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1

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

2

29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

2013-07-01

3

29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

2013-07-01

4

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Potential Cancer Hazard May worsen heart disease because methylene chloride is converted...causes skin and eye irritation. XI. Common Operations and Controls The following...individuals include persons with heart disease and those with risk factors for...

2013-07-01

5

An investigation of nonchlorinated substitute cleaning agents for methylene chloride  

SciTech Connect

Four nonchlorinated solvents, N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), arco solv DPM, Bio Act EC-7, and ethyl lactate, were evaluated as substitutes for the methylene chloride used as a cleaning solvent in a ceramic component production process. NMP showed a cleaning efficiency that was superior to the other nonchlorinated solvents and to methylene chloride. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Salerno, R.F.; Dichiaro, J.V.; Egleston, E.E.; Koons, J.W.

1990-01-29

6

Methylene Chloride Vapor in Expired Air of Human Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experimental studies of methylene chloride vapor in expired air of human subjects exposed to low, well-controlled concentrations of solvent vapor are presented. Analysis of the expired air data reveals that methylene chloride is excreted principally in the expired air. The rates of buildup and die-away of the vapor in the expired air are suggested as indicators of

E. C. Riley; D. W. Fassett; W. L. Sutton

1966-01-01

7

Solubility of RDX, PETN and Boric Acid in Methylene Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides the results of a study to determine the solubility of RDX, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and boric acid in methylene chloride. Prior to determining the solubility, I examined the samples using desorption-gas chromatographymass ...

R. Pesce-Rodriguez

2010-01-01

8

76 FR 14432 - Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. OSHA-2011-0060] Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of...requirements specified by the Methylene Chloride Standard (29 CFR 1910.1052). DATES...The standard entitled ``Methylene Chloride'' (MC) (29 CFR 1910.1052;...

2011-03-16

9

Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical paint strippers that include methylene chloride and phenol have been extensively used to remove polymeric coatings from a variety of substrates. Previous work helped to determine some aspects of the mechanism for methylene chloride-based paint st...

C. N. Young C. R. Clayton G. C. Daniels J. H. Wynne

2014-01-01

10

Diffusive sampling of methylene chloride with solid phase microextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the characteristics of a solid phase microextraction (SPME) assembly as a passive sampler to determine the short-term exposure level (STEL) of methylene chloride. Two types of SPME fibers and six sampling-related factors were chosen and nested in an L18 Taguchi's orthogonal array. Samples were thermally desorpted and analyzed by gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector

Cheng-Yao Chen; Chunming Hsiech; Jia-Ming Lin

2006-01-01

11

Toxicology and metabolism of methylene chloride. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning methylene chloride, its effects on biological systems, and its metabolic fate. Both animal and human studies, and case reports are examined for methylene chloride toxicity. Exposure to the chemical through inhalation, ingestion, and contact is examined. Occupational exposure to methylene chloride is included, and risk factors are discussed. Long term carcinogenicity of methylene chloride is also considered. Toxicity of other chlorinated organic compounds is referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 78 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

12

76 FR 55949 - Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. OSHA-2011-0060] Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of...requirements specified in the Methylene Chloride Standard (29 CFR 1910.1052). DATES...in the existing Standard on Methylene Chloride (29 CFR 1910.1052, ``the...

2011-09-09

13

Methylene chloride exposure and birthweight in Monroe County, New York  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the relationship between birthweight and exposure to emissions of methylene chloride (DCM) from manufacturing processes of the Eastman Kodak Company at Kodak Park in Rochester, Monroe County, New York. County census tracts were categorized as exposed to high, moderate, low or no DCM based on the Kodak Air Monitoring Program (KAMP) model, a theoretical dispersion model of DCM developed by Eastman Kodak Company. Birthweight and information on variables known to influence birthweight were obtained from 91,302 birth certificates of white singleton births to Monroe County residents from 1976 to 1987. No significant adverse effects of exposure to DCM on birthweight were found. Adjusted birthweight in high exposure census tracts was 18.7 g less than in areas with no exposure (95% confidence interval for the difference between high and no exposure - 51.6, 14.2 g). Problems inherent in the method of estimation of exposure, which may decrease power or bias the results, are discussed. Better methods to estimate exposure to emissions from multiple industrial point sources are needed.

Bell, B.P.; Franks, P.; Hildreth, N.; Melius, J. (Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York (USA))

1991-06-01

14

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...National Toxicology Program, methylene chloride produced a significant increase in benign and malignant tumors of the lung and liver of male and female mice. Based on these findings and on estimates of human exposure from the customary use of hair...

2011-04-01

15

Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical paint strippers that include methylene chloride and phenol have been extensively used to remove coatings from metallic substrates. These strippers are inexpensive and remove polymeric organic coatings quickly and easily from a variety of metallic...

C. N. Young C. R. Clayton J. H. Wynne J. P. Yesinowski K. E. Watson

2011-01-01

16

Investigation of Technologies to Reduce Emissions of Methylene Chloride from Furniture Stripping Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the results of a project to investigate methods of reducing emissions of and the risk posed by methylene chloride (METH) emitted from furniture stripping facilities. METH is used in the stripping formulations used by these shops. T...

K. Wolf M. Morris

2001-01-01

17

A Study for Health Hazard Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Evaporated from the Tear Gas Mixture  

PubMed Central

This study explored the health hazard of those exposed to methylene chloride by assessing its atmospheric concentration when a tear gas mixture was aerially dispersed. The concentration of methylene chloride ranged from 311.1-980.3 ppm (geometric mean, 555.8 ppm), 30 seconds after the dispersion started. However, the concentration fell rapidly to below 10 ppm after dispersion was completed. The concentration during the dispersion did not surpass the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 'immediately dangerous to life or health' value of 2,300 ppm, but did exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists excursion limit of 250 ppm. Since methylene chloride is highly volatile (vapor pressure, 349 mmHg at 20?), the postdispersion atmospheric concentration can rise instantaneously. Moreover, the o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile formulation of tear gas (CS gas) is an acute upper respiratory tract irritant. Therefore, tear gas mixtures should be handled with delicate care.

Chung, Eun-Kyo; Yi, Gwang-Yong; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, In-Seop

2010-01-01

18

SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulo...

19

IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

On March 31, 2010, the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) external review draft document and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The draft document and the charge to external peer reviewers were r...

20

POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF PAINT APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVES TO METHYLENE CHLORIDE AND METHYL ETHYL KETONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of demonstrations of technologies to prevent or control emissions of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from processes with high solvent usage: (1) paint stripping using methylene chloride, (2) cleaning paint equipment wi...

21

Effects of methanol, cyclohexane and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa on various gastric ulcer models in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical studies have revealed that Bidens pilosa is used in the traditional management of wounds and chronic gastroduodenal ulcers. This led us to screen the methanol, cyclohexane and methylene chloride extracts of the plant for anti-ulcerogenic activity using the HCl\\/ethanol gastric necrotizing solution. The methylene chloride extract, which showed the highest activity (100% inhibition) at a dose of 750 mg\\/kg

Paul V Tan; Thophile Dimo; Etienne Dongo

2000-01-01

22

Chronic allyl chloride poisoning. An epidemiology, clinical, toxicological and neuropathological study.  

PubMed

It was previously reported that chronic exposure to allyl chloride resulted in liver and kidney damage. No neurotoxic effect of allyl chloride had been noticed until two outbreaks of polyneuropathy without liver and kidney dysfunction due to exposure to allyl chloride in China in the early 1970's. Epidemiological and clinical studies done within 1973-1982 revealed that the main risk of industrial exposure to allyl chloride is damage to the peripheral nervous system. Polyneuropathy is thought to be the main clinical manifestation of chronic allyl chloride poisoning. Electroneuromyography is essential and valuable for early diagnosis and biological monitoring. Toxicological and neuropathological studies in rabbits and mice have given the evidence of a pattern of central-peripheral distal axonopathy in peripheral nervous system which has further confirmed the neurotoxicity of allyl chloride found in man. Based on the above results, the maximum allowable concentration of allyl chloride and diagnostic criteria for chronic allyl chloride poisoning are proposed. PMID:3000860

He, F S; Lu, B Q; Zhang, S L; Dong, S W; Yu, A; Wang, B Y

1985-01-01

23

ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

2012-06-07

24

Toxicology and metabolism of methylene chloride. May 1978-February 1990 (A Bibliography from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for May 1978-February 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning methylene chloride, its effects on biological systems, and its metabolic fate. Both animal and human studies and case reports are examined for methylene chloride toxicity. Exposure to the chemical through inhalation, ingestion, and contact is examined. Occupational exposure to methylene chloride is included, and risk factors are discussed. Long term carcinogenicity of methylene chloride is also considered. Toxicity of other chlorinated organic compounds is referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 89 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-06-01

25

Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in setting acute exposure guideline levels for methylene chloride.  

