the experimental ones. The negative HOMO and LUMO energies demonstrated that the molecular structure of BPTBMPA is stable. The small energy gap between the HOMO and LUMO is an indicator of intramolecular charge transfer which is responsible for nonlinear optical properties. Natural bond orbital analysis also indicates the presence of molecular charge transfer within BPTBMPA. Obtained chemical hardness parameter demonstrates that BPTBMPA has considerable electron donor groups. Finally, it has been showed that BPTBMPA exhibits considerable nonlinear optical properties.

  6. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  7. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  8. Study of fuel oxygenates solubility in aqueous media as a function of temperature and tert-butyl alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Olmos, R; Iglesias, M

    2008-05-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used oxygenate in gasoline blending and has become one of the world's most widespread groundwater and surface water pollutants. Alternative oxygenates to MTBE, namely ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl ether (TAME) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) have been hardly studied yet. The solubility of these chemicals is a key thermodynamic information for the assessment of the fate and transport of these pollutants. This work reports experimental data of water solubility at the range from 278.15 to 313.15K and atmospheric pressure of ethers used in fuels (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE) due to the strong influence of temperature on its trend. From the experimental data, temperature dependent polynomials were fitted, thermodynamic parameters were calculated and theoretical models were used for prediction. Finally, the tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) influence in the solubility of MTBE and ETBE in aqueous media was studied. PMID:18299142

  9. Effect of Parameters on Oxychlorination of Tert-Butyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Gaca, Jerzy; Gackowska, Alicja; Belt, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    The effect of concentration, molar ratios of reagents, pH, and temperature on formation of chloro-organic products in reaction of tert-butyl ethers with chloride ions and hydrogen peroxide has been determined. A significant effect of Cl? ions and H2O2 molar ratios on the rate of chloro-organic product formation has been observed. Studies on oxychlorination of tert-butylethyl ether (ETBE) at pH 7, 3.5, and 2.5 have been carried out. It was found that introduction of hydronium ions into the reaction system considerably hastened the process of chloro-organic product formation. Hydronium ions contribute to the formation of the reactive tert-butyl carbocation, which undergoes secondary reactions in the presence of reactive forms of chlorine and oxygen. Moreover, the effect of temperature on ETBE (tert-butylethyl ether) and MTBE (tert-butylmethyl ether) conversions was verified. The reactions of MTBE and ETBE oxychlorination were carried out at temperatures of 5°C, 20°C, and 35°C. PMID:19696944

  10. tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide Mediated Cascade Synthesis of 3-Arylsulfonylquinolines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Su; Gao, Yuzhen; Zhang, Pengbo; Wu, Yile; Tang, Guo; Zhao, Yufen

    2016-03-18

    3-Arylsulfonylquinoline derivatives play important roles as pharmaceutical drugs. A new method for the synthesis of 3-arylsulfonylquinoline derivatives has been achieved through tert-butyl hydroperoxide mediated cycloaddition between N-propargyl aromatic amine derivatives and arylsulfonylhydrazides without the addition of any metals. This transformation offers a straightforward route to the formation of a C-S bond and quinoline ring in one step via a sulfonylation-cyclization-aromatization process. PMID:26959409

  11. Reactivities of Substituted ?-Phenyl-N-tert-butyl Nitrones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a series of ?-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrones bearing one, two, or three substituents on the tert-butyl group was synthesized. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to investigate their electrochemical properties and showed a more pronounced substituent effect for oxidation than for reduction. Rate constants of superoxide radical (O2•–) reactions with nitrones were determined using a UV–vis stopped-flow method, and phenyl radical (Ph•) trapping rate constants were measured by EPR spectroscopy. The effect of N-tert-butyl substitution on the charge density and electron density localization of the nitronyl carbon as well as on the free energies of nitrone reactivity with O2•– and HO2• were computationally rationalized at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Theoretical and experimental data showed that the rates of the reaction correlate with the nitronyl carbon charge density, suggesting a nucleophilic nature of O2•– and Ph• addition to the nitronyl carbon atom. Finally, the substituent effect was investigated in cell cultures exposed to hydrogen peroxide and a correlation between the cell viability and the oxidation potential of the nitrones was observed. Through a combination of computational methodologies and experimental methods, new insights into the reactivity of free radicals with nitrone derivatives have been proposed. PMID:24968285

  12. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin; Zhang Yun; Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang; Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu; Luo Wenjing Chen Jingyuan

    2009-04-15

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A.

    2002-06-01

    A laboratory procedure involving the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is described. This experiment has been used in a general chemistry sequence that includes a section on organic chemistry, but is also well suited for an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course. ETBE is prepared by the acid-catalyzed reaction of tert-butyl alcohol with ethyl alcohol. The product is recovered as a low-boiling azeotrope and purified by liquid liquid extraction with water. By using gas chromatography and IR spectroscopy to examine both the crude and the purified products, students can see how much the purity of their sample improves. They can also appreciate the value of these methods (especially GC) as tools to establish purity. Student results are presented. The use of ETBE and its more prominent cousin methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as gasoline oxygenates has become very controversial because they have polluted underground water supplies. This lab permits students to prepare a compound that has a real use and regularly makes headlines in the news. This lab experiment is part of an effort to develop a general chemistry sequence for engineering students using the theme of "Chemistry and the Automobile".

  14. Linking Low-Level Stable Isotope Fractionation to Expression of the Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Encoding ethB Gene for Elucidation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Biodegradation in Aerated Treatment Pond Systems? †

    PubMed Central

    Jechalke, Sven; Rosell, Mònica; Martínez-Lavanchy, Paula M.; Pérez-Leiva, Paola; Rohwerder, Thore; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans H.

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) was applied in combination with RNA-based molecular tools to characterize methyl tertiary (tert-) butyl ether (MTBE) degradation mechanisms occurring in biofilms in an aerated treatment pond used for remediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater. The main pathway for MTBE oxidation was elucidated by linking the low-level stable isotope fractionation (mean carbon isotopic enrichment factor [?C] of ?0.37‰ ± 0.05‰ and no significant hydrogen isotopic enrichment factor [?H]) observed in microcosm experiments to expression of the ethB gene encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase able to catalyze the oxidation of MTBE in biofilm samples both from the microcosms and directly from the ponds. 16S rRNA-specific primers revealed the presence of a sequence 100% identical to that of Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a well-characterized MTBE degrader. However, neither expression of the mdpA genes encoding the alkane hydroxylase-like enzyme responsible for MTBE oxidation in this strain nor the related MTBE isotope fractionation pattern produced by PM1 could be detected, suggesting that this enzyme was not active in this system. Additionally, observed low inverse fractionation of carbon (?C of +0.11‰ ± 0.03‰) and low fractionation of hydrogen (?H of ?5‰ ± 1‰) in laboratory experiments simulating MTBE stripping from an open surface water body suggest that the application of CSIA in field investigations to detect biodegradation may lead to false-negative results when volatilization effects coincide with the activity of low-fractionating enzymes. As shown in this study, complementary examination of expression of specific catabolic genes can be used as additional direct evidence for microbial degradation activity and may overcome this problem. PMID:21148686

  15. A plan for assessing the occurrence and distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and other volatile organic compounds in drinking water and ambient ground water in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, Stephen J.; Casey, George D.

    1999-01-01

    A plan to assess the occurrence and distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water and ambient ground water in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States was designed to meet two primary objectives. This study will provide the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with information on potential human exposure to MTBE and other VOCs from drinking water. In addition, the study will further the goals of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) by providing additional information on the occurrence and distribution of VOCs in ambient ground water beneath a large, highly urbanized part of the Nation. The study will proceed in two phases-a drinking-water assessment (phase 1) and an ambient ground-water assessment (phase 2). The drinking-water assessment will involve compilation, review, and analysis of available water- quality and ancillary data for approximately 20 percent of the community water systems in 12 States in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions. This effort will summarize the occurrence and distribution of MTBE and other VOCs in drinking water supplied by 2,110 community water systems. The ambient ground-water assessment will involve compilation, review, and analysis of data on MTBE and other VOCs from previous USGS studies in the 12-State area, including regional water-quality assessments conducted for the USGS's NAWQA, plus other available State or local datasets. These data will be related, to the extent allowed by the completeness and quality of the data, to land-use patterns, population density, and other anthropogenic and natural factors using statistical tests. The occurrence and distribution of MTBE and other VOCs in ambient ground water and, to the extent possible, drinking water in relation to such factors, will be evaluated.

  16. Isotope effects on the metabolism and pulmonary toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in mice by deuteration of the 4-methyl group

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tajima, K.

    1983-06-30

    A comparative test in mice for pulmonary toxicity between butylated hydroxytoluene (2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHT) and 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(alpha, alpha, alpha-2H3)methylphenol (BHT-d3) showed a significantly lower toxic potency of the latter. The rate of in vitro BHT metabolism to 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-QM) was slowed by deuterating BHT in the 4-methyl group. On the other hand, the rate of in vitro metabolism to 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-OH) was increased with the deuteration. A similar isotope effect of the deuterium substitution on the in vivo metabolic rates of BHT was observed. These observations support the concept that the lung damage caused by BHT is mediated by BHT-QM. The pulmonary toxicity of 2-tert.-butyl-4-ethylphenol (4-EP) and their deuterated analogs was also compared. 2-tert.-Butyl-4-(1,1-2H2)ethylphenol (4-EP-d2) showed a significantly lower toxic potency than 4-EP, whereas 2-tert.-butyl-4-(2,2,2-2H3)ethylphenol (4-EP-d3) showed a toxic potency comparable to that of 4-EP. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that a quinone methide metabolite is responsible for the onset of lung damage produced by 4-EP as well as BHT.

  17. Reaction of phenanthrene with tert-butylating agents under Friedel-Craft conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdnyakovich, Yu.V.

    1988-10-20

    The alkylation of phenanthrene with tert-butyl alcohol in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid or with tert-butyl chloride, catalyzed by the TiCl/sub 4/, FeCl/sub 3/-CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/, and AlCl/sub 3/-CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/, leads to formation of 2- and 3-tert-butylphenanthrene and also 2,6-, 2,7-, and 3,6-di-tert-butylphenanthrene. The exhaustive alkylation of phenanthrene leads to the formation of the above-mentioned isomeric di-tert-butylphenanthrenes, the ratios of which depend on the nature of the catalyst.

  18. Di-tert-butyl N-{[1-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methyl}iminodiacetate

    PubMed Central

    François, Alison; Marty, Louise; Picard, Claude; Mallet-Ladeira, Sonia; Benoist, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H29N5O4, the pyridine ring makes a dihedral angle of 10.41?(16)° with the triazole ring, which exhibits an azo-like character. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H?O and C—H?N hydrogen bonds, and C—H?? inter­actions involving a methyl group and the pyridine ring of a neighbouring mol­ecule, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:23284477

  19. Hydrogen Atom Reactivity toward Aqueous tert-Butyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lymar S. V.; Schwarz, H.A.

    2012-02-09

    Through a combination of pulse radiolysis, purification, and analysis techniques, the rate constant for the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH {yields} H{sub 2} + {sm_bullet}CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH reaction in aqueous solution is definitively determined to be (1.0 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is about half of the tabulated number and 10 times lower than the more recently suggested revision. Our value fits on the Polanyi-type, rate-enthalpy linear correlation ln(k/n) = (0.80 {+-} 0.05){Delta}H + (3.2 {+-} 0.8) that is found for the analogous reactions of other aqueous aliphatic alcohols with n equivalent abstractable H atoms. The existence of such a correlation and its large slope are interpreted as an indication of the mechanistic similarity of the H atom abstraction from {alpha}- and {beta}-carbon atoms in alcohols occurring through the late, product-like transition state. tert-Butyl alcohol is commonly contaminated by much more reactive secondary and primary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, ethanol, and methanol), whose content can be sufficient for nearly quantitative scavenging of the H atoms, skewing the H atom reactivity pattern, and explaining the disparity of the literature data on the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH rate constant. The ubiquitous use of tert-butyl alcohol in pulse radiolysis for investigating H atom reactivity and the results of this work suggest that many other previously reported rate constants for the H atom, particularly the smaller ones, may be in jeopardy.

  20. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater probability of MTBE contamination. Ground water from public-supply wells and shallow ground water underlying urban land-use areas has a greater probability of MTBE contamination compared to ground water from domestic wells and ground water underlying rural land-use areas.

  1. Vibrational and reorientationl relaxation in liquid tert-butyl bromide and tert-butyl bromide- d9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, R.; Hawranek, J. P.

    1992-12-01

    The vibrational and reorientational correlation functions of the ? s(CBr) mode in liquid tert-butyl bromide (TBBr) and in its deuterated analogue (TBBr- d9) were determined from Raman bandshapes. The Kubo product ?? m obtained by fitting the Rothschild equation to experimental data amounts to 0.36-0.45 for the studied bands, which indicates a fairly fast modulation regime in these systems. The approximation of experimental rotational correlation functions with the help of the J-diffusion model yields values of 0.11-0.12ps for the angular momentum correlation time. The second-order rotational correlation times (1.7-2.0ps) agree well with the NMR results of D.W. Aksnes, K. Ramstad and O.P. Björlykke, Magn. Reson. Chem., 25 (1987) 1063. Selected bandshape parameters for ?(CCC) in both compounds, ?(CH 3) in TBBr and ? s(CC) in TBBR- d9 were also quoted.

  2. 2-Oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl 4-tert-butyl­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Abou, Akoun; Sessouma, Bintou; Djandé, Abdoulaye; Saba, Adama; Kakou-Yao, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C20H18O4, the three methyl groups of the tert-butyl substituent show rotational disorder. Each methyl group is split over three positions, with refined site-occupation factors of 0.711 (4), 0.146 (3) and 0.144 (4). The benzene ring of the benzoate group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 60.70 (7)° with respect to the planar chromene ring [maximum deviation = 0.046 (2) Å]. The crystal structure features centrosymmetric R 2 2(8) dimers formed via C—H⋯O inter­actions, and these dimeric aggregates are connected by C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22347133

  3. Crystal structure of 1,2-bis-[(2-tert-butyl-phen-yl)imino]-ethane.

    PubMed

    Silvino, Alexandre C; Torres, Juliana M

    2015-06-01

    The whole molecule of the title compound, C22H28N2, (I), is generated by inversion symmetry. The mol-ecule is rather similar to that of 2,3-bis-[(2-tert-butyl-phen-yl)imino]-butane, (II), a di-imine ligand comprising similar structural features [Ferreira et al. (2006 ?). Acta Cryst. E62, o4282-o4284]. Both ligands crystallize with the -N=C(R)-C(R)=N- group around an inversion centre, in a trans configuration. Comparing the two structures, it may be noted that the independent planar groups in both mol-ecules [the central link, -N=C(R)-C(R)=N-, and the terminal aromatic ring] subtend an angle of 69.6?(1)° in (II) and 49.4?(2)° in (I). Ferreira and co-workers proposed that such angle deviation may be ascribed to the presence of two non-classical intra-molecular hydrogen bonds and steric factors. In fact, in (I), similar non-classical hydrogen bonds are observed, and the larger angular deviation in (II) may be assigned to the presence of methyl groups in the di-imino fragment, which can cause steric hindrance due to the presence of bulky tert-butyl substituents in the aromatic rings. The C=N bond lengths are similar in both compounds and agree with comonly accepted values. PMID:26090180

  4. The tert-butyl cation on zeolite Y: A theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbach, Nilton, Jr.; dos Santos, Alex P. A.; Franco, Marcelo; Mota, Claudio J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The structure and energy of the tert-butyl cation on zeolite Y were calculated at ONIOM(MP2(FULL)/6-31G( d, p):MNDO) level. The results indicated that the tert-butyl cation is a minimum and lies between 40 and 51 kJ mol -1 above in energy to the tert-butoxide, depending on the level of calculation. Both species are stabilized through hydrogen bonding interactions with the framework oxygen atoms. Experimental data of nucleophilic substitution of tert-butylchloride and bromide over NaY impregnated with NaCl or NaBr give additional support for the formation of the tert-butyl cation as a discrete intermediate on zeolite Y, in agreement with the calculations.

  5. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to...

  6. Isotope effects on the metabolism and pulmonary toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in mice by deuteration of the 4-methyl group.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, T; Yamamoto, K; Tajima, K

    1983-06-30

    A comparative test in mice for pulmonary toxicity between butylated hydroxytoluene (2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHT) and 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-[alpha, alpha, alpha-2H3]methylphenol (BHT-d3) showed a significantly lower toxic potency of the latter. The rate of in vitro BHT metabolism to 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-QM) was slowed by deuterating BHT in the 4-methyl group. On the other hand, the rate of in vitro metabolism to 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-OH) was increased with the deuteration. A similar isotope effect of the deuterium substitution on the in vivo metabolic rates of BHT was observed. These observations support the concept that the lung damage caused by BHT is mediated by BHT-QM. The pulmonary toxicity of 2-tert.-butyl-4-ethylphenol (4-EP) and their deuterated analogs was also compared. 2-tert.-Butyl-4-[1,1-2H2]ethylphenol (4-EP-d2) showed a significantly lower toxic potency than 4-EP, whereas 2-tert.-butyl-4-[2,2,2-2H3]ethylphenol (4-EP-d3) showed a toxic potency comparable to that of 4-EP. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that a quinone methide metabolite is responsible for the onset of lung damage produced by 4-EP as well as BHT. PMID:6868090

  7. Water Quality and Occurrence of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and Other Fuel-Related Compounds in Lakes and Ground Water at Lakeside Communities in Sussex and Morris Counties, New Jersey, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Densely populated communities surround many of the larger lakes in northwestern New Jersey. These communities derive most of their water supply from wells. The lakes can be navigated by gasoline-powered watercraft, can be in various stages of eutrophication, may contain pathogens associated with bathing and waterfowl, and are periodically subjected to chemical applications to control aquatic plant growth. Another feature that contributes to water-quality concerns in lakeside communities is the widespread use of septic tanks. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline oxygenate, in samples from Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna ranged from 20 to 30 ug/L (micrograms per liter) and 5 to 14 ug/L during the summers of 1998 and 1999, respectively. These levels were persistent throughout the depth of the lakes when mixing conditions were present. MTBE concentrations in samples from the top 20 feet of Lake Hopatcong during summer 1999 were about 10 ug/L and about 2 to 3 ug/L in samples below 20 feet. The source of the MTBE in the lakes was determined to be gasoline-powered watercraft. Other constituents of gasoline--tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)--were detected in the lakes but at much lower concentrations than MTBE. Ambient ground-water quality at Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna appears to be affected by the use of gasoline-powered watercraft. MTBE was detected in water samples from 13 of the 14 wells sampled at Cranberry Lake in fall 1998 and summer 1999. The wells were selected to monitor ambient ground-water quality and had no history of contamination. In ground-water samples collected during fall 1998, MTBE concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 19.8 ug/L, and the median concentration was 0.43 ug/L. In samples from summer 1999, MTBE concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 13.2 ug/L, and the median concentration was 0.38 ug/L. MTBE was detected in samples from four of the five wells at Lake Lackawanna in summer 1999;concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 ug/L. Lake/ground water interaction is a feasible explanation for the nearly ubiquitous presence of MTBE in ground water. The movement of water from lakes to wells is feasible because many static water levels and essentially all pumped water levels in the wells were below lake levels. Furthermore, diatom fragments were present in samples from the wells. Ambient ground water at Cranberry Lake also may be affected by septic-tank effluent, as indicated by the relation among concentrations of nitrate, boron, and chloroform. This result indicates potential vulnerability of the water supply to contamination by other chemicals and pathogens. Radon in ambient ground water is a concern throughout northern New Jersey. In particular, the median radon concentrations in ground-water samples collected from 14 wells at Cranberry Lake in 1998 and 1999 were 1,282 and 1,046 pCi/L, respectively. The median radon concentration in five ground-water samples collected at Lake Lackawanna in 1999 was 340 pCi/L. Although these values exceed regulatory levels, they are not high relative to radon concentrations measured in northwestern New Jersey. Eight wells in a neighborhood of Cranberry Lake with known MTBE contamination were sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey in summer 1998. MTBE was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 40 ug/L in five of the wells. Concentrations of TAME, another gasoline oxygenate, were highly correlated with concentrations of MTBE; MTBE concentrations were about 10 times the TAME concentrations. In all samples, however, the concentrations of the BTEX compounds were less than 0.05 ug/L, and the sample from the most highly contaminated well, where the MTBE concentration was 900 ug/L, had no detectable BTEX.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism studies on (3-tert-butyl-7-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylmethoxy) pyrazolo[1,5-d][1,2,4]triazine, a functionally selective GABA(A) alpha5 inverse agonist for cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Atack, John R; Braun, Matthew P; Cato, Brian P; Chambers, Mark S; O'Connor, Desmond; Cook, Susan M; Hobbs, Sarah C; Maxey, Robert; Szekeres, Helen J; Szeto, Nicola; Wafford, Keith A; MacLeod, Angus M

    2006-02-15

    (3-tert-Butyl-7-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylmethoxy)pyrazolo[1,5-d][1,2,4]triazine (1) was recently identified as a functionally selective, inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) alpha5 receptors and enhances performance in animal models of cognition. The routes of metabolism of this compound in vivo in rat have been well characterised, the identities of the major metabolites are confirmed by synthesis and their biological profiles were evaluated. An unusual oxidation of the pyrazolo[1,5-d][1,2,4]triazine core to the corresponding pyrazolo[1,5-d][1,2,4]triazin-4(5H)-one scaffold by aldehyde oxidase has been observed. PMID:16303300

  9. Stability testing of the plastics additives 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-n-octyloxybenzophenone, 2-ethoxy-2-ethyloxanilide (tinuvin 312) and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-t-tert-butyl phenol) in aqueous and fatty food simulants.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulos, D V

    1998-04-01

    The stability of five additives used in the manufacture of plastics materials intended to be in contact with foodstuffs was tested in two EU aqueous food simulants (3% acidic acid and 15% ethanol), in olive oil and in two alternative fatty food simulants (95% ethanol and isooctane) under various conditions of temperature and time established for migration testing. The additives were the following: 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2-2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-n-octyloxybenzophenone, 2-ethoxy-2-ethyloxanilide and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butyl phenol). The additives were spiked into the simulants at their anticipated Specific Migration Limit (SML) and submitted to time-temperature conditions used in the migration testing. The test samples were analysed against fresh samples of the additives spiked at the same concentration just before the analysis. All samples were analysed with HPLC, using an ODS2 column and mobile phase of methanol-water or acetonitrile-water. The results were statistically evaluated by applying a two-tailed F-test (at 95% confidence level) to the variances and onetailed t-test (at 90% confidence level) to the means of the control and the test samples. The statistical evaluation of the results showed that the additives were stable in all simulants within the statistical allowances. Only the 2.2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butyl phenol) showed a loss of about 20% in olive oil and 17% in 3% aqueous acetic acid. The results of the study will be used by the Commission, DG III-C-I. to help to determine whether legislative restrictions in the additives Directive should be applied to the finished material or article (QM) or to migration to simulants (SML). PMID:9666896

  10. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  11. Occurrence and distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and other volatile organic compounds in drinking water in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, 1993-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, S.J.; Casey, G.D.

    2001-01-01

    Data on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water supplied by 2,110 randomly selected community water systems (CWSs) in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States indicate 64 VOC analytes were detected at least once during 1993-98. Selection of the 2,110 CWSs inventoried for this study targeted 20 percent of the 10,479 active CWSs in the region and represented a random subset of the total distribution by State, source of water, and size of system. The data include 21,635 analyses of drinking water collected for compliance monitoring under the Safe Drinking Water Act; the data mostly represent finished drinking water collected at the pointof- entry to, or at more distal locations within, each CWS?s distribution system following any watertreatment processes. VOC detections were more common in drinking water supplied by large systems (serving more than 3,300 people) that tap surface-water sources or both surface- and groundwater sources than in small systems supplied exclusively by ground-water sources. Trihalomethane (THM) compounds, which are potentially formed during the process of disinfecting drinking water with chlorine, were detected in 45 percent of the randomly selected CWSs. Chloroform was the most frequently detected THM, reported in 39 percent of the CWSs. The gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was the most frequently detected VOC in drinking water after the THMs. MTBE was detected in 8.9 percent of the 1,194 randomly selected CWSs that analyzed samples for MTBE at any reporting level, and it was detected in 7.8 percent of the 1,074 CWSs that provided MTBE data at the 1.0-?g/L (microgram per liter) reporting level. As with other VOCs reported in drinking water, most MTBE concentrations were less than 5.0 ?g/L, and less than 1 percent of CWSs reported MTBE concentrations at or above the 20.0-?g/L lower limit recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Drinking-Water Advisory. The frequency of MTBE detections in drinking water is significantly related to high- MTBE-use patterns. Detections are five times more likely in areas where MTBE is or has been used in gasoline at greater than 5 percent by volume as part of the oxygenated or reformulated (OXY/RFG) fuels program. Detection frequencies of the individual gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)) were mostly less than 3 percent of the randomly selected CWSs, but collectively, BTEX compounds were detected in 8.4 percent of CWSs. BTEX concentrations also were low and just three drinkingwater samples contained BTEX at concentrations exceeding 20 ?g/L. Co-occurrence of MTBE and BTEX was rare, and only 0.8 percent of CWSs reported simultaneous detections of MTBE and BTEX compounds. Low concentrations and cooccurrence of MTBE and BTEX indicate most gasoline contaminants in drinking water probably represent nonpoint sources. Solvents were frequently detected in drinking water in the 12-State area. One or more of 27 individual solvent VOCs were detected at any reporting level in 3,080 drinking-water samples from 304 randomly selected CWSs (14 percent) and in 206 CWSs (9.8 percent) at concentrations at or above 1.0 ?g/L. High co-occurrence among solvents probably reflects common sources and the presence of transformation by-products. Other VOCs were relatively rarely detected in drinking water in the 12-State area. Six percent (127) of the 2,110 randomly selected CWSs reported concentrations of 16 VOCs at or above drinking-water criteria. The 127 CWSs collectively serve 2.6 million people. The occurrence of VOCs in drinking water was significantly associated (p<0.0001) with high population- density urban areas. New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, States with substantial urbanization and high population density, had the highest frequency of VOC detections among the 12 States. More than two-thirds of the randomly selected CWSs in New Jersey reported detecting VOC concentrations in drinking water at or above 1

  12. Estimated daily intakes of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Suh, H-J; Chung, M-S; Cho, Y-H; Kim, J-W; Kim, D-H; Han, K-W; Kim, C-J

    2005-12-01

    The study was conducted to establish the estimated daily intake (EDI) of antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in Korea. The EDIs were obtained from two sources. One of the estimations was based on the analytical determination of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in 12 food categories (ten food categories for TBHQ) and on individual dietary intake data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998 (n=11 525, age > 1 year). The other EDIs of BHA, BHT and TBHQ were based on the maximum permitted levels specified in national food standards in Korea and on individual dietary intake data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998 (n=11 525, age > 1 year). To establish the EDIs based on the analytical determination and on individual dietary intake data, 133 food samples in 12 food categories were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in the Korean diet. Selected samples were analysed by GC with FID. BHA was not detected in any of the samples analysed. BHT and TBHQ were detected in the samples, but the levels were significantly lower than their maximum limits. The EDIs1 of BHT, and TBHQ for average consumers were 0.0156(-3), and 0.0012(-3) mg kg(-1) body weight bw day(-1) and as a proportion of the ADI were 0.0052 and 0.0002%, respectively. For 95th percentile consumers, the EDIs of BHT and TBHQ were 0.0080 and 0.0006 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), and as a proportion of the ADI were 2.67 and 0.09%, respectively. EDIs for BHA, BHT and TBHQ based on the maximum permitted levels and on individual dietary intake data were 0.04, 0.04 and 0.04 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. The EDIs of BHA, BHT and TBHQ for average consumers ranged from 6.00 to 14.42% of the ADI of each antioxidant. According to these results, the EDIs of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in Korea were significantly lower than ADI of these antioxidants established by the JECFA. PMID:16356880

  13. Studies on the Conformational Landscape of Tert-Butyl Acetate Using Microwave Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, YueYue; Mouhib, Halima; Li, Guohua; Stahl, Wolfgang; Kleiner, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    The tert-Butyl acetate molecule was studied using a combination of quantum chemical calculations and molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the 9 to 14 GHz range. Due to its rather rigid frame, the molecule possesses only two different conformers: one of Cs and one of C1 symmetry. According to ab initio calculations, the Cs conformer is 46 kJ/mol lower in energy and is the one observed in the supersonic jet. We report on the structure and dynamics of the most abundant conformer of tert-butyl acetate, with accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. Additionally, the barrier to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group was determined. Splittings due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of up to 1.3 GHz were observed in the spectrum. Using the programs XIAM and BELGI-Cs, we determine the barrier height to be about 113 cm-1 and compare the molecular parameters obtained from these two codes. Additionally, the experimental rotational constants were used to validate numerous quantum chemical calculations. This study is part of a larger project which aims at determining the lowest energy conformers of organic esters and ketones which are of interest for flavor or perfume synthetic applications Project partly supported by the PHC PROCOPE 25059YB.

  14. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925 Section 721.4925 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone....

  16. hTERT promoter methylation in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Köchling, Michaela; Ewelt, Christian; Fürtjes, Gina; Peetz-Dienhart, Susanne; Koos, Björn; Hasselblatt, Martin; Paulus, Werner; Stummer, Walter; Brokinkel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression is a hallmark in tumorigenesis and upregulated due to mutations and methylation of the human (h)TERT promoter. As mutations are rare but methylation is common in pituitary adenomas (PA), we determined promoter methylation and its clinical impact in 85 primary and 15 recurrent PA by methylation-specific PCR. 40 females (47 %) and 45 males (53 %) with a median age of 53 years harboring micro-, macro-, and giant adenomas in 12, 82, and 6 % were included (prolactinomas, corticotroph, somatotroph, gonadotroph, thyreotroph, plurihormonal, and null cell adenomas in 11, 18, 10, 29, 1, 10, and 21 %, respectively). In primary diagnosed tumors, methylation rate was 27 % and higher in males than in females (40 vs. 13 %, p = 0.001) after uni- and multivariate analyses. Methylation differed among PA subtypes (0-42 %, p = n.s.) and was not significantly correlated with tumor size, cavernous sinus invasion, or serum hormone levels. Ki67 labeling index and recurrence (N = 16, 19 %) were independent of methylation. In recurrent tumors, methylation was similar to primary PA (N = 5/15, 33 %) and remained unchanged along follow-up. Thus, while being commonly observed in PA, hTERT promoter methylation is stable along follow-up and independent of most clinical variables, PA subtype, proliferation, and without prognostic value. PMID:26390879

  17. Thin PDMS Films Using Long Spin Times or Tert-Butyl Alcohol as a Solvent

    PubMed Central

    Koschwanez, John H.; Carlson, Robert H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2009-01-01

    Thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films are frequently used in “lab on a chip” devices as flexible membranes. The common solvent used to dilute the PDMS for thin films is hexane, but hexane can swell the underlying PDMS substrate. A better solvent would be one that dissolves uncured PDMS but doesn't swell the underlying substrate. Here, we present protocols and spin curves for two alternatives to hexane dilution: longer spin times and dilution in tert-butyl alcohol. The thickness of the PDMS membranes under different spin speeds, spin times, and PDMS concentrations was measured using an optical profilometer. The use of tert-butyl alcohol to spin thin PDMS films does not swell the underlying PDMS substrate, and we have used these films to construct multilayer PDMS devices. PMID:19238212

  18. (S)-1,5-Dibenzyl-3-tert-butyl­imidazol­idin-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian-Feng; Guo, Jian-Nan; Huang, Su-Yu; Teng, Bo; Jin, Li-Ren

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C21H26N2O, was obtained as an unexpected by-product when attempting to prepare (S)-2-benzyl-N-tert-butyl-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­isoquinoline-3-carboxamide from (S)-2-benzyl­amino-N-tert-butyl-3-phenyl­propanamide and dimethoxy­methane. The mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating linear chains parallel to the b axis. C—H⋯π inter­actions provide further stability for the crystal structure. The planes of the two phenyl rings make a dihedral angle of 84.1 (1)°. The absolute configuration was known from the starting material. PMID:21202954

  19. 4,5-Bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl­phen­oxy)phthalonitrile

    PubMed Central

    van Tonder, Johannes H.; Muller, Theunis J.; Bezuidenhoudt, Barend C. B.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C36H44N2O2, the dihedral angles between the phthalonitrile ring and the two di-tert-butyl­benzene rings are 68.134 (8) and 70.637 (11)°. The two nitrile groups are almost coplanar with the phthalonitrile ring except for one of the N atoms which deviates from the plane by 0.125 (4) Å. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two orientations, with refined occupancies of 0.814 (6) and 0.186 (6). Intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions stabilize the molecular structure. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯N inter­actions. PMID:21522449

  20. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  5. Crystal structures of three complexes of zinc chloride with tri-tert-butyl­phosphane

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Aaron D.; Gray, Danielle L.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Under anhydrous conditions and in the absence of a Lewis-base solvent, a zinc chloride complex with tri-tert-butyl­phosphane as the μ-bridged dimer is formed, viz. di-μ-chlorido-bis­[chlorido­bis­(tri-tert-butyl­phosphane)zinc], [ZnCl4(C12H27P)2], (1), which features a nearly square-shaped (ZnCl)2 cyclic core and whose Cl atoms inter­act weakly with C—H groups on the phosphane ligand. In the presence of THF, monomeric di­chlorido­(tetra­hydro­furan-κO)(tri-tert-butyl­phosphane-κP)zinc, [ZnCl2(C4H8O)(C12H27P)] or [P(tBu3)(THF)ZnCl2], (2), is formed. This slightly distorted tetra­hedral Zn complex has weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions between the Cl atoms and phosphane and THF C—H groups. Under ambient conditions, the hydrolysed complex tri-tert-butyl­phospho­nium aqua­tri­chlorido­zincate 1,2-di­chloro­ethane monosolvate, (C12H28P)[ZnCl3(H2O)]·C2H4Cl2 or [HPtBu3]+ [(H2O)ZnCl3]−·C2H4Cl2, (3), is formed. This complex forms chains of [(H2O)ZnCl3]− anions from hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the water H atoms and Cl atoms that propagate along the b axis. PMID:26870580

  6. Crystal structures of three complexes of zinc chloride with tri-tert-butyl-phosphane.

    PubMed

    Finke, Aaron D; Gray, Danielle L; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Under anhydrous conditions and in the absence of a Lewis-base solvent, a zinc chloride complex with tri-tert-butyl-phosphane as the μ-bridged dimer is formed, viz. di-μ-chlorido-bis-[chlorido-bis-(tri-tert-butyl-phosphane)zinc], [ZnCl4(C12H27P)2], (1), which features a nearly square-shaped (ZnCl)2 cyclic core and whose Cl atoms inter-act weakly with C-H groups on the phosphane ligand. In the presence of THF, monomeric di-chlorido-(tetra-hydro-furan-κO)(tri-tert-butyl-phosphane-κP)zinc, [ZnCl2(C4H8O)(C12H27P)] or [P(tBu3)(THF)ZnCl2], (2), is formed. This slightly distorted tetra-hedral Zn complex has weak C-H⋯Cl inter-actions between the Cl atoms and phosphane and THF C-H groups. Under ambient conditions, the hydrolysed complex tri-tert-butyl-phospho-nium aqua-tri-chlorido-zincate 1,2-di-chloro-ethane monosolvate, (C12H28P)[ZnCl3(H2O)]·C2H4Cl2 or [HPtBu3](+) [(H2O)ZnCl3](-)·C2H4Cl2, (3), is formed. This complex forms chains of [(H2O)ZnCl3](-) anions from hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the water H atoms and Cl atoms that propagate along the b axis. PMID:26870580

  7. (2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-{(E)-[(E)-2-(2-methoxy­benzyl­ideneamino)cyclo­hexyl]imino­meth­yl}phenolato)dimethyl­aluminum(III)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin-Cai

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Al(CH3)2(C29H39N2O2)], exhibits disorder of one of the tert-butyl groups on the Schiff base ligand, where each methyl group is located over two sites, with occupancy factors of 0.57?(1) and 0.43?(1). The geometry around the AlIII atom is distorted tetra­hedral, defined by two methyl groups, one N and one O atom from the Schiff base ligand. PMID:21581558

  8. Oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. The structure of C14H22O3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yohe, G.R.; Dunbar, J.E.; Lansford, M.W.; Pedrotti, R.L.; Scheidt, F.M.; Lee, F.G.H.; Smith, E.C.

    1959-01-01

    The acidic compound C14H22O3, previously reported without assignment of structure as an oxidation product of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, is now believed to be DL-trans-5,6-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-1,4-diketo-2-cyclohexene (I). Chemical properties are described and infrared spectra are presented in support of this structure. This structure is of interest in relation to the problem of the existence of o-di-tert-alkylbenzene derivatives. The relatively easy racemization of optically active I suggests that its completely enolized form, 5,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, is capable of transitory existence.

  9. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity...

  10. Characterization of tert-butyl alcohol binding to alpha2u-globulin in F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Borghoff, S J

    2001-08-01

    tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA) is widely used in the manufacturing of certain perfumes, cosmetics, drugs, paint removers, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and industrial solvents. In both rodents and humans, TBA is a major metabolite of MTBE, an oxygenated fuel additive. Chronic TBA exposure causes protein droplet nephropathy, alpha2u-globulin (alpha2u) accumulation, renal cell proliferation, and with chronic exposure, renal tumors in male, but not female, rats. These effects suggest an alpha2u-mediated mechanism for renal tumors. The objective of the present study was to determine whether TBA or its metabolites bind to alpha2u. Mature male and female F-344 rats were administered a single gavage dose of 500 mg/kg TBA, 500 mg/kg (14)C-TBA, or corn oil. TBA equivalents/gram or ml of tissue in the male rat kidney, liver, and blood were higher than the levels measured in female rat tissue 12 h after (14)C-TBA administration. Gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography demonstrated that (14)C-TBA-derived radioactivity co-eluted with alpha2u from male kidney cytosol. Protein dialysis studies demonstrated that the interaction between (14)C-TBA-derived radioactivity and alpha2u was reversible. Incubations of the low-molecular-weight protein fraction (LMWPF) isolated from (14)C-TBA-treated male rat kidneys with d-limonene oxide (a chemical with a high affinity to alpha2u) demonstrated that (14)C-TBA-derived radioactivity was displaced. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that TBA was present in this LMWPF fraction. These results demonstrate that TBA interacts with alpha2u, which explains the accumulation of alpha2u in the male rat kidney following TBA exposure. PMID:11452135

  11. Synthesis and bioevaluation of 4-chloro-2-tert-butyl-5-[2-[[1-[2-[(18) F]fluroethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methyl]phenylmethoxy]-3(2H)-pyridazinone as potential myocardial perfusion imaging agent with PET.

    PubMed

    Mou, Tiantian; Zhao, Zuoquan; You, Linyi; Wang, Qian; Fang, Wei; Lu, Jie; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2015-06-30

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of 4-chloro-2-tert-butyl-5-[2-[[1-[2-[(18) F]fluroethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methyl]phenylmethoxy]-3(2H)-pyridazinone ([(18) F]Fmp2) for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The tosylate precursor and non-radioactive compound [(19) F]Fmp2 were synthesized and characterized by infrared, (1) H-NMR, (13) C-NMR, and mass spectra (MS). The radiotracer [(18) F]Fmp2 was obtained by one-step nucleophilic substitution of tosyl with (18) F, and evaluated as an MPI agent in vitro and in vivo. Starting from [(18) F]KF/K222 solution, the typical decay-corrected radiochemical yield (RCY) was 38 ± 8.8% with high radiochemical purity (>98%). The specific activity was calculated as 10 GBq/µmol at the end of synthesis determined by HPLC analysis. In the mice biodistribution, [(18) F]Fmp2 showed very high initial heart uptake (53.35 ± 5.47 %ID/g at 2 min after injection) and remarkable retention. The heart/liver, heart/lung, and heart/blood ratios were 7.98, 8.20, and 53.13, respectively at 2 min post-injection. In the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging study of Chinese mini-swine, the standardized uptake value of the liver decreased modestly during the 2 h post-injection, while the heart uptake and heart/liver ratios continued to increase with time. [(18) F]Fmp2 exhibited good stability, high heart uptake and low lung uptake in mice and Chinese mini-swine. It may be worthy of further modification to improve liver clearance for MPI in the future. PMID:26094722

  12. Novel synthesis of 5-amino-3-bromo-1-(tert-butyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile: a versatile intermediate for the preparation of 5-amino-3-aryl-1-(tert-butyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamides.

    PubMed

    Bobko, Mark A; Kaura, Arun C; Evans, Karen A; Su, Dai-Shi

    2012-08-01

    A simple, novel, and efficient route for the synthesis of 5-amino-3-aryl-1-(tert-butyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamides 1 has been devised. Preparation of pyrazole bromide 3 from potassium tricyanomethanide can be accomplished in only two steps in good yield and features a selective Sandmeyer reaction on the corresponding diaminopyrazole. This allows for a more versatile synthesis of 5-amino-3-aryl-1-(tert-butyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamides 1 than was previously possible. PMID:22809236

  13. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... Substances § 721.10326 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... Substances § 721.10326 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  15. Singlet exciton fission in thin films of tert-butyl-substituted terrylenes.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Samuel W; Miller, Stephen A; Margulies, Eric A; Shoer, Leah E; Schaller, Richard D; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Two terrylene chromophores, 2,5,10,13-tetra(tert-butyl)terrylene (1) and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)terrylene (2), were synthesized and studied to determine their singlet exciton fission (SF) efficiencies. Compound 1 crystallizes in one-dimensional stacks, whereas 2 packs in a slip-stacked, herringbone pattern of dimers motif. Strongly quenched fluorescence and rapid singlet exciton decay dynamics are observed in vapor-deposited thin films of 1 and 2. Phosphorescence measurements on thin films of 1 and 2 show that SF is only 70 meV endoergic for these chromophores. Femtosecond transient absorption experiments using low laser fluences on these films reveal rapid triplet exciton formation for both 1 (τ = 120 ± 10 ps) and 2 (τ = 320 ± 20 ps) that depends strongly on film crystallinity. The transient absorption data are consistent with formation of an excimer state prior to SF. Triplet exciton yield measurements indicate nearly quantitative SF in thin films of both chromophores in highly crystalline solvent-vapor-annealed films: 170 ± 20% for 1 and 200 ± 30% for 2. These results show that significantly different crystal morphologies of the same chromophore can both result in high-efficiency SF provided that the energetics are favorable. PMID:25856414

  16. Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE)-degrading microbial communities in enrichments from polluted environments.

    PubMed

    Le Digabel, Yoann; Demanèche, Sandrine; Benoit, Yves; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise; Vogel, Timothy M

    2014-08-30

    The ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) degradation capacity and phylogenetic composition of five aerobic enrichment cultures with ETBE as the sole carbon and energy source were studied. In all cases, ETBE was entirely degraded to biomass and CO2. Clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene were prepared from each enrichment. The analyses of the DNA sequences obtained showed different taxonomic compositions with a majority of Proteobacteria in three cases. The two other enrichments have different microbiota with an abundance of Acidobacteria in one case, whereas the microbiota in the second was more diverse (majority of Actinobacteria, Chlorobi and Gemmatimonadetes). Actinobacteria were detected in all five enrichments. Several bacterial strains were isolated from the enrichments and five were capable of degrading ETBE and/or tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a degradation intermediate. The five included three Rhodococcus sp. (IFP 2040, IFP 2041, IFP 2043), one Betaproteobacteria (IFP 2047) belonging to the Rubrivivax/Leptothrix/Ideonella branch, and one Pseudonocardia sp. (IFP 2050). Quantification of these five strains and two other strains, Rhodococcus sp. IFP 2042 and Bradyrhizobium sp. IFP2049, which had been previously isolated from one of the enrichments was carried out on the different enrichments based on quantitative PCR with specific 16S rRNA gene primers and the results were consistent with the hypothesized role of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in the degradation of ETBE and the possible role of Bradyrhizobium strains in the degradation of TBA. PMID:25108826

  17. The Epoxidation of 2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone: A Consecutive Reaction for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairfield, E. M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reports a consecutive first-order reaction for which the concentrations of reactant, intermediate, and products can be determined simulataneously. This reaction is the epoxidation of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (I) by alkaline hydroperoxidation using tert-butyl hydroperoxide and benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (Triton B) catalyst.…

  18. The Epoxidation of 2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone: A Consecutive Reaction for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairfield, E. M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reports a consecutive first-order reaction for which the concentrations of reactant, intermediate, and products can be determined simulataneously. This reaction is the epoxidation of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (I) by alkaline hydroperoxidation using tert-butyl hydroperoxide and benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (Triton B) catalyst.…

  19. Red fluorescent materials based on julolidine/chromene with the bulky tert-butyl and trimethylsilyl substituents for organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Na, Eun Jae; Kim, Hye Jeong; Lee, Kum Hee; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we designed and synthesized two red emitters 2-(6,8-di-tert-butyl-2-(2-(1,1-dimethyl-7-(trimethylsilyl)-7-((trimethylsilyl)methyl)-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydropyrido[3,2,1-ij]quinolin-9-yl)vinyl)-4H-chromen-4-ylidene)malononitrile (Red 1) and 2-(6,8-di-tert-butyl-2-(2-(1,1,7-trimethyl-7-t-butyl)-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydropyrido[3,2,1-ij]quinolin-9-yl)vinyl)-4H-chromen-4-ylidene)malononitrile (Red 2). To explore the electro-luminescence properties of these materials, multilayered OLEDs using these materials as dopants in a Alq3 host were fabricated. Particularly, by using Red 1 as a dopant in emitting layer, device 1 showed the luminous and power efficiencies of 0.81 cd/A and 0.43 lm/W at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The CIE coordinates of this device was (0.65, 0.34) at 7.0 V, which is close to the NTSC standard CIE coordinates of (0.67,0.32) for red emission. PMID:25936040

  20. A designed room-temperature triplet ligand from pyridine-2,6-diyl bis(tert-butyl nitroxide).

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hinako; Tonegawa, Asato; Ishida, Takayuki

    2016-01-28

    The magnetic study on newly developed 4-mesitylpyridine-2,6-diyl bis(tert-butyl nitroxide) shows that almost the whole population has a ground triplet state at room temperature, and the ability of complex formation as a tridentate triplet ligand was proven with a diamagnetic yttrium(iii) ion. PMID:26615801

  1. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, Mario . E-mail: luisgoya@if.csic.es

    2006-04-15

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 {mu}M quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 {mu}M) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 {mu}M and for 20 h with 5 {mu}M quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult.

  2. Degradation pathway of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene at high potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Amine, K.; Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-01

    2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene is a redox shuttle for overcharge protection of LiFePO{sub 4}-based lithium-ion batteries with a working potential lower than 4.2 V versus Li{sup +}/Li. However, an irreversible decomposition occurs when the working potential is higher than 4.2 V versus Li{sup +}/Li. 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-1,4-di-tert-butoxybenzene was also investigated as a model molecule to further understand the possible degradation pathway of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethxybenzene. The experimental results strongly suggest that the irreversible reaction be related to the decomposition of OC bond in alkoxy substitution groups.

