Science.gov

Sample records for methyl tert butyl

  1. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl tert - butyl ether ( MTBE ) ; CASRN 1634 - 04 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  2. REDUCTIVE ACTIVATION OF DIOXYGEN FOR DEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER BY BIFUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bifunctional aluminum is prepared by sulfating aluminum metal with sulfuric acid. The use of bifunctional aluminum to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the presence of dioxygen has been examined using batch systems. Primary degradation products were tert-butyl alcohol, ...

  3. INFLUENCE OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) ON LAKE WATER ALGAE: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-01209 Kampbell*, D.H., An, Y, and Williams, VR. Influence of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) on Lake Water Algae. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 57 (4):675-681 (2001). ...

  4. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.

  5. STRUCTURES AND BINDING ENERGIES OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER-WATER COMPLEXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a well-known environmental contaminant owing to its high solubility in water. Since the early 1990s, MTBE has been added to gasoline to improve air quality in some metropolitan areas of the United States. Improved air quality was, however, achiev...

  6. TREATMENT OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED WATER USING PHOTOCATALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of photo-oxidation treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated in three ways, 1) using a slurry falling film photo-reactor, 2) a batch solar reactor system, and 3) a combination of air-stripping and gas phase photooxidation system. MTBE-c...

  7. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION OF METHYL-TERT-BUTYL ETHER FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photo-oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated to determine the feasibility of using photocatalysis for the treatment of MTBE-contaminated drinking water. The feasibility assessment was conducted using slurries of titanium dioxide in both a photo-...

  8. INHALATION EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE (DBCM) USING CONTINUOUS BREATH ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been added to gasoline to help meet national ambient air quality standards in those parts of the U.S. that are non-compliant for carbon monoxide. Although MTBE has provided important health benefits in terms of reduced haza...

  9. INFLUENCE OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) ON LAKE WATER ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as an octane booster in gasoline in the United States since the 1970s. MTBE use increased greatly in the 1990s with the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The MTBE enhanced a more complete combustion of fuel hydroc...

  10. ATTENUATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER IN WATER USING SUNLIGHT AND A PHOTOCATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a gasoline additive has resulted in increasing pollution of ground water. Most of the conventional treatment technologies are inefficient or costly when the initial concentration of MTBE is low (<200 ug/L). In order to find an eco-frie...

  11. ATTENUATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER IN WATER USING SUNLIGHT AND A PHOTOCATALYST: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1535 Sahle-Demessie*, E., Enriquez*, J., and Gupta, G. Attenuation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether in Water using Sunlight and a Photocatalyst. Water Environment Research (Virginia: Water Environment Federation) 74 (2):122-130 (2002). EPA/600/J-02/236. 07/19/2001 The use o...

  12. BIODEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER AND BTEX AT VARYING HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of biologically degrading methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contaminated groundwater is dependent on the ability to degrade MTBE and its byproducts in the presence of other gasoline contaminants. This study investigates a mixed culture degrading both MTBE and benzene...

  13. Identification of mercury methylation product by tert-butyl compounds in aqueous solution under light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Chen, Ping; He, Bin; Yin, Yongguang; Fang, Linchuan; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongtao; Yang, Lihua; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-09-15

    The methylation of mercury (Hg) is of great concern as methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic species, is produced. This study examined the possibilities of tert-butyl compounds (tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH)) and other alcohols serving as methyl donors for Hg photo-methylation under light irradiation. The yield of MeHg varied among the methyl donors, and it was also significantly influenced by salinity and pH. MeHg could be generated in the presence of TBH under visible light irradiation. The hydroxyl radical (OH) was found to promote MeHg production at low levels, but degrade MeHg in excess. The photo-production of MeHg was tentatively proposed via the complexation of Hg and methyl donors, the formation of an intermediate (O(Hg)C(CH3)3), and the intramolecular methyl transfer from methyl donors to Hg. This study implicates photoreactions between Hg and organic pollutants in understanding the fate and transformation of Hg in the aquatic environment. PMID:26165936

  14. WATER QUALITY AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA AS RELATED TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE): JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA- 02224 An, Y, Kampbell*, D.H., and Sewell*, G.W. WATER QUALITY AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA AS RELATED TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE). Environmental Pollution118: 331-336 (2002). 600/J-02/230. Occurrence of methyl tert-but...

  15. Biotransformation of methyl tert-butyl ether by human cytochrome P450 2A6.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Miran Beigi, Ali Akbar; Teymouri, Mohammad; Poursaberi, Tahereh; Mostafavi, S Mojtaba; Soleimani, Parviz; Chitsazian, Fereshteh; Tash, Shahram Abolhassan

    2012-04-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as gasoline oxygenate and octane number enhancer for more complete combustion in order to reduce the air pollution caused by motor vehicle exhaust. The possible adverse effects of MTBE on human health are of major public concern. However, information on the metabolism of MTBE in human tissues is scarce. The present study demonstrates that human cytochrome P450 2A6 is able to metabolize MTBE to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a major circulating metabolite and marker for exposure to MTBE. As CYP2A6 is known to be constitutively expressed in human livers, we infer that it may play a significant role in metabolism of gasoline ethers in liver tissue. PMID:21915685

  16. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether in gasoline by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Achten, C; Pttmann, W

    2001-03-01

    A simple method for the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline has been developed. The separation of MTBE from other analytes was controlled by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the full scan mode using the characteristic primary, secondary and tertiary ions m/z 73, 57 and 43. The sample mass spectrum did not show any superimposition of other analytes. The separation from the common gasoline component 2-methylpentane was sufficient for reliable quantitation. An application of the developed conditions using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was performed by the analysis of regular, euro super, super premium unleaded and 'Optimax' gasoline from petrol stations in the area of Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Regular unleaded gasoline shows an average MTBE content of 0.4% (w/w), whereas the MTBE content in euro super gasoline varies between 0.4 and 4.2% (w/w). The blending of MTBE to super premium has increased from 8.2% (w/w) in 1998 to 9.8% (w/w) on average in 1999. The recently introduced gasoline 'Optimax' shows an average MTBE content of 11.9% (w/w). The presented method might also be used for the analysis of other ethers, such as ethyl tert-butyl ether, which requires the use of another internal standard. PMID:11261733

  17. Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by a Pure Bacterial Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hatzinger, Paul B.; McClay, Kevin; Vainberg, Simon; Tugusheva, Marina; Condee, Charles W.; Steffan, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 was evaluated. ENV735 grew slowly on MTBE or tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as sole sources of carbon and energy, but growth on these substrates was greatly enhanced by the addition of a small amount of yeast extract. The addition of H2 did not enhance or diminish MTBE degradation by the strain, and MTBE was only poorly degraded or not degraded by type strains of Hydrogenophaga or hydrogen-oxidizing enrichment cultures, respectively. MTBE degradation activity was constitutively expressed in ENV735 and was not greatly affected by formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, allyl thiourea, or acetylene. MTBE degradation was inhibited by 1-amino benzotriazole and butadiene monoepoxide. TBA degradation was inducible by TBA and was inhibited by formaldehyde at concentrations of >0.24 mM and by acetylene but not by the other inhibitors tested. These results demonstrate that separate, independently regulated genes encode MTBE and TBA metabolism in ENV735. PMID:11722912

  18. WATER QUALITY AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA AS RELATED TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in five marinas was monitored between June 1999 and November 2000 in Lake Texoma located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas. MTBE is a commonly used gasoline additive and a suspected carcinogen. Lake water was collected at locations i...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7T, a Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Degrader.

    PubMed

    Purswani, Jessica; Guisado, Isabel M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Pozo, Clementina

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7(T) (= CECT 8558(T) = DSM 29760(T)), isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil pilot plant in Granada, Spain. The bacterium was isolated and sequenced due to its methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading properties. PMID:26893420

  20. Anaerobic Biodegradation Of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Under Iron-Reducing Conditions In Batch And Continuous-Flow Cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under iron-reducing conditions was explored in batch and continuous-flow systems. A porous pot completely-mixed reactor was seeded with diverse cultures and operated under iron-reducing...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7T, a Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Degrader

    PubMed Central

    Guisado, Isabel M.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Pozo, Clementina

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7T (= CECT 8558T = DSM 29760T), isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil pilot plant in Granada, Spain. The bacterium was isolated and sequenced due to its methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading properties. PMID:26893420

  2. INTERACTION OF METHYL-TERT BUTYL ETHER AND WATER STRESS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOIL MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widespread contaminant in surface and ground water in the United States. Frequently irrigation is used to water fields to germinate planted seeds and sustain plant growth. A likely possibility exists that water used may have some MTBE. Our s...

  3. EVALUATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AS AN INTERFERENCE ON COMMERCIAL BREATH-ALCOHOL ANALYZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anecdotal reports suggest that high environmental or occupational exposures to the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) may result in breath concentrations that are sufficiently elevated to cause a false positive on commercial breath-alcohol analyzers. We evaluated th...

  4. DERMAL EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE (DBCM) WHILE BATHING WITH CONTAMINATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been added to gasoline to help meet national ambient air quality standards in those parts of the U.S. that are non-compliant for carbon monoxide. Although MTBE has provided important health benefits in terms of reduced hazardous a...

  5. CO-OCCURRENCE OF METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND BTEX COMPOUNDS AT MARINAS IN A LARGE RESEVOIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is released into the environment as one of some gasoline components, not as a pure compound. BTEX compounds (benzene, tolune, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) are major volatile constituents found in gasoline and are water soluble and mobile. This study...

  6. Development of a method for extraction of methyl tert-butyl (MTBE) from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, D; Zambrowski, M; Uchrin, C

    2002-01-01

    Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) is ubiquitous in both ground and surface waters in the United States, and it can also be found in many unsaturated soil systems. Until recently, MTBE was not thought to adsorb appreciably to soil solids. MTBE, however, will adsorb to some soil types, and additionally, can be found in both soil water and soil gas. Since sorbed MTBE can serve as a long term, low level, source to water systems, a practical method for quantifying soil concentrations is needed to fully understand the environmental impact of MTBE. In this paper, we examine the analytical parameters critical to MTBE extraction methods, including extraction solvent and gas chromatograph characteristics. As the result, we have discovered toluene to be an effective solvent (exhibiting adequate recovery and excellent separation from MTBE) using a GC/FID with Suppelcowax column. PMID:11846266

  7. Removal of Methyl-tert-butyl Ether from Water by a Pulsed Arc Electrohydraulic Discharge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeloni, Danielle M.; Dickson, Sarah E.; Emelko, Monica B.; Chang, Jen-Shih

    2006-10-01

    The removal of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from water by a pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharge (PAED) system was investigated experimentally at the laboratory scale. The effects of arc electrode gap, detention time and initial solution pH on the efficacy of MTBE treatment by PAED were investigated. A 0.3 kJ/pulse spark-gap-type power supply was employed in combination with a 3.0 L flow-through reactor. Experimental results showed that: 1) oxidation reactions are induced by this PAED system; 2) removal efficiency increases with increasing cumulative input energy (kW\\cdoth/m3 or kJ/L); 3) removal efficiency decreases with increasing arc electrode gap; and 4) initial solution pH does not have a significant effect on the efficacy of MTBE removal by PAED when the water matrix is buffered prior to treatment.

  8. Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Fuel Oxygenates by a New Strain, Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    PubMed Central

    François, Alan; Mathis, Hugues; Godefroy, Davy; Piveteau, Pascal; Fayolle, Françoise; Monot, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    A strain that efficiently degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was obtained by initial selection on the recalcitrant compound tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). This strain, a gram-positive methylotrophic bacterium identified as Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012, was also able to degrade tert-amyl methyl ether and tert-amyl alcohol. Ethyl tert-butyl ether was weakly degraded. tert-Butyl formate and 2-hydroxy isobutyrate (HIBA), two intermediates in the MTBE catabolism pathway, were detected during growth on MTBE. A positive effect of Co2+ during growth of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 on HIBA was demonstrated. The specific rate of MTBE degradation was 0.6 mmol/h/g (dry weight) of cells, and the biomass yield on MTBE was 0.44 g (dry weight) per g of MTBE. MTBE, TBA, and HIBA degradation activities were induced by MTBE and TBA, and TBA was a good inducer. Involvement of at least one monooxygenase during degradation of MTBE and TBA was shown by (i) the requirement for oxygen, (ii) the production of propylene epoxide from propylene by MTBE- or TBA- grown cells, and (iii) the inhibition of MTBE or TBA degradation and of propylene epoxide production by acetylene. No cytochrome P-450 was detected in MTBE- or TBA-grown cells. Similar protein profiles were obtained after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude extracts from MTBE- and TBA-grown cells. Among the polypeptides induced by these substrates, two polypeptides (66 and 27 kDa) exhibited strong similarities with known oxidoreductases. PMID:12039730

  9. Microbial toxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) determined with fluorescent and luminescent bioassays.

    PubMed

    Roslev, Peter; Lentz, Trine; Hesselsoe, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of the fuel additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and potential degradation products tert-butanol (TBA) and formaldehyde was examined using mixed microbial biomass, and six strains of bioluminescent bacteria and yeast. The purpose was to assess microbial toxicity with quantitative bioluminescent and fluorescent endpoints, and to identify sensitive proxies suitable for monitoring MTBE contamination. Bioluminescent Aliivibrio fischeri DSM 7151 (formerly Vibrio fischeri) appeared highly sensitive to MTBE exposure, and was a superior test organisms compared to lux-tagged Escherichia coli DH5?, Pseudomonas fluorescens DF57-40E7 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYR. EC10 and EC50 for acute MTBE toxicity in A. fischeri were 1.1 and 10.9 mg L(-1), respectively. Long term (24h) MTBE exposure resulted in EC10 values of 0.01 mg L(-1). TBA was significantly less toxic with EC10 and EC50 for acute and chronic toxicity >1000 mg L(-1). Inhibition of bioluminescence was generally a more sensitive endpoint for MTBE toxicity than measuring intracellular ATP levels and heterotrophic CO2 assimilation. A weak estrogenic response was detected for MTBE at concentrations ? 3.7 g L(-1) using an estrogen inducible bioluminescent yeast strain (S. cerevisiae BLYES). Microbial hydrolytic enzyme activity in groundwater was affected by MTBE with EC10 values of 0.5-787 mg L(-1), and EC50 values of 59-3073 for alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, beta-1,4-glucanase, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, and leucine-aminopeptidase. Microbial alkaline phosphatase and beta-1,4-glucanase activity were most sensitive to MTBE exposure with EC50 ? 64.8 mg L(-1). The study suggests that bioassays with luminescent A. fischeri, and fluorescent assays targeting hydrolytic enzyme activity are good candidates for monitoring microbial MTBE toxicity in contaminated water. PMID:25128634

  10. Methyl tert butyl ether targets developing vasculature in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    Bonventre, Josephine A.; White, Lori A.; Cooper, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling during early development results in abnormal angiogenesis and increased vascular lesions. Embryonic exposure to 0.625 to 10 mM methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE), a highly water soluble gasoline additive, resulted in a dose dependent increase in pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISVs). The EC50s for the lesions ranked in terms of likelihood to occur with MTBE exposure were: pooled blood in the CCV, 3.2 mM [95 % CI: 2.2 – 4.7] > cranial hemorrhage, 11 mM [5.9 – 20.5] > abnormal ISV, 14.5 mM [6.5 – 32.4]. Organ systems other than the vascular system appear to develop normally, which suggests MTBE toxicity targets developing blood vessels. Equal molar concentrations (0.625 to 10 mM) of the primary metabolites, tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) and formaldehyde, did not result in vascular lesions, which suggested that the parent compound is responsible for the toxicity. Stage specific exposures were carried out to determine the developmental period most sensitive to MTBE vascular disruption. Embryos treated until 6-somites or treated after Prim-5 stages did not exhibit a significant increase in lesions, while embryos treated between 6-somites and Prim-5 had a significant increase in vascular lesions (p ≤ 0.05). During the critical window for MTBE-induced vascular toxicity, expression of vegfa, vegfc, and flk1/kdr were significantly decreased 50, 70 and 40%, respectively. This is the first study to characterize disruption in vascular development following embryonic exposure to MTBE. The unique specificity of MTBE to disrupt angiogenesis may be mediated by the down regulation of critical genes in the VEGF pathway. PMID:21684239

  11. Environmental behavior and fate of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, Paul J.; Pankow, James F.; Korte, Nic E.; Zogorski, John S.

    1996-01-01

    When gasoline that has been oxygenated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) comes in contact with water, large amounts of MTBE can dissolve; at 25 degrees Celsius the water solubility of MTBE is about 5,000 milligrams per liter for a gasoline that is 10 percent MTBE by weight. In contrast, for a nonoxygenated gasoline, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 milligrams per liter. MTBE sorbs only weakly to soil and aquifer materials; therefore, sorption will not significantly retard MTBE's transport by ground water. In addition, MTBE generally resists degradation in ground water. The half-life of MTBE in the atmosphere can be as short as 3 days in a regional airshed. MTBE in the air tends to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. However, washout of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation would not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the air. The partitioning of MTBE to precipitation is nevertheless strong enough to allow for up to 3 micrograms per liter or more inputs of MTBE to surface and ground water.

  12. Concentrations of methyl- tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in inputs and receiving waters of Southern California.

    PubMed

    Brown, J S; Bay, S M; Greenstein, D J; Ray, W R

    2001-10-01

    The occurrence and concentration of the fuel additive methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were measured in dry weather runoff, municipal wastewater and industrial effluents, and coastal receiving waters in southern California. Combined, refineries and sewage treatment plants release approximately 214 kg day(-1) of MTBE into the marine environment, with Santa Monica Bay receiving most (98%) of this discharge. Dry weather urban runoff was analysed for samples collected from 25 streams and rivers, and accounted for less than 0.5% of the mass of MTBE discharged to coastal waters. Receiving water samples were collected from 23 stations in Santa Monica Bay, Los Angeles Harbour and Mission Bay or San Diego Bay. MTBE was detected at low concentrations near effluent discharges, however there was no evidence of baywide MTBE contamination related to these outfalls. Marinas and areas used intensively for recreational boating had the highest average MTBE concentration (8.8 microg l(-1)). Surface water contamination was most widespread in San Diego Bay and Mission Bay, areas with no refinery or sewage treatment plant inputs. PMID:11693651

  13. [Occupational exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at an oil refinery].

    PubMed

    Perbellini, L; Pasini, F; Prigioni, P; Rosina, A

    2003-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as an additive to gasoline, to increase oxygen content and reduce tailpipe emission of carbon monoxide. Our research dealt with 37 refinery workers in order to measure their occupational exposure to MTBE during two different seasonal periods. They provided blood and urine samples before and after a work shift during which they wore an active charcoal sampler for solvents. All samples were analysed by a gas-chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer detector. The concentration in air of MTBE was very low (median: 25 micrograms/m3 in spring and 5 micrograms/m3 in autumn). The blood and urine concentrations of MTBE at the end of the work shift were higher than those found before the shift. The increment in biological samples confirmed a small intake of MTBE by refinery workers: the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to this solvent yielded reliable results. Blood and urinary concentrations of MTBE obtained from workers split in relation to their smoking habit did not give a statistic significance to say that cigarette smoke is not a confusion factor in monitoring exposure to MTBE. PMID:14979074

  14. Enhanced biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl-ether by a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-shan; Zhang, Di; Yan, Wei

    2014-03-01

    The widespread use of Methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as a gasoline additive has resulted in a higher detection rate of MTBE in groundwater systems. Therefore, the researchers show more concern about the bioremediation of MTBE-impacted aquifers. In this paper, a MTBE-direct-degrading bacterial consortium was enriched (named RS1) and further studied. In order to identify the microbial community of the consortium, 17 and 12 different single strains were isolated from nutrient medium and MSM media (with MTBE as the sole carbon source), respectively. 16S rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that these diverse bacteria belonged to 14 genera, in which Pseudomonas was dominant. Several strains which can grow with MTBE as the sole carbon and energy source were also identified, such as M1, related to MTBE-degrading Arthrobacter sp. ATCC27778. Furthermore, the appropriate addition of certain single strain in consortium RS1 (M1:RS1 = 1:2) facilitates MTBE degradation by increasing the quantity of efficient MTBE-degrading bacteria. This work will provide microbial source and theoretical fundament for further bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated aquifers, which has applied potential and environmental importance. PMID:24162446

  15. Sources, distribution and behaviour of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the Tamar Estuary, UK.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Carlos; Bayona, Josep M; Readman, James W

    2004-11-01

    Negligible information is currently available concerning levels of the fuel additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in European estuaries or coastal environments. MTBE was measured at selected potentially contaminated harbours and marinas, and throughout an axial transect of the Tamar Estuary, UK. Headspace solid-phase microextraction was used in combination with GC-MS for its determination. MTBE was detected in water samples from all stations at concentrations ranging from a few ng/l to a maximum of 194 ng/l (in a semi-enclosed harbour). Elevated levels were generally associated with motor vehicle and boating activities. The Tamar road and rail bridges provided a major input to the lower estuary, downstream of which conservative mixing appeared depressed, probably through volatilisation and possibly through salting-out. The selected analytical system (using a Carboxen/PDMS fiber) proved both rapid and highly sensitive (with a detection limit of 6 ng/l). During method development, salinity was shown to have a major influence in controlling the extraction efficiency and it was found necessary to adjust salinity in all samples (to 75% saturation) prior to extraction. From these tests, we (for the first time) estimated the Setschenow ("salting-out") constant of MTBE to be 0.11 l/mol. PMID:15350404

  16. Responses of the steroidogenic pathway from exposure to methyl-tert-butyl ether and tert-butanol.

    PubMed

    de Peyster, Ann; Mihaich, Ellen; Kim, Do Hyung; Elyea, William A; Nemec, Matthew J; Hirakawa, Brad P; Leggieri, Shannon E

    2014-05-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a solvent and fuel additive included in reformulated gasoline to increase combustion efficiency. While widespread use in motor fuels in the U.S. was discontinued after MTBE was detected in surface and ground waters due to concerns about environmental persistence and water quality, it is still manufactured in the U.S. for export. Questions concerning the etiology of rat Leydig cell and mouse liver tumors identified in extremely high dose cancer studies have led to an interest in evaluating potential hormonal imbalances and endocrine system involvement. To address the possibility that MTBE or its metabolite, tert-butanol (TBA), are interacting with components of the endocrine system that are involved in steroidogenesis a number of targeted experiments were performed focusing mostly on the primary gonadal steroids, estradiol and testosterone. The goal of the experiments was to gain a better understanding of potential interactions with the steroidogenic pathway, including effects specifically on aromatase, the P450 enzyme that converts testosterone to estradiol. In three GLP-compliant in vitro guideline studies, MTBE and TBA were classified as non-binders to the androgen receptor, were classified negative for effects on testosterone and estradiol in the steroidogenesis assay, and were classified as non-inhibitors of aromatase activity. In three 14-day in vivo experiments involving gavaging of male Sprague-Dawley rats with doses of MTBE ranging from 400 to 1,500 mg/kg bw/day, the lack of definitive and consistent supporting statistically significant findings in steroid hormone measurements and aromatase activity and mRNA measured in liver and testis microsomes further suggested that it is unlikely that MTBE is interacting with the endocrine system directly. Evidence of other underlying systemic effects were also seen, including reduced body weight gain, increased adrenal weights, and elevated corticosterone suggestive of a more general stress response. Taken together, the results from these studies suggest that MTBE and TBA do not directly impact the steroidogenic pathways involved in estrogen and androgen production. PMID:24560773

  17. Measurement of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in human blood by purge-and-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an isotope-dilution method.

    PubMed

    Bonin, M A; Ashley, D L; Cardinali, F L; McCraw, J M; Wooten, J V

    1995-01-01

    We developed an isotope-dilution method for measuring methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in whole human blood using a purge-and-trap gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method. The labeled analogues for MTBE and TBA were [2H12]methyl tert-butyl ether and [2H9]-tert-butyl alcohol, respectively. Volatiles were removed from the blood by direct helium purging of the liquid; were trapped on a Tenax trap; and were desorbed, cryofocused, and chromatographed on a DB-624 capillary column that was connected directly to the ion source of a mass spectrometer. Detection was by mass analysis using a double-focusing magnetic-sector mass spectrometer operating in the full-scan mode at the medium mass resolution of 3000. For the isotope-dilution method, the minimum detection limits in blood (5-10 mL) are 0.01 microgram/L for MTBE and 0.06 microgram/L for TBA. The isotope-dilution method proved to be a big improvement in recovery, reproducibility, and sensitivity over our previous analytical method, which used the labeled ketone, [4-2H3]-2-butanone, as the internal standard for both MTBE and TBA. The isotope-dilution method has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring blood levels of MTBE and TBA in populations exposed to oxygenated fuels containing MTBE. PMID:7564298

  18. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators.

    PubMed

    Hartle, R

    1993-12-01

    Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of "oxygenates" with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). At the two sampled service stations that use only minimal amounts of MTBE (less than 1%), only 1 of 32 personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples from attendants was above the analytical limit of detection, reported at 0.16 ppm. The geometric mean concentration of benzene among this same population (n = 32) was 0.04 ppm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8020445

  19. Methyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation by indigenous aquifer microorganisms under natural and artificial oxic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Herlong, H.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial communities indigenous to a shallow groundwater system near Beaufort, SC, degraded milligram per liter concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under natural and artificial oxic conditions. Significant MTBE biodegradation was observed where anoxic, MTBE-contaminated groundwater discharged to a concrete-lined ditch. In the anoxic groundwater adjacent to the ditch, concentrations of MTBE were > 1 mg/L. Where groundwater discharge occurs, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations beneath the ditch exceeded 1.0 mg/L to a depth of 1.5 m, and MTBE concentrations decreased to <1 ??g/L prior to discharge. MTBE mass flux calculations indicate that 96% of MTBE mass loss occurs in the relatively small oxic zone prior to discharge. Samples of a natural microbial biofilm present in the oxic zone beneath the ditch completely degraded [U-14C]MTBE to [14C]CO2 in laboratory liquid culture studies, with no accumulation of intermediate compounds. Upgradient of the ditch in the anoxic, MTBE and BTEX-contaminated aquifer, addition of a soluble oxygen release compound resulted in oxic conditions and rapid MTBE biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms. In an observation well located closest to the oxygen addition area, DO concentrations increased from 0.4 to 12 mg/L in <60 days and MTBE concentrations decreased from 20 to 3 mg/L. In the same time period at a downgradient observation well, DO increased from <0.2 to 2 mg/L and MTBE concentrations decreased from 30 to <5 mg/L. These results indicate that microorganisms indigenous to the groundwater system at this site can degrade milligram per liter concentrations of MTBE under natural and artificial oxic conditions.

  20. LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

  1. Laboratory Method for Analysis of Small Concentrations of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Ether Gasoline Oxygenates in Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Donna L.; Connor, Brooke F.; Abney, Sonja R.; Raese, Jon W.

    1998-01-01

    This Fact Sheet presents data for analysis of nanogram-per-liter concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and three other ether gasoline oxygenates, including methyl tert-pentyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), by purge- and-trap capillary-column gas chromatography. Long-term method detection levels (LT-MDLs) for MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE ranged from 15 to 83 nanograms per liter (0.015 to 0.083 microgram per liter). Nanogram-per-liter-concentration detections are reported if all of the identification criteria are met, whereas previous methods censored detections at a pre-determined method reporting level. The reporting level for this method is defined as two times the LT-MDL, does not censor detections at less than this concentration, and is referred to as the nondetection value (NDV). Bias and variability data from multiple analyses, analysts, and instruments over a 60-day period show the oxygenate recoveries ranging from 100 to 109 percent, with 6 to 8 percent relative standard deviation. MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE were not detected in the analysis of 225 laboratory reagent blanks from January to December 1997. A preservation study in ground water and surface water indicates that all the oxygenates are stable at pH 2 for up to 216 days, with recoveries ranging from 94 to 115 percent on day 216, and relative standard deviations ranging from 5 to 9 percent for the duration of the study.

  2. Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Ground Water, Air, and Precipitation at North Windham, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Peckenham, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-one monitoring wells in the Windham aquifer in North Windham, Maine, were sampled for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from July 1998 to May 1999. MTBE was detected in 35 percent of the wells sampled in the Windham aquifer. MTBE was detected in 64 percent of wells in the high-yielding part of the aquifer; these wells account for 82 percent of all wells with detectable MTBE. Land cover also was found to be associated with MTBE in the wells in the study area, with the urban and low-density residential areas having more MTBE than undeveloped areas. The median concentration in wells with detectable MTBE was 1.13 micrograms per liter. Air and precipitation samples were collected in North Windham along with ground-water samples. Air samples were collected every 10 days from December 1998 to July 1999 (20 samples). MTBE was present in all 20 air samples collected, at concentrations ranging from 0.03 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) to 1.0 ppbv. Before Maine opted out of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) program in the spring of 1999, median concentrations in air at the North Windham site were 0.25 ppbv. After Maine stopped using RFG, the median concentration in air dropped to 0.09 ppbv. No MTBE was detected in four samples of precipitation at North Windham. The lack of rainfall during the study period prevented the collection of an adequate number of samples, and technical difficulties negated the results of some of the analyses of the samples that were collected. Based on the equilibrium partitioning of MTBE from the air into rain, the hypothetical average concentration of MTBE in rainfall during months when recharge typically occurs (March-April and October-December) would be approximately 0.3 to 0.4 micrograms per liter during the time that RFG was being used in Maine. After the phaseout of RFG, the maximum average concentration of MTBE in rainfall during these months would be approximately 0.1 micrograms per liter. The distribution and concentrations of MTBE that were detected in ground water indicate that recharge from precipation containing MTBE is not a likely explanation for the occurrence of MTBE in the Windham aquifer.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey laboratory method for methyl tert-Butyl ether and other fuel oxygenates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.; Rose, Donna L.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was found in shallow ground-water samples in a study of 8 urban and 20 agricultural areas throughout the United States in 1993 and 1994 (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 1). The compound is added to gasoline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels in the air. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), near Denver, uses state-of-the-art technology to analyze samples for MTBE as part of the USGS water-quality studies. In addition, the NWQL offers custom analyses to determine two other fuel oxygenates--ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The NWQL was not able to obtain a reference standard for tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), another possible fuel oxygenate (Shelley and Fouhy, 1994, p. 63). The shallow ground-water samples were collected as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These samples were collected from 211 urban wells or springs and 562 agricultural wells sampled by the USGS in 1993 and 1994. The wells were keyed to specific land-use areas to assess the effects of different uses on ground-water quality (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 2). Ground-water samples were preserved on site to pH less than or equal to 2 with a solution of 1:1 hydrochloric acid. All samples were analyzed at the NWQL within 2 weeks after collection. The purpose of this fact sheet is to explain briefly the analytical method implemented by the USGS for determining MTBE and other fuel oxygenates. The scope is necessarily limited to an overview of the analytical method (instrumentation, sample preparation, calibration and quantitation, identification, and preservation of samples) and method performance (reagent blanks, accuracy, and precision).

  4. Metabolism of Diethyl Ether and Cometabolism of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by a Filamentous Fungus, a Graphium sp

    PubMed Central

    Hardison, L. K.; Curry, S. S.; Ciuffetti, L. M.; Hyman, M. R.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, evidence for two novel metabolic processes catalyzed by a filamentous fungus, Graphium sp. strain ATCC 58400, is presented. First, our results indicate that this Graphium sp. can utilize the widely used solvent diethyl ether (DEE) as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. The kinetics of biomass accumulation and DEE consumption closely followed each other, and the molar growth yield on DEE was indistinguishable from that with n-butane. n-Butane-grown mycelia also immediately oxidized DEE without the extracellular accumulation of organic oxidation products. This suggests a common pathway for the oxidation of both compounds. Acetylene, ethylene, and other unsaturated gaseous hydrocarbons completely inhibited the growth of this Graphium sp. on DEE and DEE oxidation by n-butane-grown mycelia. Second, our results indicate that gaseous n-alkane-grown Graphium mycelia can cometabolically degrade the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). The degradation of MTBE was also completely inhibited by acetylene, ethylene, and other unsaturated hydrocarbons and was strongly influenced by n-butane. Two products of MTBE degradation, tert-butyl formate (TBF) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), were detected. The kinetics of product formation suggest that TBF production temporally precedes TBA accumulation and that TBF is hydrolyzed both biotically and abiotically to yield TBA. Extracellular accumulation of TBA accounted for only a maximum of 25% of the total MTBE consumed. Our results suggest that both DEE oxidation and MTBE oxidation are initiated by cytochrome P-450-catalyzed reactions which lead to scission of the ether bonds in these compounds. Our findings also suggest a potential role for gaseous n-alkane-oxidizing fungi in the remediation of MTBE contamination. PMID:16535667

  5. Enhanced bioremediation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by microbial consortia obtained from contaminated aquifer material.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Angela; Del Moro, Guido; Rossetti, Simona; Tandoi, Valter; Lopez, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    A microcosm study was carried out to evaluate the potential for biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) impacting groundwater at a former oil refinery site located in Naples (SW Italy). A screening of aerobic, anaerobic and co-metabolic aerobic conditions was carried out by triplicate batch reactors, using contaminated soil and groundwater from the study site. All microcosms were amended with ammonium and phosphate salts and, if aerobic, they were supplied with excess oxygen throughout the static incubation period of 6 months. Propane, pentane and n-hexane were selected as the primary substrates for co-metabolic treatments. After the initial lag phase (40-60d), quantitative MTBE decay was repeatedly observed in the aerobic set amended only with nitrogen and phosphorus and further fed with MTBE, thus suggesting that the indigenous soil bacteria have the ability to degrade MTBE. All other treatments, i.e., anaerobic and co-metabolic aerobic, resulted unsuccessful after incubation extending up to 190d. Bacterial consortia in the active microcosms were later enriched and further studied through second and third generation batch reactors with no soil, operated under continuous mixing for 5-7 months. MTBE degradation rate progressively increased with reactor operating time, following a zero order kinetics in the concentration range 1-10mgL(-1) and leading to a residual concentration of less than 10microgL(-1). The calculated maximum biodegradation rate was 20mg(MTBE)g(VSS)(-1)h(-1). An accumulation of nitrite ions also occurred after long operating times, thus inhibiting MTBE degradation. This effect was minimized by replacing ammonium with nitrate. Identified degradation intermediates were tert-butyl alcohol and tert-butyl formate. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was applied for a preliminary microbiological screening of the consortia, suggesting that the detected cocci (about 0.5 and 1.5microm diameter, respectively) and long bacilli with a narrow diameter might be as yet undescribed species. PMID:19178929

  6. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by cometabolism with hexane in biofilters inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Margarita; Morales, Marcia; Revah, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) vapors by cometabolism with gaseous hexane (n-hexane > 95%) was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizing short chain aliphatic hydrocarbon (C(5)-C(8)). Kinetic batch experiments showed that MTBE was degraded even when hexane was completely exhausted with a cometabolic coefficient of 1.06 ± 0.16 mg MTBE mg hexane(-1). Intermediate tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) accumulation was observed followed by its gradual consumption. A maximum MTBE elimination capacity (EC(MAX)) of 35 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiency (RE) of 70% were attained in mineral medium amended biofilters having an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 1 min. For these experimental conditions, a maximum hexane EC of approximately 60 g m(-3) h(-1) was obtained at a load of 75 g m(-3) h(-1). Experiments under transient conditions revealed a competitive substrate interaction between MTBE and hexane. Biomass densities between 5.8 and 12.6 g L(biofilter) (-1) were obtained. Nevertheless, production of biopolymers caused non-uniform distribution flow rates that reduced the performance. Residence time distribution profiles showed an intermediate dispersion flow rate with a dispersion coefficient of 0.8 cm(2) s(-1). PMID:22486671

  7. Treatment Of Groundwater Contaminated With PAHs, Gasoline Hydrocarbons, And Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether In A Laboratory Biomass-Retaining Bioreactor

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigated the treatability of co-mingled groundwater contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), gasoline hydrocarbons, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) using an ex-situ aerobic biotreatment system. The PAHs of interest were nap...

  8. A comparative study of biodiesel production using methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) under supercritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodiesel production under supercritical conditions among methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) was compared in order to elucidate the differences in their reaction behavior. A continuous reactor was employed, and experiments were conducted at various reaction temperatures (270-400 °C) and reaction times (3-30 min) and at a fixed pressure of 20 MPa and an oil-to-reactant molar ratio of 1:40. The results showed that under the same reaction conditions, the supercritical methanol method provided the highest yield of biodiesel. At 350 °C and 20 MPa, canola oil was completely converted to biodiesel after 10, 30, and 30 min in the case of - supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE, respectively. The reaction kinetics of biodiesel production was also compared for supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE. PMID:26004381

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a wetland constructed for benzene-, methyl tert-butyl ether- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Fester, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are present in most natural environments, have demonstrated capacity to promote biodegradation of organic pollutants in the greenhouse. However, it is not certain whether AMF can spontaneously establish in phytoremediation systems constructed to decontaminate groundwater, because of the unusual conditions during the construction and operation of such systems. To assess this possibility, root samples from a wetland constructed for the phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with benzene, methyl tert-butyl ether and ammonia were analysed. Substantial AMF colonization was observed in plant roots sampled close to the inlet of a basin filled with fine gravel and planted with Phragmites australis. In addition, analysis of a fragment of the nuclear large ribosomal subunit, amplified by nested PCR, revealed the presence of AMF molecular operational taxonomic units closely related to Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis in the samples. These findings demonstrate the capacity of generalist AMF strains to establish spontaneously, rapidly and extensively in groundwater bioremediation technical installations. PMID:22846140

  10. Local and systemic effects of intraduodenal exposure to topical gallstone solvents ethyl propionate and methyl tert-butyl ether in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Clerici, C; Gentili, G; Zakko, S F; Bal, S; Miglietti, M; Giansanti, M; Modesto, R; Guttermuth, C F; Morelli, A

    1997-03-01

    During topical dissolution of gallstones, solvent can escape to the duodenum causing toxic effects that have not yet been adequately quantified. We compared the local intestinal cytotoxic and systemic hepatotoxic effects of two gallstone solvents, methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl propionate, on the rabbit's duodenum. Methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl propionate, or saline (control) was infused intraduodenally for 3 hr in 32 male New Zealand rabbits. The solvents were infused either at a high infusion rate of 8.5 microl/min or at a low rate of 4.0 microl/min. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis from each animal before and after the 3-hr infusion period. A standardized histologic scoring system was used by a pathologist blinded to the treatments to quantify liver and intestinal tissue injury. None of the animals studied showed any significant changes in serum alkaline phosphatase, amylase, bilirubin, or their hepatic histology or histologic scoring for mucosal necrosis and ulceration. At the higher dose, methyl tert-butyl ether produced significantly more submucosal inflammation (P = 0.0017) and showed a trend of causing more submucosal edema than ethyl propionate, but ethyl propionate led to significantly higher elevations of aminotransferases than methyl tert-butyl ether as compared to saline. There were no detectable blood levels of methanol or ethanol in any of the animals studied. Ethyl propionate may be less damaging to the intestinal mucosa of the rabbit than methyl tert-butyl ether, but at the higher dose (equivalent to 60 ml/3 hr in a 70-kg human) it appears to produce more biochemical liver injury when administered intraduodenally. PMID:9073130

  11. Distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Marie; Guertal, William R.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001, to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site. This report provides a summary assessment of the distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and a preliminary screening of selected constituents that may affect natural attenuation and remediation demonstrations at the Dover National Test Site. The information gathered during this study is designed to assist potential remedial investigators who are considering conducting a methyl tert-butyl ether remedial demonstration at the test site. In addition, the study supported a planned enhanced bioremediation demonstration and assisted the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. A direct-push drill rig was used to collect a total of 147 ground-water samples (115 VOC samples and 32 quality-assurance samples) at varying depths. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloro-ethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloro-ethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloro-ethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether were detected in the surficial aquifer from ?4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level; however, methyl tert-butyl ether was detected as deep as ?9.5 feet mean sea level. Increased methane concentrations and decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations that were found in association with the ground-water samples that contained methyl tert-butyl ether are preliminary indicators that will assist in determining if natural attenuation of methyl tert-butyl ether is occurring in the surficial aquifer. A full assessment of natural attenuation of methyl tert-butyl ether at the site is beyond the scope of this study, but the data collected during the study will be useful in selecting appropriate remedial methyl tert-butyl ether demonstrations.

  12. Mineralization of methyl tert-butyl ether and other gasoline oxygenates by Pseudomonads using short n-alkanes as growth source.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marcia; Nava, Verónica; Velásquez, Elia; Razo-Flores, Elías; Revah, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by cometabolism has shown to produce recalcitrant metabolic intermediates that often accumulate. In this work, a consortium containing Pseudomonads was studied for its ability to fully degrade oxygenates by cometabolism. This consortium mineralized MTBE and TBA with C3-C7 n-alkanes. The highest degradation rates for MTBE (75 +/- 5 mg g(protein) (-1) h(-1)) and TBA (86.9 +/- 7.3 mg g(protein) (-1) h(-1)) were obtained with n-pentane and n-propane, respectively. When incubated with radiolabeled MTBE and n-pentane, it converted more than 96% of the added MTBE to (14)C-CO(2). Furthermore, the consortium degraded tert-amyl methyl ether, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), tert-amyl alcohol, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) when n-pentane was used as growth source. Three Pseudomonads were isolated but only two showed independent MTBE degradation activity. The maximum degradation rates were 101 and 182 mg g(protein) (-1) h(-1) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas citronellolis, respectively. The highest specific affinity (a degrees (MTBE)) value of 4.39 l g(protein) (-1) h(-1) was obtained for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and complete mineralization was attained with a MTBE: n-pentane ratio (w/w) of 0.7. This is the first time that Pseudomonads have been reported to fully mineralize MTBE by cometabolic degradation. PMID:18814038

  13. Effects of co-substrates and inhibitors on the anaerobic O-demethylation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

    PubMed

    Youngster, Laura K G; Somsamak, Piyapawn; Hggblom, Max M

    2008-10-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination is widespread in aquifers near urban areas around the world. Since this synthetic fuel oxygenate is resistant to most physical methods of treating fuel-contaminated water, biodegradation may be a useful means of remediation. Currently, information on anaerobic MTBE degradation is scarce. Depletion has been observed in soil and sediment microcosms from a variety of locations and under several redox conditions, but the responsible organisms are unknown. We are studying anaerobic consortia, enriched from contaminated sediments for MTBE-utilizing microorganisms for over a decade. MTBE degradation occurred in the presence of other fuel components and was not affected by toluene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, or gasoline. Many aryl O-methyl ethers, such as syringic acid, that are O-demethylated by acetogenic bacteria, were also O-demethylated by the MTBE-utilizing enrichment cultures. The addition of these compounds as co-substrates increased the rate of MTBE degradation, offering a potentially useful method of stimulating the MTBE degradation rate in situ. Propyl iodide caused light-reversible inhibition of MTBE degradation, suggesting that the MTBE degradation process is corrinoid dependent. The anaerobic MTBE degradation process was not directly coupled to methanogenesis or sulfidogenesis and was inhibited by the bactericidal antibiotic, rifampicin. These results suggest that MTBE degradation is mediated by acetogenic bacteria. PMID:18797864

  14. Identification of a Ruminococcaceae Species as the Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) Degrading Bacterium in a Methanogenic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Ahn, Hyeri; Sun, Weimin; McGuinness, Lora R; Kerkhof, Lee J; Häggblom, Max M

    2016-02-01

    The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has caused major contamination of groundwater sources and is a concern due to its taste and odor problems, as well as its toxicity. MTBE can be degraded anaerobically which makes bioremediation of contaminated aquifers a potential solution. Nevertheless, the organisms and mechanisms that are responsible for anaerobic MTBE degradation are still unknown. The aim of our research was to identify the organisms actively degrading MTBE. For this purpose we characterized an anaerobic methanogenic culture enriched with MTBE as the sole carbon source from the New Jersey Arthur Kill intertidal strait sediment. The cultures were analyzed using stable isotope probing (SIP) combined with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), high-throughput sequencing and clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The sequence data indicated that phylotypes belonging to the Ruminococcaceae in the Firmicutes were predominant in the methanogenic cultures. SIP experiments also showed sequential incorporation of the (13)C labeled MTBE by the bacterial community with a bacterium most closely related to Saccharofermentans acetigenes identified as the bacterium active in O-demethylation of MTBE. Identification of the microorganisms responsible for the activity will help us better understand anaerobic MTBE degradation processes in the field and determine biomarkers for monitoring natural attenuation. PMID:26727046

  15. Method detection limit determination and application of a convenient headspace analysis method for methyl tert-butyl ether in water.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Dennis T; Rochette, Elizabeth A; Ramsey, Philip J

    2002-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common groundwater contaminant, introduced to the environment by leaking petroleum storage tanks, urban runoff, and motorized watercraft. In this study. a simplified (static) headspace analysis method was adapted for determination of MTBE in water samples and soil water extracts. The MDL of the headspace method was calculated to be 2.0 microg L(-1) by the EPA single-concentration design method(1) and 1.2 microg L(-1) by a calibration method developed by Hubaux and Vos (Hubaux, A.; Vos, G. Anal. Chem. 1970,42, 849-855). The MDL calculated with the Hubaux and Vos method was favored because it considers both a true positive and a false positive. The static headspace method was applied to analysis of a tap water sample and a monitoring well sample from a gasoline service station, a river sample, and aqueous extracts from soil excavated during removal of a leaking underground storage tank (LUST). The water samples examined in this study had MTTBE concentrations ranging from 6 to 19 microg L(-1). Aqueous extracts of a soil sample taken from the LUST site had 8 microg L(-1) MTBE. PMID:12463380

  16. Methyl tert-butyl ether occurrence and related factors in public and private wells in Southeast New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, J.D.; Argue, D.M.; McGarry, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water from public wells in New Hampshire has increased steadily over the past several years. Using a laboratory reporting level of 0.2 ??g/L, 40% of samples from public wells and 21% from private wells in southeast New Hampshire have measurable concentrations of MTBE. The rate of occurrence of MTBE varied significantly for public wells by establishment type; for example, 63% of public wells serving residential properties have MTBE concentrations above 0.2 ??g/L, whereas lower rates were found for schools (21%). MTBE concentrations correlate strongly with urban factors, such as population density. Surprisingly, MTBE was correlated positively with well depth for public supply wells. Well depth is inversely related to yield in New Hampshire bedrock wells, which may mean that there is less opportunity for dilution of MTBE captured by deep wells. Another possibility is that the source(s) of water to low-yield wells may be dominated by leakage from potentially contaminated shallow groundwater through near-surface fractures or along the well casing. These wells may also have relatively large contributing areas (due to low recharge at the bedrock surface) and therefore have a greater chance of intersecting MTBE sources. This finding is significant because deep bedrock wells are often considered to be less vulnerable to contamination than shallow wells, and in southeast New Hampshire, wells are being drilled deeper in search of increased supply.

  17. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in public and private wells in New Hampshire: Occurrence, factors, and possible implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, J.D.; Argue, D.M.; McGarry, F.J.; Degnan, J.R.; Hayes, L.; Flanagan, S.M.; Helsel, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations ???0.2 ??g/L were found in samples of untreated water in 18% of public-supply wells (n = 284) and 9.1% of private domestic wells (n = 264) sampled in 2005 and 2006 in New Hampshire. In counties that used reformulated gasoline (RFG), MTBE occurred at or above 0.2 ??g/L in 30% of public- and 17% of private-supply wells. Additionally, 52% of public-supply wells collocated with fuel storage and 71% of mobile home park wells had MTBE. MTBE occurrence in public-supply wells was predicted by factors such as proximity to sources of fuel, land use, and population density, as well as low pH and distance from mapped lineaments. RFG use, land-use variables, and pH were important predictors of private-well MTBE occurrence. Variables representing sources of MTBE, such as the distance to known fuel sources, were not significant predictors of MTBE occurrence in private-supply wells. It is hypothesized that private wells may become contaminated from the collective effects of sources in high population areas and from undocumented incidental releases from onsite or proximal gasoline use. From 2003 to 2005, MTBE occurrence decreased in 63 public-supply wells and increased in 60 private-supply wells, but neither trend was statistically significant. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  18. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-06-24

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

  19. O3/H2O2 treatment of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Safarzadeh-Amiri, A

    2001-10-01

    The kinetics and efficiency of oxidation of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in contaminated water employing O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation process is presented in this paper. Kinetic simulation is based on the model mechanism published in literature (Staehelin and Hoigne, Environ. Sci. Technol. 16 (1982) 676; Glaze and Kang, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 26 (1989) 1573) indicates that the oxidation of MTBE is primarily induced by the hydroxyl radical. The degradation of MTBE can be described by a pseudo-first-order kinetics in two phases. The first-phase covers MTBE concentrations greater than 10 mg L(-1) and the second-phase covers MTBE concentrations below 10 mg L(-1). The rate of oxidation of MTBE (at least in the first-phase) is limited by ozone mass transfer and increases with increasing ozone gas flow rate. The pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant varies from 2.0 x 10(-3) to 5.4 x 10(-3) s(-1) over the range of ozone gas flow rate employed in this investigation. An efficiency index is defined and its value for the oxidation of MTBE in different water is provided. The data provided show that remediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater by O3/H2O2 process is more efficient and less costly than by the UV/H2O2 process. PMID:11561633

  20. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Enhancing Transport of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 for Bioaugmentation of Aquifers Contaminated with Methyl tert-Butyl Ether

    PubMed Central

    Streger, Sheryl H.; Vainberg, Simon; Dong, Hailiang; Hatzinger, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    The gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has become a widespread contaminant in groundwater throughout the United States. Bioaugmentation of aquifers with MTBE-degrading cultures may be necessary to enhance degradation of the oxygenate in some locations. However, poor cell transport has sometimes limited bioaugmentation efforts in the past. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transport characteristics of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735, a pure culture capable of growth on MTBE, and to improve movement of the strain through aquifer solids. The wild-type culture moved only a few centimeters in columns of aquifer sediment. An adhesion-deficient variant (H. flava ENV735:24) of the wild-type strain that moved more readily through sediments was obtained by sequential passage of cells through columns of sterile sediment. Hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction chromatography revealed that the wild-type strain is much more hydrophobic than the adhesion-deficient variant. Electrophoretic mobility assays and transmission electron microscopy showed that the wild-type bacterium contains two distinct subpopulations, whereas the adhesion-deficient strain has only a single, homogeneous population. Both the wild-type strain and adhesion-deficient variant degraded MTBE, and both were identified by 16S rRNA analysis as pure cultures of H. flava. The effectiveness of surfactants for enhancing transport of the wild-type strain was also evaluated. Many of the surfactants tested were toxic to ENV735; however, one nonionic surfactant, Tween 20, enhanced cell transport in sand columns. Improving microbial transport may lead to a more effective bioaugmentation strategy for MTBE-contaminated sites where indigenous oxygenate degraders are absent. PMID:12406751

  2. Whole-genorne analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Staci R.; Chakicherla, Anu Y.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Schmidt, Radomir; Shin, M; Legler, Tina C.; Scow, Kate M.; Larimer, Frank W; Lucas, Susan; Richardson, P M; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2007-03-01

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C, to C,,) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an similar to 4-Mb circular chromosome and an similar to 600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (similar to 99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria.

  3. Carbon Isotope Fractionation during Anaerobic Degradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether under Sulfate-Reducing and Methanogenic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Somsamak, Piyapawn; Richnow, Hans H.; Hggblom, Max M.

    2006-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), an octane enhancer and a fuel oxygenate in reformulated gasoline, has received increasing public attention after it was detected as a major contaminant of water resources. Although several techniques have been developed to remediate MTBE-contaminated sites, the fate of MTBE is mainly dependent upon natural degradation processes. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis has been proposed as a tool to distinguish the loss of MTBE due to biodegradation from other physical processes. Although MTBE is highly recalcitrant, anaerobic degradation has been demonstrated under different anoxic conditions and may be an important process. To accurately assess in situ MTBE degradation through carbon isotope analysis, carbon isotope fractionation during MTBE degradation by different cultures under different electron-accepting conditions needs to be investigated. In this study, carbon isotope fractionation during MTBE degradation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions was studied in anaerobic cultures enriched from two different sediments. Significant enrichment of 13C in residual MTBE during anaerobic biotransformation was observed under both sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. The isotopic enrichment factors (?) estimated for each enrichment were almost identical (?13.4 to ?14.6; r2 = 0.89 to 0.99). A ? value of ?14.4 0.7 was obtained from regression analysis (r2 = 0.97, n = 55, 95% confidence interval), when all data from our MTBE-transforming anaerobic cultures were combined. The similar magnitude of carbon isotope fractionation in all enrichments regardless of culture or electron-accepting condition suggests that the terminal electron-accepting process may not significantly affect carbon isotope fractionation during anaerobic MTBE degradation. PMID:16461662

  4. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonventre, Josephine A.; Kung, Tiffany S.; White, Lori A.; Cooper, Keith R.

    2013-12-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  5. Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

    2003-10-02

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 Exposed to the Fuel Oxygenates Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Ethanol▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hristova, Krassimira R.; Schmidt, Radomir; Chakicherla, Anu Y.; Legler, Tina C.; Wu, Janice; Chain, Patrick S.; Scow, Kate M.; Kane, Staci R.

    2007-01-01

    High-density whole-genome cDNA microarrays were used to investigate substrate-dependent gene expression of Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, one of the best-characterized aerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading bacteria. Differential gene expression profiling was conducted with PM1 grown on MTBE and ethanol as sole carbon sources. Based on microarray high scores and protein similarity analysis, an MTBE regulon located on the megaplasmid was identified for further investigation. Putative functions for enzymes encoded in this regulon are described with relevance to the predicted MTBE degradation pathway. A new unique dioxygenase enzyme system that carries out the hydroxylation of tert-butyl alcohol to 2-methyl-2-hydroxy-1-propanol in M. petroleiphilum PM1 was discovered. Hypotheses regarding the acquisition and evolution of MTBE genes as well as the involvement of IS elements in these complex processes were formulated. The pathways for toluene, phenol, and alkane oxidation via toluene monooxygenase, phenol hydroxylase, and propane monooxygenase, respectively, were upregulated in MTBE-grown cells compared to ethanol-grown cells. Four out of nine putative cyclohexanone monooxygenases were also upregulated in MTBE-grown cells. The expression data allowed prediction of several hitherto-unknown enzymes of the upper MTBE degradation pathway in M. petroleiphilum PM1 and aided our understanding of the regulation of metabolic processes that may occur in response to pollutant mixtures and perturbations in the environment. PMID:17890343

  7. Expression of an alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene and methyl tert-butyl ether co-metabolic oxidation in Pseudomonas citronellolis.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Ana Luisa; Sigala, Juan Carlos; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Morales, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas citronellolis UAM-Ps1 co-metabolically transforms methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to tert-butyl alcohol with n-pentane (2.6 mM), n-octane (1.5 mM) or dicyclopropylketone (DCPK) (4.4 mM), a gratuitous inducer of alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) activity. The reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify the alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene expression. The alkB gene was expressed in the presence of n-alkanes and DCPK and MTBE oxidation occurred only in cultures when alkB was transcribed. A correlation between the number of alkB transcripts and MTBE consumption was found (ΜΤΒΕ consumption in μmol = 1.44e(-13) x DNA copies, R(2) = 0.99) when MTBE (0.84 mM) was added. Furthermore, alkB was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli and the recombinant AlkB had a molecular weight of 42 kDa. This is the first report where the expression of alkB is related to the co-metabolic oxidation of MTBE. PMID:25432418

  8. Methyl tert-butyl ether degradation in the unsaturated zone and the relation between MTBE in the atmosphere and shallow groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, A.L.; Charles, E.G.; Baker, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations in southern New Jersey generally exceeded concentrations in samples taken from the unsaturated zone. A simple unsaturated zone transport model indicates that MTBE degradation can explain the attenuation with half-lives from a few months to a couple of years. Tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a possible degradation product of MTBE, was detected in unsaturated-zone samples at concentrations exceeding atmospheric levels at some sites, suggesting the possible conversion of MTBE to TBA. At sites where MTBE was detected in shallow groundwater, the concentration was typically higher than the overlying unsaturated-zone concentration. This observation is consistent with outgassing from the aquifer and combined with the unsaturated-zone attenuation suggests some of the MTBE detections in shallow groundwater are nonatmospheric in origin, coming from leaking tanks, road runoff, or other sources. The identification of sources of MTBE in groundwater and attenuation mechanisms through the hydrologic cycle is critical in developing an understanding of the long-term effect of MTBE releases.

  9. METHYL TERT-BUTYLETHER-WATER INTERACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a well-known environmental contaminant owing to its high solubility in water. Since the early 1990s, MTBE has been added to gasoline to improve air quality in some metropolitan areas of the United States. Improved air quality was, however, achiev...