PubMed

Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h. In the AEGL setting for methylene chloride, specific additional topics had to be addressed. This included a change of relevant toxicity endpoint within the 10-min to 8-h exposure time range from central nervous system depression caused by the parent compound to formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) via biotransformation to carbon monoxide. Additionally, the biotransformation of methylene chloride includes both a saturable step as well as genetic polymorphism of the glutathione transferase involved. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was considered to be the appropriate tool to address all these topics in an adequate way. Two available PBPK models were combined and extended with additional algorithms for the estimation of the maximum COHb levels. The model was validated and verified with data obtained from volunteer studies. It was concluded that all the mentioned topics could be adequately accounted for by the PBPK model. The AEGL values as calculated with the model were substantiated by experimental data with volunteers and are concluded to be practically applicable. PMID:16569727

Bos, Peter Martinus Jozef; Zeilmaker, Marco Jacob; van Eijkeren, Jan Cornelis Henri

2006-06-01

26

Chemical electron-transfer reactions in electrospray mass spectrometry: Effective oxidation potentials of electron-transfer reagents in methylene chloride  

SciTech Connect

Cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV/visible absorption spectroscopy, and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) are used in conjunction to study the mono- and /or dications produced in solution from the reaction of three model compounds ([beta]-carotene, cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin (Co[sup II]OEP), nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin (Ni[sup II]OEP), in three different solvent/electron-transfer reagent systems (methylene chloride/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (v/v), methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) v/v/200 [mu]M), methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/0.1% antimony pentafluoride (SbF[sub 5]) (v/v/v)). The reactions were carried out on-line with ES-MS by means of flow injection. Correlation of the CV data for these analytes with the ionic species determined to be in the solution on the basis of UV/visible absorption spectra and/or on the basis of the ionic species observed in the gas phase by ES-MS, along with our previously published data on these solvent/reagent systems, allowed an effective oxidation potential range, E, to be assigned to these solvent/reagent systems: methylene chloride/0.1% TFA (v/v), 0.6V [le] E[sub TFA] < 0.7 V; methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/DDQ (v/v/200 [mu]M), 0.8 [le] E[sub TFA/DDQ] < 1.0 V; methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/0.1% SbF[sub 5] (v/v/v), 1.3 [le] E[sub TFA/SbF(5)] < 1.5. 40 refs., 7 figs.

Van Berkel, G.J.; Zhou, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1994-10-15

27

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Michigan: Tub Refinisher Died Due to Methylene Chloride Overexposure While Stripping a Bathtub.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the winter of 2010, a 52-year-old male tub re-glazer died due to overexposure to methylene chloride (MC) vapor while stripping a bathtub in an apartment bathroom using Tal-Strip II Aircraft Coating Remover (Tal-Strip II). Methylene chloride was the pri...

2011-01-01

28

Reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine/methylene chloride/n-hexane  

SciTech Connect

The trioctylamine (TOA)/methylene chloride (MC)/n-hexane system was used as the extraction agent for the extraction of lactic acid. Curves of equilibrium and hydration were obtained at various temperatures and concentrations of TOA. A modified mass action model was proposed to interpret the equilibrium and the hydration curves. The reaction mechanism and the corresponding parameters which best represent the equilibrium data were estimated, and the concentration of water in the organic phase was predicted by inserting the parameters into the simple mathematical equation of the modified model. The concentration of MC and the change of temperature were important factors for the extraction and the stripping process. The stripping was performed by a simple distillation which was a combination of temperature-swing regeneration and diluent-swing regeneration. The type of inactive diluent has no influence on the stripping. The stripping efficiencies were about 70%.

Han, D.H.; Hong, W.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Tajeon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

1996-04-01

29

In Vitro Metabolism in Rat, Mouse and Hamster Liver and Lung Fractions and in Human Liver Fractions with Methylene Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metabolism of methylene chloride (75-09-2) was compared in vitro in liver and lung fractions of male B6C3F1 mice, Fischer 344 rats, Charles River Lake View hamsters, and 4 human accident victims (liver tissue only) to attempt to explain marked species...

2000-01-01

30

Methylene Chloride: Two-generation Inhalation Reproduction Study in Fischer 344 Rats Prepared for dow Chem with Cover Letter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two- generation reproductive toxicity study was conducted with groups of 30 female and 30 male Fischer 344 rats exposed by inhalation to methylene chloride vapors at concentrations (measured by an infrared spectrometer) of 0, 100, 500 or 1500 ppm for 6 ...

1985-01-01

31

Effects of the aqueous and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa leaf on fructose-hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of the aqueous (150-350 mg/kg) and methylene chloride (150-300 mg/kg) extracts of Bidens pilosa on fructose-induced hypertension in rats. Food and liquid intake were measured as well as systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine. Fructose feeding for 6 weeks induced hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and increased plasma triglyceride levels in male Wistar rats. The aqueous and methylene chloride extracts of B. pilosa reversed the high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia developed due to fructose feeding but did not have any effects on plasma levels of insulin and glucose. High doses of the extracts reduced plasma creatinine levels and tended to increase plasma cholesterol. These results suggest that the extracts of B. pilosa possess hypotensive effects whose mechanism of action is not related to insulin sensitivity. PMID:11448541

Dimo, T; Azay, J; Tan, P V; Pellecuer, J; Cros, G; Bopelet, M; Serrano, J J

2001-08-01

32

Pressurized liquid extraction of polar and nonpolar lipids in corn and oats with hexane, methylene chloride, isopropanol, and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of freshly ground corn kernels and freshly ground rolled oats were extracted via pressurized liquid extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) using four different organic solvents [hexane, methylene chloride\\u000a (also known as dichloromethane), isopropanol, and ethanol] at two temperatures (40 and 100C). Lipid yields varied from 2.9\\u000a to 5.9 wt% for ground corn and from 5.5 to 6.7 wt% for ground

Robert A. Moreau; Michael J. Powell; Vijay Singh

2003-01-01

33

Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of Terminalia glaucescens leaves on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose : Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon in the treatment of diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods : Diabetes was induced in mice by a daily dose of STZ (45 mg kg -1 body weight i.p.) for 5 days. From

Guy BSN Njomen; Ren Kamgang; Petit RN Soua; Jean LE Oyono; Njifutie Njikam

34

Phase behavior of poly(ether imide) in mixtures of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and methylene chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase behavior of poly(ether imide) (PEI) in solutions composed of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and methylene chloride (MC) was studied at 25C. The pair of solvents used to dissolve PEI has been selected for the purpose to perform a cononsolvent system. From the observed phase behavior, PEI was soluble in either NMP or MC individually but liquidliquid demixing was observed in

Tai-Horng Young; Chun-Te Tao; Ping-Shan Lai

2003-01-01

35

Effects of the aqueous and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa leaf on fructose-hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of the aqueous (150350 mg\\/kg) and methylene chloride (150300 mg\\/kg) extracts of Bidens pilosa on fructose-induced hypertension in rats. Food and liquid intake were measured as well as systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine. Fructose feeding for 6 weeks induced hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and increased plasma triglyceride levels in male

Thophile Dimo; Jacqueline Azay; Paul V Tan; Jacques Pellecuer; Grard Cros; Marc Bopelet; Jean Jacques Serrano

2001-01-01

36

NIOSH Testimony to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Proposed Rule on Occupational Exposure to Methylene Chloride by J. D. Millar, September 21, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The testimony indicated that the present 500 part per million permissible exposure limit for methylene-chloride is not adequate to protect worker health, and supported the attempts of OSHA to lower the standard. Laboratory animal studies have indicated th...

1992-01-01

37

UPDATE TO THE HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT AND ADDENDUM FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE): PHARMACOKINETICS, MECHANISM OF ACTION, AND EPIDEMIOLOGY (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) (Jul 1987)  

EPA Science Inventory

The document represents EPA's analysis of the weight of evidence regarding the carcinogenic potential of dichloromethane (DCM, methylene chloride) for humans. It includes revised cancer risk estimates that take into account the newest information on pharmacokinetics, mechanism of...

38

Chemical characterization of sanding dust and methylene chloride usage in automotive refinishing: implications for occupational and environmental health.  