  3. Synthesis and Assembly of Dipolar Heterostructured Tetrapods: Colloidal Polymers with "Giant tert-butyl" Groups.

    PubMed

    Pavlopoulos, Nicholas G; Dubose, Jeffrey T; Pinna, Nicola; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Char, Kookheon; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first synthesis of a heterostructured semiconductor tetrapod from CdSe@CdS that carries a single dipolar nanoparticle tip from a core-shell colloid of Au@Co. A four-step colloidal total synthesis was developed, where the key step in the synthesis was the selective deposition of a single AuNP tip onto a CdSe@CdS tetrapod under UV-irradiation. Synthetic accessibility to this dipolar heterostructured tetrapod enabled the use of these as colloidal monomers to form colloidal polymers that carry the semiconductor tetrapod as a side chain group attached to the CoNP colloidal polymer main chain. The current report details a number of novel discoveries on the selective synthesis of an asymmetric heterostructured tetrapod that is capable of 1D dipolar assembly into colloidal polymers that carry tetrapods as side chain groups that mimic "giant tert-butyl groups". PMID:26696128

  4. Photoelectric conversion and electrochromic properties of lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Andrew Teh; Hu Tenyi; Liu Lungchang

    2003-12-10

    Both photoelectric and electrochromic effects on lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate (Lu(TBPc){sub 2}) have been carried out in this study. Lu(TBPc){sub 2} is known for its electrochromic performance, but its photoelectric effect has not mentioned in the literature. The electrochromic properties of Lu(TBPc){sub 2} have been measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectrometer at the same time. It takes less than 1.5 s for the color to change from red to green under 0.9 V. Its cycle life is at least over 500 times. Furthermore, we also investigate its photoelectric conversion properties. Its photoelectric cell exhibits a positive photo-electricity conversion effect with a short-circuit photocurrent (46.4 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) under illumination of white light (1.201 mW/cm{sup 2})

  5. Design and Control of Glycerol-tert-Butyl Alcohol Etherification Process

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, Elena; Bozga, Grigore

    2012-01-01

    Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether?:?TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics. PMID:23365512

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylative ?-Arylation of tert-Butyl Cyanoacetate with (Hetero)aryl Bromides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mikkel T; Juhl, Martin; Nielsen, Dennis U; Jacobsen, Mikkel F; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-02-19

    A three-component coupling protocol has been developed for the generation of 3-oxo-3-(hetero)arylpropanenitriles via a carbonylative palladium-catalyzed ?-arylation of tert-butyl 2-cyanoacetates with (hetero)aryl bromides followed by an acid-mediated decarboxylation step. Through the combination of only a stoichiometric loading of carbon monoxide and mild basic reaction conditions such as MgCl2 and dicyclohexylmethylamine for the deprotonation step, an excellent functional group tolerance was ensured for the methodology. Through the use of (13)C-labeled carbon monoxide generated from (13)COgen, the corresponding (13)C-isotopically labeled ?-ketonitriles were obtained, and these products could subsequently be converted into cyanoalkynes and 3-cyanobenzofurans with site specific (13)C-isotope labeling. PMID:26807594

  7. Novel A3B-type tert-butyl-substituted tribenzodiazepinoporphyrazine: Synthesis, spectral properties and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarakanov, Pavel A.; Simakov, Anton O.; Tolbin, Alexandr Yu.; Balashova, Irina O.; Shestov, Vladimir I.; Tomilova, Larisa G.

    2015-03-01

    Novel A3B-type 8(9),13(14),18(19)-tri-tert-butyl-25,47-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)tribenzo[g,l,q]-6H-1,4-diazepino[2,3-b]porphyrazine, which has high solubility in organic solvents, was obtained by template co-condensation of 2,3-dicyano-5,7-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-6H-1,4-diazepine and 4-tert-butylphthalonitrile. It was characterized by UV/Vis, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. We have demonstrated for the first time using fluorescence spectroscopy measurements and quantum-chemical calculations that the complicated UV/Vis spectrum of A3B-type tribenzodiazepinoporphyrazine is due to the formation of stable H-type aggregates.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc..., ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  9. A high performance membrane for sorption and pervaporation separation of ethyl tert-butyl ether and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G.S.; Niang, M.; Schaetzel, P.

    1999-02-01

    A new kind of membrane was prepared by blending 5 wt% poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-acrylic acid) with cellulose acetate propionate for the separation of ethyl tert-butyl ether and ethanol mixtures. The membrane properties were evaluated by pervaporation and sorption of mixtures of ethyl tert-butyl ether/ethanol. The experimental results show that the selectivity and the fluxes of this membrane depend upon the feed composition and upon the temperature. The minimum values of ethanol concentration in the permeate and in the sorption solution were obtained in the vicinity of the azeotropic point. Compared with the pure CAP membrane, the new membrane shows high performance for the separation of ETBE and EtOH mixtures, especially under high temperature conditions.

  10. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  11. Selective formation of a Z-trisubstituted double bond using a 1-(tert-butyl)tetrazolyl sulfone.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Adriana; Albericio, Fernando; Álvarez, Mercedes

    2014-11-01

    In our effort to gain further insight into the enantioselective synthesis of the structural core of phormidolides B and C, we have discovered the formation of a Z-trisubstituted double bond. Here, we describe a highly selective process that can be applied to our target following a strategy that is based on Julia-Kocienski olefination. The use of 1-(tert-butyl)tetrazolyl sulfone affords the construction of the Z-trisubstituted alkene with high efficiency and stereoselectivity. PMID:25280270

  12. Eight 7-benzyl-3-tert-butyl-1-phenyl­pyrazolo[3,4-d]oxazines, encompassing structures containing no inter­molecular hydrogen bonds, and hydrogen-bonded structures in one, two or three dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan C.; Abonía, Rodrigo; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    7-Benzyl-3-tert-butyl-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C22H25N3O, (I), and 3-tert-butyl-7-(4-methyl­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C23H27N3O, (II), are isomorphous in the space group P21, and mol­ecules are linked into chains by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In each of 3-tert-butyl-7-(4-methoxy­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C23H27N3O2, (III), which has cell dimensions rather similar to those of (I) and (II), also in P21, and 3-tert-butyl-1-phenyl-7-[4-(trifluoro­meth­yl)benz­yl]-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C23H24F3N3O, (IV), there are no direction-specific inter­actions between the mol­ecules. In 3-tert-butyl-7-(4-nitro­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C22H24N4O3, (V), a combination of C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds links the mol­ecules into complex sheets. There are no direction-specific inter­actions between the mol­ecules of 3-tert-butyl-7-(2,3-dimethoxy­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C24H29N3O3, (VI), but a three-dimensional framework is formed in 3-tert-butyl-7-(3,4-methyl­enedioxy­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C23H25N3O3, (VII), by a combination of C—H⋯O, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯π(arene) hydrogen bonds, while a combination of C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π(arene) hydrogen bonds links the mol­ecules of 3-tert-butyl-1-phenyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxy­benz­yl)-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C25H31N3O4, (VIII), into complex sheets. In each compound, the oxazine ring adopts a half-chair conformation, while the orientations of the pendent phenyl and tert-butyl substituents relative to the pyrazolo[3,4-d]oxazine unit are all very similar. PMID:19652329

  13. 2-tert-butyl-8-quinolinamines exhibit potent blood schizontocidal antimalarial activity via inhibition of heme crystallization.

    PubMed

    Huy, Nguyen Tien; Mizunuma, Keisuke; Kaur, Kirandeep; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Jain, Meenakshi; Uyen, Dinh Thanh; Harada, Shigeharu; Jain, Rahul; Kamei, Kaeko

    2007-08-01

    We have recently reported that the attachment of a bulky metabolically stable tert-butyl group at the C-2 position of a quinoline ring in primaquine results in a tremendous improvement in the blood schizontocidal antimalarial activity of 8-quinolinamine. Because free heme released from hemoglobin catabolism in a malarial parasite is highly toxic, the parasite protects itself mainly by crystallization of heme into insoluble nontoxic hemozoin. We now demonstrate the ability of 2-tert-butylprimaquine to inhibit in vitro beta-hematin formation, to form a complex with heme with a stoichiometry of 1:1, and to enhance heme-induced hemolysis. The results described herein indicate that a major improvement in the blood-schizontocidal antimalarial activity of 2-tert-butylprimaquine might be due to a disturbance of heme catabolism pathway in the malarial parasite. PMID:17562796

  14. 2-tert-Butyl-8-Quinolinamines Exhibit Potent Blood Schizontocidal Antimalarial Activity via Inhibition of Heme Crystallization?

    PubMed Central

    Huy, Nguyen Tien; Mizunuma, Keisuke; Kaur, Kirandeep; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Jain, Meenakshi; Uyen, Dinh Thanh; Harada, Shigeharu; Jain, Rahul; Kamei, Kaeko

    2007-01-01

    We have recently reported that the attachment of a bulky metabolically stable tert-butyl group at the C-2 position of a quinoline ring in primaquine results in a tremendous improvement in the blood schizontocidal antimalarial activity of 8-quinolinamine. Because free heme released from hemoglobin catabolism in a malarial parasite is highly toxic, the parasite protects itself mainly by crystallization of heme into insoluble nontoxic hemozoin. We now demonstrate the ability of 2-tert-butylprimaquine to inhibit in vitro beta-hematin formation, to form a complex with heme with a stoichiometry of 1:1, and to enhance heme-induced hemolysis. The results described herein indicate that a major improvement in the blood-schizontocidal antimalarial activity of 2-tert-butylprimaquine might be due to a disturbance of heme catabolism pathway in the malarial parasite. PMID:17562796

  15. Impact of tert-butyl alcohol on crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride in frozen aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Bhushan; Bansal, Arvind K

    2015-01-01

    The effect of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) on isothermal crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride (GHCl) in frozen aqueous solutions was assessed by cold-stage microscopy. Addition of TBA (0%-5%, w/w) increased the value of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami rate constant (1.3-33.3 h?¹) and reduced the Avrami exponent (2.5-1.0). Thermodynamic parameters [enthalpy (?H(‡)), entropy (?S(‡)), and free energy (?G(‡)) of activation], calculated using Arrhenius and Eyring-Polanyi equations, established that TBA (2%, w/w) accelerated GHCl crystallization by reducing its ?H(‡) (53.9 cf. 96.5 kJ/mol?¹) and ?G(‡) (68.5 cf. 74.9 kJ/mol?¹). Further, to explore insights into the effect of TBA on nucleation and crystal growth of GHCl, crystallization kinetics data were deconvolved using Finke-Watzky model. This revealed that addition of TBA decreased ?H(‡) of nucleation and increased ?S(‡) of crystal growth, thereby reducing ?G(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth by 11.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Finkey-Watzky model also predicted a reduction in the crystal size upon TBA addition, which was confirmed by comparing particle size of GHCl lyophilized in the presence and absence of TBA. In conclusion, TBA reduces ?G(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth in a differential manner, thereby enhancing the crystallization kinetics of GHCl and affecting its morphological features. PMID:25393155

  16. Hydrophobic Hydration in Water-tert-Butyl Alcohol Solutions by Extended Depolarized Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Comez, L; Paolantoni, M; Lupi, L; Sassi, P; Corezzi, S; Morresi, A; Fioretto, D

    2015-07-23

    Molecular dynamics and structural properties of water-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) mixtures are studied as a function of concentration by extended depolarized light scattering (EDLS) experiments. The wide frequency range, going from fraction to several thousand GHz, explored by EDLS allows distinguishing TBA rotational dynamics from structural relaxation of water and intermolecular vibrational and librational modes of the solution. Contributions to the water relaxation originating from two distinct populations, i.e. hydration and bulk water, are clearly identified. The dynamic retardation factor of hydration water with respect to the bulk, ξ ≈ 4, almost concentration independent, is one of the smallest found by EDLS among a variety of systems of different nature and complexity. This result, together with the small number of water molecules perturbed by the presence of TBA, supports the idea that hydrophobic simple molecules are less effective than hydrophilic and more complex molecules in perturbing the H-bond network of liquid water. At increasing TBA concentrations the average number of perturbed water molecules shows a pronounced decrease and the characteristic frequency of librational motions reduces significantly, both of which are results consistent with the occurrence of self-aggregation of TBA molecules. PMID:25436859

  17. Hydrophobic hydration of tert-butyl alcohol studied by Brillouin light and inelastic ultraviolet scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, L.; Comez, L.; Masciovecchio, C.; Morresi, A.; Paolantoni, M.; Sassi, P.; Scarponi, F.; Fioretto, D.

    2011-02-01

    The longitudinal viscosity of diluted water-tert-butyl alcohol solutions in the 10 GHz frequency region has been measured by means of Brillouin light scattering and inelastic ultraviolet scattering. The main advantage of our hypersonic investigation compared to more traditional ultrasonic measurements is that in the gigahertz frequency range slow relaxation processes involving the alcohol dynamics are completely unrelaxed, so that the measured viscosity mainly originates from the hydrogen bond restructuring of water. In contrast with previous determinations, we estimate an activation energy which is independent from the alcohol mole fraction up to X = 0.1, and comparable to that of bulk water. A simple two-component model is used to describe the steep increase of viscosity with increasing alcohol mole fraction, and a retardation factor 1.7 ± 0.2 is found between the relaxation times of hydration and bulk water. These findings endorse a dynamic scenario where the slowing down of hydration water is mainly due to a reduction of configurational entropy and does not involve an arrested, icelike, dynamics.

  18. The role of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT quinone methide) in the metabolism of butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, O; Hiraga, K

    1983-06-01

    Male rats were fed 5.45 mmol/100 g diet butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol (BHT alcohol) in either a standard or purified diet for 1 wk, after which their livers were analysed for levels of unconjugated BHT metabolites and their blood clotting times were assayed. The BHT quinone methide, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone, was only found in appreciable concentrations (6-9 micrograms/g liver) in the livers of rats given BHT. For rats fed the purified diet, BHT and BHT alcohol caused significant reductions of the prothrombin index to 23 and 70%, respectively, of the control value, though rats fed the standard diet were not similarly affected. Liver concentrations of BHT in rats fed BHT alcohol also varied according to diet, indicating that the metabolic pathway may be affected by diet. Biliary excretion of the quinone methide was observed in rats given 140 mg BHT alcohol ip. PMID:6683224

  19. Aberrant methylation of the TERT promoter in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiaying; Zhou, Daizhan; Zhang, Junhua; Chen, Yun; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Yun; Zhao, Kuaile

    2015-12-01

    A recent study indicated that upstream of the transcription start site (UTSS) hypermethylation of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene was associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in pediatric brain tumors. The potential for methylation-mediated regulation of the UTSS region of the TERT gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not yet been investigated. Here, TERT methylation was investigated in tumor and paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANT) from 185 ESCC patients, and the expression of TERT was investigated in 26 tumors paired with ANTs selected from the same cohort. The methylation level of TERT was analyzed in three different regions: region 1, region 2, and the UTSS region. Comparison and correlation of methylation level and clinical features were analyzed in the abovementioned regions. The results showed that the methylation level of TERT was significantly elevated in the tumor relative to the ANT in ESCC. TERT RNA expression was significantly reduced in primary tumors. Tumor stage was the major determinant of survival. The UTSS region may not be an accessible biomarker for ESCC. PMID:26669682

  20. The Synthesis and Isolation of N-Tert-Butyl-2-Phenylsuccinamic Acid and N-Tert-Butyl-3-Phenylsuccinamic Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesare, Victor; Sadarangani, Ishwar; Rollins, Janet; Costello, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    The facile, high yielding synthesis of phenylsuccinamic acids is described and one of these syntheses, the reaction of phenylsuccinic anhydride with tert-butylamine, is successfully modified and adapted for use in the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory at St. John's University. Succinamic acids are compounds that contain both the amide…

  1. Comparative efficiencies of isopropyl and tert-butyl alcohols for extracting zeins from maize endosperm.

    PubMed

    Landry, Jacques; Delhaye, Sonia; Damerval, Catherine

    2002-07-01

    Protein of endosperm of maize grains originating from three wild-type inbreds and their opaque-2 versions were solubilized in diverse extracts (E) by the sequential use of 0.5 M NaCl, water (E(1,2)), alcohol plus a reducing agent (E(3)), and salt plus a reducing agent (E(4)). Zeins were isolated in extracts E(3) and E(4) obtained by using 55% (w/w) isopropyl alcohol (i-PrOH) + 0.2% dithiothreitol (DTT) followed by 0.5 M NaCl + 0.2% DTT buffered at pH 10 or 60% tert-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) + 0.2% DTT followed by 0.5% sodium acetate + 0.2% DTT in 30% t-BuOH. For a given genotype the percentage of extracted zeins was independent of the nature of the alcohol. The latter had a slight effect on the respective magnitude of E(3) and E(4): E(3) increased at the expense of E(4) when t-BuOH was substituted to i-PrOH for their isolation. The percentage of the total endosperm nitrogen present in E(3) + E(4) was identical to that of fractions F(II) + F(III) + F(IV) isolated according to the classical Landry-Moureaux extraction procedure. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the presence of all types of zeins (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) in E(3) and F(III), residual zeins in E(4) isolated with t-BuOH, and streaking only in E(4) and F(IV) isolated with NaCl at pH 10. The data together with those of the literature were discussed with regard to the influence of procedure on the yield of zeins using alcoholic extraction. PMID:12083896

  2. Electrochemical nucleophilic synthesis of di-tert-butyl-(4-[18F]fluoro-1,2-phenylene)-dicarbonate.

    PubMed

    He, Qinggang; Wang, Ying; Alfeazi, Ines; Sadeghi, Saman

    2014-09-01

    An electrochemical method with the ability to conduct (18)F-fluorination of aromatic molecules through direct nucleophilic fluorination of cationic intermediates is presented in this paper. The reaction was performed on a remote-controlled automatic platform. Nucleophilic electrochemical fluorination of tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) protected catechol, an intermediate model molecule for the positron emission tomography (PET) probe (3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine), was performed. Fluorination was achieved under potentiostatic anodic oxidation in acetonitrile containing Et3N·3HF and other supporting electrolytes. Radiofluorination efficiency was influenced by a number of variables, including the concentration of the precursor, concentration of Et3N·3HF, type of supporting electrolyte, temperature and time, as well as applied potentials. Radio-fluorination efficiency of 10.4±0.6% (n=4) and specific activity of up to 43GBq/mmol was obtained after 1h electrolysis of 0.1M of 4-tert-butyl-diboc-catechol in the acetonitrile solution of Et3N·3HF (0.033M) and NBu4PF6 (0.05M). Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to explain the tert-butyl functional group facilitation of electrochemical oxidation and subsequent fluorination. PMID:25000498

  3. Degradation in chlorinated water of the UV filter 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane present in commercial sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Crista, Diana M A; Miranda, Margarida S; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2015-01-01

    4-tert-Butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM) is a widely used ultraviolet A filter. In this work, we have studied the effect of chlorine and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations on the stability of UV filter (BMDM) present in two commercial sunscreen cream formulations in water. An experimental design was used to assess the effect of the two experimental factors on the degradation of BMDM. Higher concentrations of chlorine lead to higher degradation percentages of BMDM and higher concentrations of DOM inhibit its degradation. Moreover, a mono and a dichloro derivate of BMDM were identified as by-products. PMID:25399819

  4. Ion kinetic energy distributions and cross sections for the electron impact ionization of ethyl tert-butyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Palma, T. M.; Apicella, B.; Armenante, M.; Velotta, R.; Wang, X.; Spinelli, N.

    2005-11-01

    The kinetic energy distributions and the cross sections of the ions produced in the electron impact of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) have been studied by time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The kinetic energy distributions have been deduced from the TOF peak shape analysis and a Montecarlo simulation method of the ion trajectories has been used to evaluate the collection efficiency of the spectrometer as a function of the ion initial kinetic energy. The measured ion yields have been corrected for the collection efficiency and the partial and total ionization cross sections of ETBE determined in the range 20-150 eV.

  5. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  6. Simple entry into N-tert-butyl-iminophosphonamide rare-earth metal alkyl and chlorido complexes.

    PubMed

    Rufanov, Konstantin A; Pruß, Noa K; Sundermeyer, Jörg

    2016-01-28

    In situ protolysis reaction of a highly basic and sterically hindered N,N'-di-tert-butyl-iminophosphonamide ligand Ph2P([double bond, length as m-dash]N-tBu)(NH-tBu) = (NPN(tBu))H (1) with equimolar or hemimolar amounts of rare-earth metal tris-alkyls leads to dialkyl [(NPN(tBu))Ln(CH2SiMe3)2(THF)n] (Ln = Sc, n = 0 (2), Ln = Y, n = 1 (3)) and monoalkyl species [(NPN(tBu))2Ln(CH2SiMe3)] (Ln = Y (4), Nd (6), Sm (7)). One-pot reaction of [ScCl3(THF)3]/1/MeLi in 1/2/3 eq. ratio gives [(NPN(tBu))2Sc(THF)CH3] 5. Further reaction of 4 with phenylacetylene resulted in the formation of the Y-alkynyl complex [(NPN(tBu))2Y(-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)] 8. Alkyl abstraction in 2, 3 and 4 by reaction with [PhNMe2H](+)[B(C6F5)4](-) resulted in the formation of cationic alkyl complex ion-pairs [(NPN(tBu))Ln(CH2SiMe3)(THF)n](+)[B(C6F5)4](-) (Ln = Sc (9), Y (10)) and [(NPN(tBu))2Y(THF)n](+)[B(C6F5)4](-)11, as confirmed by NMR data. The reaction of bis-NPN alkyl complexes with CHCl3 is the simplest and most reliable protocol to synthesize bis-NPN-chlorido complexes [(NPN(tBu))2Ln-Cl] (Ln = Sc (12), Y (13), Nd (14), Sm (15), Gd (16), Tb (17), Yb (18) and Lu (19)), which can become new post-metallocene alternatives to the prominent organolanthanide building blocks [Cp*2LnX]. Partial hydrolysis of 12 leads to the formation of the oxido/chlorido-capped trinuclear complex [{(NPN(tBu))Sc(?2-Cl)}3(?3-O)(?3-Cl)] 20. Molecular structures of 4, 6, 7, 13, 19 and 20 were confirmed by X-ray structure analyses. PMID:26677968

  7. The importance of the hydroxyl moieties for inhibition of the Ca(2+)-ATPase by trilobolide and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Wictome, M; Holub, M; East, J M; Lee, A G

    1994-03-15

    Trilobolide and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ) are potent inhibitors of the Ca(2+)-ATPase of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Desoxytrilobolide and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-diacetylphenol (acetyl-BHQ) have much lower potencies than their parent compounds and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) has no effect on ATPase activity. Studies using the ATPase labelled with 4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) suggest that both trilobolide and BHQ bind more strongly to the E2 conformation of the ATPase than to the E1 conformation. Desoxytrilobolide, acetyl-BHQ and BQ have little effect on the E1/E2 equilibrium. Studies with mixtures of trilobolide and desoxytrilobolide suggest that the inactive derivatives are unable to bind to the ATPase. PMID:8135840

  8. Structural effects on the C-S bond cleavage in aryl tert-butyl sulfoxide radical cations.

    PubMed

    Cavattoni, Tullio; Del Giacco, Tiziana; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Mazzonna, Marco; Mencarelli, Paolo

    2013-05-17

    The oxidation of a series of aryl tert-butyl sulfoxides (4-X-C6H4SOC(CH3)3: 1, X = OCH3; 2, X = CH3; 3, X = H; 4, X = Br) photosensitized by 3-cyano-N-methylquinolinium perchlorate (3-CN-NMQ(+)) has been investigated by steady-state irradiation and nanosecond laser flash photolysis (LFP) under nitrogen in MeCN. Products deriving from the C-S bond cleavage in the radical cations 1(+•)-4(+•) have been observed in the steady-state photolysis experiments. By laser irradiation, the formation of 3-CN-NMQ(•) (?(max) = 390 nm) and 1(+•)-4(+•) (?(max) = 500-620 nm) was observed. A first-order decay of the sulfoxide radical cations, attributable to C-S bond cleavage, was observed with fragmentation rate constants (k(f)) that decrease by increasing the electron donating power of the arylsulfinyl substituent from 1.8 × 10(6) s(-1) (4(+•)) to 2.3 × 10(5) s(-1) (1(+•)). DFT calculations showed that a significant fraction of the charge is delocalized in the tert-butyl group of the radical cations, thus explaining the small substituent effect on the C-S bond cleavage rate constants. Via application of the Marcus equation to the kinetic data, a very large value for the reorganization energy (? = 62 kcal mol(-1)) has been calculated for the C-S bond scission reaction in 1(+•)-4(+•). PMID:23581281

  9. Development of cellulose acetate propionate membrane for separation of ethanol and ethyl tert-butyl ether mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G.S.; Niang, M.; Schaetzel, P.

    1997-04-01

    For pervaporation separation of ethanol and ethyl tert-butyl ether mixtures, a cellulose acetate propionate membrane was chosen as the experimental membrane because of its high selectivity and good mass fluxes. The properties of the membranes were evaluated by the pervaporation separation of mixtures of ethyl tert-butyl ether/ethanol and the sorption experiments. The experimental results showed that the selectivity and the permeates depend on the ethanol concentration in the feed and the experimental temperature. With increases of the ethanol weight fraction in the feed and the temperature, the total and partial mass fluxes increased. With respect to the temperature, ethanol mass flux obeys the Arrhenius equation. The selectivity of this membrane decreases as the temperature and the ethanol concentration in the feed increase. This membrane shows special characteristics at the azeotropic composition. In the vicinity of the azeotropic point, minimum values of ethanol concentration in the permeate and in sorption solution are obtained. The swelling ratios increase when temperature and the ethanol concentration in the feed are increasing. The ethanol concentration in the sorption solution is also influenced by the temperature and the mixture`s composition. When the temperature increases, the sorption selectivity of the membrane decreases.

  10. Discovery and SAR study of 3-(tert-butyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl benzoate and benzamide derivatives as novel farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Song, Kebiao; Xu, Xing; Liu, Peng; Chen, Lili; Shen, Xu; Liu, Junhua; Hu, Lihong

    2015-10-01

    3-(tert-Butyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl 2,4-dichlorobenzoate (1) was discovered in our in-house high throughput screening as a moderate FXR antagonist. To improve the potency and the stability of the hit 1, forty derivatives were synthesized and SAR was systematically explored. The results turn out that replacing the 2,4-dichlorophenyl with 2,6-dichloro-4-amidophenyl shows great improvement in potency, replacing the benzoate with benzamide shows improvement in stability and slight declining of potency and 3-(tert-butyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl unit is essential in obtaining the FXR antagonistic activity. PMID:26337021

  11. Photoinduced Reactivity of the Soft Hydrotris(6-tert-butyl-3-thiopyridazinyl)borate Scorpionate Ligand in Sodium, Potassium, and Thallium Salts.

    PubMed

    Tüchler, Michael; Belaj, Ferdinand; Raber, Georg; Neshchadin, Dmytro; Mösch-Zanetti, Nadia C

    2015-09-01

    The soft scorpionate ligand hydrotris(6-tert-butyl-3-thiopyridazinyl)borate (Tn) was found to exhibit pronounced photoreactivity. Full elucidation of this process revealed the formation of 6-tert-butylpyridazine-3-thione (PnH) and 4,5-dihydro-6-tert-butylpyridazine-3-thione (H2PnH). Under exclusion of light, no solvolytic reactions occur, allowing the development of high-yield preparation protocols for the sodium, potassium, and thallium salts and improving the yield for their derived copper boratrane complex. The photoreactivity is relevant for all future studies with electron-deficient scorpionate ligands. PMID:26260148

  12. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-01

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH3-TPD and N2 physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)-MCM-48 samples, SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO42-/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h-1 and the reaction temperature is 140 °C.

  13. Strong carbon-surface dative bond formation by tert-butyl isocyanide on the Ge(100)-2 × 1 surface.

    PubMed

    Shong, Bonggeun; Wong, Keith T; Bent, Stacey F

    2014-04-23

    Carbon dative bond formation between an organic molecule and a semiconductor surface is reported here for the first time. Our studies show that the adsorption of tert-butyl isocyanide on the (100) surface of germanium, measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, and density functional theory calculations, occurs via formation of a dative bond to the surface through the isocyanide carbon. The experimentally observed adsorption energy of 26.8 kcal/mol is the largest among any organic molecule dative bonded on the Ge(100)-2 × 1 surface studied to date. The dative-bonded adsorbate is characterized by a N?C stretching frequency significantly blue-shifted from that of the free molecule. Moreover, the adsorbate N?C vibrational frequency red-shifts back toward that of the free molecule upon increasing coverage. These spectroscopic effects are attributed to ?-donation of the isocyanide lone pair electrons to the surface. PMID:24725248

  14. 2,4-Di-tert-butyl phenol as the antifungal, antioxidant bioactive purified from a newly isolated Lactococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Varsha, Kontham Kulangara; Devendra, Leena; Shilpa, Ganesan; Priya, Sulochana; Pandey, Ashok; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2015-10-15

    The volatile organic compound 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2,4 DTBP) was purified from the cell free supernatant of a newly isolated Lactococcus sp. by solvent extraction and chromatographic techniques. Molecular characterization of the compound by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and FTIR analysis revealed the structure, C14H22O. Fungicidal activity was demonstrated against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium chrysogenum by disc diffusion assay. Among the cell lines tested for cytotoxicity of this compound (normal cell line H9c2 and cancer cell lines HeLa and MCF-7), a remarkable cytotoxicity against HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 10 ?g/mL was shown. A biocontrol experiment with 2,4 DTBP supplemented fraction prevented growth of the abovementioned fungi on wheat grains. The study further strengthens the case for development of biopreservatives and dietary antioxidants from lactic acid bacteria for food applications. PMID:26164257

  15. Photochemical transformations. 30. Photosolvolysis of benzyl chlorides in tert-butyl alcohol. 2. Nature of excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Cristol, S.J.; Bindel, T.H.

    1981-12-02

    The photosolvolysis of a number of benzyl chlorides in tert-butyl alcohol, both as a result of direct irradiation and ketone triplet sensitization, has been studied. A variety of sensitization and quenching techniques have been used. The results obtained are rationalized by the assumption that there are two triplet states of the benzyl chlorides accessible in these experiments-one a short-lived upper state, which leads to solvolysis product, and another a long-lived (lower energy) state, which reverts to ground-state reactant. Consistent with this idea, m-methoxybenzyl chloride is shown to quench the photoreactions of benzophenone with benzhydrol without the formation of a significant amount of reactive species. The effects of wavelength on the reactions of p-acetobenzyl chloride are measured and discussed in terms of the two-triplet concept.

  16. Immunochemical visualization and identification of rat liver proteins adducted by 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT).

    PubMed

    Reed, M; Thompson, D C

    1997-10-01

    Several alkylphenols (e.g., 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHT) form reactive quinone methide intermediates (e.g., 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone, BHT-QM) upon oxidation by cellular enzymes. In order to pursue the role of protein alkylation in alkylphenol toxicity, we used an immunochemical approach to identify protein targets alkylated by BHT. Synthetic BHT-N-acetylcysteine (BHT-NAC) was coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and used as an antigen from which polyclonal antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbit serum contained an antibody which was highly specific for BHT-NAC, as determined by competitive ELISA. The BHT antibody was used as a probe to look for the presence of BHT-protein adducts in in vitro incubations with rat liver microsomes or tissue slices and also in vivo in liver tissue from male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to BHT. Western blotting of protein gels revealed BHT-dependent protein alkylation over a wide molecular weight range. Prominent recurrent bands were observed at approximately 34.5, 52, 64.5, 74, and 97 kDa. Detection of adducts was inhibited in microsomal incubations by cytochrome P450 inhibitors, deuterated BHT, and the omission of NADPH. Similar protein alkylation patterns were observed in rat liver microsomes exposed to synthetically prepared BHT-QM as in the enzyme-mediated incubations. In rats gavaged with up to 1000 mg/kg BHT, the amount of protein alkylation observed was maximal at 24 h postdosing and was dose-dependent. Two alkylated proteins were isolated and identified by N-terminal sequencing: a mitochondrial beta-oxidation enzyme, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and a plasma membrane/cytoskeletal linker protein from the ezrin/moesin/radixin family. PMID:9348433

  17. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of novel acid-sensitive tert-butyl methacrylate and isobutyl methacrylate containing star-shaped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Timothy E.; Kilian, Lars; Wang, Zhen-He; Esker, Alan R.

    2001-10-01

    Star-shaped polymers containing poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (iBMA) and poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (t-BMA) arms coupled to a 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexanediol dimethacrylate (DHDMA) core were synthesized using arm-first living anionic polymerization. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) indicated that coupling efficiencies were high and coupled products exhibited a monomodal molecular weight distribution. The star-shaped polymer number--average molecular weights were 8-10 times higher than the precursor arm molecular weights. The ratio of coupling reagent to living chain end concentration controlled the molecular weight of the star-shaped polymer and the number of coupled arms. The molecular weight distributions of the star-shaped polymers ranged from 1.5-2.0. Due to the labile tertiary- butyl esters contained in the DHDMA cores, these star-shaped polymers were readily hydrolyzed in the presence of acid catalysts. For example, poly(iBMA) star-shaped polymers were hydrolytically stable at 25 degree(s)C and hydrolyzed readily at 65 degree(s)C in the presence of hydrochloric acid. In addition, the poly(t-BMA) containing star--shaped polymers degraded under similar conditions. The degradation process for the iBMA and t-BMA containing star-shaped polymers was confirmed using 1H NMR spectroscopy, and poly(iBMA)-block- poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid) were obtained, respectively.

  19. P450 active site architecture and reversibility: inactivation of cytochromes P450 2B4 and 2B4 T302A by tert-butyl acetylenes.

    PubMed

    Blobaum, Anna L; Harris, Danni L; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2005-03-15

    The inactivations of P450 2B4 and the T302A mutant of 2B4 by tert-butyl acetylene (tBA) and the inactivation of 2B4 T302A by tert-butyl 1-methyl-2-propynyl ether (tBMP) have been investigated. tBA and tBMP inactivated both enzymes in a mechanism-based manner with the losses in enzymatic activity corresponding closely to losses in P450 heme. HPLC and ESI-LC-MS analysis detected two different tBA- or tBMP-modified heme products with masses of 661 and 705 Da, respectively. Interestingly, the inactivations of the P450s 2B4 by tBA and tBMP were partially reversible by dialysis, and the tBA- or tBMP-modified heme products could only be observed with ESI-LC-MS/MS when the inactivated samples were acidified prior to analysis, indicating a requirement for protons in the formation of stable heme adducts in both the wild-type and mutant 2B4 enzymes. Results of studies using artificial oxidants to support enzyme inactivation suggest that the oxenoid-iron activated oxygen species is preferentially utilized during the inactivation of the P450s 2B4 by tBA. These results argue against the use of a peroxo-iron species by P450 2B4 T302A. Molecular dynamics studies of wild-type P450 2B4 reveal that contiguous hydrogen bond networks, including structural waters, link a conserved glutamate (E301) to the distal oxygen of the peroxo-heme species via threonine 302. Interestingly, models of 2B4 T302A reveal that a compensatory, ordered hydrogen bond network forms despite the removal of T302. These results indicate that while T302 may play a role in proton delivery in the formation of the oxenoid-iron complex and in the stabilization of acetylene heme adducts in 2B4, it is not essential for proton delivery given the presence of E301 in the binding site. PMID:15751959

  20. Metabolic fate of methyl n-butyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and their metabolites in mice.

    PubMed

    Granvil, C P; Sharkawi, M; Plaa, G L

    1994-02-15

    The metabolic fate of methyl n-butyl ketone (MnBK) and its isomer methyl isobutyl ketone (MiBK) was studied in mice. The concentrations of both ketones and their metabolites in blood and brain were measured at different time intervals after their administration. The principal metabolites of MnBK were 2-hexanol (2-HOL) and 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD), while those of MiBK were 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4-MPOL) and 4-hydroxy-4 methyl-2-pentanone (HMP). The administration of 2-hexanol by itself led to the appearance of both MnBK and 2,5-hexanedione which, when administered by itself, did not lead to the appearance of either MnBK or 2-hexanol. The administration of 4-methyl-2-pentanol resulted in the appearance of MiBK and HMP. The administration of HMP did not result in the appearance of MiBK or 4-MPOL. These results indicate that the metabolic fate of MnBK and MiBK is similar to that reported in other species. PMID:8284793

  1. One Step Continuous Flow Synthesis of Highly Substituted Pyrrole-3-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives via in situ Hydrolysis of tert-Butyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Ananda; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.

    2010-01-01

    The first one-step, continuous flow synthesis of pyrrole-3-carboxylic acids directly from tert-butyl acetoacetates, amines and 2-bromoketones is reported. The HBr generated as a by-product in the Hantzsch reaction was utilized in the flow method to saponify the t-butyl esters in situ to provide the corresponding acids in a single microreactor. The protocol was used in the multistep synthesis of pyrrole-3-carboxamides, including two CB1 inverse agonists, directly from commercially available starting materials in a single continuous process. PMID:20964284

  2. (2-tert-Butyl-3-phenyl-2,3-di­hydro­isoxazole-4,5-di­yl)bis­(phenyl­methanone)

    PubMed Central

    Sandhya, R.; Sithambaresan, M.; Prathapan, S.; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra

    2013-01-01

    The phenyl and tert-butyl groups of the title compound, C27H25NO3, exhibit a trans configuration in agreement with the stereochemistry of the Z phenyl-N-tert-butyl­nitrone starting material. The attached carbonyl groups are not coplanar with the neighboring di­hydro­isoxazole ring and the phenyl rings they are bonded to, with torsion angles of 59.26?(8), 17.53?(11), 16.52?(12) and 52.86?(7)°. The dihedral angle between the di­hydro­isoxazole ring and the directly attached phenyl group is 86.86?(8)°. There are two nonclassical inter­molecular C—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions that operate together with an inter­molecular C—H?? inter­action to form a supramolecular architecture in the crystal system. PMID:24109366

  3. Understanding the redox shuttle stability of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L.; Amine, K.

    2010-01-01

    3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene (DBDB) has been synthesized as a new redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. DBDB can easily dissolve in carbonate-based electrolytes, which facilitates its practical use in lithium-ion batteries; however, it has poor electrochemical stability compared to 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB). The structures of DBDB and DDB were investigated using X-ray crystallography and density functional calculations. The structures differ in the conformations of the alkoxy bonds probably due to the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in the case of DBDB. We investigated reaction energies for decomposition pathways of neutral DBDB and DDB and their radical cations and found little difference in the reaction energies, although it is clear that kinetically, decomposition of DBDB is more favorable.

  4. Attractive Dispersion Interactions Versus Steric Repulsion of tert-Butyl groups in the Crystal Packing of a D3h -Symmetric Tris(quinoxalinophenanthrophenazine).

    PubMed

    Kohl, Bernd; Bohnwagner, Mercedes V; Rominger, Frank; Wadepohl, Hubert; Dreuw, Andreas; Mastalerz, Michael

    2016-01-11

    The crystalline packing of a ?-extended D3h -symmetric triptycene reveals a particular ? stacking motif with an almost-eclipsed arrangement of adjacent ? planes despite the steric repulsion of tert-butyl substituents. Four model compounds were analyzed by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and theoretical calculations to study the influence of dispersion interactions of molecular parts and understand the relationship between the molecular structure and this unique packing motif. PMID:26626549

  5. Optimized synthesis of a tert-butyl-phenyl-substituted tetrapyridophenazine ligand and its Ru(II) complexes and determination of dimerization behaviour of the complexes through supramolecular "Fingerhakel".

    PubMed

    Ritter, K; Pehlken, C; Sorsche, D; Rau, S

    2015-05-21

    The synthesis of tpphz(tbp)2 (tpphz(tbp)2 = 3,16-di(tert-butyl-phenyl)-tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2?,3?-c:3??,2??-h:2???,3???-j]phenazine) has been optimized by using a new synthetic route. The complexes Ru(tbp)2tpphz, Rutpphz(tbp)2, Rutpphz(tbp)2Ru and the reference compound Ru(tbp)2phen (where Ru = (tbbpy)2Ru, tbbpy = 4,4?-di-tert-butyl-2,2?-bipyridine and (tbp)2phen = 3,8-bis(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized. Crystal structures or structural motifs could be obtained for each intermediate and complex and for the first time a tpphz based uncomplexed ligand could be investigated in the solid state. The mononuclear complexes Ru(tbp)2tpphz and Rutpphz(tbp)2 form ?–? stacked dimers in the solid state. The latter exhibits an interesting aggregation in the solid state with three ?-interactions. Concentration dependent aggregation of these isomers in solution is observed with the aid of 1H-NMR investigations. Out of those dimerization constants (KD) could be calculated for the complexes Ru(tbp)2tpphz and Rutpphz(tbp)2. The values differ significantly. Photophysical and electrochemical properties of the presented complexes were investigated and compared with reference compounds. The tert-butyl-phenyl-substitution induces a stabilization of the 1MLCT and 3MLCT states localized on the phenanthroline part of the bridging ligand. The 3MLCT localized on the phenazine portion seems to be not or only to a minor extent influenced by these substituents. PMID:25871461

  6. Substituted 2,2′-bipyridines by nickel-catalysis: 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine

    PubMed Central

    Buonomo, Joseph A.; Everson, Daniel A.; Weix, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, ligand-free synthesis of the important bipyridyl ligand 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine is presented. 5,5′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2,2′-bipyridine is also synthesized by the same protocol. The syntheses efficiently couple the parent 2-chlorpyridies by a nickel-catalyzed dimerization with manganese powder as the terminal reductant. PMID:25221358

  7. Methyl t-Butyl Ether Mineralization in Surface-Water Sediment Microcosms under Denitrifying Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Mineralization of [U-14C] methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) to 14CO2 without accumulation of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was observed in surface-water sediment microcosms under denitrifying conditions. Methanogenic activity and limited transformation of MTBE to TBA were observed in the absence of denitrification. Results indicate that bed sediment microorganisms can effectively degrade MTBE to nontoxic products under denitrifying conditions.

  8. Vibrational spectra and ab initio analysis of tert-butyl, trimethylsilyl, trimethylgermyl, trimethylstannyl, and trimethylplumbyl derivatives of 3,3-dimethylcyclopropene . X. Some regularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; De Maré, G. R.; Pupyshev, V. I.; Abramenkov, A. V.

    2007-12-01

    The changes in the vibrational frequencies of 1- tert-butyl and 1,2-di- tert-butyl derivatives of 3,3-dimethylcyclopropene brought about by substitution of the central carbon atom (X) of the tert-butyl moieties by Si, Ge, Sn, or Pb atoms are examined. The most important decrease in the vibrational frequencies implicating the X(CH 3) 3 moieties is noted for substitution of X = C by Si. The substitutions of Si by Ge or Ge by Sn or Sn by Pb are not accompanied by the pronounced frequency shifts observed for the C ? Si transition. An explanation is given for trends in these vibrational frequencies for the transitions X = C ? Si ? Ge ? Sn ? Pb. It is concluded that there are lower limiting values of the vibrational frequencies of a molecular moiety which are approached when the mass of its isovalent atom is increased. This leads to the formation of cluster regions in the vibrational spectra for the frequencies of the SnC 3 and PbC 3 moieties.

  9. HIGH LEVELS OF MONOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS LIMIT THE USE OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER AND TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  10. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide, an organic peroxide, causes temporary delay in hair growth in a neonatal rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wikramanayake, T. C.; Simon, J.; Mauro, L. M.; Perez, C. I.; Roberts, B.; Elgart, G.; Alvarez-Connelly, E.; Schachner, L. A.; Jimenez, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), an organic peroxide, has been shown to cause irreversible damage to keratinocytes in vitro with prolonged administration at high concentrations, and reversible damage with short-term administration at low concentrations. To investigate the effects of tBHP on keratinocytes in vivo, we analysed hair growth in tBHP-treated neonatal rats. Sprague–Dawley and Long–Evans rat pups were injected subcutaneously with tBHP or vehicle once daily for 6 days, and hair growth was monitored. The tBHP-treated rats had a significant delay in hair growth. However, this delay reversed within days, and the hair coats, including hair pigmentation, of tBHP-treated and sham-treated rats were indistinguishable 2 weeks later. Histological analysis and BrdU labelling of S phase cells confirmed the delay in hair-follicle growth and its reversal in tBHP-treated rats. Our results indicated that the changes incurred in hair follicles by short-term use of high-dose oxidants in vivo are temporary and reversible. PMID:21418283

  11. tert-butyl hydroperoxide, an organic peroxide, causes temporary delay in hair growth in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, T C; Simon, J; Mauro, L M; Perez, C I; Roberts, B; Elgart, G; Alvarez-Connelly, E; Schachner, L A; Jimenez, J J

    2011-08-01

    tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), an organic peroxide, has been shown to cause irreversible damage to keratinocytes in vitro with prolonged administration at high concentrations, and reversible damage with short-term administration at low concentrations. To investigate the effects of tBHP on keratinocytes in vivo, we analysed hair growth in tBHP-treated neonatal rats. Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rat pups were injected subcutaneously with tBHP or vehicle once daily for 6?days, and hair growth was monitored. The tBHP-treated rats had a significant delay in hair growth. However, this delay reversed within days, and the hair coats, including hair pigmentation, of tBHP-treated and sham-treated rats were indistinguishable 2?weeks later. Histological analysis and BrdU labelling of S phase cells confirmed the delay in hair-follicle growth and its reversal in tBHP-treated rats. Our results indicated that the changes incurred in hair follicles by short-term use of high-dose oxidants in vivo are temporary and reversible. PMID:21418283

  12. Conformational stability, vibrational and NMR analysis, chemical potential and thermodynamical parameter of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Karpagam, V; Revathi, B; Kavimani, M; Santhi, G

    2015-01-25

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (TBHA) molecule have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1), respectively. Optimized geometrical structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies has been computed by B3LYP level using 6-31G (d,p) and 6-311+G (d,p) basis sets. The observed FT-IR and FT-Raman vibrational frequencies are analyzed and compared with theoretically predicted vibrational frequencies. The geometries and normal modes of vibration obtained from DFT method are in good agreement with the experimental data. The Mulliken charges, the natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis, the first-order hyperpolarizability of the investigated molecule were computed using DFT calculations. Besides, charge transfer occurring in the molecule between HOMO and LUMO energies, frontier energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and analyzed. The isotropic chemical shift computed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the TBHA calculated using the gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method also shows good agreement with experimental observations. PMID:25173520

  13. Effect of lithium chloride on the living polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate and polymer microstructure using monofunctional initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Varshney, S.K. ); Gao, Z. . Research Dept.); Zhong, Xing Fu; Eisenberg, A. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-02-28

    The effect of LiCl on the anionic polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBuMA) initiated with monofunctional alkali metal-based carbanionic species was investigated at [minus]78 C in THF. The propagation rate of the polymerization process was determined by gas chromatography and by gravimetry. It was found that, in the presence of LiCl in a molar ratio of 5 with respect to the initiator, the rate constant, k[sub p], is 20 times lower than that in the absence of LiCl. The polymers and oligomers were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and [sup 13]C NMR spectroscopy. The polymers obtained in the absence of LiCl had broad molecular weight distributions and contained significant amounts of oligomers, while those obtained in the presence of LiCl were monodisperse, without any noticeable oligomers. [sup 13]C NMR showed that the isotactic content of the polymers increased significantly when the molar ratio of LiCl to the initiator was higher than 2. The effect of LiCl on the rate constant and on the microstructure of the polymers was attributed to complex formation between LiCl and the living polymer chains.