  10. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tri­methyl­hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Varela-Izquierdo, Víctor; Yélamos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV) com­pound, [Hf(CH3)3(C13H21)] or [HfMe3(η5-C5H3-1,3-tBu2)], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for mono­cyclo­penta­dienylhafnium(IV) derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV) atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) ring are 0.132 (5) and 0.154 (6) Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions present between the mol­ecules in the crystal structure. PMID:25995884

  11. Pyrolysis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). 1. Experimental study with molecular-beam mass spectrometry and tunable synchrotron VUV photoionization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Taichang; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Tao; Hong, Xin; Zhang, Lidong; Qi, Fei

    2008-10-23

    An experimental study of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) pyrolysis (3.72% MTBE in argon) has been performed at low pressure (267 Pa) within the temperature range from 700 to 1420 K. The pyrolysis process was detected with the tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). About thirty intermediates are identified from near-threshold measurements of photoionization mass spectrum and photoionization efficiency spectrum. Among them, H2, CO, CH4, CH3OH and C4H8 are the major pyrolysis products. The radicals such as methyl, methoxy, propargyl, allyl, C4H5 and C4H7 are detected. The isomers of pyrolysis products are identified as well, i.e., propyne and allene, 1,2,3-butatriene and vinylacetylene, isobutene and 1-butene, propanal and acetone. Furthermore, the mole fractions of the pyrolysis products have been evaluated under various temperatures. Meanwhile, the initial formation temperatures of different pyrolysis products can be obtained. This work is anticipated to present a new experimental method for pyrolysis study and help understand the pyrolysis and combustion chemistry of MTBE and other oxygenated fuels. PMID:18823099

  12. Separation and determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products by a laboratory-constructed micro-cryogenic chromatographic oven.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiemin; Jiang, Guibin; Zhou, Qunfang; Liu, Jingfu; Wen, Meijuan

    2003-10-01

    A laboratory-made micro-cryogenic chromatographic oven was mainly improved in size, which was controlled at 6 x 6 x 2.5 cm. A thermoelectric system was used to cool the capillary column instead of the traditional liquid cryogen. A cold block connected to the cryogenic module was directly solidified at room temperature with thermally conductive adhesive so that the uniformity of transferring heat was greatly improved, and the size of the system was reduced. Moreover, this system was inexpensive and convenient for both operation and control. The newly developed device coupled with headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was successfully applied to the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its degradation products. During the analysis procedure, a 65 microm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used to extract MTBE and its degradation products. The extraction was controlled at 50 degrees C for 30 min and the NaCl content in the sample was maintained at 35%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.006 microg mL(-1) (for MTBE) to 0.206 microg mL(-1) (for methyl acetate) and the relative standard deviations (RSD%) were below 4%. The spiked recoveries for the developed method were evaluated using various water samples as a matrix. PMID:14596407

  13. Di-tert-butyl 1-[2-hy­droxy-3-(methyl­sulfan­yl)prop­yl]hydrazine-1,2-di­carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Ju-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C14H28N2O5S, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-[(methyl­sulfan­yl)meth­yl]oxirane with di-tert-butyl oxalate in hydrazine hydrate. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into supra­molecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. PMID:25249896

  14. The study of binding of methyl tert-butyl ether to human telomeric G-quadruplex and calf thymus DNA by gas chromatography, a thermodynamic discussion.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Sahar; Ahmadi, Farhad

    2014-11-15

    Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as an antiknock additive for increasing octane number of gasoline. Recently, the in vivo studies demonstrated that MTBE has genotoxic potential and able to form adducts with DNA. In the work, the interactions of MTBE with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and the Na(+) form of G-quadruplex DNA (wtTel22) were studied by using of head space-solid phase microextraction technique coupled to gas chromatography. The binding equilibrium constants were measured through the equilibriums of a four phase system. In addition, the MTBE Henry's law constants for two different buffers in the temperature range of 283-303K were measured. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the complexation of MTBE to both DNAs is enthalpy favored and entropy disfavored. The thermodynamic results revealed that MTBE may have interaction with ct-DNA via the minor groove of DNA. Also, MTBE may be complexed into the basket of G-quadruplex structure. In addition, the low difference in the binding constants of MTBE for both different DNA targets may confirm that MTBE is poorly selective for different conformations of DNA. PMID:25280162

  15. Interaction of insulin with methyl tert-butyl ether promotes molten globule-like state and production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Valipour, Masoumeh; Maghami, Parvaneh; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Sadeghpour, Mostafa; Khademian, Mohamad Ali; Mosavi, Khadijeh; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-09-01

    Interaction of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) with proteins is a new look at its potential adverse biological effects. When MTBE is released to the environment it enters the blood stream through inhalation, and could affect the properties of various proteins. Here we investigated the interaction of MTBE with insulin and its effect on insulin structural changes. Our results showed that insulin formed a molten globule (MG)-like structure in the presence of 8 μM MTBE under physiological pH. The insulin structural changes were studied using spectroscopy methods, viscosity calculation, dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. To delineate the mechanisms involved in MTBE-protein interactions, the formation of reactive oxygen specious (ROS) and formation of protein aggregates were measured. The chemiluminscence experiments revealed an increase in ROS production in the presence of MTBE especially in the MG-like state. These results were further confirmed by the aggregation tests, which indicated more aggregation of insulin at 40 μM MTBE compared with 8 μM. Thus, the formation of initial aggregates and exposure of the hydrophobic patches upon formation of the MG-like state in the presence of MTBE drives protein oxidation and ROS generation. PMID:26193678

  16. Use of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether for the Treatment of Refractory Intrahepatic Biliary Strictures and Bile Casts: A Modern Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gregory; Malayaman, Saninuj N.; Green, Michael Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is a prevalent problem in the United States with 14% or more adults affected. Definitive treatment of cholelithiasis is cholecystectomy. When cholecystectomy yields minimal resolution treatment options include expectant management of asymptomatic gallstones or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram. We present a case of intrahepatic biliary casts where surgical option was not possible, interventional radiology was unsuccessful, and methyl tert-butyl ether was used to dissolve the biliary obstruction. Dissolution therapy of gallstones was first reported in 1722 when Vollisnieri used turpentine in vitro. While diethyl ether has excellent solubilizing capacity, its low boiling point limited its use surgically as it vaporizes immediately. Diethyl ether can expand 120-fold during warming to body temperature after injection into the biliary system making it impractical for routine use. The use of dissolution is out of favor due to the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Epidemiological studies have shown the general population should have minimal concerns from passive exposure. Dissolution using MTBE remains a viable option if surgical or endoscopic options are not available. However, because of risks involved to both the patient and the staff, careful multidisciplinary team approach must be undertaken to minimize the risks and provide the best possible care to the patient. PMID:26236535

  17. Response surface analysis of photocatalytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by core/shell Fe3O4/ZnO nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was investigated in the aqueous solution of coated ZnO onto magnetite nanoparticale based on an advanced photocatalytic oxidation process. The photocatalysts were synthesized by coating of ZnO onto magnetite using precipitation method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). Besides, specific surface area was also determined by BET method. The four effective factors including pH of the reaction mixture, Fe3O4/ZnO magnetic nanoparticles concentration, initial MTBE concentration and molar ratio of [H2O2]/ [MTBE] were optimized using response surface modeling (RSM). Using the four-factor-three-level Box–Behnken design, 29 runs were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential factors. The optimized values for the operational parameters under the respective constraints were obtained at PH of 7.2, Fe3O4/ZnO concentration of 1.78 g/L, initial MTBE concentration of 89.14 mg/L and [H2O2]/ [MTBE] molar ratio of 2.33. Moreover, kinetics of MTBE degradation was determined under optimum condition. The study about core/shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) recycling were also carried out and after about four times, the percentage of the photocatalytic degradation was about 70%. PMID:24393372

  18. Use of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether for the Treatment of Refractory Intrahepatic Biliary Strictures and Bile Casts: A Modern Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gregory; Malayaman, Saninuj N; Green, Michael Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is a prevalent problem in the United States with 14% or more adults affected. Definitive treatment of cholelithiasis is cholecystectomy. When cholecystectomy yields minimal resolution treatment options include expectant management of asymptomatic gallstones or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram. We present a case of intrahepatic biliary casts where surgical option was not possible, interventional radiology was unsuccessful, and methyl tert-butyl ether was used to dissolve the biliary obstruction. Dissolution therapy of gallstones was first reported in 1722 when Vollisnieri used turpentine in vitro. While diethyl ether has excellent solubilizing capacity, its low boiling point limited its use surgically as it vaporizes immediately. Diethyl ether can expand 120-fold during warming to body temperature after injection into the biliary system making it impractical for routine use. The use of dissolution is out of favor due to the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Epidemiological studies have shown the general population should have minimal concerns from passive exposure. Dissolution using MTBE remains a viable option if surgical or endoscopic options are not available. However, because of risks involved to both the patient and the staff, careful multidisciplinary team approach must be undertaken to minimize the risks and provide the best possible care to the patient. PMID:26236535

  19. Spectroscopic investigation, natural bond orbital analysis, HOMO-LUMO and thermodynamic functions of 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl anisole using DFT (B3LYP) calculations.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Santhi, G; Karpagam, V; Revathi, B; Karabacak, M

    2015-02-01

    The optimized molecular structure and corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl anisole (TBMA) have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets investigation of the relative orientation of the methoxy group has shown two conformers (O-cis) and (O-trans) exist. The vibrational analysis of the stable conformer of the title compound is performed by means of infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy in combination with theoretical simultaneously. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis is useful to understand the intra-molecular hyper conjugative interaction lone pair and π(∗)(C-C), σ(∗)(C-H) bond orbital. HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecule, therefore; HOMO, LUMO and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and analyzed. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra by using gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) method of studied compound were compared with experimental data. The thermodynamic functions of TBMA were calculated by B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) basis set. PMID:25448946

  20. Spectroscopic investigation, natural bond orbital analysis, HOMO-LUMO and thermodynamic functions of 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl anisole using DFT (B3LYP) calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, V.; Santhi, G.; Karpagam, V.; Revathi, B.; Karabacak, M.

    2015-02-01

    The optimized molecular structure and corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl anisole (TBMA) have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets investigation of the relative orientation of the methoxy group has shown two conformers (O-cis) and (O-trans) exist. The vibrational analysis of the stable conformer of the title compound is performed by means of infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy in combination with theoretical simultaneously. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis is useful to understand the intra-molecular hyper conjugative interaction lone pair and π∗(Csbnd C), σ∗(Csbnd H) bond orbital. HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecule, therefore; HOMO, LUMO and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and analyzed. 1H and 13C NMR spectra by using gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) method of studied compound were compared with experimental data. The thermodynamic functions of TBMA were calculated by B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) basis set.

  1. Occurrence and temporal variability of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in select sources of drinking water : results of the focused survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delzer, Gregory C.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale use of the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and its high solubility, low soil adsorption, and low biodegradability, has resulted in its detection in ground water and surface water in many places throughout the United States. Studies by numerous researchers, as well as many State and local environmental agencies, have discovered high levels of MTBE in soils and ground water at leaking underground gasoline-storage-tank sites and frequent occurrence of low to intermediate levels of MTBE in reservoirs used for both public water supply and recreational boating.In response to these findings, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation sponsored an investigation of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Nation?s sources of drinking water. The goal of the investigation was to provide additional information on the frequency of occurrence, concentration, and temporal variability of MTBE and other VOCs in source water used by community water systems (CWSs). The investigation was completed in two stages: (1) reviews of available literature and (2) the collection of new data. Two surveys were associated with the collection of new data. The first, termed the Random Survey, employed a statistically stratified design for sampling source water from 954 randomly selected CWSs. The second, which is the focus of this report, is termed the Focused Survey, which included samples collected from 134 CWS source waters, including ground water, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, and streams, that were suspected or known to contain MTBE. The general intent of the Focused Survey was to compare results with the Random Survey and provide an improved understanding of the occurrence, concentration, temporal variability, and anthropogenic factors associated with frequently detected VOCs. Each sample collected was analyzed for 66 VOCs, including MTBE and three other ether gasoline oxygenates (hereafter termed gasoline oxygenates). As part of the Focused Survey, 451 source-water samples and 744 field quality-control (QC) samples were collected from 78 ground-water, 39 reservoir and (or) lake, and 17 river and (or) stream source waters at fixed intervals for a period of 1 year.Using a common assessment level of 0.2 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) (2.0 ?g/L for methyl ethyl ketone), 37 of the 66 VOCs analyzed were detected in both surveys. However, VOCs, especially MTBE and other gasoline oxygenates, were detected more frequently in the Focused Survey than in the Random Survey. MTBE was detected in 55.5 percent of the CWSs sampled in the Focused Survey and in 8.7 percent of those sampled in the Random Survey. Little difference in occurrence, however, was observed for trihalomethanes (THMs), which were detected in 16.4 and 14.8 percent of Focused Survey and The large-scale use of the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and its high solubility, low soil adsorption, and low biodegradability, has resulted in its detection in ground water and surface water in many places throughout the United States. Studies by numerous researchers, as well as many State and local environmental agencies, have discovered high levels of MTBE in soils and ground water at leaking underground gasoline-storage-tank sites and frequent occurrence of low to intermediate levels of MTBE in reservoirs used for both public water supply and recreational boating.In response to these findings, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation sponsored an investigation of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Nation?s sources of drinking water. The goal of the investigation was to provide additional information on the frequency of occurrence, concentration, and temporal variability of MTBE and other VOCs in source water used by community water systems (CWSs). The investigation was completed in two stages: (1) reviews of available literature and (2) the collection of new data. Two surveys wer

  2. Effect of Ethanol and Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether on Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation: Response Variability for Different Aquifer Materials Under Various Electron-Accepting Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Aguilar, G L; Fernandez-Sanchez, J M; Kane, S R; Kim, D; Alvarez, P J

    2003-10-06

    Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under different electron-accepting conditions commonly found in contaminated sites experiencing natural attenuation. Response variability was investigated by using aquifer material from four sites with different exposure history. The lag phase prior to BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and ethanol degradation was typically shorter in microcosms with previously contaminated aquifer material, although previous exposure did not always result in high degradation activity. Toluene was degraded in all aquifer materials and generally under a broader range of electron-accepting conditions compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. MtBE was not degraded within 100 days under any condition, and it did not affect BTEX or ethanol degradation patterns. Ethanol was often degraded before BTEX compounds, and had a variable effect on BTEX degradation as a function of electron-accepting conditions and aquifer material source. An occasional enhancement of toluene degradation by ethanol occurred in denitrifying microcosms with unlimited nitrate; this may be attributable to the fortuitous growth of toluene-degrading bacteria during ethanol degradation. Nevertheless, experiments with flow-through aquifer columns showed that this beneficial effect could be eclipsed by an ethanol-driven depletion of electron acceptors, which significantly inhibited BTEX degradation and is probably the most important mechanism by which ethanol could hinder BTEX natural attenuation. A decrease in natural attenuation could increase the likelihood that BTEX compounds reach a receptor as well as the potential duration of exposure.

  3. Ionic-liquid-mediated poly(dimethylsiloxane)- grafted carbon nanotube fiber prepared by the sol-gel technique for the head space solid-phase microextraction of methyl tert-butyl ether using GC.

    PubMed

    Vatani, Hossein; Yazdi, Ali Sarafraz

    2014-01-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction method was developed for the preconcentration and extraction of methyl tert-butyl ether. An ionic-liquid-mediated multiwalled carbon nanotube-poly(dimethylsiloxane) hybrid coating, which was prepared by covalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with hydroxyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) using the sol-gel technique, was used as solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. This innovative fiber exhibited a highly porous surface structure, high thermal stability (at least 320°C) and long lifespan (over 210 uses). Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method LOD (S/N = 3) was 0.007 ng/mL and the LOQ (S/N = 10) was 0.03 ng/mL. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.03-200 ng/mL. The RSDs for one fiber (repeatability, n = 5) at three different concentrations (0.05, 1, and 150 ng/mL) were 5.1, 4.2, and 4.6% and for the fibers obtained from different batches (reproducibility, n = 3) were 6.5, 5.9, and 6.3%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether in different real water samples on three consecutive days. The relative recoveries for the spiked samples with 0.05, 1, and 150 ng/mL were between 94-104%. PMID:24285506

  4. OCCURRENCE OF METYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AT FIVE MARINAS IN LAKE TEXOMA

    EPA Science Inventory



    Occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in five marinas was monitored between June 1999 and November 2000 in Lake Texoma located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas. MTBE is a commonly used gasoline additive and a suspected carcinogen. Lake water was collected at loc...

  5. Crystal structure of (tert-butyl­carbamo­yl)(4-chloro-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)methyl acetate

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Tetsuji; Jalli, Venkataprasad; Krishnamurthy, Suvratha; Tsuge, Akihiko; Yoja, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C17H18ClNO5, which was synthesized by reacting 4-chloro-3-formyl­coumarin, acetic acid and tert-butyl isocyanide, the acetamido side chain is convoluted with ring-to-side chain C—C—C—C, C—C—C—N and C—C—N—C torsion angles of −123.30 (14), −135.73 (12) and 176.10 (12)°, respectively. In the crystal, N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present, which together with π–π coumarin-ring inter­actions [ring centroid separations = 3.4582 (8) and 3.6421 (9) Å], give rise to a layered structure lying parallel to (001). PMID:26870464

  6. 1,3-Alternate conformer 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetra-kis-(4-methyl-sulfanylbenz-yloxy)-2,8,14,20-tetra-thia-calix[4]arene.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingsong; Xie, Dexun; An, Delie

    2013-01-01

    The title thia-calix[4]arene derivative, C72H80O4S8, adopts a 1,3-alternate conformation, where the four 4-methyl-sul-fan-yl-benzyl groups are located alternately at the two sides of a virtual plane defined by the four bridging S atoms. In the crystal, there are no significant inter-molecular inter-actions present. Some of the peripheral tert-butyl and methyl-sulfanyl groups are disordered over two positions. A region of disordered electron density, occupying voids of ca 700 Å(3) for an electron count of 124, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. PMID:24046595

  7. (2R,6S)-tert-Butyl 2-(benzhydryl­carbamo­yl)-6-methyl­morpholine-4-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyang; Xia, Guangxin; Liu, Xuejun; Shen, Jingkang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C24H30N2O4, was obtained by the reaction of (2R,6S)-4-(tert-but­oxy­carbon­yl)-6-methyl­morpho­line-2-carb­oxy­lic acid with diphenyl­methanamine in dimethyl­formamide solution. The morpholine ring is in a chair conformation. In the crystal, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link mol­ecules into chains along the b axis. PMID:21754815

  8. National survey of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and other Volatile Organic Compounds in drinking-water sources: Results of the random source-water survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected in source water used by 8.7 percent of randomly selected community water systems (CWSs) in the United States at concentrations that ranged from 0.2 to 20 micrograms per liter (?g/L). The Random Survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and the Oregon Health & Science University, was designed to provide an assessment of the frequency of detection, concentration, and distribution of MTBE, three other ether gasoline oxygenates, and 62 other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground- and surface-water sources used for drinking-water supplies. The Random Survey was the first of two components of a national assessment of the quality of source water supplying CWSs sponsored by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. A total of 954 CWSs were selected for VOC sampling from the population of nearly 47,000 active, self-supplied CWSs in all 50 States, Native American Lands, and Puerto Rico based on a statistical design that stratified on CWS size (population served), type of source water (ground and surface water), and geographic distribution (State).At a reporting level of 0.2 ?g/L, VOCs were detected in 27 percent of source-water samples collected from May 3, 1999 through October 23, 2000. Chloroform (in 13 percent of samples) was the most frequently detected of 42 VOCs present in the source-water samples, followed by MTBE. VOC concentrations were generally less than 10 ?g/L?95 percent of the 530 detections?and 63 percent were less than 1.0 ?g/L. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, vinyl chloride, and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), however, exceeded drinking-water regulations in eight samples.Detections of most VOCs were more frequent in surface-water sources than in ground-water sources, with gasoline compounds collectively and MTBE individually detected significantly more often in surface water. Use of personal and commercial motorized watercraft on surface-water bodies that are drinking-water sources is probably the reason for the elevated detections of gasoline contaminants relative to ground water. MTBE detections demonstrated a seasonal pattern with more frequent detections in surface water in summer months, which is consistent with seasonal watercraft use.The detection frequency of most VOCs was significantly related to urban land use and population density. Detections of any VOC, non-trihalo-methane compounds, gasoline compounds collectively, the specific gasoline compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), MTBE, solvents, and refrigerants were significantly greater in areas with more than 60 percent urban land use and (or) population density greater than 1,000 people per square mile than in source waters from less urbanized or lower population-density areas. MTBE detections were five times more frequent in source waters from areas with high MTBE use than in source waters from low or no MTBE use, but, unlike other gasoline compounds, MTBE detections were not significantly related to the density of gasoline storage tanks near drinking-water sources.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (Tert-Butanol) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On April 29, 2016, the Toxicological Review of tert-Butyl Alcohol (tert-Butanol) (Public Comment Draft) was released for public comment. The draft Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and the Executive Office ...

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (Tert-Butanol) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of tert-butyl Alcohol (tert-butanol) and has released the public comment draft assessment for public comment and external peer review. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS databa...

  11. Alkylation of anthracene by tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdnyakovich Y.V.

    1986-08-01

    The alkylation of anthracene by tert-butyl alcohol in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid or Lewis acids leads to the formation of 2-tert-butylanthracene and 2,6-and 2,7-di-tert-butylanthracenes. The ratio of 2,6- and 2,7-di-tert-butylanthracenes formed in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid and titanium tetrachloride is close to 75:25 and is determined by the relative alkylation rates of 2-tert-butylanthracene at positions 6 and 7. In the presence of aluminum chloride the ratio of the isomeric di-tert-butylanthracenes is 50:50 and is established as a result of the disproportionation and isomerization of the alkylation products.

  12. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline- contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

  13. Synthesis, molecular structure, spectral analysis and nonlinear optical studies on 4-(4-bromophenyl)-1-tert-butyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine: A combined experimental and DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamer, Ömer; Arslan, Barış Seçkin; Avcı, Davut; Nebioğlu, Mehmet; Atalay, Yusuf; Çoşut, Bünyemin

    2016-02-01

    4-(4-bromophenyl)-1-tert-butyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine (BPTBMPA) crystal was synthesized for the first time and its structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction method. The spectroscopic characterization was also performed by the applying of FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. In order to support experimental results, density functional theory calculations have been performed. All of the obtained theoretical results are in a perfect agreement with the experimental ones. The negative HOMO and LUMO energies demonstrated that the molecular structure of BPTBMPA is stable. The small energy gap between the HOMO and LUMO is an indicator of intramolecular charge transfer which is responsible for nonlinear optical properties. Natural bond orbital analysis also indicates the presence of molecular charge transfer within BPTBMPA. Obtained chemical hardness parameter demonstrates that BPTBMPA has considerable electron donor groups. Finally, it has been showed that BPTBMPA exhibits considerable nonlinear optical properties.

  14. Methyl tert-butyl ether in ground and surface water of the United States: National-scale relations between MTBE occurrence in surface and ground water and MTBE use in gasoline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The detection frequency of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground and surface water of the United States is positively related to the content of MTBE in gasoline in various metropolitan areas of the U.S. The frequency of detection of MTBE is generally higher in areas that use larger amounts of MTBE in gasoline. Sampling of surface and ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program between 1993 and 1998 revealed a frequent detection of low concentrations of MTBE. In this analysis, data from several national-scale gasoline surveys are examined and data from one survey that is most extensive in geographic and temporal coverage is used to relate the detection of MTBE in ground and surface water to the volumetric content of MTBE in gasoline.

  15. [Arene·Me3C+] non-covalent complexes in the gas-phase (trifluoro)methylation of tert-butyl-substituted diphenylalkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavarino, Barbara; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta; Kuck, Dietmar

    1995-10-01

    The reaction of Me2F+, Me2C1+ and CF3+ with p-Me3CC6H4(CH2)n,C6D5 (n = 2, 3) initiates a reaction pattern whose major features are accounted for by the additional electrostatic stabilization afforded by the second (spectator) aromatic ring on ionic intermediates and ion-molecule complexes. The Me3C loss following CX3- (X = H, F) addition to the tert-butyl-substituted ring is significantly reduced with respect to a single-ring model substrate, p-Me3CC6H4Me. [Arene · Me3C+] non-covalent complexes mediate the observed interannular and intermolecular Me3C+ transfer. Unimolecular cleavage of Me3CH from [arene · Me3C+], following side-chain H- abstraction, a major fragmentation pathway under mass spectrometric conditions, is instead largely inhibited in the reported radiolytic experiments. Such behavior is accounted for by the effective stabilization of ion-molecule non-covalent complexes ensured by unreactive collisions with about 1 atm bath gas.

  16. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  17. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  18. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  19. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  20. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  1. Study of fuel oxygenates solubility in aqueous media as a function of temperature and tert-butyl alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Olmos, R; Iglesias, M

    2008-05-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used oxygenate in gasoline blending and has become one of the world's most widespread groundwater and surface water pollutants. Alternative oxygenates to MTBE, namely ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl ether (TAME) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) have been hardly studied yet. The solubility of these chemicals is a key thermodynamic information for the assessment of the fate and transport of these pollutants. This work reports experimental data of water solubility at the range from 278.15 to 313.15K and atmospheric pressure of ethers used in fuels (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE) due to the strong influence of temperature on its trend. From the experimental data, temperature dependent polynomials were fitted, thermodynamic parameters were calculated and theoretical models were used for prediction. Finally, the tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) influence in the solubility of MTBE and ETBE in aqueous media was studied. PMID:18299142

  2. tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide Mediated Cascade Synthesis of 3-Arylsulfonylquinolines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Su; Gao, Yuzhen; Zhang, Pengbo; Wu, Yile; Tang, Guo; Zhao, Yufen

    2016-03-18

    3-Arylsulfonylquinoline derivatives play important roles as pharmaceutical drugs. A new method for the synthesis of 3-arylsulfonylquinoline derivatives has been achieved through tert-butyl hydroperoxide mediated cycloaddition between N-propargyl aromatic amine derivatives and arylsulfonylhydrazides without the addition of any metals. This transformation offers a straightforward route to the formation of a C-S bond and quinoline ring in one step via a sulfonylation-cyclization-aromatization process. PMID:26959409

  3. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin; Zhang Yun; Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang; Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu; Luo Wenjing Chen Jingyuan

    2009-04-15

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  4. A plan for assessing the occurrence and distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and other volatile organic compounds in drinking water and ambient ground water in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, Stephen J.; Casey, George D.

    1999-01-01

    A plan to assess the occurrence and distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water and ambient ground water in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States was designed to meet two primary objectives. This study will provide the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with information on potential human exposure to MTBE and other VOCs from drinking water. In addition, the study will further the goals of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) by providing additional information on the occurrence and distribution of VOCs in ambient ground water beneath a large, highly urbanized part of the Nation. The study will proceed in two phases-a drinking-water assessment (phase 1) and an ambient ground-water assessment (phase 2). The drinking-water assessment will involve compilation, review, and analysis of available water- quality and ancillary data for approximately 20 percent of the community water systems in 12 States in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions. This effort will summarize the occurrence and distribution of MTBE and other VOCs in drinking water supplied by 2,110 community water systems. The ambient ground-water assessment will involve compilation, review, and analysis of data on MTBE and other VOCs from previous USGS studies in the 12-State area, including regional water-quality assessments conducted for the USGS's NAWQA, plus other available State or local datasets. These data will be related, to the extent allowed by the completeness and quality of the data, to land-use patterns, population density, and other anthropogenic and natural factors using statistical tests. The occurrence and distribution of MTBE and other VOCs in ambient ground water and, to the extent possible, drinking water in relation to such factors, will be evaluated.

  5. Reaction of phenanthrene with tert-butylating agents under Friedel-Craft conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdnyakovich, Yu.V.

    1988-10-20

    The alkylation of phenanthrene with tert-butyl alcohol in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid or with tert-butyl chloride, catalyzed by the TiCl/sub 4/, FeCl/sub 3/-CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/, and AlCl/sub 3/-CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/, leads to formation of 2- and 3-tert-butylphenanthrene and also 2,6-, 2,7-, and 3,6-di-tert-butylphenanthrene. The exhaustive alkylation of phenanthrene leads to the formation of the above-mentioned isomeric di-tert-butylphenanthrenes, the ratios of which depend on the nature of the catalyst.

  6. Hydrogen Atom Reactivity toward Aqueous tert-Butyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lymar S. V.; Schwarz, H.A.

    2012-02-09

    Through a combination of pulse radiolysis, purification, and analysis techniques, the rate constant for the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH {yields} H{sub 2} + {sm_bullet}CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH reaction in aqueous solution is definitively determined to be (1.0 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is about half of the tabulated number and 10 times lower than the more recently suggested revision. Our value fits on the Polanyi-type, rate-enthalpy linear correlation ln(k/n) = (0.80 {+-} 0.05){Delta}H + (3.2 {+-} 0.8) that is found for the analogous reactions of other aqueous aliphatic alcohols with n equivalent abstractable H atoms. The existence of such a correlation and its large slope are interpreted as an indication of the mechanistic similarity of the H atom abstraction from {alpha}- and {beta}-carbon atoms in alcohols occurring through the late, product-like transition state. tert-Butyl alcohol is commonly contaminated by much more reactive secondary and primary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, ethanol, and methanol), whose content can be sufficient for nearly quantitative scavenging of the H atoms, skewing the H atom reactivity pattern, and explaining the disparity of the literature data on the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH rate constant. The ubiquitous use of tert-butyl alcohol in pulse radiolysis for investigating H atom reactivity and the results of this work suggest that many other previously reported rate constants for the H atom, particularly the smaller ones, may be in jeopardy.

  7. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater probability of MTBE contamination. Ground water from public-supply wells and shallow ground water underlying urban land-use areas has a greater probability of MTBE contamination compared to ground water from domestic wells and ground water underlying rural land-use areas.

  8. 2-Oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl 4-tert-butyl­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Abou, Akoun; Sessouma, Bintou; Djandé, Abdoulaye; Saba, Adama; Kakou-Yao, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C20H18O4, the three methyl groups of the tert-butyl substituent show rotational disorder. Each methyl group is split over three positions, with refined site-occupation factors of 0.711 (4), 0.146 (3) and 0.144 (4). The benzene ring of the benzoate group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 60.70 (7)° with respect to the planar chromene ring [maximum deviation = 0.046 (2) Å]. The crystal structure features centrosymmetric R 2 2(8) dimers formed via C—H⋯O inter­actions, and these dimeric aggregates are connected by C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22347133

  9. Metabolism of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole to 3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydroxyanisole by rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, K E; Wattenberg, L W

    1985-04-01

    3-tert-Butylhydroxyanisole (3-BHA) is an antioxidant which can have a modulating effect on chemical carcinogenesis. Information concerning the metabolism of 3-BHA is incomplete. In the present study, the metabolites formed by incubating 3-BHA with liver microsomes from rats given beta-naphthoflavone by p.o. intubation were studied. Three metabolites were identified, two major metabolites and a minor metabolite. One of the major metabolites was the catechol of 3-BHA, i.e., 3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydroxyanisole, which has not previously been reported. A characteristic of this compound is its capacity to be oxidized readily. The second major metabolite was tert-butyl hydroquinone which has been reported previously to be a liver microsomal metabolite of 3-BHA. The third metabolite, which occurred in small quantities, was 2,2'-dihydroxy-3,3'-di-tert-butyl-5,5'-dimethoxydiphenyl. 2,2'-Dihydroxy-3,3'-di-tert-butyl-5,5'-dimethoxydiphenyl has been identified previously as a major metabolite of 3-BHA in the rat intestine. An understanding of the metabolism of 3-BHA may assist in elucidating the mechanism(s) of its biological effects. PMID:3978617

  10. Bis(μ-2-tert-butyl­phenyl­imido-1:2κ2 N:N)chlorido-2κCl-(diethyl ether-1κO)(2η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)lithiumtantalum(V)

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Chan, Michael C. W.; Gibson, Vernon C.; Howard, Judith A. K.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [LiTa(C10H15)(C10H13N)2Cl(C4H10O)], the TaV atom is coordinated by a η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand, a chloride ion and two N-bonded 2-tert-butyl­phenyl­imide dianions. With respect to the two N atoms, the chloride ion and the centroid of the Cp* ring, the tantalum coordination geometry is approximately tetra­hedral. The lithium cation is bonded to both the 2-tert-butyl­phenyl­imide dianions and also a diethyl ether mol­ecule, in an approximate trigonal planar arrangement. The Ta⋯Li separation is 2.681 (15) Å. In the crystal, a weak C—H⋯Cl inter­action links the mol­ecules. When compared to the 2,6-diisopropyl­phenyl­imide analogue (‘the Wigley derivative’) of the title compound, the two structures are conformationally matched with an overall r.m.s. difference of 0.461Å. PMID:21754594

  11. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to...

  15. Solid and solution structures of bulky tert-butyl substituted salicylaldimines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin Ahmad, Jahir; Nieger, Martin; Sundberg, Markku R.; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2011-05-01

    A series of tert-butyl substituted salicylaldimines was synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction and elemental analyses to investigate the effect of two bulky tert-butyl groups on the keto-enol tautomerization in solution and solid state. According to X-ray studies all salicylaldimines have an enol tautomeric form in solid state and due to strong O-H···N hydrogen bonding they form a nearly planar intramolecular six-membered ring. Based on NMR, IR and UV-vis studies, the enol form is also present in solutions. Computational studies carried out by the density function theory (DFT) method verifies that in each sterically hindered keto-enol pair the enol form is more stable, although the differences in energy vary from 5.5 to 10.1 kJ/mol (in terms of total energy obtained from Gaussian for the optimized moieties). For the tert-butyl substituted salicylaldimines, solvatochromism is not observed in polar hydrogen bonding solvents. As N-alkyl and N-alkylphenyl substituted salicylaldimines without tert-butyl groups have a solvatochromic band, the sterically bulky tert-butyl groups seem to have a key role in stabilizing the intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

  16. Water Quality and Occurrence of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and Other Fuel-Related Compounds in Lakes and Ground Water at Lakeside Communities in Sussex and Morris Counties, New Jersey, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Densely populated communities surround many of the larger lakes in northwestern New Jersey. These communities derive most of their water supply from wells. The lakes can be navigated by gasoline-powered watercraft, can be in various stages of eutrophication, may contain pathogens associated with bathing and waterfowl, and are periodically subjected to chemical applications to control aquatic plant growth. Another feature that contributes to water-quality concerns in lakeside communities is the widespread use of septic tanks. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline oxygenate, in samples from Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna ranged from 20 to 30 ug/L (micrograms per liter) and 5 to 14 ug/L during the summers of 1998 and 1999, respectively. These levels were persistent throughout the depth of the lakes when mixing conditions were present. MTBE concentrations in samples from the top 20 feet of Lake Hopatcong during summer 1999 were about 10 ug/L and about 2 to 3 ug/L in samples below 20 feet. The source of the MTBE in the lakes was determined to be gasoline-powered watercraft. Other constituents of gasoline--tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)--were detected in the lakes but at much lower concentrations than MTBE. Ambient ground-water quality at Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna appears to be affected by the use of gasoline-powered watercraft. MTBE was detected in water samples from 13 of the 14 wells sampled at Cranberry Lake in fall 1998 and summer 1999. The wells were selected to monitor ambient ground-water quality and had no history of contamination. In ground-water samples collected during fall 1998, MTBE concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 19.8 ug/L, and the median concentration was 0.43 ug/L. In samples from summer 1999, MTBE concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 13.2 ug/L, and the median concentration was 0.38 ug/L. MTBE was detected in samples from four of the five wells at Lake Lackawanna in summer 1999;concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 ug/L. Lake/ground water interaction is a feasible explanation for the nearly ubiquitous presence of MTBE in ground water. The movement of water from lakes to wells is feasible because many static water levels and essentially all pumped water levels in the wells were below lake levels. Furthermore, diatom fragments were present in samples from the wells. Ambient ground water at Cranberry Lake also may be affected by septic-tank effluent, as indicated by the relation among concentrations of nitrate, boron, and chloroform. This result indicates potential vulnerability of the water supply to contamination by other chemicals and pathogens. Radon in ambient ground water is a concern throughout northern New Jersey. In particular, the median radon concentrations in ground-water samples collected from 14 wells at Cranberry Lake in 1998 and 1999 were 1,282 and 1,046 pCi/L, respectively. The median radon concentration in five ground-water samples collected at Lake Lackawanna in 1999 was 340 pCi/L. Although these values exceed regulatory levels, they are not high relative to radon concentrations measured in northwestern New Jersey. Eight wells in a neighborhood of Cranberry Lake with known MTBE contamination were sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey in summer 1998. MTBE was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 40 ug/L in five of the wells. Concentrations of TAME, another gasoline oxygenate, were highly correlated with concentrations of MTBE; MTBE concentrations were about 10 times the TAME concentrations. In all samples, however, the concentrations of the BTEX compounds were less than 0.05 ug/L, and the sample from the most highly contaminated well, where the MTBE concentration was 900 ug/L, had no detectable BTEX.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism studies on (3-tert-butyl-7-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylmethoxy) pyrazolo[1,5-d][1,2,4]triazine, a functionally selective GABA(A) alpha5 inverse agonist for cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Atack, John R; Braun, Matthew P; Cato, Brian P; Chambers, Mark S; O'Connor, Desmond; Cook, Susan M; Hobbs, Sarah C; Maxey, Robert; Szekeres, Helen J; Szeto, Nicola; Wafford, Keith A; MacLeod, Angus M

    2006-02-15

    (3-tert-Butyl-7-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylmethoxy)pyrazolo[1,5-d][1,2,4]triazine (1) was recently identified as a functionally selective, inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) alpha5 receptors and enhances performance in animal models of cognition. The routes of metabolism of this compound in vivo in rat have been well characterised, the identities of the major metabolites are confirmed by synthesis and their biological profiles were evaluated. An unusual oxidation of the pyrazolo[1,5-d][1,2,4]triazine core to the corresponding pyrazolo[1,5-d][1,2,4]triazin-4(5H)-one scaffold by aldehyde oxidase has been observed. PMID:16303300

  18. The oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yohe, G.R.; Dunbar, J.E.; Pedrotti, R.L.; Scheidt, F.M.; Lee, F.G.H.; Smith, E.C.

    1956-01-01

    The products formed in the oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol with oxygen and sodium hydroxide at about 100?? are 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, trimethylacetic acid, an acidic compound C14H22O3, and probably 2,6-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (which was actually isolated in the similar oxidation of the above-named benzaldehyde), in addition to compounds previously reported. Some of the properties of C14H22O3 are given, and the oxidation of it to 2,3-di-tert-butylsuccinic anhydride is described, but assignment of structure is reserved pending the completion of more experimental work.

  19. Stability testing of the plastics additives 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-n-octyloxybenzophenone, 2-ethoxy-2-ethyloxanilide (tinuvin 312) and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-t-tert-butyl phenol) in aqueous and fatty food simulants.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulos, D V

    1998-04-01

    The stability of five additives used in the manufacture of plastics materials intended to be in contact with foodstuffs was tested in two EU aqueous food simulants (3% acidic acid and 15% ethanol), in olive oil and in two alternative fatty food simulants (95% ethanol and isooctane) under various conditions of temperature and time established for migration testing. The additives were the following: 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2-2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-n-octyloxybenzophenone, 2-ethoxy-2-ethyloxanilide and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butyl phenol). The additives were spiked into the simulants at their anticipated Specific Migration Limit (SML) and submitted to time-temperature conditions used in the migration testing. The test samples were analysed against fresh samples of the additives spiked at the same concentration just before the analysis. All samples were analysed with HPLC, using an ODS2 column and mobile phase of methanol-water or acetonitrile-water. The results were statistically evaluated by applying a two-tailed F-test (at 95% confidence level) to the variances and onetailed t-test (at 90% confidence level) to the means of the control and the test samples. The statistical evaluation of the results showed that the additives were stable in all simulants within the statistical allowances. Only the 2.2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butyl phenol) showed a loss of about 20% in olive oil and 17% in 3% aqueous acetic acid. The results of the study will be used by the Commission, DG III-C-I. to help to determine whether legislative restrictions in the additives Directive should be applied to the finished material or article (QM) or to migration to simulants (SML). PMID:9666896

  20. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  1. Synthesis, stereochemistry, and photochemical and thermal behaviour of bis-tert-butyl substituted overcrowded alkenes.

    PubMed

    Ter Wiel, Matthijs K J; Kwit, Marcin G; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Ben L

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the structural limits in the design of molecular motors, a tert-butyl substituted analogue was prepared. The unexpected photochemical and thermal isomerisation processes and the stereochemistry of new overcrowded alkene are described. The bis tert-butyl substituted alkenes were synthesised in a five-step sequence with an overall yield of 7.5%. Structural assignments of the isomers based on experimental data were supported by calculations of all four isomers of the alkene. X-Ray crystal analysis showed a strongly twisted alkene (torsion angle 39 degrees ) for a less stable photochemically generated cis-isomer. PMID:17164911

  2. Occurrence and distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and other volatile organic compounds in drinking water in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, 1993-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, S.J.; Casey, G.D.

    2001-01-01

    Data on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water supplied by 2,110 randomly selected community water systems (CWSs) in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States indicate 64 VOC analytes were detected at least once during 1993-98. Selection of the 2,110 CWSs inventoried for this study targeted 20 percent of the 10,479 active CWSs in the region and represented a random subset of the total distribution by State, source of water, and size of system. The data include 21,635 analyses of drinking water collected for compliance monitoring under the Safe Drinking Water Act; the data mostly represent finished drinking water collected at the pointof- entry to, or at more distal locations within, each CWS?s distribution system following any watertreatment processes. VOC detections were more common in drinking water supplied by large systems (serving more than 3,300 people) that tap surface-water sources or both surface- and groundwater sources than in small systems supplied exclusively by ground-water sources. Trihalomethane (THM) compounds, which are potentially formed during the process of disinfecting drinking water with chlorine, were detected in 45 percent of the randomly selected CWSs. Chloroform was the most frequently detected THM, reported in 39 percent of the CWSs. The gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was the most frequently detected VOC in drinking water after the THMs. MTBE was detected in 8.9 percent of the 1,194 randomly selected CWSs that analyzed samples for MTBE at any reporting level, and it was detected in 7.8 percent of the 1,074 CWSs that provided MTBE data at the 1.0-?g/L (microgram per liter) reporting level. As with other VOCs reported in drinking water, most MTBE concentrations were less than 5.0 ?g/L, and less than 1 percent of CWSs reported MTBE concentrations at or above the 20.0-?g/L lower limit recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Drinking-Water Advisory. The frequency of MTBE detections in drinking water is significantly related to high- MTBE-use patterns. Detections are five times more likely in areas where MTBE is or has been used in gasoline at greater than 5 percent by volume as part of the oxygenated or reformulated (OXY/RFG) fuels program. Detection frequencies of the individual gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)) were mostly less than 3 percent of the randomly selected CWSs, but collectively, BTEX compounds were detected in 8.4 percent of CWSs. BTEX concentrations also were low and just three drinkingwater samples contained BTEX at concentrations exceeding 20 ?g/L. Co-occurrence of MTBE and BTEX was rare, and only 0.8 percent of CWSs reported simultaneous detections of MTBE and BTEX compounds. Low concentrations and cooccurrence of MTBE and BTEX indicate most gasoline contaminants in drinking water probably represent nonpoint sources. Solvents were frequently detected in drinking water in the 12-State area. One or more of 27 individual solvent VOCs were detected at any reporting level in 3,080 drinking-water samples from 304 randomly selected CWSs (14 percent) and in 206 CWSs (9.8 percent) at concentrations at or above 1.0 ?g/L. High co-occurrence among solvents probably reflects common sources and the presence of transformation by-products. Other VOCs were relatively rarely detected in drinking water in the 12-State area. Six percent (127) of the 2,110 randomly selected CWSs reported concentrations of 16 VOCs at or above drinking-water criteria. The 127 CWSs collectively serve 2.6 million people. The occurrence of VOCs in drinking water was significantly associated (p<0.0001) with high population- density urban areas. New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, States with substantial urbanization and high population density, had the highest frequency of VOC detections among the 12 States. More than two-thirds of the randomly selected CWSs in New Jersey reported detecting VOC concentrations in drinking water at or above 1

  3. Regioisomer-Free C4h β-Tetrakis(tert-butyl)metallo-phthalocyanines: Regioselective Synthesis and Spectral Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Norihito; Tanaka, Kenta; Tokunaga, Etsuko; Takahashi, Hiromi; Shibata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Metal β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)phthalocyanines are the most commonly used phthalocyanines due to their high solubility, stability, and accessibility. They are commonly used as a mixture of four regioisomers, which arise due to the tert-butyl substituent on the β-position, and to the best of our knowledge, their regioselective synthesis has yet to be reported. Herein, the C4h-selective synthesis of β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)metallophthalocyanines is disclosed. Using tetramerization of α-trialkylsilyl phthalonitriles with metal salts following acid-mediated desilylation, the desired metallophthalocyanines were obtained in good yields. Upon investigation of regioisomer-free zinc β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)phthalocyanine using spectroscopy, the C4h single isomer described here was found to be distinct in the solid state to zinc β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)phthalocyanine obtained by a conventional method. PMID:25969805

  4. Studies on the Conformational Landscape of Tert-Butyl Acetate Using Microwave Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, YueYue; Mouhib, Halima; Li, Guohua; Stahl, Wolfgang; Kleiner, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    The tert-Butyl acetate molecule was studied using a combination of quantum chemical calculations and molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the 9 to 14 GHz range. Due to its rather rigid frame, the molecule possesses only two different conformers: one of Cs and one of C1 symmetry. According to ab initio calculations, the Cs conformer is 46 kJ/mol lower in energy and is the one observed in the supersonic jet. We report on the structure and dynamics of the most abundant conformer of tert-butyl acetate, with accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. Additionally, the barrier to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group was determined. Splittings due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of up to 1.3 GHz were observed in the spectrum. Using the programs XIAM and BELGI-Cs, we determine the barrier height to be about 113 cm-1 and compare the molecular parameters obtained from these two codes. Additionally, the experimental rotational constants were used to validate numerous quantum chemical calculations. This study is part of a larger project which aims at determining the lowest energy conformers of organic esters and ketones which are of interest for flavor or perfume synthetic applications Project partly supported by the PHC PROCOPE 25059YB.

  5. Conformational analysis of tert-butyl acetate using a combination of microwave spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yueyue; Mouhib, Halima; Li, Guohua; Kleiner, Isabelle; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    tert-Butyl acetate was investigated using a combination of quantum chemical calculations and molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The microwave spectrum was recorded in the frequency range from 8.00 to 15.75 GHz. Due to its rather rigid frame, the molecule possesses only two conformers: one of Cs symmetry and one of C1 symmetry that appears as a pair of enantiomers. The Cs conformer is the most abundant in the supersonic jet and according to ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(d, p) level of theory it is 46 kJ/mol lower in energy than the C1 conformer. Here, we report on the structure and dynamics of the most abundant conformer of tert-butyl acetate, for which a set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants, as well as the barrier to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group were determined with high accuracy. Splittings due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of up to 1.3 GHz were observed in the spectrum. Using the programs XIAM and BELGI-Cs, we were able to determine a barrier height of about 113 cm-1 and subsequently compare the molecular parameters obtained from these two codes.

  6. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b)...

  7. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b)...

  8. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b)...

  9. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925 Section 721.4925 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone....

  11. Kinetics of proton transfer from tetra(4-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine to nitrogen-containing bases in benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, O. A.; Kuzmina, E. L.; Maizlish, V. E.; Rodionov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The acid-basic interaction between tetra(4-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine and pyridine, 2-methylpyridine, morpholine, piperidine, n-butylamine, diethylamine, and triethylamine in benzene is studied. It is found that the intermolecular transfer of protons of NH groups from tetra(4-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine to morpholine and diethylamine is characterized by unusually low values of the reaction constant rates. The effect of the structure of tetra(4-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine and tetra(3-nitro-5- tert-butyl)phthalocyanine, and of the nature of the base on the kinetic parameters of acid-base interaction is demonstrated. A structure is proposed for complexes with the transfer of displaced phthalocyanines' protons. It is found that they undergo decomposition over time.

  12. (S)-1,5-Dibenzyl-3-tert-butyl­imidazol­idin-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian-Feng; Guo, Jian-Nan; Huang, Su-Yu; Teng, Bo; Jin, Li-Ren

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C21H26N2O, was obtained as an unexpected by-product when attempting to prepare (S)-2-benzyl-N-tert-butyl-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­isoquinoline-3-carboxamide from (S)-2-benzyl­amino-N-tert-butyl-3-phenyl­propanamide and dimethoxy­methane. The mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating linear chains parallel to the b axis. C—H⋯π inter­actions provide further stability for the crystal structure. The planes of the two phenyl rings make a dihedral angle of 84.1 (1)°. The absolute configuration was known from the starting material. PMID:21202954

  13. 4,5-Bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl­phen­oxy)phthalonitrile

    PubMed Central

    van Tonder, Johannes H.; Muller, Theunis J.; Bezuidenhoudt, Barend C. B.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C36H44N2O2, the dihedral angles between the phthalonitrile ring and the two di-tert-butyl­benzene rings are 68.134 (8) and 70.637 (11)°. The two nitrile groups are almost coplanar with the phthalonitrile ring except for one of the N atoms which deviates from the plane by 0.125 (4) Å. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two orientations, with refined occupancies of 0.814 (6) and 0.186 (6). Intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions stabilize the molecular structure. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯N inter­actions. PMID:21522449

  14. Crystal structures of three complexes of zinc chloride with tri-tert-butyl-phosphane.

    PubMed

    Finke, Aaron D; Gray, Danielle L; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Under anhydrous conditions and in the absence of a Lewis-base solvent, a zinc chloride complex with tri-tert-butyl-phosphane as the μ-bridged dimer is formed, viz. di-μ-chlorido-bis-[chlorido-bis-(tri-tert-butyl-phosphane)zinc], [ZnCl4(C12H27P)2], (1), which features a nearly square-shaped (ZnCl)2 cyclic core and whose Cl atoms inter-act weakly with C-H groups on the phosphane ligand. In the presence of THF, monomeric di-chlorido-(tetra-hydro-furan-κO)(tri-tert-butyl-phosphane-κP)zinc, [ZnCl2(C4H8O)(C12H27P)] or [P(tBu3)(THF)ZnCl2], (2), is formed. This slightly distorted tetra-hedral Zn complex has weak C-H⋯Cl inter-actions between the Cl atoms and phosphane and THF C-H groups. Under ambient conditions, the hydrolysed complex tri-tert-butyl-phospho-nium aqua-tri-chlorido-zincate 1,2-di-chloro-ethane monosolvate, (C12H28P)[ZnCl3(H2O)]·C2H4Cl2 or [HPtBu3](+) [(H2O)ZnCl3](-)·C2H4Cl2, (3), is formed. This complex forms chains of [(H2O)ZnCl3](-) anions from hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the water H atoms and Cl atoms that propagate along the b axis. PMID:26870580

  15. Crystal structures of three complexes of zinc chloride with tri-tert-butyl­phosphane

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Aaron D.; Gray, Danielle L.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Under anhydrous conditions and in the absence of a Lewis-base solvent, a zinc chloride complex with tri-tert-butyl­phosphane as the μ-bridged dimer is formed, viz. di-μ-chlorido-bis­[chlorido­bis­(tri-tert-butyl­phosphane)zinc], [ZnCl4(C12H27P)2], (1), which features a nearly square-shaped (ZnCl)2 cyclic core and whose Cl atoms inter­act weakly with C—H groups on the phosphane ligand. In the presence of THF, monomeric di­chlorido­(tetra­hydro­furan-κO)(tri-tert-butyl­phosphane-κP)zinc, [ZnCl2(C4H8O)(C12H27P)] or [P(tBu3)(THF)ZnCl2], (2), is formed. This slightly distorted tetra­hedral Zn complex has weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions between the Cl atoms and phosphane and THF C—H groups. Under ambient conditions, the hydrolysed complex tri-tert-butyl­phospho­nium aqua­tri­chlorido­zincate 1,2-di­chloro­ethane monosolvate, (C12H28P)[ZnCl3(H2O)]·C2H4Cl2 or [HPtBu3]+ [(H2O)ZnCl3]−·C2H4Cl2, (3), is formed. This complex forms chains of [(H2O)ZnCl3]− anions from hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the water H atoms and Cl atoms that propagate along the b axis. PMID:26870580

  16. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  1. A new amphiphilic derivative, N-{[4-(lactobionamido)methyl]benzylidene}-1,1-dimethyl-2-(octylsulfanyl)ethylamine N-oxide, has a protective effect against copper-induced fulminant hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats at an extremely low concentration compared with its original form alpha-phenyl-N-(tert-butyl) nitrone.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Taketoshi; Yasui, Hironobu; Inanami, Osamu; Waki, Kenji; Takahashi, Momoko; Iizuka, Daisuke; Uemura, Taketo; Durand, Grégory; Polidori, Ange; Kon, Yasuhiro; Pucci, Bernard; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2007-09-01

    An amphiphilic alpha-phenyl-N-(tert-butyl) nitrone (PBN) derivative, N-{[4-(lactobionamido)methyl]benzylidene}-1,1-dimethyl-2-(octylsulfanyl)ethylamine N-oxide (LPBNSH), newly synthesized from its original form PBN in hopes of clinical use, was intraperitoneally administered to Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats every 2 days at the concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg. We found that LPBNSH protected against copper-induced hepatitis with jaundice in LEC rats at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, which were extremely low compared with that of PBN. It also effectively prevented the loss of body weight, reduced the death rate, and suppressed the increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values arising from fulminant hepatitis with jaundice at the same concentrations. Similar results were observed when PBN was administered at the concentration of 150 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical analysis of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and measurement of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the liver showed that LPBNSH largely suppressed the formation of these oxidative products at same concentrations. No difference in the abnormal accumulation of copper in the liver between the LPBNSH administered and control groups was observed. From these results, it was concluded that LPBNSH exhibited liver-protective effects against fulminant hepatitis with jaundice at ca. 1/1000, 500 the molar concentration of PBN and, therefore, was clinically promising. PMID:17886845

  2. Cytoprotective and antioxidant activity of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) flavones against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Geetha, S; Ram, M Sai; Sharma, S K; Ilavazhagan, G; Banerjee, P K; Sawhney, R C

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the cytoprotective activity of flavones of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH), used as an oxidant to induce oxidative damage, with lymphocytes as the model system. Addition of tert-BOOH (250 microM) to the cells resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity and free radical production. The intracellular calcium levels, caspase activity, and apoptosis were significantly increased following tert-BOOH treatment. Seabuckthorn flavones at the concentration of 100 microg/mL significantly inhibited tert-BOOH-induced cytotoxicity and free radical production and also restored the antioxidant status to that of control cells. Seabuckthorn flavones also significantly restricted tert-BOOH-induced apoptosis by decreasing intracellular calcium levels and caspase activity. The extract also decreased tert-BOOH-induced formation of DNA breaks by 30%. These observations suggest that the flavones of seabuckthorn have marked cytoprotective properties, which could be attributed to the antioxidant activity. PMID:19298209

  3. Oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. The structure of C14H22O3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yohe, G.R.; Dunbar, J.E.; Lansford, M.W.; Pedrotti, R.L.; Scheidt, F.M.; Lee, F.G.H.; Smith, E.C.

    1959-01-01

    The acidic compound C14H22O3, previously reported without assignment of structure as an oxidation product of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, is now believed to be DL-trans-5,6-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-1,4-diketo-2-cyclohexene (I). Chemical properties are described and infrared spectra are presented in support of this structure. This structure is of interest in relation to the problem of the existence of o-di-tert-alkylbenzene derivatives. The relatively easy racemization of optically active I suggests that its completely enolized form, 5,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, is capable of transitory existence.

  4. Synthesis, structural characterization, electronic spectroscopy, and microfluidic detection of Cu+2 and UO2+2 [di-tert-butyl-salphenazine] complexes†

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, B. A.; Brooks, J. C.; Hardy, E. E.; Easley, C. J.; Gorden, A. E. V.

    2015-01-01

    Metal templation by condensation of 2,3-diaminophenazine with 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde around the metal centers [M = Cu(ii), and UO2(vi)] affords a new class of M[di-tert-butyl sal-phenazine] metal complexes. Reported here is the synthesis, single crystal X-ray structural characterization, electronic spectroscopy, and microfluidic detection of the formation of these M[di-tert-butyl sal-phenazine] complexes. PMID:25657039

  5. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity...

  6. Hydrogen oxidation catalysis by a nickel diphosphine complex with pendant tert-butyl amines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jenny Y; Chen, Shentan; Dougherty, William G; Kassel, W Scott; Bullock, R Morris; DuBois, Daniel L; Raugei, Simone; Rousseau, Roger; Dupuis, Michel; Rakowski DuBois, M

    2010-12-01

    A bis-diphosphine nickel complex with tert-butyl functionalized pendant amines [Ni(P(Cy)(2)N(t-Bu)(2))(2)](2+) has been synthesized. It is a highly active electrocatalyst for the oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of base. The turnover rate of 50 s(-1) under 1.0 atm H(2) at a potential of -0.77 V vs. the ferrocene couple is 5 times faster than the rate reported heretofore for any other synthetic molecular H(2) oxidation catalyst. PMID:20938535

  7. Synthesis and bioevaluation of 4-chloro-2-tert-butyl-5-[2-[[1-[2-[(18) F]fluroethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methyl]phenylmethoxy]-3(2H)-pyridazinone as potential myocardial perfusion imaging agent with PET.