PubMed

Surface preparation activities conducted during automotive refinishing present several potential human health and environmental risks. This study examines the chemical composition of vehicle sanding dust and the prevalence of methylene chloride use as a basis for evaluating potential chemical exposures in the work environment, fugitive environmental releases, and take-home toxics. This article reports on the findings of (1) a statewide technology and work practices survey of 353 licensed auto body shops and (2) laboratory analyses of sanding dust representing more than 200 vehicles, 10 commercial body filler compounds, and work shirts worn during vehicle sanding while using nonventilated equipment. Survey data revealed that the majority of shops (78%) do not use ventilated sanding equipment, that most workers (55%) take their work clothes and shoes home at the end of the workday, and that 17% of the respondents used a methylene chloride-based paint stripper as an adjunct to mechanical sanding. Laboratory results showed that Pb, As, Cr, Mn, and Ni were present in the sanding dust at every facility tested. Lead concentrations in sanding dust were found to be highest at facilities that performed complete vehicle refinishing (range 770 to 7300 ppm) and at a collision repair shop that used a high-lead content body filler compound (1800 ppm). Hexavalent chromium also was found in two vocational high school paint dust samples at concentrations of 54 and 710 ppm. When total lead and chromium concentrations reached 7300 and 2300 ppm, respectively, facility sanding dust samples failed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure for hazardous waste. Metals found in the sanding dust also were present on the work shirts of technicians-ranging from 0.06 (Cd) to 81 (Mg) microg/inch2 of cloth-who sanded on paint without ventilated equipment. Results suggest that sanding dust and methylene chloride paint strippers used in vehicle resurfacing operations pose a potential hazard to human health and the environment. PMID:12570083

Enander, Richard T; Gute, David M; Cohen, Howard J; Brown, Linfield C; Desmaris, Anne Marie C; Missaghian, Richard

2002-01-01

39

Methylene chloride fraction of Scutellaria barbata induces apoptosis in human U937 leukemia cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Scutellaria barbata D.Don has been applied to treat cancers, inflammation and urinary disease. However, its antitumor mechanism still remains unclear. Methods: With methylene chloride fraction of Herba Scutellariae barbatae (MCSB), apoptosis-related experiments were carried out on human U937 leukemia cells by (a) 2,3-bis[2-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl]2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay for cytotoxicity; (b) terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for morphological changes;

Yun-Yi Cha; Eun-Ok Lee; Hyo-Jeong Lee; Young-Doo Park; Seong-Gyu Ko; Dong-Hee Kim; Hyung-Min Kim; In-Cheol Kang; Sung-Hoon Kim

2004-01-01

40

Methylene chloride intoxication in a furniture refinisher. A comparison of exposure estimates utilizing workplace air sampling and blood carboxyhemoglobin measurements  

SciTech Connect

A 35-year-old furniture refinisher came to the occupational medicine clinic with complaints of upper respiratory irritation, fatigue, and lightheadedness occurring on a daily basis after using a methylene chloride-containing paint stripper. Determinations of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) on three occasions showed an apparently linear elevation of COHb as a function of hours worked on the day of sampling. COHb levels predicted from spot industrial hygiene measurements were in close concordance with those observed in the patient, indicating the potential usefulness of COHb monitoring in estimating airborne exposure levels. Methylene chloride (or dichloromethane) is an organic solvent that has found wide use as a degreaser, paint remover, aerosol propellant, and a blowing agent for polyurethane foams, and as a solvent in food processing, photographic film production, and plastics manufacturing. Discovery of its unusual metabolic fate--conversion to carbon monoxide in vivo--has earned the compound a special place in the solvent toxicology literature. Demonstration of oncogenicity in experimental animals has occasioned a reconsideration of exposure limits, with emphasis upon stricter controls. In some workplaces, conditions prevail in which controls are inadequate to prevent even acute toxicity, much less long-term exposure risks.

Shusterman, D.; Quinlan, P.; Lowengart, R.; Cone, J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco General Hospital (USA))

1990-05-01

41

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 84-419-1697, USGS Laboratory, Doraville, Georgia. [Benzene, methylene chloride, hexane, and acetone  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Doraville, Georgia requested an evaluation of physical complaints reported by employees to determine possible work related causes. Laboratory workers, in general, complained of physical symptoms which were irritative (rash, sore throat, nose or sinus irritation), neurological (numbness, muscle weakness) and nonspecific (dizziness, headache, emotional swings, insomnia, muscle aching, fatigue). Reported exposure to solvents such as benzene, methylene chloride, hexane and acetone were positively related with light headedness or dizziness, numbness, unexplained muscle weakness and muscle aching. Air sampling did not reveal any remarkable exposure to chemical contaminants. The authors conclude that no relationship could be established between chemical exposures and antinuclear antibody positivity. Exposure to chemicals measured by air sampling were below occupational health exposure limits.

Rondinelli, R.; Wilcox, T.; Roper, P.; Salisbury

1986-05-01

42

EVALUATION OF A TEFLON HELIX LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTOR FOR CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ORGANICS FROM WATER INTO METHYLENE CHLORIDE (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

A continuous liquid-liquid extraction system (CLLE) for concentrating trace organics from water into methylene chloride for analysis was designed, built and evaluated. The CLLE uses Teflon coils for phase contact and gravity phase separation. The system includes a self-contained ...

43

In-depth survey report: The control of methylene chloride in furniture stripping at Kwick Kleen Industrial Solvents, Inc. , Vincennes, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to document and evaluate effective techniques for the control of potential health hazards at Kwick Kleen Industrial Solvents, Inc., Vincennes, Indiana. This particular study was born out of a growing concern of the hazards of methylene-chloride and the need for technical advice to furniture strippers. This particular company produced, sold, and distributed furniture stripping solutions to over 2,000 furniture stripping shops. The study evaluated the local ventilation systems designed by the company for their ability to minimize the amount of methylene chloride to which workers were exposed. Three local ventilation systems were used in conjunction with a flow over furniture stripping tank: a hood ventilation system, a PVC pipe ventilation system, and a floor ventilation system. Five different sampling setups or configurations were evaluated. Personal exposures to methylene-chloride while using local ventilation systems were about 200 parts per million (ppm) while stripping which was lower than the control system which used no local ventilation and had an average exposure of 600ppm. Local ventilation systems should be improved to lower the personal exposure levels. No control system was demonstrably better than any of the others. According to the authors, increasing the amount of air exhausted locally from the stripping area might significantly reduce exposures to methylene-chloride. Other suggestions included enclosure of the tank, as well as other tank and ventilation system designs.

Fairfield, C.L.; Jensen, P.A.; Jones, J.H.; Fischbach, T.J.

1990-11-01

44

Transient species in the pulse radiolysis of methylene chloride and the self-reaction of chloromethyl radicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorine atoms formed during the pulse radiolysis of deaerated methylene chloride at room temperature react with the solvent in the first 70 ns from the pulse at a bimolecular rate constant k4 ? 6 10 6 M -1s -1 and are available to otther reactions only at solute concentrations higher than 10 -3M. A u.v.-vis. spectrum is detected, the main features of which are a peak at 350 nm, a broad absorption in the vis. and a remarkable band in the u.v. The "350" species undertakes a fast first order decay ( k = 9.0 10 7s -1) which is followed by a slower decay ( k = 5.3 10 4s -1). The "u.v." species is a mixing of mono-and dichloromethyl radicals. These radicals recombine and cross-combine as if they were a single species; a rate constant 2 k 9 = 2 k 10 less than 2.4 10 9M -1s -1 for the combination reactions can be evaluated from the observed decay rate. Configurational factors are considered in connection with the reactivity of chlorosubstituted methyl radicals.

Emmi, S. S.; Beggiato, G.; Casalbore-Miceli, G.

45

Reactivation of Plasma Butyrylcholinesterase by Pralidoxime Chloride in Patients Poisoned by WHO Class II Toxicity Organophosphorus Insecticides  

PubMed Central

Some clinicians assess the efficacy of pralidoxime in organophosphorus (OP) poisoned patients by measuring reactivation of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). However, the degree of BuChE inhibition varies by OP insecticide, and it is unclear how well oximes reactivate BuChE in vivo. We aimed to assess the usefulness of BuChE activity to monitor pralidoxime treatment by studying its reactivation after pralidoxime administration to patients with laboratory-proven World Health Organization (WHO) class II OP insecticide poisoning. Patient data were derived from 2 studies, a cohort study (using a bolus treatment of 1g pralidoxime chloride) and a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (comparing 2g pralidoxime over 20min, followed by an infusion of 0.5g/h, with placebo). Two grams of pralidoxime variably reactivated BuChE in patients poisoned by 2 diethyl OP insecticides, chlorpyrifos and quinalphos; however, unlike acetylcholinesterase reactivation, this reactivation was not sustained. It did not reactivate BuChE inhibited by the dimethyl OPs dimethoate or fenthion. The 1-g dose produced no reactivation. Pralidoxime produced variable reactivation of BuChE in WHO class II OP-poisoned patients according to the pralidoxime dose administered, OP ingested, and individual patient. The use of BuChE assays for monitoring the effect of pralidoxime treatment is unlikely to be clinically useful.

Eddleston, Michael

2013-01-01

46

Antidote use in the critically ill poisoned patient.  