  14. Vibrio fischeri and Escherichia coli adhesion tendencies towards photolithographically modified nanosmooth poly (tert-butyl methacrylate) polymer surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena P; Mitik-Dineva, Natasa; Mocanasu, Radu C; Murphy, Sarah; Wang, James; van Riessen, Grant; Crawford, Russell J

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the adhesion behavior of two bacterial species, Vibrio fischeri and Escherichia coli, to the photoresistant poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (P(tBMA)) polymer surface. The data has demonstrated that ultraviolet irradiation of P(tBMA) was able to provide control over bacterial adhesion tendencies. Following photolithography, several of the surface characteristics of P(tBMA) were found to be altered. Atomic force microscopy analysis indicated that photolithographically modified P(tBMA) (henceforth termed ‘modified polymer’) appeared as a ‘nanosmooth’ surface with an average surface roughness of 1.6 nm. Although confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis clearly demonstrated that V. fischeri and E. coli presented largely different patterns of attachment in order to adhere to the same surfaces, both species exhibited a greater adhesion propensity towards the ‘nanosmooth’ surface. The adhesion of both species to the modified polymer surface appeared to be facilitated by an elevated production of extracellular polymeric substances when in contact with the substrate. PMID:24198459

  15. Synthesis and characterization of perfluoro-tert-butyl semifluorinated amphiphilic polymers and their potential application in hydrophobic drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Decato, Sarah; Bemis, Troy; Madsen, Eric; Mecozzi, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Semifluorinated polymer surfactants, composed of a monomethyl poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) hydrophilic head group and either 1, 2, or 3 perfluoro-tert-butyl (PFtB) groups as the fluorophilic tail, were synthesized, and their aqueous self-assemblies were investigated as a potential design for theranostic nanoparticles. Polymers with three PFtB groups (PFtBTRI) solely formed stable, spherical micelles, approximately 12 nm in size. These PFtBTRI surfactants demonstrate similar characteristics with those of polymers with linear perfluorocarbon tails, despite large differences in tail structure. For example, PFtB polymer solutions stably emulsified 20 v/v% sevoflurane with perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) as a stabilizer. However, these PFtB polymers have the additional potential to serve as F-MRI contrast agents. PFtBTRI micelles gave one narrow 19F-NMR signal in D2O, with T1 and T2 parameters of approximately 500 and 100 ms, respectively. 19F-MR images of PFtB polymer solutions at 1 mM gave intense signal at 4.7 T without sensitizers or selective excitation sequences. These preliminary data demonstrate the potential of PFtB polymers as a basic design, which can be further modified to serve as dual drug-delivery and imaging vehicles. PMID:25383100

  16. The effect of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress on lean and steatotic rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ku?era, Otto; Endlicher, René; Roušar, Tomáš; Lotková, Halka; Garnol, Tomáš; Drahota, Zden?k; Cervinková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and toxic liver injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of exogenous inducer of oxidative stress (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, tBHP) on nonfatty and steatotic hepatocytes isolated from the liver of rats fed by standard and high-fat diet, respectively. In control steatotic hepatocytes, we found higher generation of ROS, increased lipoperoxidation, an altered redox state of glutathione, and decreased ADP-stimulated respiration using NADH-linked substrates, as compared to intact lean hepatocytes. Fatty hepatocytes exposed to tBHP exert more severe damage, lower reduced glutathione to total glutathione ratio, and higher formation of ROS and production of malondialdehyde and are more susceptible to tBHP-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Respiratory control ratio of complex I was significantly reduced by tBHP in both lean and steatotic hepatocytes, but reduction in NADH-dependent state 3 respiration was more severe in fatty cells. In summary, our results collectively indicate that steatotic rat hepatocytes occur under conditions of enhanced oxidative stress and are more sensitive to the exogenous source of oxidative injury. This confirms the hypothesis of steatosis being the first hit sensitizing hepatocytes to further damage. PMID:24847414

  17. Structural, energetic, and UV-Vis spectral analysis of UVA filter 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Ferreira, Paulo J O; Duarte, Darío J R; Miranda, Margarida S; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2014-02-27

    The growing awareness of the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation has increased the production and consumption of sunscreen products, which contain organic and inorganic molecules named UV filters that absorb, reflect, or scatter UV radiation, thus minimizing negative human health effects. 4-tert-Butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) is one of the few organic UVA filters and the most commonly used. BMDBM exists in sunscreens in the enol form which absorbs strongly in the UVA range. However, under sunlight irradiation tautomerization occurs to the keto form, resulting in the loss of UV protection. In this study we have performed quantum chemical calculations to study the excited-state molecular structure and excitation spectra of the enol and keto tautomers of BMDBM. This knowledge is of the utmost importance as the starting point for studies aiming at the understanding of its activity when applied on human skin and also its fate once released into the aquatic environment. The efficiency of excitation transitions was rationalized based on the concept of molecular orbital superposition. The loss of UV protection was attributed to the enol ? keto phototautomerism and subsequent photodegradation. Although this process is not energetically favorable in the singlet bright state, photodegradation is possible because of intersystem crossing to the first two triplet states. PMID:24494821

  18. Ginsenoside Rg1 delays tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced premature senescence in human WI-38 diploid fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochun; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Yaxiu; Zhao, Chaohui; Zhu, Yuangui

    2008-03-01

    Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), an analog of hydroperoxide, induced characteristic changes of senescence in human diploid fibroblasts WI-38 cells. It was reported that ginsenoside Rg1, an active ingredient of ginseng, ameliorated learning deficits in aged rats. The present study was aimed to investigate whether ginsenoside Rg1 can delay the premature senescence of WI-38 cells induced by t-BHP and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. First, Rg1 pretreatment markedly reversed senescent morphological changes in WI-38 cells induced by t-BHP. Second, t-BHP treatment alone resulted in an increase in the protein levels of P16 and P21, and a decline in intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) level and mitochondrial complex IV activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 pretreatment had significant effects of attenuating these changes. These data indicate that ginsenoside Rg1 has an anti-aging effect on t-BHP-induced premature senescence in WI-38 cells. This effect may be mediated by regulating cell cycle proteins and enhancing mitochondrial functioning. PMID:18375874

  19. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tingshun Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-15

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH{sub 3}-TPD and N{sub 2} physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)–MCM-48 samples, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h{sup −1} and the reaction temperature is 140 °C. - Highlights: • Sulfuric acid functional mesoporous solid acid catalysts were prepared via impregnation method. • The alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol was carried out over these solid acid catalysts. • The catalytic activity of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 catalyst is much higher than that of the others. • A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% was achieved under optimum reaction conditions for SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25.

  20. Two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Darol; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Bermudez, Edilberto

    2013-07-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to reduce tailpipe emissions and its use has been discontinued. There remains a concern that drinking water sources have been contaminated with MTBE. A two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of MTBE was conducted in Wistar rats (males, 0, 0.5, 3, 7.5 mg ml(-1); and females, 0, 0.5, 3, and 15 mg ml(-1)). Body weights were unaffected and water consumption was reduced in MTBE-exposed males and females. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased at the end of two years of exposure to 7.5 mg ml(-1) MTBE. Chronic progressive nephropathy was observed in males and females, was more severe in males, and was exacerbated in the high MTBE exposure groups. Brain was the only tissue with a statistically significant finding of neoplasms. One astrocytoma (1/50) was found in a female rat (15 mg ml(-1)). The incidence of brain astrocytomas in male rats was 1/50, 1/50, 1/50 and 4/50 for the 0, 0.5, 3 and 7.5 mg ml(-1) exposure groups, respectively. This was a marginally significant statistical trend, but not statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were made or when multiple comparisons were taken into account. The incidence of astrocytoma fell within historical control ranges for Wistar rats, and the brain has not been identified as a target organ following chronic administration of MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether, or tertiary butyl alcohol (in drinking water) to mice and rats. We conclude that the astrocytomas observed in this study are not associated with exposure to MTBE. PMID:22161475

  1. Effect of various oestrogens on cell injury and alteration of apical transporters induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Park, Hyung Joo; Park, Kwon Moo; Kang, Ju Won; Lee, Jang Hern; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2002-01-01

    1. The present study was undertaken in order to examine the effect of various oestrogens on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell injury and changes in apical transporters in primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells. 2. Compared with control, t-BHP (0.5 mmol/L; 1 h) decreased cell viability (62%) and glutathione (GSH) content (60%) and increased lipid peroxide (LPO) formation (309%), arachidonic acid (AA) release (193%) and Ca(2+) influx (168%). 3. The protective potency of various oestrogens for these parameters is dependent on the precise oestrogenic structure, with 2-hydroxy-oestradiol-17 beta (2-OH-E(2)) and 4-OH-E(2), both catecholic oestrogens, or diethylstilbesterol (DES) being more potent than oestradiol (E(2)), oestriol or oestradiol-17 alpha, all phenolic oestrogens (P < 0.05). 4. These cytoprotective effects of oestrogens occur at concentrations above 10 micromol/L and are not dependent on classical oestrogen receptors and gene transcription and translation. In addition, various oestrogens have different preventative effects against t-BHP-induced inhibition of [(14)C]-alpha-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (alpha-MG), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and Na(+) uptake, consistent with the results of cell injury. In contrast, the potency against t-BHP-induced changes in cell viability, LPO, GSH content and transporter function of the anti-oxidants taurine and vitamin C is similar to that of phenolic oestrogens, whereas that of the iron chelators deferoxamine and phenanthroline is similar to that of catecholic oestrogens. 5. In conclusion, various oestrogens have differential cytoprotective potential against t-BHP-induced cell injury and decreases in alpha-MG, Na(+) and Pi uptake. These effects are due, in part, to both the basic chemical properties of the compounds and the maintenance of endogenous GSH or inhibition of AA release and Ca(2+) influx. PMID:11906461

  2. Solution processable 2-(trityloxy)ethyl and tert-butyl group containing amorphous molecular glasses of pyranylidene derivatives with light-emitting and amplified spontaneous emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarins, Elmars; Vembris, Aivars; Misina, Elina; Narels, Martins; Grzibovskis, Raitis; Kokars, Valdis

    2015-11-01

    Small organic molecules with incorporated 4H-pyran-4-ylidene (pyranylidene) fragment as the ?-conjugation system which bonds the electron acceptor fragment (A) with electron donor part (D) in the molecule - also well known as derivatives of 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2-methyl-6-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-4H-pyran (DCM) laser dye-have attracted considerable attention of scientists as potential new generation materials for organic photonics and molecular electronics due to their low-cost fabrication possibility, flexibility and low-weight. Six glassy derivatives of 4H-pyran-4-ylidene (pyranylidene) with attached bulky 2-(trityloxy)ethyl and tert-butyl groups are described in this report. Almost all of the synthesized compounds form good optical quality transparent amorphous films from volatile organic solvents and could be obtained in good yields up to 75%. Their light emission in solution and thin solid films is in the range of 600-700 nm, they are thermally stable and show glass transition in the range of 108-158 °C. The amplified spontaneous emission threshold values of the neat films of the glassy pyranylidene derivatives vary from 155 to 450 ?J/cm2 and their HOMO and LUMO energy levels are between of those of tris(8-hydroxy quinolinato) aluminum (Alq3). The photoluminescence quantum yields of the glassy compounds are in the range from 1% to about 7.7% and their electroluminescence properties have been investigated. Therefore, glassy pyranylidene derivatives could be a very potential low-cost solution processable materials for Alq3 hosted light-amplification and light-emitting application studies.

  3. Butylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Butylate ; CASRN 2008 - 41 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  4. Assessment of the ability of seaweed extracts to protect against hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced cellular damage in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, A M; O'Callaghan, Y C; O'Grady, M N; Queguineur, B; Hanniffy, D; Troy, D J; Kerry, J P; O'Brien, N M

    2012-09-15

    The ability of brown seaweed extracts, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria hyperborea, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus to protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) induced stress in Caco-2 cells was investigated. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring alteration in the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutases (SOD) and cellular levels of glutathione (GSH). L. hyperborea, P. canaliculata and F. serratus significantly protected against tert-BOOH induced SOD reduction but did not protect against the reduction in CAT activity or the increased cellular levels of GSH. The ability of F. serratus and F. vesiculosus to protect against H(2)O(2) and tert-BOOH induced DNA damage was also assessed. The DNA protective effects of the two seaweed extracts was compared to those of three metal chelators; deferoxamine mesylate (DFO), 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen) and 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (BAPTA-AM). F. serratus and F. vesiculosus significantly protected (P<0.05) against H(2)O(2) (50 μM) induced DNA damage but not tert-BOOH induced damage. PMID:23107739

  5. ``Living polymers'' in organic solvents : stress relaxation in bicopper tetracarboxylate/tert-butyl cyclohexane solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terech, P.; Maldivi, P.; Dammer, C.

    1994-10-01

    Viscoelastic solutions of a bicopper tetracarboxylate complex in tert-butylcyclohexane have been studied by dynamic rheology in a wide range of concentrations (0.5-1.5 % volume fraction). The zero shear viscosity, the elastic modulus, the terminal stress relaxation time and the height of the high-frequency dip, in a Cole-Cole representation of the complex elastic modulus, follow scaling laws. The related exponents are discussed in the context of the physics of “living polymers” : a term used to describe worm-like species undergoing scission/recombination reactions competing mainly with the reptation motions of the chains. The current system, made up of molecular threads (17.5 Å diameter) of Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 in the apolar solvent, is representative of a “living polymer” where, instead of mechanisms involving transient star polymeric crosslinks, a reversible scission mechanism prevails. The dynamics in the high-frequency range evolves from a regime where reptation is the dominant relaxation mechanism to a cross-over regime where “breathing” fluctuations and Rouse motions become important. Large modifications of the stress relaxation function occur for more concentrated systems. The binary system is the first example of a “living polymer” in an organic solvent and exhibits elastic moduli (G ? ca. 120 Pa à ? = 1 %) which are at least 20 times larger than those found for the aqueous “living polymer” systems. Les solutions viscoélastiques d'un tétracarboxylate binucléaire de cuivre dans le tert-butylcyclohexane sont étudiées par rhéologie en mode dynamique dans une gamme étendue de concentrations (0,5 %-15,5 %). La viscosité à gradient nul, le module élastique, le temps terminal de relaxation et la hauteur du puits à haute fréquence, dans une représentation Cole-Cole du module élastique complexe, suivent des lois d'échelles. Les exposants correspondants sont discutés dans le contexte de la physique des “polymères vivants" : un terme utilisé pour décrire des espèces vermiformes subissant des réactions de scission/recombinaison en compétition principalement avec les mouvements de reptation des chaînes. Le système constitué de fils moléculaires (17,5 Å de diamètre) de Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 dans le solvant apolaire est typique de “polymères vivants” où le mécanisme de scission réversible prévaut plutôt que les mécanismes impliquant des nœuds transitoires branchés. La dynamique dans le domaine des hautes fréquences évolue d'un régime où la reptation est le mécanisme de relaxation dominant vers un régime intermédiaire où les modes de “respiration” et de Rouse deviennent importants. D'importantes modifications de la relaxation de contrainte se produisent pour les systèmes concentrés. Le système binaire est le premier exemple de “polymère vivant” en milieu organique et présente des modules élastiques (G ? ca. 120 Pa à ? = 1 %) qui sont au moins 20 fois plus grands que ceux des homologues aqueux.

  6. Experimental study on the enhancement of the neurotoxicity of methyl n-butyl ketone by non-neurotoxic aliphatic monoketones.

    PubMed Central

    Misumi, J; Nagano, M

    1985-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of methyl n-butyl ketone is known to be enhanced by combination with methyl ethyl ketone. This study was conducted to clarify the potentiating effect of aliphatic monoketones on the neurotoxicity of methyl n-butyl ketone. Rats were subcutaneously injected in the back with 4 mmol/kg/day of methyl ethyl ketone, methyl n-propyl ketone, methyl n-amyl ketone, or methyl n-hexyl ketone mixed with an equimolar dose of methyl n-butyl ketone five days a week for 20 weeks. The maximum motor fibre conduction velocity and the distal latency were measured every two weeks in the tail nerves of the treated animals and controls. All the monoketones tested enhanced the neurotoxicity of methyl n-butyl ketone. Of the compounds tested, methyl n-hexyl ketone, which had the longest carbon chain, enhanced the neurotoxicity of methyl n-butyl ketone most strongly. These results suggest that the length of the carbon chain of the aliphatic monoketones combined with methyl n-butyl ketone was related to the enhancement of the neurotoxicity of the neurotoxic compound. PMID:3970879

  7. 5-Hydroxyalkyl derivatives of tert-butyl 2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylate: diastereoselectivity of the Mukaiyama crossed-aldol-type reaction.

    PubMed

    Vallat, Olivier; Buciumas, Ana-Maria; Neier, Reinhard; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2009-04-01

    The title compounds, rac-(1'R,2R)-tert-butyl 2-(1'-hydroxyethyl)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylate, C(17)H(20)N(2)O(6), (I), rac-(1'S,2R)-tert-butyl 2-[1'-hydroxy-3'-(methoxycarbonyl)propyl]-3-(2-nitrophenyl)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylate, C(20)H(24)N(2)O(8), (II), and rac-(1'S,2R)-tert-butyl 2-(4'-bromo-1'-hydroxybutyl)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylate, C(13)H(20)BrNO(4), (III), are 5-hydroxyalkyl derivatives of tert-butyl 2-oxo-2,5-dihydropyrrole-1-carboxylate. In all three compounds, the tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) unit is orientated in the same manner with respect to the mean plane through the 2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole ring. The hydroxyl substituent at one of the newly created chiral centres, which have relative R,R stereochemistry, is trans with respect to the oxo group of the pyrrole ring in (I), synthesized using acetaldehyde. When a larger aldehyde was used, as in compounds (II) and (III), the hydroxyl substituent was found to be cis with respect to the oxo group of the pyrrole ring. Here, the relative stereochemistry of the newly created chiral centres is R,S. In compound (I), O-H...O hydrogen bonding leads to an interesting hexagonal arrangement of symmetry-related molecules. In (II) and (III), the hydroxyl groups are involved in bifurcated O-H...O hydrogen bonds, and centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded dimers are formed. The Mukaiyama crossed-aldol-type reaction was successful when using the 2-nitrophenyl-substituted hydroxypyrrole, or the unsubstituted hydroxypyrrole, and boron trifluoride diethyl ether as catalyst. The synthetic procedure leads to a syn configuration of the two newly created chiral centres in all three compounds. PMID:19346616

  8. Isolation of phlorotannins from Eisenia bicyclis and their hepatoprotective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hyperoxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Min; Kang, Kyungsu; Jeon, Je-Seung; Jho, Eun Hye; Kim, Chul Young; Nho, Chu Won; Um, Byung-Hun

    2011-11-01

    Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell is a common brown alga that inhabits the middle Pacific coast around Korea and Japan. In this study, the ethanol extract and its serial solvent fractions were prepared from fresh E. bicyclis, and their hepatoprotective effects were investigated against hepatotoxicity in tert-butyl hyperoxide(t-BHP)-injured HepG2 cells. When these samples were used at a dose of 10-40 ?g/mL?¹, they significantly protected the t-BHP-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. Among fractions, ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and n-butanol extract (BF) exhibited potent hepatoprotective activities (62.60% for EF and 64.86% for BF) in t-BHP-injured HepG2 cells at a concentration of 10 ?g/mL?¹. To find the potential factors for this activity, the samples were characterized on total phenolics, chlorophylls, carotenoids, and radical scavenging activity. Among them, EF showed the highest content of total phenolics and the strongest antioxidant activity both in on- and offline assays. Five phlorotannin compounds, oligomers of phloroglucinol, were isolated chromatographically from this fraction and structurally identified by (1)H-NMR and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analyses as eckol(1), 6,6'-bieckol(2), 8,8'-bieckol(3), dieckol(4), and phlorofucofuroeckol A(5). Compound 5 among five purified compounds showed the strongest protective activity (45.54%) at a concentration of 10 ?M. At the high dose (40 ?M), the protective activities of three compounds (compound 2, 4, and 5) were higher than that of quercetin treated with 10 ?M concentration. Therefore, we can speculate that they can be developed as potential candidates for natural hepatoprotective agents. PMID:21892616

  9. N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone protects against 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced depletion of serotonin in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, S Y

    1999-03-01

    The present study examined the effect of N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) on 3,4-methylenedioxmathamphetamine (MDMA)-induced depletion of serotonin in the CNS. Rats were treated with two concurrent injections of MDMA (20 mg/kg, s.c.), PBN (50-400 mg/kg dissolved in ethanol, 50 mg/ml of 25% ethanol, i.p.), saline or 25% ethanol, alone or in combination, 6 h apart, and sacrificed 5 days later. Rectal temperature was measured prior to and hourly following the drug injection for 5 h. Monoamine levels in the tissue were measured by HPLC. Density of the 5-HT transporters was assayed by [3H]paroxetine binding. Rectal temperature of rats increased after MDMA, decreased after PBN, ethanol, PBN plus ethanol, and MDMA plus ethanol, and was not significantly altered after MDMA plus PBN. Levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and brain stem of rats decreased significantly after MDMA or MDMA plus ethanol, but not after MDMA plus PBN, PBN plus ethanol (PBN dissolved in ethanol), or ethanol as compared to the saline controls. Levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the brain tissues of rats treated with MDMA plus PBN were elevated as compared to those treated with MDMA plus saline. Similar results were observed in the density of 5-HT transporters in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that scavenging of free radicals of MDMA metabolites or reactive oxygen species by PBN and with lowering of body temperature protected against MDMA-induced depletion of serotonin transmitter. PMID:10029234

  10. Hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking inter­actions in tris­(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)nickel(II) bis­{[1-tert-butyl­imidazole-2(3H)-thione-κS]trichloridonickelate(II)} acetonitrile disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Udai P.; Aggarwal, Vaibhave

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Ni(C12H8N2)3][NiCl3(C7H12N2S)]2·2CH3CN, consists of one anion, one-half of a cation and one acetonitrile mol­ecule. The NiII atom in the [Ni(phen)3]2+ cation (phen is 1,10-phenanthroline) lies on an inversion centre in an octa­hedral environment, whereas in the [NiCl3(tm)]− anion [tm is 1-tert-butyl­imidazole-2(3H)-thione], the geometry is distorted tetra­hedral. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking inter­actions (centroid–centroid distance = 3.52 Å) lead to the formation of a three-dimensional framework. One of the methyl groups of the tert-butyl group of N-tert-butyl-2-thio­imidazole is disordered between two equally populated positions. PMID:21202789

  11. REFINED PBPK MODEL OF AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aggregate (multiple pathway) exposures to methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in air and water occur via dermal, inhalation, and oral routes. Previously, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to quantify the kinetic behavior of MTBE and its primary met...

  12. DERMAL, ORAL AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors, has contaminated drinking water and can lead to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhal...

  13. DERMAL, ORAL, AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive, used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors has contaminated drinking water leading to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhalation ki...

  14. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1983-01-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C.sub.4 hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether.

  15. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURES TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans can be exposed by inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption to methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an oxygenated fuel additive, from contaminated water sources. The purpose of this research was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing in human...

  16. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  17. A COMPARISON OF LIQUID AND GAS-PHASE PHOTOOXIDATION TREATMENT OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER: SYNTHETIC AND FIELD SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of photo-oxidation treatment of metyl tert-butyl either (MTBE) in water was investigated using two systems, 1) a slurry falling film photo-reactor, and 2) an integrated air-stripping with gas phase photooxidation system. MTBE-contaminated synthetic water and field...

  18. Study of tert-Amyl Methyl Ether Low Temperature Oxidation Using Synchrotron Photoionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ng, Martin Y; Bryan, Brittany M; Nelson, Jordan; Meloni, Giovanni

    2015-08-13

    This paper examines the oxidation reaction of tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), an oxygenated fuel additive, with chlorine radical initiators in the presence of oxygen. Data are collected at 298, 550, and 700 K. Reaction intermediates and products are probed by a multiplexed chemical kinetics synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometer (SPIMS) and characterized on the basis of the mass-to-charge ratio, ionization energy, and photoionization spectra. Branching fractions of primary products are obtained at the different reaction temperatures. CBS-QB3 computations are also carried out to study the potential energy surface of the investigated reactions to validate detected primary products. PMID:26200937

  19. Synergic effect of acetal-based resin by blending with poly[4-hydroxy styrene-co-tert-butyl acrylate-co-4-(3-cyano-1,5-di-tert-butyl carbonyl pentyl styrene)] (P(HS-TBA-CBPS)) on the profiles of 248 nm chemically amplified resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sik; Lee, Dong H.; Cho, Sook H.; Im, Kwang H.; Yim, Yun-Gill; Kim, Deog-Bae; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2002-07-01

    We prepared ter-polymer of hydroxystyrene, tert-butyl acrylate and 4-(3-cyano-1,5-di-tert-butyl carbonyl pentyl styrene) (P(HS-TBA-CBPS)) and discussed a characteristic of prepared polymer. As TBA, newly introduced monomer increases, contrast of resist is improved. And the prepared polymer was blended with poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-4-(1-ethylethoxystyrene)) (EE-PHS). The synergic effect on a resist performance in KrF lithography by the combination of high and low activation energy system was shown. A resist using blending polymer was shown a good performance on resolution and LER(Line Edge Roughness) than resist using polymer separately. Based on the results, it was found that high performance KrF resist could be obtained by optimization of polymer blending.

  20. Technical note: quantification of zeins from corn, high-moisture corn, and corn silage using a turbidimetric method: comparative efficiencies of isopropyl and tert-butyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Giuberti, G; Gallo, A; Masoero, F

    2012-06-01

    Zeins are corn endosperm storage proteins that encapsulate starch granules into a protein matrix, which can act as a barrier to starch accessibility and digestion. Laboratory methods to quantify zein are seldom used because they are considered arduous and time-consuming. A recently published rapid turbidimetric method (mTM) was reinvestigated by changing the solution originally used for the zein solubilization step. In particular, the aim was to explore whether, and to what extent, the use of tert-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH-mTM) in lieu of isopropyl alcohol (i-PrOH-mTM) was able to improve the quantification of zeins from dry corn, high-moisture corn, and corn silage samples. The nature of the alcohol influenced the zein extraction values, and t-BuOH-mTM gave higher zein values in corn (3.6 vs. 3.3 g/100 g of dry matter) and corn silage samples (1.2 vs. 0.9 g/100 g of dry matter) compared with i-PrOH-mTM. In contrast, similar zein extraction values were obtained for high-moisture corn (2.1 vs. 1.9 g/100 g of dry matter, respectively). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis revealed no contamination by nonzein proteins with the use of tert-butyl alcohol. Overall, these findings indicated that tert-butyl alcohol has a greater ability to solubilize zein compared with isopropyl alcohol and thus the t-BuOH-mTM allowed greater extraction of zeins. Considering the growing interest of animal nutritionists in zein proteins, such results should provide useful information for routine laboratory analysis. PMID:22612972

  1. Discovery and structure-guided optimization of tert-butyl 6-(phenoxymethyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzoates as liver X receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Takanori; Yoshida, Masayuki; Arai, Masami; Terasaka, Naoki; Honzumi, Shoko; Wakabayashi, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinko; Nakai, Daisuke; Hanzawa, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-15

    To obtain potent liver X receptor (LXR) agonists, a structure-activity relationship study was performed on a series of tert-butyl benzoate analogs. As the crystal structure analysis suggested applicable interactions between the LXR ligand-binding domain and the ligands, two key functional groups were introduced. The introduction of the hydroxyl group on the C6-position of the benzoate part enhanced the agonistic activity in a cell-based assay, and the carboxyl group in terminal improved the pharmacokinetic profile in mice, respectively. The obtained compound 32b increased blood ABCA1 mRNA expression without plasma TG elevation in both mice and cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:26238323

  2. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT quinone methide): an active metabolite of BHT causing haemorrhages in rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, O

    1988-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats and male ICR mice, species respectively susceptible and resistant to the haemorrhagic effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), were administered BHT quinone methide (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone) orally; 24 or 48 h later the plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X were determined. BHT quinone methide caused a decrease in factors II, VII, IX and X in a dose-dependent manner after 48 h, while a similar dose of BHT did not. Haemorrhages in epididymis or thymus were found in BHT quinone methide-treated rats. These findings may support the belief that BHT quinone methide is an active metabolite which disturbs the vitamin K redox cycle in BHT-induced haemorrhage. PMID:3240097

  3. Azobenzene versus 3,3',5,5'-tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene (TBA) at Au(111): characterizing the role of spacer groups.

    PubMed

    McNellis, Erik R; Bronner, Christopher; Meyer, Jörg; Weinelt, Martin; Tegeder, Petra; Reuter, Karsten

    2010-06-28

    We present large-scale density-functional theory (DFT) calculations and temperature programmed desorption measurements to characterize the structural, energetic and vibrational properties of the functionalized molecular switch 3,3',5,5'-tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene (TBA) adsorbed at Au(111). Particular emphasis is placed on exploring the accuracy of the semi-empirical dispersion correction approach to semi-local DFT (DFT-D) in accounting for the substantial van der Waals component in the surface bonding. In line with previous findings for benzene and pure azobenzene at coinage metal surfaces, DFT-D significantly overbinds the molecule, but seems to yield an accurate adsorption geometry as far as can be judged from the experimental data. Comparing the trans adsorption geometry of TBA and azobenzene at Au(111) reveals a remarkable insensitivity of the structural and vibrational properties of the -N[double bond, length as m-dash]N- moiety. This questions the established view of the role of the bulky tert-butyl-spacer groups for the switching of TBA in terms of a mere geometric decoupling of the photochemically active diazo-bridge from the gold substrate. PMID:20379594

  4. 5,11,17,23,29-Penta-tert-butyl-31,32,33,34,35-penta­propoxycalix[5]arene dichloro­methane hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Pojarová, Michaela; Dušek, Michal; Budka, Jan; Císa?ová, Ivana; Makrlík, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, tert-butyl­propoxycalix[5]arene, C70H100O5·0.5CH2Cl2, crystallizes as a solvate with two mol­ecules of calix[5]arene in 1,2-alternate conformations and one mol­ecule of dichloro­methane in the asymmetric unit. One tert-butyl group in one of the mol­ecules and two in the other are disordered over two positions with occupancy factors fixed at 0.5917:0.4083, 0.5901:0.4099 and 0.8535:0.1465, respectively, in the final refinement. The C atoms of a prop­oxy group in each of the mol­ecules are also disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.7372:0.2628 and 0.5027:0.4973. The mol­ecules form intra­molecular hydrogen bonds between prop­oxy O atoms and an adjacent CH2 group in a neighbouring prop­oxy chain. In the crystal, inter­molecular C—H?O and C—H?Cl inter­actions occur involving the dichloro­methane mol­ecule. PMID:21522987

  5. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Olawale R.; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Marnewick, Jeanine L.

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

  6. Tissue concentrations of methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl n-butyl ketone and their metabolites after oral or inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Duguay, A B; Plaa, G L

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative relationships between plasma, liver and lung methyl isobutyl ketone (MiBK) and methyl n-butyl ketone (MnBK) concentrations after oral or inhalation exposure were established. Their respective metabolites (4-methyl-2-pentanol, 4-hydroxy-methyl isobutyl ketone, 2-hexanol, and 2,5-hexanedione) were also quantified. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 3 days to MiBK or MnBK vapors (4 h/day) or treated orally for 3 days with a MiBK- or MnBK-corn oil solution. Both ketones and their respective metabolites in plasma or tissue concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. MiBK and MnBK plasma and tissue concentrations increased in a dose-related manner with the administered dose irrespective of the route of administration. Metabolite concentrations, however, were influenced by the route of administration. PMID:7863537

  7. Multi-frequency ESR study of the polycrystalline phenoxyl radical of alpha-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-tert-butylnitrone in the diamagnetic matrix.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Toshiki; Noda, Yohei; Yamauchi, Seigo; Yamauchi, Jun

    2006-01-26

    Multifrequency (X-, Q-, and W-band) electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been used to characterize the phenoxyl radical produced from alpha-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-tert-butylnitrone, which is a new spin-trapping reagent. The X-band measurement did not resolve the powder-pattern ESR spectrum. Because of its higher resolution with g value, the Q-band ESR study revealed that the g factor has an axial-like symmetry and that the observed hyperfine structure in the Z-direction is caused by the nitrogen nucleus at the para-position. Furthermore, the results of the W-band ESR experiment more clearly distinguished the perpendicular components from the parallel component, resolving the perpendicular components into x and y components. The X-band powder spectrum was similar to the X-band ESR spectrum of the radical in a frozen solution of toluene. The computer simulation spectra performed using the obtained parameters fitted the experimental spectra well. A comparison of the amplitude of g( perpendicular)(gx, gy) with that of gz showed that the unpaired electron is delocalized over the pi-conjugated framework. Considering the hyperfine coupling constant, it was concluded that about 16% of the unpaired electron distributed over the nitrogen nucleus at the para-position. This study thus showed the significant potential of a multifrequency ESR approach to a powder sample radical in terms of its high resolution with g value. PMID:16420025

  8. Benzene formation from the flow reactor oxidation of methyl t-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.H.; Shanbhag, S.; Dellinger, B.

    1998-10-01

    The stoichiometric oxidation of methyl t-butyl ether at temperatures of 973 and 1273 K using a fused silica tubular flow reactor is reported. H abstraction by OH radicals is expected to become effective in competing with the previously proposed four-center methanol elimination initiation pathway above 973 K. This is based on the nine equivalent C-H abstraction sites on the t-butyl group coupled with OH being nonselective towards the abstraction sites at these temperatures. In addition to the formation of isobutene and methanol as primary organic byproducts, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis indicated the facile formation of benzene and other aromatic compounds at 1273 K. The decomposition of isobutene through propargyl radical intermediates is the most likely source of the formation of these compounds, subject to model verification.

  9. Growth and characterization of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol single crystal by the vertical Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva Bala Solanki, S.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana; Basheer Ahamed, M.

    2015-02-01

    Single crystal of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol has been grown by the modified vertical Bridgman method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the crystal confirm that the material belongs to the monoclinic system and space group C2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis ascertains the functional group of grown crystal. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analyses are used to assess the thermal characteristics. The surface laser damage value was determined using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm, which is a positive property for nonlinear optical applications. Vickers's indentation test is performed to analyze the mechanical behavior of the materials. An optical transmission study is used to compute optical band gap and cutoff wavelength. Fluorescence studies were performed to the grown crystal. The Kurtz and Perry powder technique is used to determine the second harmonic conversion efficiency of the sample.

  10. Identification of hepatoprotective xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, guided with tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in HL-7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Qianyu; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Lin, Ligen

    2015-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative damage in human normal hepatocytes (HL-7702), led to the identification of 10 known xanthones. Among them, ?-mangostin (?-Man) exhibited the most potent activity to attenuate t-BHP induced hepatocyte injury. ?-Man significantly ameliorated t-BHP induced reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cell nuclei morphology change in HL-7702 cells. t-BHP decreased the intracellular levels of key enzymes including glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was totally reversed by ?-Man. Moreover, ?-Man significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione, resulting in the alleviation of oxidative stress. The above results suggest ?-Man is a potential hepatoprotective agent against t-BHP induced oxidative injury, which may benefit the further application of G. mangostana as a health food. PMID:26189454

  11. Preparation of Langmuir-Blodgett thin films of calix[6]arenes and p-tert butyl group effect on their gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozmen, Mustafa; Ozbek, Zikriye; Bayrakci, Mevlut; Ertul, Seref; Ersoz, Mustafa; Capan, Rifat

    2015-12-01

    Organic vapor sensing properties of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) thin films of p-tert-butyl calix[6]arene and calix[6]arene, and their certain characterization are reported in this work. LB films of these calixarenes have been characterized by contact angle measurement, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). QCM system was used for the measurement of sensor response against chloroform, benzene, toluene and ethanol vapors. Forming of stable monolayers was observed at the water surface using surface pressure-area isotherm graph. The results indicate that good quality, uniform LB films can be prepared with a transfer ratio of over 0.95. Due to the adsorption of vapors into the LB film structures; they yield a response to all vapors as of large, fast, and reproducible.

  12. Determination of optical conductivity and different optical energy losses for non-crystalline Vanadyl tetra tert-butyl 2,3 Naphthalocyanine thinfilms

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanya, I.; Menon, C. S.

    2011-10-20

    Amorphous Vanadyl Tetra Tert Butyl 2, 3 naphthalocyanine thin films (VTTBNc) have been deposited using Physical Vapor Deposition technique. By analyzing the X-ray diffraction, the structure of as deposited films is found to be non-crystalline. Different optical properties of these thin films have been investigated by means of optical absorption and reflection spectra. Various optical constants like band gap energy, E{sub g} the width of band tails of localized states into the gap, E{sub U} and steepness parameter, {beta} gets calculated and the variation of different optical parameters like refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constants, optical conductivity and surface and volume energy losses with photon energy are estimated.

  13. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2B1 and Its F-Helix Mutant by Two tert-Butyl Acetylenic Compounds: Covalent Modification of Prosthetic Heme Versus Apoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsia-lien; Zhang, Haoming; Noon, Kathleen R.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome CYP2B1 [wild type (WT)] and its Thr205 to Ala mutant (T205A) by tert-butylphenylacetylene (BPA) and tert-butyl 1-methyl-2-propynyl ether (BMP) in the reconstituted system was investigated. The inactivation of WT by BPA exhibited a kinact/KI value of 1343 min−1mM−1 and a partition ratio of 1. The inactivation of WT by BMP exhibited a kinact/KI value of 33 min−1mM−1 and a partition ratio of 10. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC/MS/MS) of the WT revealed 1) inactivation by BPA resulted in the formation of a protein adduct with a mass increase equivalent to the mass of BPA plus one oxygen atom, and 2) inactivation by BMP resulted in the formation of multiple heme adducts that all exhibited a mass increase equivalent to BMP plus one oxygen atom. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated the formation of glutathione (GSH) conjugates by the reaction of GSH with the ethynyl moiety of BMP or BPA with the oxygen being added to the internal or terminal carbon. For the inactivation of T205A by BPA and BMP, the kinact/KI values were suppressed by 100- and 4-fold, respectively, and the partition ratios were increased 9- and 3.5-fold, respectively. Only one major heme adduct was detected following the inactivation of the T205A by BMP. These results show that the Thr205 in the F-helix plays an important role in the efficiency of the mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2B1 by BPA and BMP. Homology modeling and substrate docking studies were presented to facilitate the interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:19700628

  14. Metabolism of m-tert.-butylphenyl N-methylcarbamate in insects and mice

    PubMed Central

    Douch, P. G. C.; Smith, J. N.

    1971-01-01

    The metabolism of m-tert.-butylphenyl N-methylcarbamate was studied in mice and five species of insects. Both the tert.-butyl group and the N-methyl group were hydroxylated. The major phenolic metabolite was m-(?-hydroxy-tert.-butyl)phenol, which was identified by mass spectroscopy. Significant amounts of dihydroxy compounds were formed at a constant rate from the start of the enzymic oxidation process. The considerable species variation in the yields of the different types of oxidation products suggests that N-demethylation and oxidation of the tert.-butyl groups were catalysed by different enzymes. A microsomal NADPH-dependent enzyme also catalysed the splitting of the ester link in the insecticide. PMID:4401377

  15. 4-Bromo­methyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajaiah, H.; Puttaraju, K. B.; Shivashankar, K.; Begum, Noor Shahina

    2013-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C14H15BrO2, weak C—H?O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into zigzag chains extending along the c-axis direction. These chains are further assembled into (100) layers via ?–? stacking inter­actions between inversion-related chromenone fragments [inter­planar distance = 3.376?(2)?Å]. PMID:24046630

  16. 4-Bromo-methyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one.

    PubMed

    Nagarajaiah, H; Puttaraju, K B; Shivashankar, K; Begum, Noor Shahina

    2013-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C14H15BrO2, weak C-H?O inter-actions link the mol-ecules into zigzag chains extending along the c-axis direction. These chains are further assembled into (100) layers via ?-? stacking inter-actions between inversion-related chromenone fragments [inter-planar distance = 3.376?(2)?Å]. PMID:24046630

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE is a volatile organic chemical used to oxygenate gasoline. Oxygenated gasoline improves the exhaust emissions from gasoline engines. Since 1992 it has been used to comply with the Federal Reformulated Gasoline (begun in 1995) and Wintertime Oxygenated Fuel (begun in 1992) p...

  18. Participation of covalent modification of Keap1 in the activation of Nrf2 by tert-butylbenzoquinone, an electrophilic metabolite of butylated hydroxyanisole

    SciTech Connect

    Abiko, Yumi; Miura, Takashi; Phuc, Bui Hoang; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2011-08-15

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is an antioxidant and class-2B carcinogen. It is biotransformed to tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), which readily auto-oxidizes to the electrophilic metabolite tert-butylbenzoquinone (TBQ). BHA and TBHQ activate Nrf2, a transcription factor that is negatively regulated by Keap1 and plays a role in the initial response to chemicals causing oxidative or electrophilic stress, although, the exact mechanism of Nrf2 activation remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of TBQ in Nrf2 activation. Exposure of RAW264.7 cells to TBQ activated Nrf2 and up-regulated its downstream proteins; under these conditions, TBQ produced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, while pretreatment with catalase conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG-CAT) did not affect the TBQ-induced activation of Nrf2, the ROS generation caused by TBQ was entirely abolished by PEG-CAT, suggesting that ROS is not the dominant factor for TBQ-dependent Nrf2 activation. A click chemistry technique indicated that TBQ chemically modifies Keap1. Furthermore, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis with purified Keap1 revealed that TBQ covalently binds to Keap1 through Cys23, Cys151, Cys226, and Cys368. These results suggest that TBQ derived from BHA activates Nrf2 through electrophilic modification of Keap1 rather than ROS formation. - Research Highlights: > tert-Butylbenzoquinone (TBQ) activates Nrf2 in RAW264.7 cells. > ROS is not essential factor for Nrf2 activation caused by TBQ. > TBQ covalently binds to Keap1 through reactive thiols, resulting in Nrf2 activation.

  19. Tris(tetra­butyl­ammonium) hexa­kis­(tert-butane­thiol­ato-?S)hepta-?3-chlorido-?3-sulfido-hexa­molybdate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Pavel A.; Naumov, Dmitry Yu.; Konchenko, Sergey N.

    2012-01-01

    The octa­hedral cluster core of the anion in the structure of the title compound, (C16H36N)3[Mo6(C4H9S)6(?3-Cl)7(?3-S)]·2H2O, has -3 site symmetry. Two ?3-Cl atoms fully occupy positions in the cluster core, while the remaining six positions are statistically occupied by Cl and S atoms in a 1:5 ratio. The fully occupied Cl-atom positions are located on sites with 3 symmetry, and the N atom of tetra­butyl­ammonium cation is located on a site with 2 symmetry. The structure contains also two disordered solvent water mol­ecules, one of which is located on a threefold rotation axis and the other in a general position, both with an occupancy of 0.25. The water mol­ecules are localized in cavities formed by the tetra­butyl­ammonium cations and the tert-butane­thiol­ate groups. The metal clusters are stacked in a cubic close packing arrangement along [001]. PMID:22412467

  20. Tris(tetra-butyl-ammonium) hexa-kis-(tert-butane-thiol-ato-?S)hepta-?(3)-chlorido-?(3)-sulfido-hexa-molybdate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Pavel A; Naumov, Dmitry Yu; Konchenko, Sergey N

    2012-03-01

    The octa-hedral cluster core of the anion in the structure of the title compound, (C(16)H(36)N)(3)[Mo(6)(C(4)H(9)S)(6)(?(3)-Cl)(7)(?(3)-S)]·2H(2)O, has -3 site symmetry. Two ?(3)-Cl atoms fully occupy positions in the cluster core, while the remaining six positions are statistically occupied by Cl and S atoms in a 1:5 ratio. The fully occupied Cl-atom positions are located on sites with 3 symmetry, and the N atom of tetra-butyl-ammonium cation is located on a site with 2 symmetry. The structure contains also two disordered solvent water mol-ecules, one of which is located on a threefold rotation axis and the other in a general position, both with an occupancy of 0.25. The water mol-ecules are localized in cavities formed by the tetra-butyl-ammonium cations and the tert-butane-thiol-ate groups. The metal clusters are stacked in a cubic close packing arrangement along [001]. PMID:22412467

  1. Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of 3-t-(methyl- UC) butyl-4-hydroxyanisole in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, G.A.; Hendrix, P.Y.

    1985-09-01

    Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of 3-t-(methyl- UC)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole was studied in male rats. 3-t-(methyl- UC)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole was administered by gavage at a single dose of 1.5 mmol/kg. Urine, feces, blood, and 20 major tissues were collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 16, 17, 18, 24, 48, 72, 168, and 240 hr after dosing and were analyzed for radioactivity. Almost all radioactivity was eliminated from rats in 48 hrs. Forty one per cent of the administered dose was recovered in urine, while feces accounted for 53%. At early time points radioactivity was mainly found in gastrointestinal tissues with concentrations remaining high up to 16-18 hr after administration indicating a slow absorption and elimination of the compound. The maximum concentration of radiolabel in kidney, liver, bladder, spleen, heart, pancreas, and brain was reached at 6 hr and remained up to 24 hr. The concentration of radioactivity in liver and kidney was approximately 10-fold higher than other tissues at the peak time of 16-18 hrs. Calculated absorption and elimination rate constants demonstrated slow uptake and clearance of label by many tissues. Covalent binding in eight representative tissues at 10 time points was also studied. Results indicate that binding increases slowly and exponentially with time reaching maximum levels at 12-24 hr in most of the tissues followed by a slow decline with time.

  2. Comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of chemical equilibria in the reacting system of the tert-amyl methyl ether synthesis.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Andreas; Kapteina, Simon; Verevkin, Sergey P

    2007-09-20

    The chemical equilibrium of the reactive system (methanol+isoamylenes<-->methyl tert-amyl ether) was studied in the temperature range 298-393 K in the liquid phase using the method of sealed ampoules as well as in the gaseous phase using a tubular flow reactor in the temperature range 355-378 K. In both cases, a cation exchanger Amberlist-15 was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The reactive system of the methyl tert-amyl ether synthesis exhibits a strong nonideal behavior of the mixture compounds in the liquid phase. The knowledge of the activity coefficients is required in order to obtain the thermodynamic equilibrium constants Ka. Two well-established procedures, UNIFAC and COSMO-RS, have been used to assess activity coefficients of the reaction participants in the liquid phase. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants KP measured in the gaseous phase together with the vapor pressures of the pure compounds have been used to obtain Ka in the liquid phase on a consistent experimental basis in order to check the results obtained from the UNIFAC and COSMO-RS methods. Enthalpies of reactions DeltarH degrees of the methyl tert-amyl ether synthesis reaction in the gaseous and in the liquid phase were obtained from temperature dependences of the corresponding thermodynamic equilibrium constants. Consistency of the experimental data of DeltarH degrees was verified with help of enthalpies of formation and enthalpies of vaporization of methyl tert-amyl ether, methanol, and methyl-butenes, available from the literature. For the sake of comparison, high-level ab initio calculations of the reaction participants have been performed using the Gaussian-03 program package. Absolute electronic energy values, normal frequencies (harmonic approximation), and moments of inertia of the molecules have been obtained using G2(MP2), G3(MP2), and G3 levels. Using these results, calculated equilibrium constants and the enthalpy of reaction of the methyl tert-amyl ether synthesis in the gaseous phase based on the principles of statistical thermodynamics are found to be in acceptable agreement with the data obtained from the thermochemical measurements. PMID:17722908

  3. Highly efficient enzymatic synthesis of tert-butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate with a mutant alcohol dehydrogenase of Lactobacillus kefir.

    PubMed

    He, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Shao-Yun; Wu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Li-Rong; Xu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    tert-Butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((S)-CHOH) is a valuable chiral synthon, which is used for the synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. To date, only the alcohol dehydrogenases from Lactobacillus brevis (LbADH) and Lactobacillus kefir (LkADH) have demonstrated catalytic activity toward the asymmetric reduction of tert-butyl 6-chloro-3,5-dioxohexanoate (CDOH) to (S)-CHOH. Herein, a tetrad mutant of LkADH (LkTADH), A94T/F147L/L199H/A202L, was screened to be more efficient in this bioreduction process, exhibiting a 3.7- and 42-fold improvement in specific activity toward CDOH (1.27 U/mg) over LbADH (0.34 U/mg) and wild-type LkADH (0.03 U/mg), respectively. The molecular basis for the improved catalytic activity of LkTADH toward CDOH was investigated using homology modeling and docking analysis. Two major issues had a significant impact on the biocatalytic efficiency of this process, including (i) the poor aqueous stability of the substrate and (ii) partial substrate inhibition. A fed-batch strategy was successfully developed to address these issues and maintain a suitably low substrate concentration throughout the entire process. Several other parameters were also optimized, including the pH, temperature, NADP(+) concentration and cell loading. A final CDOH concentration of 427 mM (100 g/L) gave (S)-CHOH in 94 % yield and 99.5 % e.e. after a reaction time of 38 h with whole cells expressing LkTADH. The space-time yield and turnover number of NADP(+) in this process were 10.6 mmol/L/h and 16,060 mol/mol, respectively, which were the highest values ever reported. This new approach therefore represents a promising alternative for the efficient synthesis of (S)-CHOH. PMID:26004803

  4. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) - ADVANCED FUEL HYDROCARBON REMEDIATION NATIONAL TEST LOCATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Equilon's Westhollow Technology Center teamed with Arizona State University to evaluate an in-situ process for bioremediation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is a gasoline additive that was introduced in fuels to reduce emission of a number of air pollutants including...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR DERMAL ABSORPTION NAD PENETRATION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic chemical that is added to gasoline as an octane booster and to reduce vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide. MTBE is introduced into the environment through fuel spills, leakage of storage tanks, and evaporat...

  6. REMOVAL OF METHYL T-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) FROM WATER BY PERVAPORATION: BENCH-SCALE AND PILOT SCALE EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of pervaporation to remove methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) from water was evaluated at bench- and pilot-scales. Process parameters studied included flow rate, temperature, MTBE concentration, membrane module type, and permeate pressure. Pervaporation performance was ass...

  7. California`s cleaner burning gasoline and methyl tertiary butyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, J.; Mazur, L.