    PubMed

    Mou, Tiantian; Zhao, Zuoquan; You, Linyi; Wang, Qian; Fang, Wei; Lu, Jie; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2015-06-30

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of 4-chloro-2-tert-butyl-5-[2-[[1-[2-[(18) F]fluroethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methyl]phenylmethoxy]-3(2H)-pyridazinone ([(18) F]Fmp2) for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The tosylate precursor and non-radioactive compound [(19) F]Fmp2 were synthesized and characterized by infrared, (1) H-NMR, (13) C-NMR, and mass spectra (MS). The radiotracer [(18) F]Fmp2 was obtained by one-step nucleophilic substitution of tosyl with (18) F, and evaluated as an MPI agent in vitro and in vivo. Starting from [(18) F]KF/K222 solution, the typical decay-corrected radiochemical yield (RCY) was 38 ± 8.8% with high radiochemical purity (>98%). The specific activity was calculated as 10 GBq/µmol at the end of synthesis determined by HPLC analysis. In the mice biodistribution, [(18) F]Fmp2 showed very high initial heart uptake (53.35 ± 5.47 %ID/g at 2 min after injection) and remarkable retention. The heart/liver, heart/lung, and heart/blood ratios were 7.98, 8.20, and 53.13, respectively at 2 min post-injection. In the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging study of Chinese mini-swine, the standardized uptake value of the liver decreased modestly during the 2 h post-injection, while the heart uptake and heart/liver ratios continued to increase with time. [(18) F]Fmp2 exhibited good stability, high heart uptake and low lung uptake in mice and Chinese mini-swine. It may be worthy of further modification to improve liver clearance for MPI in the future. PMID:26094722

  8. Singlet exciton fission in thin films of tert-butyl-substituted terrylenes.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Samuel W; Miller, Stephen A; Margulies, Eric A; Shoer, Leah E; Schaller, Richard D; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Two terrylene chromophores, 2,5,10,13-tetra(tert-butyl)terrylene (1) and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)terrylene (2), were synthesized and studied to determine their singlet exciton fission (SF) efficiencies. Compound 1 crystallizes in one-dimensional stacks, whereas 2 packs in a slip-stacked, herringbone pattern of dimers motif. Strongly quenched fluorescence and rapid singlet exciton decay dynamics are observed in vapor-deposited thin films of 1 and 2. Phosphorescence measurements on thin films of 1 and 2 show that SF is only 70 meV endoergic for these chromophores. Femtosecond transient absorption experiments using low laser fluences on these films reveal rapid triplet exciton formation for both 1 (τ = 120 ± 10 ps) and 2 (τ = 320 ± 20 ps) that depends strongly on film crystallinity. The transient absorption data are consistent with formation of an excimer state prior to SF. Triplet exciton yield measurements indicate nearly quantitative SF in thin films of both chromophores in highly crystalline solvent-vapor-annealed films: 170 ± 20% for 1 and 200 ± 30% for 2. These results show that significantly different crystal morphologies of the same chromophore can both result in high-efficiency SF provided that the energetics are favorable. PMID:25856414

  9. The Epoxidation of 2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone: A Consecutive Reaction for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairfield, E. M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reports a consecutive first-order reaction for which the concentrations of reactant, intermediate, and products can be determined simulataneously. This reaction is the epoxidation of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (I) by alkaline hydroperoxidation using tert-butyl hydroperoxide and benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (Triton B) catalyst.…

  10. Microbial Transformation of Methyl 5(6)-Butyl-2-Benzimidazolecarbamate

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, J. R.; DiCuollo, C. J.; Fare, L. R.; Miller, J. A.; Pagano, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The anthelmintic agent methyl 5(6)-butyl-2-benzimidazolecarbamate (Parbendazole) was transformed to two of its animal metabolites, methyl 5(6)-(4-hydroxybutyl)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate and methyl 5(6)-3-(carboxypropyl)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate, by the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella bainieri ATCC 9244. The transformation pathway was shown to be through the 4-hydroxybutyl product to the 3-carboxypropyl product. The reaction favored accumulation of the latter product. Images PMID:4451380

  11. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, Mario . E-mail: luisgoya@if.csic.es

    2006-04-15

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 {mu}M quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 {mu}M) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 {mu}M and for 20 h with 5 {mu}M quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult.

  12. A designed room-temperature triplet ligand from pyridine-2,6-diyl bis(tert-butyl nitroxide).

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hinako; Tonegawa, Asato; Ishida, Takayuki

    2016-01-28

    The magnetic study on newly developed 4-mesitylpyridine-2,6-diyl bis(tert-butyl nitroxide) shows that almost the whole population has a ground triplet state at room temperature, and the ability of complex formation as a tridentate triplet ligand was proven with a diamagnetic yttrium(iii) ion. PMID:26615801

  13. Degradation pathway of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene at high potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Amine, K.; Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-01

    2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene is a redox shuttle for overcharge protection of LiFePO{sub 4}-based lithium-ion batteries with a working potential lower than 4.2 V versus Li{sup +}/Li. However, an irreversible decomposition occurs when the working potential is higher than 4.2 V versus Li{sup +}/Li. 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-1,4-di-tert-butoxybenzene was also investigated as a model molecule to further understand the possible degradation pathway of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethxybenzene. The experimental results strongly suggest that the irreversible reaction be related to the decomposition of OC bond in alkoxy substitution groups.

  14. Synthesis and Assembly of Dipolar Heterostructured Tetrapods: Colloidal Polymers with "Giant tert-butyl" Groups.

    PubMed

    Pavlopoulos, Nicholas G; Dubose, Jeffrey T; Pinna, Nicola; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Char, Kookheon; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first synthesis of a heterostructured semiconductor tetrapod from CdSe@CdS that carries a single dipolar nanoparticle tip from a core-shell colloid of Au@Co. A four-step colloidal total synthesis was developed, where the key step in the synthesis was the selective deposition of a single AuNP tip onto a CdSe@CdS tetrapod under UV-irradiation. Synthetic accessibility to this dipolar heterostructured tetrapod enabled the use of these as colloidal monomers to form colloidal polymers that carry the semiconductor tetrapod as a side chain group attached to the CoNP colloidal polymer main chain. The current report details a number of novel discoveries on the selective synthesis of an asymmetric heterostructured tetrapod that is capable of 1D dipolar assembly into colloidal polymers that carry tetrapods as side chain groups that mimic "giant tert-butyl groups". PMID:26696128

  15. Design and control of glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol etherification process.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Elena; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Bozga, Grigore

    2012-01-01

    Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether : TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics. PMID:23365512

  16. Photoelectric conversion and electrochromic properties of lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Andrew Teh; Hu Tenyi; Liu Lungchang

    2003-12-10

    Both photoelectric and electrochromic effects on lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate (Lu(TBPc){sub 2}) have been carried out in this study. Lu(TBPc){sub 2} is known for its electrochromic performance, but its photoelectric effect has not mentioned in the literature. The electrochromic properties of Lu(TBPc){sub 2} have been measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectrometer at the same time. It takes less than 1.5 s for the color to change from red to green under 0.9 V. Its cycle life is at least over 500 times. Furthermore, we also investigate its photoelectric conversion properties. Its photoelectric cell exhibits a positive photo-electricity conversion effect with a short-circuit photocurrent (46.4 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) under illumination of white light (1.201 mW/cm{sup 2})

  17. Design and Control of Glycerol-tert-Butyl Alcohol Etherification Process

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, Elena; Bozga, Grigore

    2012-01-01

    Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether : TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics. PMID:23365512

  18. Absolute rate constants of alkoxyl radical reactions in aqueous solution. [Tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Erben-Russ, M.; Michel, C.; Bors, W.; Saran, M.

    1987-04-23

    The pulse radiolysis technique was used to generate the alkoxyl radical derived from tert-butyl hydroperoxide (/sup t/BuOOH) in aqueous solution. The reactions of this radical with 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-6-benzothiazolinesulfonate) (ABTS) and promethazine were monitored by kinetic spectroscopy. The unimolecular decay rate constant of the tert-butoxyl radical (/sup t/BuO) was determined to be 1.4 x 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/. On the basis of this value, the rate constants for /sup t/BuO attack on quercetin, crocin, crocetin, ascorbate, isoascorbate, trolox c, glutathione, thymidine, adenosine, guanosine, and unsaturated fatty acids were determined. In addition, the reaction of /sup t/BuO with the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was observed by directly monitoring the formation of the fatty acid pentadienyl radicals. Interestingly, the attack of /sup t/BuO on PUFA was found to be faster by about one order of magnitude as compared to the same reaction in a nonpolar solvent.

  19. Activating tert-butyl hydroperoxide by chelated vanadates for stereoselectively preparing sidechain-functionalized tetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Dönges, Maike; Amberg, Matthias; Niebergall, Mark; Hartung, Jens

    2015-06-01

    tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) stereoselectively oxidizes substituted 4-pentenols, when activated by (ethyl)[cis-(piperidine-2,6-diyl)dimethyl] vanadates. The reaction affords (tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methanols in up to 89% yield, and in stereoselectivity ranging between moderate (cis:trans=32:68) to excellent (>99:1). Correlating structures of 4-pentenols, differing by substitution at tetragonal and trigonal stereocenters, to configuration of products obtained from oxidative cyclization provides a reaction model explaining the origin of stereoselectivity by (i) intramolecular oxygen atom transfer to (ii) a chair-like folded alkenol, being (iii) hydrogen-bonded to one of the two aminodiolate oxygens of the chelated vanadate, having (iv) substituents in the chair-like transition structure preferentially aligned equatorially. Substituents at trigonal stereocenters improve 2,5-cis- and 2,4-trans-selectivity for oxidative 4-pentenol cyclization in case of (Z)-configuration. An (E)-substituent does not alter selectivity exerted by a terminal (Z)-substituent of similar steric size. Larger (E)-groups increase the fraction of 2,5-trans-cyclized products. The reaction model additionally implements results from vanadium-51 NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory. According to theory, the (dialkoxy)(oxo)vanadium substituent exerts in the preferred end-on conformation almost no effect on structure and bonding of the peroxide group in tert-butylperoxy vanadates. Changing conformation to a higher in energy side-on arrangement puts the vanadate-bound tert-butylperoxy group into a position to serve in a concerted reaction as combined electron acceptor and oxygen atom donor. PMID:25958253

  20. Electron-induced dissociation of tert-butyl nitrite adsorbed on Ag( 1 1 1 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ilkeun; Kim, Seong Kyu; Zhao, Wei; White, J. M.

    2002-02-01

    The electron-induced chemistry of tert-butyl nitrite (TBN, (CH3)3CONO), adsorbed on Ag(1 1 1), or over a CH3OH spacer layer, was studied at 90 K using three kinds of measurements--the time dependence of ejected fragments during 70 eV electron irradiation, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) after irradiation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy before and after irradiation. Only NO is detected during 70 eV electron irradiation, and the initial total cross-section for loss of TBN is quite large, 3.3×10-15 cm2. Post-irradiation TPD, after dissociating ∼90% of a saturated TBN monolayer, reveals residual TBN and a number of products, including NO, C4H8 (isobutene), CH3COCH3 (acetone), (CH3)3COH (t-butyl alcohol), CO and H2O. Interestingly, there is no evidence for H2 in TPD. Illustrating a central role for the Ag(1 1 1) substrate, electron-induced dissociation of monolayer TBN adsorbed over 10 ML of methanol was less efficient, by a factor of 4, than 1 ML TBN on clean Ag(1 1 1).

  1. Arylalkylation of 4-tert-butyltoluene with substituted benzyl chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdnyakovich Y.V.; Savyak, R.P.; Shein, S.M.

    1986-08-01

    The reaction of 4-alkylbenzyl chlorides with 4-tert-butyltoluene in the presence of titanium tetrachloride and ferric chloride leads to the formation of 2-methyl-4'-alkyl-5-tert-butyldiphenylmethanes. The arylalkylation of 4-tert-butyltoluene with 2- and 4-chlorobenzyl chlorides, catalyzed by titanium tetrachloride, leads to the formation of mixtures of 2-methyl-5-tert-butyldiphenylmethane, 2-tert-butyl-5-methyldiphenylmethane, and isomeric methyldiphenylmethanes containing a chloride atom in the benzyl fragment. The products of the reaction catalyzed by ferric chloride do not contain 2-tert-butyl-5-methylchlorodiphenylmethanes. The reaction of 4-nitrobenzyl chloride with 4-tert-butyltoluence in the presence of ferric chloride leads to the formation of a mixture of 2-methyl-4'-nitro-5-tert-butyldiphenylmethane and isomeric methylnitrodiphenylmethanes. Under the influence of AlCl/sub 3/-CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/ in benzene 2,4'-dimethyl-5-tert-butyldiphenylmethane eliminates both the 4-methylbenzyl group and the tert-butyl group. Under analogous conditions 2-methyl-5-tert-butyldiphenylmethanes containing a chlorine atom or a nitro group in the benzyl fragment are dealkylated with the elimination of only the tert-butyl group.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and...

  3. tert-Butyl N-[2-(N-isobutyl-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamido)-eth-yl]carbamate.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Ju-Xian

    2014-06-01

    The title compound, C18H30N2O5S, was synthesized by the reaction of tert-butyl 2-(iso-butyl-amino)-ethyl-carbamate with p-meth-oxy-phenyl-sulfonyl chloride. In the mol-ecule, two intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the imino group N atom and the ester group O atom into chains running parallel to the b axis. The chains are further connected by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:24940254

  4. Correlation of the rates of solvolysis of tert-butyl chlorothioformate and observations concerning the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kyong, Jin Burm; Lee, Yelin; D'Souza, Malcolm John; Kevill, Dennis Neil; Kevill, Dennis Neil

    2012-09-30

    The "parent" tertiary alkyl chloroformate, tert-butyl chloroformate, is unstable, but the tert-butyl chlorothioformate (1) is of increased stability and a kinetic investigation of the solvolyses is presented. Analyses in terms of the simple and extended Grunwald-Winstein equations are carried out. The original one-term equation satisfactorily correlates the data with a sensitivity towards changes in solvent ionizing power of 0.73 ±0.03. When the two-term equation is applied, the sensitivity towards changes in solvent nucleophilicity of 0.13 ± 0.09 is associated with a high (0.17) probability that the term that it governs is not statistically significant. PMID:23538747

  5. Eight 7-benzyl-3-tert-butyl-1-phenyl­pyrazolo[3,4-d]oxazines, encompassing structures containing no inter­molecular hydrogen bonds, and hydrogen-bonded structures in one, two or three dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan C.; Abonía, Rodrigo; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    7-Benzyl-3-tert-butyl-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C22H25N3O, (I), and 3-tert-butyl-7-(4-methyl­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C23H27N3O, (II), are isomorphous in the space group P21, and mol­ecules are linked into chains by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In each of 3-tert-butyl-7-(4-methoxy­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C23H27N3O2, (III), which has cell dimensions rather similar to those of (I) and (II), also in P21, and 3-tert-butyl-1-phenyl-7-[4-(trifluoro­meth­yl)benz­yl]-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C23H24F3N3O, (IV), there are no direction-specific inter­actions between the mol­ecules. In 3-tert-butyl-7-(4-nitro­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C22H24N4O3, (V), a combination of C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds links the mol­ecules into complex sheets. There are no direction-specific inter­actions between the mol­ecules of 3-tert-butyl-7-(2,3-dimethoxy­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C24H29N3O3, (VI), but a three-dimensional framework is formed in 3-tert-butyl-7-(3,4-methyl­enedioxy­benz­yl)-1-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C23H25N3O3, (VII), by a combination of C—H⋯O, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯π(arene) hydrogen bonds, while a combination of C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π(arene) hydrogen bonds links the mol­ecules of 3-tert-butyl-1-phenyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxy­benz­yl)-6,7-dihydro-1H,4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazine, C25H31N3O4, (VIII), into complex sheets. In each compound, the oxazine ring adopts a half-chair conformation, while the orientations of the pendent phenyl and tert-butyl substituents relative to the pyrazolo[3,4-d]oxazine unit are all very similar. PMID:19652329

  6. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  7. 2-tert-butyl-8-quinolinamines exhibit potent blood schizontocidal antimalarial activity via inhibition of heme crystallization.

    PubMed

    Huy, Nguyen Tien; Mizunuma, Keisuke; Kaur, Kirandeep; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Jain, Meenakshi; Uyen, Dinh Thanh; Harada, Shigeharu; Jain, Rahul; Kamei, Kaeko

    2007-08-01

    We have recently reported that the attachment of a bulky metabolically stable tert-butyl group at the C-2 position of a quinoline ring in primaquine results in a tremendous improvement in the blood schizontocidal antimalarial activity of 8-quinolinamine. Because free heme released from hemoglobin catabolism in a malarial parasite is highly toxic, the parasite protects itself mainly by crystallization of heme into insoluble nontoxic hemozoin. We now demonstrate the ability of 2-tert-butylprimaquine to inhibit in vitro beta-hematin formation, to form a complex with heme with a stoichiometry of 1:1, and to enhance heme-induced hemolysis. The results described herein indicate that a major improvement in the blood-schizontocidal antimalarial activity of 2-tert-butylprimaquine might be due to a disturbance of heme catabolism pathway in the malarial parasite. PMID:17562796

  8. Hydrophobic Hydration in Water-tert-Butyl Alcohol Solutions by Extended Depolarized Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Comez, L; Paolantoni, M; Lupi, L; Sassi, P; Corezzi, S; Morresi, A; Fioretto, D

    2015-07-23

    Molecular dynamics and structural properties of water-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) mixtures are studied as a function of concentration by extended depolarized light scattering (EDLS) experiments. The wide frequency range, going from fraction to several thousand GHz, explored by EDLS allows distinguishing TBA rotational dynamics from structural relaxation of water and intermolecular vibrational and librational modes of the solution. Contributions to the water relaxation originating from two distinct populations, i.e. hydration and bulk water, are clearly identified. The dynamic retardation factor of hydration water with respect to the bulk, ξ ≈ 4, almost concentration independent, is one of the smallest found by EDLS among a variety of systems of different nature and complexity. This result, together with the small number of water molecules perturbed by the presence of TBA, supports the idea that hydrophobic simple molecules are less effective than hydrophilic and more complex molecules in perturbing the H-bond network of liquid water. At increasing TBA concentrations the average number of perturbed water molecules shows a pronounced decrease and the characteristic frequency of librational motions reduces significantly, both of which are results consistent with the occurrence of self-aggregation of TBA molecules. PMID:25436859

  9. Hydrophobic hydration of tert-butyl alcohol studied by Brillouin light and inelastic ultraviolet scattering.

    PubMed

    Lupi, L; Comez, L; Masciovecchio, C; Morresi, A; Paolantoni, M; Sassi, P; Scarponi, F; Fioretto, D

    2011-02-01

    The longitudinal viscosity of diluted water-tert-butyl alcohol solutions in the 10 GHz frequency region has been measured by means of Brillouin light scattering and inelastic ultraviolet scattering. The main advantage of our hypersonic investigation compared to more traditional ultrasonic measurements is that in the gigahertz frequency range slow relaxation processes involving the alcohol dynamics are completely unrelaxed, so that the measured viscosity mainly originates from the hydrogen bond restructuring of water. In contrast with previous determinations, we estimate an activation energy which is independent from the alcohol mole fraction up to X = 0.1, and comparable to that of bulk water. A simple two-component model is used to describe the steep increase of viscosity with increasing alcohol mole fraction, and a retardation factor 1.7 ± 0.2 is found between the relaxation times of hydration and bulk water. These findings endorse a dynamic scenario where the slowing down of hydration water is mainly due to a reduction of configurational entropy and does not involve an arrested, icelike, dynamics. PMID:21303164

  10. Thermal and photochemistry of tert-butyl iodide on ice films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Youngku; Wei, Wei; White, John M.

    2008-08-01

    The thermal and photochemistry of tert-butyl iodide ( t-buI) on ice films grown on Cu(111) at 100 K were studied using time-of-flight (TOF) temperature programmed desorption (TPD) mass spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thermal reaction products include isobutane ( i-C 4H 10), isobutene ( i-C 4H 8) and minor t-butyl alcohol. In the rising edge of the water desorption at ˜145 K, the parent t-buI molecule desorbs from the ice as well as other thermal reaction products. Above the falling edge of the water desorption at ˜180 K, the reaction products and the parent molecule desorb from the Cu(111). For t-buI on bare Cu(111) dosed at 100 K, dominant i-C 4H 8, some i-C 4H 10 and tiny t-buI desorption peaks were observed. This indicates that t-buI promptly dissociates on Cu(111) to form C 4H 9 and chemisorbed I at 100 K. The C 4H 9 quickly rearranges, followed by C-H scission to form mainly i-C 4H 8, or abstracts H to form some i-C 4H 10. The I directly chemisorbs on the Cu(111), evidenced by I(3d) XPS peaks. On ice layer, the most dominant i-C 4H 10 desorption peak indicates that the C 4H 9 abstracts H from ice to form C 4H 10. For photoirradiation of t-buI on ice, we observed an enhanced t-buI dissociation followed by ejection of reaction products, evidenced by decrease in TPD and C(1s) XPS intensities. No ejection of I-containing molecules was observed. We attribute the t-buI dissociation to solvated electrons in ice. During photoirradiation, I radicals seem to diffuse into the bulk ice to chemisorb on Cu(111), plausibly due to self-diffusion of water. In addition, a preferential desorption of C 4H 10 and/or an enhanced reaction channel to i-C 4H 8 by photoirradiation is evidenced by a faster TPD decay rate of C 4H 10 with photoirradiation time. An increased i-C 4H 8 TPD peak at 113 K and an appearance of 2 amu desorption could indicate the enhanced channel to i-C 4H 8.

  11. The Synthesis and Isolation of N-Tert-Butyl-2-Phenylsuccinamic Acid and N-Tert-Butyl-3-Phenylsuccinamic Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesare, Victor; Sadarangani, Ishwar; Rollins, Janet; Costello, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    The facile, high yielding synthesis of phenylsuccinamic acids is described and one of these syntheses, the reaction of phenylsuccinic anhydride with tert-butylamine, is successfully modified and adapted for use in the second-semester organic chemistry laboratory at St. John's University. Succinamic acids are compounds that contain both the amide…

  12. Electrochemical nucleophilic synthesis of di-tert-butyl-(4-[18F]fluoro-1,2-phenylene)-dicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinggang; Wang, Ying; Alfeazi, Ines; Sadeghi, Saman

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical method with the ability to conduct 18F-fluorination of aromatic molecules through direct nucleophilic fluorination of cationic intermediates is presented in this paper. The reaction was performed on a remote-controlled automatic platform. Nucleophilic electrochemical fluorination of tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) protected catechol, an intermediate model molecule for the positron emission tomography (PET) probe (3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]fluoro-l-phenylalanine), was performed. Fluorination was achieved under potentiostatic anodic oxidation in acetonitrile containing Et3N · 3HF and other supporting electrolytes. Radiofluorination efficiency was influenced by a number of variables, including the concentration of the precursor, concentration of Et3N · 3HF, type of supporting electrolyte, temperature and time, as well as applied potentials. Radiofluorination efficiency of 10.4 ± 0.6% (n = 4) and specific activity of up to 43 GBq/mmol was obtained after 1 h electrolysis of 0.1 M of 4-tert-butyl-diboc-catechol in the acetonitrile solution of Et3N · 3HF (0.033 M) and NBu4PF6 (0.05 M). Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to explain the tert-butyl functional group facilitation of electrochemical oxidation and subsequent fluorination. PMID:25000498

  13. Protective effect of baicalin on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced rat hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Ming; Wang, Chau-Jong; Chou, Fen-Pi; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Chu, Chia-Yih

    2005-02-01

    Baicalin (BA) is a flavonoid compound purified from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi that is used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Baicalin was studied for the mechanism of its inhibitory effects on the tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in rat liver system. Baicalin expressed an antioxidant property by its capacity for quenching the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Further investigations using the t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes demonstrated that baicalin, at the concentrations of 2-220 microM, significantly decreased the leakages of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by 30 min treatment of t-BHP(1.5 mM). Baicalin also attenuated the t-BHP-induced depletion of glutathione (GSH) and high level of DNA repaired synthesis. An in vivo study in rats showed that pretreatment with baicalin (i.p.) at concentrations of 0.5 and 5 mg/kg for 5 days before a single i.p. dose of t-BHP (0.1 mmol/kg) significantly lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and reduced oxidative stress in the liver. Histopathological evaluation of the rat livers revealed that baicalin reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by t-BHP including hepatocyte swelling, leukocyte infiltration, and necrosis. Based on the results described above, we speculate that baicalin may play a chemopreventive role via reducing oxidative stress in living systems. PMID:15645217

  14. Impact of tert-butyl alcohol on crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride in frozen aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Bhushan; Bansal, Arvind K

    2015-01-01

    The effect of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) on isothermal crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride (GHCl) in frozen aqueous solutions was assessed by cold-stage microscopy. Addition of TBA (0%-5%, w/w) increased the value of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami rate constant (1.3-33.3 h⁻¹) and reduced the Avrami exponent (2.5-1.0). Thermodynamic parameters [enthalpy (ΔH(‡)), entropy (ΔS(‡)), and free energy (ΔG(‡)) of activation], calculated using Arrhenius and Eyring-Polanyi equations, established that TBA (2%, w/w) accelerated GHCl crystallization by reducing its ΔH(‡) (53.9 cf. 96.5 kJ/mol⁻¹) and ΔG(‡) (68.5 cf. 74.9 kJ/mol⁻¹). Further, to explore insights into the effect of TBA on nucleation and crystal growth of GHCl, crystallization kinetics data were deconvolved using Finke-Watzky model. This revealed that addition of TBA decreased ΔH(‡) of nucleation and increased ΔS(‡) of crystal growth, thereby reducing ΔG(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth by 11.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Finkey-Watzky model also predicted a reduction in the crystal size upon TBA addition, which was confirmed by comparing particle size of GHCl lyophilized in the presence and absence of TBA. In conclusion, TBA reduces ΔG(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth in a differential manner, thereby enhancing the crystallization kinetics of GHCl and affecting its morphological features. PMID:25393155

  15. DNA methylation is not likely to be responsible for hTERT expression in premalignant cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Oikonomou, Pagona; Messinis, Ioannis; Tsezou, Aspasia

    2007-07-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression seems to play an important role in cervical carcinogenesis. Analysis of the hTERT promoter region revealed the presence of a CpG island and a high overall GC content, suggesting a possible role for methylation in the regulation of hTERT gene expression. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of hTERT promoter methylation and E6/E7 human papilloma virus 16 (HPV-16) mRNA expression in hTERT regulation in premalignant cervical specimens. The methylation status of the hTERT promoter gene and hTERT mRNA quantification were investigated in 26 normal and 64 specimens of abnormal cytology using the MethyLight technique, Telo-TAGGG hTERT Quantification Kit and LightCycler technology. E6/E7 HPV-16 mRNA expression was also evaluated. No significant correlations were observed between hTERT mRNA expression and hTERT promoter methylation, as well as between telomerase activity and hTERT promoter methylation in normal and in premalignant cervical specimens. E6/E7 HPV-16 mRNA expression was observed in 72% of HPV-16-infected samples and was correlated with hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity (P < 0.05). This is the first study investigating the role of hTERT promoter methylation in hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity in premalignant lesions. The observed lack of correlation suggests that other mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of hTERT expression. The correlation between hTERT mRNA and E6/E7 mRNA expression confirms the role of HPV infection in hTERT regulation. PMID:17609503

  16. Br(2Pj) atom formation dynamics in ultraviolet photodissociation of tert-butyl bromide and iso-butyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanmei; Zhang, Song; Wei, Zhengrong; Zheng, Qiusha; Zhang, Bing

    2006-11-14

    The photodissociation dynamics of tert-C(4)H(9)Br and iso-C(4)H(9)Br has been studied at 234 and 265 nm using two-dimensional velocity map imaging technique. The translational energy and angular distributions have been analyzed for Br, Br(*), and tert-C(4)H(9) radical. The energy distribution of Br atom in the photodissociation of tert-C(4)H(9)Br is found to consist of two Gaussian components. The two components are correlated to two independent reaction paths on the excited potential energy surfaces: (1) the high-energy component from the prompt dissociation along the C-Br stretching mode and (2) the low-energy component from the repulsive mode along the C-Br stretching, coupled with some bending motions. For the energy distribution of Br(*) atom in the photodissociation of tert-C(4)H(9)Br, a third multiphoton dissociative ionization channel is observed at 265 nm in addition to the two energy components corresponding to channels (1) and (2). The energy distributions of Br and Br(*) atoms in the photodissociation of iso-C(4)H(9)Br can be fitted using only one Gaussian function indicating a single formation channel. Relative quantum yields for Br((2)P(32)) at 234 and 265 nm in the photodissociation of tert-C(4)H(9)Br are measured to be 0.76 and 0.65, respectively. For iso-C(4)H(9)Br, the measured value is Phi(234 nm)(Br)=0.81. The contribution of bending modes to Br and Br(*) is much more obvious in the photodissociation of tert-C(4)H(9)Br than in iso-C(4)H(9)Br. PMID:17115752

  17. The photodecomposition mechanism of tert-butyl-9-methylfluorene-9-percarboxylate: new insight from femtosecond IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Christian; Schroeder, Jörg; Schwarzer, Dirk

    2008-09-14

    The ultrafast photodissociation of tert-butyl-9-methylfluorene-9-percarboxylate (TBFC) is studied by mid-infrared transient absorption spectroscopy after UV excitation at 266 nm. By means of 13C-labeled TBFC and additional DFT calculations transient IR bands in the fingerprint region were unambiguously assigned to the methylfluorenyl radical. The experiments show that the fragmentation is controlled by the S1-lifetime of TBFC and, dependent on the solvent, within 0.8-2.1 ps leads to tert-butyloxy and methylfluorenyl radicals plus CO2 via concerted bond breakage of the O-O and the fluorenyl-C(carbonyl) bond. In accordance, the CO2 quantum yield is determined to be unity. PMID:18728863

  18. Mono-, di-, and tri- tert-butyl ethers of glycerol . A molecular spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Małgorzata E.; Jarosz, Małgorzata; Witowska-Jarosz, Janina; Bednarek, Elżbieta; Tęcza, Witold; Jamróz, Michał H.; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz.; Kijeński, Jacek

    2007-07-01

    MS, NMR, IR and Raman molecular spectroscopy techniques were applied to characterize 3- tert-butoxy-propane-1,2-diol, 1,3-di- tert-butoxy-propan-2-ol, and 1,2,3-tri- tert-butoxy-propane. These ethers are the main products of glycerol etherification reaction and are excellent oxygen additives for diesel fuel. Computational DFT/ B3LYP/6-31G ** studies were performed to support and rationalize both vibrational spectroscopy analysis and the isomer ratio.

  19. Degradation in chlorinated water of the UV filter 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane present in commercial sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Crista, Diana M A; Miranda, Margarida S; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2015-01-01

    4-tert-Butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM) is a widely used ultraviolet A filter. In this work, we have studied the effect of chlorine and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations on the stability of UV filter (BMDM) present in two commercial sunscreen cream formulations in water. An experimental design was used to assess the effect of the two experimental factors on the degradation of BMDM. Higher concentrations of chlorine lead to higher degradation percentages of BMDM and higher concentrations of DOM inhibit its degradation. Moreover, a mono and a dichloro derivate of BMDM were identified as by-products. PMID:25399819

  20. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  1. Aggregation in dilute aqueous tert-butyl alcohol solutions: Insights from large-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rini; Patey, G. N.

    2012-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations employing up to 64 000 particles are used to investigate aggregation and microheterogeneity in aqueous tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) solutions for TBA mole fractions Xt ⩽ 0.1. Four different force fields are considered. It is shown that the results obtained can be strongly dependent on the particular force field employed, and can be significantly influenced by system size. Two of the force fields considered show TBA aggregation in the concentration range Xt ≈ 0.03 - 0.06. For these models, systems of 64 000 particles are minimally sufficient to accommodate the TBA aggregates. The structures resulting from TBA aggregation do not have a well-defined size and shape, as one might find in micellar systems, but are better described as TBA-rich and water-rich regions. All pair correlation functions exhibit long-range oscillatory behavior with wavelengths that are much larger than molecular length scales. The oscillations are not strongly damped and the correlations can easily exceed the size of the simulation cell, even for the low TBA concentrations considered here. We note that these long-range correlations pose a serious problem if one wishes to obtain certain physical properties such as Kirkwood-Buff integrals from simulation results. In contrast, two other force fields that we consider show little sign of aggregation for Xt ≲ 0.08. In our 64 000 particle simulations all four models considered show demixing-like behavior for Xt ≳ 0.1, although such behavior is not evident in smaller systems of 2000 particles. The meaning of the demixing-like behavior is unclear. Since real TBA-water solutions do not demix, it might be an indication that all four models we consider poorly represent the real system. Alternatively, it might be an artifact of finite system size. Possibly, the apparent demixing indicates that for Xt ≳ 0.1, the stable TBA aggregates are simply too large to fit into the simulation cell. Our results provide a view of the possible nature of microheterogeneity in dilute TBA-water solutions, and of the associated long correlation lengths. It is clear that system size can be a very important factor in simulations of these solutions, and must be taken into account in the evaluation and development of TBA-water force fields.

  2. Structural effects on the C-S bond cleavage in aryl tert-butyl sulfoxide radical cations.

    PubMed

    Cavattoni, Tullio; Del Giacco, Tiziana; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Mazzonna, Marco; Mencarelli, Paolo

    2013-05-17

    The oxidation of a series of aryl tert-butyl sulfoxides (4-X-C6H4SOC(CH3)3: 1, X = OCH3; 2, X = CH3; 3, X = H; 4, X = Br) photosensitized by 3-cyano-N-methylquinolinium perchlorate (3-CN-NMQ(+)) has been investigated by steady-state irradiation and nanosecond laser flash photolysis (LFP) under nitrogen in MeCN. Products deriving from the C-S bond cleavage in the radical cations 1(+)-4(+) have been observed in the steady-state photolysis experiments. By laser irradiation, the formation of 3-CN-NMQ() (?(max) = 390 nm) and 1(+)-4(+) (?(max) = 500-620 nm) was observed. A first-order decay of the sulfoxide radical cations, attributable to C-S bond cleavage, was observed with fragmentation rate constants (k(f)) that decrease by increasing the electron donating power of the arylsulfinyl substituent from 1.8 10(6) s(-1) (4(+)) to 2.3 10(5) s(-1) (1(+)). DFT calculations showed that a significant fraction of the charge is delocalized in the tert-butyl group of the radical cations, thus explaining the small substituent effect on the C-S bond cleavage rate constants. Via application of the Marcus equation to the kinetic data, a very large value for the reorganization energy (? = 62 kcal mol(-1)) has been calculated for the C-S bond scission reaction in 1(+)-4(+). PMID:23581281

  3. Mechanistic investigation of oxidative Mannich reaction with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The role of transition metal salt.

    PubMed

    Ratnikov, Maxim O; Doyle, Michael P

    2013-01-30

    A general mechanism is proposed for transition metal-catalyzed oxidative Mannich reactions of N,N-dialkylanilines with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant. The mechanism consists of a rate-determining single electron transfer (SET) that is uniform from 4-methoxy- to 4-cyano-N,N-dimethylanilines. The tert-butylperoxy radical is the major oxidant in the rate-determining SET step that is followed by competing backward SET and irreversible heterolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bond at the α-position to nitrogen. A second SET completes the conversion of N,N-dimethylaniline to an iminium ion that is subsequently trapped by the nucleophilic solvent or the oxidant prior to formation of the Mannich adduct. The general role of Rh(2)(cap)(4), RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3), CuBr, FeCl(3), and Co(OAc)(2) in N,N-dialkylaniline oxidations by T-HYDRO is to initiate the conversion of TBHP to tert-butylperoxy radicals. A second pathway, involving O(2) as the oxidant, exists for copper, iron, and cobalt salts. Results from linear free-energy relationship (LFER) analyses, kinetic and product isotope effects (KIE and PIE), and radical trap experiments of N,N-dimethylaniline oxidation by T-HYDRO in the presence of transition metal catalysts are discussed. Kinetic studies of the oxidative Mannich reaction in methanol and toluene are also reported. PMID:23298175

  4. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  6. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-01

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH3-TPD and N2 physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)-MCM-48 samples, SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO42-/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h-1 and the reaction temperature is 140 °C.

  7. (2,2′-Bipyridine-κ2 N,N′)[2-tert-butyl­anilinato(2−)]dichloridooxido­molybdenum(VI) dichloro­methane hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Nielson, Alastair J.; Waters, Joyce M.

    2010-01-01

    The MoVI atom in the title structure, [Mo(C10H13N)Cl2O(C10H8N2)]·0.5CH2Cl2, has a distorted octa­hedral coord­ination sphere with cis-orientated oxide and imide ligands, trans-chloride ligands and the 2,2′-bipyridine (bipy) ligand N atoms lying trans to the oxide and imide ligands. An imide-ligand tert-butyl-methyl-group H atom makes a close approach with the oxide ligand (distance = 2.53 Å) and the imide-ligand N atom (distance = 2.41 Å). Another imide-ligand tert-butyl-methyl-group H atom makes a close approach to a chloride ligand (distance = 2.82 Å). One bipy-ligand α-H atom makes a close approach to the oxide ligand (distance = 2.4 Å) and the other α-H atom makes a close approach to the imide-ligand phenyl-ring ortho-H atom (distance = 2.52 Å). These close approaches suggest the presence of weak intra­molecular hydrogen bonds. The solvent molecule has been modelled under consideration of half-occupancy. PMID:21589323

  8. Photochemical transformations. 30. Photosolvolysis of benzyl chlorides in tert-butyl alcohol. 2. Nature of excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Cristol, S.J.; Bindel, T.H.

    1981-12-02

    The photosolvolysis of a number of benzyl chlorides in tert-butyl alcohol, both as a result of direct irradiation and ketone triplet sensitization, has been studied. A variety of sensitization and quenching techniques have been used. The results obtained are rationalized by the assumption that there are two triplet states of the benzyl chlorides accessible in these experiments-one a short-lived upper state, which leads to solvolysis product, and another a long-lived (lower energy) state, which reverts to ground-state reactant. Consistent with this idea, m-methoxybenzyl chloride is shown to quench the photoreactions of benzophenone with benzhydrol without the formation of a significant amount of reactive species. The effects of wavelength on the reactions of p-acetobenzyl chloride are measured and discussed in terms of the two-triplet concept.

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylative α-Arylation of tert-Butyl Cyanoacetate with (Hetero)aryl Bromides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mikkel T; Juhl, Martin; Nielsen, Dennis U; Jacobsen, Mikkel F; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-02-19

    A three-component coupling protocol has been developed for the generation of 3-oxo-3-(hetero)arylpropanenitriles via a carbonylative palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of tert-butyl 2-cyanoacetates with (hetero)aryl bromides followed by an acid-mediated decarboxylation step. Through the combination of only a stoichiometric loading of carbon monoxide and mild basic reaction conditions such as MgCl2 and dicyclohexylmethylamine for the deprotonation step, an excellent functional group tolerance was ensured for the methodology. Through the use of (13)C-labeled carbon monoxide generated from (13)COgen, the corresponding (13)C-isotopically labeled β-ketonitriles were obtained, and these products could subsequently be converted into cyanoalkynes and 3-cyanobenzofurans with site specific (13)C-isotope labeling. PMID:26807594

  10. Fragmentation of synthetic cannabinoids with an isopropyl group or a tert-butyl group ionized by electron impact and electrospray.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Shigeki; Yoshida, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    This study described a fragmentation pattern of 21 synthetic cannabinoids with an isopropyl group or a tert-butyl group by electron impact ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the positive mode. The compounds were categorized into four types according to substituted group such as a terminal amide and ester. The characteristic fragment ion in each group was obtained. The main common fragment ions for the two ionizations were formed by C-N cleavage of the amide group adjacent to the N-hetero rings. Additionally, the fragment ions indicated the difference in the basic structure as well as substituted group, which are useful for estimating the chemical structures of unknown compounds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26757069

  11. A new long-chain UV absorber derived from 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane: absorbance stability under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wetz, F; Routaboul, C; Denis, A; Rico-Lattes, I

    2005-01-01

    A new UV filter, the 1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2-decanyl-3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-propane 1,3-dione called C10-DBM, was prepared by grafting a ten-carbon aliphatic chain to the alpha-carbonyl position of 4- tert -butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM).(1) UVA absorption efficiency of a cosmetic preparation containing this new filter, called C10-DBM, was tested and compared to an identical preparation containing BM-DBM. The two preparations were irradiated under a 150-W xenon lamp or exposed to natural sunlight. The originality of this new filter resided in that its UVA absorbance appeared during the irradiation of the molecule. Moreover, although the molar absorption coefficient of C10-DBM in the UVA domain was lower than that of BM-DBM, its absorption showed much more photostable behavior under both methods of irradiation. After two hours of sunlight exposure, the preparation containing the BM-DBM lost 85% of its UVA absorbance, whereas the UVA absorbance of the preparation containing C10-DBM showed a decrease of 3% in comparison to the maximum absorbance obtained after 30 minutes of irradiation. Also, after two hours of exposure to natural sunlight, the UVA absorbance of the preparation containing C10-DBM remained above its initial value (before the irradiation began). PMID:15870853

  12. Percutaneous absorption of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol (DBNP) in isolated perfused porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Inman, Alfred O; Still, Kenneth R; Jederberg, Warren W; Carpenter, Robert L; Riviere, Jim E; Brooks, James D; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2003-06-01

    DBNP (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol) has been reported as a potential contaminant in submarines. This yellow substance forms when lubrication oil mist containing the antioxidant additive 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol passes through an electrostatic precipitator and is nitrated. Percutaneous absorption of 14C-DBNP was assessed in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Four treatments were studied (n=4 flaps/treatment): 40.0 microgram/cm(2) in 100% ethanol; 40.0 microgram/cm(2) in 85% ethanol/15% H(2)O; 4.0 microgram/cm(2) in 100% ethanol; and 4.0 microgram/cm(2) in 85% ethanol/15% water. DBNP absorption was minimal across all treatment groups, with the highest absorption detected being only 1.08% applied dose in an aqueous ethanol group. The highest mass of 14C-DBNP absorbed was only 0.5 microgram. The majority of the applied dose remained on the surface of the skin. This suggests that there is minimal dermal exposure of DBNP when exposed topically to skin. PMID:12781207

  13. Synthesis and characterization of novel acid-sensitive tert-butyl methacrylate and isobutyl methacrylate containing star-shaped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Timothy E.; Kilian, Lars; Wang, Zhen-He; Esker, Alan R.

    2001-10-01

    Star-shaped polymers containing poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (iBMA) and poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (t-BMA) arms coupled to a 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexanediol dimethacrylate (DHDMA) core were synthesized using arm-first living anionic polymerization. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) indicated that coupling efficiencies were high and coupled products exhibited a monomodal molecular weight distribution. The star-shaped polymer number--average molecular weights were 8-10 times higher than the precursor arm molecular weights. The ratio of coupling reagent to living chain end concentration controlled the molecular weight of the star-shaped polymer and the number of coupled arms. The molecular weight distributions of the star-shaped polymers ranged from 1.5-2.0. Due to the labile tertiary- butyl esters contained in the DHDMA cores, these star-shaped polymers were readily hydrolyzed in the presence of acid catalysts. For example, poly(iBMA) star-shaped polymers were hydrolytically stable at 25 degree(s)C and hydrolyzed readily at 65 degree(s)C in the presence of hydrochloric acid. In addition, the poly(t-BMA) containing star--shaped polymers degraded under similar conditions. The degradation process for the iBMA and t-BMA containing star-shaped polymers was confirmed using 1H NMR spectroscopy, and poly(iBMA)-block- poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid) were obtained, respectively.

  14. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  15. P450 active site architecture and reversibility: inactivation of cytochromes P450 2B4 and 2B4 T302A by tert-butyl acetylenes.

    PubMed

    Blobaum, Anna L; Harris, Danni L; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2005-03-15

    The inactivations of P450 2B4 and the T302A mutant of 2B4 by tert-butyl acetylene (tBA) and the inactivation of 2B4 T302A by tert-butyl 1-methyl-2-propynyl ether (tBMP) have been investigated. tBA and tBMP inactivated both enzymes in a mechanism-based manner with the losses in enzymatic activity corresponding closely to losses in P450 heme. HPLC and ESI-LC-MS analysis detected two different tBA- or tBMP-modified heme products with masses of 661 and 705 Da, respectively. Interestingly, the inactivations of the P450s 2B4 by tBA and tBMP were partially reversible by dialysis, and the tBA- or tBMP-modified heme products could only be observed with ESI-LC-MS/MS when the inactivated samples were acidified prior to analysis, indicating a requirement for protons in the formation of stable heme adducts in both the wild-type and mutant 2B4 enzymes. Results of studies using artificial oxidants to support enzyme inactivation suggest that the oxenoid-iron activated oxygen species is preferentially utilized during the inactivation of the P450s 2B4 by tBA. These results argue against the use of a peroxo-iron species by P450 2B4 T302A. Molecular dynamics studies of wild-type P450 2B4 reveal that contiguous hydrogen bond networks, including structural waters, link a conserved glutamate (E301) to the distal oxygen of the peroxo-heme species via threonine 302. Interestingly, models of 2B4 T302A reveal that a compensatory, ordered hydrogen bond network forms despite the removal of T302. These results indicate that while T302 may play a role in proton delivery in the formation of the oxenoid-iron complex and in the stabilization of acetylene heme adducts in 2B4, it is not essential for proton delivery given the presence of E301 in the binding site. PMID:15751959

  16. Direct synthesis of chiral aziridines from N-tert-butyl-sulfinylketimines.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel; Pearson, David; Field, Robert A; Stockman, Robert A

    2006-05-01

    The direct preparation of a range of variously substituted chiral tert-butylsulfinylketimines was achieved in good yield (41-90%), with relatively rapid reaction times (4-15 hours); their synthetic application was examined through the reaction with the ylides derived from trimethylsulfonium iodide and S-allyl tetrahydrothiophenium bromide, affording convenient access to a diverse range of highly substituted chiral aziridines in up to 78% yield and > 90% d.e. PMID:16622499

  17. Synthesis and insecticidal evaluation of N-tert-butyl-N'-thio[1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-2-nitroiminoimidazolidine]-N,N'-diacylhydrazines.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jian; Sun, Ranfen; Li, Yongqiang; Huang, Runqiu; Bi, Fuchun; Wang, Qingmin

    2010-02-10

    A series of novel N-tert-butyl-N'-thio[1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-2-nitroiminoimidazolidine]-N,N'-diacylhydrazines were synthesized by the reaction of chlorosulfenyl(N-tert-butyl-N,N'-diacylhydrazines) with 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-2-nitroiminoimidazolidine (imidacloprid) in the presence of sodium hydride. Their larvicidal activities were evaluated. All of them exhibited insecticidal activities against Oriental armyworm and bean aphids. Toxicity assays indicated that at higher concentrations (200 mg L(-1)) the title compounds can kill aphids as fast as the parent imidacloprid in 2 h, whereas at lower concentration (10 mg L(-1)), the title compounds can induce a premature, abnormal and lethal larval moult after 3 days of treatment, like the parent diacylhydrazines. PMID:20041716

  18. Understanding the redox shuttle stability of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L.; Amine, K.

    2010-01-01

    3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene (DBDB) has been synthesized as a new redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. DBDB can easily dissolve in carbonate-based electrolytes, which facilitates its practical use in lithium-ion batteries; however, it has poor electrochemical stability compared to 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB). The structures of DBDB and DDB were investigated using X-ray crystallography and density functional calculations. The structures differ in the conformations of the alkoxy bonds probably due to the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in the case of DBDB. We investigated reaction energies for decomposition pathways of neutral DBDB and DDB and their radical cations and found little difference in the reaction energies, although it is clear that kinetically, decomposition of DBDB is more favorable.

  19. 31-Benz­yloxy-5,11,17,23,29-penta-tert-butyl­calix[5]arene-32,33,34,35-tetra­ol

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulli, Claudia; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Notti, Anna; Nicoló, Francesco; Pappalardo, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C62H76O5, known to be one of the most versatile synthetic precursors/inter­mediates of calix[5]arene derivatives, adopts an approximate C s-symmetric cone-in conformation. The aryl­oxybenzyl ring is tilted in such a way that the p-tert-butyl group fills the macrocycle cavity, while the benzyl group moves away from the cavity axis. In the crystal, this conformational arrangement is secured by intra- and inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming inversion dimers. Four tert-butyl groups are disordered over two orientations, with occupancy ratios of 0.745 (6):0.255 (6), 0.837 (5):0.163 (5), 0.850 (5):0.150 (5) and 0.845 (8):0.155 (8). PMID:23476242

  20. tert-Butyl 3-oxo-2-oxa-5-aza­bicyclo­[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Marie-Charlotte; Aubert, Emmanuel; Guichard, Gilles; Didierjean, Claude

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C10H15NO4, also known as N-tert-butyl­oxycarbonyl-allohydr­oxy-l-proline lactone, is quite similar to N-acetyl-allohydr­oxy-l-proline lactone [Lenstra, Petit & Geise (1979 ▶). Cryst. Struct. Commun. 8, 1023–1029], whereby both carbonyl groups point roughly in the same direction because of the trans conformation of the peptide bond. PMID:21201231

  1. Substituted 2,2′-bipyridines by nickel-catalysis: 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine

    PubMed Central

    Buonomo, Joseph A.; Everson, Daniel A.; Weix, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, ligand-free synthesis of the important bipyridyl ligand 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine is presented. 5,5′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2,2′-bipyridine is also synthesized by the same protocol. The syntheses efficiently couple the parent 2-chlorpyridies by a nickel-catalyzed dimerization with manganese powder as the terminal reductant. PMID:25221358

  2. Synthesis and characterization of perfluoro-tert-butyl semifluorinated amphiphilic polymers and their potential application in hydrophobic drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Decato, Sarah; Bemis, Troy; Madsen, Eric; Mecozzi, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Semifluorinated polymer surfactants, composed of a monomethyl poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) hydrophilic head group and either 1, 2, or 3 perfluoro-tert-butyl (PFtB) groups as the fluorophilic tail, were synthesized, and their aqueous self-assemblies were investigated as a potential design for theranostic nanoparticles. Polymers with three PFtB groups (PFtBTRI) solely formed stable, spherical micelles, approximately 12 nm in size. These PFtBTRI surfactants demonstrate similar characteristics with those of polymers with linear perfluorocarbon tails, despite large differences in tail structure. For example, PFtB polymer solutions stably emulsified 20 v/v% sevoflurane with perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) as a stabilizer. However, these PFtB polymers have the additional potential to serve as F-MRI contrast agents. PFtBTRI micelles gave one narrow 19F-NMR signal in D2O, with T1 and T2 parameters of approximately 500 and 100 ms, respectively. 19F-MR images of PFtB polymer solutions at 1 mM gave intense signal at 4.7 T without sensitizers or selective excitation sequences. These preliminary data demonstrate the potential of PFtB polymers as a basic design, which can be further modified to serve as dual drug-delivery and imaging vehicles. PMID:25383100

  3. Protective effects of alkaloid compounds from Nelumbinis Plumula on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Long-Tao; Zeng, Shao-Xiao; Guo, Ze-Bin; Zheng, Bao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Nelumbinis Plumula total alkaloid (NPA) and its main alkaloid components on oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) in the human hepatocellular HepG2 cell line. According to HPLC analysis, several major alkaloid compounds such as liensinine, isoliensinine and neferine were present in NPA. The cytotoxic effects in 0.55 mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells were significantly inhibited by NPA and the major compound in NPA, neferine, showed the strongest activities. The protective effect of neferine against oxidative stress induced by t-BHP may be associated with decreased ROS formation, TBARS generation, LDH release and increased GSH levels, suggesting their involvement of the cytoprotective on oxidative stress. The effects were comparable with quercetin, which was used as positive control. Overall, total alkaloid and alkaloid compounds from Nelumbinis Plumula displayed a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress. Further study is needed to elucidate the relationship between the chemical structures of the components in NPA and their protective effect on oxidative stress. PMID:24064445

  4. Structural, energetic, and UV-Vis spectral analysis of UVA filter 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Ferreira, Paulo J O; Duarte, Darío J R; Miranda, Margarida S; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2014-02-27

    The growing awareness of the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation has increased the production and consumption of sunscreen products, which contain organic and inorganic molecules named UV filters that absorb, reflect, or scatter UV radiation, thus minimizing negative human health effects. 4-tert-Butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) is one of the few organic UVA filters and the most commonly used. BMDBM exists in sunscreens in the enol form which absorbs strongly in the UVA range. However, under sunlight irradiation tautomerization occurs to the keto form, resulting in the loss of UV protection. In this study we have performed quantum chemical calculations to study the excited-state molecular structure and excitation spectra of the enol and keto tautomers of BMDBM. This knowledge is of the utmost importance as the starting point for studies aiming at the understanding of its activity when applied on human skin and also its fate once released into the aquatic environment. The efficiency of excitation transitions was rationalized based on the concept of molecular orbital superposition. The loss of UV protection was attributed to the enol → keto phototautomerism and subsequent photodegradation. Although this process is not energetically favorable in the singlet bright state, photodegradation is possible because of intersystem crossing to the first two triplet states. PMID:24494821

  5. Temperature dependence of the rate and activation parameters for tert-butyl chloride solvolysis: Monte Carlo simulation of confidence intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Dae Dong; Kim, Jong-Youl; Lee, Ikchoon; Chung, Sung Sik; Park, Kwon Ha

    2004-07-01

    The solvolysis rate constants ( kobs) of tert-butyl chloride are measured in 20%(v/v) 2-PrOH-H 2O mixture at 15 temperatures ranging from 0 to 39 °C. Examination of the temperature dependence of the rate constants by the weighted least squares fitting to two to four terms equations has led to the three-term form, ln kobs= a1+ a2T-1+ a3ln T, as the best expression. The activation parameters, ΔH ‡ and ΔS ‡, calculated by using three constants a1, a2 and a3 revealed the steady decrease of ≈1 kJ mol -1 per degree and 3.5 J K -1 mol -1 per degree, respectively, as the temperature rises. The sign change of ΔS ‡ at ≈20.0 °C and the large negative heat capacity of activation, ΔC p‡=-1020 J K -1 mol -1, derived are interpreted to indicate an S N1 mechanism and a net change from water structure breaking to electrostrictive solvation due to the partially ionic transition state. Confidence intervals estimated by the Monte Carlo method are far more precise than those by the conventional method.