PubMed

The proper use of antidotes in the intensive care setting when combined with appropriate general supportive care may reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with severe poisonings. The more commonly used antidotes that may be encountered in the intensive care unit (N-acetylcysteine, ethanol, fomepizole, physostigmine, naloxone, flumazenil, sodium bicarbonate, octreotide, pyridoxine, cyanide antidote kit, pralidoxime, atropine, digoxin immune Fab, glucagon, calcium gluconate and chloride, deferoxamine, phytonadione, botulism antitoxin, methylene blue, and Crotaline snake antivenom) are reviewed. Proper indications for their use and knowledge of the possible adverse effects accompanying antidotal therapy will allow the physician to appropriately manage the severely poisoned patient. PMID:16946442

Betten, David P; Vohra, Rais B; Cook, Matthew D; Matteucci, Michael J; Clark, Richard F

2006-01-01

47

The methylene chloride radical cation and its distonic isomers in the gas phase 1 1 Dedicated to professor Nico M. M. Nibbering, a leading figure in European mass spectrometry for more than 30 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastable methylene chloride radical cations react spontaneously by loss of a chlorine atom with an apparent kinetic isotope effect of 9 1 and a kinetic energy release of <1 meV. It is difficult to account for an isotope effect of this magnitude, inasmuch as the zero-point vibrational energy differences are very small; the decay of an electronically excited state

Allan C Petersen; Steen Hammerum

2001-01-01

48

Fluorescence Spectrometric Determination of Drugs Containing ?-Methylene Sulfone/Sulfonamide Functional Groups Using N1-Methylnicotinamide Chloride as a Fluorogenic Agent  

PubMed Central

A simple spectrofluorometric method has been developed, adapted, and validated for the quantitative estimation of drugs containing ?-methylene sulfone/sulfonamide functional groups using N1-methylnicotinamide chloride (NMNCl) as fluorogenic agent. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) (1), tinidazole (2), rofecoxib (3), and nimesulide (4) in pure forms, laboratory-prepared mixtures, pharmaceutical dosage forms, spiked human plasma samples, and in volunteer's blood. The method showed linearity over concentration ranging from 1 to 150??g/mL, 10 to 1000?ng/mL, 1 to 1800?ng/mL, and 30 to 2100?ng/mL for standard solutions of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and over concentration ranging from 5 to 150??g/mL, 10 to 1000?ng/mL, 10 to 1700?ng/mL, and 30 to 2350?ng/mL in spiked human plasma samples of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The method showed good accuracy, specificity, and precision in both laboratory-prepared mixtures and in spiked human plasma samples. The proposed method is simple, does not need sophisticated instruments, and is suitable for quality control application, bioavailability, and bioequivalency studies. Besides, its detection limits are comparable to other sophisticated chromatographic methods.

Elokely, Khaled M.; Eldawy, Mohamed A.; Elkersh, Mohamed A.; El-Moselhy, Tarek F.

2011-01-01

49

Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.  

PubMed

A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 g/L in serum, 150 g/L in blood, 10,500 g/L in urine and 63,500 g/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person. PMID:24794066

Lukasik-G??bocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Han?, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Bara?kiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Micha?; Zieli?ska-Psuja, Barbara

2014-07-01

50

Refrigerant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... Fluorinated hydrocarbons ... Wax PM, Beuhler MB. Hydrocarbons and volatile substances. In: ... Ma OJ, Cline DM, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study ...

51

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... by common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli. ... cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants ...

52

Methylene blue test  

MedlinePLUS

The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

53

21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals...and Decisions § 500.27 Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals...the status of drugs containing methylene blue (tetramethylthionine chloride) for...

2010-04-01

54

21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals...and Decisions § 500.27 Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals...the status of drugs containing methylene blue (tetramethylthionine chloride) for...

2009-04-01

55

Methemoglobinemia associated with metaflumizone poisoning.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Metaflumizone is a voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker insecticide, which is chemically similar to indoxacarb. Although indoxacarb poisoning is known as a cause of methemoglobinemia, the effect of metaflumizone poisoning in humans is still unknown. Case details. A 57-year-old man presented with a decreased mentality following ingestion of 100 ml of metaflumizone, 150 ml of glyphosate and alcohol. Although initial methemoglobin (MetHb) level was slightly higher than the normal limit, it gradually rose to reach a maximum level of 27.8%, on the 19 h after ingestion. After hemodialysis, MetHb level was reduced to 15.8%, which decreased further to the level of 6%, following methylene blue administration. Discussion. Metaflumizone shares a similar chemical structure to indoxacarb, which is known to be a cause of methemoglobinemia. Physicians should be alert for the development of methemoglobinemia in symptomatic patients when facing potential pesticide poisoning such as metaflumizone poisoning. PMID:24649894

Oh, J S; Choi, K H

2014-04-01

56

Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... Ewing, Jr., (poison ivy) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (poison oak) NIOSH Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from ... in this section courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Identification The old saying " Leaves of three, ...

57

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... You can get poison ivy by touching the plant's oils or something else that "urushiol" has touched. ... the sap oil that's made by poison ivy plants that's responsible for irritant reactions. It is the ...

58

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

59

Kerosene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Lamp oil poisoning; Coal oil poisoning ... The health care provider will measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated ...

60

Lacquer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

61

Glaze poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

62

Insecticide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

63

Copper poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

64

Chlorine poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

65

Gasoline poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

66

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, or high triglycerides run in your family? Explain. D. Hepatobiliary and Pancreas 1. Do you now or have you ever drunk alcoholic beverages? Age started: ____ Age...

2009-07-01

67

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, or high triglycerides run in your family? Explain. D. Hepatobiliary and Pancreas 1. Do you now or have you ever drunk alcoholic beverages? Age started: ____ Age...

2010-07-01

68

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...evaluation of the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood of employees...hemoglobin, resulting in a reduced capacity of the blood to transport oxygen...have a diminished hemoglobin capacity due to the presence of CO in...contain any information on specific findings or diagnosis...

2012-07-01

69

UPDATED HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analys...

70

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...surgery for blocked arteries in your heart or anywhere else? Explain. 5...ever had (explain each): a. Heart murmur b. Irregular heartbeat c. Shortness...while lying flat d. Congestive heart failure e. Ankle swelling...

2011-07-01

71

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of this section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a...the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10...percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee and in decaffeinated soluble...

2013-04-01

72

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of this section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a...the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10...percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee and in decaffeinated soluble...

2009-04-01

73

Severe chlorate poisoning: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe sodium chlorate poisoning was observed within 5 h after suicidal ingestion of 150200 g of the herbicide. Methaemoglobinaemia was the early symptom of the intoxication. Treatment with methylene blue and ascorbic acid could not prevent a massive haemolysis with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis could be treated successfully with exchange transfusions, heparin and fresh plasma.

Christian Steffen; Rainer Seitz

1981-01-01

74

Methylene blue unresponsive methemoglobinemia  

PubMed Central

Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon blood disorder induced by exposure to certain oxidizing agents and drugs. Although parents may not give any history of toxin ingestion; with the aid of pulse-oximetry and blood gas analysis, we can diagnose methemoglobinemia. Prompt recognition of this condition is required in emergency situations to institute early methylene blue therapy. We report an unusual case of severe toxic methemoglobinemia, which did not respond to methylene blue, but was successfully managed with exchange transfusion.

Patnaik, Sibabratta; Natarajan, Manivachagan Muthappa; James, Ebor Jacob; Ebenezer, Kala

2014-01-01

75

Tetrahydrozoline poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center number . This hotline number will let you talk to ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

76

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment was received. The faster a patient gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery. If symptoms are mild, the person will usually make a full recovery . If the poisoning is severe, death may occur up to a week after swallowing the poison.

77

Cologne poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) Note: This list may not include all poisonous ingredients in cologne. ... problems, seizures, and coma. A product with more isopropyl alcohol may potentially cause a more serious illness.

78

Varnish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

79

Ink poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

80

Benzene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

81

Everyday Poisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading and writing activity (on pages 2-9) teaches what plant parts should be avoided, how a person can get rid of toxins, symptoms of plant poisoning, and how plants create poisons to repel predators. Excerpts from a video and biography of Fatima Johnson, an anthropologist who studies plants and people in Africa, are available online, and the full versions can be purchased on DVD. An interactive version of the activity, and tips for using this resource, are also online.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

82

Photographic fixative poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

83

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

84

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE) UPDATED CARCINOGENICITY ASSESSMENT OF DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE): ADDENDUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The addendum contains a review of the data from the latest National Toxicology Program (NTP) inhalation bioassay of dichloromethane (DCM) and an update of the inhalation cancer risk value. In addition, there is a recommendation for an estimate of unit risk for ingestion exposure,...

85

Comparison of cholinergic effects of Hi-6 and pralidoxime-2-chloride (2-pam) in soman poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Open literature pub  

SciTech Connect

The effects of HI-6 and pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) on soman-induced lethality, time to death and several cholinergic parameters in rats were compared to understand the beneficial action of HI-6. Treatment with atropine sulfate (ATS) of HI-6 alone protected against 1.2 and 2.5 LD of soman respectively, whereas 2-Pam or methylated atropine (AMN) alone afforded no protection. Addition of ATS, but not AMN, to HI-6-treated rats enhanced the protection from 2.5 to 5.5 LD. HI-6 increased the time to death, while 2-PAM had no effect; a combination of HI-6 and ATS provided the most significant increase in time-to-death.

Shi, T.M.; Whalley, C.E.; Valdes, J.J.