    1995-12-31

    As of June 1, 1996, California is required to use cleaner-burning gasoline to help meet federal ambient air quality standards and reduce ambient air toxics. Cleaner-burning gasoline reduces smog-forming emissions from motor vehicles by 15% and air pollution by over three million pounds per day. This is equivalent to removing 3.5 million cars from California`s roads. To enhance combustion and thus reduce emissions, California cleaner burning gasoline is required to contain 2.0% oxygen by weight. This is achieved by addition of oxygenates, such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Ambient air data of MTBE derived from motor vehicle emissions and refueling activities has been measured in several pilot studies and at 22 urban sites as part of California`s Air Resources Board statewide toxics monitoring network. These activities have only recently been initiated and this paper will describe data collected to date.

  8. Double-addition reaction of aryl methyl sulfones with N-tert-butylsulfinyl imines: diastereoselective and concise synthesis of 2-sulfonylated 1,3-diamines.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Li, Desheng; Zheng, Tao; Li, Hongsen; Ren, Xinfeng

    2014-11-10

    We report a double-addition reaction of methyl phenyl sulfone and methyl 2-pyridyl sulfone with N-tert-butylsulfinyl imines. This method provides concise access to 2-sulfonylated 1,3-anti diamines with good to excellent diastereoselectivities. This protocol has the benefit of using readily accessible starting materials and is operationally simple. PMID:25288374

  9. Vibrational frequency analysis, FT-IR, DFT and M06-2X studies on tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2yl)carbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; Singer, L. M.; Findlater, M.; Do?an, Hatice; Ç?rak, Ç.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2yl)carbamate have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) spectrum of the molecule in the solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and DFT/M06-2X (the highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09W software, for the first time. The vibrational frequencies have been assigned using potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The computational optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with related literature results. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and the other related molecular energy values have been calculated and are depicted.

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of the Phyllanthus species on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Arogya, Sheela Meruga; Bhaskarmurthy, Deepak Hiraganahalli; Agarwal, Amit; Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) species have long been used in folk medicine to treat various pathological conditions including liver diseases. Some species of Phyllanthus were found to exhibit hepatoprotective activity against drugs or toxins and this property was majorly attributed to phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. In this study, we examined the hepatoprotective activity of five different species of Phyllanthus, namely, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus fraternus, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis, Phyllanthus urinaria, and Phyllanthus Rotundifolius. The extracts were also evaluated for the presence of key phytoconstituents, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. Materials and Methods: The extracts were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against tert-butyl hydroxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity using human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 cell line). Results: Only P. urinaria and P. maderaspatensis exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity as evident from increased cell viability. The HPLC profile revealed that except P. amarus, the other extracts did not contain phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. Conclusion: P. urinaria and P. maderaspatensis demonstrated dose-dependent hepatoprotective activity and hence, can provide promising therapeutic interventions against chemical–induced liver damage. PMID:21969794

  11. Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water-tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman

    2014-05-01

    Water-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with xTBA ? 0.03-0.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at xTBA ? 0.05. We note that "islands" of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, xTBA ? 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

  12. Effects of Consumption of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and a Rooibos-Derived Commercial Supplement on Hepatic Tissue Injury by tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Canda, B. D.; Oguntibeju, O. O.; Marnewick, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidative effect of rooibos herbal tea and a rooibos-derived commercial supplement on tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (t-BHP-) induced oxidative stress in the liver. Forty male Wistar rats consumed fermented rooibos, unfermented rooibos, a rooibos-derived commercial supplement, or water for 10 weeks, while oxidative stress was induced during the last 2 weeks via intraperitoneal injection of 30 µmole of t-BHP per 100 g body weight. None of the beverages impaired the body weight gain of the respective animals. Rats consuming the rooibos-derived commercial supplement had the highest (P < 0.05) daily total polyphenol intake (169 mg/day) followed by rats consuming the unfermented rooibos (93.4 mg/day) and fermented rooibos (73.1 mg/day). Intake of both the derived supplement and unfermented rooibos restored the t-BHP-induced reduction and increased (P < 0.05) the antioxidant capacity status of the liver, while not impacting on lipid peroxidation. The rooibos herbal tea did not affect the hepatic antioxidant enzymes, except fermented rooibos that caused a decrease (P < 0.05) in superoxide dismutase activity. This study confirms rooibos herbal tea as good dietary antioxidant sources and, in conjunction with its many other components, offers a significantly enhanced antioxidant status of the liver in an induced oxidative stress situation. PMID:24738022

  13. 2,(3)tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole does not reduce SCE induction by benzo(a) pyrene in bone marrow cells of C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Van Horn, R.; DeWire, F.A.; Barnes, W.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Recently, a number of publications have suggested that bone marrow cytogenetics may be used to detect anticarcinogenic or antimutagenic activity. In this work, 0.75% 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), fed in the diet for 2 weeks, was tested for its ability to reduce the frequency of benzo(a)pyrene (BP)-induced SCE in mouse bone marrow. C57BL/6 male mice were injected i.p. with BP at 0, 33, 67, and 100 mg/kg body weight. There are no significant differences between animals on the control and BHA diets. Excretion of BP in urine over a 72 hr time period was significantly increased in animals on the BHA diet, at both low and high doses. Water-soluble metabolites accounted for all of this increase. It appears that bone marrow is not a good model for the gastrointestinal tract, and that short-term assays for anticarcinogens or antimutagens are more likely to be predictive if they are done in the target organs.

  14. Cooperative reduction by Ln(2+) and Cp*(-) ions: synthesis and properties of Sm, Eu, and Yb complexes with 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Pushkarevsky, Nikolay A; Ogienko, Mikhail A; Smolentsev, Anton I; Novozhilov, Igor N; Witt, Alexander; Khusniyarov, Marat M; Cherkasov, Vladimir K; Konchenko, Sergey N

    2016-01-01

    The first examples of samarium, europium, and ytterbium complexes with 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone (3,6-dbbq) in the form of catecholate have been obtained by reactions of the quinone with the corresponding lanthanocenes, (n = 1 or 2) in solution. In the course of the reactions lanthanide ions lose one or two Cp* ligands, which take part in reduction of a quinone molecule into a catecholate anion (dbcat, 2-). As a result of the reactions, Sm and Yb clearly yield dimeric complexes [(LnCp*)2(dbcat)2], where each Ln ion loses one Cp* ligand. Eu forms a trimeric complex [(EuCp*)(Eu·thf)2(dbcat)3], in which one Eu ion is coordinated by one Cp* ligand, while two Eu ions have lost all Cp* ligands and are coordinated by THF molecules instead. Magnetic properties corroborate the assignment of oxidation states made on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction: all the quinone ligands are present in the catecholate state; both Sm/Yb ions in the dimers are in the +3 oxidation state, whereas the Eu trimer contains two Eu(ii) and one Eu(iii) ions. Cyclovoltammetry studies show the presence of two reversible oxidation waves for all complexes, presumably concerned with the redox transitions of the dbcat ligands. PMID:26674171

  15. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R.; Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S.

    2014-03-15

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300 °C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M = Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200 °C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18 nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  16. Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water–tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman

    2014-05-21

    Water–tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with x{sub TBA} ≈ 0.03–0.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at x{sub TBA} ≈ 0.05. We note that “islands” of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, x{sub TBA} ≈ 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

  17. Environmentally responsive self-assembly of mixed poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-polystyrene brush-grafted silica nanoparticles in selective polymer matrices.

    PubMed

    Tang, Saide; Fox, Tara L; Lo, Ting-Ya; Horton, Jonathan M; Ho, Rong-Ming; Zhao, Bin; Stewart, Phoebe L; Zhu, Lei

    2015-07-21

    Environmentally responsive self-assembly of nearly symmetric mixed poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA, 22.2 kDa)/polystyrene (PS, 23.4 kDa) brushes grafted onto 67 nm silica nanoparticles in selective homopolymer matrices [PtBA for the grafted PtBA chains and poly(cyclohexyl methacrylate) (PCHMA) for the grafted PS chains] was investigated using both conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography (i.e., 3D TEM). A variety of self-assembled phase morphologies were observed for the mixed brushes in selective polymer matrices with different molecular weights, and these can be explained by entropy-driven wet- and dry-brush theories. In a low molecular weight selective matrix, the wet-brush regime was formed with the miscible chains stretching out and the immiscible chains collapsing into isolated domains. In contrast, when the molecular weight of the selective matrix was higher than that of the compatible grafted polymer chains, the dry-brush regime was formed with the mixed brushes exhibiting the unperturbed morphology. In addition to the molecular weight, the size of nanoparticles (or the substrate curvature) was also observed to play an important role. For small particles (core size less than 50 nm), the wet brush-like morphology with a surface-tethered micellar structure was observed. Finally, the wet- and dry-brush regimes also significantly affected the dispersion of mixed brush particles in selective polymer matrices. PMID:26061172

  18. The Synergistic Effects of Heat Shock Protein 70 and Ginsenoside Rg1 against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide Damage Model In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dan; Xu, Anding; Zhao, Jiayi; Zhang, Chanjuan; Qi, Renbin; Wang, Huadong; Lu, Daxiang; Zhu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) transplanted is one of the hottest research to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), but cholinergic neurons from stem cells were also susceptible to cell death which Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was affirmed to reverse. Related to cognitive impairment, cholinergic nervous cells should be investigated and ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) was considered to increase them. We chose tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) damage model to study in vitro. Functional properties of our recombination plasmid pEGFP-C2-HSP70 were affirmed by SH-SY5Y cells. To opposite the transitory appearance of HSP70, NSCs used as the vectors of HSP70 gene overexpressed HSP70 for at least 7 days in vitro. After transfection for 3 days, G-Rg1 pretreatment for 4 hours, and coculture for 3 days, the expression of acetylcholinesterase (ChAT), synaptophysin, and the ratio of NeuN and GFAP were assessed by western blot; Morphological properties were detected by 3D reconstruction and immunofluorescence. ChAT was markedly improved in the groups contained G-Rg1. In coculture system, the ratio of neurons/astrocytes and the filaments of neurons were increased; apoptosis cells were decreased, compared to monotherapy (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that, as a safe cotreatment affirmed in vitro, overexpression of HSP70 in NSCs plus G-Rg1 promoted nervous cells regeneration from chronic oxidative damage. PMID:25685255

  19. Combined use of l-alanine tert butyl ester lactate and trimethyl-?-cyclodextrin for the enantiomeric separations of 2-arylpropionic acids nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Mavroudi, Maria C; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a new CE method, employing a binary system of trimethyl-?-CD (TM-?-CD) and a chiral amino acid ester-based ionic liquid (AAIL), was developed for the chiral separation of seven 2-arylpropionic acid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In particular, the enantioseparation of ibuprofen, ketoprofen, carprofen, indoprofen, flurbiprofen, naproxen, and fenoprofen was improved significantly by supporting the BGE with the chiral AAIL l-alanine tert butyl ester lactate (l-AlaC4 Lac). Parameters, such as concentrations of TM-?-CD and l-AlaC4 Lac, and buffer pH, were systematically examined in order to optimize the chiral separation of each NSAID. It was observed that the addition of the AAIL into the BGE improved both resolution and efficiency significantly. After optimization of separation conditions, baseline separation (Rs >1.5) of five of the analytes was achieved in less than 11 min, while the resolution of ibuprofen and flurbiprofen was approximately 1.2. The optimized enantioseparation conditions for all analytes involve a BGE of 5 mM sodium acetate/acetic acid (pH 5.0), an applied voltage of 30 kV, and a temperature of 20°C. In addition, the results obtained by computing the %-RSD values of the EOF and the two enantiomer peaks, demonstrated excellent run-to-run, batch-to-batch, and day-to-day reproducibilities. PMID:26080944

  20. Protective Effects of Black Rice Extracts on Oxidative Stress Induced by tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-Mi; Choi, Youngmin; Sung, Jeehye; Kim, Younghwa; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Lee, Junsoo

    2014-01-01

    Black rice contains many biologically active compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of black rice extracts (whole grain extract, WGE and rice bran extract, RBE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations were evaluated as biomarkers of cellular oxidative status. Cells pretreated with 50 and 100 μg/mL of WGE or RBE were more resistant to oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The highest WGE and BRE concentrations enhanced GSH concentrations and modulated antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) compared to TBHP-treated cells. Cells treated with RBE showed higher protective effect compared to cells treated with WGE against oxidative insult. Black rice extracts attenuated oxidative insult by inhibiting cellular ROS and MDA increase and by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities in HepG2 cells. PMID:25580401

  1. The effect of the spin trapping agent ?-phenyl-n-tert-butyl nitrone on dexfenfluramine-induced serotonin depletion in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bergami, A; Fracasso, C; Caccia, S

    1997-09-01

    Oxygen-free radical formation from either the parent compound amphetamine, its metabolites or drug-released serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the reduction of serotoninergic markers caused by amphetamine derivatives. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of the spin-trapping agent ?-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) on the 5-HT-lowering action of dexfenfluramine (DF) in rats, compared with p-chloroamphetamine (PCA). PBN (150 mg/kg, i.p, divided in two doses) almost totally prevented the reduction of 5-HT in particularly sensitive regions of the rat brain (cortex and striatum) 1 and 7 days after DF (10 mg/kg, i.p.). It also provided complete protection against the acute 5-HT-depleting action of PCA (5 mg/kg, i.p.), reducing it at 7 days in striatum, although with the higher dose (300 mg/kg, divided in two doses) there was a tendency to antagonize the long-term effects in both regions. With DF, however, the antagonistic effect of PBN was associated with a marked reduction of the plasma and brain concentrations of the parent drug, but particularly its active metabolite dexnorfenfluramine (DNF). Thus, reduced brain availability of the total active drug (DF+DNF) may explain why PBN prevents the neurochemical effects of DF (but not PCA), including the long-term one which possibly depends on the extent of the initial 5-HT lowering. PMID:21781789

  2. N-tert-butyl hydroxylamine, a mitochondrial antioxidant, protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from iron overload: relevance to macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Voloboueva, Ludmila A.; Killilea, David W.; Atamna, Hani; Ames, Bruce N.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual impairment in the elderly in developed countries. AMD patients have elevated levels of iron within the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), which may lead to oxidative damage to mitochondria, disruption of retinal metabolism, and vision impairment or loss. As a possible model for iron-induced AMD, we investigated the effects of excess iron in cultured human fetal RPE cells on oxidant levels and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) function and tested for protection by N-tert-butyl hydroxylamine (Nt-BHA), a known mitochondrial antioxidant. RPE exposure to ferric ammonium citrate resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in intracellular iron, which increased oxidant production and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and mitochondrial complex IV activity. NtBHA addition to iron-overloaded RPE cells led to a reduction of intracellular iron content, oxidative stress, and partial restoration of complex IV activity and GSH content. NtBHA might be useful in AMD due to its potential to reduce oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and age-related iron accumulation, which may damage normal RPE function and lead to loss of vision. PMID:17656467

  3. Photoinduced electron transfer in 2-tert-Butyl-3-(Anthracen-9-yl)-2,3-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde-Aguilar, Guadalupe; Garcia-Macedo, Jorge; Wang, Xianghuai; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nelsen, Stephen F.

    2006-08-01

    Intramolecular photoinduced electron-transfer from a hydrazine unit to an aromatic group is studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Substituted hydrazine functional groups have played an important role in studies of electron transfer reactions, photo-induced intramolecular electron transfer, and of mixed valence. A prototypical compound, 2-tert-Butyl-3-(Anthracen-9-yl)-2,3-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, that has the hydrazine to anthracene charge transfer band in a region of the visible spectrum suitable for detailed resonance Raman spectroscopy is studied in detail. Excitation profiles are obtained, calculated quantitatively by using time-dependent theoretical methods, and interpreted with the assistance of molecular orbital calculations. Excited state distortions are calculated. The largest distortions occur on the hydrazine unit; the normal mode showing the largest distortion (659 cm -1, calculated at 665 cm -1) involves an out of plane C-N-N-C bend consistent with removing an electron from the NN π antibonding orbital. Anthracene ring-centered CC stretches also are enhanced, consistent with populating an antibonding π orbital centered on the ring. Excellent fits to all of the excitation profiles and to the absorption band are obtained using one set of excited state potential surfaces.

  4. Evaluation of ethyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by compound-specific isotope analysis and in situ microcosms.

    PubMed

    Bombach, Petra; Nägele, Norbert; Rosell, Mònica; Richnow, Hans H; Fischer, Anko

    2015-04-01

    Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is an upcoming groundwater pollutant in Europe whose environmental fate has been less investigated, thus far. In the present study, we investigated the in situ biodegradation of ETBE in a fuel-contaminated aquifer using compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA), and in situ microcosms in combination with total lipid fatty acid (TLFA)-stable isotope probing (SIP). In a first field investigation, CSIA revealed insignificant carbon isotope fractionation, but low hydrogen isotope fractionation of up to +14‰ along the prevailing anoxic ETBE plume suggesting biodegradation of ETBE. Ten months later, oxygen injection was conducted to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) at the field site. Within the framework of this remediation measure, in situ microcosms loaded with [(13)C6]-ETBE (BACTRAP(®)s) were exposed for 119 days in selected groundwater wells to assess the biodegradation of ETBE by TLFA-SIP under the following conditions: (i) ETBE as main contaminant; (ii) ETBE as main contaminant subjected to oxygen injection; (iii) ETBE plus other PH; (iv) ETBE plus other PH subjected to oxygen injection. Under all conditions investigated, significant (13)C-incorporation into microbial total lipid fatty acids extracted from the in situ microcosms was found, providing clear evidence of ETBE biodegradation. PMID:25559863

  5. Effects of colored and noncolored phenolics of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen in Caco-2 cells under oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Carla; Moita, Eduarda; Valentão, Patrícia; Fernandes, Fátima; Monteiro, Pedro; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-02-25

    Bee pollen is used as a dietary supplement, being promoted as a health food. Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen fractions enriched in flavonols (fraction I) or anthocyanins (fraction II) and the whole extract were characterized by HPLC-DAD. Both in the whole extract and in fraction II seven flavonols and five anthocyanins were identified, while fraction I contained six flavonols (in higher levels than fraction II) and small amounts of petunidin-3-O-rutinoside. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated in Caco-2 cells under oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). Fraction I pre-exposure imparted a tendency to protect cells, while fraction II and the whole extract aggravated t-BHP toxicity at some concentrations. The protective effects seem to be correlated with the levels of total glutathione, while no correlation between cellular viability and reactive species was seen. The extracts displayed no significant effect on antioxidant enzymes activity. Overall, anthocyanins seem to abrogate the antioxidant potential of flavonoid-rich extracts. PMID:25642978

  6. Hepatoprotective Activity of Water Extracts from Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Liver Injury in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Bae; Noh, Dong Ouk; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hepatoprotective activity of Inonotus obliquus water extract (IO-W) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured rat hepatocyte. The 50% radical scavenging concentrations (SC50s) of IO-W for radical-scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothi- azoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) were 5.19 mg/mL and 0.39 mg/mL, respectively. IO-W pretreatment to the primary cultured hepatocytes significantly (p<0.05) protected the cells from t-BHP-induced cytotoxic injury even at a low concentration of IO-W (10 µg/mL). The cellular leakage of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation caused by t-BHP were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by IO-W pretreatment (>100 µg/ mL). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that IO-W exhibited hepatoprotective activity against t-BHP-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured hepatocyte probably via its abilities of quenching free radicals, inhibiting the leakage of ALT, AST, and LDH, and decreasing MDA formation. PMID:26853962

  7. Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

  8. Synthesis and properties of optically active nanostructured polymers bearing amino acid moieties by direct polycondensation of 4,4'-thiobis(2-tert-butyl-5-methylphenol) with chiral diacids.

    PubMed

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Soltanian, Samaneh

    2012-06-01

    Four derivatives of N-trimellitylimido-L-amino acid (4a-4d) were prepared by the reaction of trimellitic anhydride (1) with the L-amino acids (2a-2d) in acetic acid as diacid monomers and were used with the aim to obtain a new family of amino acid based poly(ester-imide)s (PEI)s. The polymerization was performed by direct polycondensation of chiral diacids (4a-4d) with 4,4'-thiobis(2-tert-butyl-5-methylphenol) (5) in the presence of tosyl chloride (TsCl), pyridine and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). Step-growth polymerization was carried out by varying the time of heating and the molar ratio of TsCl/diacid and the optimum conditions were achieved. The synthesized polymers were characterized by means of specific rotation experiments, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, X-ray diffraction techniques and elemental analysis. The surface morphology of the obtained polymers was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result showed nanostructure morphology of the resulting polymers. The obtained PEIs were soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as DMF, N,N-dimethyl acetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and protic solvents such as sulfuric acid. Thermal stability and the weight-loss behavior of the PEIs were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. TGA showed that the 10% weight loss temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere was more than 402°C, therefore they had useful levels of thermal stability associated with excellent solubility. PMID:21691754

  9. Dermal, oral, and inhalation pharmacokinetics of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Prah, James; Ashley, David; Blount, Benjamin; Case, Martin; Leavens, Teresa; Pleil, Joachim; Cardinali, Frederick

    2004-02-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors, has contaminated drinking water and can lead to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhalation kinetics, 14 volunteers were exposed to 51.3 microg/ml MTBE dermally in tap water for 1 h, drank 2.8 mg MTBE in 250 ml Gatorade(R), and inhaled 3.1 ppm. MTBE for 1 h. Blood and exhaled breath samples were then obtained. Blood MTBE peaked between 15 and 30 min following oral exposure, at the end of inhalation exposure, and ~5 min after dermal exposure. Elimination by each route was described well by a three-compartment model (Rsq >0.9). The Akaike Information Criterion for the three-compartment model was smaller than the two-compartment model, supporting it over the two-compartment model. One metabolite, tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), measured in blood slowly increased and plateaued, but it did not return to the pre-exposure baseline at the 24-h follow-up. TBA is very water-soluble and has a blood:air partition ratio of 462, reducing elimination by exhalation. Oral exposure resulted in a significantly greater MTBE metabolism into TBA than by other routes based on a greater blood TBA:MTBE AUC ratio, implying significant first-pass metabolism. The slower TBA elimination may make it a better biomarker of MTBE exposure, though one must consider the exposure route when estimating MTBE exposure from TBA because of first-pass metabolism. Most subjects had a baseline blood TBA of 1-3 ppb. Because TBA is found in consumer products and can be used as a fuel additive, it is not a definitive marker of MTBE exposure. These data provide the risk assessment process of pharmacokinetic information relevant to the media through which most exposures occur-air and drinking water. PMID:14600279

  10. Gastroprotective Activity of Ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) Amino]benzoate against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Shakir, Raied Mustafa; Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Norazit, Anwar; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Background The study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic, antioxidant and gastro-protective effect of ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylid ene)amino] benzoate (ETHAB) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of ETHAB was assessed using a MTT cleavage assay on a WRL68 cell line, while its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. In the anti-ulcer study, rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 and group 2 received 10% Tween 20 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg Omeprazole. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received ETHAB at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. After an hour, group 1 received the vehicle. Groups 2–6 received absolute ethanol to induce gastric mucosal lesions. In the WRL68 cell line, an IC50 of more than 100 µg/mL was observed. ETHAB results showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH, FRAP, nitric oxide and metal chelating assays. There was no acute toxicity even at the highest dosage (1000 mg/kg). Microscopy showed that rats pretreated with ETHAB revealed protection of gastric mucosa as ascertained by significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), pH level, mucus secretion, reduced gastric lesions, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and remarkable flattened gastric mucosa. Histologically, pretreatment with ETHAB resulted in comparatively better gastric protection, due to reduction of submucosal edema with leucocyte infiltration. PAS staining showed increased intensity in uptake of Alcian blue. In terms of immunohistochemistry, ETHAB showed down-expression of Bax proteins and over-expression of Hsp70 proteins. Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of ETHAB may be attributed to antioxidant activity, increased gastric wall mucus, pH level of gastric contents, SOD activity, decrease in MDA level, ulcer area, flattening of gastric mucosa, reduction of edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer, increased PAS staining, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and suppressed expression of Bax. Key words: ethyl 4-(3, 5-di-ter-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylamino) benzoate; toxicity; antioxidant; gastric-ulcer; anti-ulcer; histology; immunohistochemistry. PMID:24800807

  11. Protection against oxidative damage to CNS by alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and other spin-trapping agents: A novel series of nonlipid free radical scavengers

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, J.M.; Floyd, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Brain is extremely susceptible to oxidative damage. Utilizing a series of novel approaches, the authors have demonstrated that oxidative damage occurs during an ischemia/reperfusion insult (IRI) to brain. Thus, they have demonstrated that an IRI to Mongolian gerbil brain results in: (1) an enhanced rate of salicylate hydroxylation, implicating an increased flux of hydroxyl free radicals; (2) an enhanced flux of free radicals as determined by spin-trapping; (3) an enhanced level of endogenous protein oxidation; (4) a decrease in glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, an enzyme very sensitive to oxidative damage; and (5) demonstration of protection from an IRI by administering the spin-trapping agent alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN). The novel observation that PBN offers protection from the lethality brought on by a brain IRI appears to be clearly linked to the ability of the administered spin-trap to inhibit oxidative damage as evidenced by the decreased amount of brain protein oxidation and the prevention of an IRI-mediated loss of GS activity in treated animals. Aged gerbils are more sensitive to the lethal action of a brain IRI than younger animals, but they are protected by PBN administration as are the younger animals. Older gerbils have a significantly higher level of oxidized protein in the brain. Older gerbils have decreased activities of GS and neutral protease, the enzyme that removes oxidized protein, than younger animals. Chronic twice daily administration of PBN (32 mg/kg) for 14 days to older animals significantly lowered brain oxidized protein levels and raised GS and neutral protease activity to those observed in younger animals. Cessation of PBN administration resulted in a time-dependent restoration of protein oxidation levels and enzyme activities back to those observed prior to spin-trap administration.

  12. Dynamics of Back Electron Transfer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Featuring 4-tert-Butyl-Pyridine and Atomic-Layer-Deposited Alumina as Surface Modifiers.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michael J; Vermeer, Michael J DeVries; Farha, Omar K; Pellin, Michael J; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-06-18

    A series of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was constructed with TiO2 nanoparticles and N719 dye. The standard I3(-)/I(-) redox shuttle and the Co(1,10-phenanthroline)3(3+/2+) shuttle were employed. DSCs were modified with atomic-layered-deposited (ALD) coatings of Al2O3 and/or with the surface-adsorbing additive 4-tert-butyl-pyridine. Current-voltage data were collected to ascertain the influence of each modification upon the back electron transfer (ET) dynamics of the DSCs. The primary effect of the additives alone or in tandem is to increase the open-circuit voltage. A second is to alter the short-circuit current density, JSC. With dependence on the specifics of the system examined, any of a myriad of dynamics-related effects were observed to come into play, in both favorable (efficiency boosting) and unfavorable (efficiency damaging) ways. These effects include modulation of (a) charge-injection yields, (b) rates of interception of injected electrons by redox shuttles, and (c) rates of recombination of injected electrons with holes on surface-bound dyes. In turn, these influence charge-collection lengths, charge-collection yields, and onset potentials for undesired dark current. The microscopic origins of the effects appear to be related mainly to changes in driving force and/or electronic coupling for underlying component redox reactions. Perhaps surprisingly, only a minor role for modifier-induced shifts in conduction-band-edge energy was found. The combination of DSC-efficiency-relevant effects engendered by the modifiers was found to vary substantially as a function of the chemical identity of the redox shuttle employed. While types of modifiers are effective, a challenge going forward will be to construct systems in ways in which the benefits of organic and inorganic modifiers can be exploited in fully additive, or even synergistic, fashion. PMID:25127076

  13. Simultaneous determination of organotin compounds in textiles by gas chromatography-flame photometry following liquid/liquid partitioning with tert-butyl ethyl ether after reflux-extraction.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Tetsuo

    2013-10-15

    A rapid and relatively clean method for determining six organotin compounds (OtC) in textile goods with a gas chromatograph equipped with a conventional flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) has been developed. After the reflux-extraction to use methanol containing 1% (v/v) of hydrochloric acid, five hydrophobic OtC (e.g. tributyltin: TBT) and slightly less hydrophobic dibutyltin (DBT) could be drawn out through partitioning between the methanolic buffer solution and tert-butyl ethyl ether instead of hazardous dichloromethane, of which usage is provided by the official-methods notified in Japan, and following the ethylation procedure to use sodium tetraethylborate, the OtC were determined with the GC-FPD. The recoveries of DBT, TBT, tetrabutyltin, triphenyltin, dioctyltin, and trioctyltin from textile products (cloth diaper, socks, and undershirt) were 60-77, 89-98, 86-94, 71-78, 85-109, and 70-79% respectively, and their coefficients of variation were 2.5-16.5%. Calibration curves for OtC were linear (0.01-0.20 μg as Sn mL(-1)), and the correlation coefficients were 0.9922-1.0000. Their detection limits were estimated to be 2.7-9.7 n gas Sn g(-1). These data suggested that this method would be applicable to their simultaneous determination. Five retailed textile goods were analyzed by this proposed method, and 0.013-0.65 µg as Sn g(-1) of OtC (e.g. DBT) were determined in three. Moreover, a possibility that various OtC including non-targeted species in textile would be specifically detected by applying the studying speciation-technique of controlling signal intensity-flame fuel gas pressures of the GC-FPD was found. PMID:24054605

  14. The effect of 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (TBQ) on intracellular Ca2+ handling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Miller, L; Greensmith, D J; Sankaranarayanan, R; O'Neill, S C; Eisner, D A

    2015-08-01

    2,5-Di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (TBQ) is a reversible inhibitor of SERCA, potentially making it a useful tool to study the effects of SERCA inhibition in cardiac cells. However, it is unknown if TBQ also has effects on other components of ventricular Ca handling. The aim of these experiments was to characterise the effects of TBQ on Ca handling in rat ventricular myocytes and assess its suitability as a specific inhibitor of SERCA. This was achieved by voltage clamp via perforated patch and [Ca(2+)]i measurement using Fluo-3 AM. TBQ produced a fully reversible, concentration dependent decrease in the rate of systolic Ca decay. 10?M TBQ decreased the amplitude of the systolic Ca transient by 48±5% and the rate of decay by 54±6%. SR Ca content was also reduced by 62±4%. However, 10?M TBQ also decreased the peak L-type Ca current by 23±7%. At higher concentrations (100?M), TBQ also activated an outward current with a current-voltage relationship consistent with a potassium current. This outward current was abolished by Glibenclamide (100?M). These data show that TBQ can be used to reversibly inhibit SERCA. However, at concentrations that decrease SERCA activity, TBQ also decreases the L-type Ca current and (at higher concentrations) activates an outward current which appears to be an ATP dependent potassium current. We conclude that TBQ cannot be used as a specific inhibitor of SERCA in rat ventricular myocytes. PMID:26120055

  15. Inverted microcontact printing on polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) films: a versatile approach to fabricate structured biointerfaces across the length scales.

    PubMed

    Embrechts, Anika; Feng, Chuan Liang; Mills, Christopher A; Lee, Michael; Bredebusch, Ilona; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Domschke, Wolfram; Vancso, G Julius; Schönherr, Holger

    2008-08-19

    The combination of the recently introduced soft lithographic technique of inverted microcontact printing (i-muCP) and spin-coated films of polystyrene- block-poly( tert-butyl acrylate) (PS 690- b-P tBA 1210) as a reactive platform is shown to yield a versatile approach for the facile fabrication of topographically structured and chemically patterned biointerfaces with characteristic spacings and distances that cross many orders of magnitude. The shortcomings of conventional muCP in printing of small features with large spacings, due to the collapse of small or high aspect ratio stamp structures, are circumvented in i-muCP by printing reactants using a featureless elastomeric stamp onto a topographically structured reactive polymer film. Prior to molecular transfer, the substrate-supported PS 690- b-P tBA 1210 films were structured by imprint lithography resulting in lateral and vertical feature sizes between >50 microm-150 nm and >1.0 microm-18 nm, respectively. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and water contact angle measurements provided evidence for the absence of surface chemical transformations during the imprinting step. Following the previously established hydrolysis and activation protocol with trifluoroacetic acid and N-hydroxysuccinimide, amino end-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-NH 2), as well as bovine serum albumin and fibronectin as model proteins, were successfully transferred by i-muCP and coupled covalently. As shown, i-muCP yields increased PEG coverages and thus improved performance in suppressing nonspecific adsorption of proteins by exploiting the high local concentrations in the micro- and nanocontacts during molecular transfer. The i-muCP strategy provides access to versatile biointerface platforms patterned across the length scales, as shown for guided cancer cell adhesion, which opens the pathway for systematic cell-surface interaction studies. PMID:18624456

  16. Demonstration of free radical generation in "stunned" myocardium of intact dogs with the use of the spin trap alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone.

    PubMed Central

    Bolli, R; Patel, B S; Jeroudi, M O; Lai, E K; McCay, P B

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxygen free radicals may mediate postischemic myocardial dysfunction ("stunning"), but all the evidence for this hypothesis is indirect. Thus, we used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trap, alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), to directly investigate whether free radicals are produced after a 15-min coronary artery occlusion and subsequent reperfusion in 30 open-chest dogs. After intracoronary infusion of PBN, EPR signals characteristic of oxygen- and carbon-centered radical adducts were detected in the venous blood draining from the ischemic/reperfused vascular bed. The myocardial release of PBN adducts began during coronary occlusion but increased dramatically in the first few minutes after reperfusion. After this initial burst, the production of radicals abated but did not cease, persisting up to 3 h after reflow. The EPR spectra (aH beta = 2.67-2.79 G, aN = 14.75-15.00 G) were consistent with the trapping by PBN of secondary oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals, such as alkoxy and alkyl radicals, which could be formed by reactions of primary oxygen radicals with membrane lipids. There was a linear, direct relationship between the magnitude of PBN adduct production and the degree of ischemic flow reduction. Recovery of contractile function (measured as systolic wall thickening) after reperfusion was greater (P less than 0.05) in dogs given PBN than in controls. This study demonstrates that reversible regional myocardial ischemia in the intact animal is associated with prolonged free radical generation, and that the intensity of such generation is related to the severity of ischemia. The results provide direct evidence to support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen metabolites contribute to the persistent contractile dysfunction (myocardial stunning) observed after brief ischemia in vivo. PMID:2841353

  17. Electronic structure and electron dynamics at an organic molecule/metal interface: interface states of tetra-tert-butyl-imine/Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Sebastian; Luo, Ying; Haag, Rainer; Wolf, Martin; Tegeder, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopies have been used to investigated the electronic structure, electron dynamics and localization at the interface between tetra-tert-butyl imine (TBI) and Au(111). At a TBI coverage of one monolayer (ML), the two highest occupied molecular orbitals, HOMO and HOMO-1, are observed at an energy of -1.9 and -2.6 eV below the Fermi level (EF), respectively, and coincide with the d-band features of the Au substrate. In the unoccupied electronic structure, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) has been observed at 1.6 eV with respect to EF. In addition, two delocalized states that arise from the modified image potential at the TBI/metal interface have been identified. Their binding energies depend strongly on the adsorption structure of the TBI adlayer, which is coverage dependent in the submonolayer (<=1 ML) regime. Thus the binding energy of the lower interface state (IS) shifts from 3.5 eV at 1.0 ML to 4.0 eV at 0.5 ML, which is accompanied by a pronounced decrease in its lifetime from 100 fs to below 10 fs. This is a result of differences in the wave function overlap with electronic states of the Au(111) substrate at different binding energies. This study shows that in order to fully understand the electronic structure of organic adsorbates at metal surfaces, not only adsorbate- and substrate-induced electronic states have to be considered but also ISs, which are the result of a potential formed by the interaction between the adsorbate and the substrate.

  18. Synthesis, antiradical activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of novel organotin complexes based on 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-mercaptophenol.

    PubMed

    Shpakovsky, D B; Banti, C N; Mukhatova, E M; Gracheva, Yu A; Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Albov, D V; Antonenko, T A; Aslanov, L A; Milaeva, E R; Hadjikakou, S K

    2014-05-14

    A series of organotin complexes with Sn-S bonds of formulae Me2Sn(SR)2 (1); Et2Sn(SR)2 (2); (n-Bu)2Sn(SR)2 (3); Ph2Sn(SR)2 (4); R2Sn(SR)2 (5); Me3SnSR (6); Ph3SnSR (7) (R = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, (1)H, (13)C NMR, and IR. The crystal structures of compounds 1, 4, 5, and 7 were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The tetrahedral geometry around the Sn center in the monocrystals of 1, 4, 5, and 7 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The high radical scavenging activity of the complexes was confirmed spectrophotometrically in a DPPH-test. The binding affinity of 1-7 and the starting R2SnCl2 (8) towards tubulin through their interaction with SH groups of proteins was studied. It was found that the hindered organotin complexes could interact with the colchicine site of tubulin, which makes them promising antimitotic drugs. Compounds 1-8 were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7) and human cervix (HeLa) adenocarcinoma cells. Complexes 1-8 were also tested against normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5). Complexes 2-4 and 8 exhibit significantly lower cytostatic activity against the normal MRC-5 cell line compared to the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and HeLa used. A high activity against both cell lines 250 nM (MCF-7) and 160 nM (HeLa) was determined for the triphenyltin complex 7 while the introduction of hindered phenol groups decreases the cytotoxicity of the complexes against normal cells. PMID:24658418

  19. Study on the chromatographic behavior of water-soluble vitamins on p-tert-butyl-calix[8]arene-bonded silica gel stationary phase by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Li, Lai-Sheng; Da, Shi-Lu; Feng, Yu-Qi; Liu, Min

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, the chromatographic behavior of some water-soluble vitamins was studied on a new p-tert-butyl-calix[8]arene-bonded silica gel stationary phase (CABS, 5mum particle size, the bonded amount 0.071mmolg(-1)) by using vitamin standards as probes for HPLC. The comparative study of the separation of these compounds was done by using CABS and ODS as stationary phases under the same chromatographic conditions. The better separation of six vitamins including: B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), C, and nicotinic acid (B(5)), on CABS can be achieved by using isocratic mode with methanol-phosphate buffer (25:75, (v/v)) as mobile phase within 20min. The results show that the calix[8]arene-bonded phase exhibits high selectivity for water-soluble vitamins. We found that the elution order of B(2) (12.08min) and B(12) (16.42min) on CABS was very different from that of B(12) (7.76min) and B(2) (18.47min) on ODS, which indicate that different retention mechanisms exist in the chromatographic processes of the two stationary phases. According to the chromatographic data, it can be concluded that various chromatographic retention mechanisms are responsible for the separation of above compounds on CABS, such as hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction, and pi-pi interaction. The new packing has two advantages over ODS. On one hand, the polar and ionized analytes, such as C and B(5), exhibited stronger affinities to CABS because of hydrogen bonding interaction. On the other hand, the retention of B(2) and B(12) became shorter on CABS with weaker hydrophobicity in comparison with ODS. The new material exhibits the promising application in the separation of water-soluble vitamins. PMID:18969614

  20. Poly[tetra­butyl­ammonium [chlorido­hexa­methyl-?3-sulfato-distannate(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Tidiane; van der Lee, Arie; Sidibé, Mamadou

    2013-01-01

    In the structure of the title coordination polymer, {(C16H36N)[Sn2(CH3)6Cl(SO4)]}n, the two independent SnIV atoms are coordinated in a trigonal–bipyramidal manner by three methyl groups in the equatorial plane and in the axial positions by either two O atoms of bridging SO4 2? anions or by a Cl atom and one O atom of a bridging SO4 2? anion, respectively. The [Sn2(CH3)6Cl(SO4)]? anion forms an infinite zigzag chain parallel to the c axis. The cations are situated between these chains. Two of the four butyl groups of the cation are partially disordered over two sets of sites with site occupancies of 0.79?(2):0.21?(2) and 0.75?(2):0.25?(2), respectively. Weak C—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions help to consolidate the crystal packing. PMID:24046577

  1. Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J.

    1995-10-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

  2. Teratology evaluation of methyl tertiary butyl ether in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Conaway, C.C.; Schroeder, R.E.; Snyder, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    Mated CD Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1 mice were exposed during the period of organogenesis to target concentrations of 0.250, 1000, and 2500 ppm methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). None of the control or test-group animals died during the treatment or posttreatment periods. Females were sacrificed on d 20 (rats) or d 18 (mice). No adverse effects of treatment were reflected in maternal parameters of body weight, water consumption, or liver weight or in physical examination data for either species. Food consumption fell in the groups of treated rats during d 9-12; similar but nonsignificant effects were observed for mice during d 12-15. In rats, no treatment-related changes were recorded in the uterine implantation data, fetal size parameters, or fetal sex distribution data. Examination of fetuses for external abnormalities, skeletal malformations or ossification variations did not reveal any changes caused by MTBE exposure. A slight increase in fetal resorptions was observed in the groups of mice exposed to low and high concentrations; this increase was attributed to two females in each group that had an unusually high number of resorptions, rather than to the treatment itself. No significant effects were observed in any groups of treated mice on external and soft-tissue examination or evaluation of skeletal abnormalities or ossification variations. The incidence of fused sternebrae in the high-concentration group increased slightly, which might be attributed to fetotoxicity.

  3. Adsorption of methyl tertiary butyl ether on granular zeolites: Batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A; Thompson, Robert W

    2010-06-15

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed-beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on MTBE adsorption was evaluated. Batch adsorption experiments determined that ZSM-5 was the most effective granular zeolite for MTBE adsorption. Further equilibrium and kinetic experiments verified that granular ZSM-5 is superior to CS-1240 and CCA in removing MTBE from water. No competitive adsorption effects between NOM and MTBE were observed for adsorption to granular ZSM-5 or CS-1240, however there was competition between NOM and MTBE for adsorption onto the CCA granules. Fixed-bed adsorption experiments for longer run times were performed using granular ZSM-5. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was used to analyze the breakthrough data. PMID:20153106

  4. Acute toxicity of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    BenKinney, M.T.; Barbieri, J.F.; Gross, J.S.; Naro, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    Due to the recent amendment of the Clean Air Act, oxygenates are now being added to gasolines to boost octane and reduce air pollution from combustion in heavily populated areas. Oxygenates such as alcohols (i.e. methanol) and ethers (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, MTBE) are commonly being used. A series of bioassay studies have been conducted with MTBE, one of the most commonly used octane-enhancing additives. Freshwater and marine studies were conducted with fish, invertebrates and algae to determine the impact of this material on the environment following accidental spills. Static-renewal studies were run to ensure maintenance of MTBE, a highly volatile material in the test containers. Chemical confirmation of exposure concentrations demonstrated the adequacy of the exposure system. Mysid shrimp were highly sensitive to MTBE, with significantly less effect observed with the other species evaluated. These data have implications for spill response, particularly since MTBE is slow to biodegrade and will rapidly move through groundwater. Comparative data for other oxygenates will also be discussed.

  5. Adsorption of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether on Granular Zeolites: Batch and Column Studies

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A.; Thompson, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on MTBE adsorption was evaluated. Batch adsorption experiments determined that ZSM-5 was the most effective granular zeolite for MTBE adsorption. Further equilibrium and kinetic experiments verified that granular ZSM-5 is superior to CS-1240 and CCA in removing MTBE from water. No competitive-adsorption effects between NOM and MTBE were observed for adsorption to granular ZSM-5 or CS-1240, however there was competition between NOM and MTBE for adsorption onto the CCA granules. Fixed-bed adsorption experiments for longer run times were performed using granular ZSM-5. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was used to analyze the breakthrough data. PMID:20153106

  6. Synthesis and Catalytic Reactivity of a Dicopper(II) ?-?(2):?(2)-Peroxo Species Supported by 1,4,7-Tri-tert-butyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane.

    PubMed

    Karahalis, Gregory J; Thangavel, Arumugam; Chica, Bryant; Bacsa, John; Dyer, R Brian; Scarborough, Christopher C

    2016-02-01

    O2-derived CunO2 adducts are attractive targets for aerobic oxidation catalysis because of their remarkable reactivity, but oxidation of the supporting ligand limits catalytic turnover. We report that (t)Bu3tacn (1,4,7-tri-tert-butyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) supports a dicopper(II) ?-?(2):?(2)-peroxo species with the highest solution stability outside of an enzyme. Decomposition of this species proceeds without oxidation of the (t)Bu3tacn ligand. Additive-free catalytic aerobic oxidation reactions at or above room temperature are described, highlighting the potential of oxidatively robust ligands in aerobic copper catalysis. PMID:26789550

  7. Role of quinone methide in the in vitro toxicity of the skin tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Guyton, K Z; Thompson, J A; Kensler, T W

    1993-01-01

    An electrophilic quinone methide (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone, BHT-QM) functions in the toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in both rodent liver and lung. BHT-QM has also been demonstrated to mediate tumor promotion in mouse skin by another metabolite of BHT, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroperoxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHTOOH). In the present study, the role of BHT-QM in the cytotoxicity of BHTOOH was investigated. The toxicity of BHTOOH was potentiated by glutathione depletion and inhibited by thiol compounds, indicating that BHTOOH is activated to a thiol-reactive, toxic intermediate. This activation process was suggested to be iron-dependent by the ability of an Fe(III)-specific chelator to inhibit BHTOOH toxicity. Comparative study of analogs of BHTOOH in which the 4-methyl group was substituted with CD3, ethyl, isopropyl or tert-butyl supported the hypothesis that BHT-QM mediates this toxicological response. The decreased rate of reactivity of quinone methides that occurs as the 4-alkyl group is enlarged was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in toxic potency. The structural requirements for quinone methide toxicity were also explored with a series of BHTOOH analogs substituted at the 2- and 6-positions of the molecule. Reducing the lipophilicity of the 2,6-tert-butyl groups is known to increase quinone methide reactivity with glutathione but does not diminish the rate of quinone methide formation from the hydroperoxide. Interestingly, alteration of only one of the tert-butyl groups did not change the toxic potency, whereas removal or replacement of both tert-butyl groups dramatically reduced the toxicity in control cells but not glutathione-depleted cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8292753

  8. Iridium(III) silyl alkyl and iridacyclic compounds supported by 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl.

    PubMed

    Sau, Yiu-Keung; Lee, Hung-Kay; Williams, Ian D; Leung, Wa-Hung

    2006-12-13

    Treatment of IrCl(3)x H(2)O with one equivalent of 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (dtbpy) in N,N-dimethylformamide (dmf) afforded [IrCl(3)(dmf)(dtbpy)] (1). Alkylation of 1 with Me(3)SiCH(2)MgCl resulted in C--Si cleavage of the Me(3)SiCH(2) group and formation of the Ir(III) silyl dialkyl compound [Ir(CH(2)SiMe(3))(dtbpy)(Me)(SiMe(3))] (2), which reacted with tBuNC to afford [Ir(tBuNC)(CH(2)SiMe(3))(dtbpy)(Me)(SiMe(3))] ([2(tBuNC)]). Reaction of 2 with phenylacetylene afforded dimeric [{Ir(C[triple chemical bond]CPh)(dtbpy)(SiMe(3))}(2)(mu-C[triple chemical bond]CPh)(2)] (3), in which the bridging PhC[triple chemical bond]C(-) ligands are bound to Ir in a mu-sigma:pi fashion. Alkylation of 1 with PhMe(2)CCH(2)MgCl afforded the cyclometalated compound [Ir(dtbpy)(CH(2)CMe(2)C(6)H(4))(2-C(6)H(4)CMe(3))] (4), which features an agostic interaction between the Ir center and the 2-tert-butylphenyl ligand. The cyclic voltammogram of 4 in CH(2)Cl(2) shows a reversible Ir(IV)-Ir(III) couple at about 0.02 V versus ferrocenium/ferrocene. Oxidation of 4 in CH(2)Cl(2) with silver triflate afforded an Ir(IV) species that exhibits an anisotropic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal in CH(2)Cl(2) glass at 4 K with g( parallel)=2.430 and g( perpendicular)=2.110. Protonation of 4 with HCl and p-toluenesulfonic acid (HOTs) afforded [{Ir(dtbpy)(CH(2)CMe(2)Ph)Cl}(2)(mu-Cl)(2)] (5) and [Ir(dtbpy)(CH(2)CMe(2)Ph)(OTs)(2)] (6), respectively. Reaction of 5 with Li[BEt(3)H] gave the cyclometalated complex [{Ir(dtbpy)(CH(2)CMe(2)C(6)H(4))}(2)(mu-Cl)(2)] (7). Reaction of 4 with tetracyanoethylene in refluxing toluene resulted in electrophilic substitution of the iridacycle by C(2)(CN)(3) with formation of [Ir(dtbpy)(CH(2)CMe(2)C(6)H(3){4-C(2)(CN)(3)})(2-C(6)H(4)CMe(3))] (8). Reaction of 4 with diethyl maleate in refluxing toluene gave the iridafuran compound [Ir(dtbpy)(CH(2)CMe(2)C(6)H(4)){kappa(2)(C,O)-C(CO(2)Et)CH(CO(2)Et)}] (9). Treatment of 9 with 2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanide (xylNC) led to cleavage of the iridafuran ring and formation of [Ir(dtbpy)(CH(2)CMe(2)C(6)H(4)){C(CO(2)Et)CH(CO(2)Et)}(xylNC)] (10). Protonation of 9 with HBF(4) afforded the dinuclear neophyl complex [(Ir(dtbpy)(CH(2)CMe(2)Ph){kappa(2)(C,O)-C(CO(2)Et)CH(CO(2)Et)})(2)][BF(4)](2) (11). The solid-state structures of complexes 2-5 and 8-11 have been determined. PMID:16991182

  9. Is There Stereoselectivity in Spin Trapping Superoxide by 5-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Pei; Marra, Jeffrey M.; Pou, Sovitj; Bowman, Michael K.; Rosen, Gerald M.