  6. Protective mechanisms of Aralia continentalis extract against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jae Ho; Han, Eun Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyun; Kang, Shin Keon; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, we investigated the protective effects of the ethanol extract of Aralia continentalis roots (AC) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity in a cultured Hepa1c1c7 cell line and in mouse liver. Pretreatment with AC prior to the administration of t-BHP significantly prevented the increase in serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT, AST) and lipid peroxidation and reduced oxidative stress, as measured by glutathione content, in the liver. Histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that AC reduced the incidence of liver lesions. The in vitro study showed that AC significantly reduced t-BHP-induced oxidative injury in Hepa1c1c7 cells, as determined by cell cytotoxicity, intracellular glutathione content, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and caspase-3 activation. Also, AC up-regulated phase II genes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, and glutathione S-transferase. Moreover, AC induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and ERK1/2 and p38 activation, pathways that are involved in inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of AC against t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity may, at least in part, be due to its ability to scavenge ROS and to regulate the antioxidant enzyme HO-1 via the ERK1/2 and p38/Nrf2 signaling pathways. PMID:18824057

  7. 2,4-Di-tert-butyl phenol as the antifungal, antioxidant bioactive purified from a newly isolated Lactococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Varsha, Kontham Kulangara; Devendra, Leena; Shilpa, Ganesan; Priya, Sulochana; Pandey, Ashok; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2015-10-15

    The volatile organic compound 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2,4 DTBP) was purified from the cell free supernatant of a newly isolated Lactococcus sp. by solvent extraction and chromatographic techniques. Molecular characterization of the compound by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and FTIR analysis revealed the structure, C14H22O. Fungicidal activity was demonstrated against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium chrysogenum by disc diffusion assay. Among the cell lines tested for cytotoxicity of this compound (normal cell line H9c2 and cancer cell lines HeLa and MCF-7), a remarkable cytotoxicity against HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 10 μg/mL was shown. A biocontrol experiment with 2,4 DTBP supplemented fraction prevented growth of the abovementioned fungi on wheat grains. The study further strengthens the case for development of biopreservatives and dietary antioxidants from lactic acid bacteria for food applications. PMID:26164257

  8. Conformational stability, vibrational and NMR analysis, chemical potential and thermodynamical parameter of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Karpagam, V; Revathi, B; Kavimani, M; Santhi, G

    2015-01-25

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (TBHA) molecule have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1), respectively. Optimized geometrical structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies has been computed by B3LYP level using 6-31G (d,p) and 6-311+G (d,p) basis sets. The observed FT-IR and FT-Raman vibrational frequencies are analyzed and compared with theoretically predicted vibrational frequencies. The geometries and normal modes of vibration obtained from DFT method are in good agreement with the experimental data. The Mulliken charges, the natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis, the first-order hyperpolarizability of the investigated molecule were computed using DFT calculations. Besides, charge transfer occurring in the molecule between HOMO and LUMO energies, frontier energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and analyzed. The isotropic chemical shift computed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the TBHA calculated using the gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method also shows good agreement with experimental observations. PMID:25173520

  9. 4-(Tert-butyl)-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol induces pro-apoptotic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Yunmi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that KTH-13 isolated from the butanol fraction of Cordyceps bassiana (Cb-BF) displayed anti-cancer activity. To improve its antiproliferative activity and production yield, we employed a total synthetic approach and derivatized KTH-13 to obtain chemical analogs. In this study, one KTH-13 derivative, 4-(tert-butyl)-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol (KTH-13-t-Bu), was selected to test its anti-cancer activity. KTH-13-t-Bu diminished the proliferation of C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, LoVo, and HCT-15 cells. KTH-13-t-Bu induced morphological changes in C6 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner. KTH-13-t-Bu also increased the level of early apoptotic cells stained with annexin V-FITC. Furthermore, KTH-13-t-Bu increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and -9. In contrast, KTH-13-t-Bu upregulated the levels of pro- and cleaved forms of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and Bcl-2. Phospho-STAT3, phospho-Src, and phospho-AKT levels were also diminished by KTH13-t-Bu treatment. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that KTH-13-t-Bu can be considered a novel anti-cancer drug displaying pro-apoptotic activity. PMID:27162479

  10. The effect of aging on the response of isolated hepatocytes to hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Sabaretnam, Tharani; Kritharides, Leonard; O'Reilly, Jennifer N; Le Couteur, David G

    2010-02-01

    Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. To study this in the liver and to elucidate underlying mechanisms, hepatocytes from young (4-6 months) and old (24-26 months) rats were exposed to two oxidants, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. ATP content and mitochondrial activity were lower in old hepatocytes and decreased further with oxidative stress. Expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, Mn superoxide dismutase and catalase was not substantially influenced by oxidative stress in young and old hepatocytes, whereas glutathione peroxidase 1 expression was markedly increased only in young hepatocytes. Oxidative stress in young hepatocytes led to increased expression of apoE and movement of apoE to the early endosomes. In old hepatocytes, oxidative stress did not increase apoE expression and apoE was co-localized with early endosomes under control conditions. The results show that old age is associated with impaired hepatocyte responses of mitochondria, ATP, glutathione peroxidase 1 and apoE to oxidative stress. PMID:19720132

  11. Ginsenoside Rg1 delays tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced premature senescence in human WI-38 diploid fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochun; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Yaxiu; Zhao, Chaohui; Zhu, Yuangui

    2008-03-01

    Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), an analog of hydroperoxide, induced characteristic changes of senescence in human diploid fibroblasts WI-38 cells. It was reported that ginsenoside Rg1, an active ingredient of ginseng, ameliorated learning deficits in aged rats. The present study was aimed to investigate whether ginsenoside Rg1 can delay the premature senescence of WI-38 cells induced by t-BHP and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. First, Rg1 pretreatment markedly reversed senescent morphological changes in WI-38 cells induced by t-BHP. Second, t-BHP treatment alone resulted in an increase in the protein levels of P16 and P21, and a decline in intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) level and mitochondrial complex IV activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 pretreatment had significant effects of attenuating these changes. These data indicate that ginsenoside Rg1 has an anti-aging effect on t-BHP-induced premature senescence in WI-38 cells. This effect may be mediated by regulating cell cycle proteins and enhancing mitochondrial functioning. PMID:18375874

  12. The effect of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress on lean and steatotic rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ku?era, Otto; Endlicher, Ren; Rouar, Tom; Lotkov, Halka; Garnol, Tom; Drahota, Zden?k; Cervinkov, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and toxic liver injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of exogenous inducer of oxidative stress (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, tBHP) on nonfatty and steatotic hepatocytes isolated from the liver of rats fed by standard and high-fat diet, respectively. In control steatotic hepatocytes, we found higher generation of ROS, increased lipoperoxidation, an altered redox state of glutathione, and decreased ADP-stimulated respiration using NADH-linked substrates, as compared to intact lean hepatocytes. Fatty hepatocytes exposed to tBHP exert more severe damage, lower reduced glutathione to total glutathione ratio, and higher formation of ROS and production of malondialdehyde and are more susceptible to tBHP-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Respiratory control ratio of complex I was significantly reduced by tBHP in both lean and steatotic hepatocytes, but reduction in NADH-dependent state 3 respiration was more severe in fatty cells. In summary, our results collectively indicate that steatotic rat hepatocytes occur under conditions of enhanced oxidative stress and are more sensitive to the exogenous source of oxidative injury. This confirms the hypothesis of steatosis being the first hit sensitizing hepatocytes to further damage. PMID:24847414

  13. The Effect of tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Stress on Lean and Steatotic Rat Hepatocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kučera, Otto; Endlicher, René; Roušar, Tomáš; Lotková, Halka; Garnol, Tomáš; Drahota, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and toxic liver injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of exogenous inducer of oxidative stress (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, tBHP) on nonfatty and steatotic hepatocytes isolated from the liver of rats fed by standard and high-fat diet, respectively. In control steatotic hepatocytes, we found higher generation of ROS, increased lipoperoxidation, an altered redox state of glutathione, and decreased ADP-stimulated respiration using NADH-linked substrates, as compared to intact lean hepatocytes. Fatty hepatocytes exposed to tBHP exert more severe damage, lower reduced glutathione to total glutathione ratio, and higher formation of ROS and production of malondialdehyde and are more susceptible to tBHP-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Respiratory control ratio of complex I was significantly reduced by tBHP in both lean and steatotic hepatocytes, but reduction in NADH-dependent state 3 respiration was more severe in fatty cells. In summary, our results collectively indicate that steatotic rat hepatocytes occur under conditions of enhanced oxidative stress and are more sensitive to the exogenous source of oxidative injury. This confirms the hypothesis of steatosis being the first hit sensitizing hepatocytes to further damage. PMID:24847414

  14. Hydrogen Oxidation Catalysis by a Nickel Diphosphine Complex with Pendant tert-Butyl Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jenny Y.; Chen, Shentan; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.; Raugei, Simone; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel; Rakowski DuBois, Mary

    2010-11-09

    A bis-diphosphine nickel complex with t-butyl functionalized pendant amines [Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2]2+ has been synthesized. It is a highly active electrocatalyst for the oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of base. The turn-over rate of 50 s 1 under 1.0 atm H2 at a potential of –0.77 V vs the ferrocene couple is 5 times faster than the rate reported heretofore for any other molecular H2 oxidation catalyst. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. Computational resources were provided by the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  15. Methyl t-Butyl Ether Mineralization in Surface-Water Sediment Microcosms under Denitrifying Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Mineralization of [U-14C] methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) to 14CO2 without accumulation of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was observed in surface-water sediment microcosms under denitrifying conditions. Methanogenic activity and limited transformation of MTBE to TBA were observed in the absence of denitrification. Results indicate that bed sediment microorganisms can effectively degrade MTBE to nontoxic products under denitrifying conditions.

  16. Syntheses, properties, and reactions of transition metal complexes of di(tert-butyl)amide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Luke M.

    Nitrides of the transition metals of groups 7-11 possess desirable properties, such as higher hardness and saturation magnetization than the corresponding metals. These nitrides have realized and potential applications in tool coatings and magnetic recording media. In order to develop new chemical vapor deposition (CVD) precursors for these late transition metal nitrides, we have explored the synthesis, characterization, and CVD of late transition metal complexes of the sterically demanding ligands di(tert-butyl)amide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide. Treatment of MnBr2(thf)2, FeBr2(dme), CoBr2(dme), and NiBr2(dme) with two equivalents of LiN(t-Bu)2 in pentane, followed by sublimation in static vacuum, affords the two-coordinate compounds M[N(t-Bu)2]2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) previously reported by our group. Previous work established that the Mn and Fe compounds have linear N-M-N angles, whereas the Co and Ni compounds are bent. In addition, the Fe and Co compounds have large orbital contributions to their magnetic moments, whereas the Mn and Ni compounds do not. In order to understand these properties, the electronic structures of the M[N(t-Bu)2]2 compounds have been described using the Angular Overlap Model (AOM). Two conclusions help rationalize the previously observed molecular properties of these and other two-coordinate compounds: (1) The potential energy surfaces for two-coordinate compounds are nearly flat, varying only a few kcal/mol even with 30° changes in the N-M-N angle, and (2) the ground state configurations for two-coordinate d2 and d3 (and therefore also d7 and d8) compounds experience strong inter-electron repulsion and extensive state mixing. Low-temperature CVD from the reaction between these two-coordinate M[N(t-Bu)2]2 compounds and ammonia affords manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films. Deposition rates as high as 18 nm/min are observed for cobalt nitride, and deposition temperatures as low as 25 °C are observed for iron nitride. The XPS binding energies confirm that the nitrogen is present as nitride in all cases. The M:N ratio in the deposited films decreases from Mn (2.5) to Fe (4) to Co (4.6-6) to Ni (9). Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for the manganese, iron, and cobalt nitride films, but similar to the nitrogen content in the nickel nitride films. Comparing the growth onset temperatures with the decomposition temperatures of the compounds M(NH2)2 supports the intermediacy in the film growth of the latter species, which are the expected products of the transamination of M[N(t-Bu)2]2 compounds with NH3. Treatment of MnBr2(thf)2, FeBr2(dme), and CoBr2(dme) with two equivalents of lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide, Li(tmp), in pentane, followed by sublimation in static vacuum, affords the new compounds M(tmp)2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co). The heteroleptic, dinuclear three-coordinate compounds Fe2(tmp)3(OEt) and [Li(dme)][CoBr(tmp)2] have also been isolated. Crystallographic studies of Fe(tmp)2 demonstrate that the tmp ligand, which is the cyclic analogue of di(tert-butyl)amide with a slightly compressed C-N-C angle, can also enforce two-coordination. The Fe-N bonds are similar to those in the linear compound Fe[N(t-Bu)2]2, although the N-Fe-N angle of 173° and ligand dihedral angle of 73° are smaller. Fe(tmp)2 might therefore be expected to have a less degenerate ground state. Treatment of TiCl4 with two equivalents of H(tmp) affords the new compound Ti2Cl6(tmp)2. In contrast, treatment of TiCl4 or TiCl4(thf)2 with three equivalents of Li(tmp) induces ring-opening dealkylation of one tmp ligand and formation of a 1,1,5-trimethyl-5-hexenylimido ligand. A similar reaction is known for the di(tert-butyl)amido ligand.We conclude that the synthesis of early transition metal tmp and di(tert-butyl)amide compounds is hampered by the high electropositivity of these metals, which activates the methyl protons towards gamma-deprotonation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  17. HIGH LEVELS OF MONOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS LIMIT THE USE OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER AND TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  18. Ligand dynamics of tert-butyl isocyanide oxido complexes of molybdenum(IV).

    PubMed

    Leppin, Jana; Förster, Christoph; Heinze, Katja

    2014-01-21

    The six-coordinate molybdenum(IV) oxido isocyanide complex 1 [Δ,Λ-OC-6-2-3-[MoO(N(p)∩N(i))2(CN(t)Bu)]; N(p)∩N(i) = 4-tert-butylphenyl(pyrrolato-2-ylmethylene)amine] is obtained in diastereomerically pure form in the solid state, as revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In solution, this stereoisomer equilibrates with the Δ,Λ-OC-6-2-4 diastereomer 2 at ambient temperature. The stereochemistry of both isomers has been elucidated by NMR, IR, and UV/vis spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT)/polarizable continuum model and time-dependent DFT calculations. The isomerization 1 → 2 is suggested to proceed via a dissociative trigonal twist with dissociation of the imine nitrogen donor N(i) of one chelate ligand (hemilabile ligand) rather than dissociation of the monodentate isocyanide ligand. The isomerization barrier has been experimentally determined as 91 and 95 kJ mol(-1) in tetrahydrofuran and toluene, respectively. PMID:24392782

  19. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tingshun Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-15

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH{sub 3}-TPD and N{sub 2} physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)–MCM-48 samples, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h{sup −1} and the reaction temperature is 140 °C. - Highlights: • Sulfuric acid functional mesoporous solid acid catalysts were prepared via impregnation method. • The alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol was carried out over these solid acid catalysts. • The catalytic activity of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 catalyst is much higher than that of the others. • A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% was achieved under optimum reaction conditions for SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25.

  20. Solution processable 2-(trityloxy)ethyl and tert-butyl group containing amorphous molecular glasses of pyranylidene derivatives with light-emitting and amplified spontaneous emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarins, Elmars; Vembris, Aivars; Misina, Elina; Narels, Martins; Grzibovskis, Raitis; Kokars, Valdis

    2015-11-01

    Small organic molecules with incorporated 4H-pyran-4-ylidene (pyranylidene) fragment as the π-conjugation system which bonds the electron acceptor fragment (A) with electron donor part (D) in the molecule - also well known as derivatives of 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2-methyl-6-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-4H-pyran (DCM) laser dye-have attracted considerable attention of scientists as potential new generation materials for organic photonics and molecular electronics due to their low-cost fabrication possibility, flexibility and low-weight. Six glassy derivatives of 4H-pyran-4-ylidene (pyranylidene) with attached bulky 2-(trityloxy)ethyl and tert-butyl groups are described in this report. Almost all of the synthesized compounds form good optical quality transparent amorphous films from volatile organic solvents and could be obtained in good yields up to 75%. Their light emission in solution and thin solid films is in the range of 600-700 nm, they are thermally stable and show glass transition in the range of 108-158 °C. The amplified spontaneous emission threshold values of the neat films of the glassy pyranylidene derivatives vary from 155 to 450 μJ/cm2 and their HOMO and LUMO energy levels are between of those of tris(8-hydroxy quinolinato) aluminum (Alq3). The photoluminescence quantum yields of the glassy compounds are in the range from 1% to about 7.7% and their electroluminescence properties have been investigated. Therefore, glassy pyranylidene derivatives could be a very potential low-cost solution processable materials for Alq3 hosted light-amplification and light-emitting application studies.

  1. Assessment of the ability of seaweed extracts to protect against hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced cellular damage in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, A M; O'Callaghan, Y C; O'Grady, M N; Queguineur, B; Hanniffy, D; Troy, D J; Kerry, J P; O'Brien, N M

    2012-09-15

    The ability of brown seaweed extracts, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria hyperborea, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus to protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) induced stress in Caco-2 cells was investigated. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring alteration in the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutases (SOD) and cellular levels of glutathione (GSH). L. hyperborea, P. canaliculata and F. serratus significantly protected against tert-BOOH induced SOD reduction but did not protect against the reduction in CAT activity or the increased cellular levels of GSH. The ability of F. serratus and F. vesiculosus to protect against H(2)O(2) and tert-BOOH induced DNA damage was also assessed. The DNA protective effects of the two seaweed extracts was compared to those of three metal chelators; deferoxamine mesylate (DFO), 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen) and 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (BAPTA-AM). F. serratus and F. vesiculosus significantly protected (P<0.05) against H(2)O(2) (50 μM) induced DNA damage but not tert-BOOH induced damage. PMID:23107739

  2. Two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Darol; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Bermudez, Edilberto

    2013-07-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to reduce tailpipe emissions and its use has been discontinued. There remains a concern that drinking water sources have been contaminated with MTBE. A two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of MTBE was conducted in Wistar rats (males, 0, 0.5, 3, 7.5 mg ml(-1); and females, 0, 0.5, 3, and 15 mg ml(-1)). Body weights were unaffected and water consumption was reduced in MTBE-exposed males and females. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased at the end of two years of exposure to 7.5 mg ml(-1) MTBE. Chronic progressive nephropathy was observed in males and females, was more severe in males, and was exacerbated in the high MTBE exposure groups. Brain was the only tissue with a statistically significant finding of neoplasms. One astrocytoma (1/50) was found in a female rat (15 mg ml(-1)). The incidence of brain astrocytomas in male rats was 1/50, 1/50, 1/50 and 4/50 for the 0, 0.5, 3 and 7.5 mg ml(-1) exposure groups, respectively. This was a marginally significant statistical trend, but not statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were made or when multiple comparisons were taken into account. The incidence of astrocytoma fell within historical control ranges for Wistar rats, and the brain has not been identified as a target organ following chronic administration of MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether, or tertiary butyl alcohol (in drinking water) to mice and rats. We conclude that the astrocytomas observed in this study are not associated with exposure to MTBE. PMID:22161475

  3. ``Living polymers'' in organic solvents : stress relaxation in bicopper tetracarboxylate/tert-butyl cyclohexane solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terech, P.; Maldivi, P.; Dammer, C.

    1994-10-01

    Viscoelastic solutions of a bicopper tetracarboxylate complex in tert-butylcyclohexane have been studied by dynamic rheology in a wide range of concentrations (0.5-1.5 % volume fraction). The zero shear viscosity, the elastic modulus, the terminal stress relaxation time and the height of the high-frequency dip, in a Cole-Cole representation of the complex elastic modulus, follow scaling laws. The related exponents are discussed in the context of the physics of “living polymers” : a term used to describe worm-like species undergoing scission/recombination reactions competing mainly with the reptation motions of the chains. The current system, made up of molecular threads (17.5 Å diameter) of Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 in the apolar solvent, is representative of a “living polymer” where, instead of mechanisms involving transient star polymeric crosslinks, a reversible scission mechanism prevails. The dynamics in the high-frequency range evolves from a regime where reptation is the dominant relaxation mechanism to a cross-over regime where “breathing” fluctuations and Rouse motions become important. Large modifications of the stress relaxation function occur for more concentrated systems. The binary system is the first example of a “living polymer” in an organic solvent and exhibits elastic moduli (G ≈ ca. 120 Pa à φ = 1 %) which are at least 20 times larger than those found for the aqueous “living polymer” systems. Les solutions viscoélastiques d'un tétracarboxylate binucléaire de cuivre dans le tert-butylcyclohexane sont étudiées par rhéologie en mode dynamique dans une gamme étendue de concentrations (0,5 %-15,5 %). La viscosité à gradient nul, le module élastique, le temps terminal de relaxation et la hauteur du puits à haute fréquence, dans une représentation Cole-Cole du module élastique complexe, suivent des lois d'échelles. Les exposants correspondants sont discutés dans le contexte de la physique des “polymères vivants" : un terme utilisé pour décrire des espèces vermiformes subissant des réactions de scission/recombinaison en compétition principalement avec les mouvements de reptation des chaînes. Le système constitué de fils moléculaires (17,5 Å de diamètre) de Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 dans le solvant apolaire est typique de “polymères vivants” où le mécanisme de scission réversible prévaut plutôt que les mécanismes impliquant des nœuds transitoires branchés. La dynamique dans le domaine des hautes fréquences évolue d'un régime où la reptation est le mécanisme de relaxation dominant vers un régime intermédiaire où les modes de “respiration” et de Rouse deviennent importants. D'importantes modifications de la relaxation de contrainte se produisent pour les systèmes concentrés. Le système binaire est le premier exemple de “polymère vivant” en milieu organique et présente des modules élastiques (G ≈ ca. 120 Pa à φ = 1 %) qui sont au moins 20 fois plus grands que ceux des homologues aqueux.

  4. [Synthesis of tert-butylcyclopentane-fused 1,3-oxazines and 1,3-thiazines].

    PubMed

    Bernáth, G; Szakonyi, Z; Fülöp, F; Sohár, P

    1994-09-01

    Chlorosulphonyl isocyanate (CSI) addition to 4-tert-butylcyclopentene furnished the azetidinone (3) in a stereospecific reaction. Azetidinone 3 was transformed by ring opening esterification and lithium aluminium hydride (LAH) reduction to the 2-hydroxy-methyl-4-tert-butyl-1-cyclopentylamine (6). The N-methyl-aminoalcohol (8) was prepared from amino esters (5) with ethyl chloroformate and subsequent LAH reduction. By different ring-closure methods, a number of tert-butyl-cyclopentante-fused 1,3-oxazines and 1,3-thiazines were synthesized. A comparative study of the prepared compounds was performed by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT and DNOE measurements. PMID:7817766

  5. Butylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Butylate ; CASRN 2008 - 41 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  6. N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone protects against 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced depletion of serotonin in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, S Y

    1999-03-01

    The present study examined the effect of N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) on 3,4-methylenedioxmathamphetamine (MDMA)-induced depletion of serotonin in the CNS. Rats were treated with two concurrent injections of MDMA (20 mg/kg, s.c.), PBN (50-400 mg/kg dissolved in ethanol, 50 mg/ml of 25% ethanol, i.p.), saline or 25% ethanol, alone or in combination, 6 h apart, and sacrificed 5 days later. Rectal temperature was measured prior to and hourly following the drug injection for 5 h. Monoamine levels in the tissue were measured by HPLC. Density of the 5-HT transporters was assayed by [3H]paroxetine binding. Rectal temperature of rats increased after MDMA, decreased after PBN, ethanol, PBN plus ethanol, and MDMA plus ethanol, and was not significantly altered after MDMA plus PBN. Levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and brain stem of rats decreased significantly after MDMA or MDMA plus ethanol, but not after MDMA plus PBN, PBN plus ethanol (PBN dissolved in ethanol), or ethanol as compared to the saline controls. Levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the brain tissues of rats treated with MDMA plus PBN were elevated as compared to those treated with MDMA plus saline. Similar results were observed in the density of 5-HT transporters in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that scavenging of free radicals of MDMA metabolites or reactive oxygen species by PBN and with lowering of body temperature protected against MDMA-induced depletion of serotonin transmitter. PMID:10029234

  7. Protective effect of Mesona procumbens against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced acute hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Yen, Gow-Chin; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Ju

    2004-06-30

    The protective effect of Hsian-tsao (Mesona procumbens Hemsl.) and its active compounds on liver damage was evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced acute hepatic damage in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 +/- 10 g) were orally pretreated with a water extract of Hsian-tsao (WEHT) (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/kg) or caffeic acid (0.1 g/kg of body weight) for 13 days before a single dose of t-BHP (0.2 mmol/kg, intraperitoneally) to each animal, and the rats were sacrificed 18 h later by decapitation; blood samples were collected for the assays of serum biochemical values. The livers were excised from the animals and assayed for oxidative injury, antioxidant enzyme, and pathological histology. The result showed that the oral pretreatment of WEHT (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/kg) or caffeic acid (0.10 g/kg) before t-BHP (0.2 mmol/kg) treatment significantly lowered the serum levels of the hepatic enzyme markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) and reduced oxidative stress of the liver by evaluation of malondialdehyde, glutathione, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The histopathological evaluation of the rat livers showed that WEHT and caffeic acid reduced the incidence of liver lesions including cloudy swelling, pyknosis, and cytolysis induced by t-BHP in rats. On the basis of the results of this study, it can be speculated that M. procumbens protects liver against t-BHP-induced hepatic damage in rats. PMID:15212457

  8. Protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Jae Ho; Hwang, Yong Pil; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-07-01

    Increased oxidative stress and associated high levels of free radical generation have been described to occur during the pathogeneses of various diseases in animal models. In the present work, we investigated the protective effects of the phenethyl ester of caffeic acid (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity in a cultured HepG2 cell line and in rat liver. CAPE was found to significantly reduce t-BHP-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells, as determined by cell cytotoxicity, and lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CAPE protected HepG2 cells against t-BHP-induced oxidative DNA damage, as determined by the Comet assay. Consistently, CAPE reduced hydroxyl radical-induced 2-deoxy-d-ribose degradation by ferric ion-nitrilotriacetic acid and H2O2, and also removed the superoxide anion generated by a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Our in vivo study showed that pretreatment with CAPE prior to the administration of t-BHP significantly and dose-dependently prevented increases in the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) and reduced lipid peroxidation in rat liver. Moreover, histopathological evaluation of livers consistently revealed that CAPE reduced liver lesion induction by t-BHP. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of CAPE against t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity may, at least in part, be due to its ability to scavenge ROS and protect DNA from oxidative stress-induced damage. PMID:18485557

  9. alpha-Phenyl-n-tert-butyl-nitrone attenuates hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury in the neonatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuying; Rhodes, Philip G; Lei, Manping; Zhang, Feng; Cai, Zhengwei

    2004-05-01

    White matter of the neonatal brain is highly sensitive to hypoxic-ischemic insult. The susceptibility of premature oligodendrocytes (OLs) to free radicals (FRs) produced during hypoxia-ischemia (HI) has been proposed as one of the mechanisms involved. To test this hypothesis, and to further investigate if the FR scavenger alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN) attenuates hypoxic-ischemic white matter damage (WMD), postnatal day 4 (P4) SD rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery ligation (BCAL), followed by 8% oxygen exposure for 20 min. Pathological changes were evaluated on P6 and P9, 2 and 5 days after the HI insult. HI caused severe WMD including rarefaction, necrosis and cavity formation in the corpus callosum, external and internal capsule areas. OL injury was evidenced by degeneration of O4 positive OLs on P6. Disrupted myelination was verified by decreased immunostaining of myelin basic protein (MBP) on P9. Axonal injury was demonstrated by increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) immunostaining on both P6 and P9. Two lipid peroxidation end products, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), showed a one-fold elevation within 1-24 h following HI. 4-HNE immunostaining was found to specifically localize in the white matter area. Furthermore, pyknotic O4+ OLs were double-labeled with 4-HNE. These findings suggest that FRs are involved in the pathogenesis of neonatal WMD. PBN (100 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment alleviated the pathological changes of WMD following HI. It improved the survival of O4 positive OLs, attenuated hypomyelination and reduced axonal damage. PBN treatment also decreased the brain concentration of MDA/4-HNE and positive 4-HNE staining in the white matter area. These findings indicate that in the current WMD model, PBN protects both OLs and axons, the two main components in the white matter, from neonatal HI insult. FR scavenging appears to be the primary mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effect. PMID:15064144

  10. Hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking inter­actions in tris­(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)nickel(II) bis­{[1-tert-butyl­imidazole-2(3H)-thione-κS]trichloridonickelate(II)} acetonitrile disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Udai P.; Aggarwal, Vaibhave

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Ni(C12H8N2)3][NiCl3(C7H12N2S)]2·2CH3CN, consists of one anion, one-half of a cation and one acetonitrile mol­ecule. The NiII atom in the [Ni(phen)3]2+ cation (phen is 1,10-phenanthroline) lies on an inversion centre in an octa­hedral environment, whereas in the [NiCl3(tm)]− anion [tm is 1-tert-butyl­imidazole-2(3H)-thione], the geometry is distorted tetra­hedral. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking inter­actions (centroid–centroid distance = 3.52 Å) lead to the formation of a three-dimensional framework. One of the methyl groups of the tert-butyl group of N-tert-butyl-2-thio­imidazole is disordered between two equally populated positions. PMID:21202789

  11. DERMAL, ORAL, AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive, used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors has contaminated drinking water leading to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhalation ki...

  12. DERMAL, ORAL AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors, has contaminated drinking water and can lead to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhal...

  13. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURES TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans can be exposed by inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption to methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an oxygenated fuel additive, from contaminated water sources. The purpose of this research was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing in human...

  14. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  15. REFINED PBPK MODEL OF AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aggregate (multiple pathway) exposures to methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in air and water occur via dermal, inhalation, and oral routes. Previously, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to quantify the kinetic behavior of MTBE and its primary met...

  16. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1983-01-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C.sub.4 hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether.

  17. A COMPARISON OF LIQUID AND GAS-PHASE PHOTOOXIDATION TREATMENT OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER: SYNTHETIC AND FIELD SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of photo-oxidation treatment of metyl tert-butyl either (MTBE) in water was investigated using two systems, 1) a slurry falling film photo-reactor, and 2) an integrated air-stripping with gas phase photooxidation system. MTBE-contaminated synthetic water and field...

  18. Preparation of 5-Aryl-2-Alkyltetrazoles with Aromatic Aldehydes, Alkylhydrazine, Di-tert-butyl Azodicarboxylate, and [Bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene.

    PubMed

    Imai, Taro; Harigae, Ryo; Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Togo, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    A variety of 5-aryl-2-methyltetrazoles and 5-aryl-2-benzyltetrazoles were directly prepared in good to moderate yields by the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with methylhydrazine and benzylhydrazine, followed by treatment with di-tert-butyl azodicarboxylate and [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene in a mixture of dichloromethane and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol at room temperature. The present method is a novel one-pot preparation of 5-aryl-2-methyltetrazoles and 5-aryl-2-benzyltetrazoles through a [2N + 2N] combination under transition metal-free and mild conditions. PMID:27078200

  19. 1,1,4,4-Tetra-tert-butyl-1,4-dichloro-2,2,3,3-tetra-phenyl-tetra-silane.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Kyohei; Ishida, Shintaro; Kyushin, Soichiro

    2012-02-01

    The title compound, C(40)H(56)Cl(2)Si(4), was synthesized by the coupling of 1,1-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dichloro-2,2-diphenyl-disilane with lithium. The asymmetric unit contains one half-mol-ecule, which is completed by an inversion centre. In the mol-ecule, the tetra-silane skeleton adopts a perfect anti conformation and the Si-Si bonds [2.4355 (5) and 2.4328 (7) Å] are longer than the standard Si-Si bond length (2.34 Å). The Si-Si-Si angle [116.09 (2)°] is larger than the tetra-hedral bond angle (109.5°). These long bond lengths and the wide angle are favorable for reducing the steric hindrance among the tert-butyl and the phenyl groups. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings in the asymmetric unit is 37.36 (8)°. PMID:22347038

  20. 1,1,4,4-Tetra-tert-butyl-1,4-dichloro-2,2,3,3-tetra­phenyl­tetra­silane

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Kyohei; Ishida, Shintaro; Kyushin, Soichiro

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C40H56Cl2Si4, was synthesized by the coupling of 1,1-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dichloro-2,2-diphenyl­disilane with lithium. The asymmetric unit contains one half-mol­ecule, which is completed by an inversion centre. In the mol­ecule, the tetra­silane skeleton adopts a perfect anti conformation and the Si—Si bonds [2.4355 (5) and 2.4328 (7) Å] are longer than the standard Si—Si bond length (2.34 Å). The Si—Si—Si angle [116.09 (2)°] is larger than the tetra­hedral bond angle (109.5°). These long bond lengths and the wide angle are favorable for reducing the steric hindrance among the tert-butyl and the phenyl groups. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings in the asymmetric unit is 37.36 (8)°. PMID:22347038

  1. Azobenzene versus 3,3',5,5'-tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene (TBA) at Au(111): characterizing the role of spacer groups.

    PubMed

    McNellis, Erik R; Bronner, Christopher; Meyer, Jörg; Weinelt, Martin; Tegeder, Petra; Reuter, Karsten

    2010-06-28

    We present large-scale density-functional theory (DFT) calculations and temperature programmed desorption measurements to characterize the structural, energetic and vibrational properties of the functionalized molecular switch 3,3',5,5'-tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene (TBA) adsorbed at Au(111). Particular emphasis is placed on exploring the accuracy of the semi-empirical dispersion correction approach to semi-local DFT (DFT-D) in accounting for the substantial van der Waals component in the surface bonding. In line with previous findings for benzene and pure azobenzene at coinage metal surfaces, DFT-D significantly overbinds the molecule, but seems to yield an accurate adsorption geometry as far as can be judged from the experimental data. Comparing the trans adsorption geometry of TBA and azobenzene at Au(111) reveals a remarkable insensitivity of the structural and vibrational properties of the -N[double bond, length as m-dash]N- moiety. This questions the established view of the role of the bulky tert-butyl-spacer groups for the switching of TBA in terms of a mere geometric decoupling of the photochemically active diazo-bridge from the gold substrate. PMID:20379594

  2. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, Olawale R; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Marnewick, Jeanine L

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

  3. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Olawale R.; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Marnewick, Jeanine L.

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status. PMID:23690869

  4. Anionic surfactant ionic liquids with 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cations: characterization and application.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Butts, Craig P; Eastoe, Julian; Fermin, David; Grillo, Isabelle; Lee, Huai-Chin; Parker, David; Plana, Daniela; Richardson, Robert M

    2012-02-01

    For the first time a series of anionic surfactant ionic liquids (SAILs) has been synthesized based on organic surfactant anions and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cations. These compounds are more environmentally friendly and chemically tunable as compared to other common ionic liquids. A detailed investigation of physicochemical properties highlights potential applications from battery design to reaction control, and studies into aqueous aggregation behavior, as well as structuring in pure ILs, point to possible uses in electrochemistry. PMID:22208500

  5. Bis[μ-N-(tert-butyl­dimethyl­sil­yl)quinolin-8-aminato-1:2κ2 N 1,N 8:N 8](N,N,N′,N′-tetra­methyl­ethane-1,2-diamine-1κ2 N,N′)lithiumsodium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Yuan, Li

    2012-01-01

    In the heterometallic title bulky amido complex, [LiNa(C15H21N2Si)2(C6H16N2)], both alkali metal ions are four-coordinated with distorted tetra­hedral geometries. The Li+ ion is N,N′-chelated by the N-silylated amido ligand, with Li—N = 2.015 (5) and 2.074 (5) Å. The two amido ligands are arranged cis to each other. The mol­ecule exhibits a twofold rotational symmetry operation along the Li–Na axis. The Na+ ion is coordinated by two N atoms from the tetra­methyl­ethylenediamine ligand [Na—N = 2.553 (4) Å] and shares two amido N atoms from the N-silylated amido ligands with the Li+ ion. Although the crystal structure contains voids with an approximate volume of 50 Å3 there is no inclusion of solvent mol­ecules. PMID:23468700

  6. Spectroscopic Characterizations of Nonamphiphilic 2,5-BIS (5-TERT-BUTYL-BENZOXAZOLYL)-THIOPHENE Molecules at the Air-Water Interface and in Langmuir-Blodgett Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, D.

    This paper reports the π-A isotherm and spectroscopic characterizations of mixed Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of a nonamphiphilic thiophene derivative, namely, 2,5-Bis (5-tert-butyl-benzoxazolyl)-thiophene (BBOT) molecules, mixed with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA). The π-A isotherms and molefraction vs. area per molecule studies indicate some repulsive interaction between sample (BBOT) and matrix (PMMA or SA) molecules. At higher surface pressure in the SA mixed BBOT Langmuir monolayer, a phase transition occurs, which has been revealed by π-A isotherm studies. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies confirm this phase transition and closer association of BBOT molecules. Spectroscopic studies of LB films lifted at higher surface pressure clearly confirm the presence of dimmers and higher-order n-meric sites.

  7. Design, synthesis and antibacterial potential of 5-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-1-substituted-4,5-dihydropyrazoles

    PubMed Central

    El-Behairy, Mohammed F.; Mazeed, Tarek E.; El-Azzouny, Aida A.; Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N.

    2014-01-01

    A series of 5-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-1-substituted-4,5-dihydropyrazole derivatives 4a–e and 6a–g have been synthesized and spectrally characterized. The antibacterial activity of the novel candidates has been screened using the agar diffusion test. These compounds were endowed with high antibacterial activity against different Gram +ve and Gram −ve bacteria when compared with standard antibacterial drugs. In the light of zone of inhibition and MIC results, Sarcina and Staphylococcus aureus are the most sensitive bacteria where pyrrolidinomethanone derivative 4e showed MICs at 80 and 110 nM, respectively. While hydroxypiperidinoethanone derivative 6c showed MIC at 90 nM for Sarcina. PMID:25972742

  8. Preparation of Langmuir-Blodgett thin films of calix[6]arenes and p-tert butyl group effect on their gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozmen, Mustafa; Ozbek, Zikriye; Bayrakci, Mevlut; Ertul, Seref; Ersoz, Mustafa; Capan, Rifat

    2015-12-01

    Organic vapor sensing properties of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) thin films of p-tert-butyl calix[6]arene and calix[6]arene, and their certain characterization are reported in this work. LB films of these calixarenes have been characterized by contact angle measurement, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). QCM system was used for the measurement of sensor response against chloroform, benzene, toluene and ethanol vapors. Forming of stable monolayers was observed at the water surface using surface pressure-area isotherm graph. The results indicate that good quality, uniform LB films can be prepared with a transfer ratio of over 0.95. Due to the adsorption of vapors into the LB film structures; they yield a response to all vapors as of large, fast, and reproducible.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of pterin-6-aldehyde in gerbil global brain ischemia: comparison with those of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Arai, T; Ishii, H; Adachi, T; Endo, N; Makino, K; Mori, K

    1998-01-30

    The superoxide (O2.-) scavenging activity and the neuroprotective effects of pterin-6-aldehyde (P6A), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, were examined and compared with those of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), a spin trapping agent. The scavenging activity of P6A was more potent than that of PBN by 150-fold in neutrophil/phorbol myristate acetate O2.- generating system. P6A attenuated the neuronal damage with a much smaller dose and a greater efficiency than PBN in global brain ischemia in gerbils. These findings suggest that P6A is a more potent neuroprotective agent than PBN and has possible therapeutic effects against various diseases in which O2.- is involved. PMID:9507930

  10. Growth and characterization of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol single crystal by the vertical Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva Bala Solanki, S.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana; Basheer Ahamed, M.

    2015-02-01

    Single crystal of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol has been grown by the modified vertical Bridgman method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the crystal confirm that the material belongs to the monoclinic system and space group C2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis ascertains the functional group of grown crystal. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analyses are used to assess the thermal characteristics. The surface laser damage value was determined using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm, which is a positive property for nonlinear optical applications. Vickers's indentation test is performed to analyze the mechanical behavior of the materials. An optical transmission study is used to compute optical band gap and cutoff wavelength. Fluorescence studies were performed to the grown crystal. The Kurtz and Perry powder technique is used to determine the second harmonic conversion efficiency of the sample.

  11. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2B1 and Its F-Helix Mutant by Two tert-Butyl Acetylenic Compounds: Covalent Modification of Prosthetic Heme Versus Apoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsia-lien; Zhang, Haoming; Noon, Kathleen R.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome CYP2B1 [wild type (WT)] and its Thr205 to Ala mutant (T205A) by tert-butylphenylacetylene (BPA) and tert-butyl 1-methyl-2-propynyl ether (BMP) in the reconstituted system was investigated. The inactivation of WT by BPA exhibited a kinact/KI value of 1343 min−1mM−1 and a partition ratio of 1. The inactivation of WT by BMP exhibited a kinact/KI value of 33 min−1mM−1 and a partition ratio of 10. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC/MS/MS) of the WT revealed 1) inactivation by BPA resulted in the formation of a protein adduct with a mass increase equivalent to the mass of BPA plus one oxygen atom, and 2) inactivation by BMP resulted in the formation of multiple heme adducts that all exhibited a mass increase equivalent to BMP plus one oxygen atom. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated the formation of glutathione (GSH) conjugates by the reaction of GSH with the ethynyl moiety of BMP or BPA with the oxygen being added to the internal or terminal carbon. For the inactivation of T205A by BPA and BMP, the kinact/KI values were suppressed by 100- and 4-fold, respectively, and the partition ratios were increased 9- and 3.5-fold, respectively. Only one major heme adduct was detected following the inactivation of the T205A by BMP. These results show that the Thr205 in the F-helix plays an important role in the efficiency of the mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2B1 by BPA and BMP. Homology modeling and substrate docking studies were presented to facilitate the interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:19700628

  12. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Quantum efficiency of the laser-excited singlet-oxygen-sensitised delayed fluorescence of the zinc complex of tetra(4-tert-butyl)phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashtanov, M. E.; Drozdova, N. N.; Krasnovskii, A. A.

    1999-12-01

    An investigation was made of the ratios of the intensity Idf of the singlet-oxygen(1O2)-sensitised delayed fluorescence of the zinc complex of tetra(4-tert-butyl)phthalocyanine (ZnTBPc), with the maximum at λ = 685 nm, to the intensity I1270 of the photosensitised phosphorescence of 1O2 with the maximum at λ = 1270 nm in deuterated benzene when excited with λ = 337 nm nitrogen-laser pulses. Depending on the energy density of the laser radiation (0.25 — 0.7 mJ cm-2) and on the concentration of ZnTBPc (0.06 — 3.4 μM), the ratio of the zero-time intensities of the delayed fluorescence of ZnTBPc and of the singlet-oxygen phosphorescence Idf0/I12700 varied from 0.01 to 0.2 in air-saturated solutions of ZnTBPc. The intensity Idf0 decreased fivefold as a result of saturation with oxygen of air-saturated solutions. The quantum efficiency of the delayed fluorescence was represented by the coefficient α =(Idf0/I12700)kr/(γf[1O2]0[ZnTBPc]), where [1O2]0 is the zero-time concentration of 1O2 after a laser shot; kr is the rate constant of radiative deactivation of 1O2 in the investigated solvent; γf is the quantum yield of the ZnTBPc fluorescence. It was established that in the case of air-saturated solutions of ZnTBPc this coefficient was approximately 200 times less than for metal-free tetra(4-tert-butyl)phthalocyanine and its absolute value was ~2 × 1011 M-2 s-1.

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE is a volatile organic chemical used to oxygenate gasoline. Oxygenated gasoline improves the exhaust emissions from gasoline engines. Since 1992 it has been used to comply with the Federal Reformulated Gasoline (begun in 1995) and Wintertime Oxygenated Fuel (begun in 1992) p...

  14. Participation of covalent modification of Keap1 in the activation of Nrf2 by tert-butylbenzoquinone, an electrophilic metabolite of butylated hydroxyanisole

    SciTech Connect

    Abiko, Yumi; Miura, Takashi; Phuc, Bui Hoang; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2011-08-15

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is an antioxidant and class-2B carcinogen. It is biotransformed to tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), which readily auto-oxidizes to the electrophilic metabolite tert-butylbenzoquinone (TBQ). BHA and TBHQ activate Nrf2, a transcription factor that is negatively regulated by Keap1 and plays a role in the initial response to chemicals causing oxidative or electrophilic stress, although, the exact mechanism of Nrf2 activation remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of TBQ in Nrf2 activation. Exposure of RAW264.7 cells to TBQ activated Nrf2 and up-regulated its downstream proteins; under these conditions, TBQ produced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, while pretreatment with catalase conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG-CAT) did not affect the TBQ-induced activation of Nrf2, the ROS generation caused by TBQ was entirely abolished by PEG-CAT, suggesting that ROS is not the dominant factor for TBQ-dependent Nrf2 activation. A click chemistry technique indicated that TBQ chemically modifies Keap1. Furthermore, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis with purified Keap1 revealed that TBQ covalently binds to Keap1 through Cys23, Cys151, Cys226, and Cys368. These results suggest that TBQ derived from BHA activates Nrf2 through electrophilic modification of Keap1 rather than ROS formation. - Research Highlights: > tert-Butylbenzoquinone (TBQ) activates Nrf2 in RAW264.7 cells. > ROS is not essential factor for Nrf2 activation caused by TBQ. > TBQ covalently binds to Keap1 through reactive thiols, resulting in Nrf2 activation.

  15. Tris(tetrabutylammonium) hexakis(tert-butanethiolato-?S)hepta-?3-chlorido-?3-sulfido-hexamolybdate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Pavel A.; Naumov, Dmitry Yu.; Konchenko, Sergey N.

    2012-01-01

    The octahedral cluster core of the anion in the structure of the title compound, (C16H36N)3[Mo6(C4H9S)6(?3-Cl)7(?3-S)]2H2O, has -3 site symmetry. Two ?3-Cl atoms fully occupy positions in the cluster core, while the remaining six positions are statistically occupied by Cl and S atoms in a 1:5 ratio. The fully occupied Cl-atom positions are located on sites with 3 symmetry, and the N atom of tetrabutylammonium cation is located on a site with 2 symmetry. The structure contains also two disordered solvent water molecules, one of which is located on a threefold rotation axis and the other in a general position, both with an occupancy of 0.25. The water molecules are localized in cavities formed by the tetrabutylammonium cations and the tert-butanethiolate groups. The metal clusters are stacked in a cubic close packing arrangement along [001]. PMID:22412467

  16. Tris(tetra-butyl-ammonium) hexa-kis-(tert-butane-thiol-ato-?S)hepta-?(3)-chlorido-?(3)-sulfido-hexa-molybdate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Pavel A; Naumov, Dmitry Yu; Konchenko, Sergey N

    2012-03-01

    The octa-hedral cluster core of the anion in the structure of the title compound, (C(16)H(36)N)(3)[Mo(6)(C(4)H(9)S)(6)(?(3)-Cl)(7)(?(3)-S)]2H(2)O, has -3 site symmetry. Two ?(3)-Cl atoms fully occupy positions in the cluster core, while the remaining six positions are statistically occupied by Cl and S atoms in a 1:5 ratio. The fully occupied Cl-atom positions are located on sites with 3 symmetry, and the N atom of tetra-butyl-ammonium cation is located on a site with 2 symmetry. The structure contains also two disordered solvent water mol-ecules, one of which is located on a threefold rotation axis and the other in a general position, both with an occupancy of 0.25. The water mol-ecules are localized in cavities formed by the tetra-butyl-ammonium cations and the tert-butane-thiol-ate groups. The metal clusters are stacked in a cubic close packing arrangement along [001]. PMID:22412467

  17. Pyrolysis of tert-butyl tert-butanethiosulfinate, t-BuS(O)St-Bu: a computational perspective of the decomposition pathways.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bhaskar; Mandal, Debasish; Das, Abhijit K

    2011-04-14

    A systematic theoretical study has been performed on the low pressure thermal decomposition pathways of t-BuS(O)St-Bu using the CCSD(T)/cc-pV(D+d)Z//B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p), CCSD(T)/cc-pV(D+d)Z//PBEPBE/6-311++G(2d,2p), and G3B3 level of theories. Rate constants for the unimolecular decomposition pathways are calculated using Rice−Ramsperger−Kassel−Marcus (RRKM) theory. On the basis of the experimental observation and theoretical predictions, the pyrolysis channels are considered as primary and secondary pyrolysis reactions. The primary decomposition via a five-membered transition state leads to the formation of tert-butanethiosulfoxylic acid (t-BuSSOH) and 2-methylpropene (C4H8) almost exclusively having low-pressure limit rate constant k(1)(0) = 4.67 × 10(−6)T(−4.67) exp(−11.64 kcal mol(−1)/RT) cm3 mol(−1) s(−1) (T = 500−800 K). The primary decomposition via a six-membered transition state is also identified, and that leads to the tert-butanethiosulfinic acid t-BuS(OH)S, which is the branched chain isomer of t-BuSSOH. The formation of t-BuSSOH is thermodynamically as well as kinetically favorable over t-BuS(OH)S formation, and therefore the second product could not be found experimentally. Furthermore, calculation on secondary pyrolysis pathways involving the decomposition of t-BuSSOH leads to the formation of 1-oxatrisulfane (trans-HSSOH and cis-HSSOH) and their branched isomer S(SH)OH. These three secondary product formation rates are competitive, but thermodynamics do not favor the formation of the branched isomer. Among the secondary pyrolysis products, trans-HSSOH is the most stable one, and its formation rate constant at low pressure is calculated to be k(3)(0) = 5.49 × 10(28)T(−10.70) exp(−36.22 kcal mol(−1)/RT) cm3 mol(−1) s(−1) (T = 800−1500 K). Finally, the secondary pyrolysis pathway from less stable product t-BuS(OH)S is also predicted, and that leads to trans-HSSOH and cis-HSSOH products with almost equal rates. A bond-order analysis using Wiberg bond indexes obtained by natural bond orbital (NBO) calculation predicts that the primary and secondary pyrolysis of t-BuS(O)St-Bu occur via E1-like mechanism. PMID:21417300

  18. Comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of chemical equilibria in the reacting system of the tert-amyl methyl ether synthesis.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Andreas; Kapteina, Simon; Verevkin, Sergey P

    2007-09-20

    The chemical equilibrium of the reactive system (methanol+isoamylenes<-->methyl tert-amyl ether) was studied in the temperature range 298-393 K in the liquid phase using the method of sealed ampoules as well as in the gaseous phase using a tubular flow reactor in the temperature range 355-378 K. In both cases, a cation exchanger Amberlist-15 was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The reactive system of the methyl tert-amyl ether synthesis exhibits a strong nonideal behavior of the mixture compounds in the liquid phase. The knowledge of the activity coefficients is required in order to obtain the thermodynamic equilibrium constants Ka. Two well-established procedures, UNIFAC and COSMO-RS, have been used to assess activity coefficients of the reaction participants in the liquid phase. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants KP measured in the gaseous phase together with the vapor pressures of the pure compounds have been used to obtain Ka in the liquid phase on a consistent experimental basis in order to check the results obtained from the UNIFAC and COSMO-RS methods. Enthalpies of reactions DeltarH degrees of the methyl tert-amyl ether synthesis reaction in the gaseous and in the liquid phase were obtained from temperature dependences of the corresponding thermodynamic equilibrium constants. Consistency of the experimental data of DeltarH degrees was verified with help of enthalpies of formation and enthalpies of vaporization of methyl tert-amyl ether, methanol, and methyl-butenes, available from the literature. For the sake of comparison, high-level ab initio calculations of the reaction participants have been performed using the Gaussian-03 program package. Absolute electronic energy values, normal frequencies (harmonic approximation), and moments of inertia of the molecules have been obtained using G2(MP2), G3(MP2), and G3 levels. Using these results, calculated equilibrium constants and the enthalpy of reaction of the methyl tert-amyl ether synthesis in the gaseous phase based on the principles of statistical thermodynamics are found to be in acceptable agreement with the data obtained from the thermochemical measurements. PMID:17722908

  19. Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of 3-t-(methyl- UC) butyl-4-hydroxyanisole in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, G.A.; Hendrix, P.Y.

    1985-09-01

    Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of 3-t-(methyl- UC)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole was studied in male rats. 3-t-(methyl- UC)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole was administered by gavage at a single dose of 1.5 mmol/kg. Urine, feces, blood, and 20 major tissues were collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 16, 17, 18, 24, 48, 72, 168, and 240 hr after dosing and were analyzed for radioactivity. Almost all radioactivity was eliminated from rats in 48 hrs. Forty one per cent of the administered dose was recovered in urine, while feces accounted for 53%. At early time points radioactivity was mainly found in gastrointestinal tissues with concentrations remaining high up to 16-18 hr after administration indicating a slow absorption and elimination of the compound. The maximum concentration of radiolabel in kidney, liver, bladder, spleen, heart, pancreas, and brain was reached at 6 hr and remained up to 24 hr. The concentration of radioactivity in liver and kidney was approximately 10-fold higher than other tissues at the peak time of 16-18 hrs. Calculated absorption and elimination rate constants demonstrated slow uptake and clearance of label by many tissues. Covalent binding in eight representative tissues at 10 time points was also studied. Results indicate that binding increases slowly and exponentially with time reaching maximum levels at 12-24 hr in most of the tissues followed by a slow decline with time.

  20. Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and alkylation reactions: tert-butyl N-(2-mercaptoethyl)carbamate copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes as structural mimics for the active site of thiolate-alkylating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Mersal, Gaber A M; El-Shafai, Nagi; Ramadan, Abdel-Motaleb M; Youssef, Mohamed M

    2014-01-01

    Two new dithiolate copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes with the ligand tert-butyl N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-carbamate (Boc-SH) were prepared. Their structures were established to be [(Boc-S)2M], where M=Cu (1) and Ni (2) by using elemental analysis, thermal analysis, molar conductivity, FT-IR, Raman, UV/VIS, and ESR as well as EI-mass spectroscopic methods. The X-ray structure of the ligand Boc-SH was also determined. Spectral data showed that the carbamate ligand act as anioinic bidentate through one immine nitrogen and one thiolate sulfur donor atoms. The spectral techniques suggest that both complexes appear to have square planar geometries. The very low electrical conductance of the two complexes supports their neutral nature. The redox behaviors of the obtained complexes were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The monomeric nature of both complexes was assessed from their magnetic susceptibility values. The thermoanalytical data evidence that complex (2) is stable up to 165°C and undergo complete decomposition, resulting in NiO as a residual product. The TEM image of the obtained oxide residue showed its nanosize cluster, suggesting that complex (2) may be used as a precursor for the formation of nanooxide. The methylation reactions of the two dithiolate complexes (1) and (2) with methyl iodide appear to occur intramolecularly at the metal(II)-bound dithiolates, forming the metal(II)-bound dithioether complexes [M(Boc-SCH3)2]I2 with clean second-order constants of 7.95×10(-2) and 10.59×10(-2) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. PMID:24290356

  1. Highly efficient enzymatic synthesis of tert-butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate with a mutant alcohol dehydrogenase of Lactobacillus kefir.

    PubMed

    He, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Shao-Yun; Wu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Li-Rong; Xu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    tert-Butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((S)-CHOH) is a valuable chiral synthon, which is used for the synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. To date, only the alcohol dehydrogenases from Lactobacillus brevis (LbADH) and Lactobacillus kefir (LkADH) have demonstrated catalytic activity toward the asymmetric reduction of tert-butyl 6-chloro-3,5-dioxohexanoate (CDOH) to (S)-CHOH. Herein, a tetrad mutant of LkADH (LkTADH), A94T/F147L/L199H/A202L, was screened to be more efficient in this bioreduction process, exhibiting a 3.7- and 42-fold improvement in specific activity toward CDOH (1.27 U/mg) over LbADH (0.34 U/mg) and wild-type LkADH (0.03 U/mg), respectively. The molecular basis for the improved catalytic activity of LkTADH toward CDOH was investigated using homology modeling and docking analysis. Two major issues had a significant impact on the biocatalytic efficiency of this process, including (i) the poor aqueous stability of the substrate and (ii) partial substrate inhibition. A fed-batch strategy was successfully developed to address these issues and maintain a suitably low substrate concentration throughout the entire process. Several other parameters were also optimized, including the pH, temperature, NADP(+) concentration and cell loading. A final CDOH concentration of 427 mM (100 g/L) gave (S)-CHOH in 94 % yield and 99.5 % e.e. after a reaction time of 38 h with whole cells expressing LkTADH. The space-time yield and turnover number of NADP(+) in this process were 10.6 mmol/L/h and 16,060 mol/mol, respectively, which were the highest values ever reported. This new approach therefore represents a promising alternative for the efficient synthesis of (S)-CHOH. PMID:26004803

  2. 25,26,27,28-Tetra­butoxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl­calix[4]arene chloro­form tetra­solvate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengyi; Yuan, Dinghao; Xi, Haitao; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C60H88O4·4CHCl3·2H2O, is the alkyl­ated product of 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl­calix[4]arene. It adopts a distorted cone conformation which leads to an open cavity. All the phenolic rings are tilted so that their tert-butyl groups are pitched away from the calix cavity. Two opposite aromatic rings are close to being perpendicular to one another [dihedral angle 85.0 (2)°], while the other pair of opposite rings is almost parallel [dihedral angle 8.1 (2)°], and adjacent phenolic rings are almost perpendicular [dihedral angles 82.4 (1) or 87.9 (1)°]. In the crystal, the water molecule and calixarene interact by way of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21582951

  3. Isolation of a Bacterial Culture That Degrades Methyl t-Butyl Ether

    PubMed Central

    Salanitro, J. P.; Diaz, L. A.; Williams, M. P.; Wisniewski, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated a mixed bacterial culture (BC-1) which is capable of degrading the gasoline oxygenate methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). BC-1 was developed from seed microorganisms present in a chemical plant biotreater sludge. This enrichment culture has been maintained in continuous culture treating high concentrations of MTBE (120 to 200 mg/liter) as the sole carbon source in a simple feed containing NH4+, PO43-, Mg2+, and Ca2+ nutrients. The unit had a stable MTBE removal rate when maintained with a long cell retention time (ca. 80 to 90 days); however, when operated at a ≤50-day cell waste rate, loss of MTBE-degrading activity was observed. The following three noteworthy experimental data show that MTBE is biodegraded extensively by BC-1: (i) the continuous (oxygen-sparged) culture was able to sustain a population of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria which could nitrify influent NH4+ concentrations at high rates and obtain CO2 (sole carbon source for growth) from the metabolism of the alkyl ether, (ii) BC-1 metabolized radiolabeled either (14CH3O-MTBE) to 14CO2 (40%) and 14C-labeled cells (40%), and (iii) cell suspensions of the culture were capable of degrading (substrate depletion experiments) MTBE to t-butyl alcohol, a primary metabolite of MTBE. BC-1 is a mixed culture containing several bacterial species and is the first culture of its kind which can completely degrade an alkyl ether. PMID:16349335

  4. REMOVAL OF METHYL T-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) FROM WATER BY PERVAPORATION: BENCH-SCALE AND PILOT SCALE EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of pervaporation to remove methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) from water was evaluated at bench- and pilot-scales. Process parameters studied included flow rate, temperature, MTBE concentration, membrane module type, and permeate pressure. Pervaporation performance was ass...

  5. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) - ADVANCED FUEL HYDROCARBON REMEDIATION NATIONAL TEST LOCATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Equilon's Westhollow Technology Center teamed with Arizona State University to evaluate an in-situ process for bioremediation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is a gasoline additive that was introduced in fuels to reduce emission of a number of air pollutants including...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR DERMAL ABSORPTION NAD PENETRATION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic chemical that is added to gasoline as an octane booster and to reduce vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide. MTBE is introduced into the environment through fuel spills, leakage of storage tanks, and evaporat...

  7. Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

  8. Cooperative reduction by Ln(2+) and Cp*(-) ions: synthesis and properties of Sm, Eu, and Yb complexes with 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Pushkarevsky, Nikolay A; Ogienko, Mikhail A; Smolentsev, Anton I; Novozhilov, Igor N; Witt, Alexander; Khusniyarov, Marat M; Cherkasov, Vladimir K; Konchenko, Sergey N

    2016-01-21

    The first examples of samarium, europium, and ytterbium complexes with 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone(3,6-dbbq) in the form of catecholate have been obtained by reactions of the quinone with the corresponding lanthanocenes, [LnCp2*(thf)n] (n = 1 or 2) in solution. In the course of the reactions lanthanide ions lose one or two Cp* ligands, which take part in reduction of a quinone molecule into a catecholate anion (dbcat, 2(-)). As a result of the reactions, Sm and Yb clearly yield dimeric complexes[(LnCp*)2(dbcat)2], where each Ln ion loses one Cp* ligand. Eu forms a trimeric complex [(EuCp*)-(Eu·thf)2(dbcat)3], in which one Eu ion is coordinated by one Cp* ligand, while two Eu ions have lost all Cp* ligands and are coordinated by THF molecules instead. Magnetic properties corroborate the assignment of oxidation states made on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction: all the quinone ligands are present in the catecholate state; both Sm/Yb ions in the dimers are in the +3 oxidation state, whereas the Eu trimer contains two Eu(II) and one Eu(III) ions. Cyclovoltammetry studies show the presence of two reversible oxidation waves for all complexes, presumably concerned with the redox transitions of the dbcat ligands. PMID:26674171

  9. Photoinduced electron transfer in 2-tert-Butyl-3-(Anthracen-9-yl)-2,3-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde-Aguilar, Guadalupe; Garcia-Macedo, Jorge; Wang, Xianghuai; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nelsen, Stephen F.