1991-12-31

86

Lead Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead has been mined and worked by men for millenniums. Its ductility, high resistance to erosion and other properties make it one of the most useful of metals. The inappropriate use of lead has, however, resulted in outbreaks of lead poisoning in humans from time to time since antiquity. The disease, which is sometimes called plumbism (from the Latin word

J. Julian Chisolm; J. J. Jr

1971-01-01

87

Isopropanol poisoning.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Isopropanol is a clear, colorless liquid with a fruity odor and a mild bitter taste. Most commonly found domestically as rubbing alcohol, isopropanol is also found in numerous household and commercial products including cleaners, disinfectants, antifreezes, cosmetics, solvents, inks, and pharmaceuticals. Aim. The aim of this review is to critically review the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of isopropanol poisoning. Methods. OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science were searched to November 2013 using the words "isopropanol", "isopropyl alcohol", "2-propanol", "propan-2-ol", and "rubbing alcohol" combined with the keywords "poisoning", "poison", "toxicity", "ingestion", "adverse effects", "overdose", or "intoxication". These searches identified 232 citations, which were then screened via their abstract to identify relevant articles referring specifically to the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of isopropanol poisoning; 102 were relevant. Further information was obtained from book chapters, relevant news reports, and internet resources. These additional searches produced eight non-duplicate relevant citations. Epidemiology. The majority of isopropanol exposures are unintentional and occur in children less than 6 years of age. Although isopropanol poisoning appears to be a reasonably common occurrence, deaths are rare. Toxicokinetics. Isopropanol is rapidly absorbed following ingestion with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 30 min. It can also be absorbed following inhalation or dermal exposure. Isopropanol is widely distributed with a volume of distribution of 0.45-0.55 L/kg. Isopropanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetone, acetol and methylglyoxal, propylene glycol, acetate, and formate with conversion of these metabolites to glucose and other products of intermediary metabolism. The elimination of isopropanol is predominantly renal, though some pulmonary excretion of isopropanol and acetone occurs. In one case 20% of the absorbed dose was eliminated unchanged in urine, with the remainder excreted as acetone and metabolites of acetone. The elimination half-life of isopropanol is between 2.5 and 8.0 h, whereas elimination of acetone is slower with a half-life following isopropanol ingestion of between 7.7 and 27 h. Mechanisms of toxicity. While the exact mechanism of action of isopropanol has not been fully elucidated, brain stem depression is thought to be the predominant mechanism. While the clinical effects are thought to be mostly due to isopropanol, acetone may also contribute. Clinical features. The major features of severe poisoning are due to CNS and respiratory depression, shock, and circulatory collapse. The most common metabolic effects are an increased osmol (osmolal) gap, ketonemia, and ketonuria. Diagnosis. Poisoning can be diagnosed using the measurement of isopropanol serum concentrations, though these may not be readily available. Diagnosis is therefore more typically made on the basis of the patient's history and clinical presentation. An osmol gap, ketonemia, and/or ketonuria without metabolic acidosis, along with a fruity or sweet odor on the breath and CNS depression support the diagnosis. Management. Supportive care is the mainstay of management with primary emphasis on respiratory and cardiovascular support. Hemodialysis enhances elimination of isopropanol and acetone and should be considered in very severe poisoning. Conclusions. Severe isopropanol poisoning results in CNS and respiratory depression and circulatory collapse. Treatment primarily consists of symptom-directed supportive care. Although hemodialysis increases the elimination of isopropanol and acetone substantially, it should only be considered in severe life-threatening poisonings. Patients usually make a full recovery provided they receive prom

Slaughter, R J; Mason, R W; Beasley, D M G; Vale, J A; Schep, L J

2014-06-01

88

Paraphenylenediamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Hair dye containing paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is widely used in India because of its free availability and low cost. PPD produces local as well as systemic toxic effects when applied topically and/or ingested. It is highly toxic when taken by mouth and the outcome depends mainly on the dose taken. Important clinical manifestations are angioedema leading to dysphasia and respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure and hepatic necrosis. Myocarditis or fatal arrhythmia may also occur in PPD poisoning. Mainstay of management is early recognition and supportive measures as there is no specific antidote. We hereby report a young female who presented to us with features of angioedema, cardiac manifestation and hepatic dysfunction after ingesting PPD, which was treated successfully. In the absence of laboratory facilities, clinical features like angioedema and chocolate brown-colored urine could be suggestive of PPD poisoning. PMID:23563473

Chaudhary, S C; Sawlani, K K; Singh, K

2013-01-01

89

Cation exchange resins as pharmaceutical carriers for methylene blue: binding and release.  

PubMed

Methylene blue is a competitive inhibitor of the glutathione reductase of Plasmodium falciparum and is used in combination with other antimalarial drugs leading to a renaissance of methylene blue in malaria therapy. Its bitter flavour and tissue colouring property impair compliance, especially in children. These problems may be solved by binding the cationic methylene blue to cation exchange materials as pharmaceutical carriers in order to mask the undesirable properties. However, such carriers are only useful if the antimalarial is released under physiological conditions. The binding to seven cation exchange resins was studied. Ion exchangers on acrylic or methacrylic acid basis bound between 1.54 and 2.16 g methylene blue chloride trihydrate per gram ion exchanger. Polymers on divinylbenzene or styrene basis with sulphonic acid groups bound 306 and 384 mg of methylene blue chloride trihydrate per gram ion exchanger. In aqueous solution at pH of 1.5, nearly all bound methylene blue was released. The release of methylene blue from (meth)acrylic acid polymers in the presence of proteins and fat was not affected. From these data ion exchangers present a promising group of pharmaceutical carrier for the safe and compliant drug administration of methylene blue to children. PMID:18226881

Gut, Felix; Schiek, Wolfgang; Haefeli, Walter E; Walter-Sack, Ingeborg; Burhenne, Jrgen

2008-06-01

90

Poison Help Line  

MedlinePLUS

... section: The Poison Help Line Partners Contact Us The Poison Help Line The toll-free Poison Help line, 1- ... is available in 161 languages. People usually get the help they need over the phone . Most people do ...

91

Ink remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Brain damage Decreased breathing Stupor Unconsciousness Symptoms of methanol and isopropyl alcohol poisoning may include: Eyes, ears, ...

92

[Mercury poisoning].  

PubMed

Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication. PMID:20579784

Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

2011-07-01

93

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

94

NMR determination of the absolute configuration of an alpha-exo-methylene-gamma-lactone.  

PubMed

Both the enantiomers of the axially chiral reagent, 2'-methoxy-1,1'-binaphthalene-2-carbohydroximoyl chloride (MBCC), were used to convert igalan, an alpha-exo-methylene-gamma-lactone, to yield 4,5-dihydroisoxazoles. The absolute configuration of igalan was determined to be (3aR,5R,6R,7aR)-6-ethenylhexahydro-6-methyl-3-methylen e-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2(3H)-benzofuranone (IUPAC name) on the basis of NOE correlations in these derivatives. The absolute configurations of other alpha-exo-methylene-gamma-lactones can be determined by the same method. PMID:10945249

Fukui, H; Fukushi, Y; Tahara, S

2000-07-01

95

Pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant pesticide-produces oral ulcerations, followed by liver and renal toxicity, and is almost uniformly fatal. Physicians working in remote and rural areas need to be educated about early diagnosis and proper management using supportive care and antidotes, wherever available. PMID:18085124

Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

2007-01-01

96

Nitroethane poisoning from an artificial fingernail remover.  

PubMed

Confusion between acetone fingernail polish removers and artificial fingernail products containing acetonitrile and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine has resulted in pediatric morbidity and mortality. In the present case, a 20-month-old boy drank less than one ounce of Remove Artificial Nail Remover containing 100% nitroethane. In the emergency department he displayed cyanosis and 39% methemoglobinemia. Following intravenous methylene blue, the child's methemoglobin level dropped to 5.7% and he recovered uneventfully. Toxicity from nitroethane has not previously been reported in humans. Poison centers and emergency department personnel should be alert to another nail product which may be easily confused with acetone-containing nail polish removers. PMID:8007041

Hornfeldt, C S; Rabe, W H

1994-01-01

97

Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.  

PubMed

Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

1986-07-01

98

Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Email not for emergency use. Virginia California Poison Control System Central Office Address University of California San Francisco ... Email not for emergency use. California California Poison Control System - Fresno/Madera Division Address Children's Hospital Central California ...

99

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

100

Developing Regional Poison Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The national Emergency Medical Services program has identified poisoning as a significant national emergency medical problem, for which a patient care system must be developed. Since the development of the first poison control center in Illinois in 1953, ...

S. Micik

1979-01-01

101

Mercuric oxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric oxide is a form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric oxide. This is for information only and not for ...

102

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

103

Chlorinated lime poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

104

Furniture polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

105

Acid soldering flux poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

106

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

107

Lead Poisoning: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is...