    2005-09-02

    Ester-containing nitrones, including 5-tert-butoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide 5, have been reported to be robust spin traps for superoxide (O2•-). Using a chiral column, we have been able to isolate the two enantiomers of nitrone 5. With enantiomerically pure nitrone 5a and 5b we explored whether one of these isomers was solely responsible for the EPR spectrum of aminoxyl 6. Data obtained demonstrate that the spin trapping of O2•- by nitrone 5a and nitrone 5b afford the identical EPR spectra and lifetimes in homogenous aqueous solution and exhibit the same ratio of cis and trans isomers. Quantum chemical modeling in vacuo also finds no difference, aside from the expected optical activity, arising from the difference in stereochemistry.

  10. Protective effects of germinated and fermented soybean extract against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells and in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of germinated and fermented soybean extract (GFSE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and in the rat liver. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that genistin (3.40 ± 0.14 μg mg(-1)) was the most abundant isoflavone in the GFSE. Coumestrol (1.00 ± 0.04 μg mg(-1)), daidzin (0.78 ± 0.14 μg mg(-1)), genistein (0.68 ± 0.05 μg mg(-1)), glycitin (0.54 ± 0.02 μg mg(-1)), glycitein (0.41 ± 0.02 μg mg(-1)), and daidzein (0.02 ± 0.0 g mg(-1)) are also contained in decreasing order of content. GFSE significantly inhibited t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HepG2 cells. This GFSE-induced ROS reduction was associated with the down-regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4), a pro-oxidant enzyme, and the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) in the rat liver. In addition, increased levels of antioxidant enzyme mRNAs correlated with the enhanced enzymatic activities of SOD, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The antioxidant effect of GFSE was supported by the reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a hydroperoxide, and the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of cell damage, were also lowered by GFSE. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), which are clinical biomarkers of liver function, were shown to be improved with GFSE administration. The effects of GFSE were attributable to an improvement in liver tissue morphology. Taken together, GFSE protected the liver from t-BHP-induced oxidative stress by regulating ROS-related enzymes. Our results suggest that GFSE might be a hepatoprotective source against oxidative stress. PMID:26299642

  11. Risk characterization of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in tap water.

    PubMed

    Stern, B R; Tardiff, R G

    1997-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) can enter surface water and groundwater through wet atmospheric deposition or as a result of fuel leaks and spills. About 30% of the U.S. population lives in areas where MTBE is in regular use. Ninety-five percent of this population is unlikely to be exposed to MTBE in tap water at concentrations exceeding 2 ppb, and most will be exposed to concentrations that are much lower and may be zero. About 5% of this population may be exposed to higher levels of MTBE in tap water, resulting from fuel tank leaks and spills into surface or groundwater used for potable water supplies. This paper describes the concentration ranges found and anticipated in surface and groundwater, and estimates the distribution of doses experienced by humans using water containing MTBE to drink, prepare food, and shower/bathe. The toxic properties (including potency) of MTBE when ingested, inhaled, and in contact with the skin are summarized. Using a range of human toxic potency values derived from animal studies, margins of exposure (MOE) associated with alternative chronic exposure scenarios are estimated to range from 1700 to 140,000. Maximum concentrations of MTBE in tap water anticipated not to cause adverse health effects are determined to range from 700 to 14,000 ppb. The results of this analysis demonstrate that no health risks are likely to be associated with chronic and subchronic human exposures to MTBE in tap water. Although some individuals may be exposed to very high concentrations of MTBE in tap water immediately following a localized spill, these exposures are likely to be brief in duration due to large-scale dilution and rapid volatilization of MTBE, the institution of emergency response and remediation measures to minimize human exposures, and the low taste and odor thresholds of MTBE which ensure that its presence in tap water is readily detected at concentrations well below the threshold for human injury. PMID:9463929

  12. [Mechanisms of (2-methyl-n-butyl) shikonin induced apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Bing; Ma, Xiao-Qiong

    2012-06-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of (2-methyl-n-butyl) shikonin (MBS) on inducing apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 and the role of ERK1/2 signal pathway in the apoptosis. MTT assay was used to detect SGC-7901 cell proliferation. DNA condensation was measured by DAPI stain. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was analyzed by JC-1 staining. The protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, p-JNK, JNK, p-p38 and p38 were detected by Western blotting. The results showed that MBS reduced the cell viability of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 at 24 h and 48 h for SGC-7901 cells was 10.113 and 4.196 micromolL(-1), respectively. After being treated with MBS, the typical nuclear condensation was observed in SGC-7901 cells by DAPI stain. Apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells was induced by MBS in a dose dependent manner. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated, while the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK were up-regulated after MBS treatment. U0126, a specific MAP kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor, blocked the ERK1/2 activation by MBS. MMP was decreased by MBS treatment. It can be concluded that MBS could inhibit SGC-7901 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, ERK1/2 signal pathway and JNK signal pathway might be involved in this process. PMID:22919733

  13. Tris(4,4?-di-tert-butyl-2,2?-bipyridine-?2 N,N?)molybdenum(II) ?6-oxido-dodeca-?2-oxido-hexa­oxidohexa­molybdate(VI) acetonitrile tetra­solvate

    PubMed Central

    Amarante, Tatiana R.; Fernandes, José A.; Gonçalves, Isabel S.; Almeida Paz, Filipe A.

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Mo(C18H24N2)3][Mo6O19]·4CH3CN, comprises an [Mo(di-t-Bu-bipy)3]2+ cation (di-t-Bu-bipy is 4,4?-di-tert-butyl-2,2?-bipyridine), two halves of Lindqvist-type [Mo6O19]2? anions (with each anion completed by the application of a center of inversion) and four acetonitrile solvent mol­ecules. The geometry around the metal atom of the cation resembles a distorted octa­hedron, with each of the three di-t-Bu-bipy ligands being almost planar [deviation from planarity < 6.3?(2)°]. Supra­molecular inter­actions, namely Mo=O??, C N??, C—H?O and C—H?N, along with electrostatic forces, mediate the crystal packing. Two of the tert-butyl groups are affected by rotational disorder which was modeled over two distinct positions with major site occupancies of 0.707?(9) and 0.769?(8). PMID:22199605

  14. Red Emission of Eu(III) Complex Based on 1-(7-(tert-butyl)-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione Excited by Blue Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng-gui; Su, Wen-yi; Pan, Rong-kai; Zhou, Xiao-ping

    2012-12-01

    A new Eu(III) complex, EuL3(phen), was synthesized, where L is the abbreviation of deprotonated 1-(7-(tert-butyl)-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione(HL), phen is the abbreviation of 1,10-phenanthroline. The Eu(III) complex was characterized by element analysis, IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and photoluminescence measurements (PL). TGA shows that thermal stability of the complex is up to 325 °C. PL measurement indicates that the Eu(III) complex exhibits intense red-emission and extends their excitation bands to visible region. LEDs device was successfully fabricated by precoating complex EuL3(phen) onto 460 nm blue-emitting InGaN chip. The emission of device shows that the complex can act as red phosphor in combination with 460 nm blue-emitting chips. This europium complex based on 1-(7-(tert-butyl)-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione is a kind of interesting red-emitting material excited by blue light, which could avoid the damage of excitation by UV light.

  15. Methyl and t-butyl group rotation in a molecular solid: (1)H NMR spin-lattice relaxation and X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Peter A; Moore, Curtis E; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2016-01-21

    We report solid state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation experiments and X-ray diffractometry in 2-t-butyldimethylsilyloxy-6-bromonaphthalene. This compound offers an opportunity to simultaneously investigate, and differentiate between, the rotations of a t-butyl group [C(CH3)3] and its three constituent methyl groups (CH3) and, simultaneously, a pair of 'lone' methyl groups (attached to the Si atom). The solid state (1)H relaxation experiments determine activation energies for these rotations. We review the models for the dynamics of both 'lone' methyl groups (ones whose rotation axes do not move on the NMR time scale) and models for the dynamics of the t-butyl group and its constituent methyl groups (whose rotation axes reorient on the NMR time scale as the t-butyl group rotates). PMID:26676085

  16. (1-Butyl-4-methyl-pyridinium)[Cu(SCN)2]: a coordination polymer and ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Spielberg, Eike T; Edengeiser, Eugen; Mallick, Bert; Havenith, Martina; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2014-04-25

    The compound (C4C1py)[Cu(SCN)2], (C4C1py = 1-Butyl-4-methyl-pyridinium), which can be obtained from CuSCN and the ionic liquid (C4C1py)(SCN), turns out to be a new organic-inorganic hybrid material as it qualifies both, as a coordination polymer and an ionic liquid. It features linked [Cu(SCN)2](-) units, in which the thiocyanates bridge the copper ions in a ?1,3-fashion. The resulting one-dimensional chains run along the a?axis, separated by the C4C1py counterions. Powder X-ray diffraction not only confirms the single-crystal X-ray structure solution but proves the reformation of the coordination polymer from an isotropic melt. However, the materials shows a complex thermal behavior often encountered for ionic liquids such as a strong tendency to form a supercooled melt. At a relatively high cooling rate, glass formation is observed. When heating this melt in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-dependent polarizing optical microscopy (POM), investigations reveal the existence of a less thermodynamically stable crystalline polymorph. Raman measurements conducted at 10 and 100?°C point towards the formation of polyanionic chain fragments in the melt. Solid-state UV/Vis spectroscopy shows a broad absorption band around 18,870?cm(-1) (530?nm) and another strong one below 20,000?cm(-1) (<500?nm). The latter is attributed to the d(Cu(I))??*(SCN)-MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) transition within the coordination polymer yielding an energy gap of 2.4?eV. At room temperature and upon irradiation with UV light, the material shows a weak fluorescence band at 15,870?cm(-1) (630?nm) with a quantum efficiency of 0.90(2)?% and a lifetime of 131(2)?ns. Upon lowering the temperature, the luminescence intensity strongly increases. Simultaneously, the band around 450?nm in the excitation spectrum decreases. PMID:24644064

  17. MEASUREMENT OF EXHALED BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD TO DEVELOP A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER AND THE PRODUCTION OF THE BIOMARKER TERTIARY-BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common fuel additive used to increase the availability of oxygen in gasoline to reduce winter-time carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles. Also, MTBE boosts gasoline "octane" rating and, as such, allows reduction of benzene...

  18. Identifying the usage patterns of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenates in gasoline using gasoline surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Data on the volumes of oxygenates and other compounds in gasoline are available from several sources collectively referred as gasoline surveys. The gasoline surveys provide the most definitive knowledge of which oxygenate, if any, and what volumes of that oxygenate are being used in various areas of the country. This information is important in water-quality assessments for relating the detection of MTBE in water to patterns of usage of MTBE in gasoline. General information on three surveys that have been conducted by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, and the EPA was presented. The samples were tested for physical properties and constituents including octane number, specific gravity, and volumes of olefins, aromatics, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The data in each survey had its own utility based on the type of assessment that is undertaken. Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Using NAWQA data, the percent occurrence of MTBE in ground water in metropolitan areas that use substantial amounts of MTBE (> 5% by vol) was ??? 21%, compared to ??? 2% in areas that do not use substantial amounts of MTBE (< 5% by vol). When several other factors are considered in a logistic regression model including MTBE usage in RFG or OXY gasoline areas (??? 3% by vol) as a factor, a 4-6 fold increase in the detection frequency of MTBE in ground water was found when compared to areas that do not use MTBE or use it only for octane enhancement (< 3% by vol).

  19. Metal-Free Preparation of Cycloalkyl Aryl Sulfides via Di-tert-butyl Peroxide-Promoted Oxidative C(sp3)[BOND]H Bond Thiolation of Cycloalkanes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jincan; Fang, Hong; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi; Li, Guigen

    2014-01-01

    A concise thiolation of C(sp3)–H bond of cycloalkanes with diaryl disulfides in the presence of oxidant of di-tert-butylperoxide (DTBP) has been developed. This reaction without using any of metal catalyst, tolerates varieties of disulfides and cycloalkanes substrates, giving good to excellent chemical yields, which provides a useful approach to cycloalkyl aryl sulfides from unactivated cycloalkanes. PMID:25505857

  20. 2-Bromo-5-tert-butyl-N-methyl-N-[2-(methyl­amino)­phen­yl]-3-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Poonam Rajesh; Das, Shikha; Singh, Harkesh B.; Butcher, Ray J.

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C27H29BrN4O, benzimidazole ring system and the amide moiety are planar [r.m.s. deviations = 0.016?(2) and 0.017?(1)?Å, respectively]. The mol­ecule adopts a conformation in which the amide linkage is almost perpendicular to the central ring [dihedral angle = 85.79?(8)°], while the benzimidazole ring system makes a dihedral angle of 70.26?(11)° with the central ring. In the crystal, the mol­ecules form dimers through N—H?O hydrogen bonds and C—H?O interactions. These dimers are further linked into zigzag ribbons along [201] by weak C—H?Br inter­actions. As a result of the bulky nature of the mol­ecule, as evidenced by the large dihedral angles between rings, there is little evidence for any ?–? inter­actions. PMID:25161598

  1. Facile oxidation-based synthesis of sterically encumbered four-coordinate bis(2,9-di-tert-butyl-1,10-phenanthroline)copper(I) and related three-coordinate copper(I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Bhavesh A; Green, Omar; Burstyn, Judith N

    2007-05-14

    A new oxidation-based synthetic route was developed for synthesis of Cu(I) complexes with weakly coordinating ligands, leading to the synthesis of the elusive [Cu(dtbp)2]+ (dtbp, 2,9-di-tert-butyl-1,10-phenanthroline) complex that may be useful as a sensor or as a dye for dye-sensitized solar cells. An acetone solution of either 1 or 2 equiv of dtbp was added to excess Cu(0) and 1 equiv of AgY (Y is O3SCF3-, BF4-, SbF6-, or B(C6F5)4-) in a nitrogen-filled glove box. Following filtration and evaporation under vacuum, crystallization from CH2Cl2 and hexanes results in X-ray quality crystals of Cu(dtbp)(O3SCF3) (1), Cu(dtbp)(BF4) (2), [Cu(dtbp)(acetone)][SbF6] (3), [Cu(dtbp)2][B(C6F5)4].CH2Cl2 (4.CH2Cl2), [Cu(dtbp)2][BF4].CH2Cl2 (5.CH2Cl2), and [Cu(dtbp)2][SbF6].CH2Cl2 (6.CH2Cl2). Complexes 1-6 were characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR. The Cu atom in complexes 1-3 exhibited distorted trigonal coordination geometries, reflecting the steric effect of the bulky tert-butyl substituents. The structures of the pseudotetrahedral complexes 4, 4.CH2Cl2, 5.CH2Cl2, and 6.CH2Cl2 revealed the longest average Cu-N distances (2.11 A, 2.11 A, 2.10 A, and 2.11 A, respectively) in this class of compounds-longer by more than three standard deviations from the average. PMID:17298052

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the synthesis, structure, reactivity, and bonding of the stannylene-iron complex Bis bis(2-tert-butyl-4,5,6-trimethyl-phenyl)SnFe (eta6-toluene) (Sn-Fe-Sn)

    PubMed

    Schneider; Czap; Blaser; Boese; Ensling; Gutlich; Janiak

    2000-02-01

    The pi-(arene)bis(stannylene) complex bis(bis(2-tert-butyl-4,5,6-trimethylphenyl)SnFe(eta6-toluene) (Sn-Fe-Sn, 15) is accessible in high yields by a metal-atom-mediated synthesis between iron atoms, toluene, and the stannylene [bis(2-tert-butyl-4,5,6-trimethylphenyl)Sn](3). Complex 15 has a half-sandwich structure with short Fe -Sn bonds (2.432(1) A) and a trigonal-planar coordination at both the Fe and Sn atoms. The distance between the two Sn centers is 3.56 A. Complex 15 is stable under ambient conditions and displays a pi-arene lability, so far rarely observed for (arene)iron complexes; this leads to an irreversible substitution of the arene and formation of fivefold-coordinated zerovalent iron complexes. The pi-arene lability of the title compound is a result of the Fe-Sn bonding situation, which can be interpreted, on the basis of an extended Huckel molecular orbital calculation, as being solely a donation of the 5sigma lone-pair of Sn into empty or half-filled acceptor d orbitals on Fe. As the calculations reveal, there is little backbonding from the iron to the tin, and the strong sigma donation leads to an increased occupation of the pi-antibonding orbitals of the eta6-arene, which are mainly responsible for the experimentally observed arene lability. Fe and Sn Mossbauer spectra support the polar character of Sn(sigma+)-->Fe(sigma-) with strong sigma donation from tin to iron, but significantly low iron-to-tin pi backdonation. PMID:10747413

  3. PRODUCTS OF THE GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF THE OH RADICAL WITH N-BUTYL METHYL ETHER AND 2-ISOPROPOXYETHANOL: REACTIONS OF ROC(O)< RADICALS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The products of the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with n-butyl methyl ether and 2-isopropoxyethanol in the presence of NO have been investigated at 298 ? 2 K and 740 Torr total pressure of air by gas chromatography and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization...

  4. SENSORY, SYMPTOMATIC, INFLAMMATORY, AND OCULAR RESPONSES TO AND THE METABOLISM OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER IN A CONTROLLED HUMAN EXPOSURE EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to elevated ambient carbon monoxide (CO) due to incomplete combustion of automotive fuels, the Clear Air Act mandates that CO reduction be obtained by adding oxygenates to the fuel (oxyfuel) in areas of non-attainment. In 1992 the addition of methyl tertiary butyl eth...

  5. Crystal structure of (1R,4R)-tert-butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-5-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Suvratha; Jalli, Venkataprasad; Vagvala, Tarun Chand; Moriguchi, Tetsuji; Tsuge, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    In the title compound, C11H17NO4, commonly known as N-tert-but-oxy-carbonyl-5-hy-droxy-d-pipecolic acid lactone, the absolute configuration is (1R,4R) due to the enantiomeric purity of the starting material which remains unchanged during the course of the reaction. In the crystal there no inter-molecular hydrogen bonds. PMID:26279901

  6. Crystal structure of (1R,4R)-tert-butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-aza­bicyclo­[2.2.2]octane-5-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Suvratha; Jalli, Venkataprasad; Vagvala, Tarun Chand; Moriguchi, Tetsuji; Tsuge, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C11H17NO4, commonly known as N-tert-but­oxy­carbonyl-5-hy­droxy-d-pipecolic acid lactone, the absolute configuration is (1R,4R) due to the enantiomeric purity of the starting material which remains unchanged during the course of the reaction. In the crystal there no inter­molecular hydrogen bonds. PMID:26279901

  7. The interface between HOPG and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Németh, K; Vesztergom, S; Pajkossy, T; Jacob, T

    2016-01-14

    The interface between highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and 1-butyl-3-metyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIPF6) has been studied using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, immersion charge measurements and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (in situ STM). The results are compared with those obtained with Au(100) in BMIPF6 (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 11627). The main result is that the high frequency capacitance spectra on the two systems are similar to each other, however at low frequencies some slow interfacial processes cause the appearance of a second capacitance arc on Au(100), which is absent for HOPG. The slow processes are attributed to the rearrangement of the Au surface structure and to the formation of ionic liquid adlayers - these are visualized by in situ STM. PMID:26647859

  8. Mechanistic basis for inflammation and tumor promotion in lungs of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol-treated mice: electrophilic metabolites alkylate and inactivate antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brent W; Gomez, Jose D; Kirichenko, Oleg V; Thompson, John A

    2007-02-01

    An established model for mechanistic analysis of lung carcinogenesis involves administration of 3-methylcholanthrene to mice followed by several weekly injections of the tumor promoter 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). BHT is metabolized to quinone methides (QMs) responsible for promoting tumor formation. QMs are strongly electrophilic and readily form adducts with proteins. The goal of the present study was to identify adducted proteins in the lungs of mice injected with BHT and to assess the potential impact of these modifications on tumorigenesis. Cytosolic proteins from treated mouse lungs were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, adducts detected by immunoblotting, and proteins identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Eight adducts were detected in the lungs of most, or all, of six experimental groups of BALB mice. Of these adducts, several were structural proteins, but others, namely, peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), carbonyl reductase, and selenium-binding protein 1, have direct or indirect antioxidant functions. When the 9000g supernatant fraction of mouse lung was treated with BHT-QM (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone), substantial lipid peroxidation and increases in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide formation were observed. Studies with human Prx6 and bovine SOD1 demonstrated inhibition of enzyme activity concomitant with adduct formation. LC-MS/MS analysis of digests of adducted Prx6 demonstrated adduction of both Cys 91 and Cys 47; the latter residue is essential for peroxidatic activity. Analysis of QM-treated bovine SOD1 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS demonstrated the predominance of a monoadduct at His 78. This study provides evidence that indicates Prx6, SOD1, and possibly other antioxidant enzymes in mouse lung are inhibited by BHT-derived QMs leading to enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammation and providing a mechanistic basis for the effects of BHT on lung tumorigenesis. PMID:17305404

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF TERT-ALKLYPHENOLS IN CARP FROM THE TRENTON CHANNEL OF THE DETROIT RIVER, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole carp from the Detroit River were analyzed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. even tertiary alkyl phenols (tert-pentylphenols, tert-butyl-tert-pentylphenols, a di-tert-pentylphenol and a tri-tert-pentylphenol) and eight chlorinated derivatives of these compounds were ...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate)/nano-titanium oxide composite particles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gang; Yu, Jie; Luo, Zhu; Zhou, LiangXue; Liang, Hang; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

    2011-06-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) [P(MMA-BA)]/nanosized titanium oxide (nano-TiO2) composite particles were prepared via insitu emulsion polymerization of MMA and BA in presence of nano-TiO2 particles. Before polymerization, the nano-TiO2 particles were modified by coupling agent. The structure and thermal properties of the obtained P(MMA-BA)/nano-TiO2 composite particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that there are covalent bond bindings between P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles, meaning that P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles were not simply blended or mixed up and that there is a strong interaction between P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles. TGA and DSC measurements indicated an enhancement of thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that P(MMA-BA) enhanced the dispersibility of nano-TiO2 particles. The dispersion stabilization of modified nano-TiO2 particles in aqueous system was significantly improved due to the introduction of grafted polymer on the surface of nano-particles. PMID:21770123

  11. Distribution of organic solutes in biphasic 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate-supercritical CO(2) system.

    PubMed

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2009-07-16

    Interphase distribution of organic nonelectrolytes can be important in applications of biphasic solvent systems composed of a room-temperature ionic liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)). Here, open tubular capillary-column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([bmim][MeSO(4)]) as the stationary liquid and scCO(2) as the carrier fluid was employed to measure retention factors of organic solutes within 313-353 K and 8.5-23.2 MPa. Solute selection included 18 compounds of diverse volatilities and chemical functionalities. The retention factors were converted to infinite-dilution solute partition coefficients in the biphasic [bmim][MeSO(4)]-scCO(2) system. At a constant temperature, an increase in scCO(2) density produced distinct shifts in relative retention (= separation factor), thus providing some pressure-tunable selectivity. At a particular temperature and density of CO(2), solute partition coefficients can be correlated in terms of linear solvation energy relationships. Analysis of the relative retention data by regular solution theory resulted in approximate values of the solubility parameter of CO(2)-expanded [bmim][MeSO(4)]. PMID:19537694

  12. Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) at Cranberry Lake, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toran, L.; Lipka, C.; Baehr, A.; Reilly, T.; Baker, R.

    2003-01-01

    Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline, has been detected in lakes in northwestern New Jersey. This occurrence has been attributed to the use of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE concentrations at Cranberry Lake. During a recent boating season (late April to September 1999), concentrations of MTBE typically exceeded 20??g/L. MTBE concentrations varied daily from 12 to 24??g/L over a 2-week period that included the Labor Day holiday. Concentrations were highest on weekends when there is more boat traffic, which had an immediate effect on MTBE mass throughout the lake. MTBE concentrations decreased to about 2??g/L shortly after the end of the summer recreational season. The loss of MTBE can be accounted for by volatilization, with a half-life on the order of 10 days. The volatilization rate was modeled with the daily decrease in MTBE then the modeled rate was validated using the data from the seasonal decline. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Construction of wettability gradient surface on copper substrate by controlled hydrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuo-ru

    2014-10-01

    We report a gradient wettability surface on copper slide prepared by a simple controlled ester group hydrolysis procedure of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) [P (MMA-BA)] films coated on the copper substrate. In the method, sodium hydroxide solutions are selected to prepare surface gradient wettability on P (MMA-BA) films. The P (MMA-BA) copolymers with different MMA contents are first synthesized by a conventional free atom radical solution polymerization method. The transfer of surface chemical composition from the ester group to acid salt is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The effects of different concentrations of NaOH solution and reaction times on the physicochemical properties of the resulting surfaces are studied. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the varying concentration along the substrate length is only attributed to the hydrolysis reaction of ester groups. The hydrolysis causes insignificant change on the morphology of the original film on the copper substrate. In addition, it is found that the MMA copolymer content has a significant influence on the concentration of ester groups on the outermost surface and thus important for forming the slope gradients.

  14. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10? for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10? for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  15. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  16. Containment of groundwater pollution (methyl tertiary butyl ether and benzene) to protect a drinking-water production site in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haest, Pieter Jan; Lookman, Richard; van Keer, Ilse; Patyn, Johan; Bronders, Jan; Joris, Marjan; Bellon, Jan; de Smedt, Florimond

    2010-12-01

    The subsurface migration of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene towards a drinking-water production site in Belgium was monitored for 9 years. A large gasoline spill at a nearby fuel station had caused a 500-m long and 50-m-wide pollution plume of MTBE (10-30 mg/L) and benzene (2-10 mg/L). In order to prevent any intrusion of pollutants into the drinking-water supply, a conceptual model was used to design a pump-and-treat system that intercepted the gasoline-contaminated groundwater emanating from the spill. The contaminated soil in the spill zone was excavated. A numerical mass transport model was developed to evaluate the ongoing plume containment. The model describes the subsurface MTBE migration and was regularly updated, based on groundwater monitoring data and the measured mass of MTBE extracted with the pump-and-treat system. With continued interception pumping, the MTBE plume can be remediated in 14 years. Without it, MTBE and benzene concentrations up to 600 ?g/L could have reached the drinking-water production site and the plume would persist for 9 years longer. Source zone treatment combined with plume interception pumping is a suitable risk-based remediation strategy for the containment of MTBE and benzene groundwater pollution.

  17. Structural Basis for Small Molecule NDB (N-Benzyl-N-(3-(tert-butyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,6-dichloro-4-(dimethylamino) Benzamide) as a Selective Antagonist of Farnesoid X Receptor ? (FXR?) in Stabilizing the Homodimerization of the Receptor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Xu, Xin; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Chen, Jing; Fu, Hai-an; Chen, Li-li; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2015-08-01

    Farnesoid X receptor ? (FXR?) as a bile acid sensor plays potent roles in multiple metabolic processes, and its antagonist has recently revealed special interests in the treatment of metabolic disorders, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Here, we identified that the small molecule N-benzyl-N-(3-(tert-butyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,6-dichloro-4-(dimethylamino) benzamide (NDB) functioned as a selective antagonist of human FXR? (hFXR?), and the crystal structure of hFXR? ligand binding domain (hFXR?-LBD) in complex with NDB was analyzed. It was unexpectedly discovered that NDB induced rearrangements of helix 11 (H11) and helix 12 (H12, AF-2) by forming a homodimer of hFXR?-LBD, totally different from the active conformation in monomer state, and the binding details were further supported by the mutation analysis. Moreover, functional studies demonstrated that NDB effectively antagonized the GW4064-stimulated FXR/RXR interaction and FXR? target gene expression in primary mouse hepatocytes, including the small heterodimer partner (SHP) and bile-salt export pump (BSEP); meanwhile, administration of NDB to db/db mice efficiently decreased the gene expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6-pase), small heterodimer partner, and BSEP. It is expected that our first analyzed crystal structure of hFXR?-LBD·NDB will help expound the antagonistic mechanism of the receptor, and NDB may find its potential as a lead compound in anti-diabetes research. PMID:26100621

  18. Automated radiosynthesis of N-succinimidyl 3-(di-tert-butyl[(18)F]fluorosilyl)benzoate ([(18)F]SiFB) for peptides and proteins radiolabeling for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Koudih, R; Kostikov, A; Kovacevic, M; Jolly, D; Bernard-Gauthier, V; Chin, J; Jurkschat, K; Wängler, C; Wängler, B; Schirrmacher, R

    2014-07-01

    Recently, silicon fluoride building blocks (SiFA) have emerged as valuable and promising tools to overcome challenges in the labeling of peptides and proteins for positron emission tomography (PET). Herein, we report a fully automated synthesis of N-succinimidyl 3-(di-tert-butyl[(18)F]fluorosilyl)benzoate ([(18)F]SiFB) by a commercially available Scintomics Hot Box 3 synthesis module, to be used as a prosthetic group for peptide and protein labeling. The drying of K2.2.2./K (18)F complex was performed according to the Munich method modified by our group (avoiding azeotropic drying) using oxalic acid to neutralize the base from the (18)F(-) containing QMA eluent. This K2.2.2./K (18)F complex was then used for SiFA (18)F-(19)F isotopic exchange followed by a fast purification by a solid-phase-extraction (SPE) to afford [(18)F]SiFB with an average preparative radiochemical yield (RCY) of 24±1% (non-decay corrected (NDC)) within a synthesis time of 30 min. The [(18)F]SiFB produced by automated synthesis was then used for the (18)F-labeling of rat serum albumin (RSA) as a proof of applicability. PMID:24631747

  19. FT-IR and Raman vibrational analysis, B3LYP and M06-2X simulations of 4-bromomethyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; Puttaraju, K. B.; Keskino?lu, Sema; Shivashankar, K.; Ucun, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized bacteriostatic and anti-tumor molecule namely, 4-bromomethyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Raman spectra (4000-100 cm-1) of the compound in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr and DFT/M06-2X: highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated using the same theoretical calculations.

  20. Simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction of dibenzyl disulfide, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, and 1,2,3-benzotriazole from power transformer oil prior to GC and HPLC determination.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Abdul Muttaleb Yousef; Mehanna, Nemr Ahmed; Abulkibash, Abdalla Mahmoud

    2012-03-01

    2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (DBPC), dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS), and 1,2,3-benzotriazole (BTA) are additives that may be found concomitantly in the oil matrix of power transformer. DBPC and DBDS act as antioxidants while, BTA is a corrosion inhibitor that protects copper conductors inside the transformer unit from corrosion. A powerful analytical method is, therefore, required to determine these additives at trace levels in the transformer oil. This work describes a unique single liquid-liquid extraction pretreatment step prior to the determination of the components by gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The optimum volume ratio used in the pretreatment step was determined as 5:2:5 for mineral oil/n-hexane/acetonitrile, respectively. Relatively, the method is simple and quick with a minimal use of solvents. Analytical results indicate that the method is relatively sensitive, accurate, and precise for each of the three components in fresh and used mineral oil. The calibration curves for the three components demonstrate a significant increase in sensitivities. Detection limits found were, 100 mg L(-1) (0.01% w/v), 0.80 mg L(-1) , and 2.04 mg L(-1) for DBPC, DBDS, and BTA, respectively. The Student's t values determined at 95% confidence level indicate that there is no significant difference between the experimental means obtained by this method and the standard method for each component. PMID:22311820

  1. Safety assessment for octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionate (CAS Reg. No. 2082-79-3) from use in food contact applications.

    PubMed

    Neal-Kluever, April P; Bailey, Allan B; Hatwell, Karen R

    2015-12-01

    Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (CAS Reg. No. 2082-79-3), currently marketed as Irganox 1076 (I-76), is a sterically hindered phenolic antioxidant used in a variety of organic substrates, including those used in the manufacture of food contact articles. In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), Office of Food Additive Safety (OFAS), initiated a post-market re-evaluation of the food contact applications of I-76. This project aimed to ensure that current dietary exposures from the use of I-76 in food contact articles are accurately captured and the safety assessment considered all relevant and available toxicological information. To accomplish these aims, the USFDA reviewed the available toxicological studies and chemistry information on food contact applications of I-76. Based on this in-depth analysis, a NOAEL of 64 mg/kg-bw/d (female rats) from a chronic rat study and a cumulative estimated dietary intake (CEDI) of 4.5 mg/p/d, was used to calculate a margin of exposure (MOE) of ?850. We concluded that the previous and current exposure levels provide an adequate margin of safety (MOS) and remain protective of human health for the regulated uses. PMID:26482640

  2. Formation of alkenes via degradation of tert-alkyl ethers and alcohols by Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium spp.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Franziska; Muzica, Liudmila; Schuster, Judith; Treuter, Naemi; Rosell, Mònica; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H; Rohwerder, Thore

    2011-09-01

    Bacterial degradation pathways of fuel oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl and tert-amyl methyl ether (MTBE and TAME, respectively) have already been studied in some detail. However, many of the involved enzymes are still unknown, and possible side reactions have not yet been considered. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, and Methylibium sp. strain R8, we have now detected volatile hydrocarbons as by-products of the degradation of the tert-alkyl ether metabolites tert-butyl and tert-amyl alcohol (TBA and TAA, respectively). The alkene isobutene was formed only during TBA catabolism, while the beta and gamma isomers of isoamylene were produced only during TAA conversion. Both tert-alkyl alcohol degradation and alkene production were strictly oxygen dependent. However, the relative contribution of the dehydration reaction to total alcohol conversion increased with decreasing oxygen concentrations. In resting-cell experiments where the headspace oxygen content was adjusted to less than 2%, more than 50% of the TAA was converted to isoamylene. Isobutene formation from TBA was about 20-fold lower, reaching up to 4% alcohol turnover at low oxygen concentrations. It is likely that the putative tert-alkyl alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ, belonging to the Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron enzymes and found in all three strains tested, or an associated enzymatic step catalyzed the unusual elimination reaction. This was also supported by the detection of mdpJK genes in MTBE-degrading and isobutene-emitting enrichment cultures obtained from two treatment ponds operating at Leuna, Germany. The possible use of alkene formation as an easy-to-measure indicator of aerobic fuel oxygenate biodegradation in contaminated aquifers is discussed. PMID:21742915

  3. tert-Butyl N-[(3R,4R)-1-(2-cyano-acet-yl)-4-methyl-piperidin-3-yl]-N-methyl-carbamate.

    PubMed

    Gehringer, Matthias; Forster, Michael; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Laufer, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The piperidine ring of the title compound, C15H25N3O3, adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation with the cis substituents displaying an N-C-C-C torsion angle of 43.0 (3)°. The cyano group (plane defined by C-C-C N atoms) is bent slightly out of the plane of the amide group by 13.3 (2)°. The carbamate group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 60.3 (5)° relative to the amide group. PMID:23795101

  4. Generation of reactive intermediates from the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene hydroperoxide in isolated murine keratinocytes or by hematin.

    PubMed

    Taffe, B G; Zweier, J L; Pannell, L K; Kensler, T W

    1989-07-01

    BHTOOH (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroperoxyl-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone), a metabolite of the food antioxidant BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol), has previously been shown to function as a tumor promoter in mouse skin. The metabolism of BHTOOH was examined to assess the role of reactive intermediates in mediating tumor promotion in this tissue. Free radical metabolites of BHTOOH were characterized in either isolated neonatal mouse keratinocytes or a cell-free hematin system using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy while non-radical, EPR silent products were characterized using HPLC separation coupled with UV or mass spectral detection. Incubation of BHTOOH with keratinocytes or hematin resulted in the generation of the BHT-phenoxyl radical detectable by EPR spectroscopy. Formation of the BHT-phenoxyl radical was prevented by heat inactivation of the cells prior to exposure to BHTOOH. Only one non-radical metabolite of BHTOOH was detected in keratinocytes: BHT-quinol (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-4-hydroxyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone), while incubation of BHTOOH with hematin produced several metabolites: oxacyclopentenone (2,5-di-tert-butyl-5-(2'-oxopropyl)-4-oxa-2-cyclopentenone), BHT-quinone (2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-benzoquinone), BHT, BHT-stilbenequinone (3,5,3',5'-tetra-tert-butylstilbene-4,4'-quinone), and BHT-quinone methide (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone). Thus, radical as well as non-radical reactive intermediates can be formed during metabolism of BHTOOH. Several of the stable metabolites of BHTOOH were evaluated for possible promoter activity in a short-term bioassay, induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in mouse skin. In contrast to the action of BHTOOH, topical application of equimolar doses of BHT-quinol, BHT-quinone, BHT-stilbenequinone, as well as BHT itself, did not induce epidermal ODC activity. Thus, reactive metabolites of BHTOOH such as the BHT-phenoxyl radical or BHT-quinone methide may be involved in the molecular mechanisms of action of this hydroperoxide tumor promoter. PMID:2472232

  5. Functionalized alkynyl-chlorogermanes: hydrometallation, Ge-Cl bond activation, Ge-H bond formation and chlorine-tert-butyl exchange via a transient germyl cation.

    PubMed

    Honacker, Christian; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Tannert, Jens; Layh, Marcus; Hepp, Alexander; Grimme, Stefan; Uhl, Werner

    2016-04-14

    Treatment of alkynyl-arylchlorogermanes ArylnGe(Cl)(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)3-n (n = 1, 2) with HM(t)Bu2 (M = Al, Ga) yielded mixed Al or Ga alkenyl-alkynylchlorogermanes via hydrometallation reactions. Intramolecular interactions between the Lewis-basic Cl atoms and the Lewis-acidic Al or Ga atoms afforded MCGeCl heterocycles. The endocyclic M-Cl distances were significantly lengthened compared to the starting compounds and indicated Ge-Cl bond activation. Dual hydrometallation succeeded only with HGa(t)Bu2. One Ga atom of the product was involved in a Ga-Cl bond, while the second one had an interaction to a C-H bond of a phenyl group. In two cases treatment of chlorogermanes with two equivalents of HAl(t)Bu2 resulted in hydroalumination of one alkynyl group and formation of unprecedented Ge-H functionalized germanes, Aryl-Ge(H)(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)[C(Al(t)Bu2)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-(t)Bu] (Aryl = mesityl, triisopropylphenyl). The Al atoms of these compounds interacted with the α-C atoms of the alkynyl groups. Ph(Cl)Ge(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)[C(Al(t)Bu2}[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-(t)Bu] reacted in an unusual Cl/(t)Bu exchange to yield the tert-butylgermane Ph((t)Bu)Ge(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)[C{Al((t)Bu)(Cl)}[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-(t)Bu]. Quantum chemical calculations suggested the formation of a germyl cation as a transient intermediate. PMID:26610394

  6. Chronic Carcinogenicity Study of Gasoline Vapor Condensate (GVC) and GVC Containing Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janet M.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; March, Thomas H.; Barr, Edward B.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Skipper, Betty J.; Clark, Charles R.; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m3 for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints. PMID:21432714

  7. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D

    1996-07-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline (15% by volume) in many areas of the U.S. to help control carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles. In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers' exposures to MTBE that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented "valveless" cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects' breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 115 micrograms for the refueling subject while it was only 30 micrograms for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. These results demonstrate that this new methodology can be used effectively in studies designed to assess exposures to MTBE. The method can be used to objectively demonstrate recent exposures, the relative magnitude of an exposure, and the approximate duration of the resulting bloodborne dose. Once a blood/breath partition coefficient for MTBE has been firmly established, the bloodborne concentration of the absorbed material can be determined using these techniques as well. PMID:9028175

  8. Survey of the occurrence of residues of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in Dutch drinking water sources and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Pepijn; Versteegh, Ans F M; de Korte, Gert A L; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Mooibroek, Dennis; Bannink, André; Hogendoorn, Elbert A

    2003-12-01

    An indicative survey has been carried out in The Netherlands investigating the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water and the corresponding sources. In total, 71 different sites used for the preparation of drinking water in The Netherlands were sampled in two successive seasons in 2001 involving the analysis of 156 samples. (ground water (n = 88), surface water (n = 17), bank filtrate water (n = 6) and drinking water (n = 45)). To combine high sample throughput with high selectivity and sensitivity, off-line purge and trap for sampling and gas chromatography mass spectrometry equipped with an automated thermal desorption sampler (TDS-GC-MS) was selected as the preferred analytical methodology. The developed procedure enabled the analysis of at least 40 samples per day and provided a limit of quantification of 2 ng l(-1). In the first period 63 samples of raw water were analyzed. Concentrations ranged between < 10 ng l(-1) and 420 ng l(-1) with a median concentration below 10 ng l(-1). The second period was focused at the re-sampling of positive locations (MTBE > 10 ng l(-1)) and a few additional drinking water utilities of which both the raw and drinking water of the utilities were analyzed. The median concentration of MTBE in the selected set of drinking water samples was 20 ng l(-1) (n = 45). At one location MTBE was found at a level of 2900 ng l(-1) caused by point source contamination of the ground water (11 900 ng l(-1)). Special attention has been paid to the quality of the results by analyzing all samples in duplicate and the analysis of control samples during each series of analyses. PMID:14710927

  9. Solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation and isolated-molecule and cluster electronic structure calculations in organic molecular solids: The relationship between structure and methyl group and t-butyl group rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianlong E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu; Mallory, Frank B.; Mallory, Clelia W.; Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 ; Odhner, Hosanna R.; Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu

    2014-05-21

    We report ab initio density functional theory electronic structure calculations of rotational barriers for t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups both in the isolated molecules and in central molecules in clusters built from the X-ray structure in four t-butyl aromatic compounds. The X-ray structures have been reported previously. We also report and interpret the temperature dependence of the solid state {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz in one of the four compounds. Such experiments for the other three have been reported previously. We compare the computed barriers for methyl group and t-butyl group rotation in a central target molecule in the cluster with the activation energies determined from fitting the {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation data. We formulate a dynamical model for the superposition of t-butyl group rotation and the rotation of the t-butyl group's constituent methyl groups. The four compounds are 2,7-di-t-butylpyrene, 1,4-di-t-butylbenzene, 2,6-di-t-butylnaphthalene, and 3-t-butylchrysene. We comment on the unusual ground state orientation of the t-butyl groups in the crystal of the pyrene and we comment on the unusually high rotational barrier of these t-butyl groups.

  10. Quantum mechanical study and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible) study, potential energy surface scan, Fukui function analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol by DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Balachandran, V

    2014-09-15

    This study represents an integral approach towards understanding the electronic and structural aspects of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (TBMP). Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of TBMP was recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1), respectively. The molecular structures, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities and Raman activities were calculated using DFT (B3LYP and LSDA) methods using 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer of TBMP was identified from the computational results. The assignments of vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability (?0) and related properties (?, ?0 and ??) of TBMP have been discussed. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-Visible spectrum and effects of solvents have been discussed and the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were determined by time-dependent TD-DFT approach with B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs). The reactivity sites are identified by mapping the electron density into electrostatic potential surface (MEP). Mulliken analysis of atomic charges is also calculated. The thermodynamic properties at different temperatures were calculated, revealing the correlations between standard heat capacities, standard entropy and standard enthalpy changes with temperatures. Global hardness, global softness, global electrophilicity and ionization potential of the title compound are determined. PMID:24813291

  11. Reversal of age-related increase in brain protein oxidation, decrease in enzyme activity, and loss in temporal and spatial memory by chronic administration of the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, J.M.; Starke-Reed, P.E.; Oliver, C.N.; Landum, R.W.; Cheng, M.S.; Wu, J.F.; Floyd, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Oxygen free radicals and oxidative events have been implicated as playing a role in bringing about the changes in cellular function that occur during aging. Brain readily undergoes oxidative damage, so it is important to determine if aging-induced changes in brain may be associated with oxidative events. Previously we demonstrated that brain damage caused by an ischemia/reperfusion insult involved oxidative events. In addition, pretreatment with the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) diminished the increase in oxidized protein and the loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity that accompanied ischemia/reperfusion injury in brain. We report here that aged gerbils had a significantly higher level of oxidized protein as assessed by carbonyl residues and decreased GS and neutral protease activities as compared to young adult gerbils. We also found that chronic treatment with the spin-trapping compound PBN caused a decrease in the level of oxidized protein and an increase in both GS and neutral protease activity in aged Mongolian gerbil brain. In contrast to aged gerbils, PBN treatment of young adult gerbils had no significant effect on brain oxidized protein content or GS activity. Male gerbils, young adults (3 months of age) and retired breeders (15-18 months of age), were treated with PBN for 14 days with twice daily dosages of 32 mg/kg. If PBN administration was ceased after 2 weeks, the significantly decreased level of oxidized protein and increased GS and neutral protease activities in old gerbils changed in a monotonic fashion back to the levels observed in aged gerbils prior to PBN administration. We also report that old gerbils make more errors than young animals and that older gerbils treated with PBN made fewer errors in a radial arm maze test for temporal and spatial memory than the untreated aged controls.

  12. DIPPR Project 871 For 1995 - Thermodynamic Properties and Ideal-Gas Enthalpies of Formation for Methyl Benzoate, Ethyl Benzoate, (R)-(+)-Limonene, Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether, Trans-Crotonaldehyde, and

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.

    2002-07-01

    Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, (R)-(+)-limonene, tert-amyl methyl ether, trans-crotonaldehyde, and diethylene glycol are reported. The standard energy of combustion and hence standard enthalpy of formation of each compound in the liquid phase has been measured using an oxygen rotating-bomb calorimeter without rotation. Vapor pressures were measured to a pressure limit of 270 kPa or the lower decomposition point for each of the six compounds using a twin ebulliometric apparatus. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for each compound over a range of temperature (ambient to a maximum of 548 K). A differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure two-phase (liquid + vapor) heat capacities for each compound in the temperature region ambient to the critical temperature or lower decomposition point. For methyl benzoate and tert-amyl methyl ether, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the DSC results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, critical pressures, and critical densities for each of the remaining compounds. The results of the measurements were combined to derive a series of thermophysical properties including critical temperature, critical density, critical pressure, acentric factor, enthalpies of vaporization (restricted to within {+-}50 K of the temperature region of the experimentally determined vapor pressures), and heat capacities along the saturation line. Wagner-type vapor-pressure equations were derived for each compound. All measured and derived values were compared with those obtained in a search of the literature. Recommended critical parameters are listed for each of the compounds studied. Group-additivity parameters, useful in the application of the Benson gas-phase group-contribution correlations, were derived.