    2006-08-01

    Intramolecular photoinduced electron-transfer from a hydrazine unit to an aromatic group is studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Substituted hydrazine functional groups have played an important role in studies of electron transfer reactions, photo-induced intramolecular electron transfer, and of mixed valence. A prototypical compound, 2-tert-Butyl-3-(Anthracen-9-yl)-2,3-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, that has the hydrazine to anthracene charge transfer band in a region of the visible spectrum suitable for detailed resonance Raman spectroscopy is studied in detail. Excitation profiles are obtained, calculated quantitatively by using time-dependent theoretical methods, and interpreted with the assistance of molecular orbital calculations. Excited state distortions are calculated. The largest distortions occur on the hydrazine unit; the normal mode showing the largest distortion (659 cm -1, calculated at 665 cm -1) involves an out of plane C-N-N-C bend consistent with removing an electron from the NN π antibonding orbital. Anthracene ring-centered CC stretches also are enhanced, consistent with populating an antibonding π orbital centered on the ring. Excellent fits to all of the excitation profiles and to the absorption band are obtained using one set of excited state potential surfaces.

  10. Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water–tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman

    2014-05-21

    Water–tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with x{sub TBA} ≈ 0.03–0.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at x{sub TBA} ≈ 0.05. We note that “islands” of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, x{sub TBA} ≈ 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

  11. Environmentally responsive self-assembly of mixed poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-polystyrene brush-grafted silica nanoparticles in selective polymer matrices.

    PubMed

    Tang, Saide; Fox, Tara L; Lo, Ting-Ya; Horton, Jonathan M; Ho, Rong-Ming; Zhao, Bin; Stewart, Phoebe L; Zhu, Lei

    2015-07-21

    Environmentally responsive self-assembly of nearly symmetric mixed poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA, 22.2 kDa)/polystyrene (PS, 23.4 kDa) brushes grafted onto 67 nm silica nanoparticles in selective homopolymer matrices [PtBA for the grafted PtBA chains and poly(cyclohexyl methacrylate) (PCHMA) for the grafted PS chains] was investigated using both conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography (i.e., 3D TEM). A variety of self-assembled phase morphologies were observed for the mixed brushes in selective polymer matrices with different molecular weights, and these can be explained by entropy-driven wet- and dry-brush theories. In a low molecular weight selective matrix, the wet-brush regime was formed with the miscible chains stretching out and the immiscible chains collapsing into isolated domains. In contrast, when the molecular weight of the selective matrix was higher than that of the compatible grafted polymer chains, the dry-brush regime was formed with the mixed brushes exhibiting the unperturbed morphology. In addition to the molecular weight, the size of nanoparticles (or the substrate curvature) was also observed to play an important role. For small particles (core size less than 50 nm), the wet brush-like morphology with a surface-tethered micellar structure was observed. Finally, the wet- and dry-brush regimes also significantly affected the dispersion of mixed brush particles in selective polymer matrices. PMID:26061172

  12. Evaluation of ethyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by compound-specific isotope analysis and in situ microcosms.

    PubMed

    Bombach, Petra; Nägele, Norbert; Rosell, Mònica; Richnow, Hans H; Fischer, Anko

    2015-04-01

    Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is an upcoming groundwater pollutant in Europe whose environmental fate has been less investigated, thus far. In the present study, we investigated the in situ biodegradation of ETBE in a fuel-contaminated aquifer using compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA), and in situ microcosms in combination with total lipid fatty acid (TLFA)-stable isotope probing (SIP). In a first field investigation, CSIA revealed insignificant carbon isotope fractionation, but low hydrogen isotope fractionation of up to +14‰ along the prevailing anoxic ETBE plume suggesting biodegradation of ETBE. Ten months later, oxygen injection was conducted to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) at the field site. Within the framework of this remediation measure, in situ microcosms loaded with [(13)C6]-ETBE (BACTRAP(®)s) were exposed for 119 days in selected groundwater wells to assess the biodegradation of ETBE by TLFA-SIP under the following conditions: (i) ETBE as main contaminant; (ii) ETBE as main contaminant subjected to oxygen injection; (iii) ETBE plus other PH; (iv) ETBE plus other PH subjected to oxygen injection. Under all conditions investigated, significant (13)C-incorporation into microbial total lipid fatty acids extracted from the in situ microcosms was found, providing clear evidence of ETBE biodegradation. PMID:25559863

  13. Vibrational frequency analysis, FT-IR, DFT and M06-2X studies on tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2yl)carbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; Singer, L. M.; Findlater, M.; Doğan, Hatice; Çırak, Ç.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2yl)carbamate have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) spectrum of the molecule in the solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and DFT/M06-2X (the highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09W software, for the first time. The vibrational frequencies have been assigned using potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The computational optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with related literature results. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and the other related molecular energy values have been calculated and are depicted.

  14. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra, density functional computations of the vibrational spectra and molecular conformational analysis of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-hydroquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, N.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Dereli, Ö.; Türkkan, E.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of finding conformer among six different possible conformers of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-hydroquinone (DTBHQ), its equilibrium geometry and harmonic wavenumbers were calculated by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. The infrared and Raman spectra of DTBHQ were recorded in the region 400-4000 cm -1 and 50-3500 cm -1, respectively. In addition, the IR spectra in CCl 4 at various concentrations of DTBHQ are also recorded. The computed vibrational wavenumbers were compared with the IR and Raman experimental data. Computational calculations at B3LYP level with two different basis sets 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) are also employed in the study of the possible conformer of DTBHQ. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using VEDA 4 program. The general agreement between the observed and calculated frequencies was established.

  15. Identification of hepatoprotective xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, guided with tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in HL-7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Qianyu; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Lin, Ligen

    2015-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative damage in human normal hepatocytes (HL-7702), led to the identification of 10 known xanthones. Among them, γ-mangostin (γ-Man) exhibited the most potent activity to attenuate t-BHP induced hepatocyte injury. γ-Man significantly ameliorated t-BHP induced reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cell nuclei morphology change in HL-7702 cells. t-BHP decreased the intracellular levels of key enzymes including glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was totally reversed by γ-Man. Moreover, γ-Man significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione, resulting in the alleviation of oxidative stress. The above results suggest γ-Man is a potential hepatoprotective agent against t-BHP induced oxidative injury, which may benefit the further application of G. mangostana as a health food. PMID:26189454

  16. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R.; Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S.

    2014-03-15

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300 °C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M = Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200 °C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18 nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of the Phyllanthus species on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Arogya, Sheela Meruga; Bhaskarmurthy, Deepak Hiraganahalli; Agarwal, Amit; Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) species have long been used in folk medicine to treat various pathological conditions including liver diseases. Some species of Phyllanthus were found to exhibit hepatoprotective activity against drugs or toxins and this property was majorly attributed to phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. In this study, we examined the hepatoprotective activity of five different species of Phyllanthus, namely, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus fraternus, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis, Phyllanthus urinaria, and Phyllanthus Rotundifolius. The extracts were also evaluated for the presence of key phytoconstituents, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. Materials and Methods: The extracts were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against tert-butyl hydroxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity using human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 cell line). Results: Only P. urinaria and P. maderaspatensis exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity as evident from increased cell viability. The HPLC profile revealed that except P. amarus, the other extracts did not contain phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. Conclusion: P. urinaria and P. maderaspatensis demonstrated dose-dependent hepatoprotective activity and hence, can provide promising therapeutic interventions against chemical–induced liver damage. PMID:21969794

  18. N-tert-butyl hydroxylamine, a mitochondrial antioxidant, protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from iron overload: relevance to macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Voloboueva, Ludmila A.; Killilea, David W.; Atamna, Hani; Ames, Bruce N.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual impairment in the elderly in developed countries. AMD patients have elevated levels of iron within the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), which may lead to oxidative damage to mitochondria, disruption of retinal metabolism, and vision impairment or loss. As a possible model for iron-induced AMD, we investigated the effects of excess iron in cultured human fetal RPE cells on oxidant levels and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) function and tested for protection by N-tert-butyl hydroxylamine (Nt-BHA), a known mitochondrial antioxidant. RPE exposure to ferric ammonium citrate resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in intracellular iron, which increased oxidant production and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and mitochondrial complex IV activity. NtBHA addition to iron-overloaded RPE cells led to a reduction of intracellular iron content, oxidative stress, and partial restoration of complex IV activity and GSH content. NtBHA might be useful in AMD due to its potential to reduce oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and age-related iron accumulation, which may damage normal RPE function and lead to loss of vision. PMID:17656467

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of Water Extracts from Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Liver Injury in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Bae; Noh, Dong Ouk; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hepatoprotective activity of Inonotus obliquus water extract (IO-W) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured rat hepatocyte. The 50% radical scavenging concentrations (SC50s) of IO-W for radical-scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothi- azoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) were 5.19 mg/mL and 0.39 mg/mL, respectively. IO-W pretreatment to the primary cultured hepatocytes significantly (p<0.05) protected the cells from t-BHP-induced cytotoxic injury even at a low concentration of IO-W (10 µg/mL). The cellular leakage of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation caused by t-BHP were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by IO-W pretreatment (>100 µg/ mL). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that IO-W exhibited hepatoprotective activity against t-BHP-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured hepatocyte probably via its abilities of quenching free radicals, inhibiting the leakage of ALT, AST, and LDH, and decreasing MDA formation. PMID:26853962

  20. Stability of fluctuating and transient aggregates of amphiphilic solutes in aqueous binary mixtures: Studies of dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, and tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-10-01

    In aqueous binary mixtures, amphiphilic solutes such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), etc., are known to form aggregates (or large clusters) at small to intermediate solute concentrations. These aggregates are transient in nature. Although the system remains homogeneous on macroscopic length and time scales, the microheterogeneous aggregation may profoundly affect the properties of the mixture in several distinct ways, particularly if the survival times of the aggregates are longer than density relaxation times of the binary liquid. Here we propose a theoretical scheme to quantify the lifetime and thus the stability of these microheterogeneous clusters, and apply the scheme to calculate the same for water-ethanol, water-DMSO, and water-TBA mixtures. We show that the lifetime of these clusters can range from less than a picosecond (ps) for ethanol clusters to few tens of ps for DMSO and TBA clusters. This helps explaining the absence of a strong composition dependent anomaly in water-ethanol mixtures but the presence of the same in water-DMSO and water-TBA mixtures.

  1. Effects of Consumption of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and a Rooibos-Derived Commercial Supplement on Hepatic Tissue Injury by tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Canda, B. D.; Oguntibeju, O. O.; Marnewick, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidative effect of rooibos herbal tea and a rooibos-derived commercial supplement on tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (t-BHP-) induced oxidative stress in the liver. Forty male Wistar rats consumed fermented rooibos, unfermented rooibos, a rooibos-derived commercial supplement, or water for 10 weeks, while oxidative stress was induced during the last 2 weeks via intraperitoneal injection of 30 µmole of t-BHP per 100 g body weight. None of the beverages impaired the body weight gain of the respective animals. Rats consuming the rooibos-derived commercial supplement had the highest (P < 0.05) daily total polyphenol intake (169 mg/day) followed by rats consuming the unfermented rooibos (93.4 mg/day) and fermented rooibos (73.1 mg/day). Intake of both the derived supplement and unfermented rooibos restored the t-BHP-induced reduction and increased (P < 0.05) the antioxidant capacity status of the liver, while not impacting on lipid peroxidation. The rooibos herbal tea did not affect the hepatic antioxidant enzymes, except fermented rooibos that caused a decrease (P < 0.05) in superoxide dismutase activity. This study confirms rooibos herbal tea as good dietary antioxidant sources and, in conjunction with its many other components, offers a significantly enhanced antioxidant status of the liver in an induced oxidative stress situation. PMID:24738022

  2. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    PubMed Central

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses. PMID:24583849

  3. Non-specific inhibition of ischemia- and acidosis-induced intracellular calcium elevations and membrane currents by α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, butylated hydroxytoluene and trolox.

    PubMed

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses. PMID:24583849

  4. The Synergistic Effects of Heat Shock Protein 70 and Ginsenoside Rg1 against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide Damage Model In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dan; Xu, Anding; Zhao, Jiayi; Zhang, Chanjuan; Qi, Renbin; Wang, Huadong; Lu, Daxiang; Zhu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) transplanted is one of the hottest research to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), but cholinergic neurons from stem cells were also susceptible to cell death which Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was affirmed to reverse. Related to cognitive impairment, cholinergic nervous cells should be investigated and ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) was considered to increase them. We chose tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) damage model to study in vitro. Functional properties of our recombination plasmid pEGFP-C2-HSP70 were affirmed by SH-SY5Y cells. To opposite the transitory appearance of HSP70, NSCs used as the vectors of HSP70 gene overexpressed HSP70 for at least 7 days in vitro. After transfection for 3 days, G-Rg1 pretreatment for 4 hours, and coculture for 3 days, the expression of acetylcholinesterase (ChAT), synaptophysin, and the ratio of NeuN and GFAP were assessed by western blot; Morphological properties were detected by 3D reconstruction and immunofluorescence. ChAT was markedly improved in the groups contained G-Rg1. In coculture system, the ratio of neurons/astrocytes and the filaments of neurons were increased; apoptosis cells were decreased, compared to monotherapy (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that, as a safe cotreatment affirmed in vitro, overexpression of HSP70 in NSCs plus G-Rg1 promoted nervous cells regeneration from chronic oxidative damage. PMID:25685255

  5. Protective Effects of Black Rice Extracts on Oxidative Stress Induced by tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-Mi; Choi, Youngmin; Sung, Jeehye; Kim, Younghwa; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Lee, Junsoo

    2014-01-01

    Black rice contains many biologically active compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of black rice extracts (whole grain extract, WGE and rice bran extract, RBE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations were evaluated as biomarkers of cellular oxidative status. Cells pretreated with 50 and 100 μg/mL of WGE or RBE were more resistant to oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The highest WGE and BRE concentrations enhanced GSH concentrations and modulated antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) compared to TBHP-treated cells. Cells treated with RBE showed higher protective effect compared to cells treated with WGE against oxidative insult. Black rice extracts attenuated oxidative insult by inhibiting cellular ROS and MDA increase and by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities in HepG2 cells. PMID:25580401

  6. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of extract of Celosia cristata L. flower on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Sung, Si-Heung; Jeon, You-Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Moon, Sang-Ho; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant potential and protective effects of Celosia cristata L. (Family: Amaranthaceae) flower (CCF) extracts on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in the hepatocytes of Chang cells and rat livers. In vitro, CCF extracts exhibited protective effect through their radical scavenging ability to enhance cell viability, prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and inhibit mitochondrial membrane depolarisation in t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity in Chang cells. In vivo, oral feeding of CCF (100mg and 500mg/kg of body weight) to rats for five consecutive days before a single dose of t-BHP (2mmol/kg, i.p.) showed a significant (p<0.05) protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT). The extract decreased the hepatic levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and serum level of triglyceride (TG) against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These results indicate that CCF extract prevented oxidative stress-induced liver injury by enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities. PMID:25172750

  7. 2,(3)tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole does not reduce SCE induction by benzo(a) pyrene in bone marrow cells of C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Van Horn, R.; DeWire, F.A.; Barnes, W.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Recently, a number of publications have suggested that bone marrow cytogenetics may be used to detect anticarcinogenic or antimutagenic activity. In this work, 0.75% 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), fed in the diet for 2 weeks, was tested for its ability to reduce the frequency of benzo(a)pyrene (BP)-induced SCE in mouse bone marrow. C57BL/6 male mice were injected i.p. with BP at 0, 33, 67, and 100 mg/kg body weight. There are no significant differences between animals on the control and BHA diets. Excretion of BP in urine over a 72 hr time period was significantly increased in animals on the BHA diet, at both low and high doses. Water-soluble metabolites accounted for all of this increase. It appears that bone marrow is not a good model for the gastrointestinal tract, and that short-term assays for anticarcinogens or antimutagens are more likely to be predictive if they are done in the target organs.

  8. Intramolecular charge transfer with 1-tert-butyl-6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (NTC6) and other aminobenzonitriles. A comparison of experimental vapor phase spectra and crystal structures with calculations.

    PubMed

    Druzhinin, Sergey I; Mayer, Peter; Stalke, Dietmar; von Bülow, Rixa; Noltemeyer, Mathias; Zachariasse, Klaas A

    2010-06-01

    Calculations of molecular structures in the electronic ground state S(0) and of excited state and fluorescence energies generally refer to the gas phase. This complicates a comparison with experimental data, which often are only available for molecules in solution. Therefore, experimental absorption and fluorescence spectra in the vapor phase are presented for 1-tert-butyl-6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (NTC6), 1-methyl-6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (NMC6), 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN), and 4-(diisopropylamino)benzonitrile (DIABN). NTC6 and DIABN show a dual fluorescence in the gas phase, with emissions from an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and a locally excited (LE) state, whereas with NMC6 and DMABN only LE emission is observed. For a comparison of the experimental molecular structure in S(0) with the results of recent computations, X-ray crystal structures of NTC6, NMC6, and several analogues are presented. For DMABN, NMC6, and NTC6, LE/ICT energy diagrams are constructed, in which the experimental energies of the Franck-Condon singlet excited states S(1) and S(2), and the LE and ICT states together with their emissions, are compared with the calculations. The LE and ICT dipole moments are also discussed. This comparison reveals substantial differences, in particular for the ICT energies, but even for the structure of the S(0) ground states. It is concluded that the computed ICT states of NTC6 and DMABN, in which the full conjugation of the phenyl ring is interrupted, is different from the ICT states measured in the experiments. PMID:20469862

  9. Gastroprotective Activity of Ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) Amino]benzoate against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Shakir, Raied Mustafa; Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Norazit, Anwar; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Background The study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic, antioxidant and gastro-protective effect of ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylid ene)amino] benzoate (ETHAB) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of ETHAB was assessed using a MTT cleavage assay on a WRL68 cell line, while its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. In the anti-ulcer study, rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 and group 2 received 10% Tween 20 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg Omeprazole. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received ETHAB at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. After an hour, group 1 received the vehicle. Groups 2–6 received absolute ethanol to induce gastric mucosal lesions. In the WRL68 cell line, an IC50 of more than 100 µg/mL was observed. ETHAB results showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH, FRAP, nitric oxide and metal chelating assays. There was no acute toxicity even at the highest dosage (1000 mg/kg). Microscopy showed that rats pretreated with ETHAB revealed protection of gastric mucosa as ascertained by significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), pH level, mucus secretion, reduced gastric lesions, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and remarkable flattened gastric mucosa. Histologically, pretreatment with ETHAB resulted in comparatively better gastric protection, due to reduction of submucosal edema with leucocyte infiltration. PAS staining showed increased intensity in uptake of Alcian blue. In terms of immunohistochemistry, ETHAB showed down-expression of Bax proteins and over-expression of Hsp70 proteins. Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of ETHAB may be attributed to antioxidant activity, increased gastric wall mucus, pH level of gastric contents, SOD activity, decrease in MDA level, ulcer area, flattening of gastric mucosa, reduction of edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer, increased PAS staining, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and suppressed expression of Bax. Key words: ethyl 4-(3, 5-di-ter-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylamino) benzoate; toxicity; antioxidant; gastric-ulcer; anti-ulcer; histology; immunohistochemistry. PMID:24800807

  10. Protection against oxidative damage to CNS by alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and other spin-trapping agents: A novel series of nonlipid free radical scavengers

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, J.M.; Floyd, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Brain is extremely susceptible to oxidative damage. Utilizing a series of novel approaches, the authors have demonstrated that oxidative damage occurs during an ischemia/reperfusion insult (IRI) to brain. Thus, they have demonstrated that an IRI to Mongolian gerbil brain results in: (1) an enhanced rate of salicylate hydroxylation, implicating an increased flux of hydroxyl free radicals; (2) an enhanced flux of free radicals as determined by spin-trapping; (3) an enhanced level of endogenous protein oxidation; (4) a decrease in glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, an enzyme very sensitive to oxidative damage; and (5) demonstration of protection from an IRI by administering the spin-trapping agent alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN). The novel observation that PBN offers protection from the lethality brought on by a brain IRI appears to be clearly linked to the ability of the administered spin-trap to inhibit oxidative damage as evidenced by the decreased amount of brain protein oxidation and the prevention of an IRI-mediated loss of GS activity in treated animals. Aged gerbils are more sensitive to the lethal action of a brain IRI than younger animals, but they are protected by PBN administration as are the younger animals. Older gerbils have a significantly higher level of oxidized protein in the brain. Older gerbils have decreased activities of GS and neutral protease, the enzyme that removes oxidized protein, than younger animals. Chronic twice daily administration of PBN (32 mg/kg) for 14 days to older animals significantly lowered brain oxidized protein levels and raised GS and neutral protease activity to those observed in younger animals. Cessation of PBN administration resulted in a time-dependent restoration of protein oxidation levels and enzyme activities back to those observed prior to spin-trap administration.

  11. Azilsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, attenuates tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced endothelial cell injury through inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Mao, Ping; Wang, Jia; Wang, Tuo; Xie, Chang-Hou

    2016-03-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) blockers protect against brain ischemia by mechanisms dependent on and independent of arterial blood pressure. However, the effects of AT1-R blockers on brain endothelial cell injury and detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study is to investigate whether azilsartan, an AT1-R blocker, could attenuate oxidative injury in endothelial cells via regulating mitochondrial function and inflammatory responses. We found that treatment with azilsartan suppressed tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in murine brain endothelial cells (mBECs) by increasing cell viability, decreasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Azilsartan significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation, but had no effect on antioxidant system. We also detected preserved mitochondrial function after azilsartan treatment, as evidenced by increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reduced cytochrome c release, preserved ATP synthesis and inhibited mitochondrial swelling. In addition, azilsartan differently regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Pretreatment with eNOS inhibitor L-NIO partially prevented the azilsartan-induced regulation of cytokines and protection. Furthermore, azilsartan-induced protection in our in vitro model was shown to be associated with protein stability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Overall, our data suggest that the AT1-R blocker azilsartan may have therapeutic values in treating endothelial dysfunction associated neurological disorders through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26879328

  12. Inverted microcontact printing on polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) films: a versatile approach to fabricate structured biointerfaces across the length scales.

    PubMed

    Embrechts, Anika; Feng, Chuan Liang; Mills, Christopher A; Lee, Michael; Bredebusch, Ilona; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Domschke, Wolfram; Vancso, G Julius; Schönherr, Holger

    2008-08-19

    The combination of the recently introduced soft lithographic technique of inverted microcontact printing (i-muCP) and spin-coated films of polystyrene- block-poly( tert-butyl acrylate) (PS 690- b-P tBA 1210) as a reactive platform is shown to yield a versatile approach for the facile fabrication of topographically structured and chemically patterned biointerfaces with characteristic spacings and distances that cross many orders of magnitude. The shortcomings of conventional muCP in printing of small features with large spacings, due to the collapse of small or high aspect ratio stamp structures, are circumvented in i-muCP by printing reactants using a featureless elastomeric stamp onto a topographically structured reactive polymer film. Prior to molecular transfer, the substrate-supported PS 690- b-P tBA 1210 films were structured by imprint lithography resulting in lateral and vertical feature sizes between >50 microm-150 nm and >1.0 microm-18 nm, respectively. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and water contact angle measurements provided evidence for the absence of surface chemical transformations during the imprinting step. Following the previously established hydrolysis and activation protocol with trifluoroacetic acid and N-hydroxysuccinimide, amino end-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-NH 2), as well as bovine serum albumin and fibronectin as model proteins, were successfully transferred by i-muCP and coupled covalently. As shown, i-muCP yields increased PEG coverages and thus improved performance in suppressing nonspecific adsorption of proteins by exploiting the high local concentrations in the micro- and nanocontacts during molecular transfer. The i-muCP strategy provides access to versatile biointerface platforms patterned across the length scales, as shown for guided cancer cell adhesion, which opens the pathway for systematic cell-surface interaction studies. PMID:18624456

  13. Demonstration of free radical generation in stunned myocardium of intact dogs with the use of the spin trap alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.; Patel, B.S.; Jeroudi, M.O.; Lai, E.K.; McCay, P.B.

    1988-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxygen free radicals may mediate postischemic myocardial dysfunction (stunning), but all the evidence for this hypothesis is indirect. Thus, we used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trap, alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), to directly investigate whether free radicals are produced after a 15-min coronary artery occlusion and subsequent reperfusion in 30 open-chest dogs. After intracoronary infusion of PBN, EPR signals characteristic of oxygen- and carbon-centered radical adducts were detected in the venous blood draining from the ischemic/reperfused vascular bed. The myocardial release of PBN adducts began during coronary occlusion but increased dramatically in the first few minutes after reperfusion. After this initial burst, the production of radicals abated but did not cease, persisting up to 3 h after reflow. The EPR spectra were consistent with the trapping by PBN of secondary oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals, such as alkoxy and alkyl radicals, which could be formed by reactions of primary oxygen radicals with membrane lipids. There was a linear, direct relationship between the magnitude of PBN adduct production and the degree of ischemic flow reduction. Recovery of contractile function after reperfusion was greater (P less than 0.05) in dogs given PBN than in controls. This study demonstrates that reversible regional myocardial ischemia in the intact animal is associated with prolonged free radical generation, and that the intensity of such generation is related to the severity of ischemia. The results provide direct evidence to support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen metabolites contribute to the persistent contractile dysfunction observed after brief ischemia in vivo.

  14. Disposition of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol (DBNP), a submarine atmosphere contaminant, in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Still, Kenneth R; Jung, Anne E; Ritchie, Glenn D; Jederberg, Warren W; Wilfong, Erin R; Briggs, G Bruce; Arfsten, Darryl P

    2005-07-01

    The phenol 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol (DBNP) is a contaminant found onboard submarines and is formed by the nitration of an antioxidant present in turbine lubricating oil TEP 2190. DBNP has been found on submarine interior surfaces, on eating utensils and dishes, and on the skin of submariners. DBNP exposure is a potential health concern because it is an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Adult male rats were dosed once by oral gavage with 15 or 40 mg/kg DBNP mixed with 14C-DBNP in kanola oil and 0.8% v/v DMSO (n = 16/group). The distribution of 14C in major tissues was measured over time for up to 240 h post-dose. Unexpectedly, 6/16 (40%) of the rats gavaged with 40 mg/kg DBNP died within 24 h of dosing. Prostration, no auditory startle response, reduced locomotor activity, and muscular rigidity persisted in survivors for up to 8 days after dosing. For animals dosed with 15 mg/kg DBNP, radioactivity levels were significantly elevated in the following tissues 24h after dosing: fat>liver>kidneys>heart>lungs>brain>striated muscle>spleen. Radioactivity levels were elevated for fat, liver, kidney, heart, and lungs of animals euthanized 144 h post-dosing and in the liver of animals euthanized 240 h post-dosing. These findings suggest that DBNP may accumulate in the body as a result of continuous or repeat exposures of short interval to DBNP. PMID:15910791

  15. Synthesis, antiradical activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of novel organotin complexes based on 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-mercaptophenol.

    PubMed

    Shpakovsky, D B; Banti, C N; Mukhatova, E M; Gracheva, Yu A; Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Albov, D V; Antonenko, T A; Aslanov, L A; Milaeva, E R; Hadjikakou, S K

    2014-05-14

    A series of organotin complexes with Sn-S bonds of formulae Me2Sn(SR)2 (1); Et2Sn(SR)2 (2); (n-Bu)2Sn(SR)2 (3); Ph2Sn(SR)2 (4); R2Sn(SR)2 (5); Me3SnSR (6); Ph3SnSR (7) (R = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, (1)H, (13)C NMR, and IR. The crystal structures of compounds 1, 4, 5, and 7 were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The tetrahedral geometry around the Sn center in the monocrystals of 1, 4, 5, and 7 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The high radical scavenging activity of the complexes was confirmed spectrophotometrically in a DPPH-test. The binding affinity of 1-7 and the starting R2SnCl2 (8) towards tubulin through their interaction with SH groups of proteins was studied. It was found that the hindered organotin complexes could interact with the colchicine site of tubulin, which makes them promising antimitotic drugs. Compounds 1-8 were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7) and human cervix (HeLa) adenocarcinoma cells. Complexes 1-8 were also tested against normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5). Complexes 2-4 and 8 exhibit significantly lower cytostatic activity against the normal MRC-5 cell line compared to the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and HeLa used. A high activity against both cell lines 250 nM (MCF-7) and 160 nM (HeLa) was determined for the triphenyltin complex 7 while the introduction of hindered phenol groups decreases the cytotoxicity of the complexes against normal cells. PMID:24658418

  16. Simultaneous determination of organotin compounds in textiles by gas chromatography-flame photometry following liquid/liquid partitioning with tert-butyl ethyl ether after reflux-extraction.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Tetsuo

    2013-10-15

    A rapid and relatively clean method for determining six organotin compounds (OtC) in textile goods with a gas chromatograph equipped with a conventional flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) has been developed. After the reflux-extraction to use methanol containing 1% (v/v) of hydrochloric acid, five hydrophobic OtC (e.g. tributyltin: TBT) and slightly less hydrophobic dibutyltin (DBT) could be drawn out through partitioning between the methanolic buffer solution and tert-butyl ethyl ether instead of hazardous dichloromethane, of which usage is provided by the official-methods notified in Japan, and following the ethylation procedure to use sodium tetraethylborate, the OtC were determined with the GC-FPD. The recoveries of DBT, TBT, tetrabutyltin, triphenyltin, dioctyltin, and trioctyltin from textile products (cloth diaper, socks, and undershirt) were 60-77, 89-98, 86-94, 71-78, 85-109, and 70-79% respectively, and their coefficients of variation were 2.5-16.5%. Calibration curves for OtC were linear (0.01-0.20 μg as Sn mL(-1)), and the correlation coefficients were 0.9922-1.0000. Their detection limits were estimated to be 2.7-9.7 n gas Sn g(-1). These data suggested that this method would be applicable to their simultaneous determination. Five retailed textile goods were analyzed by this proposed method, and 0.013-0.65 µg as Sn g(-1) of OtC (e.g. DBT) were determined in three. Moreover, a possibility that various OtC including non-targeted species in textile would be specifically detected by applying the studying speciation-technique of controlling signal intensity-flame fuel gas pressures of the GC-FPD was found. PMID:24054605

  17. Dynamics of Back Electron Transfer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Featuring 4-tert-Butyl-Pyridine and Atomic-Layer-Deposited Alumina as Surface Modifiers.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michael J; Vermeer, Michael J DeVries; Farha, Omar K; Pellin, Michael J; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-06-18

    A series of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was constructed with TiO2 nanoparticles and N719 dye. The standard I3(-)/I(-) redox shuttle and the Co(1,10-phenanthroline)3(3+/2+) shuttle were employed. DSCs were modified with atomic-layered-deposited (ALD) coatings of Al2O3 and/or with the surface-adsorbing additive 4-tert-butyl-pyridine. Current-voltage data were collected to ascertain the influence of each modification upon the back electron transfer (ET) dynamics of the DSCs. The primary effect of the additives alone or in tandem is to increase the open-circuit voltage. A second is to alter the short-circuit current density, JSC. With dependence on the specifics of the system examined, any of a myriad of dynamics-related effects were observed to come into play, in both favorable (efficiency boosting) and unfavorable (efficiency damaging) ways. These effects include modulation of (a) charge-injection yields, (b) rates of interception of injected electrons by redox shuttles, and (c) rates of recombination of injected electrons with holes on surface-bound dyes. In turn, these influence charge-collection lengths, charge-collection yields, and onset potentials for undesired dark current. The microscopic origins of the effects appear to be related mainly to changes in driving force and/or electronic coupling for underlying component redox reactions. Perhaps surprisingly, only a minor role for modifier-induced shifts in conduction-band-edge energy was found. The combination of DSC-efficiency-relevant effects engendered by the modifiers was found to vary substantially as a function of the chemical identity of the redox shuttle employed. While types of modifiers are effective, a challenge going forward will be to construct systems in ways in which the benefits of organic and inorganic modifiers can be exploited in fully additive, or even synergistic, fashion. PMID:25127076

  18. Acute toxicity of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    BenKinney, M.T.; Barbieri, J.F.; Gross, J.S.; Naro, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    Due to the recent amendment of the Clean Air Act, oxygenates are now being added to gasolines to boost octane and reduce air pollution from combustion in heavily populated areas. Oxygenates such as alcohols (i.e. methanol) and ethers (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, MTBE) are commonly being used. A series of bioassay studies have been conducted with MTBE, one of the most commonly used octane-enhancing additives. Freshwater and marine studies were conducted with fish, invertebrates and algae to determine the impact of this material on the environment following accidental spills. Static-renewal studies were run to ensure maintenance of MTBE, a highly volatile material in the test containers. Chemical confirmation of exposure concentrations demonstrated the adequacy of the exposure system. Mysid shrimp were highly sensitive to MTBE, with significantly less effect observed with the other species evaluated. These data have implications for spill response, particularly since MTBE is slow to biodegrade and will rapidly move through groundwater. Comparative data for other oxygenates will also be discussed.

  19. Toxicity of methyl tertiary-butyl ether on human blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Ahmad; Vaghar-Moussavi, Mehrdad; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-05-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a synthetic solvent widely used as oxygenate in unleaded gasoline. Few studies have addressed the cellular toxicity of MTBE on some cell lines, and so far, no comprehensive study has been conducted to investigate the probable immunotoxicity of this compound. In this study, the toxicity of MTBE on human blood lymphocytes was evaluated. Blood lymphocytes were isolated from healthy male volunteers' blood, using Ficoll polysaccharide followed by gradient centrifugation. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, and damage to mitochondria and lysosome were determined in blood lymphocytes after 6-h incubation with different concentrations of MTBE (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM). Our results showed that MTBE, in particular, decreased cell viability, which was associated with significant increase at intracellular ROS level and toxic alterations in mitochondria and lysosomes in human blood lymphocytes. Moreover, it was shown that MTBE strongly provoked lipid peroxidation and also depleted glutathione level at higher concentrations. Interestingly, MTBE exhibited its cytotoxic effects at low concentrations that may resemble to its concentrations in human blood following occupational and environmental exposure. It is therefore concluded that MTBE was capable of inducing oxidative stress and damage to mitochondria and lysosomes in human lymphocytes at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 μg/L, which may be present in human blood as a result of environmental exposure. PMID:26797945

  20. Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J.

    1995-10-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

  1. Teratology evaluation of methyl tertiary butyl ether in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Conaway, C.C.; Schroeder, R.E.; Snyder, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    Mated CD Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1 mice were exposed during the period of organogenesis to target concentrations of 0.250, 1000, and 2500 ppm methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). None of the control or test-group animals died during the treatment or posttreatment periods. Females were sacrificed on d 20 (rats) or d 18 (mice). No adverse effects of treatment were reflected in maternal parameters of body weight, water consumption, or liver weight or in physical examination data for either species. Food consumption fell in the groups of treated rats during d 9-12; similar but nonsignificant effects were observed for mice during d 12-15. In rats, no treatment-related changes were recorded in the uterine implantation data, fetal size parameters, or fetal sex distribution data. Examination of fetuses for external abnormalities, skeletal malformations or ossification variations did not reveal any changes caused by MTBE exposure. A slight increase in fetal resorptions was observed in the groups of mice exposed to low and high concentrations; this increase was attributed to two females in each group that had an unusually high number of resorptions, rather than to the treatment itself. No significant effects were observed in any groups of treated mice on external and soft-tissue examination or evaluation of skeletal abnormalities or ossification variations. The incidence of fused sternebrae in the high-concentration group increased slightly, which might be attributed to fetotoxicity.

  2. Discovery of N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (VX-770, ivacaftor), a potent and orally bioavailable CFTR potentiator.

    PubMed

    Hadida, Sabine; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zhou, Jinglan; Arumugam, Vijayalaksmi; McCartney, Jason; Hazlewood, Anna; Decker, Caroline; Negulescu, Paul; Grootenhuis, Peter D J

    2014-12-11

    Quinolinone-3-carboxamide 1, a novel CFTR potentiator, was discovered using high-throughput screening in NIH-3T3 cells expressing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Extensive medicinal chemistry and iterative structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies to evaluate potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties resulted in the identification of N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (VX-770, 48, ivacaftor), an investigational drug candidate approved by the FDA for the treatment of CF patients 6 years of age and older carrying the G551D mutation. PMID:25441013

  3. Is There Stereoselectivity in Spin Trapping Superoxide by 5-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Pei; Marra, Jeffrey M.; Pou, Sovitj; Bowman, Michael K.; Rosen, Gerald M.

    2005-09-02

    Ester-containing nitrones, including 5-tert-butoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide 5, have been reported to be robust spin traps for superoxide (O2•-). Using a chiral column, we have been able to isolate the two enantiomers of nitrone 5. With enantiomerically pure nitrone 5a and 5b we explored whether one of these isomers was solely responsible for the EPR spectrum of aminoxyl 6. Data obtained demonstrate that the spin trapping of O2•- by nitrone 5a and nitrone 5b afford the identical EPR spectra and lifetimes in homogenous aqueous solution and exhibit the same ratio of cis and trans isomers. Quantum chemical modeling in vacuo also finds no difference, aside from the expected optical activity, arising from the difference in stereochemistry.

  4. Is there stereoselectivity in spin trapping superoxide by 5-tert-butoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei; Marra, Jeffrey M; Pou, Sovitj; Bowman, Michael K; Rosen, Gerald M

    2005-09-01

    [reaction: see text] Ester-containing nitrones, including 5-tert-butoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide 5, have been reported to be robust spin traps for superoxide (O2*-). Using a chiral column, we have been able to isolate the two enantiomers of nitrone 5. With enantiomerically pure nitrone 5a and 5b we explored whether one of these isomers was solely responsible for the EPR spectrum of aminoxyl 6. Data obtained demonstrate that the spin trapping of O2*- by nitrone 5a and nitrone 5b affords the identical EPR spectra and lifetimes in homogeneous aqueous solution and exhibits the same ratio of cis and trans isomers. Quantum chemical modeling in vacuo also finds no difference, aside from the expected optical activity, arising from the difference in stereochemistry. PMID:16122227

  5. Variable pi-bonding in iron(II) porphyrinates with nitrite, CO, and tert-butyl isocyanide: characterization of [Fe(TpivPP)(NO2)(CO)]-.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Habib; Ellison, Mary K; Shang, Maoyu; Schulz, Charles E; Scheidt, W Robert

    2004-05-01

    The addition of the strongly pi-bonding ligands CO or tert-butyl isocyanide to the low-spin five-coordinate iron(II) nitrite species [Fe(TpivPP)(NO2)]- (TpivPP = picket fence porphyrin) gives two new six-coordinate species [Fe(TpivPP)(NO2)(CO)]- and [Fe(TpivPP)(NO2)(t-BuNC)]-. These species have been characterized by single-crystal structure determinations and by UV-vis, IR, and Mössbauer spectroscopies. All evidence shows that in the mixed-ligand iron(II) porphyrin species, [Fe(TpivPP)(NO2)(CO)]-, the two trans, pi-accepting ligands CO and nitrite compete for pi density. The CO ligand however dominates the bonding. The Fe-N(NO2) bond lengths for the two independent anions in the unit cell at 2.006(4) and 2.009(4) A are lengthened compared to other nitrite species with either no trans ligands or non-pi-accepting trans ligands to nitrite. The Fe-C(CO) bond lengths are 1.782(4) A and 1.789(5) A for the two anions. The two Fe-C-O angles at 175.5(4) and 177.5(4) degrees are essentially linear in both anions. The quadrupole splitting for [Fe(TpivPP)(NO2)(CO)]- was determined to be 0.32 mm/s, and the isomer shift was 0.18 mm/s at room temperature in zero applied field. Both of the Mössbauer parameters are much smaller than those found for six-coordinate low-spin iron(II) porphyrinates with neutral nitrogen-donating ligands as well as iron(II) nitro complexes. However, the Mössbauer parameters are typical of other six-coordinate CO porphyrinates signifying that CO is the more dominant ligand. The CO stretching frequency of 1974 cm(-1) is shifted only slightly to higher energy compared to six-coordinate CO complexes with neutral nitrogen-donor ligands trans to CO. Crystal data for [K(222)][Fe(TpivPP)(NO2)(CO)].1/2C6H5Cl: monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, Z = 8, a = 33.548(6) A, b = 18.8172(15) A, c = 27.187(2) A, beta = 95.240(7) degrees, V = 17091(4) A3. PMID:15106981

  6. Protective effects of germinated and fermented soybean extract against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells and in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of germinated and fermented soybean extract (GFSE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and in the rat liver. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that genistin (3.40 ± 0.14 μg mg(-1)) was the most abundant isoflavone in the GFSE. Coumestrol (1.00 ± 0.04 μg mg(-1)), daidzin (0.78 ± 0.14 μg mg(-1)), genistein (0.68 ± 0.05 μg mg(-1)), glycitin (0.54 ± 0.02 μg mg(-1)), glycitein (0.41 ± 0.02 μg mg(-1)), and daidzein (0.02 ± 0.0 g mg(-1)) are also contained in decreasing order of content. GFSE significantly inhibited t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HepG2 cells. This GFSE-induced ROS reduction was associated with the down-regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4), a pro-oxidant enzyme, and the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) in the rat liver. In addition, increased levels of antioxidant enzyme mRNAs correlated with the enhanced enzymatic activities of SOD, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The antioxidant effect of GFSE was supported by the reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a hydroperoxide, and the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of cell damage, were also lowered by GFSE. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), which are clinical biomarkers of liver function, were shown to be improved with GFSE administration. The effects of GFSE were attributable to an improvement in liver tissue morphology. Taken together, GFSE protected the liver from t-BHP-induced oxidative stress by regulating ROS-related enzymes. Our results suggest that GFSE might be a hepatoprotective source against oxidative stress. PMID:26299642

  7. Photophysical, electrochemical and crystallographic investigations of the fluorophore 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-benzoxazol-2-yl)thiophene.

    PubMed

    Fourati, M Amine; Maris, Thierry; Skene, W G; Bazuin, C Géraldine; Prud'homme, Robert E

    2011-11-01

    The photophysics of 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-benzoxazol-2-yl)thiophene (BBT) were investigated for assessing its limitations for use as a universal fluorophore and as a viable sensor for both polymeric and solution studies. This is of importance given the limitations of currently used materials. BBT's steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence were additionally investigated to correlate its solid-state features, observed by fluorescence spectroscopy when mixed in poly(1,4-butylene succinate) (PBS) films, with its single crystal characteristics. The conjugated fluorophore was found to be highly fluorescent, with absolute quantum yields of (Φ(fl)) ≥ 0.60. The Φ(fl) values were high, regardless of solvent polarity and proticity and whether alone or in polymeric films. The major competitive fluorescence quenching pathway was found to occur by intersystem crossing to the triplet state. This was confirmed by laser flash photolysis in which the BBT triplet absorbed at 500 nm. The triplet transient was confirmed by quenching studies with 1,3-cyclohexadiene. Meanwhile, nonradiative deactivation of BBT's singlet excited state by internal conversion was found to be negligible. In solution and especially when distributed in semicrystalline PBS, BBT exhibits spectral changes and a bathochromic shift as a function of concentration due to aggregation of ground state molecules, which is present even at low BBT concentrations. Consistent monoexponential lifetimes on the order of ∼2 ns were observed regardless of solvent and independent of both the excitation wavelength and concentration. The constant excited state kinetics confirm the absence of a singlet excited state deactivation by excimer formation. The electrochemistry of BBT demonstrated that it is irreversibly oxidized and the resulting radical cation is unstable. Conversely, the cathodic process, resulting in the radical anion, is reversible, confirming its n-doping character. Crystallographic studies revealed that the planes described by the benzoxazolyl moieties are twisted from the plane described by the central thiophene. Several weak C-H···π and π-π intermolecular interactions were also observed. BBT's high solubility in common solvents combined with its measured enhanced optoelectronic properties make it a candidate as a universal fluorophore reference and smart material for both polymeric and solution studies. PMID:21916450

  8. Risk characterization of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in tap water.

    PubMed

    Stern, B R; Tardiff, R G

    1997-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) can enter surface water and groundwater through wet atmospheric deposition or as a result of fuel leaks and spills. About 30% of the U.S. population lives in areas where MTBE is in regular use. Ninety-five percent of this population is unlikely to be exposed to MTBE in tap water at concentrations exceeding 2 ppb, and most will be exposed to concentrations that are much lower and may be zero. About 5% of this population may be exposed to higher levels of MTBE in tap water, resulting from fuel tank leaks and spills into surface or groundwater used for potable water supplies. This paper describes the concentration ranges found and anticipated in surface and groundwater, and estimates the distribution of doses experienced by humans using water containing MTBE to drink, prepare food, and shower/bathe. The toxic properties (including potency) of MTBE when ingested, inhaled, and in contact with the skin are summarized. Using a range of human toxic potency values derived from animal studies, margins of exposure (MOE) associated with alternative chronic exposure scenarios are estimated to range from 1700 to 140,000. Maximum concentrations of MTBE in tap water anticipated not to cause adverse health effects are determined to range from 700 to 14,000 ppb. The results of this analysis demonstrate that no health risks are likely to be associated with chronic and subchronic human exposures to MTBE in tap water. Although some individuals may be exposed to very high concentrations of MTBE in tap water immediately following a localized spill, these exposures are likely to be brief in duration due to large-scale dilution and rapid volatilization of MTBE, the institution of emergency response and remediation measures to minimize human exposures, and the low taste and odor thresholds of MTBE which ensure that its presence in tap water is readily detected at concentrations well below the threshold for human injury. PMID:9463929

  9. [Mechanisms of (2-methyl-n-butyl) shikonin induced apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Bing; Ma, Xiao-Qiong

    2012-06-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of (2-methyl-n-butyl) shikonin (MBS) on inducing apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 and the role of ERK1/2 signal pathway in the apoptosis. MTT assay was used to detect SGC-7901 cell proliferation. DNA condensation was measured by DAPI stain. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was analyzed by JC-1 staining. The protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, p-JNK, JNK, p-p38 and p38 were detected by Western blotting. The results showed that MBS reduced the cell viability of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 at 24 h and 48 h for SGC-7901 cells was 10.113 and 4.196 micromolL(-1), respectively. After being treated with MBS, the typical nuclear condensation was observed in SGC-7901 cells by DAPI stain. Apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells was induced by MBS in a dose dependent manner. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated, while the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK were up-regulated after MBS treatment. U0126, a specific MAP kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor, blocked the ERK1/2 activation by MBS. MMP was decreased by MBS treatment. It can be concluded that MBS could inhibit SGC-7901 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, ERK1/2 signal pathway and JNK signal pathway might be involved in this process. PMID:22919733

  10. Red Emission of Eu(III) Complex Based on 1-(7-(tert-butyl)-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione Excited by Blue Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng-gui; Su, Wen-yi; Pan, Rong-kai; Zhou, Xiao-ping

    2012-12-01

    A new Eu(III) complex, EuL3(phen), was synthesized, where L is the abbreviation of deprotonated 1-(7-(tert-butyl)-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione(HL), phen is the abbreviation of 1,10-phenanthroline. The Eu(III) complex was characterized by element analysis, IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and photoluminescence measurements (PL). TGA shows that thermal stability of the complex is up to 325 C. PL measurement indicates that the Eu(III) complex exhibits intense red-emission and extends their excitation bands to visible region. LEDs device was successfully fabricated by precoating complex EuL3(phen) onto 460 nm blue-emitting InGaN chip. The emission of device shows that the complex can act as red phosphor in combination with 460 nm blue-emitting chips. This europium complex based on 1-(7-(tert-butyl)-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione is a kind of interesting red-emitting material excited by blue light, which could avoid the damage of excitation by UV light.

  11. Methyl and t-butyl group rotation in a molecular solid: (1)H NMR spin-lattice relaxation and X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Peter A; Moore, Curtis E; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2016-01-21

    We report solid state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation experiments and X-ray diffractometry in 2-t-butyldimethylsilyloxy-6-bromonaphthalene. This compound offers an opportunity to simultaneously investigate, and differentiate between, the rotations of a t-butyl group [C(CH3)3] and its three constituent methyl groups (CH3) and, simultaneously, a pair of 'lone' methyl groups (attached to the Si atom). The solid state (1)H relaxation experiments determine activation energies for these rotations. We review the models for the dynamics of both 'lone' methyl groups (ones whose rotation axes do not move on the NMR time scale) and models for the dynamics of the t-butyl group and its constituent methyl groups (whose rotation axes reorient on the NMR time scale as the t-butyl group rotates). PMID:26676085

  12. (1-Butyl-4-methyl-pyridinium)[Cu(SCN)2]: a coordination polymer and ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Spielberg, Eike T; Edengeiser, Eugen; Mallick, Bert; Havenith, Martina; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2014-04-25

    The compound (C4C1py)[Cu(SCN)2], (C4C1py = 1-Butyl-4-methyl-pyridinium), which can be obtained from CuSCN and the ionic liquid (C4C1py)(SCN), turns out to be a new organic-inorganic hybrid material as it qualifies both, as a coordination polymer and an ionic liquid. It features linked [Cu(SCN)2](-) units, in which the thiocyanates bridge the copper ions in a μ1,3-fashion. The resulting one-dimensional chains run along the a axis, separated by the C4C1py counterions. Powder X-ray diffraction not only confirms the single-crystal X-ray structure solution but proves the reformation of the coordination polymer from an isotropic melt. However, the materials shows a complex thermal behavior often encountered for ionic liquids such as a strong tendency to form a supercooled melt. At a relatively high cooling rate, glass formation is observed. When heating this melt in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-dependent polarizing optical microscopy (POM), investigations reveal the existence of a less thermodynamically stable crystalline polymorph. Raman measurements conducted at 10 and 100 °C point towards the formation of polyanionic chain fragments in the melt. Solid-state UV/Vis spectroscopy shows a broad absorption band around 18,870 cm(-1) (530 nm) and another strong one below 20,000 cm(-1) (<500 nm). The latter is attributed to the d(Cu(I))→π*(SCN)-MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) transition within the coordination polymer yielding an energy gap of 2.4 eV. At room temperature and upon irradiation with UV light, the material shows a weak fluorescence band at 15,870 cm(-1) (630 nm) with a quantum efficiency of 0.90(2) % and a lifetime of 131(2) ns. Upon lowering the temperature, the luminescence intensity strongly increases. Simultaneously, the band around 450 nm in the excitation spectrum decreases. PMID:24644064

  13. Reaction of substituted benzyl chlorides with 1,4-di-tert-butylbenzene and 1,3,5-Tri-tert-butylbenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdnyakovick, Yu.V.; Savyak, R.P.; Kondratova, G.B.; Shein, S.M.

    1988-05-20

    The reaction of substituted benzyl chlorides with 1,4-di-tert-butylbenzene in the presence of titanium tetrachloride leads to the formation of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-diphenylmethane and 3- and 4-tert-butyldiphenylmethanes. The amount of 4-tert-butydiphenylmethane, formed through ipso substitution of the tert-butyl group, depends on the nature of the substituent in the benzyl chloride and varies in the order 2-Cl > 4-Cl > H > 4-CH/sub 3/. Only the 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2- and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-chlorodiphenylmethanes, i.e., the products from ipso substitution of the tert-butyl group, are formed during the benzylation of 1,3,5,-tri-tert-butylbenzene with 2- and 4-chlorobenzyl chlorides.

  14. Dynamics of ultrafast intramolecular charge transfer with 1-tert-butyl-6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (NTC6) in n-hexane and acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Druzhinin, Sergey I; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Senyushkina, Tamara; Zachariasse, Klaas A

    2007-12-20

    The intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reaction of 1-tert-butyl-6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (NTC6) in n-hexane and acetonitrile (MeCN) is investigated by picosecond fluorescence experiments as a function of temperature and by femtosecond transient absorption measurements at room temperature. NTC6 in n-hexane is dual fluorescent from a locally excited (LE) and an ICT state, with a quantum yield ratio Phi'(ICT)/Phi(LE) of 0.35 at +25 degrees C and 0.67 at -95 degrees C, whereas in MeCN mainly an ICT emission is observed. From the temperature dependence of Phi'(ICT)/Phi(LE) for NTC6 in n-hexane, an LE/ICT enthalpy difference DeltaH of -2.4 kJ/mol is determined. For comparison, 1-isopropyl-6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (NIC6) is also investigated. This molecule does not undergo an ICT reaction, because of its larger energy gap DeltaE(S1,S2). From the molar absorption coefficient epsilonmax of NTC6 as compared with other aminobenzonitriles, a ground-state amino twist angle theta of approximately 22 degrees is deduced. The increase of epsilonmax between n-hexane and MeCN indicates that theta decreases when the solvent polarity becomes larger. Whereas single-exponential LE fluorescence decays are obtained for NIC6 in n-hexane and MeCN, the LE and ICT decays of NTC6 in these solvents are double exponential. For NTC6 in n-hexane at -95 degrees C, with a shortest decay time of 20 ps, the forward (ka=2.5x10(10) s(-1)) and backward (kd=2.7x10(10) s(-1)) rate constants for the LE<-->ICT reaction are determined from the time-resolved LE and ICT fluorescence spectra. For NTC6 in n-hexane and MeCN, the excited-state absorption (ESA) spectrum at 200 fs after excitation is similar to the LE(ESA) spectra of NIC6 and 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN), showing that LE is the initially excited state for NTC6. These results indicate that the LE states of NTC6, NIC6, and DMABN have a comparable molecular structure. The ICT(ESA) spectrum of NTC6 in n-hexane and MeCN resembles that of DMABN in MeCN, likewise indicating a similar ICT structure for NTC6 and DMABN. From the decay of the LE absorption and the corresponding growing-in for the ICT state of NTC6, it is concluded that the ICT state originates from the LE precursor and is not formed by direct excitation from S0, nor via an S2/ICT conical intersection. The same conclusion was made from the time-resolved (picosecond) fluorescence spectra, where there is no ICT emission at time zero. The decay of the LE(ESA) band of NTC6 in n-hexane occurs with a shortest time tau2 of 2.2 ps. The ICT reaction is much faster (tau2 = 0.82 ps) in the strongly polar MeCN. The absence of excitation wavelength dependence (290 and 266 nm) for the ESA spectra in MeCN also shows that LE is the ICT precursor. With NIC6 in n-hexane and MeCN, a decay or growing-in of the femtosecond ESA spectra is not observed, in line with the absence of an ICT reaction involving an S2/ICT conical intersection. PMID:18034465

  15. MEASUREMENT OF EXHALED BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD TO DEVELOP A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER AND THE PRODUCTION OF THE BIOMARKER TERTIARY-BUTYL ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common fuel additive used to increase the availability of oxygen in gasoline to reduce winter-time carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles. Also, MTBE boosts gasoline "octane" rating and, as such, allows reduction of benzene...

  16. Direct observation of the intermolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer from UV-A absorber 4- tert -butyl-4‧-methoxydibenzoylmethane to UV-B absorber octyl methoxycinnamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Yagi, Mikio

    2011-09-01

    Triplet energy transfer (TET) is an important photostabilization process for organic UV absorbers, such as 4- tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM) and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC). To characterize interactions between UV absorbers as TET the interactions between BM-DBM and OMC have been studied through measurements of EPR and time-resolved phosphorescence spectra. The EPR Bmin signals and the phosphorescence of OMC were observed through the selective excitation of BM-DBM at 365 nm in EtOH at 77 K. These results indicate that the intermolecular TET occurs from BM-DBM to OMC. This is the first report of the experimental evidence of the TET between the organic UV absorbers.

  17. Identifying the usage patterns of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenates in gasoline using gasoline surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Data on the volumes of oxygenates and other compounds in gasoline are available from several sources collectively referred as gasoline surveys. The gasoline surveys provide the most definitive knowledge of which oxygenate, if any, and what volumes of that oxygenate are being used in various areas of the country. This information is important in water-quality assessments for relating the detection of MTBE in water to patterns of usage of MTBE in gasoline. General information on three surveys that have been conducted by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, and the EPA was presented. The samples were tested for physical properties and constituents including octane number, specific gravity, and volumes of olefins, aromatics, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The data in each survey had its own utility based on the type of assessment that is undertaken. Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Using NAWQA data, the percent occurrence of MTBE in ground water in metropolitan areas that use substantial amounts of MTBE (> 5% by vol) was ??? 21%, compared to ??? 2% in areas that do not use substantial amounts of MTBE (< 5% by vol). When several other factors are considered in a logistic regression model including MTBE usage in RFG or OXY gasoline areas (??? 3% by vol) as a factor, a 4-6 fold increase in the detection frequency of MTBE in ground water was found when compared to areas that do not use MTBE or use it only for octane enhancement (< 3% by vol).