N. Gendel

1993-01-01

108

Hydrogen sulfide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poisoning by hydrogen sulfide has been recognized as an occupational hazard for at least two centuries. The development of alternative sources of energy in North America may increase the incidence of this medical emergency in the future. Until recently, no specific antidote to sulfide was recognized. We have compared sulfide poisoning to cyanide poisoning and documented recent findings that indicate

Roger P. Smith; Robert E. Gosselin

1979-01-01

109

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

Drummond, A. H., Jr.

1981-01-01

110

Lead Poisoning in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and

Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

111

Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.  

PubMed

Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

1993-01-01

112

21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tetramethylthionine chloride) for oral use in cats or dogs. (1)(i) It has been...blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label directions...containing methylene blue for oral use in cats or dogs are neither safe nor generally...

2013-04-01

113

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

1981-01-01

114

Severe acute copper sulphate poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

As copper sulphate pentahydrate (CSP) is a common compound used in agriculture and industry, chronic occupational exposures to CSP are well known, but acute poisoning is rare in the Western world. This case report describes acute poisoning of a 33-year-old woman who attempted suicide by ingesting an unknown amount of CSP. On admission to the hospital, she had symptoms and signs of severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, dehydration, renal dysfunction and methaemoglobinaemia with normal serum copper level. Therapy included early gastric lavage, fluid replacement, vasoactive drugs, furosemide, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, and antidotes methylene blue and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS). However, the patient developed severe intravascular haemolysis, acute severe hepatic and renal failure, as well as adrenal insufficiency. After prolonged, but successful hospital treatment, including haemodialysis and IV hydrocortisone, the patient was discharged with signs of mild renal and liver impairment. Our conclusion is that in severe cases of copper poisoning early supportive measures are essential. In addition, antidotes such as methylene blue for methaemoglobinaemia and chelating agent such as DMPS improve morbidity and survival of severely poisoned victims. PMID:18407869

Sinkovic, Andreja; Strdin, Alenka; Svensek, Franci

2008-03-01

115

Cytotoxic activity of methylene bis-nucleotides.  

PubMed

New facts relating to the mechanism of cytotoxic and antitumor activity of formaldehyde-treated RNA and its hydrolysates have been revealed. Synthetic methylene bis-nucleotides and, in particular, methylene bis-nucleosides have a cytotoxic effect on cultured human adenocarcinoma cells (line HCCL). The cytotoxic effect of methylene bis-derivatives of the guanine series was most pronounced. In addition, methylene bis-nucleotides were depbosphorylated in the cell culture medium. Chromosome aberrations were induced by alkaline hydrolysate of dialyzed formaldehyde-treated RNA in which 39% of purine nucleotdies were modified to methylene bis-derivatives. PMID:204796

Feldman, M Y; Balabanova, H

1978-04-01

116

Fatal methaemoglobinaemia induced by self-poisoning with sodium nitrite.  

PubMed

Inadvertent ingestion of sodium nitrite is known to precipitate metheamoglobinaemia. No cases exist, however, of intentional suicide by methaemoglobinaemia following self-poisoning with sodium nitrite. A 76-year-old man collapsed and rapidly developed brady-asystolic cardiac arrest 25 min following self-poisoning with an unknown quantity of crystalline sodium nitrite. On arrival in the ED the patient was asystolic with cardiopulmonary resuscitation in progress. Haemoglobin concentration was 110 g/L, arterial methaemoglobin measured 82.6% and serum lactate 9.6 mmol/L. Antioxidative treatment was undertaken with total 5 mg/kg intravenous methylene blue administered in divided aliquots. Despite prolonged resuscitative efforts the patient died. Resuscitation from methaemoglobinaemia-induced asystole following self-poisoning presents a unique therapeutic challenge. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia-induced cardiovascular instability and overt cardiopulmonary arrest are discussed. PMID:21040485

Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Chanwai, Giles

2010-10-01

117

62 FR 1494 - Occupational Exposure to Methylene Chloride  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...short duration exposures to MC. Thus...reduce the exposure- related risks of acute CNS effects, episodes...it focuses attention on sources of MC exposure in the workplace...Measurement of STEL exposures can indicate...the employer target those...

1997-01-10

118

IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Dichloromethane that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Please refer to ...

119

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE). FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dichloromethane is used extensively in commercial and industrial solvent applications. The background atmospheric concentration is about 35 ppt. In surface water and drinking water, measured concentrations generally have been in the low parts per billion range. Available data sug...

120

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE), EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dichloromethane (DCM) is a solvent widely used for a variety of purposes. It has been detected in the ambient air of urban and non-urban areas of the United States and also in natural and municipal waters. The weight of available evidence indicates that adverse toxicologic effect...

121

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

122

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

123

Lighter fluid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocarbons, including: Benzene Butane Hexamine Lacolene Naptha Propane ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

124

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.; Matthews, Sue; Pitcher, Grant; Van Der Vyver, Irma

2010-01-29

125

Efficacy of a combination of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, HI6 and obidoxime, against tabun and soman poisoning of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bispyridinium oxime HI-6, 1-((((4-amino-carbonyl) pyridinio)methoxy) methyl)-2-(hydroxyimino)-methyl) pyridinium dichloride monohydrate, combined with atropine is an effective treatment for soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) poisoning but is relatively ineffective against tabun (ethyl N-dimethyl phosphoroamidocyanidate) poisoning in mice. This contrasts with those results obtained using the bispyridinium oxime obidoxime [1,1'-(oxy bis(methylene)) bis(4-(hydroxyimino)-methyl) pyridinium dibromide]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy

John G. Clement; J. Deborah Shiloff; Chris Gennings

1987-01-01

126

Human Pentachlorophenol Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was, and still is, one of the most frequently used fungicides and pesticides, Its toxicity is due to interference with oxidative phosphorylation. Acute and chronic poisoning may occur by dermal absorption, inhalation or ingestion. Chronic poisoning occurs mainly in sawmill workers or people living in log homes treated with PCPcontaining wood protecting formulations. Quantitative determination of PCP in

Philippe G. Jorens; Paul J. C. Schepens

1993-01-01

127

Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG

T M McMillan; R R Jacobson; M Gross

1997-01-01

128

Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the develop ing countries, where organophosphates (OPs) are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecti cides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less

M. A. Cherian; Roshini C; J. V. Peter; A. M. Cherian

2005-01-01

129

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

130

Fatal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of fatal poisoning due to the presumed ingestion of leaves and/or fruit of the yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) is described. The diagnosis was confirmed by radioimmunoassay using antibodies of differential specificity towards cardiac glycosides. Attention is drawn to the potential usefulness of digoxin assay in suspected cases of oleander poisoning. PMID:7195456

Ansford, A J; Morris, H

1981-04-01

131

Aluminium phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 19972003 are discussed.

Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

2006-01-01

132

Mass carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

2000-01-01

133

[Poisoning by Atractylis gummifera L. Morocco poison control center data].  

PubMed

To assess the extent and severity of poisoning by Atractylis gummifera L. in Morocco, a descriptive retrospective study was conducted on all the poisoning cases listed between 1981 and 2004 to the Morocco Poison Control Center. During this period, 240 people were hospitalized for glue thistle poisoning, 72% of which are children under 16 years. The severity of the poisoning has been affirmed by significant intrahospital lethality. Indeed, among the 182 patients for whom the outcomes were known, 98 died (54%). PMID:21243460

Hami, H; Soulaymani, A; Skalli, S; Mokhtari, A; Sefiani, H; Soulaymani, R

2011-02-01

134

Methylene Blue Protects against TDP-43 and FUS Neuronal Toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio  

PubMed Central

The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57? or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A.; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J. Alex

2012-01-01

135

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

136

Drain cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be harmful to your health if swallowed, breathed in ( ... article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in drain cleaner. This is for information only and not ...

137

Plant fertilizer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Seek immediate medical help. Do NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water ...

138

Homicide by poisoning.  

PubMed

By studying the number and method of homicidal poisoning in Miami-Dade County, Florida; New York City, NY; Oakland County, Michigan; and Sweden, we have confirmed that this is an infrequently established crime.Several difficulties come with the detection of homicidal poisonings. Presenting symptoms and signs are often misdiagnosed as natural disease, especially if the crime is committed in a hospital environment, suggesting that an unknown number of homicides go undetected.In the reported cases analyzed, the lethal agent of choice has changed over the years. In earlier years, traditional poisons such as arsenic, cyanide, and parathion were frequently used. Such poisonings are nowadays rare, and instead, narcotics are more commonly detected in victims of this crime. PMID:23361068

Finnberg, Amanda; Junuzovic, Mensura; Dragovic, Ljubisa; Ortiz-Reyes, Ruben; Hamel, Marianne; Davis, Joseph; Eriksson, Anders

2013-03-01

139

Potassium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...

140

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile dUrgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service.

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

141

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

142

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Portable propane heaters Stoves (indoor and camp stoves) Water heater that use natural gas Note: This list may ... gas-burning appliances (such as a furnace or water heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter ...

143

Wart remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wart removers are medicines used to eliminate warts , which are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows ...