  13. Access to “Friedel-Crafts-restricted” tert-alkyl aromatics by activation/methylation of tertiary benzylic alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Hartsel, Joshua A.; Craft, Derek T.; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Ma, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a two-step protocol to prepare m-tert-alkylbenzenes. The appropriate 3° benzylic alcohols are activated with SOCl2 or concentrated HCl, and then treated with trimethylaluminum, affording the desired products in 68–97% yields (22 examples). This reaction sequence is successful in the presence of a variety of functional groups, including acid-sensitive and Lewis-basic groups. In addition to t-Bu groups, 1,1-dimethylpropyl and 1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl groups can also be installed using this method. PMID:22394317

  14. Free radical-derived quinone methide mediates skin tumor promotion by butylated hydroxytoluene hydroperoxide: expanded role for electrophiles in multistage carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guyton, K Z; Bhan, P; Kuppusamy, P; Zweier, J L; Trush, M A; Kensler, T W

    1991-02-01

    Free radical derivatives of peroxides, hydroperoxides, and anthrones are thought to mediate tumor promotion by these compounds. Further, the promoting activity of phorbol esters is attributed, in part, to their ability to stimulate the cellular generation of oxygen radicals. A hydroperoxide metabolite of butylated hydroxytoluene, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroperoxyl-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHTOOH), has previously been shown to be a tumor promoter in mouse skin. BHTOOH is extensively metabolized by murine keratinocytes to several radical species. The primary radical generated from BHTOOH is a phenoxyl radical that can disproportionate to form butylated hydroxytoluene quinone methide, a reactive electrophile. Since electrophilic species have not been previously postulated to mediate tumor promotion, the present study was undertaken to examine the role of this electrophile in the promoting activity of BHTOOH. The biological activities of two chemical analogs of BHTOOH, 4-trideuteromethyl-BHTOOH and 4-tert-butyl-BHTOOH, were compared with that of the parent compound. 4-Trideuteromethyl-BHTOOH and 4-tert-butyl-BHTOOH have a reduced ability or inability, respectively, to form a quinone methide; however, like the parent compound, they both generate a phenoxyl radical when incubated with keratinocyte cytosol. The potency of BHTOOH, 4-trideuteromethyl-BHTOOH, and 4-tert-butyl-BHTOOH as inducers of ornithine decarboxylase, a marker of tumor promotion, was commensurate with their capacity for generating butylated hydroxytoluene quinone methide. These initial results were confirmed in a two-stage tumor promotion protocol in female SENCAR mice. Together, these data indicate that a quinone methide is mediating tumor promotion by BHTOOH, providing direct evidence that an electrophilic intermediate can elicit this stage of carcinogenesis. PMID:1846971

  15. Free radical-derived quinone methide mediates skin tumor promotion by butylated hydroxytoluene hydroperoxide: expanded role for electrophiles in multistage carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, K Z; Bhan, P; Kuppusamy, P; Zweier, J L; Trush, M A; Kensler, T W

    1991-01-01

    Free radical derivatives of peroxides, hydroperoxides, and anthrones are thought to mediate tumor promotion by these compounds. Further, the promoting activity of phorbol esters is attributed, in part, to their ability to stimulate the cellular generation of oxygen radicals. A hydroperoxide metabolite of butylated hydroxytoluene, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroperoxyl-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHTOOH), has previously been shown to be a tumor promoter in mouse skin. BHTOOH is extensively metabolized by murine keratinocytes to several radical species. The primary radical generated from BHTOOH is a phenoxyl radical that can disproportionate to form butylated hydroxytoluene quinone methide, a reactive electrophile. Since electrophilic species have not been previously postulated to mediate tumor promotion, the present study was undertaken to examine the role of this electrophile in the promoting activity of BHTOOH. The biological activities of two chemical analogs of BHTOOH, 4-trideuteromethyl-BHTOOH and 4-tert-butyl-BHTOOH, were compared with that of the parent compound. 4-Trideuteromethyl-BHTOOH and 4-tert-butyl-BHTOOH have a reduced ability or inability, respectively, to form a quinone methide; however, like the parent compound, they both generate a phenoxyl radical when incubated with keratinocyte cytosol. The potency of BHTOOH, 4-trideuteromethyl-BHTOOH, and 4-tert-butyl-BHTOOH as inducers of ornithine decarboxylase, a marker of tumor promotion, was commensurate with their capacity for generating butylated hydroxytoluene quinone methide. These initial results were confirmed in a two-stage tumor promotion protocol in female SENCAR mice. Together, these data indicate that a quinone methide is mediating tumor promotion by BHTOOH, providing direct evidence that an electrophilic intermediate can elicit this stage of carcinogenesis. PMID:1846971

  16. On the mechanism of covalent binding of butylated hydroxytoluene to microsomal protein.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Y; Hiraga, K; Suga, T

    1983-04-15

    The structures of cysteine conjugates of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) and the binding sites of BHT metabolites on microsomal protein were investigated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) and gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The cysteine conjugates of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol (BHT-alcohol) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (quinone methide), which are metabolites of BHT found in rat liver and specifically reacts with thiol compounds, were prepared as alcoholic aqueous solutions. The molecular structure of the cysteine conjugate of BHT-alcohol agreed completely with that of quinone methide in 13C-NMR spectra or mass spectra. These spectra of both conjugates further showed that the conjugates are due to thioether binding between the 4-methyl group of metabolites and the sulfhydryl group of cysteine. When [14C]BHT-bound microsomes prepared in vitro were enzymatically hydrolyzed with Pronase E, the major radioactive material that eluted with methanol from a column of Amberlite XAD-2 and gave a positive ninhydrin reaction was identified as a cysteine conjugate of BHT by comparing its Rf values on TLC and mass spectrum. On the basis of the results, it was apparent that the binding site of activated substituents of BHT on protein was mainly the sulfhydryl group of cysteine residue. PMID:6860361

  17. Formation of Alkenes via Degradation of tert-Alkyl Ethers and Alcohols by Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium spp. ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Franziska; Muzica, Liudmila; Schuster, Judith; Treuter, Naemi; Rosell, Mònica; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.; Rohwerder, Thore

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial degradation pathways of fuel oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl and tert-amyl methyl ether (MTBE and TAME, respectively) have already been studied in some detail. However, many of the involved enzymes are still unknown, and possible side reactions have not yet been considered. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, and Methylibium sp. strain R8, we have now detected volatile hydrocarbons as by-products of the degradation of the tert-alkyl ether metabolites tert-butyl and tert-amyl alcohol (TBA and TAA, respectively). The alkene isobutene was formed only during TBA catabolism, while the beta and gamma isomers of isoamylene were produced only during TAA conversion. Both tert-alkyl alcohol degradation and alkene production were strictly oxygen dependent. However, the relative contribution of the dehydration reaction to total alcohol conversion increased with decreasing oxygen concentrations. In resting-cell experiments where the headspace oxygen content was adjusted to less than 2%, more than 50% of the TAA was converted to isoamylene. Isobutene formation from TBA was about 20-fold lower, reaching up to 4% alcohol turnover at low oxygen concentrations. It is likely that the putative tert-alkyl alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ, belonging to the Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron enzymes and found in all three strains tested, or an associated enzymatic step catalyzed the unusual elimination reaction. This was also supported by the detection of mdpJK genes in MTBE-degrading and isobutene-emitting enrichment cultures obtained from two treatment ponds operating at Leuna, Germany. The possible use of alkene formation as an easy-to-measure indicator of aerobic fuel oxygenate biodegradation in contaminated aquifers is discussed. PMID:21742915

  18. Nuclear-spin relaxation in molecular solids with reorienting methyl and t-butyl groups: The spectral density and the state of the solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Peter A.; Hill, Audrey I.; Kohler, Ellen B.; Yu, Hong

    1988-12-01

    We have measured the temperature T dependence of the proton Zeeman relaxation rate R in polycrystalline 1,3-di-t-butylbenzene (1,3-DTB) at Larmor frequencies of ω/(2π)=8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz. The relaxation is caused by the modulation of the methyl proton dipole-dipole interactions by the reorientation of the t-butyl groups [C(CH3)3] and their three constituent methyl groups (CH3). There are two solid phases which either have a large hysteresis of at least 90 K, or are both stable below 200 K. The sample melts at 262 K. We interpret the high-temperature phase R-versus-T-1 data with three models. First, we adopt a one-correlation-time model using a Davidson-Cole spectral density which suggests that there is a distribution of correlation times, or, equivalently, a distribution of activation energies for t-butyl and methyl group reorientation. In this case, the methyl and t-butyl reorientation is characterized by a cutoff activation energy of 17+/-1 kJ/mol which is to be compared with 18+/-1 kJ/mol in 1,4-DTB [P. A. Beckmann, F. A. Fusco, and A. E. O'Neill, J. Magn. Reson. 59, 63 (1984)] in which there is only the one phase. Second, we adopt two two-correlation-time models using Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound spectral densities; one based on the dynamical inequivalence of the methyl groups in each t-butyl group and one based on the dynamical inequivalence of different t-butyl groups, either because of intramolecular effects or because of intermolecular (crystal-structure) effects. In the low-temperature phase of 1,3-DTB, R(ω,T) is unusual in that it is Larmor-frequency dependent in the short-correlation-time limit (i.e., temperatures above the relaxation rate maximum). We have fit the data with a Havriliak-Negami spectral density (which reduces to a Davidson-Cole spectral density when one of the parameters becomes unity which, in turn, reduces to a Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound spectral density when an additional parameter becomes unity). The fit, with an effective activation energy of 10+/-3 kJ/mol, suggests that this low-temperature phase in 1,3-DTB is a glassy state. We relate the Havriliak-Negami spectral density to the Dissado-Hill spectral density which has a fundamental microscopic basis and which has been used to interpret a vast quantity of dielectric relaxation data as well as some mechanical relaxation data.

  19. Fate of 3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8- hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyrane and chlorpyrifos in a Conventional Wastewater Treatement Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Bodour, A.; Inniss, E. C.; Murray, K. E.

    2007-12-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) are a major concern in the environment, particularly those found in waters. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a key role in reducing the concentrations in the environment because compounds may be transformed under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions or may sorb to wastewater sludges and therefore be removed from waters. If these ECs are not contained or treated then effluent discharged from the WWTP and to a receiving stream may contain hazardous levels of these contaminants. Reported here is a study of the fate of three emerging contaminants (ECs): 3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyrane (HHCB) and chlorpyrifos. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory scale by emulating conditions of a conventional WWTP in San Antonio, TX. The goal of the research was to determine general characteristics for both sorption (to wastewater sludges) and degradation. The sorption experiments were performed by exposing the sludge to a variety of initial concentration of ECs for 24 hours. After exposure these three ECs were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography followed by flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Sorption experiments indicated that HHCB and chlorpyrifos are more hydrophobic than BHA and, therefore, would be mostly contained in the sludges. The degradation rates for these ECs were also considered for both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using different bench-scale reactor setups for 21 days. The differences between the reactor setups included volume of reactor, amount of sludge, mode of supply of nutrients and acclimatization of sludge to the ECs. One sludge was first acclimated to EC concentrations and then used in the experiment. The acclimated reactor had reaction rate constants approximately double that of the non-acclimated sludge reactor setups and followed first order reaction kinetics. Aerobic degradation occurred more readily for all three compounds than anaerobic degradation. These experiments supported the hypothesis that the WWTPs do capture and transform most of these compounds and, therefore, limit their reach to the effluent. However it cannot be supported that the compounds in the sludge phase are degraded to very low concentrations. Because of the changing dynamics of the sludge phase with time, further work needs to be conducted on the influence of time on sorption coefficients and, subsequently the effect of these temporal changes on degradation of these compounds.

  20. Crystal structure and absolute configuration of (3S,4aS,8aS)-N-tert-butyl-2-[(S)-3-(2-chloro-4-nitro­benzamido)-2-hy­droxy­prop­yl]deca­hydro­isoquinoline-3-carboxamide and (3S,4aS,8aS)-N-tert-butyl-2-{(S)-2-[(S)-1-(2-chloro-4-nitro­benzoyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-2-hy­droxy­eth­yl}deca­hydro­iso­quinoline-3-carboxamide

    PubMed Central

    Maxson, Tucker; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Gray, Danielle L.; Mitchell, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure and absolute configuration of the two new title nelfinavir analogs, C24H35ClN4O5, (I), and C27H39ClN4O5, (II), have been determined. Each of these mol­ecules exhibits a number of disordered moieties. There are intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in both (I) and (II). In (I) it involves the two carboxamide groups, while in (II) it involves the N-tert-butyl carboxamide group and the 2-hydroxyl O atom. The inter­molecular hydrogen bonding in (I) (O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O) leads to two-dimensional sheets that extend parallel to the ac plane. The inter­molecular hydrogen bonding in (II) (O—H⋯O) leads to chains that extend parallel to the a axis. PMID:26594520

  1. Cometabolism of Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether and Gaseous n-Alkanes by Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 Grown on C5 to C8 n-Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christy A.; O'Reilly, Kirk T.; Hyman, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 grew well on toluene, n-alkanes (C5 to C8), and 1° alcohols (C2 to C8) but not on other aromatics, gaseous n-alkanes (C1 to C4), isoalkanes (C4 to C6), 2° alcohols (C3 to C8), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), or tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). Cells grown under carbon-limited conditions on n-alkanes in the presence of MTBE (42 ?mol) oxidized up to 94% of the added MTBE to TBA. Less than 3% of the added MTBE was oxidized to TBA when cells were grown on either 1° alcohols, toluene, or dextrose in the presence of MTBE. Concentrated n-pentane-grown cells oxidized MTBE to TBA without a lag phase and without generating tertiary butyl formate (TBF) as an intermediate. Neither TBF nor TBA was consumed by n-pentane-grown cells, while formaldehyde, the expected C1 product of MTBE dealkylation, was rapidly consumed. Similar Ks values for MTBE were observed for cells grown on C5 to C8 n-alkanes (12.95 ± 2.04 mM), suggesting that the same enzyme oxidizes MTBE in cells grown on each n-alkane. All growth-supporting n-alkanes (C5 to C8) inhibited MTBE oxidation by resting n-pentane-grown cells. Propane (Ki = 53 ?M) and n-butane (Ki = 16 ?M) also inhibited MTBE oxidation, and both gases were also consumed by cells during growth on n-pentane. Cultures grown on C5 to C8 n-alkanes also exhibited up to twofold-higher levels of growth in the presence of propane or n-butane, whereas no growth stimulation was observed with methane, ethane, MTBE, TBA, or formaldehyde. The results are discussed in terms of their impacts on our understanding of MTBE biodegradation and cometabolism. PMID:14660389

  2. Growth of tantalum nitride film as a Cu diffusion barrier by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition from bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Hyo Yeon; Lee, Sang Chan; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jin-Seong; Jeon, Dong Ju; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun

    2016-01-01

    A new bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex was synthesized for plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of tantalum nitride (TaN) film. Using the synthesized Ta compound, PEALD of TaN was conducted at growth temperatures of 150-250 °C in combination with NH3 plasma. The TaN PEALD showed a saturated growth rate of 0.062 nm/cycle and a high film density of 9.1-10.3 g/cm3 at 200-250 °C. Auger depth profiling revealed that the deposited TaN film contained low carbon and oxygen impurity levels of approximately 3-4%. N-rich amorphous TaN films were grown at all growth temperatures and showed highly resistive characteristic. The Cu barrier performance of the TaN film was evaluated by annealing of Cu/TaN (0-6 nm)/Si stacks at 400-800 °C, and excellent Cu diffusion barrier properties were observed even with ultrathin 2 nm-thick TaN film.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of poly ( n-butyl acrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate) latex interpenetrating polymer networks by radiation-induced seeded emulsion polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Wei, Genshuan; Qiao, Jinliang

    2007-11-01

    A series of latex interpenetrating polymer networks (LIPNs) were prepared via a two-stage emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) or mixture of MMA and n-butyl acrylate ( n-BA) on crosslinked poly( n-butyl acrylate)(PBA) seed latex using 60Co ?-ray radiation. The particles of resultant latex were produced with diameters between 150 and 250 nm. FTIR spectra identified the formation of crosslinked copolymers of PMMA or P(MMA- co-BA). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that with increasing n-BA concentration in second-stage monomers, the particle size of LIPN increased. Transmission electron microscope(TEM) photographs showed that the morphology of resultant acrylate interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) latex varied from the distinct core-shell structure to homogenous particle structure with the increase of n-BA concentration, and the morphology was mainly controlled by the miscibility between crosslinked PBA seed and second-stage copolymers and polarity of P(MMA- co-BA)copolymers. In addition, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements indicated the existence of reinforced miscibility between PBA seed and P(MMA- co-BA)copolymer in prepared LIPNs.

  4. Differential distribution and placental transport of 2- and 3-t-(methyl-14C)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) in pregnant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, A.E.; Ansari, G.A.; Dencker, L.; Ullberg, S. )

    1991-02-01

    The placental transport and localization in fetal and maternal tissues of 14C-BHA isomers, 2-t-(methyl-14C)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (2-BHA) and 3-t-(methyl-14C)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (3-BHA), were studied in pregnant mice by whole-body autoradiography techniques. BHA isomers were given (iv 50 microCi/100 g as a tracer dose) to pregnant mice at Day 11 (organogenesis) and Day 18 (postorganogenesis) of gestation. Peak levels of radioactivity occurred in various tissues 1-4 hr after iv administration of both isomers. 3-BHA and its metabolites have a higher affinity to fatty tissues and livers of pregnant mice. The concentration of radiocarbon in maternal liver and brown fat following treatment with 14C-3-BHA was much higher than the radioactivity concentration in the corresponding tissues of mothers treated with 2-BHA. On the other hand, the fetal concentration of radioactivity was higher in animals treated with 2-BHA than in those treated with 3-BHA. The radioactivity derived from both isomers accumulated in the fetal gastrointestinal tract. In both groups the radioactivity accumulated in the maternal nasal cavity and mucosa and the gastrointestinal contents. At 24 hr after treatment, retention of radioactivity in maternal lungs, amniotic fluid, and fetal gastrointestinal tissues was observed. Results from this study indicate that there are differences in the magnitude and extent of placental transport of 3-BHA and 2-BHA. Differences also exist in maternal organ uptake and radioactivity distribution of both isomers. Findings from this study are consistent with pharmacological differences existing between the isomers.

  5. Different hydrogen-bonded chains in the crystal structures of three alkyl N-[(E)-1-(2-benzyl-idene-1-methyl-hydrazin-yl)-3-hy-droxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]carbamates.

    PubMed

    Noguiera, Thais C M; Pinheiro, Alessandra C; Wardell, James L; de Souza, Marcus V N; Abberley, Jordan P; Harrison, William T A

    2015-07-01

    The crystal structures of three methyl-ated hydrazine carbamate derivatives prepared by multi-step syntheses from l-serine are presented, namely benzyl N-{(E)-1-[2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-1-methylhydrazinyl]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopro-pan-2-yl}carbamate, C20H20N4O4, tert-butyl N-{(E)-1-[2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-1-methylhydrazinyl]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl}carbamate, C17H22N4O4, and tert-butyl N-[(E)-1-(2-benzylidene-1-methylhydrazinyl)-3-hydroxy-1-oxopro-pan-2-yl]carbamate, C16H23N3O4. One of them shows that an unexpected racemization has occurred during the mild-condition methyl-ation reaction. In each crystal structure, the mol-ecules are linked into chains by O-H?O hydrogen bonds, but with significant differences between them. PMID:26279859

  6. Different hydrogen-bonded chains in the crystal structures of three alkyl N-[(E)-1-(2-benzyl­idene-1-methyl­hydrazin­yl)-3-hy­droxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]carbamates

    PubMed Central

    Noguiera, Thais C. M.; Pinheiro, Alessandra C.; Wardell, James L.; de Souza, Marcus V. N.; Abberley, Jordan P.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of three methyl­ated hydrazine carbamate derivatives prepared by multi-step syntheses from l-serine are presented, namely benzyl N-{(E)-1-[2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-1-methylhydrazinyl]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopro­pan-2-yl}carbamate, C20H20N4O4, tert-butyl N-{(E)-1-[2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-1-methylhydrazinyl]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl}carbamate, C17H22N4O4, and tert-butyl N-[(E)-1-(2-benzylidene-1-methylhydrazinyl)-3-hydroxy-1-oxopro­pan-2-yl]carbamate, C16H23N3O4. One of them shows that an unexpected racemization has occurred during the mild-condition methyl­ation reaction. In each crystal structure, the mol­ecules are linked into chains by O—H?O hydrogen bonds, but with significant differences between them. PMID:26279859

  7. Soap-free emulsion polymerization of poly (methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate): effects of anionic comonomers and methanol on the different characteristics of the latexes.

    PubMed

    Adelnia, Hossein; Pourmahdian, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Soap-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP) of methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate was conducted in water/methanol media with sodium salts of four different acidic comonomers, namely styrene sulfonic acid (NaSS), 2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (NaAmps), acrylic acid (NaAA), and itaconic acid (Na2ita). It was found that the introduction of methanol as co-solvent (35 wt%) to the medium greatly decreases the amount of water-soluble polyelectrolyte in the cases NaAA and Na2ita while it does not make difference for NaSS and NaAmps. Having employed the concept of conductance dependency to the ion mobility, the onset concentration in which soluble chains were formed was detected. The addition of sulfonic-based comonomers (NaSS and NaAmps), first decreased particle size and then led to predomination of solution polymerization over SFEP. On the contrary, the incorporation of carboxylic-based comonomers (NaAA and Na2ita) led to increase in particle size. Moreover, the particle size results were in good qualitative agreement with the classical Smith-Ewart theory. PMID:24415829

  8. Simulation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) transport to ground water from immobile sources of gasoline in the vadose zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahvis, M.A.; Rehmann, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    The mathematical model, R-UNSAT, developed to simulate the transport of benzene and MTBE in representative sand and clay hydrogeologic systems was evaluated. The effects on groundwater were simulated for small, chronic-, and single-volume releases of gasoline trapped in unsaturated soil. Hydrocarbon biodegradation was simulated by using a dual Monod-type kinetics model that includes oxygen and the reactive constituents. MTBE was assumed to be non-reactive. For MTBE, infiltration had the greatest effect on transport to groundwater. Infiltration also affected mass losses of MTBE to the atmosphere, particularly, in fine-grained soils. Depth to groundwater and soil type primarily affected travel times of MTBE to groundwater, but could affect mass-loading rates to groundwater if infiltration is insignificant. For benzene, transport to groundwater was significant only if the depth to the water table was < 1 m or biodegradation was assumed to be negligible. Mass fluxed to groundwater were generally smaller for benzene than for MTBE by more than two orders of magnitude. Thus, water that recharges an aquifer beneath a spill can be enriched in MTBE relative to benzene when compared to the composition of water in equilibrium with gasoline.

  9. Relations between the detection of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in surface and ground water and its content in gasoline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.; Halde, M.J.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The relations between the content of MTBE in gasoline and the detection frequency of MTBE in ground and surface water were analyzed using the percent by volume of MTBE in gasoline provided by NIPER. For groundwater, 21 metropolitan areas had information on detection frequency and percent volume of MTBE in gasoline, while for surface water, only 9 metropolitan areas had this information. For groundwater, three cities, i.e., Columbia, SC, Harrisburg, PA, and Norfolk, VA, had values of MTBE in gasoline for only 2 sampling periods and had a MTBE in gasoline for only 2 sampling periods. The frequency of detection of MTBE in surface and ground water had a positive relation to content of MTBE in gasoline. The occurrence of the fuel additive MTBE in ground and surface water was related to its issue in gasoline. The frequency of detection of MTBE was higher in areas that use greater amounts of MTBE in gasoline. As the percent by volume of MTBE in gasoline increased, the frequency of detection of MTBE in ground and surface water increased.

  10. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, summer 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    1998-01-01

    Oxygenated gasoline is used in watercraft on lakes across northern New Jersey. Many of these lakes are surrounded by communities similar to those at Cranberry Lake and at Lake Lackawanna, which depend largely on wells for water supply. Therefore, a regional assessment of the occurrence of these compounds in lakes and ground water is needed to determine the effect of the use of oxygenated gasoline on water quality in lakeside environments throughout northern New Jersey

  11. SIMULATION OF A METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) PLUME WITH MODFLOW, MT3D AND THE HYDROCARBON SPILL SCREENING MODEL (HSSM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An MTBE plume in the Upper Glacial Aquifer of Long Island, NY was simulated by combining MODFLOW and MT3D with a semi-analytical model for a gasoline release. The first step was to develop and calibrate a 3-dimensional steady-state numerical ground water flow model of the aquife...

  12. Crystal structure of methyl (2R,3S)-3-[(tert-butyl­sulfin­yl)amino]-2-fluoro-3-phenyl­propano­ate

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Fan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Yixiang; Li, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C14H20FNO3S, contains two chiral carbon centres and the absolute configuration has been confirmed as (2R,3S). In the crystal, adjacent mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating zigzag chains along the a-axis direction. PMID:26870495

  13. Synthesis and X-ray structural characterization of a series of dimeric [Hg2(SePh)2X2(PR2R?)2] compounds (R = tert-butyl; R? = 4-N,N-dimethylaniline and X = Cl, Br, I, SCN, SePh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieler, Rafael; Faoro, Eliandro; Cechin, Camila Nunes; Floriano, Luana; Lang, Ernesto Schulz

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the syntheses and characterization of five new compounds with the general formula [Hg2(SePh)2X2(PR2R?)2] (R = tert-butyl; R? = 4-N,N-dimethylaniline), where X = Cl (1a), Br (1b), I (1c), SCN (2), SePh (3). The compounds crystallized as dimeric {HgSe} units, although most of these chalcogenolate compounds appeared to be polymeric adamantanoid or fused adamantanoid species. The ligand structures of these compounds limited the growth of the molecular structures and promoted the formation of the dimeric form alone. The mercury centers were connected to one another through one ?-Cl and one ?-SePh bridge in 1a, and through two ?-SePh bridges in 1b, 1c, 2, and 3. The compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry, TGA, elemental analysis, and infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Characterization of Redox States of Ru(OH2)(Q)(tpy)2+ (Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone, tpy = 2,2#:6#,2#-terpyridine)and Related Species through Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Muckerman, J.T.; Tsai, M.-K.; , Rochford, J.; Polyansky, D.E.; Wada, T.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, E.

    2009-04-27

    The redox states of Ru(OH{sub 2})(Q)(tpy){sup 2+} (Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) are investigated through experimental and theoretical UV-vis spectra and Pourbaix diagrams. The electrochemical properties are reported for the species resulting from deprotonation and redox processes in aqueous solution. The formal oxidation states of the redox couples in the various intermediate complexes are systematically assigned using electronic structure theory. The controversy over the electronic assignment of ferromagnetic vs. antiferromagnetic coupling is investigated through comparison of ab initio methods and the broken-symmetry density functional theory (DFT) approach. The various pK{sub a} values and reduction potentials, including the consideration of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) processes, are calculated, and the theoretical version of the Pourbaix diagram is constructed in order to elucidate and assign several previously ambiguous regions in the experimental diagram.

  15. Fungal metabolism of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Heitkamp, M A; Freeman, J P; McMillan, D C; Cerniglia, C E

    1985-01-01

    The fungal metabolism of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP) was studied. Cunninghamella elegans was incubated with BPDP for 7 days, and the metabolites formed were separated by thin-layer, gas-liquid, or high-pressure liquid chromatography and identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral techniques. C. elegans metabolized BPDP predominantly at the tert-butyl moiety to form the carboxylic acid 4-(2-carboxy-2-propyl)triphenyl phosphate. In addition, 4-hydroxy-4'-(2-carboxy-2-propyl)triphenyl phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, diphenyl phosphate, 4-(2-carboxy-2-propyl)diphenyl phosphate, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl propionic acid, and phenol were detected. Similar metabolites were found in the 28 fungal cultures which were examined for their ability to metabolize BPDP. Experiments with [14C]BPDP indicated that C. elegans metabolized 70% of the BPDP after 7 days and that the ratio of organic-soluble metabolites to water-soluble metabolites was 8:2. The results indicate that fungi preferentially oxidize BPDP at the alkyl side chain and at the aromatic rings to form hydroxylated derivatives. The trace levels of mono- and diaryl metabolites and the low level of phosphotriesterase activity measured in C. elegans indicate that phosphatase cleavage is a minor pathway for fungal metabolism of BPDP. Images PMID:4051482

  16. Discovery, Synthesis, And Structure-Based Optimization of a Series of N-(tert-Butyl)-2-(N-arylamido)-2-(pyridin-3-yl) Acetamides (ML188) as Potent Noncovalent Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3CL Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon; Grum-Tokars, Valerie; Zhou, Ya; Turlington, Mark; Saldanha, S. Adrian; Chase, Peter; Eggler, Aimee; Dawson, Eric S.; Baez-Santos, Yahira M.; Tomar, Sakshi; Mielech, Anna M.; Baker, Susan C.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hodder, Peter; Mesecar, Andrew; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2012-12-11

    A high-throughput screen of the NIH molecular libraries sample collection and subsequent optimization of a lead dipeptide-like series of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) main protease (3CLpro) inhibitors led to the identification of probe compound ML188 (16-(R), (R)-N-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-N-(2-(tert-butylamino)-2-oxo-1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethyl)furan-2-carboxamide, Pubchem CID: 46897844). But, unlike the majority of reported coronavirus 3CLpro inhibitors that act via covalent modification of the enzyme, 16-(R) is a noncovalent SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitor with moderate MW and good enzyme and antiviral inhibitory activity. A multicomponent Ugi reaction was utilized to rapidly explore structure–activity relationships within S1', S1, and S2enzyme binding pockets. Moreover, the X-ray structure of SARS-CoV 3CLpro bound with 16-(R) was instrumental in guiding subsequent rounds of chemistry optimization. 16-(R) provides an excellent starting point for the further design and refinement of 3CLpro inhibitors that act by a noncovalent mechanism of action.

  17. Discovery, synthesis, and structure-based optimization of a series of N-(tert-butyl)-2-(N-arylamido)-2-(pyridin-3-yl) acetamides (ML188) as potent non-covalent small molecule inhibitors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3CL protease

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jon; Tokars, Valerie; Zhou, Ya; Turlington, Mark; Saldanha, S. Adrian; Chase, Peter; Eggler, Aimee; Dawson, Eric S.; Baez-Santos, Yahira M.; Tomar, Sakshi; Mielech, Anna M.; Baker, Susan C.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hodder, Peter; Mesecar, Andrew; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2013-01-01

    A high-throughput screen of the NIH molecular libraries sample collection and subsequent optimization of a lead dipeptide-like series of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) main protease (3CLpro) inhibitors led to the identification of probe compound ML188 (16-(R), (R)-N-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-N-(2-(tert-butylamino)-2-oxo-1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethyl)furan-2-carboxamide, Pubchem CID: 46897844). Unlike the majority of reported coronavirus 3CLpro inhibitors that act via covalent modification of the enzyme, 16-(R) is a non-covalent SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitor with moderate MW and good enzyme and antiviral inhibitory activity. A multi-component Ugi reaction was utilized to rapidly explore structure activity relationships within S1?, S1, and S2 enzyme binding pockets. The X-ray structure of SARS-CoV 3CLpro bound with 16-(R) was instrumental in guiding subsequent rounds of chemistry optimization. 16-(R) provides an excellent starting point for the further design and refinement of 3CLpro inhibitors that act by a non-covalent mechanism of action. PMID:23231439

  18. Metabolites and ketone body production following methyl n-butyl ketone exposure as possible indices of MnBK potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pilon, D; Charbonneau, M; Brodeur, J; Plaa, G L

    1986-08-01

    While the biotransformation of methyl n-butyl ketone (MnBK) in animals is well characterized, little is known about the quantitative relationship between hepatic and plasma MnBK concentrations. This study provides such information and emphasizes the usefulness of MnBK metabolite quantification, as well as MnBK-induced metabolic ketosis for the biological monitoring of MnBK exposure in rats. Elimination of MnBK was followed 24 hr after oral administration (0.95, 1.90, and 5.70 mmol/kg in corn oil) to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two metabolites [2-hexanol (2HOL), and 2,5-hexanedione (2,5HD)] were also monitored and their kinetics determined. These data were compared to ketone body (KB) concentrations found in plasma and liver during the same period. Plasma concentrations of MnBK and 2,5HD correlated well with those in the liver. This was not the case for 2HOL. MnBK, 2HOL, and 2,5HD were no longer detected in plasma and liver 18 hr after dosing. Meanwhile, a marked ketosis was observed from 12 to 24 hr. This ketotic state was due to an increase in beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB), while acetoacetate remained at its basal levels. These data indicate that MnBK can induce ketosis in rats and suggest that the resulting BOHB might be used as an alternative biological monitor of MnBK exposures at high concentrations. PMID:3726887

  19. Effect of ethylene glycol and its derivatives on the aggregation behavior of an ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium octylsulfate in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tejwant; Rao, K Srinivasa; Kumar, Arvind

    2012-02-01

    The effect of ethylene glycol (EG) and its derivatives, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGMME), or ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME), on the aggregation behavior of a surfactant-like ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium octylsulfate, [C(4)mim][C(8)OSO(3)], in aqueous solutions is investigated using conductivity, surface tension, fluorescence, (1)H NMR, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (?G(m)°), standard enthalpy (?H(m)°), and standard entropy (?S(m)°) of aggregation are determined from the temperature dependence of conductivity. The interfacial properties of IL at the air/water interface in various mixed solvents are evaluated from surface tension measurements. Information about the local microenvironment and size of the aggregates is obtained from steady-state fluorescence using pyrene as a polarity probe and DLS measurements, respectively. (1)H NMR data has been employed to get detailed insight into the effect of organic additives on the IL aggregate structure and aggregation number. It has been observed that the addition of organic additives to water decreases the spontaneity of aggregation of IL. PMID:22239544

  20. Concentrations and potential health risks of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in air and drinking water from Nanning, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li'e; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong; Li, Qin; Huang, Jiongli; Peng, Xiaowu; Qing, Li; Liang, Guiqiang; Liang, Linhan; Huang, Yuman; Yang, Xiaobo; Zou, Yunfeng

    2016-01-15

    Levels of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in occupational air, ambient air, and drinking water in Nanning, South China, were investigated, and then their potential health risks to occupational workers and the general public were evaluated. Results show that the MTBE concentration in occupational air from 13 service stations was significantly higher than that in ambient air from residential areas (p<0.0001); both are far lower than the threshold limit value-time weighted average of MTBE regulated in the United States (US). The drinking water samples from household taps yielded detectable MTBE in the range of 0.04-0.33?g/L, which is below the US drinking water standard of 20-40?g/L. The non-carcinogenic risk of MTBE from air inhalation may be negligible because the calculated hazard quotient was less than 1. The mean MTBE lifetime cancer risk was within the acceptable limit of 1×10(-6) to 1×10(-4), but the lifetime cancer risk of refueling workers in the urban service station at the 95th percentile slightly exceeded the maximum acceptable carcinogen risk (1×10(-4)), indicating the potential carcinogenic health effects on the population highly exposed to MTBE in this region. The hazard index and carcinogenic risk of MTBE in drinking water were significantly lower than the safe limit of US Environmental Protection Agency, suggesting that drinking water unlikely poses significant health risks to the residents in Nanning. PMID:26479908

  1. The pharmacology of isamoxole [2-methyl-n-butyl-n(4-methyloxazol-2-yl) propanamide] LRCL 3950, a new anti-allergic compound.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, W.; Sweatman, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    1. Isamoxole [2-methyl-N-butyl-N(4-methyloxazol-2-yl) propanamide] is an effective orally active anti-allergic compound in animals. 2. Isamoxole inhibits the immunological release of mediators, notably slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) from sensitized human and guinea-pig chopped lung in vitro. 3. In vivo, allergic responses were inhibited in guinea-pigs and rats by doses as low as 25 mg/kg given orally 180 and 30 min before challenge. The effect of Isamoxole was still present 4 h after a single dose of 100 mg/kg orally in the guinea-pig and 3 h in the rat. 4. Isamoxole is a moderately potent, selective inhibitor of SRS-A activity on the guinea-pig ileum in vitro, at concentrations that do not antagonize histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or bradykinin. 5. Isamoxole causes human bronchial muscle to relax and antagonizes the bronchoconstriction induced by SRS-A. PMID:6781575

  2. Short-term fish reproduction assays with methyl tertiary butyl ether with zebrafish and fathead minnow: Implications for evaluation of potential for endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Mihaich, Ellen; Erler, Steffen; Le Blanc, Gerald; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-09-01

    The authors report on short-term fish reproduction assays in zebrafish and fathead minnow conducted to examine the potential for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to cause effects on the endocrine system. Both studies were performed under good laboratory practice and in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and US Environmental Protection Agency test guidelines. The results of the first study demonstrated that exposure to a high test concentration (147 mg/L) of MTBE impaired reproductive output of female zebrafish, evident by a reduction in fecundity. Based on the endpoints evaluated in the present study however, there was no supporting evidence to indicate that this effect was caused by disruption of or interaction with the endocrine system. In the second study, fathead minnows exposed to a wider but lower range of test concentrations showed no effects on any reproductive parameter of male or female fish, at the maximum recommended testing concentration of 100 mg/L (62 mg/L measured). The results of these 2 guideline studies indicate that MTBE does not interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of zebrafish or fathead minnow. PMID:25866897

  3. catena-Poly[1-butyl-3-methyl­imidazolium [[dichlorido(methanol-?O)(propan-2-ol-?O)lanthanate(III)]-di-?-chlorido

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yulun; Dai, Fengrong; Sykes, Andrew G.; May, P. Stanley; Berry, Mary T.; Meng, Qingguo; Lin, Cuikun

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, (C8H15N2)[LaCl4(CH3OH)(C3H7OH)], consists of one 1-butyl-3-methyl­imidazolium (BMI+) cation and one hexa­hedral tetra­chlorido(methanol)(propan-2-ol)lanthanate anion. The LaIII ion is eight-coordinate, with the LaIII ion bridged by a pair of Cl atoms, so forming chains propagating along the a-axis direction. Each LaIII ion is further coordinated by two isolated Cl atoms, one methanol and one propan-2-ol mol­ecule. The coordinated methanol and propan-2-ol mol­ecules of the anion form O—H?Cl hydrogen bonds with the Cl atoms of inversion-related anions. The BMI+ cation froms C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds with the Cl atoms of the anion. The anions are located in the C faces of the triclinic unit cell, with an inversion center in the middle of the La2Cl2 ring of the polymeric chain. PMID:22412437

  4. A DFT study on the insertion of CO2 into styrene oxide catalyzed by 1-butyl-3-methyl-Imidazolium bromide ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Marmitt, Sandro; Gonçalves, Paulo F B

    2015-06-30

    Green systems able to capture or fix CO(2) are becoming more important specially to reduce environmental impacts. In this work, the mechanism of insertion of CO(2) into styrene oxide (STYO) both in the absence and presence of the catalyst 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide (BMIm Br) was investigated through calculations based on density functional theory in the ?B97X-D level. Two different routes were considered and it was shown they are energetically available and compete against each other. For both routes, the rate-determinant step is the ring opening of STYO resulting from the nucleophilic attack of the Br(-) on the C atom from STYO and is associated mainly to the participation of the cation and the anion from the catalyst in the reaction. Reactive indices and noncovalent interaction analysis were used as a tool to investigate this reason. This work allowed a better comprehension of the underlying mechanism and the supplied data provide valuable support for the design of new more efficient ionic liquid catalyst. PMID:25975698

  5. Crosslinked superhydrophobic films fabricated by simply casting poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiufang; Ye, Chao; Cai, Zhiqi; Xu, Shouping; Pi, Pihui; Cheng, Jiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Qian, Yu

    2015-06-01

    This study focuses on the preparation of superhydrophobic films by crosslinkable polymer material-Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-Poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) (P (MMA-BA-HEMA)-b-PFMA) with a simple one-step casting process. Nanoscale micelle particles with core-shell structure was obtained by dissolving the polymer and curing agent in the mixture of acetone and 1H, 1H, 5H octafluoropentyl-1,1,2,2 tetrafluoroethyl ether (FHT). Superhydrophobic films were fabricated by casting the micelle solution on the glass slides. By controlling the polymer concentration and acetone/FHT volume ratio, superhydrophobic polymer film with water contact angle of 153.2 ± 2.1° and sliding angle of 4° was obtained. By introducing a curing agent into the micelle solution, mechanical properties of the films can be improved. The adhension grade and hardness of the crosslinked superhydrophobic films reached 2 grade and 3H, respectively. The hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness by nanoscale micelle particles and low surface energy of fluoropolymer. This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  6. Pharmacodynamic and metabolic interactions between ethanol and two industrial solvents (methyl n-butyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone) and their principal metabolites in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharkawi, M; Granvil, C; Faci, A; Plaa, G L

    1994-01-01

    MnBK and MiBK prolong the duration of ketamine-, pentobarbital-, thiopental- and ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LRR) in mice. In equimolar doses, (5 mmol/kg i.p.), both isomers were equipotent with respect to the enhancement of ketamine-, pentobarbital-, and thiopental-induced LRR. However, MnBK was significantly more effective (twice as effective) than its isomer with respect to enhancing ethanol-induced LRR. An attempt to explain the difference in effectiveness between the two isomers was carried out. The effects of both ketones and their principal metabolites, (2-hexanol (2-HOL), 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD), 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4-MPOL) and 4-hydroxy 4-methyl-2-pentanone (HMP)) on ethanol-induced LRR and ethanol elimination were studied in mice. The ketones and their metabolites were dissolved in corn oil and injected intraperitoneally 30 min before 4 g/kg ethanol for LRR and 2 g/kg for ethanol elimination. Ethanol-induced LRR was significantly prolonged by the following dosages (mmol/kg), MnBK, 5; MiBK, 5; 2-HOL, 2.5; 4-MPOL, 2.5; and HMP, 2.5; 2,5-HD, 2.5, however exerted no effect. Concentrations of ethanol in blood or brain upon return of the righting reflex were similar in solvent-treated and control animals. The mean elimination rate of ethanol was slower in groups pretreated with MnBK or 2-HOL as compared to control animals. Ethanol elimination in animals pretreated with MiBK, HMP, 4-MPOL, or 2,5-HD was similar to that in control animals. These ketones are known to have some central depressant action on their own. This by itself could lead to prolongation of ethanol-induced LRR. However, MnBK, as well as one of its principal metabolites, (2-HOL), markedly reduced ethanol elimination. This could explain the observation that MnBK has a greater potentiating effect on ethanol-induced LRR that its isomer, MiBK, which does not affect ethanol elimination. PMID:7801321

  7. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  8. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  9. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  10. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  11. Controlled human exposure to methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline: symptoms, psychophysiologic and neurobehavioral responses of self-reported sensitive persons.

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, N; Kelly-McNeil, K; Mohr, S; Lehrer, P; Opiekun, R E; Lee, C; Wainman, T; Hamer, R; Weisel, C; Edelberg, R; Lioy, P J

    2000-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act mandated oxygenation of gasoline in regions where carbon monoxide standards were not met. To achieve this standard, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was increased to 15% by volume during winter months in many locations. Subsequent to the increase of MTBE in gasoline, commuters reported increases in symptoms such as headache, nausea, and eye, nose, and throat irritation. The present study compared 12 individuals selected based on self-report of symptoms (self-reported sensitives; SRSs) associated with MTBE to 19 controls without self-reported sensitivities. In a double-blind, repeated measures, controlled exposure, subjects were exposed for 15 min to clean air, gasoline, gasoline with 11% MTBE, and gasoline with 15% MTBE. Symptoms, odor ratings, neurobehavioral performance on a task of driving simulation, and psychophysiologic responses (heart and respiration rate, end-tidal CO(2), finger pulse volume, electromyograph, finger temperature) were measured before, during, and immediately after exposure. Relative to controls, SRSs reported significantly more total symptoms when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE than when exposed to gasoline with 11% MTBE or to clean air. However, these differences in symptoms were not accompanied by significant differences in neurobehavioral performance or psychophysiologic responses. No significant differences in symptoms or neurobehavioral or psychophysiologic responses were observed when exposure to gasoline with 11% MTBE was compared to clean air or to gasoline. Thus, the present study, although showing increased total symptoms among SRSs when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE, did not support a dose-response relationship for MTBE exposure nor the symptom specificity associated with MTBE in epidemiologic studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10964796

  12. Study on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of wheat seedlings under [C?mim][OAc] (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate) with Cd²? stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhonglin; Feng, Yingying; Wang, Yan; Li, Yue; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Sunan; Guan, Wei

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the joint effect of 0.5 mmol·L(-1) Cd(2+) and various concentrations (50-400 mg·L(-1)) of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([C4min][OAc]) on the growth and photosynthetic performance of wheat seedlings in hydroponic culture was investigated. Seedlings grown in presence of Cd(2+) and [C4min][OAc] showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in growth (shoot and root lengths and dry weights) and photosynthetic performance (photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and chlorophyll a but not chlorophyll b) compared to seedlings grown in the presence of Cd(2+) but without [C4min][OAc]. However, this only happened under the lower range of [C4min][OAc] concentrations (50-200 mg·L(-1)). In addition, significant reduction in the level of Cd(2+) was also observed in the leaf tissue of wheat seedlings grown in the presence of 0.5 mmol·L(-1) Cd(2+) and 100 mg·L(-1) [C4min][OAc]. Overall, Cd(2+) exerted a stronger inhibition than [C4min][OAc] on the growth and photosynthetic performance of wheat seedlings. However, when both Cd(2+) and [C4min][OAc] were present in the culture, the toxicity of Cd(2+) could be mitigated by lower concentrations of [C4mim][OAc]. This phenomenon could be due to [C4mim][OAc] forming metal complexes with Cd(2+), thus reducing the toxicity of Cd(2+). PMID:25778420

  13. Inhibition of glutathione S-transferase P1-1 in mouse lung epithelial cells by the tumor promoter 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-quinone methide): protein adducts investigated by electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lemercier, Jean-Noël; Meier, Brent W; Gomez, Jose D; Thompson, John A

    2004-12-01

    Oxidation of the food preservative 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) by mouse lung cytochrome P450 produces electrophilic quinone methides thought to promote lung tumors in mice by covalent binding to critical proteins. Specific pulmonary targets of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylenecyclohexa-2,5-dienone (BHT-QM) have not been identified, however. The present work was undertaken to determine if glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) is alkylated by BHT-QM, as this protein is overexpressed in tumors and has important roles in protecting cells from electrophiles and oxidants and in regulating stress kinases. This work was conducted with cell lines C10 and E10 derived from mouse lung epithelia and their spontaneous transformants, the tumorigenic cell lines A5 and E9. Cytosolic GSTs were isolated by affinity chromatography and analyzed by ESI-LC/MS. Ion current chromatograms indicated that GSTP1 predominates over the other isoforms, especially in tumorigenic cells. Treatment with BHT-QM inhibited cytosolic GST activity by 28-44%, and inhibition was exacerbated by depleting intracellular GSH. Alkylation of GSTP1 by BHT-QM was investigated by separating cytosolic proteins with two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and detecting adducts by Western blotting with polyclonal antibodies that recognize the BHT group. The identity of GSTP1 comigrating with immunoreactive material was confirmed by in-gel proteolysis and LC/MS/MS analysis. Human GSTP1 was utilized to investigate the specific residues involved in QM binding. The only peptide adduct detected in digests of monoadducted GSTP1 corresponded to Cys101, whereas adducts at Cys14, Cys47, and Cys101 were identified from the trialkylated protein. Losses of transferase activity were most influenced by alkylation at Cys47, but binding to Cys14 appeared to inhibit the activity further. These findings demonstrate that cytosolic GSTP1 may be a target for BHT-QM resulting in decreased cellular protection from electrophiles and oxidants. Alkylation also may interfere with GSTP1 regulation of stress kinases, thereby influencing phosphorylation and cell growth. PMID:15606144

  14. Cunninghamella as a microbiological model for metabolism of histamine H(3) receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine.