  18. Preparation and characterization of Pd doped ceria-ZnO nanocomposite catalyst for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Seddigi, Zaki S; Bumajdad, Ali; Ansari, Shahid P; Ahmed, Saleh A; Danish, Ekram Y; Yarkandi, Naeema H; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2014-01-15

    A series of binary oxide catalysts (ceria-ZnO) were prepared and doped with different amounts of palladium in the range of 0.5%-1.5%. The prepared catalysts were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and XPS, as well as by N2 sorptiometry study. The XPS results confirmed the structure of the Pd CeO2-x-ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of these catalysts was evaluated for degradation of MTBE in water. These photocatalyst efficiently degrade a 100ppm aqueous solution of MTBE upon UV irradiation for 5h in the presence of 100mg of each of these photocatalysts. The removal of 99.6% of the MTBE was achieved with the ceria-ZnO catalyst doped with 1% Pd. In addition to the Pd loading, the N2 sorptiometry study introduced other factors that might affect the catalytic efficiency is the catalyst average pore sizes. The photoreaction was determined to be a first order reaction. PMID:24275473

  19. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PHYTOREMEDIATION OF METHYL-TERT-BUTYL-ETHER (MTBE) IN GROUNDWATER. (R825549C062)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE RATE OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER HYDROLYSIS IN SUB- AND SUPERCRITICAL WATER. (R826738)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Facile oxidation-based synthesis of sterically encumbered four-coordinate bis(2,9-di-tert-butyl-1,10-phenanthroline)copper(I) and related three-coordinate copper(I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Bhavesh A; Green, Omar; Burstyn, Judith N

    2007-05-14

    A new oxidation-based synthetic route was developed for synthesis of Cu(I) complexes with weakly coordinating ligands, leading to the synthesis of the elusive [Cu(dtbp)2]+ (dtbp, 2,9-di-tert-butyl-1,10-phenanthroline) complex that may be useful as a sensor or as a dye for dye-sensitized solar cells. An acetone solution of either 1 or 2 equiv of dtbp was added to excess Cu(0) and 1 equiv of AgY (Y is O3SCF3-, BF4-, SbF6-, or B(C6F5)4-) in a nitrogen-filled glove box. Following filtration and evaporation under vacuum, crystallization from CH2Cl2 and hexanes results in X-ray quality crystals of Cu(dtbp)(O3SCF3) (1), Cu(dtbp)(BF4) (2), [Cu(dtbp)(acetone)][SbF6] (3), [Cu(dtbp)2][B(C6F5)4].CH2Cl2 (4.CH2Cl2), [Cu(dtbp)2][BF4].CH2Cl2 (5.CH2Cl2), and [Cu(dtbp)2][SbF6].CH2Cl2 (6.CH2Cl2). Complexes 1-6 were characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR. The Cu atom in complexes 1-3 exhibited distorted trigonal coordination geometries, reflecting the steric effect of the bulky tert-butyl substituents. The structures of the pseudotetrahedral complexes 4, 4.CH2Cl2, 5.CH2Cl2, and 6.CH2Cl2 revealed the longest average Cu-N distances (2.11 A, 2.11 A, 2.10 A, and 2.11 A, respectively) in this class of compounds-longer by more than three standard deviations from the average. PMID:17298052

  2. PRODUCTS OF THE GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF THE OH RADICAL WITH N-BUTYL METHYL ETHER AND 2-ISOPROPOXYETHANOL: REACTIONS OF ROC(O)< RADICALS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The products of the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with n-butyl methyl ether and 2-isopropoxyethanol in the presence of NO have been investigated at 298 ? 2 K and 740 Torr total pressure of air by gas chromatography and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization...

  3. SENSORY, SYMPTOMATIC, INFLAMMATORY, AND OCULAR RESPONSES TO AND THE METABOLISM OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER IN A CONTROLLED HUMAN EXPOSURE EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to elevated ambient carbon monoxide (CO) due to incomplete combustion of automotive fuels, the Clear Air Act mandates that CO reduction be obtained by adding oxygenates to the fuel (oxyfuel) in areas of non-attainment. In 1992 the addition of methyl tertiary butyl eth...

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF TERT-ALKLYPHENOLS IN CARP FROM THE TRENTON CHANNEL OF THE DETROIT RIVER, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole carp from the Detroit River were analyzed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. even tertiary alkyl phenols (tert-pentylphenols, tert-butyl-tert-pentylphenols, a di-tert-pentylphenol and a tri-tert-pentylphenol) and eight chlorinated derivatives of these compounds were ...

  5. Safety assessment for octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionate (CAS Reg. No. 2082-79-3) from use in food contact applications.

    PubMed

    Neal-Kluever, April P; Bailey, Allan B; Hatwell, Karen R

    2015-12-01

    Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (CAS Reg. No. 2082-79-3), currently marketed as Irganox 1076 (I-76), is a sterically hindered phenolic antioxidant used in a variety of organic substrates, including those used in the manufacture of food contact articles. In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), Office of Food Additive Safety (OFAS), initiated a post-market re-evaluation of the food contact applications of I-76. This project aimed to ensure that current dietary exposures from the use of I-76 in food contact articles are accurately captured and the safety assessment considered all relevant and available toxicological information. To accomplish these aims, the USFDA reviewed the available toxicological studies and chemistry information on food contact applications of I-76. Based on this in-depth analysis, a NOAEL of 64 mg/kg-bw/d (female rats) from a chronic rat study and a cumulative estimated dietary intake (CEDI) of 4.5 mg/p/d, was used to calculate a margin of exposure (MOE) of ∼850. We concluded that the previous and current exposure levels provide an adequate margin of safety (MOS) and remain protective of human health for the regulated uses. PMID:26482640

  6. μ-Carbonato-κ(4) O,O':O',O''-bis-{[2'-(di-tert-butyl-phosphan-yl)biphenyl-2-yl-κ(2) P,C (1)]palladium(II)} dichloro-methane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alfred; Holzapfel, Cedric W

    2012-12-01

    The title compound, [(μ2-CO3){Pd(P(t-C4H9)2(C12H8)}2]·CH2Cl2, the first CO3-bridged palladium dimer complex reported to date, was obtained while preparing the Pd(0) complex with (2-biphen-yl)P( (t) Bu)2. In the crystal, each palladium dimer is accompanied by a dichloro-methane solvent mol-ecule. Coordination of the carbonate and chelated phosphane ligands gives distorted square-planar environments at the Pd atoms. Important geometrical parameters include Pd-P(av.) = 2.2135 (4) Å, Pd-C(av.) = 1.9648 (16) Å and P-Pd-C = 84.05 (5) and 87.98 (5)°, and O-Pd-O' = 60.56 (4) and 61.13 (4)°. Bonding with the carbonate O atoms shows values of 2.1616 (11) and 2.1452 (11) Å for the Pd-O-Pd bridge, whereas other Pd-O distances are slightly longer at 2.2136 (11) and 2.1946 (11) Å. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two set of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.723 (6):0.277 (6). Weak C-H⋯O interactions are observed propagating the molecules along the [100] direction. PMID:23468771

  7. FT-IR and Raman vibrational analysis, B3LYP and M06-2X simulations of 4-bromomethyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; Puttaraju, K. B.; Keskinoğlu, Sema; Shivashankar, K.; Ucun, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized bacteriostatic and anti-tumor molecule namely, 4-bromomethyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Raman spectra (4000-100 cm-1) of the compound in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr and DFT/M06-2X: highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated using the same theoretical calculations.

  8. Automated radiosynthesis of N-succinimidyl 3-(di-tert-butyl[(18)F]fluorosilyl)benzoate ([(18)F]SiFB) for peptides and proteins radiolabeling for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Koudih, R; Kostikov, A; Kovacevic, M; Jolly, D; Bernard-Gauthier, V; Chin, J; Jurkschat, K; Wängler, C; Wängler, B; Schirrmacher, R

    2014-07-01

    Recently, silicon fluoride building blocks (SiFA) have emerged as valuable and promising tools to overcome challenges in the labeling of peptides and proteins for positron emission tomography (PET). Herein, we report a fully automated synthesis of N-succinimidyl 3-(di-tert-butyl[(18)F]fluorosilyl)benzoate ([(18)F]SiFB) by a commercially available Scintomics Hot Box 3 synthesis module, to be used as a prosthetic group for peptide and protein labeling. The drying of K2.2.2./K (18)F complex was performed according to the Munich method modified by our group (avoiding azeotropic drying) using oxalic acid to neutralize the base from the (18)F(-) containing QMA eluent. This K2.2.2./K (18)F complex was then used for SiFA (18)F-(19)F isotopic exchange followed by a fast purification by a solid-phase-extraction (SPE) to afford [(18)F]SiFB with an average preparative radiochemical yield (RCY) of 24±1% (non-decay corrected (NDC)) within a synthesis time of 30 min. The [(18)F]SiFB produced by automated synthesis was then used for the (18)F-labeling of rat serum albumin (RSA) as a proof of applicability. PMID:24631747

  9. Simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction of dibenzyl disulfide, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, and 1,2,3-benzotriazole from power transformer oil prior to GC and HPLC determination.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Abdul Muttaleb Yousef; Mehanna, Nemr Ahmed; Abulkibash, Abdalla Mahmoud

    2012-03-01

    2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (DBPC), dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS), and 1,2,3-benzotriazole (BTA) are additives that may be found concomitantly in the oil matrix of power transformer. DBPC and DBDS act as antioxidants while, BTA is a corrosion inhibitor that protects copper conductors inside the transformer unit from corrosion. A powerful analytical method is, therefore, required to determine these additives at trace levels in the transformer oil. This work describes a unique single liquid-liquid extraction pretreatment step prior to the determination of the components by gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The optimum volume ratio used in the pretreatment step was determined as 5:2:5 for mineral oil/n-hexane/acetonitrile, respectively. Relatively, the method is simple and quick with a minimal use of solvents. Analytical results indicate that the method is relatively sensitive, accurate, and precise for each of the three components in fresh and used mineral oil. The calibration curves for the three components demonstrate a significant increase in sensitivities. Detection limits found were, 100 mg L(-1) (0.01% w/v), 0.80 mg L(-1) , and 2.04 mg L(-1) for DBPC, DBDS, and BTA, respectively. The Student's t values determined at 95% confidence level indicate that there is no significant difference between the experimental means obtained by this method and the standard method for each component. PMID:22311820

  10. Kit-like 18F-labeling of proteins: synthesis of 4-(di-tert-butyl[18F]fluorosilyl)benzenethiol (Si[18F]FA-SH) labeled rat serum albumin for blood pool imaging with PET.

    PubMed

    Wängler, Björn; Quandt, Gabriele; Iovkova, Ljuba; Schirrmacher, Esther; Wängler, Carmen; Boening, Guido; Hacker, Marcus; Schmoeckel, Michael; Jurkschat, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Schirrmacher, Ralf

    2009-02-01

    Radiosyntheses of 18F-radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) normally require an extraordinarily high effort of technical equipment and specially trained personnel. We recently reported a novel method for the introduction of fluorine-18 into peptides for PET-imaging based on silicon-18F-chemistry (SiFA technique). We herewith introduce the first SiFA-based Kit-like radio-fluorination of a protein (rat serum albumin,RSA) and demonstrate its usefulness for in vivo imaging with microPET in normal rats as well as in a rat heterotropic transplanted heart model. As a labeling agent, we prepared 4-(di-tert-butyl[18F]fluorosilyl)benzenethiol (Si[18F]FASH)by simple isotopic exchange in 40-60% radiochemical yield (RCY) and coupled it directly to a Sulfo-SMCC derivatized RSA in an overall RCY of 12% within 20-30 min. The technically simple labeling procedure does not require any elaborated purification procedures and is a straightforward example of a successful application of Si-18F chemistry for in vivo imaging with PET. PMID:19132825

  11. Containment of groundwater pollution (methyl tertiary butyl ether and benzene) to protect a drinking-water production site in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haest, Pieter Jan; Lookman, Richard; van Keer, Ilse; Patyn, Johan; Bronders, Jan; Joris, Marjan; Bellon, Jan; de Smedt, Florimond

    2010-12-01

    The subsurface migration of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene towards a drinking-water production site in Belgium was monitored for 9 years. A large gasoline spill at a nearby fuel station had caused a 500-m long and 50-m-wide pollution plume of MTBE (10-30 mg/L) and benzene (2-10 mg/L). In order to prevent any intrusion of pollutants into the drinking-water supply, a conceptual model was used to design a pump-and-treat system that intercepted the gasoline-contaminated groundwater emanating from the spill. The contaminated soil in the spill zone was excavated. A numerical mass transport model was developed to evaluate the ongoing plume containment. The model describes the subsurface MTBE migration and was regularly updated, based on groundwater monitoring data and the measured mass of MTBE extracted with the pump-and-treat system. With continued interception pumping, the MTBE plume can be remediated in 14 years. Without it, MTBE and benzene concentrations up to 600 μg/L could have reached the drinking-water production site and the plume would persist for 9 years longer. Source zone treatment combined with plume interception pumping is a suitable risk-based remediation strategy for the containment of MTBE and benzene groundwater pollution.

  12. Histologic and histomorphometric changes of testis following oral exposure to methyl tertiary-butyl ether in adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, S; Ansari-Lari, M; Khalili, L

    2015-01-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is used to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone in urban air and to boost fuel octane. There is a lack of knowledge in the literature about the histomorphometric changes of the testis following exposure to MTBE. Therefore, this experimental study was performed to determine the effect of oral exposure to MTBE on histologic and histomorphometric changes of testis in adult rat. A total of 25 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five equal experimental groups: control, almond oil and three treatment groups which received 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg/day MTBE in almond oil by gavages for 30 consecutive days. Histomorphometric analysis showed no significant difference in absolute and relative testis weight, connective tissue thickness, germinal epithelium height, tunica albuginea thickness and Sertoli cell numbers between experimental groups (P>0.05). However, trend analysis showed that the seminiferous tubule diameter increased and interstitial cell numbers as well as spermatocyte and spermatid cell numbers decreased significantly in MTBE treated groups (P<0.05). It may be concluded that MTBE could exert adverse effects on spermatogenic cells in adult rat. Whether the observed changes in the present study are due to the direct effect of MTBE via passing blood-testis barrier or its indirect effect through another mechanism should be elucidated in future studies. PMID:27175191

  13. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10⁶ for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  14. Speciated hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on methyl tertiary butyl ether-containing fuels.

    PubMed

    Poulopoulos, S G; Philippopoulos, C J

    2001-07-01

    In the present work, engine and tailpipe (after a three-way catalytic converter) emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on two oxygenated blend fuels [containing 2 and 11% weight/weight (w/w) methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)] and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. The engine (OPEL 1.6 L) was operated under various conditions, in the range of 0-20 HP. Total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, methane, hexane, ethylene, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-propanol, benzene, toluene, 1,3-butadiene, acetic acid, and MTBE were measured at each engine operating condition. As concerns the total HC emissions, the use of MTBE was beneficial from 1.90 to 3.81 HP, which were by far the most polluting conditions. Moreover, CO emissions in tailpipe exhaust were decreased in the whole operation range with increasing MTBE in the fuel. The greatest advantage of MTBE addition to gasoline was the decrease in ethylene, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and acetic acid emissions in engine exhaust, especially when MTBE content in the fuel was increased to 11% w/w. In tailpipe exhaust, the catalyst operation diminished the observed differences. Ethylene, methane, and acetaldehyde were the main compounds present in exhaust gases. Ethylene was easily oxidized over the catalyst, while acetaldehyde and methane were quite resistant to oxidation. PMID:15658218

  15. Construction of wettability gradient surface on copper substrate by controlled hydrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuo-ru

    2014-10-01

    We report a gradient wettability surface on copper slide prepared by a simple controlled ester group hydrolysis procedure of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) [P (MMA-BA)] films coated on the copper substrate. In the method, sodium hydroxide solutions are selected to prepare surface gradient wettability on P (MMA-BA) films. The P (MMA-BA) copolymers with different MMA contents are first synthesized by a conventional free atom radical solution polymerization method. The transfer of surface chemical composition from the ester group to acid salt is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The effects of different concentrations of NaOH solution and reaction times on the physicochemical properties of the resulting surfaces are studied. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the varying concentration along the substrate length is only attributed to the hydrolysis reaction of ester groups. The hydrolysis causes insignificant change on the morphology of the original film on the copper substrate. In addition, it is found that the MMA copolymer content has a significant influence on the concentration of ester groups on the outermost surface and thus important for forming the slope gradients.

  16. Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) at Cranberry Lake, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toran, L.; Lipka, C.; Baehr, A.; Reilly, T.; Baker, R.

    2003-01-01

    Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline, has been detected in lakes in northwestern New Jersey. This occurrence has been attributed to the use of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE concentrations at Cranberry Lake. During a recent boating season (late April to September 1999), concentrations of MTBE typically exceeded 20??g/L. MTBE concentrations varied daily from 12 to 24??g/L over a 2-week period that included the Labor Day holiday. Concentrations were highest on weekends when there is more boat traffic, which had an immediate effect on MTBE mass throughout the lake. MTBE concentrations decreased to about 2??g/L shortly after the end of the summer recreational season. The loss of MTBE can be accounted for by volatilization, with a half-life on the order of 10 days. The volatilization rate was modeled with the daily decrease in MTBE then the modeled rate was validated using the data from the seasonal decline. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  18. Formation of alkenes via degradation of tert-alkyl ethers and alcohols by Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium spp.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Franziska; Muzica, Liudmila; Schuster, Judith; Treuter, Naemi; Rosell, Mònica; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H; Rohwerder, Thore

    2011-09-01

    Bacterial degradation pathways of fuel oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl and tert-amyl methyl ether (MTBE and TAME, respectively) have already been studied in some detail. However, many of the involved enzymes are still unknown, and possible side reactions have not yet been considered. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, and Methylibium sp. strain R8, we have now detected volatile hydrocarbons as by-products of the degradation of the tert-alkyl ether metabolites tert-butyl and tert-amyl alcohol (TBA and TAA, respectively). The alkene isobutene was formed only during TBA catabolism, while the beta and gamma isomers of isoamylene were produced only during TAA conversion. Both tert-alkyl alcohol degradation and alkene production were strictly oxygen dependent. However, the relative contribution of the dehydration reaction to total alcohol conversion increased with decreasing oxygen concentrations. In resting-cell experiments where the headspace oxygen content was adjusted to less than 2%, more than 50% of the TAA was converted to isoamylene. Isobutene formation from TBA was about 20-fold lower, reaching up to 4% alcohol turnover at low oxygen concentrations. It is likely that the putative tert-alkyl alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ, belonging to the Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron enzymes and found in all three strains tested, or an associated enzymatic step catalyzed the unusual elimination reaction. This was also supported by the detection of mdpJK genes in MTBE-degrading and isobutene-emitting enrichment cultures obtained from two treatment ponds operating at Leuna, Germany. The possible use of alkene formation as an easy-to-measure indicator of aerobic fuel oxygenate biodegradation in contaminated aquifers is discussed. PMID:21742915

  19. Functionalized alkynyl-chlorogermanes: hydrometallation, Ge-Cl bond activation, Ge-H bond formation and chlorine-tert-butyl exchange via a transient germyl cation.

    PubMed

    Honacker, Christian; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Tannert, Jens; Layh, Marcus; Hepp, Alexander; Grimme, Stefan; Uhl, Werner

    2016-04-14

    Treatment of alkynyl-arylchlorogermanes ArylnGe(Cl)(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)3-n (n = 1, 2) with HM(t)Bu2 (M = Al, Ga) yielded mixed Al or Ga alkenyl-alkynylchlorogermanes via hydrometallation reactions. Intramolecular interactions between the Lewis-basic Cl atoms and the Lewis-acidic Al or Ga atoms afforded MCGeCl heterocycles. The endocyclic M-Cl distances were significantly lengthened compared to the starting compounds and indicated Ge-Cl bond activation. Dual hydrometallation succeeded only with HGa(t)Bu2. One Ga atom of the product was involved in a Ga-Cl bond, while the second one had an interaction to a C-H bond of a phenyl group. In two cases treatment of chlorogermanes with two equivalents of HAl(t)Bu2 resulted in hydroalumination of one alkynyl group and formation of unprecedented Ge-H functionalized germanes, Aryl-Ge(H)(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)[C(Al(t)Bu2)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-(t)Bu] (Aryl = mesityl, triisopropylphenyl). The Al atoms of these compounds interacted with the α-C atoms of the alkynyl groups. Ph(Cl)Ge(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)[C(Al(t)Bu2}[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-(t)Bu] reacted in an unusual Cl/(t)Bu exchange to yield the tert-butylgermane Ph((t)Bu)Ge(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)[C{Al((t)Bu)(Cl)}[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-(t)Bu]. Quantum chemical calculations suggested the formation of a germyl cation as a transient intermediate. PMID:26610394

  20. tert-Butyl N-[(3R,4R)-1-(2-cyano-acet-yl)-4-methyl-piperidin-3-yl]-N-methyl-carbamate.

    PubMed

    Gehringer, Matthias; Forster, Michael; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Laufer, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The piperidine ring of the title compound, C15H25N3O3, adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation with the cis substituents displaying an N-C-C-C torsion angle of 43.0 (3)°. The cyano group (plane defined by C-C-C N atoms) is bent slightly out of the plane of the amide group by 13.3 (2)°. The carbamate group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 60.3 (5)° relative to the amide group. PMID:23795101

  1. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry--Part XXII: Health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1996-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether has caused the following cancers in rats and mice: kidney, testicular, liver, lymphomas, and leukemias. Thus, in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard methyl tertiary butyl ether-for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals-as a probable human carcinogen. This means that some humans are at extreme risk of contracting cancers resulting from their exposure to oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether. Immediately after the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline, many consumers of this product in New Jersey, New York, Alaska, Maine, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Arizona, Montana, Massachusetts, California, and other areas, experienced a variety of neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory illnesses. These illnesses were similar to those suffered by refinery workers from the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union who mixed methyl tertiary butyl ether with gasoline. Additionally, these illnesses occurred following exposure to extremely low levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline, particularly when compared to the adverse health effects that occurred only after exposure to very high levels of conventional gasoline. Thus, gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether exhibited substantially more toxicity in humans than gasoline without this additive. A number of oil industry-sponsored or influenced reports alleged that these illnesses were either unrelated to exposure to reformulated gasoline or were characteristic of some yet-to-be-identified communicable disease. These studies further alleged that the widespread concern was not about illness, but was merely a reaction to the odor and the five cent increase in the price of gasoline. To clarify the significance of this issue, it is important to note that consumers have been using gasoline for many decades, with complaints only occurring following exposure to high levels at 100s ppm or higher. After the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether gasoline there were thousands of human health complaints. The sudden increase in widespread illnesses from which many thousands of individuals throughout the United States began to suffer immediately following the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline provides strong and unquestionable evidence that gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether is associated with human illnesses. When considering the severity of the illnesses in humans, it is prudent that this highly dangerous chemical be promptly removed from gasoline and comprehensive studies be conducted to assess the long-term effects that human may experience in the future from past and current exposure. PMID:8989842

  2. Survey of the occurrence of residues of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in Dutch drinking water sources and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Pepijn; Versteegh, Ans F M; de Korte, Gert A L; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Mooibroek, Dennis; Bannink, André; Hogendoorn, Elbert A

    2003-12-01

    An indicative survey has been carried out in The Netherlands investigating the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water and the corresponding sources. In total, 71 different sites used for the preparation of drinking water in The Netherlands were sampled in two successive seasons in 2001 involving the analysis of 156 samples. (ground water (n = 88), surface water (n = 17), bank filtrate water (n = 6) and drinking water (n = 45)). To combine high sample throughput with high selectivity and sensitivity, off-line purge and trap for sampling and gas chromatography mass spectrometry equipped with an automated thermal desorption sampler (TDS-GC-MS) was selected as the preferred analytical methodology. The developed procedure enabled the analysis of at least 40 samples per day and provided a limit of quantification of 2 ng l(-1). In the first period 63 samples of raw water were analyzed. Concentrations ranged between < 10 ng l(-1) and 420 ng l(-1) with a median concentration below 10 ng l(-1). The second period was focused at the re-sampling of positive locations (MTBE > 10 ng l(-1)) and a few additional drinking water utilities of which both the raw and drinking water of the utilities were analyzed. The median concentration of MTBE in the selected set of drinking water samples was 20 ng l(-1) (n = 45). At one location MTBE was found at a level of 2900 ng l(-1) caused by point source contamination of the ground water (11 900 ng l(-1)). Special attention has been paid to the quality of the results by analyzing all samples in duplicate and the analysis of control samples during each series of analyses. PMID:14710927

  3. Reversal of age-related increase in brain protein oxidation, decrease in enzyme activity, and loss in temporal and spatial memory by chronic administration of the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, J.M.; Starke-Reed, P.E.; Oliver, C.N.; Landum, R.W.; Cheng, M.S.; Wu, J.F.; Floyd, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Oxygen free radicals and oxidative events have been implicated as playing a role in bringing about the changes in cellular function that occur during aging. Brain readily undergoes oxidative damage, so it is important to determine if aging-induced changes in brain may be associated with oxidative events. Previously we demonstrated that brain damage caused by an ischemia/reperfusion insult involved oxidative events. In addition, pretreatment with the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) diminished the increase in oxidized protein and the loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity that accompanied ischemia/reperfusion injury in brain. We report here that aged gerbils had a significantly higher level of oxidized protein as assessed by carbonyl residues and decreased GS and neutral protease activities as compared to young adult gerbils. We also found that chronic treatment with the spin-trapping compound PBN caused a decrease in the level of oxidized protein and an increase in both GS and neutral protease activity in aged Mongolian gerbil brain. In contrast to aged gerbils, PBN treatment of young adult gerbils had no significant effect on brain oxidized protein content or GS activity. Male gerbils, young adults (3 months of age) and retired breeders (15-18 months of age), were treated with PBN for 14 days with twice daily dosages of 32 mg/kg. If PBN administration was ceased after 2 weeks, the significantly decreased level of oxidized protein and increased GS and neutral protease activities in old gerbils changed in a monotonic fashion back to the levels observed in aged gerbils prior to PBN administration. We also report that old gerbils make more errors than young animals and that older gerbils treated with PBN made fewer errors in a radial arm maze test for temporal and spatial memory than the untreated aged controls.

  4. Access to Friedel-Crafts-restricted tert-alkyl aromatics by activation/methylation of tertiary benzylic alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Hartsel, Joshua A.; Craft, Derek T.; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Ma, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a two-step protocol to prepare m-tert-alkylbenzenes. The appropriate 3 benzylic alcohols are activated with SOCl2 or concentrated HCl, and then treated with trimethylaluminum, affording the desired products in 6897% yields (22 examples). This reaction sequence is successful in the presence of a variety of functional groups, including acid-sensitive and Lewis-basic groups. In addition to t-Bu groups, 1,1-dimethylpropyl and 1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl groups can also be installed using this method. PMID:22394317

  5. Solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation and isolated-molecule and cluster electronic structure calculations in organic molecular solids: The relationship between structure and methyl group and t-butyl group rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianlong E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu; Mallory, Frank B.; Mallory, Clelia W.; Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 ; Odhner, Hosanna R.; Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu

    2014-05-21

    We report ab initio density functional theory electronic structure calculations of rotational barriers for t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups both in the isolated molecules and in central molecules in clusters built from the X-ray structure in four t-butyl aromatic compounds. The X-ray structures have been reported previously. We also report and interpret the temperature dependence of the solid state {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz in one of the four compounds. Such experiments for the other three have been reported previously. We compare the computed barriers for methyl group and t-butyl group rotation in a central target molecule in the cluster with the activation energies determined from fitting the {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation data. We formulate a dynamical model for the superposition of t-butyl group rotation and the rotation of the t-butyl group's constituent methyl groups. The four compounds are 2,7-di-t-butylpyrene, 1,4-di-t-butylbenzene, 2,6-di-t-butylnaphthalene, and 3-t-butylchrysene. We comment on the unusual ground state orientation of the t-butyl groups in the crystal of the pyrene and we comment on the unusually high rotational barrier of these t-butyl groups.

  6. Betaine mediated synthesis of annulated dihydrofurans from oxobis(methylthio)ketene acetals and N-butyl-N'-methyl ethane-1,2-diamine as precursors via NHC elimination.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Maurya, Shivam; Pratap, Kemant; Srivastava, Suman

    2016-02-01

    First in situ generation of a betaine intermediate has been developed using two new precursors oxobis(methylthio)ketene acetals and N-butyl-N'-methyl ethane-1,2-diamine for the synthesis of annulated dihydrofurans. This protocol adds a new dimension for the formation of annulated dihydrofurans through a series of selective consecutive formation of C-C and C-O bonds after reacting with enone rings. This in situ generated betaine intermediate corresponds to deoxy-Breslow intermediates in the reaction via elimination of NHC. PMID:26771026

  7. Investigating the Micro-Channel Flow Reactor Configuration on the Liquid Phase Synthesis of tert-amyl Methyl Ether Catalyzed by Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matouq, Mohammed; Al-Anber, Zaid; Tagawa, Tomohiko; Aljbour, Salah; Yamada, Hiroshi

    This study aims to investigate the effect of reactants and catalyst flow rates; the effect of the catalyst concentration and the position inlet to the reactor location of the catalyst on the synthesis of tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), have investigated. The results reveal that the micro channel reactor shows high selectivity for homogeneous syntheses of TAME compared to heterogeneous ones. The experimental results show that no other di-ether products were noticed in this study. The selected flow rates for the reactants and the catalyst give a stable flow pattern inside the reactor and no turbulent flow was noticed in any conducted runs. The mole fraction for methanol (MeOH) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) are 22 and 37% respectively, (this was considered the standard condition). Experimental results show that, keeping H2SO4 flows in the top lane of the reactor gives good mixing from the middle and bottom lanes. At the same time this will give the chance to the reactant to be pulled toward the middle lane to promote the reaction. Therefore, the middle lane can be considered as the core of the reaction zone phase, while the other lanes as separation zones. On the other hand, when H2SO4 introduced from the middle inlet the chance of reactants mixing from the top and bottom lanes will be less. It was also noticed that during the reaction and when the H2SO4 introduced at the top lane of the micro-channel, the catalyst distributes itself within the TAA lane and forms a micelle to react with MeOH in the bottom lane. When the flow rates of the reactants was reduced to half of its standard condition the yield was noticed to be higher. This may be attributed to the fact that lower flow rate, will lengthen the residence time inside the reactor and more reaction will develop.

  8. Formation of Alkenes via Degradation of tert-Alkyl Ethers and Alcohols by Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium spp. ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Franziska; Muzica, Liudmila; Schuster, Judith; Treuter, Naemi; Rosell, Mònica; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.; Rohwerder, Thore

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial degradation pathways of fuel oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl and tert-amyl methyl ether (MTBE and TAME, respectively) have already been studied in some detail. However, many of the involved enzymes are still unknown, and possible side reactions have not yet been considered. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, and Methylibium sp. strain R8, we have now detected volatile hydrocarbons as by-products of the degradation of the tert-alkyl ether metabolites tert-butyl and tert-amyl alcohol (TBA and TAA, respectively). The alkene isobutene was formed only during TBA catabolism, while the beta and gamma isomers of isoamylene were produced only during TAA conversion. Both tert-alkyl alcohol degradation and alkene production were strictly oxygen dependent. However, the relative contribution of the dehydration reaction to total alcohol conversion increased with decreasing oxygen concentrations. In resting-cell experiments where the headspace oxygen content was adjusted to less than 2%, more than 50% of the TAA was converted to isoamylene. Isobutene formation from TBA was about 20-fold lower, reaching up to 4% alcohol turnover at low oxygen concentrations. It is likely that the putative tert-alkyl alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ, belonging to the Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron enzymes and found in all three strains tested, or an associated enzymatic step catalyzed the unusual elimination reaction. This was also supported by the detection of mdpJK genes in MTBE-degrading and isobutene-emitting enrichment cultures obtained from two treatment ponds operating at Leuna, Germany. The possible use of alkene formation as an easy-to-measure indicator of aerobic fuel oxygenate biodegradation in contaminated aquifers is discussed. PMID:21742915

  9. Valence and spin situations in isomeric [(bpy)Ru(Q')2]n (Q' = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine). An experimental and DFT analysis.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipanwita; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Weisser, Fritz; Schweinfurth, David; Sarkar, Biprajit; Mobin, Shaikh M; Urbanos, Francisco A; Jiménez-Aparicio, Reyes; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2011-09-01

    The article deals with the ruthenium complexes, [(bpy)Ru(Q')(2)] (1-3) incorporating two unsymmetrical redox-noninnocent iminoquinone moieties [bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; Q' = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine, aryl = C(6)H(5) (Q'(1)), 1; m-Cl(2)C(6)H(3) (Q'(2)), 2; m-(OCH(3))(2)C(6)H(3) (Q'(3)), 3]. 1 and 3 have been preferentially stabilised in the cc-isomeric form while both the ct- and cc-isomeric forms of 2 are isolated [ct: cis and trans and cc: cis and cis with respect to the mutual orientations of O and N donors of two Q']. The isomeric identities of 1-3 have been authenticated by their single-crystal X-ray structures. The collective consideration of crystallographic and DFT data along with other analytical events reveals that 1-3 exhibit the valence configuration of [(bpy)Ru(II)(Q'(Sq))(2)]. The magnetization studies reveal a ferromagnetic response at 300 K and virtual diamagnetic behaviour at 2 K. DFT calculations on representative 2a and 2b predict that the excited triplet (S = 1) state is lying close to the singlet (S = 0) ground state with singlet-triplet separation of 0.038 eV and 0.075 eV, respectively. In corroboration with the paramagnetic features the complexes exhibit free radical EPR signals with g∼2 and (1)HNMR spectra with broad aromatic proton signals associated with the Q' at 300 K. Experimental results in conjunction with the DFT (for representative 2a and 2b) reveal iminoquinone based preferential electron-transfer processes leaving the ruthenium(ii) ion mostly as a redox insensitive entity: [(bpy)Ru(II)(Q'(Q))(2)](2+) (1(2+)-3(2+)) ⇋ [(bpy)Ru(II)(Q(')(Sq))(Q(')(Q))](+) (1(+)-3(+)) ⇋ [(bpy)Ru(II)(Q(')(Sq))(2)] (1-3) ⇋ [(bpy)Ru(II)(Q(')(Sq))(Q(')(Cat))](-)/[(bpy)Ru(III)(Q(')(Cat))(2)](-) (1(-)-3(-)). The diamagnetic doubly oxidised state, [(bpy)Ru(II)(Q'(Q))(2)](2+) in 1(2+)-3(2+) has been authenticated further by the crystal structure determination of the representative [(bpy)Ru(II)(Q'(3))(2)](ClO(4))(2) [3](ClO(4))(2) as well as by its sharp (1)H NMR spectrum. The key electronic transitions in each redox state of 1(n)-3(n) have been assigned by TD-DFT calculations on representative 2a and 2b. PMID:21776528

  10. Fate of 3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8- hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyrane and chlorpyrifos in a Conventional Wastewater Treatement Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Bodour, A.; Inniss, E. C.; Murray, K. E.

    2007-12-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) are a major concern in the environment, particularly those found in waters. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a key role in reducing the concentrations in the environment because compounds may be transformed under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions or may sorb to wastewater sludges and therefore be removed from waters. If these ECs are not contained or treated then effluent discharged from the WWTP and to a receiving stream may contain hazardous levels of these contaminants. Reported here is a study of the fate of three emerging contaminants (ECs): 3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyrane (HHCB) and chlorpyrifos. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory scale by emulating conditions of a conventional WWTP in San Antonio, TX. The goal of the research was to determine general characteristics for both sorption (to wastewater sludges) and degradation. The sorption experiments were performed by exposing the sludge to a variety of initial concentration of ECs for 24 hours. After exposure these three ECs were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography followed by flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Sorption experiments indicated that HHCB and chlorpyrifos are more hydrophobic than BHA and, therefore, would be mostly contained in the sludges. The degradation rates for these ECs were also considered for both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using different bench-scale reactor setups for 21 days. The differences between the reactor setups included volume of reactor, amount of sludge, mode of supply of nutrients and acclimatization of sludge to the ECs. One sludge was first acclimated to EC concentrations and then used in the experiment. The acclimated reactor had reaction rate constants approximately double that of the non-acclimated sludge reactor setups and followed first order reaction kinetics. Aerobic degradation occurred more readily for all three compounds than anaerobic degradation. These experiments supported the hypothesis that the WWTPs do capture and transform most of these compounds and, therefore, limit their reach to the effluent. However it cannot be supported that the compounds in the sludge phase are degraded to very low concentrations. Because of the changing dynamics of the sludge phase with time, further work needs to be conducted on the influence of time on sorption coefficients and, subsequently the effect of these temporal changes on degradation of these compounds.

  11. Prevention of hyperoxia-induced alterations in synaptosomal membrane-associated proteins by N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (Tempol).

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Yatin, S; Hensley, K; Allen, K L; Kelly, J P; Carney, J; Butterfield, D A

    1996-11-01

    Hyperoxia has been considered a model of free radical reactive oxygen species production in aging and age-related disorders. Previously, we studied the membrane protein alterations that occur during hyperoxia; we found that exposure of young animals to 24 h of hyperoxia provided the greatest degree of oxidation of cortical synaptosomal membrane proteins. We reasoned that free radical oxidation was involved in this protein oxidation. In accordance, in the current study we investigated the protective nature of two known free radical scavengers, N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (Tempol), against 24-h hyperoxia damage. The three techniques used in this study were electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) protein-specific spin labeling, assay of the activity of the oxidatively sensitive enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS), and measurement of protein carbonyl content. Before hyperoxia, gerbils received intraperitoneal injections of varying concentrations of either of the two free radical scavengers. After 30 min, the gerbils were exposed to 90-100% O2 for 24 h. For the spin labeling experiments, cortical synaptosomes were isolated from gerbils. The membrane proteins were spin labeled with the thiol-specific label MAL-6 (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-maleimidopiperidin-1-oxyl). As in our earlier study, the EPR spectral parameter of MAL-6-labeled membranes, the W/S ratio, decreased with hyperoxia (p < 0.00001). This effect was lessened significantly with administration of PBN (p < 0.0003) or Tempol (p < 0.00003). For the GS and protein carbonyl assays, cortical proteins were used. The activity of the GS decreased with hyperoxia (p < 0.000005), and this effect likewise was lessened with administration of PBN (p < 0.004) or Tempol (p < 0.002). The protein carbonyl content increased with hyperoxia (p < 0.0002), and there was a protective effect found with Tempol (p < 0.000001). The optimum doses for PBN and Tempol were 20 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. The results are discussed with reference to the use of free radical scavengers as potential antiaging agents. PMID:8863512

  12. Characterization of (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one as a positive allosteric modulator of GABAB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Malherbe, P; Masciadri, R; Norcross, R D; Knoflach, F; Kratzeisen, C; Zenner, M-T; Kolb, Y; Marcuz, A; Huwyler, J; Nakagawa, T; Porter, R H P; Thomas, A W; Wettstein, J G; Sleight, A J; Spooren, W; Prinssen, E P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: As baclofen is active in patients with anxiety disorders, GABAB receptors have been implicated in the modulation of anxiety. To avoid the side effects of baclofen, allosteric enhancers of GABAB receptors have been studied to provide an alternative therapeutic avenue for modulation of GABAB receptors. The aim of this study was to characterize derivatives of (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) as enhancers of GABAB receptors. Experimental approach: Enhancing properties of rac-BHFF were assessed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-Gα16-hGABAB(1a,2a) cells by Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader and GTPγ[35S]-binding assays, and in rat hippocampal slices by population spike (PS) recordings. In vivo activities of rac-BHFF were assessed using the loss of righting reflex (LRR) and stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) models. Key results: In GTPγ[35S]-binding assays, 0.3 μM rac-BHFF or its pure enantiomer (+)-BHFF shifted the GABA concentration–response curve to the left, an effect that resulted in a large increase in both GABA potency (by 15.3- and 87.3-fold) and efficacy (149% and 181%), respectively. In hippocampal slices, rac-BHFF enhanced baclofen-induced inhibition of PS of CA1 pyramidal cells. In an in vivo mechanism-based model in mice, rac-BHFF increased dose-dependently the LRR induced by baclofen with a minimum effective dose of 3 mg kg−1 p.o. rac-BHFF (100 mg kg−1 p.o.) tested alone had no effect on LRR nor on spontaneous locomotor activity, but exhibited anxiolytic-like activity in the SIH model in mice. Conclusions and implications: rac-BHFF derivatives may serve as valuable pharmacological tools to elucidate the pathophysiological roles played by GABAB receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:18536733

  13. Nuclear-spin relaxation in molecular solids with reorienting methyl and t-butyl groups: The spectral density and the state of the solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Peter A.; Hill, Audrey I.; Kohler, Ellen B.; Yu, Hong

    1988-12-01

    We have measured the temperature T dependence of the proton Zeeman relaxation rate R in polycrystalline 1,3-di-t-butylbenzene (1,3-DTB) at Larmor frequencies of ω/(2π)=8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz. The relaxation is caused by the modulation of the methyl proton dipole-dipole interactions by the reorientation of the t-butyl groups [C(CH3)3] and their three constituent methyl groups (CH3). There are two solid phases which either have a large hysteresis of at least 90 K, or are both stable below 200 K. The sample melts at 262 K. We interpret the high-temperature phase R-versus-T-1 data with three models. First, we adopt a one-correlation-time model using a Davidson-Cole spectral density which suggests that there is a distribution of correlation times, or, equivalently, a distribution of activation energies for t-butyl and methyl group reorientation. In this case, the methyl and t-butyl reorientation is characterized by a cutoff activation energy of 17+/-1 kJ/mol which is to be compared with 18+/-1 kJ/mol in 1,4-DTB [P. A. Beckmann, F. A. Fusco, and A. E. O'Neill, J. Magn. Reson. 59, 63 (1984)] in which there is only the one phase. Second, we adopt two two-correlation-time models using Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound spectral densities; one based on the dynamical inequivalence of the methyl groups in each t-butyl group and one based on the dynamical inequivalence of different t-butyl groups, either because of intramolecular effects or because of intermolecular (crystal-structure) effects. In the low-temperature phase of 1,3-DTB, R(ω,T) is unusual in that it is Larmor-frequency dependent in the short-correlation-time limit (i.e., temperatures above the relaxation rate maximum). We have fit the data with a Havriliak-Negami spectral density (which reduces to a Davidson-Cole spectral density when one of the parameters becomes unity which, in turn, reduces to a Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound spectral density when an additional parameter becomes unity). The fit, with an effective activation energy of 10+/-3 kJ/mol, suggests that this low-temperature phase in 1,3-DTB is a glassy state. We relate the Havriliak-Negami spectral density to the Dissado-Hill spectral density which has a fundamental microscopic basis and which has been used to interpret a vast quantity of dielectric relaxation data as well as some mechanical relaxation data.

  14. Crystal structure and absolute configuration of (3S,4aS,8aS)-N-tert-butyl-2-[(S)-3-(2-chloro-4-nitro­benzamido)-2-hy­droxy­prop­yl]deca­hydro­isoquinoline-3-carboxamide and (3S,4aS,8aS)-N-tert-butyl-2-{(S)-2-[(S)-1-(2-chloro-4-nitro­benzoyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-2-hy­droxy­eth­yl}deca­hydro­iso­quinoline-3-carboxamide

    PubMed Central

    Maxson, Tucker; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Gray, Danielle L.; Mitchell, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure and absolute configuration of the two new title nelfinavir analogs, C24H35ClN4O5, (I), and C27H39ClN4O5, (II), have been determined. Each of these mol­ecules exhibits a number of disordered moieties. There are intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in both (I) and (II). In (I) it involves the two carboxamide groups, while in (II) it involves the N-tert-butyl carboxamide group and the 2-hydroxyl O atom. The inter­molecular hydrogen bonding in (I) (O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O) leads to two-dimensional sheets that extend parallel to the ac plane. The inter­molecular hydrogen bonding in (II) (O—H⋯O) leads to chains that extend parallel to the a axis. PMID:26594520

  15. 4-tert-Butyl­pyridinium picrate

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, P.; Akalya, R.; Chandramohan, A.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C9H14N+·C6H2N3O7 −, the three nitro groups of the picrate anion are twisted out of the plane of the attached benzene ring; the dihedral angles are 32.8 (2), 10.5 (4) and 12.3 (4)°. The pyridinium cations and picrate anions are linked via bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds. The ionic pairs are linked into a ribbon-like structure along [101] by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21580795

  16. Di-tert-butyl (2R,3R)-2-{[(2E)-3-(4-acet­yloxy-3-meth­oxy­phen­yl)prop-2-eno­yl]­oxy}-3-hy­droxy­butane­dioate

    PubMed Central

    Hixson, Josh L.; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2012-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C24H32O10, one tert-butyl ester group is folded towards the central benzene ring while the other is directed away. The acetyl group is almost perpendicular to the benzene ring to which it is connected [C—C—O—C torsion angle = 90.4 (12)°]. The conformation about the ethene bond [1.313 (7) Å] is E. The atoms of the benzene ring and its attached ester group and part of the hy­droxy tert-butyl ester side chain are disordered over two sets of sites in a 50:50 ratio. Linear supra­molecular chains along the a axis mediated by hy­droxy–carbonyl O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds feature in the crystal packing. The same H atom also partakes in an intra­molecular O—H⋯O inter­action. PMID:22412486

  17. Growth of tantalum nitride film as a Cu diffusion barrier by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition from bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Hyo Yeon; Lee, Sang Chan; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jin-Seong; Jeon, Dong Ju; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun

    2016-01-01

    A new bis((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(methyl)amido)methyl(tert-butylimido)tantalum complex was synthesized for plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of tantalum nitride (TaN) film. Using the synthesized Ta compound, PEALD of TaN was conducted at growth temperatures of 150-250 °C in combination with NH3 plasma. The TaN PEALD showed a saturated growth rate of 0.062 nm/cycle and a high film density of 9.1-10.3 g/cm3 at 200-250 °C. Auger depth profiling revealed that the deposited TaN film contained low carbon and oxygen impurity levels of approximately 3-4%. N-rich amorphous TaN films were grown at all growth temperatures and showed highly resistive characteristic. The Cu barrier performance of the TaN film was evaluated by annealing of Cu/TaN (0-6 nm)/Si stacks at 400-800 °C, and excellent Cu diffusion barrier properties were observed even with ultrathin 2 nm-thick TaN film.

  18. On-line determination of the molar ratio between methanol and isobutylene in feedstock of a methyl tertiary butyl ether production plant using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongfu; Luo, Xianhui; Zheng, Guojun; Hua, Wei; Chu, Xiaoli; Lu, Wanzhen

    2007-01-01

    The molar ratio between methanol and isobutylene (MRMI) is very important to the operation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) production units. A new on-line near-infrared (NIR) analytical system was integrated for monitoring the MRMI in real time and was successfully applied in a rubber plant. Calibration models for methanol and isobutylene were established using partial least squares (PLS). The sample temperature effect on the performance of the models is discussed. The MRMI is calculated by methanol content and isobutylene content predicted by NIR. A large benefit has been obtained by the user through controlling the operation of the unit according to the monitoring of the MRMI of the feedstock in real time. PMID:17311722

  19. Differential distribution and placental transport of 2- and 3-t-(methyl-14C)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) in pregnant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, A.E.; Ansari, G.A.; Dencker, L.; Ullberg, S. )

    1991-02-01

    The placental transport and localization in fetal and maternal tissues of 14C-BHA isomers, 2-t-(methyl-14C)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (2-BHA) and 3-t-(methyl-14C)butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (3-BHA), were studied in pregnant mice by whole-body autoradiography techniques. BHA isomers were given (iv 50 microCi/100 g as a tracer dose) to pregnant mice at Day 11 (organogenesis) and Day 18 (postorganogenesis) of gestation. Peak levels of radioactivity occurred in various tissues 1-4 hr after iv administration of both isomers. 3-BHA and its metabolites have a higher affinity to fatty tissues and livers of pregnant mice. The concentration of radiocarbon in maternal liver and brown fat following treatment with 14C-3-BHA was much higher than the radioactivity concentration in the corresponding tissues of mothers treated with 2-BHA. On the other hand, the fetal concentration of radioactivity was higher in animals treated with 2-BHA than in those treated with 3-BHA. The radioactivity derived from both isomers accumulated in the fetal gastrointestinal tract. In both groups the radioactivity accumulated in the maternal nasal cavity and mucosa and the gastrointestinal contents. At 24 hr after treatment, retention of radioactivity in maternal lungs, amniotic fluid, and fetal gastrointestinal tissues was observed. Results from this study indicate that there are differences in the magnitude and extent of placental transport of 3-BHA and 2-BHA. Differences also exist in maternal organ uptake and radioactivity distribution of both isomers. Findings from this study are consistent with pharmacological differences existing between the isomers.

  20. METABOLISM OF DIETHYL ETHER AND COMETABOLISM OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER BY A FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS, A GRAPHIUM SP. (R823426)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, summer 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    1998-01-01

    Oxygenated gasoline is used in watercraft on lakes across northern New Jersey. Many of these lakes are surrounded by communities similar to those at Cranberry Lake and at Lake Lackawanna, which depend largely on wells for water supply. Therefore, a regional assessment of the occurrence of these compounds in lakes and ground water is needed to determine the effect of the use of oxygenated gasoline on water quality in lakeside environments throughout northern New Jersey

  2. Relations between the detection of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in surface and ground water and its content in gasoline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.; Halde, M.J.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The relations between the content of MTBE in gasoline and the detection frequency of MTBE in ground and surface water were analyzed using the percent by volume of MTBE in gasoline provided by NIPER. For groundwater, 21 metropolitan areas had information on detection frequency and percent volume of MTBE in gasoline, while for surface water, only 9 metropolitan areas had this information. For groundwater, three cities, i.e., Columbia, SC, Harrisburg, PA, and Norfolk, VA, had values of MTBE in gasoline for only 2 sampling periods and had a MTBE in gasoline for only 2 sampling periods. The frequency of detection of MTBE in surface and ground water had a positive relation to content of MTBE in gasoline. The occurrence of the fuel additive MTBE in ground and surface water was related to its issue in gasoline. The frequency of detection of MTBE was higher in areas that use greater amounts of MTBE in gasoline. As the percent by volume of MTBE in gasoline increased, the frequency of detection of MTBE in ground and surface water increased.

  3. Simulation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) transport to ground water from immobile sources of gasoline in the vadose zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahvis, M.A.; Rehmann, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    The mathematical model, R-UNSAT, developed to simulate the transport of benzene and MTBE in representative sand and clay hydrogeologic systems was evaluated. The effects on groundwater were simulated for small, chronic-, and single-volume releases of gasoline trapped in unsaturated soil. Hydrocarbon biodegradation was simulated by using a dual Monod-type kinetics model that includes oxygen and the reactive constituents. MTBE was assumed to be non-reactive. For MTBE, infiltration had the greatest effect on transport to groundwater. Infiltration also affected mass losses of MTBE to the atmosphere, particularly, in fine-grained soils. Depth to groundwater and soil type primarily affected travel times of MTBE to groundwater, but could affect mass-loading rates to groundwater if infiltration is insignificant. For benzene, transport to groundwater was significant only if the depth to the water table was < 1 m or biodegradation was assumed to be negligible. Mass fluxed to groundwater were generally smaller for benzene than for MTBE by more than two orders of magnitude. Thus, water that recharges an aquifer beneath a spill can be enriched in MTBE relative to benzene when compared to the composition of water in equilibrium with gasoline.

  4. SIMULATION OF A METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) PLUME WITH MODFLOW, MT3D AND THE HYDROCARBON SPILL SCREENING MODEL (HSSM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An MTBE plume in the Upper Glacial Aquifer of Long Island, NY was simulated by combining MODFLOW and MT3D with a semi-analytical model for a gasoline release. The first step was to develop and calibrate a 3-dimensional steady-state numerical ground water flow model of the aquife...

  5. Crystal structure of methyl (2R,3S)-3-[(tert-butyl­sulfin­yl)amino]-2-fluoro-3-phenyl­propano­ate

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Fan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Yixiang; Li, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C14H20FNO3S, contains two chiral carbon centres and the absolute configuration has been confirmed as (2R,3S). In the crystal, adjacent mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating zigzag chains along the a-axis direction. PMID:26870495

  6. Soap-free emulsion polymerization of poly (methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate): effects of anionic comonomers and methanol on the different characteristics of the latexes.

    PubMed

    Adelnia, Hossein; Pourmahdian, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Soap-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP) of methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate was conducted in water/methanol media with sodium salts of four different acidic comonomers, namely styrene sulfonic acid (NaSS), 2-acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (NaAmps), acrylic acid (NaAA), and itaconic acid (Na2ita). It was found that the introduction of methanol as co-solvent (35 wt%) to the medium greatly decreases the amount of water-soluble polyelectrolyte in the cases NaAA and Na2ita while it does not make difference for NaSS and NaAmps. Having employed the concept of conductance dependency to the ion mobility, the onset concentration in which soluble chains were formed was detected. The addition of sulfonic-based comonomers (NaSS and NaAmps), first decreased particle size and then led to predomination of solution polymerization over SFEP. On the contrary, the incorporation of carboxylic-based comonomers (NaAA and Na2ita) led to increase in particle size. Moreover, the particle size results were in good qualitative agreement with the classical Smith-Ewart theory. PMID:24415829

  7. Characterization of Redox States of Ru(OH2)(Q)(tpy)2+ (Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone, tpy = 2,2#:6#,2#-terpyridine)and Related Species through Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Muckerman, J.T.; Tsai, M.-K.; , Rochford, J.; Polyansky, D.E.; Wada, T.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, E.

    2009-04-27

    The redox states of Ru(OH{sub 2})(Q)(tpy){sup 2+} (Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) are investigated through experimental and theoretical UV-vis spectra and Pourbaix diagrams. The electrochemical properties are reported for the species resulting from deprotonation and redox processes in aqueous solution. The formal oxidation states of the redox couples in the various intermediate complexes are systematically assigned using electronic structure theory. The controversy over the electronic assignment of ferromagnetic vs. antiferromagnetic coupling is investigated through comparison of ab initio methods and the broken-symmetry density functional theory (DFT) approach. The various pK{sub a} values and reduction potentials, including the consideration of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) processes, are calculated, and the theoretical version of the Pourbaix diagram is constructed in order to elucidate and assign several previously ambiguous regions in the experimental diagram.

  8. Discovery, Synthesis, And Structure-Based Optimization of a Series of N-(tert-Butyl)-2-(N-arylamido)-2-(pyridin-3-yl) Acetamides (ML188) as Potent Noncovalent Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3CL Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon; Grum-Tokars, Valerie; Zhou, Ya; Turlington, Mark; Saldanha, S. Adrian; Chase, Peter; Eggler, Aimee; Dawson, Eric S.; Baez-Santos, Yahira M.; Tomar, Sakshi; Mielech, Anna M.; Baker, Susan C.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hodder, Peter; Mesecar, Andrew; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2012-12-11

    A high-throughput screen of the NIH molecular libraries sample collection and subsequent optimization of a lead dipeptide-like series of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) main protease (3CLpro) inhibitors led to the identification of probe compound ML188 (16-(R), (R)-N-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-N-(2-(tert-butylamino)-2-oxo-1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethyl)furan-2-carboxamide, Pubchem CID: 46897844). But, unlike the majority of reported coronavirus 3CLpro inhibitors that act via covalent modification of the enzyme, 16-(R) is a noncovalent SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitor with moderate MW and good enzyme and antiviral inhibitory activity. A multicomponent Ugi reaction was utilized to rapidly explore structure–activity relationships within S1', S1, and S2enzyme binding pockets. Moreover, the X-ray structure of SARS-CoV 3CLpro bound with 16-(R) was instrumental in guiding subsequent rounds of chemistry optimization. 16-(R) provides an excellent starting point for the further design and refinement of 3CLpro inhibitors that act by a noncovalent mechanism of action.