144

Overview of Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... as iron and lead). Sometimes a solution containing sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) is given by ... ACETADOTE ), aspirin Some Trade Names BAYER (antidote is sodium bicarbonate), and heroin (antidote is naloxone). Some poisonous bites ...

145

Rubber cement poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

146

Fuel oil poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocarbons (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics) ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

147

Stoddard solvent poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

148

Metal polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... ingredients found in metal polishes are ammonia and hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

149

Toluene and xylene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

150

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

151

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

152

[Neurological symptoms in poisoning].  

PubMed

Acute and chronic intoxications become manifest in primary neurological symptoms. After a definition of poisoning the autonomic, neurological and psychological disturbances are briefly discussed and the therapeutic measures presented in a table. Later, the neurological symptoms are described with reference to oberservations of cases of lead, thallium, E 605 (parathion), carbon monoxide, mercury, amphetamine and botulin poisoning. Four table and 9 figures supplement the text. PMID:6775212

Neu, I

1980-10-01

153

Pyopneumothorax Following Kerosene Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B. E.; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

2014-01-01

154

Considerations of the structure of sesquiterpene lactones on biological activity: influence of the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety on mast cell degranulation.  

PubMed

Mast cell degranulation was quantitated by measuring percentage of histamine release, 45Ca2+ ion influx, or c-AMP cellular levels after stimulation with various concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones hymenovin, helenalin, or tenulin. Hymenovin and helenalin, which contain an alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety, produced extensive degranulation. Alkylation of the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone group of these compounds with the amino acid cysteine before mast cell stimulation drastically reduced the capacity of these lactones to stimulate histamine release. Tenulin, which does not contain an alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety, generally stimulated degranulation approximately equal to that of cysteine-treated hymenovin or helenalin. These data indicate that sesquiterpene lactones containing alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone are potent stimulators of mast cell degranulation. This phenomenon may have a significant role in the toxicity of some sesquiterpene lactones of poisonous plants when ingested by livestock. PMID:6195945

Elissalde, M H; Ivie, G W; Rowe, L D; Elissalde, G S

1983-10-01

155

Copper Doped Methylene Blue Sensitized Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Acrylamide Films for Stable Diffraction Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper doped methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl alcohol) (MBPVA)-acrylamide films were fabricated to improve the storage life of recorded gratings. The films were fabricated using gravity settling method and the copper chloride concentration was optimized as 3.18 10-3 mol/l for a dye concentration of 6.2 10-4 mol/l. The gratings recorded on the optimized film constitution could be stored for months with stable diffraction efficiency (24%) without any chemical or thermal fixing techniques. The resolution of the material is found to be unaffected with the addition of copper chloride.

John, Beena Mary; Joseph, Rani; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.

2006-11-01

156

Prepare and Purify Urushiol from Poison Ivy and Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The active ingredients (urushiols) of poison ivy and poison oak were isolated in purified form by various chemical and physical procedures. Various properties were measured, including molecular weight, double bond value, refractive index and infrared spec...

M. D. Corbett

1973-01-01

157

Preparation of Urushiol from Poison Ivy or Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for the preparation of urushiol from poison ivy or poison oak is disclosed. The method includes extraction with alcohol at low temperature and a second extraction with benzene, followed by chromatographic separation on a solid adsorbent. The meth...

1972-01-01

158

Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThere are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In

Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

2012-01-01

159

Poison control center - emergency number  

MedlinePLUS

... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

160

Poisonous Snakes of North America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of North America; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of the poisonou...

1969-01-01

161

Poisonous Snakes of Southeastern Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Southeastern Asia; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of the pois...

1969-01-01

162

Anti-rust product poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

163

Fatal methylene blue associated serotonin toxicity.  

PubMed

This is the first report of a fatal outcome from serotonin toxicity, precipitated by an interaction between methylene blue and venlafaxine. Methylene blue-associated serotonin toxicity has been described before but usually as mild toxicity. Its presentation after general anaesthesia may be atypical and therefore more difficult to diagnose. However, the syndrome is completely preventable if serotonin re-uptake inhibiting agents are stopped beforehand. PMID:24846936

Top, W M C; Gillman, P K; de Langen, C J; Kooy, A

2014-04-01

164

Chinese patent medicine as a potential source of mercury poisoning.  

PubMed

This research is an effort to create an awareness of the potential hazards of some Chinese patent medicines which contain mercurial ingredients. This should be of consideration when screening symptomatic patients who are of Asian ethnic background or other users of these medicines. This research discusses reported cases of mercury poisoning related to the use of Chinese patent medicines and the potential toxicity of cinnabar (red mercuric sulfide) and calomel (mercurous chloride), 2 mercurials commonly used in these medicines. A list of mercurial-containing Chinese patent medicines available on the open market in North America has been compiled, together with their traditional uses and mercurial contents and is presented as a quick reference for Specialists in Poison Information. This class of medicine may not pose a problem when used appropriately; however, its misuse, abuse, overdosage and improper storage can lead to serious mercury poisoning. PMID:1609495

Kang-Yum, E; Oransky, S H

1992-06-01

165

Recurrent neonatal organophoshorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus poisoning in neonates is extremely rare and needs high index of suspicion to diagnose it. The clinical presentation is often confused with the features of sepsis like apnea, copious oral secretions, diarrhea, letharginess, seizures. There may be recurrence of manifestations due to chronic exposure. We report a classic case admitted in the intensive care unit of our hospital. PMID:23024082

Parvez, Yusuf; Mathew, Aji; Kutti, Satheesh Kalantra

2012-09-01

166

Poisoning (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... of reach. Discard (or recycle) used button cell batteries (like those in watches) safely and store unused ones far from children's reach. Never tell a child that medicine tastes like candy. Never put cleaning products in containers that were once used for food or drink. Never put rodent poison on the ...

167

Lead Poisoning in Children  

PubMed Central

In this study of the phenomenon of lead poisoning in children, the various approaches that several cities have employed to combat the problem are discussed. Several suggestions for dealing with the situation are proposed. These include educational programs, followup reports, legislation, and research.

Alli, Billiamin A.

1977-01-01

168

Treatment of snakebite poisoning.  

PubMed

The epidemiology, mechanics, prevention, pharmacology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of snakebites are reviewed. Poisonous snakes bite approximately 8000 persons annually in the United States, causing approximately 12-15 deaths per year. Pit vipers (rattlesnakes, copperheads, cottonmouths, and massasaugas) are responsible for 99% of all snakebite poisonings; coral snakes and other foreign exotic species are responsible for the additional 1%. Envenomation is characterized by pain, edema, and ecchymoses at or near the site of venom injection, followed by cardiac, hematologic, neurologic, renal, and pulmonary toxicity. The major clinical finding in most snakebite poisonings is local tissue necrosis. Immediate treatment for snakebite includes limiting movement and placing a constriction band proximal to the site of venom injection. If medical care is more than 30 minutes away, the wound may be incised and suctioned. Antivenin therapy is the mainstay of medical treatment of snakebite, along with administration of plasma expanders, pain medication, diazepam, tetanus toxoid, antiseptics, and antibiotics. Patients who have pain, swelling, ecchymoses, systemic symptoms, or abnormal laboratory findings within 30 minutes to one hour of a bite are probable candidates to receive antivenin therapy. Before receiving antivenin therapy, the patient must be tested for hypersensitivity to the antivenin. Antivenin therapy is most effective when given within four hours of the snakebite. Pharmacists--especially those serving rural areas--should be familiar with current snakebite treatments, both local and systemic, and should be prepared to provide important information and dispel any myths about snakebite poisoning. PMID:1781479

Smith, T A; Figge, H L

1991-10-01

169

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, a newly identified marine toxin disease associated with blooms of the diatom Pseudonitschia pungens. The page describes clinical presentation (symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of domoic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-03-22

170

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-05-28

171

Methyl Bromide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Seven cases of methyl bromide poisoning which occurred amongst workers engaged on a fumigation project are described. The methods adopted for investigation of the environmental situation are discussed and the measurement of blood bromide levels on random samples of workers is suggested as an index of the effectiveness of equipment and working methods.

Rathus, E. M.; Landy, P. J.

1961-01-01

172

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

173

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

174

[Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].  

PubMed

In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

Oztekin-Mat, A

1994-01-01

175

Process for crosslinking methylene-containing aromatic polymers with ionizing radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for crosslinking aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups (-CH2-) by exposing the polymers to ionizing radiation thereby causing crosslinking of the polymers through the methylene groups is described. Crosslinked polymers are resistant to most organic solvents such as acetone, alcohols, hydrocarbons, methylene, chloride, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons, to common fuels and to hydraulic fluids in contrast to readily soluble uncrosslinked polymers. In addition, the degree of crosslinking of the polymers depends upon the percentage of the connecting groups which are methylene which ranges from 5 to 50 pct and preferably from 25 to 50 pct of the connecting groups, and is also controlled by the level of irradiation which ranges from 25 to 1000 Mrads and preferably from 25 to 250 Mrads. The temperature of the reaction conditions ranges from 25 to 200 C and preferably at or slightly above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The crosslinked polymers are generally more resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures such as greater than 150 C, have a reduced tendency to creep under load, and show no significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from the polymers.