    PubMed

    P?kala, El?bieta; Kubowicz, Paulina; ?a?ewska, Dorota

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the ability of the microorganism Cunninghamella to carry out the biotransformation of 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine (DL76) and to compare the obtained results with in silico models. Biotransformation was carried out by three strains of filamentous fungus: Cunninghamella echinulata, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, and Cunninghamella elegans. Most probable direction of DL76 metabolic transition was the oxidation of the methyl group in the tert-butyl moiety leading to the formation of the metabolite with I° alcohol properties. This kind of reaction was conducted by all three strains tested. However, only in the case of C. blakesleeana that biotransformation product had a structure of carboxylic acid. CYP2C19 was identified by Metasite software to be the isoform of major importance in the oxidation process in the tert-butyl moiety of DL76. In silico data coincide with the results of experiments conducted in vitro. It was confirmed that Cunninghamella fungi are a very good model to study the metabolism of xenobiotics. The computational methods and microbial models of metabolism can be used as useful tools in early ADME-Tox assays in the process of developing new drug candidates. PMID:22983742

  15. Development and application of a rat PBPK model to elucidate kidney and liver effects induced by ETBE and tert-butanol.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Keith D; Brinkerhoff, Christopher J; Lee, Janice S; Chiu, Weihsueh A

    2015-11-01

    Subchronic and chronic studies in rats of the gasoline oxygenates ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-butanol (TBA) report similar noncancer kidney and liver effects but differing results with respect to kidney and liver tumors. Because TBA is a major metabolite of ETBE, it is possible that TBA is the active toxic moiety in all these studies, with reported differences due simply to differences in the internal dose. To test this hypothesis, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for ETBE and TBA to calculate internal dosimetrics of TBA following either TBA or ETBE exposure. This model, based on earlier PBPK models of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), was used to evaluate whether kidney and liver effects are consistent across routes of exposure, as well as between ETBE and TBA studies, on the basis of estimated internal dose. The results demonstrate that noncancer kidney effects, including kidney weight changes, urothelial hyperplasia, and chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN), yielded consistent dose-response relationships across routes of exposure and across ETBE and TBA studies using TBA blood concentration as the dose metric. Relative liver weights were also consistent across studies on the basis of TBA metabolism, which is proportional to TBA liver concentrations. However, kidney and liver tumors were not consistent using any dose metric. These results support the hypothesis that TBA mediates the noncancer kidney and liver effects following ETBE administration; however, additional factors besides internal dose are necessary to explain the induction of liver and kidney tumors. PMID:26341290

  16. Synthesis, antimalarial activity, and preclinical pharmacology of a novel series of 4'-fluoro and 4'-chloro analogues of amodiaquine. Identification of a suitable "back-up" compound for N-tert-butyl isoquine.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Paul M; Shone, Alison E; Stanford, Deborah; Nixon, Gemma; Asadollahy, Eghbaleh; Park, B Kevin; Maggs, James L; Roberts, Phil; Stocks, Paul A; Biagini, Giancarlo; Bray, Patrick G; Davies, Jill; Berry, Neil; Hall, Charlotte; Rimmer, Karen; Winstanley, Peter A; Hindley, Stephen; Bambal, Ramesh B; Davis, Charles B; Bates, Martin; Gresham, Stephanie L; Brigandi, Richard A; Gomez-de-Las-Heras, Federico M; Gargallo, Domingo V; Parapini, Silvia; Vivas, Livia; Lander, Hollie; Taramelli, Donatella; Ward, Stephen A

    2009-04-01

    On the basis of a mechanistic understanding of the toxicity of the 4-aminoquinoline amodiaquine (1b), three series of amodiaquine analogues have been prepared where the 4-aminophenol "metabolic alert" has been modified by replacement of the 4'-hydroxy group with a hydrogen, fluorine, or chlorine atom. Following antimalarial assessment and studies on mechanism of action, two candidates were selected for detailed ADME studies and in vitro and in vivo toxicological assessment. 4'-Fluoro-N-tert-butylamodiaquine (2k) was subsequently identified as a candidate for further development studies based on potent activity versus chloroquine-sensitive and resistant parasites, moderate to excellent oral bioavailability, low toxicity in in vitro studies, and an acceptable safety profile. PMID:19284751

  17. Crystal structure of the inclusion complex 25-benzo-ylmeth-oxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,27,28-trihy-droxy-2,8,14,20-tetra-thia-calix[4]arene-tetra-ethyl-ammonium chloride (1/1).

    PubMed

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Jasinski, Jerry P; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Omran, Omran A; Albayati, Mustafa R

    2015-11-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C48H54O5S4·N(C2H5)4 (+)·Cl(-), contains two tetra-tert-butyl-[(benzo-yl)meth-oxy]-trihy-droxy-tetra-thia-calix[4]arene mol-ecules, two tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations and two chloride anions. The two calixarene molecules in the asymmetric unit each display a cone conformation. There are no significant differences between the two independent molecules. The guest species do not sit within the calixarene 'buckets'. In the crystal, extensive O-H?O, O-H?S and O-H?Cl hydrogen bonds and weak C-H?O, C-H?S and C-H?Cl inter-actions link the thia-calixarene mol-ecules, tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions, forming a three-dimensional network encompassing channels running parallel to the a-axis direction. The structure contains a solvent-accessible void of 76?(3)?Å(3), but no solvent mol-ecule could reasonably be located. The crystal studied was an inversion twin with a 0.57?(8):0.43?(8) domain ratio. PMID:26594550

  18. Crystal structure of the inclusion complex 25-benzo­ylmeth­oxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,27,28-trihy­droxy-2,8,14,20-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene–tetra­ethyl­ammonium chloride (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Omran, Omran A.; Albayati, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C48H54O5S4·N(C2H5)4 +·Cl−, contains two tetra-tert-butyl-[(benzo­yl)meth­oxy]-trihy­droxy-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene mol­ecules, two tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and two chloride anions. The two calixarene molecules in the asymmetric unit each display a cone conformation. There are no significant differences between the two independent molecules. The guest species do not sit within the calixarene ‘buckets’. In the crystal, extensive O—H⋯O, O—H⋯S and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O, C—H⋯S and C—H⋯Cl inter­actions link the thia­calixarene mol­ecules, tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and chloride anions, forming a three-dimensional network encompassing channels running parallel to the a-axis direction. The structure contains a solvent-accessible void of 76 (3) Å3, but no solvent mol­ecule could reasonably be located. The crystal studied was an inversion twin with a 0.57 (8):0.43 (8) domain ratio. PMID:26594550

  19. Antioxidant action of 3-mercapto-5H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid, an efficient aldose reductase inhibitor, in a 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and in the cellular system of isolated erythrocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Prnova, Marta Soltesova; Ballekova, Jana; Majekova, Magdalena; Stefek, Milan

    2015-11-01

    Objectives The subject of this study was 3-mercapto-5H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid (compound 1), an efficient aldose reductase inhibitor of high selectivity. The antioxidant action of 1 was investigated in greater detail by employing a 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and in the system of isolated rat erythrocytes. Methods First, the compound was subjected to the DPPH test. Second, the overall antioxidant action of the compound was studied in the cellular system of isolated rat erythrocytes oxidatively stressed by free radicals derived from the lipophilic tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The uptake kinetics of 1 was studied and osmotic fragility of the erythrocytes was evaluated. Results The DPPH test revealed significant antiradical activity of 1. One molecule of 1 was found to quench 1.48 ± 0.06 DPPH radicals. In the system of isolated erythrocytes, the compound was readily taken up by the cells followed by their protection against free radical-initiated hemolysis. Osmotic fragility of the erythrocytes was not affected by 1. Conclusions The results demonstrated the ability of 1 to scavenge DPPH and to protect intact erythrocytes against oxidative damage induced by peroxyl radicals. By affecting both the polyol pathway and oxidative stress, the compound represents an example of a promising agent for multi-target pharmacology of diabetic complications. PMID:26066740

  20. Crystal structure of {6,6'-dibenzoyl-4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-[(ethane-1,2-di-yl)di-nitrilo-bis-(phenyl-methanylyl-idene)]diphenolato-?(4) O (1),N,N',O (1')}nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek K; Butcher, Ray J; Sil, Anjan

    2015-12-01

    The mononuclear title complex, [Ni(C50H46N2O4)], crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2). Each Ni(II) atom has a slightly distorted square-planar geometry [? = 3.91?(5)° and 2.04?(7)°] defined by the two phenolate O and two imine N atoms of the tetra-dentate Schiff base ligand. The dihedral angles between the central phenolate ring and peripheral phenyl rings are 60.5?(2)/70.0?(2) and 86.4?(2)/56.1?(2)° in mol-ecule A, and 89.43?(19)/18.0?(2) and 63.87?(19)/68.2?(2)° in mol-ecule B. The two central phenolate rings are twisted by angles of 19.37?(19) and 19.36?(18)° in the two mol-ecules. The packing is stabilized through intra- and inter-molecular C-H?O and C-H?? inter-actions, forming chains parallel to the b axis. The tert-butyl groups in one of the two mol-ecules are positionally disordered with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.707?(13):0.293?(13). PMID:26870410

  1. Crystal structure of {6,6′-dibenzoyl-4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-[(ethane-1,2-di­yl)di­nitrilo­bis­(phenyl­methanylyl­idene)]diphenolato-κ4 O 1,N,N′,O 1′}nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Abhishek K.; Butcher, Ray J.; Sil, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear title complex, [Ni(C50H46N2O4)], crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z′ = 2). Each NiII atom has a slightly distorted square-planar geometry [ω = 3.91 (5)° and 2.04 (7)°] defined by the two phenolate O and two imine N atoms of the tetra­dentate Schiff base ligand. The dihedral angles between the central phenolate ring and peripheral phenyl rings are 60.5 (2)/70.0 (2) and 86.4 (2)/56.1 (2)° in mol­ecule A, and 89.43 (19)/18.0 (2) and 63.87 (19)/68.2 (2)° in mol­ecule B. The two central phenolate rings are twisted by angles of 19.37 (19) and 19.36 (18)° in the two mol­ecules. The packing is stabilized through intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming chains parallel to the b axis. The tert-butyl groups in one of the two mol­ecules are positionally disordered with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.707 (13):0.293 (13). PMID:26870410

  2. rac-tert-Butyl 2-{5-[(4-{2-[methyl(pyri­din-2-yl)amino]ethoxy}phenyl)methyl]-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sixing; Liang, Guojuan; Fang, Dashu; Gan, Yongjun; Hu, Xiangnan

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C24H29N3O5S, is a chiral mol­ecule which crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group as a racemate. The thia­zolidine ring forms the dihedral angles of 29.22?(12) and 67.79?(10)° with the benzene and pyridine rings, respectively. The benzene and pyridine rings are tilted by dihedral angle of 67.18?(9)°. In the crystal, inter­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into a two-dimensional network. PMID:21754398

  3. Recovery of anhydrous Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from SO{sub 2}-scrubbing liquor by extractive crystallization: Liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, and/or sulfite plus acetone, 2-propanol, or tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Cos, R.; Prausnitz, J.M.; Schiozer, A.L.; Jaecksch, W.L.

    1996-11-01

    Sodium carbonate is a superior scrubbing agent for removing SO{sub 2} from combustion gases, but the resulting sodium sulfate (or sulfite) must be recovered for environmental reasons. Recovery by evaporative crystallization is energy-intensive; extractive crystallization provides an attractive alterative when technically feasible. Liquid/liquid equilibrium data were determined for two-phase mixtures containing aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, or sulfite and a polar organic solvent: acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol (i.e., tert-butyl alcohol). In the salt-saturated two-phase region, data were obtained between the lower consolute temperature and 60 C (50 C for acetone). data were also obtained at 35 C for liquid/liquid systems that were subsaturated with their respective salts and for liquid/liquid systems with overall molar ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium sulfate fixed at 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25. In the latter systems, it was found that the sulfite/sulfate ratios in the organic and aqueous phases were the same, i.e., there is no selectivity by these solvents for one salt relative to the other. The data show that any one of these solvents can be used to extract water from a concentrated solution of either sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate in a countercurrent extractor at 35 C, causing the anhydrous salt to crystallize. The wet solvent can be dried for recycle in a similar countercurrent operation at 35 C, using a saturated solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as the drying agent. The number of moles of carbonate required for drying does not exceed the number of moles of sulfite-plus-sulfate precipitated. The process energy is about 0% of that required for single-stage evaporative crystallization of the same liquor.

  4. Studies of the degradation mechanism of organic light-emitting diodes based on tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum Alq and 2-tert-butyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene TBADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarikov, Viktor V.; Kondakov, Denis Y.

    2009-02-01

    Previously, radical cation of tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum (Alq•+) has been associated with the instability of Alq films subjected to holes-only electrical current. Yet, the questions remain (i) whether Alq•+ is the primary source of the intrinsic degradation of bipolar organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Alq, (ii) whether Alq•+ reactions result in deep charge traps in holes-only devices as found in bipolar counterparts, and (iii) whether radical cations can be a common source of degradation of OLEDs irrespective of materials. With regards to generality of hole-current-related degradation, it is interesting to examine the behavior of 9,10-diarylanthracenes (DAAs)—the practically important class of blue-fluorescing light-emitting-layer hosts. These questions prompted our comparative study of the effects of unipolar currents in Alq and 2-t-butyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (TBADN), which was chosen as a representative material of the DAA class. First, we identified device structures allowing for rigorous and stable unipolar conduction. Interestingly, even in pristine holes-only devices, our voltammetric measurements indicated that Alq contains a substantial density of deep hole traps (far deeper than what can be explained by energetic disorder), which can be charged by passing holes-only current and seemingly discharged by exposure to white light. As for aged holes-only Alq devices, they exhibited symptoms qualitatively matching those of aged bipolar Alq devices, viz., photoluminescence (PL) loss, transition voltage (V0) rise, and drive voltage (Vd) rise. Notably, PL and V0 are linearly correlated in both holes-only and bipolar devices, which reinforces the supposed link between Alq•+ and the degradation in both types of devices. Yet, there are indications the Alq•+ instability may not be the only degradation pathway in bipolar devices. Even though our observations for holes-only Alq devices agree qualitatively with previously reported ones, we observe far slower degradation rates [Alq PL fades up to ˜500 times slower in holes-only devices, while Alq electroluminescence (EL) fades ˜50 times slower in bipolar control devices]. It is possible that impurities play a significant, perhaps crucial role in the degradation mechanism of both bipolar and holes-only devices, especially the relatively shorter-lived ones. In sharp contrast to Alq, all three observables (PL, V0, and Vd) indicate that holes-only current in TBADN (neat or doped with a perylene-based blue dopant) does not result in degradation in the time that is sufficient for the corresponding bipolar control devices to lose 60%-80% of EL and 20%-30% of PL. We find that the electrons-only current in Alq or TBADN does not result in degradation either. Thus, the degradation of Alq and DAA bipolar devices may be caused by fundamentally dissimilar mechanisms: while hole current may damage the former, it does not appear to affect the latter, suggesting that the initiation step is different.

  5. The reorientation of t-butyl groups in butylated hydroxytoluene: A deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectral and relaxation time study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polson, James M.; Fyfe, J. D. Dean; Jeffrey, Kenneth R.

    1991-03-01

    Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and spin-lattice relaxation times were determined in order to study the dynamics of t-butyl groups in butylated hydroxytoluene. The results are consistent with a model first proposed by Beckmann et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 36, 199 (1979)], where there is an inequivalence between the methyl groups within each t-butyl group. While two methyl groups reorient rapidly relative to the whole t-butyl rotation, the remaining methyl group is more restricted in its motion, reorienting at a rate comparable to that of the t-butyl group itself. The spin-lattice relaxation data show two T1 minima, the high temperature minimum (40 °C) corresponding to the combined t-butyl and ``slow'' methyl rotations, and the low temperature minimum corresponding to ``fast'' methyl group rotation. Using an explicitly defined T1 fitting function, the T1 data yield activation energies of 2.2 and 6.0 kcal/mol for the fast methyl and t-butyl rotations, respectively, both in agreement with Beckmann's values obtained from proton T1 experiments. It was also possible to simulate the low temperature deuterium NMR spectra from T=-160 °C to T=-80 °C using the aforementioned dynamical inequivalence between the t-butyl methyl groups. While the fast methyl group rotation was in the motional narrowing region for T>-160 °C, it was possible, from the simulations, to determine the t-butyl exchange rates to within 10%. The jump rates are remarkably close to the values predicted from the T1 results. Above -80 °C, the spectra could not be simulated, implying that a third motion must be present to further alter the high temperature line shapes. The effective axial asymmetry of the T>-20° spectra indicates that the additional motion involves a two site exchange.

  6. The chemical behavior of terminally tert-butylated polyolefins

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Dagmar; Jones, Peter G; Dix, Ina; Hänel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Summary The chemical behavior of various oligoenes 2 has been studied. The catalytic hydrogenation of diene 3 yielded monoene 4. Triene 7 was hydrogenated to diene 8, monoene 9 and saturated hydrocarbon 10. Bromine addition to 3 and 7 yielded the dibromides 17 and 18, respectively, i.e., the oligoene system has been attacked at its terminal olefinic carbon atoms. Analogously, the higher vinylogs 19 and 20 yielded the 1,8- and 1,10-bromine adduts 23 and 24, respectively, when less than 1 equivalent of bromine was employed. Treatment of tetraene 19 with excess bromine provided tetrabromide 25. In epoxidation reactions, both with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (MCPBA) and dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) two model oligoenes were studied: triene 7 and tetraene 19. Whereas 7 furnished the rearrangement product 31 with MCPBA, it yielded the symmetrical epoxide 32 with DMDO. Analogously, 19 was converted to mono-epoxide 33 with MCPBA and to 34 with DMDO. Diels–Alder addition of 7 with N-phenyltriazolinedione (PTAD) did not take place. Extension of the conjugated π-system to the next higher vinylog, 19, caused NPTD-addition to the symmetrical adduct 37 in good yield. Comparable results were observed on adding NPTD (equivalent amount) to pentaene 20 and hexaene 21. Using 36 in excess provided the 2:1-adduct 40 from 21 and led to a complex mixture of adducts from heptaene 22. With tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) as the dienophile, tetraolefin 19 yielded the symmetrical adduct 43, although the reaction temperature had to be increased. Pentaene 20 and hexaene 21 led to corresponding results, adducts 44 and 45 being produced in acceptable yields. With nonaene 42 and TCNE the 2:1-adduct 48 was generated according to its spectroscopic data. Exploratory photochemical studies were carried out with tetraene 19 as the model compound. On irradiation this reacted with oxygen to the stable endo-peroxide 52. PMID:26425183

  7. tert-Butyl imidazole-1-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Kerscher, Tobias; Prommnitz, Tanja; Klüfers, Peter; Mayer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C8H12N2O2, mol­ecules are inter­connected by weak C—H?O contacts with H?O distances of 2.30?Å, resulting in the formation of chains along [100]. According to graph-set analysis, the unitary descriptor of these chains is C(5). In addition, there are ?–? stacking inter­actions between pyrazole rings (centroid distance = 3.878?Å and ring plane distance = 3.26?Å). PMID:21581998

  8. Crystal structure of tert-butyl­diphenyl­phosphine oxide

    PubMed Central

    Agbeworvi, George; Assefa, Zerihun; Sykora, Richard E.; Taylor, Jared D.

    2015-01-01

    In the structure of the title triorganophosphine oxide, C16H19OP, the P—O bond is 1.490?(1)?Å. The P atom has a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The O atom inter­acts with both phenyl groups of a neighboring mol­ecule [C?O = 2.930?(3) and 2.928?(4)?Å]. The C—O interaction directs an extended supramolecular arrangement along the a-axis. PMID:26090188

  9. The chemical behavior of terminally tert-butylated polyolefins.

    PubMed

    Klein, Dagmar; Hopf, Henning; Jones, Peter G; Dix, Ina; Hänel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The chemical behavior of various oligoenes 2 has been studied. The catalytic hydrogenation of diene 3 yielded monoene 4. Triene 7 was hydrogenated to diene 8, monoene 9 and saturated hydrocarbon 10. Bromine addition to 3 and 7 yielded the dibromides 17 and 18, respectively, i.e., the oligoene system has been attacked at its terminal olefinic carbon atoms. Analogously, the higher vinylogs 19 and 20 yielded the 1,8- and 1,10-bromine adduts 23 and 24, respectively, when less than 1 equivalent of bromine was employed. Treatment of tetraene 19 with excess bromine provided tetrabromide 25. In epoxidation reactions, both with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (MCPBA) and dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) two model oligoenes were studied: triene 7 and tetraene 19. Whereas 7 furnished the rearrangement product 31 with MCPBA, it yielded the symmetrical epoxide 32 with DMDO. Analogously, 19 was converted to mono-epoxide 33 with MCPBA and to 34 with DMDO. Diels-Alder addition of 7 with N-phenyltriazolinedione (PTAD) did not take place. Extension of the conjugated ?-system to the next higher vinylog, 19, caused NPTD-addition to the symmetrical adduct 37 in good yield. Comparable results were observed on adding NPTD (equivalent amount) to pentaene 20 and hexaene 21. Using 36 in excess provided the 2:1-adduct 40 from 21 and led to a complex mixture of adducts from heptaene 22. With tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) as the dienophile, tetraolefin 19 yielded the symmetrical adduct 43, although the reaction temperature had to be increased. Pentaene 20 and hexaene 21 led to corresponding results, adducts 44 and 45 being produced in acceptable yields. With nonaene 42 and TCNE the 2:1-adduct 48 was generated according to its spectroscopic data. Exploratory photochemical studies were carried out with tetraene 19 as the model compound. On irradiation this reacted with oxygen to the stable endo-peroxide 52. PMID:26425183

  10. Formation of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films onto wool fiber surfaces by vapor deposition polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M Mahbubul; McLaughlin, J Robert

    2013-03-13

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization is a useful technique because of the possibility of forming very thin film of pure polymers on substrates with any geometric shape. In this work, thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA were formed on the surfaces of wool fabrics by a CVD polymerization process. Various polymerization initiators including dicumyl peroxide, tert-butyl peroxide, and potassium peroxydisulfate have been investigated to polymerize methyl methacrylate onto the surfaces of wool by the CVD polymerization. The wool fabrics were impregnated with initiators and were then exposed to MMA monomer vapor under vacuum at the boiling temperature of the monomer. Wool fabrics with vapor-deposited PMMA surfaces were characterized by elemental analysis, TGA, FTIR, disperse dye absorption, contact angles measurement, AFM, and SEM. PMMA-coated wool fabrics showed higher contact angle and absorbed more dyes than that of the control wool. It was evident from the results obtained by various characterization techniques that MMA was successfully polymerized and formed thin films on the surfaces of wool fabrics by all initiators investigated but the best results were achieved with tert-butyl peroxide. PMID:23406279

  11. TERT promoter mutations and monoallelic activation of TERT in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, F W; Bielski, C M; Rinne, M L; Hahn, W C; Sellers, W R; Stegmeier, F; Garraway, L A; Kryukov, G V

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that promoter mutations in telomerase (TERT), the most common noncoding mutations in cancer, give rise to monoallelic expression of TERT. Through deep RNA sequencing, we find that TERT activation in human cancer cell lines can occur in either mono- or biallelic manner. Without exception, hotspot TERT promoter mutations lead to the re-expression of only one allele, accounting for approximately half of the observed cases of monoallelic TERT expression. Furthermore, we show that monoallelic TERT expression is highly prevalent in certain tumor types and widespread across a broad spectrum of cancers. Taken together, these observations provide insights into the mechanisms of TERT activation and the ramifications of noncoding mutations in cancer. PMID:26657580

  12. TERT promoter mutations and monoallelic activation of TERT in cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, F W; Bielski, C M; Rinne, M L; Hahn, W C; Sellers, W R; Stegmeier, F; Garraway, L A; Kryukov, G V

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that promoter mutations in telomerase (TERT), the most common noncoding mutations in cancer, give rise to monoallelic expression of TERT. Through deep RNA sequencing, we find that TERT activation in human cancer cell lines can occur in either mono- or biallelic manner. Without exception, hotspot TERT promoter mutations lead to the re-expression of only one allele, accounting for approximately half of the observed cases of monoallelic TERT expression. Furthermore, we show that monoallelic TERT expression is highly prevalent in certain tumor types and widespread across a broad spectrum of cancers. Taken together, these observations provide insights into the mechanisms of TERT activation and the ramifications of noncoding mutations in cancer. PMID:26657580

  13. Butylated hydroxyanisole and lung tumor development in A/J mice

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.R.; Doherty, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A diet containing 0.75% butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) did not enhance the development of lung tumors in A/J mice if fed for 8 weeks after administration of urethane, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), or dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Prefeeding animals with BHA partially protected animals against the tumorigenic effect of urethane and B(a)P. Partial protection was also seen in animals given B(a)P and then exposed to BHA in the diet. The two isomers of BHA 3-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 2-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole) were synthesized and injected ip. They failed to enhance lung tumor development. It is concluded that BHA is not a promoting agent as is butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) for lung tumors in mice. One possible explanation is that BHA in the diet does not produce the extensive cell proliferation seen in the lungs of mice fed BHT. 19 references, 5 tables.

  14. Androgen and Progesterone Receptors Are Targets for Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-Methyl-2,4-bis-(P-Hydroxyphenyl)Pent-1-Ene—A Potent Metabolite of BPA, and 4-Tert-Octylphenol: A Computational Insight

    PubMed Central

    Rehan, Mohd; Ahmad, Ejaz; Sheikh, Ishfaq A.; Abuzenadah, Adel M.; Damanhouri, Ghazi A.; Bajouh, Osama S.; AlBasri, Samera F.; Assiri, Mansour M.; Beg, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR) are critical for reproductive tract growth and function. Structural binding characterization of BPA, MBP, and OP with AR and PR using molecular docking simulation approaches revealed novel interactions of BPA with PR, and MBP and OP with AR and PR. For BPA, MBP, and OP, five AR interacting residues Leu-701, Leu-704, Asn-705, Met-742, and Phe-764 overlapped with those of native AR ligand testosterone, and four PR interacting residues Leu-715, Leu-718, Met-756, and Met-759 overlapped with those of PR co-complex ligand, norethindrone. For both the receptors the binding strength of MBP was maximum among the three compounds. Thus, these compounds have the potential to block or interfere in the binding of the endogenous native AR and PR ligands and, hence, resulting in dysfunction. The knowledge of the key interactions and the important amino-acid residues also allows better prediction of potential of xenobiotic molecules for disrupting AR- and PR-mediated pathways, thus, helping in design of less potent alternatives for commercial use. PMID:26379041

  15. First Examples of Dinickel Complexes Containing the N(3)Ni(&mgr;(2)-SR)(3)NiN(3) Core. Synthesis and Crystal Structures of [L(2)Ni(2)][BPh(4)](2) and [L(3)Ni(2)][BPh(4)](2) (L = 2,6-Di(aminomethyl)-4-tert-butyl-thiophenolate).

    PubMed

    Kersting, Berthold; Siebert, Dieter

    1998-07-27

    A coordinatively unsaturated dinuclear Ni(II) complex of the tridentate ligand 2,6-di(aminomethyl)-4-tert-butyl-thiophenol (HL) has been synthesized and investigated in the context of ligand binding and oxidation state changes. The starting complex [L(2)Ni(2)][BPh(4)](2) (1) is readily prepared from NaL, NiCl(2).6H(2)O, and NaBPh(4) in methanol. Compound 1.CH(3)CN.CH(3)OH crystallizes from an acetonitrile/methanol mixed-solvent system in monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 21.940(4) Å, b = 13.901(3) Å, c = 23.918(5) Å, beta = 110.00(3) degrees, and Z = 4. The structure consists of dinuclear [L(2)Ni(2)](2+) cations with two distorted planar cis-N(2)S(2)Ni coordination units joined by the thiophenolate sulfur atoms. The molecule has idealized C(2)(v)() symmetry. Complex 1 readily adds another 1 equiv of HL to afford the pale green complex [L(3)Ni(2)]Cl (2). The dinuclear structure and its formulation as a 3:2 complex (six-coordinate Ni ions) is derived from UV spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction of its oxidation product, [L(3)Ni(2)](2+). The dication was prepared by chemical oxidation of 2 with iodine in DMF and isolated as the dark brown BPh(4)(-) salt, [L(3)Ni(2)][BPh(4)](2).CH(3)OH (3), which crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 23.678(5) Å, b = 20.090(4) Å, c = 16.797(3) Å, beta = 106.16(3) degrees, and Z = 4. Complex 3 is the first structurally characterized example that features a bioctahedral N(3)Ni(&mgr;(2)-SR)(3)NiN(3) core. Distortions from D(3)(h)() symmetry suggest that 3 is a trapped-valence Ni(II)Ni(III) compound. The Ni-S and Ni-N bond lengths vary from 2.2975(9) to 2.4486(12) Å and from 2.027(3) to 2.120(3) Å, respectively. On the CV time scale complex 2 undergoes two reversible electron-transfer reactions at E(1/2) = -0.02 and +0.44 V vs SCE, affording 3 and the transient dark green trication [L(3)Ni(2)](3+) (tau(1/2) approximately 15 min at 295 K), respectively. While 2 is EPR silent, the EPR spectrum of a powdered sample of 3 reveals g( perpendicular) = 4.0 and g( parallel) = 2.09 at 77 K, consistent with an S = (3)/(2) spin state of the mixed-valent Ni(II)Ni(III) complex. PMID:11670485

  16. A new mono-functionalized organoimido hexa-molybdate derivative: bis-(tetra-n-butyl-ammonium) (5-chloro-2-methyl-phenyl-imido)-?(6)-oxido-dodeca-?(2)-oxido-penta-oxidohexa-molybdate(VI).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Xiao, Zichen; Chen, Liye; Zhang, Jin

    2011-10-01

    The title complex, [(C(4)H(9))(4)N](2)[Mo(6)(C(7)H(6)ClN)O(18)], was prepared by the reaction of (Bu(4)N)(4)[?-Mo(8)O(26)] and 2-methyl-5-chloro-aniline hydro-chloride with N,N'-dicyclo-hexyl-carbodiimide as dehydrating agent in dry acetonitrile solution. The aryl-imido ligand is linked to an Mo atom of the Lindqvist-type hexamolybdate anion by an Mo N triple bond, with a bond length of 1.732?(4)?Å and an Mo N-C bond angle of 169.1?(4)°, typical for monodentate imido groups in such hybrid complexes. Due to the inter-action between one H atom in the aryl group and an O atom of a symmetry-related hexa-molybdate cluster, the anions form centrosymmetric dimers in the crystal structure. Weak C-H?O contacts are observed between the cations and anions. Unresolved disorder in some of the butyl chains of the ammonium cation is noted. PMID:22058705

  17. A new mono-functionalized organoimido hexa­molybdate derivative: bis­(tetra-n-butyl­ammonium) (5-chloro-2-methyl­phenyl­imido)-?6-oxido-dodeca-?2-oxido-penta­oxidohexa­molybdate(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Xiao, Zichen; Chen, Liye; Zhang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The title complex, [(C4H9)4N]2[Mo6(C7H6ClN)O18], was prepared by the reaction of (Bu4N)4[?-Mo8O26] and 2-methyl-5-chloro­aniline hydro­chloride with N,N?-dicyclo­hexyl­carbodiimide as dehydrating agent in dry acetonitrile solution. The aryl­imido ligand is linked to an Mo atom of the Lindqvist-type hexamolybdate anion by an Mo N triple bond, with a bond length of 1.732?(4)?Å and an Mo N—C bond angle of 169.1?(4)°, typical for monodentate imido groups in such hybrid complexes. Due to the inter­action between one H atom in the aryl group and an O atom of a symmetry-related hexa­molybdate cluster, the anions form centrosymmetric dimers in the crystal structure. Weak C—H?O contacts are observed between the cations and anions. Unresolved disorder in some of the butyl chains of the ammonium cation is noted. PMID:22058705

  18. Well-defined iron complexes as efficient catalysts for "green" atom-transfer radical polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate, and butyl acrylate with low catalyst loadings and catalyst recycling.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, So-Ichiro; Kawamura, Mitsunobu; Kai, Hidetomo; Jin, Ren-Hua; Sunada, Yusuke; Nagashima, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Environmentally friendly iron(II) catalysts for atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) were synthesized by careful selection of the nitrogen substituents of N,N,N-trialkylated-1,4,9-triazacyclononane (R3 TACN) ligands. Two types of structures were confirmed by crystallography: "[(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]" complexes with relatively small R groups have ionic and dinuclear structures including a [(R3 TACN)Fe(?-X)3 Fe(R3 TACN)](+) moiety, whereas those with more bulky R groups are neutral and mononuclear. The twelve [(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]n complexes that were synthesized were subjected to bulk ATRP of styrene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and butyl acrylate (BA). Among the iron complexes examined, [{(cyclopentyl)3 TACN}FeBr2 ] (4?b) was the best catalyst for the well-controlled ATRP of all three monomers. This species allowed easy catalyst separation and recycling, a lowering of the catalyst concentration needed for the reaction, and the absence of additional reducing reagents. The lowest catalyst loading was accomplished in the ATRP of MMA with 4?b (59?ppm of Fe based on the charged monomer). Catalyst recycling in ATRP with low catalyst loadings was also successful. The ATRP of styrene with 4?b (117?ppm Fe atom) was followed by precipitation from methanol to give polystyrene that contained residual iron below the calculated detection limit (0.28?ppm). Mechanisms that involve equilibria between the multinuclear and mononuclear species were also examined. PMID:24664500

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of tert-butyl alcohol (tert-butanol) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for TBA to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in c...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of tert-Butyl Alcohol (tert-Butanol) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for TBA to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in c...

  1. Formation and reactivity of alternative quinone methides from butylated hydroxytoluene: possible explanation for species-specific pneumotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bolton, J L; Sevestre, H; Ibe, B O; Thompson, J A

    1990-01-01

    Previous work has shown that butylated hydroxytoluene [2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT)] undergoes pi-oxidation in liver microsomes to form the quinone methide 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (QM). This electrophilic species binds covalently to glutathione and protein thiols and is believed to initiate pulmonary toxicity in mice. In the present investigation, we identified another quinone methide metabolite of BHT, 6-tert-butyl-2-(hydroxy-tert-butyl)-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (QM-OH), formed subsequent to the microsomal hydroxylation of BHT at a tert-butyl group. Mouse liver and lung microsomes generate the two quinone methides, and evidence was obtained that both metabolites also are formed in vivo. In contrast, rat microsomes produce QM almost exclusively, with only traces of QM-OH formed in liver and none in lung. Studies of the chemical reactivities of the two quinone methides with GSH demonstrated that QM-OH reacts about 6-fold faster than QM. Infrared spectra, 1H NMR spectra, and electrochemical measurements all support the proposal that the enhanced electrophilicity of QM-OH is due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding of the ring oxygen with the side-chain hydroxyl. The results provide evidence, therefore, that the previous metabolic scheme for bioactivation of BHT to a pulmonary toxin should be amended to include tert-butyl hydroxylation and subsequent pi-oxidation to the activated electrophile QM-OH. This scheme is consistent with published data concerning BHT-induced pulmonary toxicity and provides an explanation for the species specificity of this effect. PMID:2131827

  2. Solid-state transition metal chemistry with quinolin-4-yl-methyl-[N-(n-butyl)amino]-diphenylphosphine oxide (4-qmape): Crystal structure of the 4-qmape ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?urowska, Bogumi?a; Brzuszkiewicz, Anna; Boduszek, Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    A series of three perchlorate coordination compounds of bioactive diethyl quinolin-4-yl-methyl(N-butylamino)diphenylphosphine oxide (4-qmape) ligand, with the following stoichiometries [M(2-qmape)2](ClO4)2 Mdbnd Cu and Ni and [Co(2-qmape)2](ClO4)2, were obtained and studied. Stoichiometry and stereochemistry of the compounds was confirmed by spectroscopic and magnetic studies as well as by elemental analyses. In particular, the crystal structure of the free ligand was determined. The 4-qmape ligand has a potential capacity to coordinate to metal ions by following atoms: phosphoryl oxygen, amino nitrogen and quinolyl nitrogen. In studied compounds, 4-qmape adopts the didentate N,O-coordination mode, bonding metal centers through the phosphoryl oxygen and amino nitrogen. Quinoline nitrogen atom does not participate in coordination. The all complexes are monomeric with tetrahedral environment of metal ions. Magnetic studies (1.8-300 K) indicate existence of a very weak exchange coupling between metal centers in crystal lattice.

  3. Methyl radical production in a hot filament CVD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menningen, K. L.; Childs, M. A.; Chevako, P.; Toyoda, H.; Anderson, L. W.; Lawler, J. E.

    1993-03-01

    The absolute concentration of methyl radicals is measured in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition system for a range of filament temperatures and input gas compositions by using ultrasensitive optical absorption with a multi-element detector at wavelengths near 216 nm. The results yield effective activation energies for CH 3 production and indicate that CH 3 production is dominated by the gas-phase atomic hydrogen abstraction reaction when the input gas contains CH 4 and H 2. We find that passing ? 1% tert-butyl peroxide in H 2 over a hot filament is also an efficient CH 3 source, and has an activation energy similar to the activation energy for the production of CH 3 from CH 4.

  4. Aquincola tertiaricarbonis gen. nov., sp. nov., a tertiary butyl moiety-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Ute; Brodkorb, Danny; Geyer, Roland; Hause, Gerd; Härtig, Claus; Auling, Georg; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise; Piveteau, Pascal; Müller, Roland H; Rohwerder, Thore

    2007-06-01

    Strains L10(T), L108 and CIP I-2052 were originally obtained from methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-contaminated groundwater and from a wastewater treatment plant, respectively. All share the ability to grow on tert-butanol, an intermediate of MTBE degradation. Cells are strictly aerobic, motile by a polar flagellum and exhibit strong pili formation. Poly beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules are formed. The DNA G+C content is 69-70.5 mol% and the main ubiquinone is Q-8. The major cellular fatty acids are 16 : 1 cis-9 and 16 : 0 and the only hydroxy fatty acid is 10 : 0 3-OH. The major phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 16 : 1/16 : 1 and phosphatidylglycerol 16 : 0/16 : 1. A significant amount of PE 17 : 0/16 : 1 is present. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains are almost identical and form a separate line of descent in the Rubrivivax-Roseateles-Leptothrix-Ideonella-Aquabacterium branch of the Betaproteobacteria with 97 % similarity to 16S rRNA genes of the type strains of Rubrivivax gelatinosus, Leptothrix mobilis and Ideonella dechloratans. However, physiological properties, DNA-DNA relatedness values and the phospholipid and cellular fatty acid profiles distinguish the novel isolates from the three closely related genera. Therefore, it is concluded that strains L10(T), L108 and CIP I-2052 represent a new genus and novel species for which the name Aquincola tertiaricarbonis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is strain L10(T) (=DSM 18512(T)=CIP 109243(T)). PMID:17551046

  5. Crystal structure of (2-{[3,5-bis-(1,1-di-methyl-eth-yl)-4-hy-droxy-phen-yl](5-methyl-2H-pyrrol-2-yl-idene)meth-yl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrrolido-?(2) N,N')di-fluoridoboron.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yukio; Ogawa, Keizo; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    The title compound, C25H31BF2N2O, is a potential boron tracedrug in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), in which the B atom adopts a distorted BN2F2 tetra-hedral geometry: it is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide, di-methyl-formamide and methanol. The pyrrolyl-idene-methyl-pyrrole triple fused ring system is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031?Å) and subtends a dihedral angle of 47.09?(5)° with the plane of the pendant phenol ring. The phenol -OH group is blocked from forming hydrogen bonds by the adjacent bulky tert-butyl groups. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of very weak C-H?F inter-actions generate R 2 (2)(22) loops. PMID:26396909

  6. Crystal structure of (2-{[3,5-bis­(1,1-di­methyl­eth­yl)-4-hy­droxy­phen­yl](5-methyl-2H-pyrrol-2-yl­idene)meth­yl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrrolido-?2 N,N?)di­fluoridoboron

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yukio; Ogawa, Keizo; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C25H31BF2N2O, is a potential boron tracedrug in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), in which the B atom adopts a distorted BN2F2 tetra­hedral geometry: it is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide, di­methyl­formamide and methanol. The pyrrolyl­idene­methyl­pyrrole triple fused ring system is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031?Å) and subtends a dihedral angle of 47.09?(5)° with the plane of the pendant phenol ring. The phenol –OH group is blocked from forming hydrogen bonds by the adjacent bulky tert-butyl groups. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of very weak C—H?F inter­actions generate R 2 2(22) loops. PMID:26396909

  7. Expression level of hTERT is regulated by somatic mutation and common single nucleotide polymorphism at promoter region in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Kee; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Ja Eun; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Soon-Tae; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il Han

    2014-05-30

    We investigated the role of somatic mutations and a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the hTERT promoter region on hTERT expression and clinical outcomes. The hTERT promoter region was sequenced from 48 glioblastomas. hTERT expression was analyzed by quantitative real time-PCR. The association between hTERT promoter genetic changes and other genomic events and clinical variables common in gliomas were examined. C228T and C250T somatic mutations were found in 60.4% of glioblastomas, and a common SNP (T349C) was found in 66.6%. Somatic mutations and the SNP likely have opposing effects on hTERT expression. hTERT expression was significantly higher in the C228T or C250T mutated tumors. Tumors with the T349C genotype showed lower hTERT expression when C228T or C250T mutations were present. However, no significant survival differences were observed among the groups with or without hTERT promoter mutations and SNP. There was a significant association between genetic changes in the hTERT promoter and patient age as well as MGMT promoter methylation and EGFR amplification. hTERT expression is modulated by somatic mutations in the hTERT promoter as well as a common polymorphism. However, hTERT related genomic changes have limited value as an independent prognostic factor for clinical outcomes in glioblastomas. PMID:24930669

  8. The tert-amino effect in heterocyclic chemistry: Synthesis of new fused pyrazolinoquinolizine and 1,4-oxazinopyrazoline derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Dipak; Borah, Kalyan Jyoti

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of novel fused heterocycles is based on reactions proceeding by the mechanism of the tert-amino effect, which generalizes cyclization of certain derivatives of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-ones. Using this strategy a variety of fused heterocycles is obtained by the Knoevenagel condensation of 5-tert-amino-3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazolone-4-carboxal-dehyde 3 with active methylene compounds such as malononitrile and cyanoacetamide followed by cyclisation using anhydrous zinc chloride. PMID:18072979

  9. Asymmetric syntheses of methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-3-epi-daunosaminide and methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-ristosaminide.

    PubMed

    Csatayová, Kristína; Davies, Stephen G; Ford, J Gair; Lee, James A; Roberts, Paul M; Thomson, James E

    2013-12-20

    Ab initio asymmetric syntheses of methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-3-epi-daunosaminide and methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-ristosaminide, employing diastereoselective epoxidation and dihydroxylation, respectively, of alkyl (3S,?R,Z)-3-[N-benzyl-N-(?-methylbenzyl)amino]hex-4-enoates as the key steps, are reported. The requisite substrates were readily prepared using the conjugate additions of lithium (R)-N-benzyl-N-(?-methylbenzyl)amide to methyl and tert-butyl (E)-hexa-2-en-4-ynoates followed by diastereoselective alkyne reduction. syn-Dihydroxylation using OsO4 proceeded under steric control on the 4Re,5Re face of the olefin to give the corresponding diol, which subsequently underwent lactonization. Meanwhile, epoxidation using F3CCO3H in conjunction with F3CCO2H proceeded on the opposite 4Si,5Si face of the olefin under hydrogen-bonding control from the in situ formed ammonium ion. Treatment of the intermediate epoxide with concd aq H2SO4 promoted highly regioselective ring-opening (distal to the in situ formed ammonium moiety) to give the corresponding diol (completing overall the formal anti-dihydroxylation of the olefin), which then underwent lactonization under the reaction conditions. Elaboration of these diastereoisomeric lactones through hydrogenolysis, N-Boc protection, reduction, methanolysis, and acetate protection gave methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-3-epi-daunosaminide and methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-ristosaminide. PMID:24256461

  10. The TERT promoter SNP rs2853669 decreases E2F1 transcription factor binding and increases mortality and recurrence risks in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunkyong; Seo, Hyun-Wook; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Baek-Hui; Jung, Guhung

    2016-01-01

    A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, rs2853669 influences patient survival rates and the risk of developing cancer. Recently, several lines of evidence suggest that the rs2853669 suppresses TERT promoter mutation-mediated TERT expression levels and cancer mortality as well as recurrence rates. However, no reports are available on the impact of rs2853669 on TERT expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with patient survival. Here, we found that HCC-related overall and recurrence-free survival rates were not associated with TERT promoter mutation individually, but rs2853669 and the TERT promoter mutation in combination were associated with poor survival rates. TERT mRNA expression and telomere fluorescence levels were greater in patients with HCC who had both the combination. The combination caused TERT promoter methylation through regulating the binding of DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone deacetylase 1 to the TERT promoter in HCC cell lines. The TERT expression level was significantly higher in HCC tumor with a methylated promoter than in that with an unmethylated promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrate a substantial role for the rs2853669 in HCC with TERT promoter mutation, which suggests that the combination of the rs2853669 and the mutation indicate poor prognoses in liver cancer. PMID:26575952

  11. Transfection of HCVc improves hTERT expression through STAT3 pathway by epigenetic regulation in Huh7 cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Cheng, Di; Li, Zhi Hua; Zhou, Quan Bo; Zhou, Jia Jia; Lin, Qing; Zeng, Bing; Liao, Qiaofang; Chen, Ru Fu

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies showed that transient transfection of HCVc improved hTERT expression in hepatoma cell lines and it was noteworthy that phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) were up regulated simultaneously. This study was designed to investigate the role of epigenetic regulation in the process of hTERT up regulation after HCVc transfection. Q-PCR and Western blot were used to analyze the expression of pSTAT3, DNMT1, and hTERT after the transfection of HCVc in hepatoma cell line Huh7. Proliferation and hTERT activity of Huh7 after HCVc transfection were examined by CCK8 and ELISA, respectively. Then, we blocked the JAK/STAT3 pathway or inhibited DNMT1 expression to investigate the regulation of pSTAT3, DNMT1, and hTERT. Methylation status of the promoter of hTERT gene was monitored by MS-PCR. Cell proliferation, hTERT expression level and activity of hTERT were promoted after HCVc transfection. The expression of pSTAT3 and DNMT1 were up-regulated simultaneously. DNMT1 and hTERT were down-regulated after blocking JAK/STAT3 pathway and the expression of hTERT weakened with DNMT1 inhibition. MS-PCR showed HCVc transfection increased the methylation level of hTERT promoter, and this effect was weakened after blocking the JAK/STAT3 pathway or with the treatment with DNMT1 inhibitor. HCVc transfection improved hTERT expression via epigenetic regulation. JAK/STAT3 pathway could be one of the essential factors in regulating DNMT1 expression during this process. PMID:22688977

  12. Diagnostic Value of Methylated Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase in Human Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Wei; Lin, Wei-Yin; Wu, Josh Chia-Ching; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Wong, Thian-Sze

    2015-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of human malignancies. Overexpression of hTERT is essential in controlling the propagation of cancer cells. The CpG island located at hTERT promoter region is subjected to methylation modification in human cancer. In this perspective article, we discussed the diagnostic value of methylated hTERT in human cancers. The definitive diagnosis of most solid tumors is based on histological and immunohistochemical features. Under certain circumstances, however, the use of methylated hTERT might be useful in overcoming the limitation of the conventional methods. Methylated hTERT showed a good diagnostic power in discriminating cancer from benign or normal tissues. Nevertheless, differences in detection method, methylation site, cancer type, and histological subtype of cancer make it difficult to evaluate the actual diagnostic accuracy of methylated hTERT. Therefore, we performed subgroup analysis to assess the effects of these factors on the diagnostic efficiency of methylated hTERT. We demonstrated that quantitative MSP (qMSP) assay offers the highest discriminative power between normal and cancer in comparison with different detection methods. In addition, the methylated sites selected by different studies had an impact on the detection performance. Moreover, the diagnostic power of methylated hTERT was affected by cancer type and histological subtype. In conclusion, the existing evidence demonstrated that methylated hTERT is effective in cancer detection. Detailed profiling of the methylation sites to local the common methylation hotspot across human cancers is warranted to maximize the diagnostic value of methylated hTERT in cancer detection. PMID:26734575

  13. Facile Synthesis of Novel Polyethylene-Based A-B-C Block Copolymers Containing Poly(methyl methacrylate) Using a Living Polymerization System.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiangyang; Ma, Qiong; Cai, Zhengguo; Tanaka, Ryo; Shiono, Takeshi; Grubbs, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Ethylene-propylene-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene-hexene-MMA A-B-C block copolymers with high molecular weight (>100 000) are synthesized using fluorenylamide-ligated titanium complex activated by modified methylaluminoxane and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol for the first time. After diblock copolymerization of olefin is conducted completely, MMA is added and activated by aluminum Lewis acid to promote anionic polymerization. The length of polyolefin and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is controllable precisely by the change of the additive amount of olefin and polymerization time, respectively. A soft amorphous polypropylene or polyhexene segment is located between two hard segments of semicrystalline polyethylene and glassy PMMA blocks. PMID:26641599

  14. Control over the Hydrogen-Bond Docking Site in Anisole by Ring Methylation.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Hannes C; Altnöder, Jonas; Heger, Matthias; Suhm, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    The supramolecular docking of methanol to anisole may occur via an OH⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bond or via an OH⋅⋅⋅π contact. The subtle balance between these two structures can be varied in supersonic jets by one order of magnitude through single to triple methylation of the aromatic ring and introduction of a single tert-butyl substituent, as evidenced by infrared spectroscopy. This steep variation makes it possible to assess the accuracy of relative quantum-chemical energy predictions on a kJ mol(-1) level, promising insights into inductive, mesomeric, and dispersive effects. The zero-point-corrected B3LYP-D3/aVTZ level is shown to provide an accurate relative description of the two very different hydrogen bonds, similar to a wavefunction-based protocol including CCSD(T) corrections applied to the same structures. M06-2X alone systematically overestimates the stability of π coordination. PMID:26695475

  15. Butyl benzyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Butyl benzyl phthalate ; CASRN 85 - 68 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  16. Microsolvation and sp2-stereoinversion of monomeric ?-(2,6-di-tert-butylphenyl)vinyllithium as measured by NMR

    PubMed Central

    Knittl, Monika; Rossmann, Eva C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ?-unsubstituted title compound dissolves in THF as a uniformly trisolvated monomer, whereas it forms exclusively disolvated monomers in tert-butyl methyl ether, Et2O, TMEDA, or toluene with TMEDA (1.4 equiv). This was established at low temperatures through the observation of separated NMR signals for free and lithium-coordinated ligands and/or through the patterns and magnitudes of 13C,6Li NMR coupling constants. An aggregated form was observed only with Et2O (2 equiv) in toluene as the solvent. The olefinic geminal interproton coupling constants of the H2C= part can be used as a secondary criterion to differentiate between these differently solvated ground-states (3, 2, or <2 coordinated ligands per Li). Due to a kinetic trisolvation privilege of THF, the cis/trans sp2-stereoinversion rates could be measured through analyses of 1H NMR line broadening and coalescence only in THF as the solvent: The pseudomonomolecular (because THF-catalyzed), ionic mechanism is initialized by a C–Li bond heterolysis with the transient immobilization of one additional THF ligand, followed by stereoinversion of the quasi-sp2-hybridized carbanionic center in cooperation with a “conducted tour” migration of Li+(THF)4 along the ?-aryl group within the solvent-separated ion pair. PMID:25383123

  17. Telomerase reverse transcriptase methylation predicts lymph node metastasis and prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yongxin; Li, Guichao; He, Dong; Yang, Fengping; He, Guang; He, Lin; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Yun; Fan, Ming; Shen, Lijun; Zhou, Daizhan; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Telomerase activity is associated with cellular immortalization and is present in most human tumors but absent in normal tissues. The activity of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a catalytic telomerase subunit, correlates with telomerase activity in tumors. The objective of this study was to investigate TERT promoter methylation and its prognostic impact in gastric cancer (GC). Patients and methods The analysis of TERT promoter methylation was performed in tumors and corresponding normal tissues of 116 patients with GC using a highly sensitive Sequenom Epityper assay. The expression of TERT in GC tissues was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The levels of TERT promoter methylation in GC samples were significantly higher than in normal adjacent tissues (P=0.002). Hypermethylation of TERT promoter was associated with high T-stage (P=0.024), late N-stage (P=0.006), and lymphovascular/neural invasion (P=0.035), without correlation with age, sex, or histological grade. Simple linear regression analysis showed that TERT mRNA correlated positively with TERT methylation (R2=0.562, P=0.001). Also, higher TERT mRNA expression was related to hypermethylation of TERT promoter in GC samples (P=0.005). Univariate analysis demonstrated that N-stage (P=0.002) and TERT promoter methylation (P=0.004) were predictive of overall survival. Furthermore, multivariate analysis confirmed that N-stage (P=0.013) and TERT promoter methylation (P=0.031) were independent prognostic indicators for overall survival. Conclusion Our data suggested that hypermethylation of TERT promoter may contribute to gastric wall invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular/neural invasion, and poor prognosis in GC. GC patients with hypermethylation of TERT promoter could be eligible for close follow-up. PMID:26834487

  18. Comparison of stabilization by Vitamin E and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenols during polyethylene radio-thermal-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richaud, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports a compilation of data for PE+Vitamin E and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenols oxidation in radio-thermal ageing. Data unambiguously show that Vitamin E reacts with Prad and POOrad whereas 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenols only react with POOrad . Kinetic parameters of the stabilization reactions for both kinds of antioxidants were tentatively extracted from phenol depletion curves, and discussed regarding the structure of the stabilizer. They were also used for completing an existing kinetic model used for predicting the stabilization by antioxidants. This one permits to compare the efficiency of stabilizer with dose rate or sample thickness.