  9. Sensitive valence structures of [(pap)(2)Ru(Q)](n) (n = +2, +1, 0, -1, -2) with two different redox noninnocent ligands, Q = 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine and pap = 2-phenylazopyridine.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipanwita; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Mobin, Shaikh M; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2009-10-19

    The complexes [(pap)(2)Ru(Q)]ClO(4), [1]ClO(4)-[4]ClO(4), with two different redox noninnocent ligands, Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine (-aryl = m-(Cl)(2)C(6)H(3) (1(+)), C(6)H(5) (2(+)), m-(OCH(3))(2)C(6)H(3) (3(+)), and m-((t)Bu)(2)C(6)H(3) (4(+))) and pap = 2-phenylazopyridine, have been synthesized and characterized using various analytical techniques. The single-crystal X-ray structure of the representative [2]ClO(4).C(7)H(8) exhibits multiple intermolecular C-H...O hydrogen bondings and C-H...pi interactions. The C1-O1 = 1.287(4) (density functional theory, DFT, 1.311) and C6-N1 = 1.320(4) (DFT, 1.353) A and intraring bond distances associated with the sensitive quinine (Q) moiety along with the azo(pap) bond distances, N3-N4 = 1.278(4) (DFT, 1.297) and N6-N7 = 1.271(4) (DFT, 1.289) A, in 2(+) justify the [(pap)(2)Ru(II)(Q(*-))](+) valence configuration at the native state of 1(+)-4(+). Consequently, Mulliken spin densities on Q, pap, and Ru in 2(+) are calculated to be 0.8636, 0.1040, and 0.0187, respectively, and 1(+)-4(+) exhibit free radical sharp EPR spectra and one weak and broad transition around 1000 nm in CH(3)CN due to interligand transition involving a singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) of Q(*-) and the vacant pi* orbital of pap. Compounds 1(+)-4(+) undergo a quasi-reversible oxidation and three successive reductions. The valence structure of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-inactive oxidized state in 1(2+)-4(2+) has been established as [(pap)(2)Ru(II)(Q degrees )](2+) instead of the alternate formalism of antiferromagnetically coupled [(pap)(2)Ru(III)(Q(*-))](2+) on the basis of the DFT calculations on the optimized 2(+), which predict that the singly occupied molecular orbital is primarily composed of Q with 77% contribution. Accordingly, the optimized structure of 2(2+) predicts shorter C1-O1 (1.264) and C6-N1 (1.317 A) distances and longer Ru1-O1 (2.080) and Ru1-N1 (2.088 A) distances. Compounds 1(2+)-4(2+) exhibit the lowest energy transitions around 600 nm, corresponding to Ru(dpi)/Q(pi) --> pap(pi*). The presence of two sets of strongly pi-acceptor ligands, pap and Q, in 1(2+)-4(2+) stabilizes the Ru(II) state to a large extent such that the further oxidation of {Ru(II)-Q degrees } --> {Ru(III)-Q degrees } has not been detected within +2.0 V versus a saturated calomel electrode. The EPR-inactive reduced states 1-4 have been formulated as [(pap)(2)Ru(II)(Q(2-))] over the antiferromagnetically coupled alternate configuration, [(pap)(pap(*-))Ru(II)(Q(*-))]. The optimized structure of 2 predicts sensitive C1-O1 and C6-N1 bond distances of 1.337 and 1.390 A, respectively, close to the doubly reduced Q(2-) state, whereas the N horizontal lineN distances of pap, N3-N4 = 1.299 and N6-N7 = 1.306 A, remain close to the neutral state. In corroboration with the doubly reduced Q(2-) state, 1-4 exhibit a moderately strong interligand pi(Q(2-)) --> pi*(pap) transition in the near-IR region near 1300 nm. The subsequent two reductions are naturally centered around the azo functions of the pap ligands. PMID:19769396

  10. The pharmacology of isamoxole [2-methyl-n-butyl-n(4-methyloxazol-2-yl) propanamide] LRCL 3950, a new anti-allergic compound.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, W.; Sweatman, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    1. Isamoxole [2-methyl-N-butyl-N(4-methyloxazol-2-yl) propanamide] is an effective orally active anti-allergic compound in animals. 2. Isamoxole inhibits the immunological release of mediators, notably slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) from sensitized human and guinea-pig chopped lung in vitro. 3. In vivo, allergic responses were inhibited in guinea-pigs and rats by doses as low as 25 mg/kg given orally 180 and 30 min before challenge. The effect of Isamoxole was still present 4 h after a single dose of 100 mg/kg orally in the guinea-pig and 3 h in the rat. 4. Isamoxole is a moderately potent, selective inhibitor of SRS-A activity on the guinea-pig ileum in vitro, at concentrations that do not antagonize histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or bradykinin. 5. Isamoxole causes human bronchial muscle to relax and antagonizes the bronchoconstriction induced by SRS-A. PMID:6781575

  11. Short-term fish reproduction assays with methyl tertiary butyl ether with zebrafish and fathead minnow: Implications for evaluation of potential for endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Mihaich, Ellen; Erler, Steffen; Le Blanc, Gerald; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-09-01

    The authors report on short-term fish reproduction assays in zebrafish and fathead minnow conducted to examine the potential for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to cause effects on the endocrine system. Both studies were performed under good laboratory practice and in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and US Environmental Protection Agency test guidelines. The results of the first study demonstrated that exposure to a high test concentration (147 mg/L) of MTBE impaired reproductive output of female zebrafish, evident by a reduction in fecundity. Based on the endpoints evaluated in the present study however, there was no supporting evidence to indicate that this effect was caused by disruption of or interaction with the endocrine system. In the second study, fathead minnows exposed to a wider but lower range of test concentrations showed no effects on any reproductive parameter of male or female fish, at the maximum recommended testing concentration of 100 mg/L (62 mg/L measured). The results of these 2 guideline studies indicate that MTBE does not interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of zebrafish or fathead minnow. PMID:25866897

  12. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic rat model for methyl tertiary-butyl ether; comparison of selected dose metrics following various MTBE exposure scenarios used for toxicity and carcinogenicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Borghoff, Susan J; Parkinson, Horace; Leavens, Teresa L

    2010-09-10

    There are a number of cancer and toxicity studies that have been carried out to assess hazard from methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) exposure via inhalation and oral administration. MTBE has been detected in surface as well as ground water supplies which emphasized the need to assess the risk from exposure via drinking water contamination. This model can now be used to evaluate route-to-route extrapolation issues concerning MTBE exposures but also as a means of comparing potential dose metrics that may provide insight to differences in biological responses observed in rats following different routes of MTBE exposure. Recently an updated rat physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was published that relied on a description of MTBE and its metabolite tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) binding to alpha 2u-globulin, a male rat-specific protein. This model was used to predict concentrations of MTBE and TBA in the kidney, a target tissue in the male rat. The objective of this study was to use this model to evaluate the dosimetry of MTBE and TBA in rats following different exposure scenarios, used to evaluate the toxicity and carcinogenicity of MTBE, and compare various dose metrics under these different conditions. Model simulations suggested that although inhalation and drinking water exposures show a similar pattern of MTBE and TBA exposure in the blood and kidney (i.e. concentration-time profiles), the total blood and kidney levels following exposure of MTBE to 7.5mg/ml MTBE in the drinking water for 90 days is in the same range as administration of an oral dose of 1000 mg/kg MTBE. Evaluation of the dose metrics also supports that a high oral bolus dose (i.e. 1000 mg/kg MTBE) results in a greater percentage of the dose exhaled as MTBE with a lower percent metabolized to TBA as compared to dose of MTBE that is delivered over a longer period of time as in the case of drinking water. PMID:20561556

  13. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  14. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  15. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  16. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  17. Exposure to carbon monoxide, methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and benzene levels inside vehicles traveling on an urban area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, W K; Park, K H

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to allow systematic comparison of exposure on public (40-seater buses) and private (four passengers cars) transport modes for carbon monoxide (CO), methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and benzene by carrying out simultaneous measurements along the same routes. There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the concentrations of all target compounds among the three microenvironments; inside autos; inside buses; and in ambient air. The target compounds were significantly correlated for all the three environments, with at least p < 0.05. The in-vehicle concentrations of MTBE and benzene were significantly higher (p < 0.0001), on the average 3.5 times higher, in the car with a carbureted engine than in the other three electronic fuel-injected cars. On the other hand, the CO concentrations were not significantly different among the four cars. The in-auto MTBE levels (48.5 micrograms/m3 as a median) measured during commutes in this study was 2-3 times higher than the New Jersey and Connecticut's results. The in-auto concentration of CO (4.8 ppm as a median) in this study was comparable with those in later studies in some American cities, but much lower than those in earlier studies in other American cities. The in-bus CO concentration was 3.6 ppm as a median. As a median, the in-auto concentration of benzene was 44.9 micrograms/m3, while the in-bus concentration 17.0 micrograms/m3. The in-auto/in-bus exposure ratios for all the target compounds was 31-40% higher than the corresponding concentration ratios, due to the higher travel speed on buses in the specified commute route as compared to the autos. PMID:9577748

  18. Controlled human exposure to methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline: symptoms, psychophysiologic and neurobehavioral responses of self-reported sensitive persons.

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, N; Kelly-McNeil, K; Mohr, S; Lehrer, P; Opiekun, R E; Lee, C; Wainman, T; Hamer, R; Weisel, C; Edelberg, R; Lioy, P J

    2000-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act mandated oxygenation of gasoline in regions where carbon monoxide standards were not met. To achieve this standard, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was increased to 15% by volume during winter months in many locations. Subsequent to the increase of MTBE in gasoline, commuters reported increases in symptoms such as headache, nausea, and eye, nose, and throat irritation. The present study compared 12 individuals selected based on self-report of symptoms (self-reported sensitives; SRSs) associated with MTBE to 19 controls without self-reported sensitivities. In a double-blind, repeated measures, controlled exposure, subjects were exposed for 15 min to clean air, gasoline, gasoline with 11% MTBE, and gasoline with 15% MTBE. Symptoms, odor ratings, neurobehavioral performance on a task of driving simulation, and psychophysiologic responses (heart and respiration rate, end-tidal CO(2), finger pulse volume, electromyograph, finger temperature) were measured before, during, and immediately after exposure. Relative to controls, SRSs reported significantly more total symptoms when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE than when exposed to gasoline with 11% MTBE or to clean air. However, these differences in symptoms were not accompanied by significant differences in neurobehavioral performance or psychophysiologic responses. No significant differences in symptoms or neurobehavioral or psychophysiologic responses were observed when exposure to gasoline with 11% MTBE was compared to clean air or to gasoline. Thus, the present study, although showing increased total symptoms among SRSs when exposed to gasoline with 15% MTBE, did not support a dose-response relationship for MTBE exposure nor the symptom specificity associated with MTBE in epidemiologic studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10964796

  19. Evaluation of offspring sex ratio, sex hormones and antioxidant enzymes following exposure to methyl tertiary butyl ether in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Leila; Gholami, Soghra; Ansari-Lari, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is an oxygenated fuel additive which has been used widely in many parts of the world. This experiment was performed to determine the effect of MTBE on offspring sex ratio, sex hormones and antioxidant enzymes. A total of 20 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into four groups and received 0, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg/day MTBE by gavages for 30 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken for determination of sex hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Then, male rats were mated with healthy unexposed female rats and sex of offspring was determined after birth. Sex ratio was 0.48, 0.50, 0.43 and 0.50 in 0, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg/day MTBE groups, respectively (P = 0.91). There was significant decreasing trend for luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone in experimental groups (rs = -0.50, P = 0.030 and rs = -0.67, P = 0.002, respectively). No changes were observed for superoxide dismutase. However, decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was observed in all treatment groups compared with control which was significant in 400 mg/kg/day MTBE group (P = 0.016). The present study showed that paternal exposure to oral MTBE has no effect on offspring sex ratio; while, MTBE exposure could exert dose-dependent changes in serum testosterone and LH in treatment groups. The results of the present study, need to be clarified in the future studies. PMID:26417352

  20. Cunninghamella as a microbiological model for metabolism of histamine H(3) receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine.

    PubMed

    P?kala, El?bieta; Kubowicz, Paulina; ?a?ewska, Dorota

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the ability of the microorganism Cunninghamella to carry out the biotransformation of 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine (DL76) and to compare the obtained results with in silico models. Biotransformation was carried out by three strains of filamentous fungus: Cunninghamella echinulata, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, and Cunninghamella elegans. Most probable direction of DL76 metabolic transition was the oxidation of the methyl group in the tert-butyl moiety leading to the formation of the metabolite with I alcohol properties. This kind of reaction was conducted by all three strains tested. However, only in the case of C. blakesleeana that biotransformation product had a structure of carboxylic acid. CYP2C19 was identified by Metasite software to be the isoform of major importance in the oxidation process in the tert-butyl moiety of DL76. In silico data coincide with the results of experiments conducted in vitro. It was confirmed that Cunninghamella fungi are a very good model to study the metabolism of xenobiotics. The computational methods and microbial models of metabolism can be used as useful tools in early ADME-Tox assays in the process of developing new drug candidates. PMID:22983742

  1. Development and application of a rat PBPK model to elucidate kidney and liver effects induced by ETBE and tert-butanol.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Keith D; Brinkerhoff, Christopher J; Lee, Janice S; Chiu, Weihsueh A

    2015-11-01

    Subchronic and chronic studies in rats of the gasoline oxygenates ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-butanol (TBA) report similar noncancer kidney and liver effects but differing results with respect to kidney and liver tumors. Because TBA is a major metabolite of ETBE, it is possible that TBA is the active toxic moiety in all these studies, with reported differences due simply to differences in the internal dose. To test this hypothesis, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for ETBE and TBA to calculate internal dosimetrics of TBA following either TBA or ETBE exposure. This model, based on earlier PBPK models of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), was used to evaluate whether kidney and liver effects are consistent across routes of exposure, as well as between ETBE and TBA studies, on the basis of estimated internal dose. The results demonstrate that noncancer kidney effects, including kidney weight changes, urothelial hyperplasia, and chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN), yielded consistent dose-response relationships across routes of exposure and across ETBE and TBA studies using TBA blood concentration as the dose metric. Relative liver weights were also consistent across studies on the basis of TBA metabolism, which is proportional to TBA liver concentrations. However, kidney and liver tumors were not consistent using any dose metric. These results support the hypothesis that TBA mediates the noncancer kidney and liver effects following ETBE administration; however, additional factors besides internal dose are necessary to explain the induction of liver and kidney tumors. PMID:26341290

  2. Crystal structure of {6,6'-dibenzoyl-4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-[(ethane-1,2-di-yl)di-nitrilo-bis-(phenyl-methanylyl-idene)]diphenolato-?(4) O (1),N,N',O (1')}nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek K; Butcher, Ray J; Sil, Anjan

    2015-12-01

    The mononuclear title complex, [Ni(C50H46N2O4)], crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2). Each Ni(II) atom has a slightly distorted square-planar geometry [? = 3.91?(5) and 2.04?(7)] defined by the two phenolate O and two imine N atoms of the tetra-dentate Schiff base ligand. The dihedral angles between the central phenolate ring and peripheral phenyl rings are 60.5?(2)/70.0?(2) and 86.4?(2)/56.1?(2) in mol-ecule A, and 89.43?(19)/18.0?(2) and 63.87?(19)/68.2?(2) in mol-ecule B. The two central phenolate rings are twisted by angles of 19.37?(19) and 19.36?(18) in the two mol-ecules. The packing is stabilized through intra- and inter-molecular C-H?O and C-H?? inter-actions, forming chains parallel to the b axis. The tert-butyl groups in one of the two mol-ecules are positionally disordered with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.707?(13):0.293?(13). PMID:26870410

  3. Crystal structure of the inclusion complex 25-benzo­ylmeth­oxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,27,28-trihy­droxy-2,8,14,20-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene–tetra­ethyl­ammonium chloride (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Omran, Omran A.; Albayati, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C48H54O5S4·N(C2H5)4 +·Cl−, contains two tetra-tert-butyl-[(benzo­yl)meth­oxy]-trihy­droxy-tetra­thia­calix[4]arene mol­ecules, two tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and two chloride anions. The two calixarene molecules in the asymmetric unit each display a cone conformation. There are no significant differences between the two independent molecules. The guest species do not sit within the calixarene ‘buckets’. In the crystal, extensive O—H⋯O, O—H⋯S and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O, C—H⋯S and C—H⋯Cl inter­actions link the thia­calixarene mol­ecules, tetra­ethyl­ammonium cations and chloride anions, forming a three-dimensional network encompassing channels running parallel to the a-axis direction. The structure contains a solvent-accessible void of 76 (3) Å3, but no solvent mol­ecule could reasonably be located. The crystal studied was an inversion twin with a 0.57 (8):0.43 (8) domain ratio. PMID:26594550

  4. Crystal structure of {6,6′-dibenzoyl-4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-[(ethane-1,2-di­yl)di­nitrilo­bis­(phenyl­methanylyl­idene)]diphenolato-κ4 O 1,N,N′,O 1′}nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Abhishek K.; Butcher, Ray J.; Sil, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear title complex, [Ni(C50H46N2O4)], crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z′ = 2). Each NiII atom has a slightly distorted square-planar geometry [ω = 3.91 (5)° and 2.04 (7)°] defined by the two phenolate O and two imine N atoms of the tetra­dentate Schiff base ligand. The dihedral angles between the central phenolate ring and peripheral phenyl rings are 60.5 (2)/70.0 (2) and 86.4 (2)/56.1 (2)° in mol­ecule A, and 89.43 (19)/18.0 (2) and 63.87 (19)/68.2 (2)° in mol­ecule B. The two central phenolate rings are twisted by angles of 19.37 (19) and 19.36 (18)° in the two mol­ecules. The packing is stabilized through intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming chains parallel to the b axis. The tert-butyl groups in one of the two mol­ecules are positionally disordered with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.707 (13):0.293 (13). PMID:26870410

  5. rac-tert-Butyl 2-{5-[(4-{2-[methyl(pyridin-2-yl)amino]ethoxy}phenyl)methyl]-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sixing; Liang, Guojuan; Fang, Dashu; Gan, Yongjun; Hu, Xiangnan

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C24H29N3O5S, is a chiral molecule which crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group as a racemate. The thiazolidine ring forms the dihedral angles of 29.22?(12) and 67.79?(10) with the benzene and pyridine rings, respectively. The benzene and pyridine rings are tilted by dihedral angle of 67.18?(9). In the crystal, intermolecular CH?O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a two-dimensional network. PMID:21754398

  6. An X-ray crystallographic and density functional theory study of (3Z)-4-(5-ethylsulfonyl-2-hydroxyanilino)pent-3-en-2-one and (3Z)-4-(5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyanilino)pent-3-en-2-one.

    PubMed

    Akerman, Kate J; Munro, Orde Q

    2013-03-01

    The Schiff base enaminones (3Z)-4-(5-ethylsulfonyl-2-hydroxyanilino)pent-3-en-2-one, C13H17NO4S, (I), and (3Z)-4-(5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyanilino)pent-3-en-2-one, C15H21NO2, (II), were studied by X-ray crystallography and density functional theory (DFT). Although the keto tautomer of these compounds is dominant, the O=C-C=C-N bond lengths are consistent with some electron delocalization and partial enol character. Both (I) and (II) are nonplanar, with the amino-phenol group canted relative to the rest of the molecule; the twist about the N(enamine)-C(aryl) bond leads to dihedral angles of 40.5 (2) and -116.7 (1)° for (I) and (II), respectively. Compound (I) has a bifurcated intramolecular hydrogen bond between the N-H group and the flanking carbonyl and hydroxy O atoms, as well as an intermolecular hydrogen bond, leading to an infinite one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded chain. Compound (II) has one intramolecular hydrogen bond and one intermolecular C=O...H-O hydrogen bond, and consequently also forms a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded chain. The DFT-calculated structures [in vacuo, B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level] for the keto tautomers compare favourably with the X-ray crystal structures of (I) and (II), confirming the dominance of the keto tautomer. The simulations indicate that the keto tautomers are 20.55 and 18.86 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy than the enol tautomers for (I) and (II), respectively. PMID:23459351

  7. Recovery of anhydrous Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from SO{sub 2}-scrubbing liquor by extractive crystallization: Liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, and/or sulfite plus acetone, 2-propanol, or tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Cos, R.; Prausnitz, J.M.; Schiozer, A.L.; Jaecksch, W.L.

    1996-11-01

    Sodium carbonate is a superior scrubbing agent for removing SO{sub 2} from combustion gases, but the resulting sodium sulfate (or sulfite) must be recovered for environmental reasons. Recovery by evaporative crystallization is energy-intensive; extractive crystallization provides an attractive alterative when technically feasible. Liquid/liquid equilibrium data were determined for two-phase mixtures containing aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, or sulfite and a polar organic solvent: acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol (i.e., tert-butyl alcohol). In the salt-saturated two-phase region, data were obtained between the lower consolute temperature and 60 C (50 C for acetone). data were also obtained at 35 C for liquid/liquid systems that were subsaturated with their respective salts and for liquid/liquid systems with overall molar ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium sulfate fixed at 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25. In the latter systems, it was found that the sulfite/sulfate ratios in the organic and aqueous phases were the same, i.e., there is no selectivity by these solvents for one salt relative to the other. The data show that any one of these solvents can be used to extract water from a concentrated solution of either sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate in a countercurrent extractor at 35 C, causing the anhydrous salt to crystallize. The wet solvent can be dried for recycle in a similar countercurrent operation at 35 C, using a saturated solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as the drying agent. The number of moles of carbonate required for drying does not exceed the number of moles of sulfite-plus-sulfate precipitated. The process energy is about 0% of that required for single-stage evaporative crystallization of the same liquor.

  8. Studies of the degradation mechanism of organic light-emitting diodes based on tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum Alq and 2-tert-butyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene TBADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarikov, Viktor V.; Kondakov, Denis Y.

    2009-02-01

    Previously, radical cation of tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum (Alq•+) has been associated with the instability of Alq films subjected to holes-only electrical current. Yet, the questions remain (i) whether Alq•+ is the primary source of the intrinsic degradation of bipolar organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Alq, (ii) whether Alq•+ reactions result in deep charge traps in holes-only devices as found in bipolar counterparts, and (iii) whether radical cations can be a common source of degradation of OLEDs irrespective of materials. With regards to generality of hole-current-related degradation, it is interesting to examine the behavior of 9,10-diarylanthracenes (DAAs)—the practically important class of blue-fluorescing light-emitting-layer hosts. These questions prompted our comparative study of the effects of unipolar currents in Alq and 2-t-butyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (TBADN), which was chosen as a representative material of the DAA class. First, we identified device structures allowing for rigorous and stable unipolar conduction. Interestingly, even in pristine holes-only devices, our voltammetric measurements indicated that Alq contains a substantial density of deep hole traps (far deeper than what can be explained by energetic disorder), which can be charged by passing holes-only current and seemingly discharged by exposure to white light. As for aged holes-only Alq devices, they exhibited symptoms qualitatively matching those of aged bipolar Alq devices, viz., photoluminescence (PL) loss, transition voltage (V0) rise, and drive voltage (Vd) rise. Notably, PL and V0 are linearly correlated in both holes-only and bipolar devices, which reinforces the supposed link between Alq•+ and the degradation in both types of devices. Yet, there are indications the Alq•+ instability may not be the only degradation pathway in bipolar devices. Even though our observations for holes-only Alq devices agree qualitatively with previously reported ones, we observe far slower degradation rates [Alq PL fades up to ˜500 times slower in holes-only devices, while Alq electroluminescence (EL) fades ˜50 times slower in bipolar control devices]. It is possible that impurities play a significant, perhaps crucial role in the degradation mechanism of both bipolar and holes-only devices, especially the relatively shorter-lived ones. In sharp contrast to Alq, all three observables (PL, V0, and Vd) indicate that holes-only current in TBADN (neat or doped with a perylene-based blue dopant) does not result in degradation in the time that is sufficient for the corresponding bipolar control devices to lose 60%-80% of EL and 20%-30% of PL. We find that the electrons-only current in Alq or TBADN does not result in degradation either. Thus, the degradation of Alq and DAA bipolar devices may be caused by fundamentally dissimilar mechanisms: while hole current may damage the former, it does not appear to affect the latter, suggesting that the initiation step is different.

  9. Crystal structure of 1-butyl-2,3-di­methyl­imidazolium dicarba-7,8-nido-undeca­borate

    PubMed Central

    Klemes, M. J.; Soderstrom, L.; Hunting, J. L.; Larsen, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the title mol­ecular salt, C9H17N2 +·C2H12B9 −, the carborane cage has a bridging B—H—B bond on the open B3C2 face. The butyl side chain of the cation adopts an extended conformation [C—C—C—C = 179.6 (1)°]. In the crystal, the imidazolium ring is almost coplanar with the open face of the carborane anion. The cations stack in the [010] direction and the dihedral angle between the imidazolium rings of adjacent cations is 68.45 (6)°. The butyl chains extend into the space between carborane anions. PMID:25844238

  10. Structure and spectral properties of a squarylium dye, 2,4-bis((1-n-butyl-2(1H)-quinolylidene)methyl)-1,3-cyclobutadienediylium-1,3-diolate

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, J.; Tristani-Kendra, M.; Eckhardt, C.J.

    1986-03-13

    Structural and spectral characterizations of the title compound, 2,4-bis((1-n-butyl-2(1H)-quinolylidene)methyl)-1,3-cyclobutadienediylium-1,3-diolate (BQMS), a prime candidate for a solar energy material, have been carried out. Crystals are monoclinic, P2/sub 1//n with a = 9.586 (2) A, b = 9.730 (2) A, c = 13.894 (3) A, ..beta.. = 99.77 (9)/sup 0/, and Z = 2. The structure has been solved by direct methods and refined by using 1078 reflections for which F > 2 sigma (F) with anisotropic temperature factors on the non-hydrogen atoms to R = 0.098 and R/sub w/ = 0.074. Quasi-metallic reflection is observed along both principal directions for the (101) and (001) faces. The transition moment is found to be polarized along the long axis of the molecule. 16 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  11. The chemical behavior of terminally tert-butylated polyolefins

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Dagmar; Jones, Peter G; Dix, Ina; Hänel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Summary The chemical behavior of various oligoenes 2 has been studied. The catalytic hydrogenation of diene 3 yielded monoene 4. Triene 7 was hydrogenated to diene 8, monoene 9 and saturated hydrocarbon 10. Bromine addition to 3 and 7 yielded the dibromides 17 and 18, respectively, i.e., the oligoene system has been attacked at its terminal olefinic carbon atoms. Analogously, the higher vinylogs 19 and 20 yielded the 1,8- and 1,10-bromine adduts 23 and 24, respectively, when less than 1 equivalent of bromine was employed. Treatment of tetraene 19 with excess bromine provided tetrabromide 25. In epoxidation reactions, both with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (MCPBA) and dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) two model oligoenes were studied: triene 7 and tetraene 19. Whereas 7 furnished the rearrangement product 31 with MCPBA, it yielded the symmetrical epoxide 32 with DMDO. Analogously, 19 was converted to mono-epoxide 33 with MCPBA and to 34 with DMDO. Diels–Alder addition of 7 with N-phenyltriazolinedione (PTAD) did not take place. Extension of the conjugated π-system to the next higher vinylog, 19, caused NPTD-addition to the symmetrical adduct 37 in good yield. Comparable results were observed on adding NPTD (equivalent amount) to pentaene 20 and hexaene 21. Using 36 in excess provided the 2:1-adduct 40 from 21 and led to a complex mixture of adducts from heptaene 22. With tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) as the dienophile, tetraolefin 19 yielded the symmetrical adduct 43, although the reaction temperature had to be increased. Pentaene 20 and hexaene 21 led to corresponding results, adducts 44 and 45 being produced in acceptable yields. With nonaene 42 and TCNE the 2:1-adduct 48 was generated according to its spectroscopic data. Exploratory photochemical studies were carried out with tetraene 19 as the model compound. On irradiation this reacted with oxygen to the stable endo-peroxide 52. PMID:26425183

  12. Formation of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films onto wool fiber surfaces by vapor deposition polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M Mahbubul; McLaughlin, J Robert

    2013-03-13

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization is a useful technique because of the possibility of forming very thin film of pure polymers on substrates with any geometric shape. In this work, thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA were formed on the surfaces of wool fabrics by a CVD polymerization process. Various polymerization initiators including dicumyl peroxide, tert-butyl peroxide, and potassium peroxydisulfate have been investigated to polymerize methyl methacrylate onto the surfaces of wool by the CVD polymerization. The wool fabrics were impregnated with initiators and were then exposed to MMA monomer vapor under vacuum at the boiling temperature of the monomer. Wool fabrics with vapor-deposited PMMA surfaces were characterized by elemental analysis, TGA, FTIR, disperse dye absorption, contact angles measurement, AFM, and SEM. PMMA-coated wool fabrics showed higher contact angle and absorbed more dyes than that of the control wool. It was evident from the results obtained by various characterization techniques that MMA was successfully polymerized and formed thin films on the surfaces of wool fabrics by all initiators investigated but the best results were achieved with tert-butyl peroxide. PMID:23406279

  13. TERT promoter mutations and monoallelic activation of TERT in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, F W; Bielski, C M; Rinne, M L; Hahn, W C; Sellers, W R; Stegmeier, F; Garraway, L A; Kryukov, G V

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that promoter mutations in telomerase (TERT), the most common noncoding mutations in cancer, give rise to monoallelic expression of TERT. Through deep RNA sequencing, we find that TERT activation in human cancer cell lines can occur in either mono- or biallelic manner. Without exception, hotspot TERT promoter mutations lead to the re-expression of only one allele, accounting for approximately half of the observed cases of monoallelic TERT expression. Furthermore, we show that monoallelic TERT expression is highly prevalent in certain tumor types and widespread across a broad spectrum of cancers. Taken together, these observations provide insights into the mechanisms of TERT activation and the ramifications of noncoding mutations in cancer. PMID:26657580

  14. Androgen and Progesterone Receptors Are Targets for Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-Methyl-2,4-bis-(P-Hydroxyphenyl)Pent-1-Ene—A Potent Metabolite of BPA, and 4-Tert-Octylphenol: A Computational Insight

    PubMed Central

    Rehan, Mohd; Ahmad, Ejaz; Sheikh, Ishfaq A.; Abuzenadah, Adel M.; Damanhouri, Ghazi A.; Bajouh, Osama S.; AlBasri, Samera F.; Assiri, Mansour M.; Beg, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR) are critical for reproductive tract growth and function. Structural binding characterization of BPA, MBP, and OP with AR and PR using molecular docking simulation approaches revealed novel interactions of BPA with PR, and MBP and OP with AR and PR. For BPA, MBP, and OP, five AR interacting residues Leu-701, Leu-704, Asn-705, Met-742, and Phe-764 overlapped with those of native AR ligand testosterone, and four PR interacting residues Leu-715, Leu-718, Met-756, and Met-759 overlapped with those of PR co-complex ligand, norethindrone. For both the receptors the binding strength of MBP was maximum among the three compounds. Thus, these compounds have the potential to block or interfere in the binding of the endogenous native AR and PR ligands and, hence, resulting in dysfunction. The knowledge of the key interactions and the important amino-acid residues also allows better prediction of potential of xenobiotic molecules for disrupting AR- and PR-mediated pathways, thus, helping in design of less potent alternatives for commercial use. PMID:26379041

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of tert-butyl alcohol (tert-butanol) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for TBA to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in c...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of tert-Butyl Alcohol (tert-Butanol) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for TBA to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in c...

  17. A new mono-functionalized organoimido hexa-molybdate derivative: bis-(tetra-n-butyl-ammonium) (5-chloro-2-methyl-phenyl-imido)-?(6)-oxido-dodeca-?(2)-oxido-penta-oxidohexa-molybdate(VI).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Xiao, Zichen; Chen, Liye; Zhang, Jin

    2011-10-01

    The title complex, [(C(4)H(9))(4)N](2)[Mo(6)(C(7)H(6)ClN)O(18)], was prepared by the reaction of (Bu(4)N)(4)[?-Mo(8)O(26)] and 2-methyl-5-chloro-aniline hydro-chloride with N,N'-dicyclo-hexyl-carbodiimide as dehydrating agent in dry acetonitrile solution. The aryl-imido ligand is linked to an Mo atom of the Lindqvist-type hexamolybdate anion by an MoN triple bond, with a bond length of 1.732?(4)? and an MoN-C bond angle of 169.1?(4), typical for monodentate imido groups in such hybrid complexes. Due to the inter-action between one H atom in the aryl group and an O atom of a symmetry-related hexa-molybdate cluster, the anions form centrosymmetric dimers in the crystal structure. Weak C-H?O contacts are observed between the cations and anions. Unresolved disorder in some of the butyl chains of the ammonium cation is noted. PMID:22058705

  18. A new mono-functionalized organoimido hexamolybdate derivative: bis(tetra-n-butylammonium) (5-chloro-2-methylphenylimido)-?6-oxido-dodeca-?2-oxido-pentaoxidohexamolybdate(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Xiao, Zichen; Chen, Liye; Zhang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The title complex, [(C4H9)4N]2[Mo6(C7H6ClN)O18], was prepared by the reaction of (Bu4N)4[?-Mo8O26] and 2-methyl-5-chloroaniline hydrochloride with N,N?-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as dehydrating agent in dry acetonitrile solution. The arylimido ligand is linked to an Mo atom of the Lindqvist-type hexamolybdate anion by an MoN triple bond, with a bond length of 1.732?(4)? and an MoNC bond angle of 169.1?(4), typical for monodentate imido groups in such hybrid complexes. Due to the interaction between one H atom in the aryl group and an O atom of a symmetry-related hexamolybdate cluster, the anions form centrosymmetric dimers in the crystal structure. Weak CH?O contacts are observed between the cations and anions. Unresolved disorder in some of the butyl chains of the ammonium cation is noted. PMID:22058705

  19. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of bis-(tetra-n-butyl-ammonium) [N,N'-(4-tri-fluoro-methyl-1,2-phenyl-ene)bis-(oxamato)-κ(4) O,N,N',O']nickelate(II).

    PubMed

    Eya'ane Meva, François; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Rüffer, Tobias

    2015-06-01

    In the title compound, [N(C4H9)4]2[Ni(C11H3F3N2O6)] or [N(n-Bu)4]2[Ni(topbo)] [n-Bu = n-butyl and topbo = 4-tri-fluoro-methyl-1,2-phenyl-enebis(oxamate)], the Ni(2+) cation is coordinated by two deprotonated amido N atoms and two carboxyl-ate O atoms, setting up a slightly distorted square-planar coordination environment. The [Ni(topbo](2-) anion lies on a twofold rotation axis. Due to an incompatibility with the point-group symmetry of the complete mol-ecule, orientational disorder of the CF3 group is observed. The tetra-hedral ammonium cations and the anion are linked by weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O and C-H⋯F hydrogen-bonding inter-actions into a three-dimensional network. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] following unsuccessful attempts to model it as plausible solvent mol-ecule(s). The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account the unknown solvent mol-ecule. PMID:26090126

  20. Depletion of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) leads to epigenetic modifications of telomerase (TERT) gene in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Juan; Cheng, Alfred S L; Ko, Ben C B

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase that is implicated in plethora of biological processes, including metabolism, aging, stress response, and tumorigenesis. Telomerase (TERT) is essential for telomere maintenance. Activation of TERT is considered a crucial step in tumorigenesis, and therefore it is a potential therapeutic target against cancer. We have recently found that SIRT1 expression is highly elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma, and the depletion of SIRT1 leads to substantial reduction in TERT mRNA and protein expression. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of SIRT1-dependent TERT expression remains uncharacterized. Here, we elucidated if SIRT1 regulates TERT expression via transcriptional, epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms. We report that depletion of SIRT1 does not lead to significant change in transcriptional activity and CpG methylation patterns of the TERT promoter, nor does it affect mRNA stability or 3'-UTR regulation of TERT. Intriguingly, depletion of SIRT1 is associated with substantial induction of acetylated histone H3-K9 and reduction of trimethyl H3-K9 at the TERT gene, which are known to be associated with gene activation. Our data revealed that SIRT1 regulates histone acetylation and methylation at the TERT promoter. We postulated that SIRT1 may regulate TERT expression via long-range interaction, or via yet unidentified histone modifications. PMID:24416313

  1. Study on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of wheat seedlings under [C₄mim][OAc] (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate) with Cd²⁺ stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhonglin; Feng, Yingying; Wang, Yan; Li, Yue; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Sunan; Guan, Wei

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the joint effect of 0.5 mmol·L(-1) Cd(2+) and various concentrations (50-400 mg·L(-1)) of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([C4min][OAc]) on the growth and photosynthetic performance of wheat seedlings in hydroponic culture was investigated. Seedlings grown in presence of Cd(2+) and [C4min][OAc] showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in growth (shoot and root lengths and dry weights) and photosynthetic performance (photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and chlorophyll a but not chlorophyll b) compared to seedlings grown in the presence of Cd(2+) but without [C4min][OAc]. However, this only happened under the lower range of [C4min][OAc] concentrations (50-200 mg·L(-1)). In addition, significant reduction in the level of Cd(2+) was also observed in the leaf tissue of wheat seedlings grown in the presence of 0.5 mmol·L(-1) Cd(2+) and 100 mg·L(-1) [C4min][OAc]. Overall, Cd(2+) exerted a stronger inhibition than [C4min][OAc] on the growth and photosynthetic performance of wheat seedlings. However, when both Cd(2+) and [C4min][OAc] were present in the culture, the toxicity of Cd(2+) could be mitigated by lower concentrations of [C4mim][OAc]. This phenomenon could be due to [C4mim][OAc] forming metal complexes with Cd(2+), thus reducing the toxicity of Cd(2+). PMID:25778420

  2. Crystal structure of (2-{[3,5-bis­(1,1-di­methyl­eth­yl)-4-hy­droxy­phen­yl](5-methyl-2H-pyrrol-2-yl­idene)meth­yl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrrolido-κ2 N,N′)di­fluoridoboron

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yukio; Ogawa, Keizo; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C25H31BF2N2O, is a potential boron tracedrug in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), in which the B atom adopts a distorted BN2F2 tetra­hedral geometry: it is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide, di­methyl­formamide and methanol. The pyrrolyl­idene­methyl­pyrrole triple fused ring system is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å) and subtends a dihedral angle of 47.09 (5)° with the plane of the pendant phenol ring. The phenol –OH group is blocked from forming hydrogen bonds by the adjacent bulky tert-butyl groups. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of very weak C—H⋯F inter­actions generate R 2 2(22) loops. PMID:26396909

  3. Crystal structure of (2-{[3,5-bis-(1,1-di-methyl-eth-yl)-4-hy-droxy-phen-yl](5-methyl-2H-pyrrol-2-yl-idene)meth-yl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrrolido-κ(2) N,N')di-fluoridoboron.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yukio; Ogawa, Keizo; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    The title compound, C25H31BF2N2O, is a potential boron tracedrug in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), in which the B atom adopts a distorted BN2F2 tetra-hedral geometry: it is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide, di-methyl-formamide and methanol. The pyrrolyl-idene-methyl-pyrrole triple fused ring system is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å) and subtends a dihedral angle of 47.09 (5)° with the plane of the pendant phenol ring. The phenol -OH group is blocked from forming hydrogen bonds by the adjacent bulky tert-butyl groups. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of very weak C-H⋯F inter-actions generate R 2 (2)(22) loops. PMID:26396909

  4. The TERT promoter SNP rs2853669 decreases E2F1 transcription factor binding and increases mortality and recurrence risks in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eunkyong; Seo, Hyun-Wook; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Baek-hui; Jung, Guhung

    2016-01-01

    A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, rs2853669 influences patient survival rates and the risk of developing cancer. Recently, several lines of evidence suggest that the rs2853669 suppresses TERT promoter mutation-mediated TERT expression levels and cancer mortality as well as recurrence rates. However, no reports are available on the impact of rs2853669 on TERT expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with patient survival. Here, we found that HCC-related overall and recurrence-free survival rates were not associated with TERT promoter mutation individually, but rs2853669 and the TERT promoter mutation in combination were associated with poor survival rates. TERT mRNA expression and telomere fluorescence levels were greater in patients with HCC who had both the combination. The combination caused TERT promoter methylation through regulating the binding of DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone deacetylase 1 to the TERT promoter in HCC cell lines. The TERT expression level was significantly higher in HCC tumor with a methylated promoter than in that with an unmethylated promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrate a substantial role for the rs2853669 in HCC with TERT promoter mutation, which suggests that the combination of the rs2853669 and the mutation indicate poor prognoses in liver cancer. PMID:26575952

  5. Asymmetric syntheses of methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-3-epi-daunosaminide and methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-ristosaminide.

    PubMed

    Csatayov, Kristna; Davies, Stephen G; Ford, J Gair; Lee, James A; Roberts, Paul M; Thomson, James E

    2013-12-20

    Ab initio asymmetric syntheses of methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-3-epi-daunosaminide and methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-ristosaminide, employing diastereoselective epoxidation and dihydroxylation, respectively, of alkyl (3S,?R,Z)-3-[N-benzyl-N-(?-methylbenzyl)amino]hex-4-enoates as the key steps, are reported. The requisite substrates were readily prepared using the conjugate additions of lithium (R)-N-benzyl-N-(?-methylbenzyl)amide to methyl and tert-butyl (E)-hexa-2-en-4-ynoates followed by diastereoselective alkyne reduction. syn-Dihydroxylation using OsO4 proceeded under steric control on the 4Re,5Re face of the olefin to give the corresponding diol, which subsequently underwent lactonization. Meanwhile, epoxidation using F3CCO3H in conjunction with F3CCO2H proceeded on the opposite 4Si,5Si face of the olefin under hydrogen-bonding control from the in situ formed ammonium ion. Treatment of the intermediate epoxide with concd aq H2SO4 promoted highly regioselective ring-opening (distal to the in situ formed ammonium moiety) to give the corresponding diol (completing overall the formal anti-dihydroxylation of the olefin), which then underwent lactonization under the reaction conditions. Elaboration of these diastereoisomeric lactones through hydrogenolysis, N-Boc protection, reduction, methanolysis, and acetate protection gave methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-3-epi-daunosaminide and methyl N,O-diacetyl-D-ristosaminide. PMID:24256461

  6. Radical migration-addition of N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines with organozinc reagents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Ye, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Wei; Dong, Han-Qing; Wei, Bang-Guo

    2013-11-15

    A novel migration-addition sequence was discovered for the reaction of enantioenriched N-tert-butanesulfinyl iminoacetate 1a with functionalized benzylzinc bromide reagents, producing tert-leucine derivatives in excellent diastereoselectivity (dr 98:2). The absolute configurations of two new chiral centers were unambiguously assigned by chemical transformations and X-ray crystallography. In addition, the regio- and diastereoselectivities of this novel reaction were both explained through the key N-sulfinamine intermediate M6 generated by the tert-butyl radical attack on the imine. Computational analysis of this reaction process, which was performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31G*-LANL2DZ level, also supported our proposed two-stage mechanism. PMID:24160561

  7. 76 FR 77709 - Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate and ethenylbenzene (CAS Reg. No. 25036-16-2); also known as butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation. Momentive Performance Materials submitted a petition to EPA......

  8. Diagnostic Value of Methylated Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase in Human Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Wei; Lin, Wei-Yin; Wu, Josh Chia-Ching; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Wong, Thian-Sze

    2015-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of human malignancies. Overexpression of hTERT is essential in controlling the propagation of cancer cells. The CpG island located at hTERT promoter region is subjected to methylation modification in human cancer. In this perspective article, we discussed the diagnostic value of methylated hTERT in human cancers. The definitive diagnosis of most solid tumors is based on histological and immunohistochemical features. Under certain circumstances, however, the use of methylated hTERT might be useful in overcoming the limitation of the conventional methods. Methylated hTERT showed a good diagnostic power in discriminating cancer from benign or normal tissues. Nevertheless, differences in detection method, methylation site, cancer type, and histological subtype of cancer make it difficult to evaluate the actual diagnostic accuracy of methylated hTERT. Therefore, we performed subgroup analysis to assess the effects of these factors on the diagnostic efficiency of methylated hTERT. We demonstrated that quantitative MSP (qMSP) assay offers the highest discriminative power between normal and cancer in comparison with different detection methods. In addition, the methylated sites selected by different studies had an impact on the detection performance. Moreover, the diagnostic power of methylated hTERT was affected by cancer type and histological subtype. In conclusion, the existing evidence demonstrated that methylated hTERT is effective in cancer detection. Detailed profiling of the methylation sites to local the common methylation hotspot across human cancers is warranted to maximize the diagnostic value of methylated hTERT in cancer detection. PMID:26734575

  9. Different hydrogen-bonded chains in the crystal structures of three alkyl N-[(E)-1-(2-benzyl­idene-1-methyl­hydrazin­yl)-3-hy­droxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]carbamates

    PubMed Central

    Noguiera, Thais C. M.; Pinheiro, Alessandra C.; Wardell, James L.; de Souza, Marcus V. N.; Abberley, Jordan P.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of three methyl­ated hydrazine carbamate derivatives prepared by multi-step syntheses from l-serine are presented, namely benzyl N-{(E)-1-[2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-1-methylhydrazinyl]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopro­pan-2-yl}carbamate, C20H20N4O4, tert-butyl N-{(E)-1-[2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-1-methylhydrazinyl]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl}carbamate, C17H22N4O4, and tert-butyl N-[(E)-1-(2-benzylidene-1-methylhydrazinyl)-3-hydroxy-1-oxopro­pan-2-yl]carbamate, C16H23N3O4. One of them shows that an unexpected racemization has occurred during the mild-condition methyl­ation reaction. In each crystal structure, the mol­ecules are linked into chains by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, but with significant differences between them. PMID:26279859

  10. Microsolvation and sp2-stereoinversion of monomeric α-(2,6-di-tert-butylphenyl)vinyllithium as measured by NMR

    PubMed Central

    Knittl, Monika; Rossmann, Eva C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The β-unsubstituted title compound dissolves in THF as a uniformly trisolvated monomer, whereas it forms exclusively disolvated monomers in tert-butyl methyl ether, Et2O, TMEDA, or toluene with TMEDA (1.4 equiv). This was established at low temperatures through the observation of separated NMR signals for free and lithium-coordinated ligands and/or through the patterns and magnitudes of 13C,6Li NMR coupling constants. An aggregated form was observed only with Et2O (2 equiv) in toluene as the solvent. The olefinic geminal interproton coupling constants of the H2C= part can be used as a secondary criterion to differentiate between these differently solvated ground-states (3, 2, or <2 coordinated ligands per Li). Due to a kinetic trisolvation privilege of THF, the cis/trans sp2-stereoinversion rates could be measured through analyses of 1H NMR line broadening and coalescence only in THF as the solvent: The pseudomonomolecular (because THF-catalyzed), ionic mechanism is initialized by a C–Li bond heterolysis with the transient immobilization of one additional THF ligand, followed by stereoinversion of the quasi-sp2-hybridized carbanionic center in cooperation with a “conducted tour” migration of Li+(THF)4 along the α-aryl group within the solvent-separated ion pair. PMID:25383123

  11. Facile Synthesis of Novel Polyethylene-Based A-B-C Block Copolymers Containing Poly(methyl methacrylate) Using a Living Polymerization System.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiangyang; Ma, Qiong; Cai, Zhengguo; Tanaka, Ryo; Shiono, Takeshi; Grubbs, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Ethylene-propylene-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene-hexene-MMA A-B-C block copolymers with high molecular weight (>100 000) are synthesized using fluorenylamide-ligated titanium complex activated by modified methylaluminoxane and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol for the first time. After diblock copolymerization of olefin is conducted completely, MMA is added and activated by aluminum Lewis acid to promote anionic polymerization. The length of polyolefin and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is controllable precisely by the change of the additive amount of olefin and polymerization time, respectively. A soft amorphous polypropylene or polyhexene segment is located between two hard segments of semicrystalline polyethylene and glassy PMMA blocks. PMID:26641599

  12. Control over the Hydrogen-Bond Docking Site in Anisole by Ring Methylation.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Hannes C; Altnöder, Jonas; Heger, Matthias; Suhm, Martin A

    2016-01-26

    The supramolecular docking of methanol to anisole may occur via an OH⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bond or via an OH⋅⋅⋅π contact. The subtle balance between these two structures can be varied in supersonic jets by one order of magnitude through single to triple methylation of the aromatic ring and introduction of a single tert-butyl substituent, as evidenced by infrared spectroscopy. This steep variation makes it possible to assess the accuracy of relative quantum-chemical energy predictions on a kJ mol(-1) level, promising insights into inductive, mesomeric, and dispersive effects. The zero-point-corrected B3LYP-D3/aVTZ level is shown to provide an accurate relative description of the two very different hydrogen bonds, similar to a wavefunction-based protocol including CCSD(T) corrections applied to the same structures. M06-2X alone systematically overestimates the stability of π coordination. PMID:26695475

  13. Butyl benzyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Butyl benzyl phthalate ; CASRN 85 - 68 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  14. Telomerase reverse transcriptase methylation predicts lymph node metastasis and prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yongxin; Li, Guichao; He, Dong; Yang, Fengping; He, Guang; He, Lin; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Yun; Fan, Ming; Shen, Lijun; Zhou, Daizhan; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Telomerase activity is associated with cellular immortalization and is present in most human tumors but absent in normal tissues. The activity of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a catalytic telomerase subunit, correlates with telomerase activity in tumors. The objective of this study was to investigate TERT promoter methylation and its prognostic impact in gastric cancer (GC). Patients and methods The analysis of TERT promoter methylation was performed in tumors and corresponding normal tissues of 116 patients with GC using a highly sensitive Sequenom Epityper assay. The expression of TERT in GC tissues was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The levels of TERT promoter methylation in GC samples were significantly higher than in normal adjacent tissues (P=0.002). Hypermethylation of TERT promoter was associated with high T-stage (P=0.024), late N-stage (P=0.006), and lymphovascular/neural invasion (P=0.035), without correlation with age, sex, or histological grade. Simple linear regression analysis showed that TERT mRNA correlated positively with TERT methylation (R2=0.562, P=0.001). Also, higher TERT mRNA expression was related to hypermethylation of TERT promoter in GC samples (P=0.005). Univariate analysis demonstrated that N-stage (P=0.002) and TERT promoter methylation (P=0.004) were predictive of overall survival. Furthermore, multivariate analysis confirmed that N-stage (P=0.013) and TERT promoter methylation (P=0.031) were independent prognostic indicators for overall survival. Conclusion Our data suggested that hypermethylation of TERT promoter may contribute to gastric wall invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular/neural invasion, and poor prognosis in GC. GC patients with hypermethylation of TERT promoter could be eligible for close follow-up. PMID:26834487

  15. Comparison of stabilization by Vitamin E and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenols during polyethylene radio-thermal-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richaud, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports a compilation of data for PE+Vitamin E and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenols oxidation in radio-thermal ageing. Data unambiguously show that Vitamin E reacts with Prad and POOrad whereas 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenols only react with POOrad . Kinetic parameters of the stabilization reactions for both kinds of antioxidants were tentatively extracted from phenol depletion curves, and discussed regarding the structure of the stabilizer. They were also used for completing an existing kinetic model used for predicting the stabilization by antioxidants. This one permits to compare the efficiency of stabilizer with dose rate or sample thickness.

  16. TERT promoter mutations: a novel independent prognostic factor in primary glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Matthias; Hosen, Ismail; Gousias, Konstantinos; Rachakonda, Sivaramakrishna; Heidenreich, Barbara; Gessi, Marco; Schramm, Johannes; Hemminki, Kari; Waha, Andreas; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Activating somatic mutations in the promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) have been detected in several cancers. In this study we investigated the TERT promoter mutations and their impact on patient survival in World Health Organization grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods The TERT core promoter region containing the previously described mutations and a common functional polymorphism (rs2853669) was sequenced in tumors and blood samples from 192 GBM patients. O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status was assessed by pyrosequencing in 177 (92.2%) cases. Relevant clinical data were obtained from a prospectively maintained electronic database. Results We detected specific (−124 C>T and −146 C>T) TERT promoter mutations in 143/178 (80.3%) primary GBM and 4/14 (28.6%) secondary GBM (P < .001). The presence of TERT mutations was associated with poor overall survival, and the effect was confined to the patients who did not carry the variant G-allele for the rs2853669 polymorphism. An exploratory analysis suggested that TERT mutations might be prognostic only in patients who had incomplete resections and no temozolomide chemotherapy. Conclusions In this study, specific TERT promoter mutations were markers of primary GBM and predicted patient survival in conjunction with a common functional polymorphism. The prognostic impact of TERT mutations was absent in patients with complete resections and temozolomide chemotherapy. If confirmed in additional studies, these findings may have clinical implications, that is, TERT mutations appear to characterize tumors that require aggressive treatment. PMID:25140036

  17. Analysis of Organic Molecules Extracted from Mars Analogues and Influence of Their Mineralogy Using N-Methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)Trifluoroacetamide Derivatization Coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Preparation for the Sample Analysis at Mars Derivatization Experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalport, F.; Glavin, D. P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; McAdam, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    The search for complex organic molecules on Mars, including important biomolecules such as amino acids and carboxylic acids will require a chemical extraction and derivatization step to transform these organic compounds into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). We have developed, a one-pot extraction and chemical derivatization protocol using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF) for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The temperature and duration the derivatization reaction, pre-concentration of chemical derivatives, and gas chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized under SAM instrument design constraints. MTBSTFA/DMF extraction and derivatization at 300 C for several minutes of a variety of terrestrial Mars analogue materials facilitated the detection of amino acids and carboxylic acids in a surface soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert and a carbonate-rich stromatolite sample from Svalbard. However, the rapid reaction of MTBSTFA with water in several analogue materials that contained high abundances of hydrated minerals and the possible deactivation of derivatized compounds by iron oxides, as detected by XRD/XRF using the CheMin field unit Terra, proved to be highly problematic for the direct extraction of organics using MTBSTFA, The combination of pyrolysis and two different chemical derivatization methods employed by SAM should enable a wide range of organic compounds to be detected by GCMS if present on Mars,

  18. (1,10-Phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)bis­(2,2,6,6-tetra­methyl­heptane-3,5-dionato-κ2 O,O′)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Kaitner, Branko; Mesarek, Krešo; Meštrović, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Ni(C11H19O2)2(C12H8N2)], was obtained from the reaction of bis­(2,2,6,6-tetra­methyl­heptane-3,5-dionato)nickel(II), [Ni(dpm)], and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The NiII ion is coordinated by four O atoms from two dpm ligands and two N atoms from a phen ligand in a slightly distorted octa­hedral environment. The methyl C atoms of two of the tert-butyl groups are disordered over two sites, having approximate occupancies of 0.85 and 0.15 for the two components. In the crystal structure, there are no direction-specific inter­actions. Thermal studies showed that the title complex is stable to 623 K. PMID:21200575

  19. Resolution of 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-3-phospholene 1-oxide with TADDOL derivatives and calcium salts of O,O'-Dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)- or O,O'-di-p-toluoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Bagi, Péter; Fekete, András; Kállay, Mihály; Hessz, Dóra; Kubinyi, Miklós; Holczbauer, Tamás; Czugler, Mátyás; Fogassy, Elemér; Keglevich, György

    2014-03-01

    The resolution methods applying (-)-(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(diphenylhydroxymethyl)-2,2-dimethyldioxolane ("TADDOL"), (-)-(2R,3R)-α,α,α',α'-tetraphenyl-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-2,3-dimethanol ("spiro-TADDOL"), as well as the acidic and neutral Ca(2+) salts of (-)-O,O'-dibenzoyl- and (-)-O,O'-di-p-toluoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid were extended for the preparation of 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-3-phospholene 1-oxide in optically active form. In one case, the intermediate diastereomeric complex could be identified by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute P-configuration of the enantiomers of the phospholene oxide was also determined by comparing the experimentally obtained and calculated CD spectra. PMID:24510520

  20. Use of tert-butylbenzoylated tartardiamide chiral stationary phase for the enantiomeric resolution of acidic compounds by nano-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Salvatore; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Rocco, Anna

    2006-07-01

    Several racemic acidic compounds of pharmaceutical and environmental interest have been separated into their enantiomers by nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) employing a tert-butylbenzoylated tartardiamide chiral stationary phase (CHI-TBB). CHI-TBB was packed into a fused silica capillary of 100 microm id and retained by two frits made with a heated wire; detection was on-column at a window (about 0.5 cm) prepared by removing the polyimide layer. The normal phase mode was selected for eluting the studied acidic compounds and therefore n-hexane/2-propanol/acetic acid (89/10/1, v/v/v) was used as mobile phase. Working at a flow rate of 220 nL/min a good resolution was obtained for mecoprop, dichlorprop, diclofop, fenoxaprop (herbicides) and for DF 1738Y, DF 1770Y, DF 2008Y (drugs under evaluation). In order to optimize the chiral resolution we modified the polarity of the mobile phase by adding several polar additives such as ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, tert-butyl methyl ether. Better results were obtained for some herbicides on working with 2-propanol/CH2Cl2/n-hexane/acetic acid (8/4/87/1, v/v/v/v). The influence of the capillary temperature on chiral resolution was studied for two herbicides with different chemical structures, namely mecoprop and haloxyfop in the temperature range between 10 and 40 degrees C and with n-hexane/2-propanol/1% acetic acid (89/10/1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Linear correlation of ln k vs 1/T and In alpha vs 1/ T was observed; deltaH degrees values were negative, demonstrating that retention of analytes was an exothermic process. A decrease in resolution was observed with rising temperature, showing that enantioresolution was mainly influenced by selectivity factors. PMID:16894787

  1. 1H NMR Studies on Cationic Motions in Solid tert-Butylammonium Hexachlorostannate (IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Higashiyama, Tatsuo; Hayama, Naomi; Ikeda, Ryuichi

    1992-10-01

    The temperature dependences of the 1H spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and the second moment (M2) of NMR absorptions were measured for anhydrous tert-butylammonium hexachlorostannate(IV) and its partially deuterated analogs [(CD3)3CNH3]2SnCl6 and [(CH3)3CND3]2SnCl6. Three kinds of cationic motions were revealed: the reorientations of the CH3 group about their C - C bonds, the NH+3 group about its C - N bond, and the tert-butyl group about the C - N bond. Their motional parameters were determined. Among the three motions, the NH+3 motion occurs at the lowest temperature with quite a small activation energy (9.9-10.0 kJ mol-1 ) .

  2. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... methyl ether (see also, Methyl tert-pentyl ether) 41 AYE Amyl methyl ketone, see Methyl amyl ketone AMK... oxide 16 1 BTO Butyl ether 41 BTE Butyl formate 34 BFI/BFN Butyl heptyl ketone 18 BHK Butyl methacrylate... DCD DCB Dichlorodifluoromethane 36 DCF 1,1-Dichloroethane 36 DCH 2,2′-Dichloroethyl ether 41 DEE...

  3. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... methyl ether (see also, Methyl tert-pentyl ether) 41 AYE Amyl methyl ketone, see Methyl amyl ketone AMK... oxide 16 1 BTO Butyl ether 41 BTE Butyl formate 34 BFI/BFN Butyl heptyl ketone 18 BHK Butyl methacrylate... DCD DCB Dichlorodifluoromethane 36 DCF 1,1-Dichloroethane 36 DCH 2,2′-Dichloroethyl ether 41 DEE...

  4. Magnetocaloric properties of manganese(III) porphyrins bearing 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, V. V.; Lomova, T. N.; Maslennikova, A. N.; Korolev, D. V.; Shpakovsky, D. B.; Zhang, Jianwei; Milaeva, E. R.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and heat capacity during the magnetization of (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (1), (5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (2), and (5-(4-palmitoyloxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (3) in their aqueous suspensions were determined by the microcalorimetric method over the temperature range of 278-320 K and in magnetic fields from 0 to 1 T. MCE was positive for all complexes studied, i.e. the magnetic field impression under adiabatic conditions led to an increase in temperature of the complexes suspensions. MCE increased with an increase in the magnetic field induction at all temperatures studied. Dependences of MCE on temperature had weak maxima at 298 K at all magnetic induction values. The disturbance of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding of hydroxyl groups is one of probable reasons for such dependences type. MCE values increased under the palmitoyl substituent incorporation into one of the phenol groups at all temperatures. The heat capacity of the studied complexes rose slightly with temperature growth. Dependences of the heat capacity on temperature showed that the magnetic component of the heat capacity did not appear due to the presence of the manganese atom acting as a paramagnetic center in complexes 1, 2, and 3. The relation between the complexes structure and their magnetothermal properties was analyzed. It was justified that the changes of magnetothermal properties were caused by electronic substitution effects and, to an even greater degree, by the conditions of intermolecular hydrogen bonds formation in the paramagnetic materials.

  5. 40 CFR 704.33 - P-tert-butylbenzoic acid (P-TBBA), p-tert-butyltoluene (P-TBT) and p-tert-butylbenzaldehyde (P-TBB).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false P-tert-butylbenzoic acid (P-TBBA), p-tert-butyltoluene (P-TBT) and p-tert-butylbenzaldehyde (P-TBB). 704.33 Section 704.33 Protection of... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS Chemical-Specific Reporting and Recordkeeping Rules § 704.33 P-tert-butylbenzoic...

  6. Nucleophilic Participation in the Solvolyses of (Arylthio)methyl Chlorides and Derivatives: Application of Simple and Extended Forms of the Grunwald-Winstein Equations.

    PubMed

    Kevill, Dennis N; Park, Young Hoon; Park, Byoung-Chun; D'Souza, Malcolm J

    2012-06-01

    The specific rates of solvolysis of chloromethyl phenyl sulfide [(phenylthio)methyl chloride] and its p-chloro-derivative have been determined at 0.0 °C in a wide range of hydroxylic solvents, including several containing a fluroalcohol. Treatment in terms of a two-term Grunwald-Winstein equation, incorporating terms based on solvent ionizing power (Y(Cl)) and solvent nucleophilicity (N(T)) suggest a mechanism similar to that for the solvolyses of tert-butyl chloride, involving in the rate-determining step a nucleophilic solvation of the incipient carbocation in an ionization process. A previous suggestion, that a third-term governed by the aromatic ring parameter (I) is required, is shown both for the new and for the previously studied related substrates to be an artifact, resulting from an appreciable degree of multicollinearity between I values and a linear combination of N(T) and Y(Cl) values. PMID:22711999

  7. Nucleophilic Participation in the Solvolyses of (Arylthio)methyl Chlorides and Derivatives: Application of Simple and Extended Forms of the Grunwald-Winstein Equations

    PubMed Central

    Kevill, Dennis N.; Park, Young Hoon; Park, Byoung-Chun; D’Souza, Malcolm J.

    2012-01-01

    The specific rates of solvolysis of chloromethyl phenyl sulfide [(phenylthio)methyl chloride] and its p-chloro-derivative have been determined at 0.0 °C in a wide range of hydroxylic solvents, including several containing a fluroalcohol. Treatment in terms of a two-term Grunwald-Winstein equation, incorporating terms based on solvent ionizing power (YCl) and solvent nucleophilicity (NT) suggest a mechanism similar to that for the solvolyses of tert-butyl chloride, involving in the rate-determining step a nucleophilic solvation of the incipient carbocation in an ionization process. A previous suggestion, that a third-term governed by the aromatic ring parameter (I) is required, is shown both for the new and for the previously studied related substrates to be an artifact, resulting from an appreciable degree of multicollinearity between I values and a linear combination of NT and YCl values. PMID:22711999

  8. Comparative cytotoxicity between butylated hydroxytoluene and its methylcarbamate derivative, terbucarb, on isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Y.; Yaguchi, K.; Suzuki, T. )

    1994-08-01

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; BHT) is widely used as phenolic antioxidant in processed foods, cosmetics and petroleum products. It is well known that high doses of BHT cause acute hepatic damage accompanied by centrilobular necrosis in rats. The hepatic damage is associated with prolonged depletion of glutathione (GSH). Terbucarb (2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-tolyl-methylcarbamate), which has a methylcarbamate group substituted for the phenol group on BHT, was developed as an insecticide and is also presently used as a herbicide on turfgrass. Despite the metabolic and toxicological details known about BHT in vivo and in vitro, no extensive studies have been reported on the metabolism and toxicity of Terbucarb. The isolated hepatocyte system provides a very useful system for the study of the temporal sequences leading to cell damage caused by chemicals and drugs. Here, using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, we report on the comparative toxic effects of BHT and its methylcarbamate derivative, Terbucarb. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Protective effect of butylated hydroxylanisole against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Jeon, Yu Jin; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Baek, Kyoung Min; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Joong Sun; Kim, Lark Kyun; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds: 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. We examined the effect of BHA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, H2O2 treatment increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2, and promoted PARP-1 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with BHA before exposure to H2O2 significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability. H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with BHA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, an ROS scavenger). H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability was also attenuated by pretreatment with BHA and NAC. Furthermore, H2O2-induced increase of Bax, decrease of Bcl-2, and PARP-1 cleavage was also inhibited by BHA. Taken together, results of this investigation demonstrated that BHA protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ROS generation. PMID:25798044

  10. Interactions of hydrogen and methyl radicals with diamond C(111) studied by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, R.P.; Huang, J.Y.; Shen, Y.R.; Chuang, T.J.; Seki, H.

    1996-09-01

    Methyl-radical and atomic hydrogen adsorption on C(111) have been studied by infrared-visible sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. Methyl iodide, di-tert-butyl-peroxide, and methane passing through a hot filament are used to produce methyl radicals (CH{sub 3}). Low-energy CH{sub 3} from pyrolytic dissociation at {approximately}800{degree}C adsorb intact on the surface, but with surface annealing above 350{degree}C, convert to tetrahedrally bonded CH. High-energy CH{sub 3} produced at {approximately}1800{degree}C convert readily to CH upon adsorption. Co-dosing a high-temperature ({approximately}800{degree}C) C(111) substrate with hydrogen and methane via a hot filament at {approximately}1800{degree}C yields only the stable tetrahedrally-bonded CH-species on the surface. They appear to stabilize the diamond surface structure. The coverage is not full, leaving sites open for CH{sub 3} to adsorb and convert to CH as is necessary for chemical vapor deposition diamond growth. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) Is Required for the Transcriptional Repression of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zheng; Fang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xi; Strååt, Klas; Björkholm, Magnus; Xu, Dawei

    2008-01-01

    Background Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), catalysing demethylation of mono- and di-methylated histone H3-K4 or K9, exhibits diverse transcriptional activities by mediating chromatin reconfiguration. The telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, encoding an essential component for telomerase activity that is involved in cellular immortalization and transformation, is silent in most normal human cells while activated in up to 90% of human cancers. It remains to be defined how exactly the transcriptional activation of the hTERT gene occurs during the oncogenic process. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we determined the effect of LSD1 on hTERT transcription. In normal human fibroblasts with a tight hTERT repression, a pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 led to a weak hTERT expression, and a robust induction of hTERT mRNA was observed when LSD1 and histone deacetylases (HDACs) were both inhibited. Small interference RNA-mediated depletion of both LSD1 and CoREST, a co-repressor in HDAC-containing complexes, synergistically activated hTERT transcription. In cancer cells, inhibition of LSD1 activity or knocking-down of its expression led to significant increases in levels of hTERT mRNA and telomerase activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that LSD1 occupied the hTERT proximal promoter, and its depletion resulted in elevated di-methylation of histone H3-K4 accompanied by increased H3 acetylation locally in cancer cells. Moreover, during the differentiation of leukemic HL60 cells, the decreased hTERT expression was accompanied by the LSD1 recruitment to the hTERT promoter. Conclusions/Significance LSD1 represses hTERT transcription via demethylating H3-K4 in normal and cancerous cells, and together with HDACs, participates in the establishment of a stable repression state of the hTERT gene in normal or differentiated malignant cells. The findings contribute to better understandings of hTERT/telomerase regulation, which may be implicated in the development of therapeutic strategies for telomerase dysregulation-associated human diseases including cancers. PMID:18197256

  12. TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rengyun; Xing, Mingzhao

    2016-03-01

    The 2013 discovery of Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations chr5, 1,295,228 C>T (C228T) and 1,295,250 C>T (C250T) in thyroid cancer represents an important event in the thyroid cancer field and much progress has occurred since then. This article provides a comprehensive review of this exciting new thyroid cancer field. The oncogenic role of TERT promoter mutations involves their creation of consensus binding sites for E-twenty-six transcriptional factors. TERT C228T is far more common than TERT C250T and their collective prevalence is, on average, 0, 11.3, 17.1, 43.2 and 40.1% in benign thyroid tumors, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), follicular thyroid cancer, poorly differentiated thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, displaying an association with aggressive types of thyroid cancer. TERT promoter mutations are associated with aggressive thyroid tumor characteristics, tumor recurrence and patient mortality as well as BRAF V600E mutation. Coexisting BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations have a robust synergistic impact on the aggressiveness of PTC, including a sharply increased tumor recurrence and patient mortality, while either mutation alone has a modest impact. Thus, TERT with promoter mutations represents a prominent new oncogene in thyroid cancer and the mutations are promising new diagnostic and prognostic genetic markers for thyroid cancer, which, in combination with BRAF V600E mutation or other genetic markers (e.g. RAS mutations), are proving to be clinically useful for the management of thyroid cancer. Future studies will specifically define such clinical utilities, elucidate the biological mechanisms and explore the potential as therapeutic targets of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer. PMID:26733501

  13. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by oleanane triterpenoid (CDDO-Me) in pancreatic cancer cells is associated with the suppression of hTERT gene expression and its telomerase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Liu, Yongbo; Kim, Sahn-Ho; Pindolia, Kirit R.; Arbab, Ali S.; Gautam, Subhash C.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT telomerase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT regulatory proteins. -- Abstract: Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a multifunctional oleanane synthetic triterpenoid with potent anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties. The mechanisms of the antisurvival and apoptosis-inducing activities of CDDO-Me and related derivatives of oleanolic acid have been defined; however, to date, no study has been carried out on the effect of CDDOs on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene or telomerase activity. Here we report for the first time that inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cell lines is associated with the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT telomerase activity and a number of proteins that regulate hTERT expression and activity. Furthermore, abrogation or overexpression of hTERT protein altered the susceptibility of tumor cells to CDDO-Me. These findings suggest that telomerase (hTERT) is a relevant target of CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cells.

  14. Synthesis and properties of phosphono-derivatives of methyl stearate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of phosphono-derivatives of methyl stearate (PhDMS) were synthesized from methyl oleate and dialkyl H-phosphonates (dialkyl-phosphites). The alkyl groups in the phosphonates were methyl, ethyl, and butyl. The reaction can be carried to 98+% completion with a radical initiator. It is possibl...

  15. Radical-initiated reaction of methyl linoleate with dialkyl phosphites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of the diadduct of dialkyl phosphite (methyl, ethyl, and n-butyl) to methyl linoleate (MeLin) was investigated. The reaction proved to be more challenging than the analogous reaction to methyl oleate, due to self-inhibition of the reaction by MeLin. The tests showed that the reaction i...

  16. Hydrogen Oxidation Catalysis by a Nickel Diphosphine Complex with Pendant t-Butyl Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jenny Y.; Chen, Shentan; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. Scott; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.; Raugei, Simone; Rousseau, Roger; Dupuis, Michel; DuBois, M. Rakowski

    2010-01-01

    A bis-diphosphine nickel complex with tert-butyl functionalized pendant amines [Ni(P{sup Cy}{sub 2}N{sup t-Bu}{sub 2}){sub 2}]{sup 2+} has been synthesized. It is a highly active electrocatalyst for the oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of base. The turnover rate of 50 s{sup −1} under 1.0 atm H{sub 2} at a potential of −0.77 V vs. the ferrocene couple is 5 times faster than the rate reported heretofore for any other synthetic molecular H{sub 2} oxidation catalyst.

  17. TERT promoter mutations in melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Nagore, Eduardo; Heidenreich, Barbara; Rachakonda, Sívaramakrishna; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Requena, Celia; Soriano, Virtudes; Frank, Christoph; Traves, Victor; Quecedo, Esther; Sanjuan-Gimenez, Josefa; Hemminki, Kari; Landi, Maria Teresa; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Despite advances in targeted therapies, the treatment of advanced melanoma remains an exercise in disease management, hence a need for biomarkers for identification of at-risk primary melanoma patients. In this study, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of TERT promoter mutations in primary melanomas. Tumors from 300 patients with stage I/II melanoma were sequenced for TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations. Cumulative curves were drawn for patients with and without mutations with progression-free and melanoma-specific survival as outcomes. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the effect of the mutations on survivals. Individually, presence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations associated with poor disease-free and melanoma-specific survival with modification of the effect by the rs2853669 polymorphism within the TERT promoter. Hazard ratio (HR) for simultaneous occurrence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations for disease-free survival was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.4) and for melanoma-specific survival 5.8 (95% CI 1.9-18.3). The effect of the mutations on melanoma-specific survival in noncarriers of variant allele of the polymorphism was significant (HR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4-15.2) but could not be calculated for the carriers due to low number of events. The variant allele per se showed association with increased survival (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9). The data in this study provide preliminary evidence that TERT promoter mutations in combination with BRAF/NRAS mutations can be used to identify patients at risk of aggressive disease and the possibility of refinement of the classification with inclusion of the rs2853669 polymorphism within TERT promoter. PMID:26875008

  18. (Biphenyl-2,2'-di-yl)di-tert-butyl-phos-phonium trifluoro-methane-sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alfred; Holzapfel, Cedric W

    2013-01-01

    To aid in the elucidation of catalytic reaction mechanism of palladacycles, we found that reaction of trifluoro-methane-sulfonic acid with a phosphapalladacycle resulted in elimination of the palladium and formation of the title phospholium salt, C20H26P(+)·CF3SO3(-). Selected geometrical parameters include P-biphenyl (av.) = 1.801 (3) Å and P-t-Bu (av.) = 1.858 (3) Å, and significant distortion of the tetra-hedral P-atom environment with biphen-yl-P-biphenyl = 93.93 (13)° and t-Bu-P-t-Bu = 118.82 (14)°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O inter-actions lead to channels along the c axis that are occupied by CF3SO3(-) anions. PMID:23476408

  19. Crystal structure of tert-butyl-N-phenyl­carbonitrilium tetra­chlorido­aluminate

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Tom; Zant, Dirk W.; Wolf, Robert; Lammertsma, Koop; Slootweg, J. Chris

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, (C11H14N)[AlCl4], the nitrilium (systematic name: 2,2-dimethyl-N-phenyl­propane­nitrilium) ion adopts a slightly distorted linear configuration [C—N C = 178.87 (16) and N C—C = 179.13 (17)°]. In the crystal, while there are no inter­molecular hydrogen bonds, pairs of nitrilium ions are linked through π–π inter­actions [inter–centroid distance = 3.8091 (13) Å]. PMID:25484737

  20. Toxicity of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-Nitrophenol (DBNP).

    PubMed

    Alexander, W K; Briggs, G B; Still, K R; Jederberg, W W; MacMahon, K; Baker, W H; Mackerer, C

    2001-04-01

    U.S. Navy submarines reported a yellowing of metal surfaces on their internal surfaces. The yellowing was initially identified on the painted steel bulkheads but further examination indicated that it was not limited to steel surfaces and included bedding, thread tape, Formica, plastisol covered hand-wheels, and aluminum lockers. Crew members also reported to the medical department that their skin turned yellow when they came in contact with these contaminated surfaces and requested information on the effects of exposure. Studies conducted by General Dynamics' Electric Boat Division (EBD) determined that the agent was 2,6-Di-tertbutyl-4-Nitrophenol (DBNP). 2,6-Di-butylphenol (DBP) is an antioxidant additive used in lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids. In the enclosed atmosphere of a submarine, the oil mist could be spread throughout the boat by venting the lube oil to the atmosphere. Submarines use electrostatic precipitators (ESP) to clean the air of particulate materials. During passage through the ESP, oil mist containing DBP is nitrated to DBNP, which is then moved throughout the boat in the ventilation system. Analysis of the EBD data indicated 24-hour exposure concentrations to be in the range of <3.0 to 122 ppb in the laboratory and submarine settings. Submarine crews may be exposed to these concentrations for as many as 24 hours/ day for 90 days during underway periods. Toxicity studies regarding the oral and dermal uptake of DBNP were conducted. From the literature the lethal dose to 50 percent of the population (LD50) of DBNP (rat) was reported by Vesselinovitch et al. in 1961 to be 500 mg/kg. Our studies indicated that the LD50 is in the range of 80 mg/kg in the rat. Our work also includes dermal absorption studies, which indicated that DBNP is not well absorbed through intact skin. Within this study, no no-observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) was identified. Calculation of a reference dose was completed using standard methods based on the LD50 as a numerator with several uncertainty and modifying factors. EBD's determination of airborne concentrations aboard submarines fall in the range of these anticipated allowable concentrations and could indicate significant chronic exposures. No adverse effects from DBNP exposures have been reported to date. PMID:11318392

  1. Preparation of tert-butyl-capped polyenes containing up to 15 double bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, K.; Schrock, R.R. )

    1989-11-27

    7,8-Bis(trifluoromethyl)tricyclo(4.2.2.0{sup 2.5})deca-3,7,9-triene (TCDT) can be ring-opened in a controlled manner by W(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(O-t-Bu){sub 2} (Ar = 2,6-C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-i-Pr{sub 2}) to give living oligomers from which the metal can be removed in a Wittig-like reaction with pivaldehyde or 4,4-dimethyl-trans-2-pentenal. Mixtures of odd and even polyenes have been analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC methods, and those having as many as 13 double bonds have been isolated by column chromatography on silica gel under dinitrogen at {minus}40{degree}C and characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and UV-vis studies. The 17-ene has been observed by HPLC. Polyenes containing more than 17 double bonds are relatively unstable under the reaction and subsequent isolation conditions; those containing between 11 and 15 double bonds decompose thermally progressively more readily. UV-vis and {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR data have been collected and analyzed in detail for the trans(cis,trans){sub x} isomers for x = 1-5 (up to 11 double bonds) and for the odd and even all-trans forms containing up to nine double bonds.

  2. Bis(η5-1-tert-butyl­inden­yl)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Heiko; Sun, Yu; Sitzmann, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [Ni(C13H15)2], shows a slightly distorted sandwich structure with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Both Ni atoms are located on crystallographic centres of inversion. PMID:22065650

  3. Crystal structure of tert-butyl­diphenyl­phosphine oxide

    PubMed Central

    Agbeworvi, George; Assefa, Zerihun; Sykora, Richard E.; Taylor, Jared D.

    2015-01-01

    In the structure of the title triorganophosphine oxide, C16H19OP, the P—O bond is 1.490 (1) Å. The P atom has a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The O atom inter­acts with both phenyl groups of a neighboring mol­ecule [C⋯O = 2.930 (3) and 2.928 (4) Å]. The C—O interaction directs an extended supramolecular arrangement along the a-axis. PMID:26090188

  4. (5-n-Butyl-10,20-diiso­butyl­porphyrin­ato)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Senge, Mathias O.; Dahms, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(C32H36N4)], contains two independent mol­ecules exhibiting an overall ruffled conformation of the porphyrin macrocycle and differing mainly in the positions of the methyl groups. The average Ni—N bond lengths are 1.912 (2) and 1.910 (2) Å in the two mol­ecules. The mol­ecules form a closely spaced lattice structure in which neighbouring porphyrins are oriented in a nearly perpendicular fashion to each other. The compound was prepared via nucleophilic substitution of (5,15-diiso­butyl­porphyrinato)nickel(II) with n-butyl­lithium. PMID:25161518

  5. Induction of cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by 1-t-butyl carbamoyl, 7-methyl-indole-3-ethyl isothiocyanate (NB7M) in nervous system cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Brard, Laurent; Singh, Rakesh K; Kim, Kyu Kwang; Lange, Thilo S; Sholler, Giselle L Saulier

    2008-01-01

    Our group has recently developed 1-tbutyl carbamoyl, 7-methyl-indole-3-ethyl isothiocyanate (NB7M), a novel indole ethyl isothiocyanate analog. We now describe its selective cytotoxicity in both central nervous system (CNS) and neuroblastoma (NB) cancer cells. In an effort to understand its mechanism of action we examined the effects of NB7M on apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and pro-survival/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in neuroblastoma cells. NB7M proved highly cytotoxic to NB cell lines (SMS-KCNR, SK-N- SH, SH-SY5Y, IMR-32) with IC50 values ranging from 1.0–2.0 μM, whereas lung fibroblasts were less affected (IC50≥10 μM). In the NCI 60 cell screen 1-dose assay, NB7M (10 μM) reduced the growth (−89 to −27 % growth) of CNS cancer cell lines SF-268, SF-295, SNB-75 (glioblastoma), SF-539 (gliosarcoma), and U251 (astroglioma) while SNB-19 glioblastoma cells were relatively resistant (19% growth). Hoechst staining of SMS-KCNR cells treated with NB7M (3 μM) for 24 hrs exhibited significant chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, whereas Annexin-v/7AADstaining revealed that the majority of cells accumulated in the early-apoptotic and late-apoptotic/necrotic stages. NB7M treatment of SMS-KCNR and SH-SY5Y cells also led to the cleavage of procaspases-3, and PARP-1 while causing activation of pro-apoptotic MAPKs and down-regulation of pro-survival factors AKT and PI-3K. Furthermore, NB7M treatment caused S-phase arrest in SMSKCNR and G1-phase arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. NB7M is active against CNS cancers and NB. PMID:19920894

  6. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  7. 77 FR 27164 - Butylate, Clethodim, Dichlorvos, Dicofol, Isopropyl Carbanilate, et al.; Proposed Tolerance Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...EPA is proposing, in follow-up to canceled uses or where a commodity is no longer a significant feed item, to revoke certain tolerances for butylate, clethodim, dichlorvos, dicofol, isopropyl carbanilate, methanearsonic acid, methomyl, naled, primisulfuron- methyl, tralomethrin, and ziram, and tolerance exemptions for rotenone, derris, cube roots, and pine oil. Also, EPA is proposing to make......

  8. Identification of a Fragment-like Small Molecule Ligand for the Methyl-lysine Binding Protein, 53BP1

    PubMed Central

    Perfetti, Michael T.; Baughma, Brandi M.; Dickson, Bradley M.; Mu, Yunxiang; Cui, Gaofeng; Mader, Pavel; Dong, Aiping; Norris, Jacqueline L.; Rothbart, Scott B.; Strahl, Brian D.; Brown, Peter J.; Janzen, William P.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Mer, Georges; McBride, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Improving our understanding of the role of chromatin regulators in the initiation, development, and suppression of cancer and other devastating diseases is critical, as they are integral players in regulating DNA integrity and gene expression. Developing small molecule inhibitors for this target class with cellular activity is a crucial step toward elucidating their specific functions. We specifically targeted the DNA damage response protein, 53BP1, which uses its tandem tudor domain to recognize histone H4 dimethylated on lysine 20 (H4K20me2), a modification induced by double-strand DNA breaks. Through a cross-screening approach we identified UNC2170 (1) as a micromolar ligand of 53BP1, which demonstrates at least 17-fold selectivity for 53BP1 as compared to other methyl-lysine (Kme) binding proteins tested. Structural studies revealed that the tert-butyl amine of UNC2170 anchors the compound in the methyl-lysine (Kme) binding pocket of 53BP1, making it competitive with endogenous Kme substrates. X-ray crystallography also demonstrated that UNC2170 binds at the interface of two tudor domains of a 53BP1 dimer. Importantly, this compound functions as a 53BP1 antagonist in cellular lysates and shows cellular activity by suppressing class switch recombination, a process which requires a functional 53BP1 tudor domain. These results demonstrate that UNC2170 is a functionally active, fragment-like ligand for 53BP1. PMID:25590533

  9. Identification of a fragment-like small molecule ligand for the methyl-lysine binding protein, 53BP1.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Michael T; Baughman, Brandi M; Dickson, Bradley M; Mu, Yunxiang; Cui, Gaofeng; Mader, Pavel; Dong, Aiping; Norris, Jacqueline L; Rothbart, Scott B; Strahl, Brian D; Brown, Peter J; Janzen, William P; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Mer, Georges; McBride, Kevin M; James, Lindsey I; Frye, Stephen V

    2015-04-17

    Improving our understanding of the role of chromatin regulators in the initiation, development, and suppression of cancer and other devastating diseases is critical, as they are integral players in regulating DNA integrity and gene expression. Developing small molecule inhibitors for this target class with cellular activity is a crucial step toward elucidating their specific functions. We specifically targeted the DNA damage response protein, 53BP1, which uses its tandem tudor domain to recognize histone H4 dimethylated on lysine 20 (H4K20me2), a modification related to double-strand DNA breaks. Through a cross-screening approach, we identified UNC2170 (1) as a micromolar ligand of 53BP1, which demonstrates at least 17-fold selectivity for 53BP1 as compared to other methyl-lysine (Kme) binding proteins tested. Structural studies revealed that the tert-butyl amine of UNC2170 anchors the compound in the methyl-lysine (Kme) binding pocket of 53BP1, making it competitive with endogenous Kme substrates. X-ray crystallography also demonstrated that UNC2170 binds at the interface of two tudor domains of a 53BP1 dimer. Importantly, this compound functions as a 53BP1 antagonist in cellular lysates and shows cellular activity by suppressing class switch recombination, a process which requires a functional 53BP1 tudor domain. These results demonstrate that UNC2170 is a functionally active, fragment-like ligand for 53BP1. PMID:25590533

  10. Crystal structure of methyl (S)-2-{(R)-4-[(tert-but-oxy-carbon-yl)amino]-3-oxo-1,2-thia-zolidin-2-yl}-3-methyl-butano-ate: a chemical model for oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B).

    PubMed

    Ruddraraju, Kasi Viswanatharaju; Hillebrand, Roman; Barnes, Charles L; Gates, Kent S

    2015-07-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H24N2O5S, contains two independent mol-ecules (A and B). In each mol-ecule, the iso-thia-zolidin-3-one ring adopts an envelope conformation with the methyl-ene C atom as the flap. In the crystal, the A mol-ecules are linked to one another by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming columns along [010]. The B mol-ecules are also linked to one another by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming columns along the same direction, i.e. [010]. Within the individual columns, there are also C-H⋯S and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. The columns of A and B mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming sheets parallel to (10-1). The absolute structure was determined by resonant scattering [Flack parameter = 0.00 (3)]. PMID:26279856

  11. A DNA oligonucleotide-hemin complex cleaves t-butyl hydroperoxide through a homolytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Witting, P K; Travascio, P; Sen, D; Mauk, A G

    2001-09-10

    Both electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electronic absorption spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the reaction of a guanine-rich DNA nucleotide-hemin complex (PS2.M-hemin complex) and organic peroxide (t-Bu-OOH). Incubation of the PS2.M-hemin complex with t-Bu-OOH resulted in the time-dependent decrease in the heme Soret with concomitant changes to the visible bands of the electronic absorbance spectrum for the PS2.M-hemin complex. Parallel EPR studies using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) combined with spectral simulation demonstrated the presence of tert-butyloxyl, carbon-centered methyl, and methyl peroxyl radicals as well as a simple nitroxide (triplet) signal. Experiments, performed by maintaining a constant ratio of t-Bu-OOH/PS2.M-hemin complex ( approximately 35 mol/mol) while varying DMPO concentration, indicated that the relative contributions of each radical adduct to the composite EPR spectrum were significantly influenced by the DMPO concentration. For example, at DMPO/PS2.M-hemin of 10-50 mol/mol, a complex mixture of radicals was consistently detected, whereas at high trapping efficiency (i.e., DMPO/PS2.M-hemin of approximately 250 mol/mol) the tert-butyloxyl-DMPO adduct was predominant. In contrast, at relatively low DMPO/PS2.M-hemin complex ratios of < or =5 mol/mol, a simple nitroxide three-line EPR signal was detected largely in the absence of all other radicals. Together, these data indicate that tert-butyloxyl radical is the primary radical likely formed from the homolytic cleavage of the O-O peroxy bond of t-Bu-OOH, while methyl and methyl peroxyl radicals result from beta-scission of the primary tert-butyloxyl radical product. PMID:11531452

  12. TERT Promoter Mutations in Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Ali S; Alsaadi, Rawan; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Sadiq, Bakr Bin

    2016-06-01

    Two mutations (C228T and C250T) in the promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have recently been described in different types of cancer including follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer (TC). In this paper, we reviewed the rates of these mutations in different types and subtypes of TC, their association with a number of clinical and histopathological features and outcome of TC, and their potential diagnostic and prognostic roles in TC. The overall rate of these mutations in TC is about 14 % with least prevalence in the well-differentiated subtypes of papillary thyroid cancer (10-13 %). Their rates increase significantly with increasing aggressiveness of TC reaching about 40 % in the undifferentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers. There is also clear association with increasing age of patients at the time of diagnosis of TC. The evidence is compelling but with some conflicting results for associations between TERT promoter mutations and tumor size, extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastases, high tumor TNM stage, BRAF (V600E) mutation, recurrence, and mortality. A couple of studies reported a potential diagnostic role for TERT promoter mutations in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology of fine needle aspiration biopsy. These studies showed 100 % specificity but very low sensitivity of 7-10 %. The sensitivity increases significantly when TERT promoter mutation testing is combined with other gene mutations, particularly BRAF (V600E) and RAS mutations. Although TERT promoter mutations seem to play significant roles in the pathogenesis of TC, the mechanisms by which they contribute to carcinogenesis remain elusive and future work is needed to fully assess the roles, interactions, and impact of these mutations on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics of TC. PMID:26902827

  13. Carbon-yl{3,3'-di-tert-butyl-5,5'-dimeth-oxy-2,2'-bis-[(4,4,5,5-tetra-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospho-lan-2-yl)-oxy]biphenyl-κ(2) P,P'}hydrido(triphenyl-phosphane-κP)rhodium(I) diethyl ether tris-olvate.

    PubMed

    Selent, Detlef; Spannenberg, Anke; Börner, Armin

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [RhH(C74H68O8P2)(C18H15P)(CO)]·3C4H10O, the CHP3 coordination set at the Rh(I) ion is arranged in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with the P atoms adopting equatorial coordination sites and the C atom of the carbonyl ligand as well as the H atom adopting the axial sites. The asymmetric unit contains two very similar mol-ecules of the rhodium complex, two half-occupied diethyl ether mol-ecules and further diethyl ether solvent mol-ecules which could not be modelled successfully. Therefore contributions of the latter were removed from the diffraction data using the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. PMID:23476316

  14. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  15. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  16. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Butylated hydroxyanisole. 582.3169 Section 582.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3169 Butylated hydroxyanisole....

  18. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene....

  19. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3169 Butylated hydroxyanisole. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3169 Butylated hydroxyanisole. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a)...

  4. TERT promoter mutations in primary liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Nault, Jean-Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing has drawn the genetic landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma and several signaling pathways are altered at the DNA level in tumors: Wnt/β-catenin, cell cycle regulator, epigenetic modifier, histone methyltransferase, oxidative stress, ras/raf/map kinase and akt/mtor pathways. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process starting with the exposure to different risk factors, followed by the development of a chronic liver disease and cirrhosis precede in the vast majority of the cases the development of HCC. Several lines of evidence have underlined the pivotal role of telomere maintenance in both cirrhosis and HCC pathogenesis. TERT promoter mutations were identified as the most frequent genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma with an overall frequency around 60%. Moreover, in cirrhosis, TERT promoter mutationsare observed at the early steps of hepatocarcinogenesis since they are recurrently identified in low-grade and high-grade dysplastic nodules. In contrast, acquisition of genomic diversity through mutations of classical oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TP53, CTNNB1, ARID1A…) occurred only in progressed HCC. In normal liver, a subset of HCC can derived from the malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). In HCA, CTNNB1 mutations predispose to transformation of HCA in HCC and TERT promoter mutations are required in most of the cases as a second hit for a full malignant transformation. All these findings have refined our knowledge of HCC pathogenesis and have pointed telomerase as a target for tailored therapy in the future. PMID:26336998

  5. [Tert-aminoalkyl derivatives of quinoxalinones, aza- and diazaquinoxalinones with analgesic activity].

    PubMed

    Mulé, A; Pirisino, G; Manca, P; Satta, M; Peana, A; Savelli, F

    1988-01-01

    A series of tert-aminoalkyl-derivatives of quinoxalin-2-one, aza- and diazaquinoxalin-2-one bearing in position 3 a benzyl group was prepared in order to compare with analogous 3-methyl derivatives as regards analgesic activity. The substitution causes various effects. In compounds (I) and (VI-IX) is found the expected increase in analgesic activity but with contemporaneous rise in toxicity. The compounds (IV) and (V) are of interest due to the presence of a strong separation of DL50 from DE50. PMID:3224708

  6. Mutation of the TERT promoter, switch to active chromatin, and monoallelic TERT expression in multiple cancers

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Theodorescu, Dan; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Cech, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the promoter of the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are the most common noncoding mutations in cancer. They are thought to activate telomerase, contributing to proliferative immortality, but the molecular events driving TERT activation are largely unknown. We observed in multiple cancer cell lines that mutant TERT promoters exhibit the H3K4me2/3 mark of active chromatin and recruit the GABPA/B1 transcription factor, while the wild-type allele retains the H3K27me3 mark of epigenetic silencing; only the mutant promoters are transcriptionally active. These results suggest how a single-base-pair mutation can cause a dramatic epigenetic switch and monoallelic expression. PMID:26515115

  7. Mutation of the TERT promoter, switch to active chromatin, and monoallelic TERT expression in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Theodorescu, Dan; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-11-01

    Somatic mutations in the promoter of the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are the most common noncoding mutations in cancer. They are thought to activate telomerase, contributing to proliferative immortality, but the molecular events driving TERT activation are largely unknown. We observed in multiple cancer cell lines that mutant TERT promoters exhibit the H3K4me2/3 mark of active chromatin and recruit the GABPA/B1 transcription factor, while the wild-type allele retains the H3K27me3 mark of epigenetic silencing; only the mutant promoters are transcriptionally active. These results suggest how a single-base-pair mutation can cause a dramatic epigenetic switch and monoallelic expression. PMID:26515115

  8. HMGA2 expression pattern and TERT mutations in tumors of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Antonio; Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Hege Kilen; Johannesen, Lene Elisabeth; Davidson, Ben; Trop, Claes Gran; Heim, Sverre; Micci, Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Malignant tumors of the vulva account for only 5% of cancers of the female genital tract in the USA. The most frequent cancers of the vulva are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). Little is known about the genetic aberrations carried by these tumors. We report a detailed study of 25 vulva tumors [22 SCC, 2 MM, 1 atypical squamous cell hyperplasia (AH)] analyzed for expression of the high-mobility group AT-hook family member genes HMGA2 and HMGA1, for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2 and TERT genes, and for methylation of the MGMT promoter. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that HMGA2 was expressed in the great majority of analyzed samples (20 out of 24; SCC as well as MM) but not in the normal controls. HMGA1, on the other hand, was expressed in both tumors and normal tissues. Five of the 24 tumors (all SCC) showed the C228T mutation in the TERT promoter. Our results showed that HMGA2 and TERT may be of importance in the genesis and/or the progression of tumors of the vulva. PMID:25823555

  9. HMGA2 expression pattern and TERT mutations in tumors of the vulva

    PubMed Central

    AGOSTINI, ANTONIO; PANAGOPOULOS, IOANNIS; ANDERSEN, HEGE KILEN; JOHANNESEN, LENE ELISABETH; DAVIDSON, BEN; TROPÉ, CLAES GÖRAN; HEIM, SVERRE; MICCI, FRANCESCA

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the vulva account for only 5% of cancers of the female genital tract in the USA. The most frequent cancers of the vulva are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). Little is known about the genetic aberrations carried by these tumors. We report a detailed study of 25 vulva tumors [22 SCC, 2 MM, 1 atypical squamous cell hyperplasia (AH)] analyzed for expression of the high-mobility group AT-hook family member genes HMGA2 and HMGA1, for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2 and TERT genes, and for methylation of the MGMT promoter. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that HMGA2 was expressed in the great majority of analyzed samples (20 out of 24; SCC as well as MM) but not in the normal controls. HMGA1, on the other hand, was expressed in both tumors and normal tissues. Five of the 24 tumors (all SCC) showed the C228T mutation in the TERT promoter. Our results showed that HMGA2 and TERT may be of importance in the genesis and/or the progression of tumors of the vulva. PMID:25823555

  10. CUDR promotes liver cancer stem cell growth through upregulating TERT and C-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hu; Zheng, Qidi; Li, Haiyan; Wu, Mengying; An, Jiahui; Gui, Xin; Li, Tianming; Lu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer up-regulated drug resistant (CUDR) is a novel non-coding RNA gene. Herein, we demonstrate excessive CUDR cooperates with excessive CyclinD1 or PTEN depletion to accelerate liver cancer stem cells growth and liver stem cell malignant transformation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we reveal the decrease of PTEN in cells may lead to increase binding capacity of CUDR to CyclinD1. Therefore, CUDR-CyclinD1 complex loads onto the long noncoding RNA H19 promoter region that may lead to reduce the DNA methylation on H19 promoter region and then to enhance the H19 expression. Strikingly, the overexpression of H19 increases the binding of TERT to TERC and reduces the interplay between TERT with TERRA, thus enhancing the cell telomerase activity and extending the telomere length. On the other hand, insulator CTCF recruits the CUDR-CyclinD1 complx to form the composite CUDR-CyclinD1-insulator CTCF complex which occupancied on the C-myc gene promoter region, increasing the outcome of oncogene C-myc. Ultimately, excessive TERT and C-myc lead to liver cancer stem cell and hepatocyte-like stem cell malignant proliferation. To understand the novel functions of long noncoding RNA CUDR will help in the development of new liver cancer therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. PMID:26513297

  11. Cancer. TERT promoter mutations and telomerase reactivation in urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Borah, Sumit; Xi, Linghe; Zaug, Arthur J; Powell, Natasha M; Dancik, Garrett M; Cohen, Scott B; Costello, James C; Theodorescu, Dan; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-02-27

    Reactivation of telomerase, the chromosome end-replicating enzyme, drives human cell immortality and cancer. Point mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene promoter occur at high frequency in multiple cancers, including urothelial cancer (UC), but their effect on telomerase function has been unclear. In a study of 23 human UC cell lines, we show that these promoter mutations correlate with higher levels of TERT messenger RNA (mRNA), TERT protein, telomerase enzymatic activity, and telomere length. Although previous studies found no relation between TERT promoter mutations and UC patient outcome, we find that elevated TERT mRNA expression strongly correlates with reduced disease-specific survival in two independent UC patient cohorts (n = 35; n = 87). These results suggest that high telomerase activity may be a better marker of aggressive UC tumors than TERT promoter mutations alone. PMID:25722414

  12. TERT mutation in glioma: Frequency, prognosis and risk.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Qi, Chen; Maling, Gou; Xiang, Wang; Yanhui, Liu; Ruofei, Liang; Yunhe, Mao; Jiewen, Luo; Qing, Mao

    2016-04-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has received a great deal of attention in recent years for its role as a prognostic and predictive molecular marker of glioma. However, the results of studies examining its mutation frequency and predictive value are inconsistent, and several studies have investigated the association between TERT gene polymorphisms and gliomagenesis. We used a meta-analysis approach to examine these unsolved problems. A bibliography search using EMBASE and MEDLINE was performed to identify potentially relevant articles and conference abstracts that investigated TERT mutations in glioma. The references contained in the identified trials were also examined to identify any other relevant published or unpublished articles. Sixteen studies were included. Pooled estimates of the relative risks (RR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), hazard ratios (HR) and frequency were calculated. TERT mutations occurred frequently in glioblastoma (69%) and oligodendrogliomas (72%) but were less frequent in astrocytomas (24%) and oligoastrocytomas (38%). The HR for glioma patients with TERT mutations versus wild type TERT was 1.63 (95% CI 1.35-1.98). TERT polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of glioma compared to controls (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.23-1.33). Our study shows that the TERT gene is a valuable prognostic and predictive biomarker of glioma, and TERT gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with an increased risk of glioma. PMID:26765760

  13. The Rotational Spectrum of Tertiary-Butyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E. A.; Drouin, B. J.; Valenzuela, E. A.; Woods, R. C.; Caminati, W.; Maris, A.; Melandri, S.

    2009-06-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol is a nearly spherical rotor for which the internal rotation axis of the t-butyl group is close to the c molecular axis in the ac plane. Methyl group torsional spittings are not observed in the ground state. Its 8 to 40 GHz rotational spectrum was reported at this meeting by Valenzuela and Woods in 1974 and in more detail in 1975. The parameters derived at that time from a fit to the E states with J,K≤ 20 have provided the basis for extending the measurements to > 500 GHz. The combined data set extends to J,K > 50 and is fit with the program SPFIT using a common set of parameters for both the A and E states. The general features of the spectrum and the fitting procedure will be described. The resulting molecular constants and their interpretation will be discussed. E.A. Valenzuela, and R. C. Woods, Abstract MF6, International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, OH, 1974 E.A. Valenzuela, and R. C. Woods, Abstract RG15, International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, OH, 1975 E.A. Valenzuela, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1975. H. M. Pickett, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 148 (1991) 271-377.

  14. Use of butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in rabbit auricular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Fung, R Q; Ronis, M L; Mohr, R M

    1985-07-01

    Since the nonsuture repair of blood vessels with methyl-2-cyanoacrylate was described in 1960, the advantages of a tissue adhesive over conventional sutures became evident. A survey of 115 otolaryngology programs showed that cyanoacrylates, mainly butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (B2C), are used more extensively than indicated in the literature. Cartilage grafts are commonly used in facial plastic procedures. In a study comparing B2C with conventional suture techniques in securing rabbit auricular cartilage autografts, sutures were used in the left control ear and B2C was used in the right experimental ear. Rabbits sacrificed at two weeks to 12 months showed graft viability in all samples and no statistically significant histologic difference between the grafts secured by either method. PMID:3893400

  15. P. berghei Telomerase Subunit TERT is Essential for Parasite Survival

    PubMed Central

    Religa, Agnieszka A.; Ramesar, Jai; Janse, Chris J.; Scherf, Artur; Waters, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres define the ends of chromosomes protecting eukaryotic cells from chromosome instability and eventual cell death. The complex regulation of telomeres involves various proteins including telomerase, which is a specialized ribonucleoprotein responsible for telomere maintenance. Telomeres of chromosomes of malaria parasites are kept at a constant length during blood stage proliferation. The 7-bp telomere repeat sequence is universal across different Plasmodium species (GGGTTT/CA), though the average telomere length varies. The catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), is present in all sequenced Plasmodium species and is approximately three times larger than other eukaryotic TERTs. The Plasmodium RNA component of TERT has recently been identified in silico. A strategy to delete the gene encoding TERT via double cross-over (DXO) homologous recombination was undertaken to study the telomerase function in P. berghei. Expression of both TERT and the RNA component (TR) in P. berghei blood stages was analysed by Western blotting and Northern analysis. Average telomere length was measured in several Plasmodium species using Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis. TERT and TR were detected in blood stages and an average telomere length of ∼950 bp established. Deletion of the tert gene was performed using standard transfection methodologies and we show the presence of tert− mutants in the transfected parasite populations. Cloning of tert- mutants has been attempted multiple times without success. Thorough analysis of the transfected parasite populations and the parasite obtained from extensive parasite cloning from these populations provide evidence for a so called delayed death phenotype as observed in different organisms lacking TERT. The findings indicate that TERT is essential for P. berghei cell survival. The study extends our current knowledge on telomere biology in malaria parasites and validates further investigations to identify telomerase inhibitors to induce parasite cell death. PMID:25275500

  16. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING...

  17. Hydrocracking phenanthrene and 1-methyl naphthalene: Development of linear free energy relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, R.N.; Korre, S.C.; Neurock, M.; Klein, M.T.; Quann, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    The catalytic hydrocracking reaction pathways, kinetics and mechanisms of 1-methyl naphthalene and phenanthrene were investigated in experiments at 350 C and 68.1 atm H{sub 2} partial pressure (190.6 atm total pressure), using a presulfided Ni/W on USY zeolite catalyst. 1-methyl naphthalene hydrocracking led to 2-methyl naphthalene, methyl tetralins, methyl decalins, pentyl benzene and tetralin. Phenanthrene hydrocracking led to dihydro, tetrahydro and octahydro phenanthrene, butyl naphthalene, tetralin to butyl tetralin and dibutyl benzene. The rate constants for the dealkylation of butyl tetralins produced in the phenanthrene hydrocracking network conform to a linear free energy relationship (LFER), with the heat of formation of the leaving alkyl carbenium ion as the reactivity index.

  18. Nrf2-driven TERT regulates pentose phosphate pathway in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, F; Dixit, D; Sharma, V; Kumar, A; Joshi, S D; Sarkar, C; Sen, E

    2016-01-01

    Given the involvement of telomerase activation and dysregulated metabolism in glioma progression, the connection between these two critical players was investigated. Pharmacological inhibition of human Telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by Costunolide induced glioma cell apoptosis in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. Costunolide induced an ROS-dependent increase in p53 abrogated telomerase activity. Costunolide decreased Nrf2 level; and ectopic Nrf2 expression decreased Costunolide-induced ROS generation. While TERT knock-down abrogated Nrf2 levels, overexpression of Nrf2 increased TERT expression. Inhibition of hTERT either by Costunolide, or by siRNA or dominant-negative hTERT (DN-hTERT) abrogated (i) expression of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and Transketolase (TKT) - two major nodes in the pentose phosphate (PPP) pathway; and (ii) phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS). hTERT knock-down decreased TKT activity and increased glycogen accumulation. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated knock-down of TKT elevated glycogen accumulation. Coherent with the in vitro findings, Costunolide reduced tumor burden in heterotypic xenograft glioma mouse model. Costunolide-treated tumors exhibited diminished TKT activity, heightened glycogen accumulation, and increased senescence. Importantly, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patient tumors bearing TERT promoter mutations (C228T and C250T) known to be associated with increased telomerase activity; exhibited elevated Nrf2 and TKT expression and decreased glycogen accumulation. Taken together, our findings highlight the previously unknown (i) role of telomerase in the regulation of PPP and glycogen accumulation and (ii) the involvement of Nrf2-TERT loop in maintaining oxidative defense responses in glioma cells. PMID:27148686

  19. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies novel methylated genes in neuroblastoma tumors

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Maja; Beck, Stephan; Kogner, Per; Martinsson, Tommy; Carén, Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neuroblastoma is a very heterogeneous tumor of childhood. The clinical spectra range from very aggressive metastatic disease to spontaneous regression, even without therapy. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a common feature of most cancers. For neuroblastoma, it has been demonstrated both for single genes as well as genome-wide, where a so-called methylator phenotype has been described. Here, we present a study using Illumina 450K methylation arrays on 60 neuroblastoma tumors. We show that aggressive tumors, characterized by International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) as stage M, are hypermethylated compared to low-grade tumors. On the contrary, INRG stage L tumors display more non-CpG methylation. The genes with the highest number of hypermethylated CpG sites in INRG M tumors are TERT, PCDHGA4, DLX5, and DLX6-AS1. Gene ontology analysis showed a representation of neuronal tumor relevant gene functions among the differentially methylated genes. For validation, we used a set of independent tumors previously analyzed with the Illumina 27K methylation arrays, which confirmed the differentially methylated sites. Top candidate genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed for altered gene expression through the R2 platform (http://r2.amc.nl), and for correlations between methylation and gene expression in a public dataset. Altered expression in nonsurvivors was found for the genes B3GALT4 and KIAA1949, CLIC5, DLX6-AS, TERT, and PIRT, and strongest correlations were found for TRIM36, KIAA0513, and PIRT. Our data indicate that methylation profiling can be used for patient stratification and informs on epigenetically deregulated genes with the potential of increasing our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of tumor development. PMID:26786290

  20. Crystal structure of [2,6-bis(adamantan-1-yl)-4-tert-butylphenolato-κO]dimethylaluminium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [Al(CH3)2(C30H41O)] is synthesized by the reaction of 2,6-di-adamantyl-4-tert-butyl-phenol with Al(CH3)3 in a nitro­gen atmosphere. In the mol­ecule, the coordination geometry around the AlIII atom is slightly distorted C2O trigonal (the sum of the bond angles subtended at Al atom being 359.9°), which is rarely reported for organometallic aluminium compounds. The coordination plane is approximately perpendicular to the benzene ring [the dihedral angle = 87.73 (16)°]. There is no inter­molecular hydrogen bonding in the crystal structure. PMID:25484677

  1. An improved model for the hTERT promoter quadruplex.

    PubMed

    Chaires, Jonathan B; Trent, John O; Gray, Robert D; Dean, William L; Buscaglia, Robert; Thomas, Shelia D; Miller, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Mutations occur at four specific sites in the hTERT promoter in >75% of glioblastomas and melanomas, but the mechanism by which the mutations affect gene expression remains unexplained. We report biophysical computational studies that show that the hTERT promoter sequence forms a novel G-quadruplex structure consisting of three contiguous, stacked parallel quadruplexes. The reported hTERT mutations map to the central quadruplex within this structure, and lead to an alteration of its hydrodynamic properties and stability. PMID:25526084

  2. An Improved Model for the hTERT Promoter Quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Chaires, Jonathan B.; Trent, John O.; Gray, Robert D.; Dean, William L.; Buscaglia, Robert; Thomas, Shelia D.; Miller, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations occur at four specific sites in the hTERT promoter in >75% of glioblastomas and melanomas, but the mechanism by which the mutations affect gene expression remains unexplained. We report biophysical computational studies that show that the hTERT promoter sequence forms a novel G-quadruplex structure consisting of three contiguous, stacked parallel quadruplexes. The reported hTERT mutations map to the central quadruplex within this structure, and lead to an alteration of its hydrodynamic properties and stability. PMID:25526084

  3. Accelerated aging of EPDM and butyl elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    This study was composed of three parts: a post cure study to optimize final properties of an ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) formulation, an accelerated aging study to compare the stress relaxation behavior of a butyl and an EPDM elastomer under compression, and a cursory evaluation of a new 70 Shore A EPDM. The optimum postcure for the EPDM was found to be 2 to 4 hours at 182{degrees}C in a vacuum. The EPDM was also shown to have superior aging characteristics compared to the butyl and is recommended for use instead of the butyl material. The physical properties for new 70 Shore A EPDM are satisfactory, and the stress relaxation behavior was only slightly inferior to the other EPDM.

  4. Synthesis of aminophosphonate haptens for an aminoacylation reaction between methyl glucoside and a beta-alanyl ester.

    PubMed

    Lintunen, T; Yli-Kauhaluoma, J T

    2000-08-01

    Two 2-aminophosphonate haptens derived from methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside were synthesized to mimic the transition-state of a transesterification reaction between methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside and 4-nitrophenylester of tert-BOC-beta-alanine. Two sets of monoclonal antibodies were generated against these haptens. PMID:10937739

  5. A New-Anthracene Derivative Containing t-Butyl Group for Solution Process Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyun; Kim, Seungho; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Park, Jongwook

    2015-10-01

    4-(10-(3',5'-diphenylbiphenyl-4-yl)anthracen-9-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline [TATa] and a new anthracene derivative of 4-(2 or 3-tert-butyl-10-(3',5'-diphenylbiphenyl-4-yl)anthracen-9-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline [T-TATa] isomer by introduced t-butyl group were synthesized. OLED devices of TATa and T-TATa were fabricated by solution process. Its physical properties such as optical, electrochemical, and electroluminescent properties were also investigated. Two compounds were used as emitting layer (EML) in OLED device: ITO/PEDOT (40 nm)/synthesized materials (60 nm)/TPBi (20 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm). The luminance efficiency of the synthesized compounds at 10 mA/cm2 were measured 0.85 cd/A for TATa and 1.49 cd/A for T-TATa, respectively. Moreover, the power efficiency of T-TATa is 1.08 lm/W. Its value is almost two times higher than 0.56 lm/W of TATa. As a result, more improved efficiency was shown with the device in a compound including t-butyl group to TATa core part, when the deivces were prepared by solution process. PMID:26726504

  6. 46 CFR Appendix I to Part 150 - Exceptions to the Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (34) (b) The binary combinations listed below have been determined to be dangerously reactive, based.... Ethyl tert-butyl ether (41) is not compatible with Group 1, Non-oxidizing mineral acids. Ferric...) is not compatible with Group 5 (Caustics). Methyl tert-butyl ether (41) is not compatible with...

  7. STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF MTBE TO EVALUATE THE SOURCE OF TBA IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared those of the conventional fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In the year 2002, th...

  8. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  9. Chiral separation of acidic compounds using an O-9-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)quinidine functionalized monolith in micro-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiqin; Zhu, Peijie; Ruan, Meng; Wu, Huihui; Peng, Kun; Han, Hai; Somsen, Govert W; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-04-29

    An O-9-(tert-butylcarbamoyl) quinidine (t-BuCQD) functionalized polymeric monolithic capillary column was prepared by the in situ copolymerization method. The physicochemical properties of the optimized monolithic column were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and micro-LC. Satisfactory column permeability, efficiency, stability and reproducibility were obtained for this monolithic column. The chiral recognition ability of the resulting monolith was also evaluated using 47 N-derivatized amino acids, eight N-derivatized dipeptides, and two herbicides. Under the selected conditions, the enantiomers of all chiral analytes were baseline separated with exceptionally high selectivity and resolution using micro-LC. It is worth noting that this chiral stationary phase (CSP) containing quinidine with a tert-butyl carbamate residue as chiral selector exhibits much higher enantioselectivity and diastereoselectivity than the previously developed O-9-[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethylcarbamoyl]-10,11-dihydroquinidine (MQD) based CSP for N-derivatized amino acids and dipeptides. These results indicate that this novel quinidine-based polymeric monolith can be used as an effective tool for the enantioseparation of chiral acidic compounds. PMID:27038701

  10. Metsulfuron-methyl-based herbicidal ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Pernak, Juliusz; Niemczak, Micha?; Shamshina, Julia L; Gurau, Gabriela; G?owacki, Grzegorz; Praczyk, Tadeusz; Marcinkowska, Katarzyna; Rogers, Robin D

    2015-04-01

    Ten sulfonylurea-based herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) were prepared by combining the metsulfuron-methyl anion with various cation types including quaternary ammonium ([bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyloleylammonium](+), [2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium](+)), pyridinium ([1-dodecylpyridinium](+)), piperidinium ([1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium](+)), imidazolium ([1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium](+), [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium](+)), pyrrolidinium ([1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium](+)), morpholinium ([4-decyl-4-methylmorpholinium](+)), and phosphonium ([trihexyltetradecylphosphonium](+) and [tetrabutylphosphonium](+)). Their herbicidal efficacy was studied in both greenhouse tests and field trials. Preliminary results for the greenhouse tests showed at least twice the activity for all HILs when compared to the activity of commercial Galmet 20 SG, with HILs with phosphonium cations being the most effective. The results of two-year field studies showed significantly less enhancement of activity than observed in the greenhouse; nonetheless, it was found that the herbicidal efficacy was higher than that of the commercial analog, and efficacy varied depending on the plant species. PMID:25734891

  11. Synthesis of aromatic compounds containing a 1,1-dialkyl-2-trifluoromethyl group, a bioisostere of the tert-alkyl moiety.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirotaka; Shishido, Yuji

    2007-11-15

    1,1-Dialkyl-2-perfluoroalkyl compounds, which are potential metabolically stable bioisosteres of the tert-alkyl moiety, have been synthesized from the corresponding tertiary alcohols using titanium (IV) chloride-dimethylzinc or trimethylaluminium as the source of the methyl group. The synthetic methods proved to be versatile for synthesizing 1,1-dimethyl-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl compounds and analogs, including compounds containing aromatic and heterocyclic rings. PMID:17919904

  12. The DNA methylation inhibitor induces telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of leukemia cells that is attenuated by telomerase over-expression

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Nick; Björkholm, Magnus; Xu, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTIs) such as 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) have been used for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignancies. Although inhibiting global/gene-specific DNA methylation is widely accepted as a key mechanism behind DNMTI anti-tumor activity, other mechanisms are likely involved in DNMTI's action. Because telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays key roles in cancer through telomere elongation and telomere lengthening-independent activities, and TERT has been shown to confer chemo- or radio-resistance to cancer cells, we determine whether DNMTIs affect telomere function and whether TERT/telomerase interferes with their anti-cancer efficacy. We showed that 5-AZA induced DNA damage and telomere dysfunction in AML cell lines by demonstrating the presence of 53-BP1 foci and the co-localization of 53-BP1 foci with telomere signals, respectively. Telomere dysfunction was coupled with diminished TERT expression, shorter telomere and apoptosis in 5-AZA-treated cells. However, 5-AZA treatment did not lead to changes in the methylation status of subtelomere regions. Down-regulation of TERT expression similarly occurred in primary leukemic cells derived from AML patients exposed to 5-AZA. TERT over-expression significantly attenuated 5-AZA-mediated DNA damage, telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of AML cells. Collectively, 5-AZA mediates the down-regulation of TERT expression, and induces telomere dysfunction, which consequently exerts an anti-tumor activity. PMID:25682873

  13. The Millimeterwave Spectrum of n-BUTYL Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordu, Matthias H.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Nez, Marc Nu; Walters, Adam

    2011-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of n-butyl cyanide (C_4H_9CN) was measured between 75 and 130 GHz using a novel all-solid-state spectrometer with a total absorption path of 44 m. In the course of the analysis of the spectrum, about 3000 transitions were assigned and a full set of quartic centrifugal distortion parameters with some sextic and octic terms could be determined for each of the three known conformers (anti-anti, anti-gauche(methyl end) and gauche(CN end)-anti). The work was motivated by the fact that n-butyl cyanide is likely to be found in interstellar hot core environments. This is indicated by the discovery of n-propyl cyanide (C_3H_7CN), the next smaller alkyl cyanide, in the ISM. The increased accuracy of the model, which will be additionally extended by future laboratory measurements around 200 GHz, may now be employed for a prediction of the spectrum up to 300 GHz with a feasible uncertainty for astronomic line surveys. Furthermore, there are two less abundant conformers, cis-gauche-gauche and trans-gauche-gauche, which have not yet been detected in the rotational spectrum. Due to the increased sensitivity of the new spectrometer, it seems possible now for the first time to identify their sectroscopic fingerprints in the recorded data. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P.Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, and P. Schilke, Astronomy & Astrophysics 499, 215 (2009) R. K. Bohn, J. L. Pardus, J. August, T. Brupbacher, W. Jäger, J. Mol. Struct. 413-414, 293 (1997)

  14. 40 CFR 180.232 - Butylate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butylate; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.232 Butylate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the herbicide butylate in...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride capsules. 520.260 Section 520.260... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules. (a)(1) Specifications. n-Butyl chloride capsules, veterinary contain 272 milligrams or 816...