  19. Analysis of Organic Molecules Extracted from Mars Analogues and Influence of Their Mineralogy Using N-Methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)Trifluoroacetamide Derivatization Coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Preparation for the Sample Analysis at Mars Derivatization Experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalport, F.; Glavin, D. P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; McAdam, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    The search for complex organic molecules on Mars, including important biomolecules such as amino acids and carboxylic acids will require a chemical extraction and derivatization step to transform these organic compounds into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). We have developed, a one-pot extraction and chemical derivatization protocol using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF) for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The temperature and duration the derivatization reaction, pre-concentration of chemical derivatives, and gas chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized under SAM instrument design constraints. MTBSTFA/DMF extraction and derivatization at 300 C for several minutes of a variety of terrestrial Mars analogue materials facilitated the detection of amino acids and carboxylic acids in a surface soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert and a carbonate-rich stromatolite sample from Svalbard. However, the rapid reaction of MTBSTFA with water in several analogue materials that contained high abundances of hydrated minerals and the possible deactivation of derivatized compounds by iron oxides, as detected by XRD/XRF using the CheMin field unit Terra, proved to be highly problematic for the direct extraction of organics using MTBSTFA, The combination of pyrolysis and two different chemical derivatization methods employed by SAM should enable a wide range of organic compounds to be detected by GCMS if present on Mars,

  20. Hydrosilylation reactions of hydrosilatrane and 2-methyl-6-ethyl-1,3-dioxa-6-aza-2-silacyclooctane

    SciTech Connect

    Voronkov, M.G.; Rakhlin, V.I.; Adamovich, S.N.; Petukhov, L.P.; Mirskov, R.G.; Yarosh, N.K.; Kuznetsov, A.L.; Sigalov, M.V.

    1986-10-20

    The authors have investigated the reaction of 1-hydrosilatrane (I) with a series of unsaturated compounds in benzene (1-hexene, 1-vinylsilatrane, 1-hexyne, phenylacetylene, propargyl chloride, and vinyl acetylene) using known methods for inducing hydrosilylation. The catalysts used included H/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/, Et/sub 3/N, palladium and rhodium complexes and tert-butyl and benzoyl peroxides. Neither these nor thermal or photochemical initiation led to the expected result, and in no case did (I) take part in the reaction. 1-Hydrosilatrane does not react with monosubstituted ethylenes (or acetylenes) either in the presence of platinum or rhodium complexes or upon initiation of the reactions using organic peroxides, UV irradiation, or thermal methods. By contrast, 2-methyl-6-ethyl-1,3-dioxa-6-aza-2-silacyclooctane readily takes part in hydrosilylation of the indicated unsaturated compounds when Rhacac (CO)/sub 2/ is present.

  1. Dimethyl 2,2?-({2,2?-methyl­enebis[6-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-(2,4,4-trimethyl­pentan-2-yl)-2,1-phenyl­ene]}di­oxy)diacetate

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Tahir; Anis, Itrat; Shah, M. R.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C47H58N6O6, comprises three independent mol­ecules, in one of which one tert-butyl group is disordered in a 1:1 ratio. The mol­ecule is a di(ar­yl)methane having two aliphatic and one N-heterocyclic substituent in each aryl ring. For the mol­ecule having the disordered tert-butyl group, the aryl rings make an angle of 115.3?(2)° at the methyl­ene carbon; one aryl ring is aligned at 42.0?(1)° with respect to the N-heterocyclic substituent and the other at 48.7?(1)° with respect to its substituent. The two ordered mol­ecules are disposed about a pseudo center of inversion. The pairs of twist angles in these two mol­ecules differ [52.7?(1) and 61.7?(1)°, and 29.1?(1) and 58.5?(1)°]. PMID:21522464

  2. TERT promoter mutations in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Barbara; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2014-02-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) encodes a rate-limiting catalytic subunit of telomerase that maintains genomic integrity. TERT expression is mostly repressed in somatic cells with exception of proliferative cells in self-renewing tissues and cancer. Immortality associated with cancer cells has been attributed to telomerase over-expression. The precise mechanism behind the TERT activation in cancers has mostly remained unknown. The newly described germline and recurrent somatic mutations in melanoma and other cancers in the TERT promoter that create de novo E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF) binding sites, provide an insight into the possible cause of tumor-specific increased TERT expression. In this review we discuss the discovery and possible implications of the TERT promoter mutations in melanoma and other cancers. PMID:24657534

  3. 6-Butyl-5-(4-methyl­phen­oxy)-3-phenyl-3H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Deng, Shou-Heng; Zeng, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Ping; Chen, Li-Li

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C21H21N5O2, the triazolopyrimidine ring system is essentially planar [maximum displacement = 0.021?(4)?Å] and forms dihedral angles of 41.17?(9) and 67.99?(8)° with the phenyl and benzene rings, respectively. The n-butyl side chains is disordered over two positions with an ccupancy ratio of 0.77:0.23. An intra­molecular C—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­action stabilizes the mol­ecular conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular C—H?O and C—H?N hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. In addition, ?–? stacking inter­actions involving the triazole and pyrimidine rings of adjacent mol­ecules are observed, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.545?(1)?Å. PMID:21589155

  4. Magnetocaloric properties of manganese(III) porphyrins bearing 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, V. V.; Lomova, T. N.; Maslennikova, A. N.; Korolev, D. V.; Shpakovsky, D. B.; Zhang, Jianwei; Milaeva, E. R.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and heat capacity during the magnetization of (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (1), (5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (2), and (5-(4-palmitoyloxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (3) in their aqueous suspensions were determined by the microcalorimetric method over the temperature range of 278-320 K and in magnetic fields from 0 to 1 T. MCE was positive for all complexes studied, i.e. the magnetic field impression under adiabatic conditions led to an increase in temperature of the complexes suspensions. MCE increased with an increase in the magnetic field induction at all temperatures studied. Dependences of MCE on temperature had weak maxima at 298 K at all magnetic induction values. The disturbance of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding of hydroxyl groups is one of probable reasons for such dependences type. MCE values increased under the palmitoyl substituent incorporation into one of the phenol groups at all temperatures. The heat capacity of the studied complexes rose slightly with temperature growth. Dependences of the heat capacity on temperature showed that the magnetic component of the heat capacity did not appear due to the presence of the manganese atom acting as a paramagnetic center in complexes 1, 2, and 3. The relation between the complexes structure and their magnetothermal properties was analyzed. It was justified that the changes of magnetothermal properties were caused by electronic substitution effects and, to an even greater degree, by the conditions of intermolecular hydrogen bonds formation in the paramagnetic materials.

  5. Modification of butylated hydroxytoluene-induced pulmonary toxicity in mice by diethyl maleate, buthionine sulfoximine, and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, T; Nomura, H; Yamamoto, K; Tajima, K

    1984-12-01

    Treatment of mice with diethyl maleate (DEM) or buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) significantly enhanced the lung injury caused by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Conversely, cysteine protected mice from the lung toxicity of BHT. BHT administration to mice produced a time-dependent reduction of glutathione (GSH) content in the lung, but not in the liver. These results support the concept that conjugation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylene-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-quinone methide), a proposed reactive metabolite of BHT, with GSH is involved in the detoxification of BHT in mice. PMID:6523525

  6. Protective effect of butylated hydroxylanisole against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Jeon, Yu Jin; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Baek, Kyoung Min; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Joong Sun; Kim, Lark Kyun; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds: 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. We examined the effect of BHA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, H2O2 treatment increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2, and promoted PARP-1 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with BHA before exposure to H2O2 significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability. H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with BHA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, an ROS scavenger). H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability was also attenuated by pretreatment with BHA and NAC. Furthermore, H2O2-induced increase of Bax, decrease of Bcl-2, and PARP-1 cleavage was also inhibited by BHA. Taken together, results of this investigation demonstrated that BHA protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ROS generation. PMID:25798044

  7. Comparative cytotoxicity between butylated hydroxytoluene and its methylcarbamate derivative, terbucarb, on isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Y.; Yaguchi, K.; Suzuki, T. )

    1994-08-01

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; BHT) is widely used as phenolic antioxidant in processed foods, cosmetics and petroleum products. It is well known that high doses of BHT cause acute hepatic damage accompanied by centrilobular necrosis in rats. The hepatic damage is associated with prolonged depletion of glutathione (GSH). Terbucarb (2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-tolyl-methylcarbamate), which has a methylcarbamate group substituted for the phenol group on BHT, was developed as an insecticide and is also presently used as a herbicide on turfgrass. Despite the metabolic and toxicological details known about BHT in vivo and in vitro, no extensive studies have been reported on the metabolism and toxicity of Terbucarb. The isolated hepatocyte system provides a very useful system for the study of the temporal sequences leading to cell damage caused by chemicals and drugs. Here, using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, we report on the comparative toxic effects of BHT and its methylcarbamate derivative, Terbucarb. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of [(18)F]2-(4-(4-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione ([(18)F]FECUMI-101) as an imaging probe for 5-HT1A receptor agonist in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Majo, Vattoly J; Milak, Matthew S; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Mali, Pratap; Savenkova, Lyudmila; Simpson, Norman R; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V; Kumar, J S Dileep

    2013-09-01

    The 5-HT1AR partial agonist PET radiotracer, [(11)C]CUMI-101, has advantages over an antagonist radiotracer as it binds preferentially to the high affinity state of the receptor and thereby provides more functionally meaningful information. The major drawback of C-11 tracers is the lack of cyclotron facility in many health care centers thereby limiting widespread clinical or research use. We identified the fluoroethyl derivative, 2-(4-(4-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)dione (FECUMI-101) (Ki=0.1nM; Emax=77%; EC50=0.65nM) as a partial agonist 5-HT1AR ligand of the parent ligand CUMI-101. FECUMI-101 is radiolabeled with F-18 by O-fluoroethylation of the corresponding desmethyl analogue (1) with [(18)F]fluoroethyltosylate in DMSO in the presence of 1.6equiv of K2CO3 in 45±5% yield (EOS). PET shows [(18)F]FECUMI-101 binds specifically to 5-HT1AR enriched brain regions of baboon. The specificity of [(18)F]FECUMI-101 binding to 5-HT1AR was confirmed by challenge studies with the known 5-HT1AR ligand WAY100635. These findings indicate that [(18)F]FECUMI-101 can be a viable agonist ligand for the in vivo quantification of high affinity 5-HT1AR with PET. PMID:23816046

  9. Tetra­butyl­ammonium butyl­tetra­chlorido­stannate(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Tidiane; van der Lee, Arie; Diop, Libasse

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [N(C4H9)4][Sn(C4H9)Cl4], the SnIV atom of the stannate anion has a trigonal-bipyramidal coordination sphere by two Cl atoms and one butyl chain in the equatorial plane and by two Cl atoms in the apical positions. Two of the four butyl chains of the tetra­butyl­ammonium cation are partially disordered, each with refined site occupancies of 0.691?(6):0.309?(6). Weak C—H?Cl hydrogen-bonding inter­actions help to consolidate the crystal packing, as well as a short Cl?Cl inter­action of 3.295?(2)?Å. PMID:24098187

  10. Onium salt structure/property relationships in poly(4-tert-butyloxycarbonyloxystyrene) deep-UV resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzkopf, George; Niazy, Nagla N.; Das, Siddhartha; Surendran, Geetha; Covington, John B.

    1991-06-01

    A series of sulfonium and iodonium salts was synthesized and the effect of onium slat structure on UV absorbance, thermal stability, and solubility in propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) was assessed. Several of these onium salts gave usable deep UV photoresists when combined with poly(4-tert-butyloxy-carbonloxystyrene). The lithographic sensitivity and latent image stability of these photoresists were strongly influenced by the structure of the incorporated onium salt.

  11. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by oleanane triterpenoid (CDDO-Me) in pancreatic cancer cells is associated with the suppression of hTERT gene expression and its telomerase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Liu, Yongbo; Kim, Sahn-Ho; Pindolia, Kirit R.; Arbab, Ali S.; Gautam, Subhash C.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT telomerase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT regulatory proteins. -- Abstract: Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a multifunctional oleanane synthetic triterpenoid with potent anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties. The mechanisms of the antisurvival and apoptosis-inducing activities of CDDO-Me and related derivatives of oleanolic acid have been defined; however, to date, no study has been carried out on the effect of CDDOs on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene or telomerase activity. Here we report for the first time that inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cell lines is associated with the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT telomerase activity and a number of proteins that regulate hTERT expression and activity. Furthermore, abrogation or overexpression of hTERT protein altered the susceptibility of tumor cells to CDDO-Me. These findings suggest that telomerase (hTERT) is a relevant target of CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cells.

  12. TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rengyun; Xing, Mingzhao

    2016-03-01

    The 2013 discovery of Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations chr5, 1,295,228 C>T (C228T) and 1,295,250 C>T (C250T) in thyroid cancer represents an important event in the thyroid cancer field and much progress has occurred since then. This article provides a comprehensive review of this exciting new thyroid cancer field. The oncogenic role of TERT promoter mutations involves their creation of consensus binding sites for E-twenty-six transcriptional factors. TERT C228T is far more common than TERT C250T and their collective prevalence is, on average, 0, 11.3, 17.1, 43.2 and 40.1% in benign thyroid tumors, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), follicular thyroid cancer, poorly differentiated thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, displaying an association with aggressive types of thyroid cancer. TERT promoter mutations are associated with aggressive thyroid tumor characteristics, tumor recurrence and patient mortality as well as BRAF V600E mutation. Coexisting BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations have a robust synergistic impact on the aggressiveness of PTC, including a sharply increased tumor recurrence and patient mortality, while either mutation alone has a modest impact. Thus, TERT with promoter mutations represents a prominent new oncogene in thyroid cancer and the mutations are promising new diagnostic and prognostic genetic markers for thyroid cancer, which, in combination with BRAF V600E mutation or other genetic markers (e.g. RAS mutations), are proving to be clinically useful for the management of thyroid cancer. Future studies will specifically define such clinical utilities, elucidate the biological mechanisms and explore the potential as therapeutic targets of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer. PMID:26733501

  13. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 582.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytol- uene. (b) Tolerance....

  14. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 182.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytoluene. (b) Tolerance....

  15. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 582.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytol- uene. (b) Tolerance....

  16. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 582.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytol- uene. (b) Tolerance....

  17. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 182.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytoluene. (b) Tolerance....

  18. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 582.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytol- uene. (b) Tolerance....

  19. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytoluene. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  20. Sprayed Coating Renews Butyl Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Damaged butyl rubber products are renewed by spray technique originally developed for protective suits worn by NASA workers. A commercial two-part adhesive is mixed with Freon-113 (or equivalent) trichlorotrifluoroethane to obtain optimum viscosity for spraying. Mix is applied with an external-air-mix spray gun.

  1. (5-n-Butyl-10,20-diiso­butyl­porphyrin­ato)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Senge, Mathias O.; Dahms, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(C32H36N4)], contains two independent mol­ecules exhibiting an overall ruffled conformation of the porphyrin macrocycle and differing mainly in the positions of the methyl groups. The average Ni—N bond lengths are 1.912 (2) and 1.910 (2) Å in the two mol­ecules. The mol­ecules form a closely spaced lattice structure in which neighbouring porphyrins are oriented in a nearly perpendicular fashion to each other. The compound was prepared via nucleophilic substitution of (5,15-diiso­butyl­porphyrinato)nickel(II) with n-butyl­lithium. PMID:25161518

  2. 40 CFR 704.33 - P-tert-butylbenzoic acid (P-TBBA), p-tert-butyltoluene (P-TBT) and p-tert-butylbenzaldehyde (P-TBB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-TBBA means the substance p-tert-butylbenzoic acid, also identified as 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)benzoic acid, CAS No. 98-73-7. (2) P-TBT means the substance p-tert-butyltoluene, also identified as 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylbenzene, CAS No. 98-51-1. (3) P-TBB means the substance p-tert-butylbenzaldehyde,...

  3. Preparation of tert-butyl-capped polyenes containing up to 15 double bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, K.; Schrock, R.R. )

    1989-11-27

    7,8-Bis(trifluoromethyl)tricyclo(4.2.2.0{sup 2.5})deca-3,7,9-triene (TCDT) can be ring-opened in a controlled manner by W(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(O-t-Bu){sub 2} (Ar = 2,6-C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-i-Pr{sub 2}) to give living oligomers from which the metal can be removed in a Wittig-like reaction with pivaldehyde or 4,4-dimethyl-trans-2-pentenal. Mixtures of odd and even polyenes have been analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC methods, and those having as many as 13 double bonds have been isolated by column chromatography on silica gel under dinitrogen at {minus}40{degree}C and characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and UV-vis studies. The 17-ene has been observed by HPLC. Polyenes containing more than 17 double bonds are relatively unstable under the reaction and subsequent isolation conditions; those containing between 11 and 15 double bonds decompose thermally progressively more readily. UV-vis and {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR data have been collected and analyzed in detail for the trans(cis,trans){sub x} isomers for x = 1-5 (up to 11 double bonds) and for the odd and even all-trans forms containing up to nine double bonds.

  4. Allylic oxidation of steroidal olefins by vanadyl acetylacetonate and tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Wendell S; Parish, Edward J

    2015-09-01

    Readily available vanadyl acetylacetonate was found to oxidize the allylic sites of ?(5) steroidal alcohols without protection of hydroxyl groups. Cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone, cholesterol benzoate, cholesterol acetate, pregnenolone, and 5-pregnen-3,20-diene were oxidized to 7-keto products using vanadyl acetylacetonate in one pot reactions at room temperature in the presence of oxygen and water. PMID:26091580

  5. tert-Butyl 2-(4-nitro­phen­oxy)acetate

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Qamar; Anis, Itrat; Raza Shah, M.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C12H15NO5, the nitro­phen­oxy portion is approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.034?Å) and makes an angle of 84.8?(1)° with respect to the –CH2–C(=O)–O–C fragment. In the crystal, ?–? stacking is observed between nearly parallel benzene rings of adjacent mol­ecules, the centroid–centroid distance being 3.6806?(10)?Å. Weak inter­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure. PMID:21523180

  6. Bis(η5-1-tert-butyl­inden­yl)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Heiko; Sun, Yu; Sitzmann, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [Ni(C13H15)2], shows a slightly distorted sandwich structure with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Both Ni atoms are located on crystallographic centres of inversion. PMID:22065650

  7. (E)-2-tert-Butyl-6-[(naphthalen-1-yl)imino­meth­yl]phenol

    PubMed Central

    Jamjah, Roghayieh; Nekoomanesh, Mehdi; Zahedi, Roya; Zohuri, Gholamhossein; Afshar Taromi, Faramarz; Notash, Behrouz

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title Schiff base compound, C21H21NO, contains two crystallographicaly independent mol­ecules. The dihedral angles between the naphthalene mean plane and the benzene ring are 29.28?(8) and 26.92.(8)° in the two mol­ecules. An intra­molecular O—H?N hydrogen bond and weak intra­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonds stabilize the structure of each independent mol­ecule. PMID:22347119

  8. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  9. Enantiodifferentiation of 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine in different species using multidimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic approaches.

    PubMed

    Legrum, Charlotte; Slabizki, Petra; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-01-01

    With respect to the current hypothesis that natural amino acids may serve as starting material for the biosynthesis of alkyl-methoxypyrazines, the enantiomeric distribution of the potent aroma compound 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine (SBMP) was determined in various species using heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatography (H/C MDGC) or comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC?×?GC). Complementary to an earlier described separation on octakis-(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-?-cyclodextrin used as chiral stationary phase, we found a reversal of the elution order of SBMP enantiomers on heptakis-(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-?-cyclodextrin, providing further confirmation options for that type of analysis. Optimization of the enantioseparation of SBMP in a single-oven H/C enantio-MDGC system involved the use of a dual-jet cryo modulator for trapping of analytes transferred from the achiral (1)D column to the chiral (2)D column before starting the (2)D enantioseparation with an independent temperature ramp. For the enantiodifferentiation by enantio-GC?×?GC, the modulation period had to be significantly shortened to avoid loss of chiral resolution gained in (1)D. H/C MDGC with mass spectrometric detection (MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) was sufficient for parts per billion level analysis, whereas H/C MDGC-MS/MS or GC?×?GC time-of-flight (TOF) MS were necessary for parts per trillion level analysis. In various vegetables, lady beetles and Vitis vinifera species analyzed, only (S)-SBMP was detected, supporting the hypothesis of natural amino acids serving as starting material for the biosynthesis of alkyl-methoxypyrazines. PMID:25146352

  10. TERT rearrangements are frequent in neuroblastoma and identify aggressive tumors.

    PubMed

    Valentijn, Linda J; Koster, Jan; Zwijnenburg, Danny A; Hasselt, Nancy E; van Sluis, Peter; Volckmann, Richard; van Noesel, Max M; George, Rani E; Tytgat, Godelieve A M; Molenaar, Jan J; Versteeg, Rogier

    2015-12-01

    Whole-genome sequencing detected structural rearrangements of TERT in 17 of 75 high-stage neuroblastomas, with five cases resulting from chromothripsis. Rearrangements were associated with increased TERT expression and targeted regions immediately up- and downstream of TERT, positioning a super-enhancer close to the breakpoints in seven cases. TERT rearrangements (23%), ATRX deletions (11%) and MYCN amplifications (37%) identify three almost non-overlapping groups of high-stage neuroblastoma, each associated with very poor prognosis. PMID:26523776

  11. Crystal structure of methyl (S)-2-{(R)-4-[(tert-but-oxy-carbon-yl)amino]-3-oxo-1,2-thia-zolidin-2-yl}-3-methyl-butano-ate: a chemical model for oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B).

    PubMed

    Ruddraraju, Kasi Viswanatharaju; Hillebrand, Roman; Barnes, Charles L; Gates, Kent S

    2015-07-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H24N2O5S, contains two independent mol-ecules (A and B). In each mol-ecule, the iso-thia-zolidin-3-one ring adopts an envelope conformation with the methyl-ene C atom as the flap. In the crystal, the A mol-ecules are linked to one another by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming columns along [010]. The B mol-ecules are also linked to one another by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming columns along the same direction, i.e. [010]. Within the individual columns, there are also C-H⋯S and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. The columns of A and B mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming sheets parallel to (10-1). The absolute structure was determined by resonant scattering [Flack parameter = 0.00 (3)]. PMID:26279856

  12. A DNA oligonucleotide-hemin complex cleaves t-butyl hydroperoxide through a homolytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Witting, P K; Travascio, P; Sen, D; Mauk, A G

    2001-09-10

    Both electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electronic absorption spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the reaction of a guanine-rich DNA nucleotide-hemin complex (PS2.M-hemin complex) and organic peroxide (t-Bu-OOH). Incubation of the PS2.M-hemin complex with t-Bu-OOH resulted in the time-dependent decrease in the heme Soret with concomitant changes to the visible bands of the electronic absorbance spectrum for the PS2.M-hemin complex. Parallel EPR studies using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) combined with spectral simulation demonstrated the presence of tert-butyloxyl, carbon-centered methyl, and methyl peroxyl radicals as well as a simple nitroxide (triplet) signal. Experiments, performed by maintaining a constant ratio of t-Bu-OOH/PS2.M-hemin complex ( approximately 35 mol/mol) while varying DMPO concentration, indicated that the relative contributions of each radical adduct to the composite EPR spectrum were significantly influenced by the DMPO concentration. For example, at DMPO/PS2.M-hemin of 10-50 mol/mol, a complex mixture of radicals was consistently detected, whereas at high trapping efficiency (i.e., DMPO/PS2.M-hemin of approximately 250 mol/mol) the tert-butyloxyl-DMPO adduct was predominant. In contrast, at relatively low DMPO/PS2.M-hemin complex ratios of < or =5 mol/mol, a simple nitroxide three-line EPR signal was detected largely in the absence of all other radicals. Together, these data indicate that tert-butyloxyl radical is the primary radical likely formed from the homolytic cleavage of the O-O peroxy bond of t-Bu-OOH, while methyl and methyl peroxyl radicals result from beta-scission of the primary tert-butyloxyl radical product. PMID:11531452

  13. Chronic urticaria exacerbated by the antioxidant food preservatives, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).

    PubMed

    Goodman, D L; McDonnell, J T; Nelson, H S; Vaughan, T R; Weber, R W

    1990-10-01

    Two patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria in whom remissions were achieved with dye- and preservative-elimination diet had exacerbations of their urticaria when they were challenged under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions with butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. After elimination of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene from their diets, there was marked abatement of the frequency, severity, and duration of their urticaria. These antioxidants appear capable of aggravating symptoms in certain patients with chronic urticaria. PMID:2229816

  14. Carbon­yl{3,3?-di-tert-butyl-5,5?-dimeth­oxy-2,2?-bis­[(4,4,5,5-tetra­methyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospho­lan-2-yl)­oxy]biphenyl-?2 P,P?}hydrido(triphenyl­phosphane-?P)rhodium(I) diethyl ether tris­olvate

    PubMed Central

    Selent, Detlef; Spannenberg, Anke; Börner, Armin

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [RhH(C74H68O8P2)(C18H15P)(CO)]·3C4H10O, the CHP3 coordination set at the RhI ion is arranged in a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry with the P atoms adopting equatorial coordination sites and the C atom of the carbonyl ligand as well as the H atom adopting the axial sites. The asymmetric unit contains two very similar mol­ecules of the rhodium complex, two half-occupied diethyl ether mol­ecules and further diethyl ether solvent mol­ecules which could not be modelled successfully. Therefore contributions of the latter were removed from the diffraction data using the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. PMID:23476316

  15. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  16. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  17. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  18. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  19. Studies on the mechanism of enhancement of butylated hydroxytoluene-induced mouse lung toxicity by butylated hydroxyanisole.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D C; Trush, M A

    1988-10-01

    The studies described in this report were designed to probe possible mechanisms whereby butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is able to enhance butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-induced mouse lung toxicity. In experiments with mouse lung slices, BHA enhanced the covalent binding of BHT to protein, indicating that the interaction between BHA and BHT takes place in the lung. Subcutaneous administration of either BHA (250 mg/kg) or diethyl maleate (DEM, 1 ml/kg) to male CD-1 mice produced a similar enhancement of BHT-induced lung toxicity. In contrast to DEM, the administration of BHA (250 or 1500 mg/kg) did not decrease mouse lung glutathione levels, suggesting that the effect of BHA is not due to the depletion of glutathione levels. We previously observed that in the presence of model peroxidases a unique interaction occurs between BHA and BHT, resulting in the increased metabolic activation of BHT. Upon the addition of hydrogen peroxide or various hydroperoxides to mouse lung microsomes, BHA significantly increased the covalent binding of BHT to protein. BHA also stimulated the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide by 4.7-fold in mouse lung microsomes. Likewise, hydrogen peroxide resulting from the NADPH cytochrome P-450 (c) reductase-catalyzed redox cycling of tert-butylhydroquinone, a microsomal metabolite of BHA, supported the peroxidase-dependent BHA-enhanced formation of BHT-quinone methide. These results suggest that BHA could facilitate the activation of BHT in the lung as a result of both the increased formation of hydrogen peroxide and the subsequent peroxidase-dependent formation of BHT-quinone methide from the direct interaction of BHA with BHT. PMID:3188017

  20. HUMAN EXPOSURE OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on ambient air quality and microenvironmental exposures (e.g., during refueling, inside cards, in personal garages) are too limited for a quantitative estimate of population exposures to MTBE. t best, they can be used to estimate broad ranges of potential exposures. ecause o...

  1. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Colorless. (c) Odor. Characteristic odor. (d) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.396 to 1.404. (e) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. 0.800 to 0.835. (f) Distillation range. No distillate should come over below 123...

  2. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Colorless. (c) Odor. Characteristic odor. (d) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.396 to 1.404. (e) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. 0.800 to 0.835. (f) Distillation range. No distillate should come over below 123...

  3. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Colorless. (c) Odor. Characteristic odor. (d) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.396 to 1.404. (e) Specific gravity at 20 °/20 °C. 0.800 to 0.835. (f) Distillation range. No distillate should come over below 123...

  4. Environmental chamber study of the photochemical reaction of ethyl methyl sulfide and NO(x).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Du, Lin; Ge, Maofa

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in a self-made smog chamber at (300 +/- 1) K and 1.01 x 10(5) Pa to simulate the photochemical reaction of ethyl methyl sulfide (EMS) and NO(x). The results showed that the higher the initial concentration of EMS, the more ozone was generated in the simulative reactions. It was found that the light intensity plays a very important role in the evaluation of ozone formation potential for EMS. The parameters of d(O3-NO) and IR (incremental reactivity) were used to quantify the potential of EMS on ozone formation. The obtained maximum IR values in this article for the five simulative reactions were 1.55 x 10(-2), 0.99 x 10(-2), 1.36 x 10(-2), 2.47 x 10(-2), and 1.65 x 10(-2), respectively. A comparison between the results we obtained here and the results we obtained previously for di-tert-butyl peroxide and acetylene showed that the potential reactivity of EMS on ozone formation was at a relatively low level. PMID:19402412

  5. Binding properties and structure-affinity relationships of food antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole and its metabolites with lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Yan, Jin; Tang, Peixiao; Li, Shanshan; Xu, Kailin; Li, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Considering the harmful impact of food antioxidants on human bodies, thoroughly exposing their potential effects at the molecular level is important. In this study, the binding interactions of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a phenolic antioxidant, and its different major metabolites tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and tert-butylbenzoquinone (TBQ) with lysozyme were examined via fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and ligand-protein docking studies. The three compounds caused strong quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by a static quenching mechanism but with different quenching efficiencies and different effects on the ?-helix content of the lysozyme. The order of binding affinity of lysozyme for all test compounds is as follows: BHA>TBQ>TBHQ. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces perform dominant functions in the binding between these compounds and lysozyme. Furthermore, structure-affinity relationships between the model compounds and lysozyme were established on the basis of computational analyses. PMID:26041206

  6. Customer exposure to MTBE, TAME, C6 alkyl methyl ethers, and benzene during gasoline refueling.

    PubMed Central

    Vainiotalo, S; Peltonen, Y; Ruonakangas, A; Pfäffli, P

    1999-01-01

    We studied customer exposure during refueling by collecting air samples from customers' breathing zone. The measurements were carried out during 4 days in summer 1996 at two Finnish self-service gasoline stations with "stage I" vapor recovery systems. The 95-RON (research octane number) gasoline contained approximately 2.7% methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), approximately 8.5% tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), approximately 3.2% C6 alkyl methyl ethers (C6 AMEs), and 0.75% benzene. The individual exposure concentrations showed a wide log-normal distribution, with low exposures being the most frequent. In over 90% of the samples, the concentration of MTBE was higher (range <0.02-51 mg/m3) than that of TAME. The MTBE values were well below the short-term (15 min) threshold limits set for occupational exposure (250-360 mg/m3). At station A, the geometric mean concentrations in individual samples were 3.9 mg/m3 MTBE and 2. 2 mg/m3 TAME. The corresponding values at station B were 2.4 and 1.7 mg/m3, respectively. The average refueling (sampling) time was 63 sec at station A and 74 sec at station B. No statistically significant difference was observed in customer exposures between the two service stations. The overall geometric means (n = 167) for an adjusted 1-min refueling time were 3.3 mg/m3 MTBE and 1.9 mg/m3 TAME. Each day an integrated breathing zone sample was also collected, corresponding to an arithmetic mean of 20-21 refuelings. The overall arithmetic mean concentrations in the integrated samples (n = 8) were 0.90 mg/m3 for benzene and 0.56 mg/m3 for C6 AMEs calculated as a group. Mean MTBE concentrations in ambient air (a stationary point in the middle of the pump island) were 0.16 mg/m3 for station A and 0.07 mg/m3 for station B. The mean ambient concentrations of TAME, C6 AMEs, and benzene were 0.031 mg/m3, approximately 0.005 mg/m3, and approximately 0.01 mg/m3, respectively, at both stations. The mean wind speed was 1.4 m/sec and mean air temperature was 21 degreesC. Of the gasoline refueled during the study, 75% was 95 grade and 25% was 98/99 grade, with an oxygenate (MTBE) content of 12.2%. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9924009

  7. Customer exposure to MTBE, TAME, C6 alkyl methyl ethers, and benzene during gasoline refueling.

    PubMed

    Vainiotalo, S; Peltonen, Y; Ruonakangas, A; Pfäffli, P

    1999-02-01

    We studied customer exposure during refueling by collecting air samples from customers' breathing zone. The measurements were carried out during 4 days in summer 1996 at two Finnish self-service gasoline stations with "stage I" vapor recovery systems. The 95-RON (research octane number) gasoline contained approximately 2.7% methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), approximately 8.5% tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), approximately 3.2% C6 alkyl methyl ethers (C6 AMEs), and 0.75% benzene. The individual exposure concentrations showed a wide log-normal distribution, with low exposures being the most frequent. In over 90% of the samples, the concentration of MTBE was higher (range <0.02-51 mg/m3) than that of TAME. The MTBE values were well below the short-term (15 min) threshold limits set for occupational exposure (250-360 mg/m3). At station A, the geometric mean concentrations in individual samples were 3.9 mg/m3 MTBE and 2. 2 mg/m3 TAME. The corresponding values at station B were 2.4 and 1.7 mg/m3, respectively. The average refueling (sampling) time was 63 sec at station A and 74 sec at station B. No statistically significant difference was observed in customer exposures between the two service stations. The overall geometric means (n = 167) for an adjusted 1-min refueling time were 3.3 mg/m3 MTBE and 1.9 mg/m3 TAME. Each day an integrated breathing zone sample was also collected, corresponding to an arithmetic mean of 20-21 refuelings. The overall arithmetic mean concentrations in the integrated samples (n = 8) were 0.90 mg/m3 for benzene and 0.56 mg/m3 for C6 AMEs calculated as a group. Mean MTBE concentrations in ambient air (a stationary point in the middle of the pump island) were 0.16 mg/m3 for station A and 0.07 mg/m3 for station B. The mean ambient concentrations of TAME, C6 AMEs, and benzene were 0.031 mg/m3, approximately 0.005 mg/m3, and approximately 0.01 mg/m3, respectively, at both stations. The mean wind speed was 1.4 m/sec and mean air temperature was 21 degreesC. Of the gasoline refueled during the study, 75% was 95 grade and 25% was 98/99 grade, with an oxygenate (MTBE) content of 12.2%. PMID:9924009

  8. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene....

  9. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3169 Butylated hydroxyanisole....

  10. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3169 Butylated hydroxyanisole. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a)...

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of molybdenum(VI) and iron(II) coordination compounds with S-alkyl-N-methyl-S-(2-pyridyl)sulfoximines and catalytic epoxidation activity of the molybdenum complexes.

    PubMed

    Brussaard, Yvonne; Olbrich, Falk; Schaumann, Ernst

    2013-11-18

    Coordination compounds oxido(diperoxido)(S-butyl-N-methyl-S-(2-pyridyl)sulfoximine)molybdenum(VI), [MoO(O2)2{SO(NMe)(n)Bu(NC5H4)}] (5c), and bis{(dichlorido)(N,S-dimethyl-2-pyridylsulfoximine)iron(II)}, tetrahydrofuran solvate (1:1) (6), [FeCl2{SO(NMe)Me(NC5H4)}]2·THF are prepared from the free ligand 4 and molybdenum(VI) oxidediperoxide(dihydrate) and iron dichloride, respectively. The crystal structures reveal a trigonal bipyramid with the pyridine ring and the single oxygen on molybdenum in a trans arrangement for 5c and a planar ?(2)-Cl2Fe2 ring with trans-oriented exocyclic Cl atoms for 6 whereas the structures of the N,N-dicoordinated ligands are only little effected by the metals. Coordination compounds (5) efficiently catalyze the epoxidation of cyclooctene or of monosubstituted alkenes by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. PMID:24180337

  13. TERT promoter mutations in primary liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Nault, Jean-Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing has drawn the genetic landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma and several signaling pathways are altered at the DNA level in tumors: Wnt/?-catenin, cell cycle regulator, epigenetic modifier, histone methyltransferase, oxidative stress, ras/raf/map kinase and akt/mtor pathways. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process starting with the exposure to different risk factors, followed by the development of a chronic liver disease and cirrhosis precede in the vast majority of the cases the development of HCC. Several lines of evidence have underlined the pivotal role of telomere maintenance in both cirrhosis and HCC pathogenesis. TERT promoter mutations were identified as the most frequent genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma with an overall frequency around 60%. Moreover, in cirrhosis, TERT promoter mutationsare observed at the early steps of hepatocarcinogenesis since they are recurrently identified in low-grade and high-grade dysplastic nodules. In contrast, acquisition of genomic diversity through mutations of classical oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TP53, CTNNB1, ARID1A…) occurred only in progressed HCC. In normal liver, a subset of HCC can derived from the malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). In HCA, CTNNB1 mutations predispose to transformation of HCA in HCC and TERT promoter mutations are required in most of the cases as a second hit for a full malignant transformation. All these findings have refined our knowledge of HCC pathogenesis and have pointed telomerase as a target for tailored therapy in the future. PMID:26336998

  14. HMGA2 expression pattern and TERT mutations in tumors of the vulva

    PubMed Central

    AGOSTINI, ANTONIO; PANAGOPOULOS, IOANNIS; ANDERSEN, HEGE KILEN; JOHANNESEN, LENE ELISABETH; DAVIDSON, BEN; TROPÉ, CLAES GÖRAN; HEIM, SVERRE; MICCI, FRANCESCA

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the vulva account for only 5% of cancers of the female genital tract in the USA. The most frequent cancers of the vulva are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). Little is known about the genetic aberrations carried by these tumors. We report a detailed study of 25 vulva tumors [22 SCC, 2 MM, 1 atypical squamous cell hyperplasia (AH)] analyzed for expression of the high-mobility group AT-hook family member genes HMGA2 and HMGA1, for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2 and TERT genes, and for methylation of the MGMT promoter. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that HMGA2 was expressed in the great majority of analyzed samples (20 out of 24; SCC as well as MM) but not in the normal controls. HMGA1, on the other hand, was expressed in both tumors and normal tissues. Five of the 24 tumors (all SCC) showed the C228T mutation in the TERT promoter. Our results showed that HMGA2 and TERT may be of importance in the genesis and/or the progression of tumors of the vulva. PMID:25823555

  15. HMGA2 expression pattern and TERT mutations in tumors of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Antonio; Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Hege Kilen; Johannesen, Lene Elisabeth; Davidson, Ben; Tropé, Claes Göran; Heim, Sverre; Micci, Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Malignant tumors of the vulva account for only 5% of cancers of the female genital tract in the USA. The most frequent cancers of the vulva are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). Little is known about the genetic aberrations carried by these tumors. We report a detailed study of 25 vulva tumors [22 SCC, 2 MM, 1 atypical squamous cell hyperplasia (AH)] analyzed for expression of the high-mobility group AT-hook family member genes HMGA2 and HMGA1, for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2 and TERT genes, and for methylation of the MGMT promoter. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that HMGA2 was expressed in the great majority of analyzed samples (20 out of 24; SCC as well as MM) but not in the normal controls. HMGA1, on the other hand, was expressed in both tumors and normal tissues. Five of the 24 tumors (all SCC) showed the C228T mutation in the TERT promoter. Our results showed that HMGA2 and TERT may be of importance in the genesis and/or the progression of tumors of the vulva. PMID:25823555

  16. CUDR promotes liver cancer stem cell growth through upregulating TERT and C-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hu; Zheng, Qidi; Li, Haiyan; Wu, Mengying; An, Jiahui; Gui, Xin; Li, Tianming; Lu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer up-regulated drug resistant (CUDR) is a novel non-coding RNA gene. Herein, we demonstrate excessive CUDR cooperates with excessive CyclinD1 or PTEN depletion to accelerate liver cancer stem cells growth and liver stem cell malignant transformation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we reveal the decrease of PTEN in cells may lead to increase binding capacity of CUDR to CyclinD1. Therefore, CUDR-CyclinD1 complex loads onto the long noncoding RNA H19 promoter region that may lead to reduce the DNA methylation on H19 promoter region and then to enhance the H19 expression. Strikingly, the overexpression of H19 increases the binding of TERT to TERC and reduces the interplay between TERT with TERRA, thus enhancing the cell telomerase activity and extending the telomere length. On the other hand, insulator CTCF recruits the CUDR-CyclinD1 complx to form the composite CUDR-CyclinD1-insulator CTCF complex which occupancied on the C-myc gene promoter region, increasing the outcome of oncogene C-myc. Ultimately, excessive TERT and C-myc lead to liver cancer stem cell and hepatocyte-like stem cell malignant proliferation. To understand the novel functions of long noncoding RNA CUDR will help in the development of new liver cancer therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. PMID:26513297

  17. Mutation of the TERT promoter, switch to active chromatin, and monoallelic TERT expression in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Theodorescu, Dan; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-11-01

    Somatic mutations in the promoter of the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are the most common noncoding mutations in cancer. They are thought to activate telomerase, contributing to proliferative immortality, but the molecular events driving TERT activation are largely unknown. We observed in multiple cancer cell lines that mutant TERT promoters exhibit the H3K4me2/3 mark of active chromatin and recruit the GABPA/B1 transcription factor, while the wild-type allele retains the H3K27me3 mark of epigenetic silencing; only the mutant promoters are transcriptionally active. These results suggest how a single-base-pair mutation can cause a dramatic epigenetic switch and monoallelic expression. PMID:26515115

  18. Cancer. TERT promoter mutations and telomerase reactivation in urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Borah, Sumit; Xi, Linghe; Zaug, Arthur J; Powell, Natasha M; Dancik, Garrett M; Cohen, Scott B; Costello, James C; Theodorescu, Dan; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-02-27

    Reactivation of telomerase, the chromosome end-replicating enzyme, drives human cell immortality and cancer. Point mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene promoter occur at high frequency in multiple cancers, including urothelial cancer (UC), but their effect on telomerase function has been unclear. In a study of 23 human UC cell lines, we show that these promoter mutations correlate with higher levels of TERT messenger RNA (mRNA), TERT protein, telomerase enzymatic activity, and telomere length. Although previous studies found no relation between TERT promoter mutations and UC patient outcome, we find that elevated TERT mRNA expression strongly correlates with reduced disease-specific survival in two independent UC patient cohorts (n = 35; n = 87). These results suggest that high telomerase activity may be a better marker of aggressive UC tumors than TERT promoter mutations alone. PMID:25722414

  19. TERT mutation in glioma: Frequency, prognosis and risk.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Qi, Chen; Maling, Gou; Xiang, Wang; Yanhui, Liu; Ruofei, Liang; Yunhe, Mao; Jiewen, Luo; Qing, Mao

    2016-04-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has received a great deal of attention in recent years for its role as a prognostic and predictive molecular marker of glioma. However, the results of studies examining its mutation frequency and predictive value are inconsistent, and several studies have investigated the association between TERT gene polymorphisms and gliomagenesis. We used a meta-analysis approach to examine these unsolved problems. A bibliography search using EMBASE and MEDLINE was performed to identify potentially relevant articles and conference abstracts that investigated TERT mutations in glioma. The references contained in the identified trials were also examined to identify any other relevant published or unpublished articles. Sixteen studies were included. Pooled estimates of the relative risks (RR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), hazard ratios (HR) and frequency were calculated. TERT mutations occurred frequently in glioblastoma (69%) and oligodendrogliomas (72%) but were less frequent in astrocytomas (24%) and oligoastrocytomas (38%). The HR for glioma patients with TERT mutations versus wild type TERT was 1.63 (95% CI 1.35-1.98). TERT polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of glioma compared to controls (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.23-1.33). Our study shows that the TERT gene is a valuable prognostic and predictive biomarker of glioma, and TERT gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with an increased risk of glioma. PMID:26765760

  20. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfated butyl oleate. 172.270 Section 172.270... by sulfation, using concentrated sulfuric acid, of a mixture of butyl esters produced...