Bell, Vernon L. (inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (inventor)

1990-01-01

176

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Formal name: Chloride Related tests: Sodium , Potassium , Bicarbonate , Electrolytes , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Basic Metabolic Panel , Blood Gases ... if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor ...

177

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte (blood chemistry) imbalances after taking cesium chloride. How ... with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte imbalances. Cesium appears to take the place of ...

178

Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED).DesignA statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into

Christopher A Naun; Cody S Olsen; J Michael Dean; Lenora M Olson; Lawrence J Cook; Heather T Keenan

2011-01-01

179

Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.??

McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

1997-01-01

180

[Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].  

PubMed

An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

Xiao, J H

1990-05-01

181

Poisonings in reptiles.  

PubMed

Reptiles are increasingly being kept as pets in American households. The basic principles of emergency medicine are the same for all species, but reptilian species present special diagnostic challenges to veterinary clinicians when they become ill. Reptiles in captivity can become accidentally poisoned in a variety of ways. Veterinarians treating small animal emergencies must make an effort to familiarize themselves with the large body of literature and resources that are developing regarding both nontraditional exotic companion species and advances in toxicology. PMID:18406391

Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Newquist, Kristin L

2008-05-01

182

Lead Poison Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

1976-01-01

183

Endrin-food-poisoning  

PubMed Central

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end.

Weeks, D. E.

1967-01-01

184

Speciation of organotins in poly(vinyl chloride) products.  

PubMed

Extraction studies on butyl- and octyltins were conducted with three poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) product types: clear food container, rigid pipe and flexible membrane. Three solvents, tetrahydrofuran, xylene and methylene chloride were evaluated for extraction efficiency. Methylene chloride extracted more than 97% of the total extractable organotin in two extractions and resulted in the highest recoveries of analytes from all three PVC products. Method detection limits ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 microgram alkyltin/g PVC. The mean precision of the method is 6.8% relative standard deviation. Food industry PVC product samples contained between < 0.8 and 8751 micrograms/g octyltins and < 0.3 and 4.7 micrograms/g butyltins. Butyltins (< 0.9-5985 micrograms/g) were detected in potable water pipe samples. Pipe used in industrial applications contained both butyl- (13-1501 micrograms/g) and octyltins (701-3033 micrograms/g). PMID:8224321

Forsyth, D S; Dabeka, R; Sun, W F; Dalglish, K

1993-01-01

185

Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons  

PubMed Central

Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient.

Lees, Ronald E. M.

1972-01-01

186

Prallethrin poisoning: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to their high effectiveness and low toxicity in humans. Despite their extensive worldwide use, there are a few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. The poisoning has a varied presentation and its symptoms overlap with those of other compounds, which can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of poisoning with prallethrin, a pyrethroid compound, commonly available as All-Out.

Chandra, Alka; Dixit, Madhu B.; Banavaliker, Jayant N.

2013-01-01

187

Inhibition of macrophage adenylate cyclase by the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety of sesquiterpene lactones from forage plants.  

PubMed

Inhibition of murine macrophage adenylate cyclase activity by sesquiterpene lactones isolated from toxic forage plants was highly correlated with the presence of the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety on the molecule (ie, hymenovin and helenalin). Tenulin, a sesquiterpene lactone which does not contain this reactive moiety, caused minimal inhibition of the enzyme. Reaction of the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety of hymenovin and helenalin with cysteine decreased the number of reactive moieties available to alkylate the enzyme, thus decreasing the inhibition of adenylate cyclase by these 2 sesquiterpene lactones. As the reaction time available for the reduction by cysteine of the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety decreases, the amount of adenylate cyclase inhibition increases. Stimulation of the hymenovin- or helenalin-inhibited adenylate cyclase by prostaglandin E1 or E2 or by sodium fluoride did not reverse the inhibition of the enzyme, but did stimulate the undamaged adenylate cyclase in the sesquiterpene lactone treatment groups to the same degree as in the nontreated control. These data indicate that sesquiterpene lactones containing an alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety are potent inhibitors of macrophage adenylate cyclase activity. This moiety may have a significant role in the toxicity of some sesquiterpene lactones in poisonous plants when ingested by livestock. PMID:3826835

Elissalde, M H; Ivie, G W

1987-01-01

188

Methylene blue selectively stains intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus resembles gastric intestinal metaplasia, which selectively stains with methylene blue. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the safety, accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and diagnostic yield of methylene bluedirected biopsy in detecting specialized columnar epithelium and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We performed upper endoscopy with methylene bluedirected biopsy and obtained 236 large cup biopsy specimens (145 stained,

Marcia Irene F. Canto; Sebouh Setrakian; Robert E. Petras; Edmond Blades; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak

1996-01-01

189

Studies on methyl chloride dehalogenase and O-demethylase in cell extracts of the homoacetogen strain MC based on a newly developed coupled enzyme assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme assay was developed to determine the activities of methyl chloride dehalogenase and O-demethylase of the homoacetogen strain MC. The formation of methyl tetrahydrofolate from tetrahydrofolate and methyl chloride\\u000a or from tetrahydrofolate and vanillate was coupled to the oxidation of methyl tetrahydrofolate to methylene tetrahydrofolate\\u000a mediated by methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase purified from Peptostreptococcus productus (strain Marburg) and to the

Michael Memer; Simone Reinhardt; Gert Wohlfarth; G. Diekert

1996-01-01

190

[Hypericum poisoning in sheep].  

PubMed

A report about a case of St. John's wort poisoning in German Blackface sheep is given. After the ingestion of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) all slightly pigmented parts of the skin, that were rarely covered with hair, were photosensitized. In summer many sheep suffered from inflammatory skin alterations at the ears, the bridge of the nose and at the surroundings of the eyes. A literature review informs about etiology and treatment of photosensitivity disease and the St. John's wort is exactly described to facilitate recognition. PMID:2815063

Kmper, H

1989-01-01

191

Lead poisoning in wild waterfowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to popular belief, lead shot in the flesh of waterfowl does not cause lead poisoning. Shot pellets in the flesh undergo slight, if any, change and are of little harm to waterfowl unless they have damaged vital tissues. Lead poisoning is likely to occur in waterfowl that have swallowed lead shot pellets while feeding on the bottoms of lakes

J. S. Jordan; F. C. Bellrose

1951-01-01

192

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

193

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms Cleistanthus collinus, Euphorbiaceae, Diphyllin, Cleistanthin A, Cleistanthin B and Oduvanthalai. Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-01-01

194

Nodularins in poisoning.  

PubMed

Nodularins are an important class of hepatotoxic cyclic pentapeptides that are produced by the cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena. These peptides have been found worldwide and have been implicated in the deaths of animals as well as a potent cyanotoxin in humans. To date, approximately 10 variants have been discovered, among which nodularin-R is the most abundant. Though the mechanisms of their potential hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity are not well understood, the most frequently proposed mechanisms are described here. Most importantly, a comprehensive review of nodularins in poisoning is presented, including their bioaccumulation in water, cyanobacterial blooms and aquatic animals, the IC50, LC50 and LD50 values determined in laboratories, and wild, domestic and laboratory animal cases. However, the hazard of these toxins to humans has not been fully elucidated, predominantly due to the lack of exposure data. One of reasons underlying is that most current methods are ill suited for clinical monitoring. Thus, the available assays for the detection and quantification of nodularins are described with an emphasis on the problems encountered with each assay. Our ultimate aim is to demonstrate the urgency of better understanding the toxicity of nodularins, especially in humans, and thus effectively protecting ourselves from their poisoning. PMID:23872223

Chen, Yun; Shen, Danfeng; Fang, Danjun

2013-10-21

195

Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

2003-05-01

196

Poisoning hospitalization correlates with poison center call frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPoison Control Centers (PCCs) have been shown to reduce health expenditures by reducing emergency department and clinic visits.\\u000a The effect or association of PCC call frequency on acute hospitalization rates for poisonings has not been studied extensively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsAll nonfederal hospital discharges for acute poisoning principal diagnosis codes (960979, 980989, 9956X, 3030, and 005)\\u000a in California between October 1999 and June

Timothy E. Albertson; R. Steven Tharratt; Kathy Marquardt; Judith Alsop; John K. Ninomiya; Garrett E. Foulke

2008-01-01

197

"Lest we forget you--methylene blue...".  

PubMed

Methylene blue (MB), the first synthetic drug, has a 120-year-long history of diverse applications, both in medical treatments and as a staining reagent. In recent years there was a surge of interest in MB as an antimalarial agent and as a potential treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly through its inhibition of the aggregation of tau protein. Here we review the history and medical applications of MB, with emphasis on recent developments. PMID:21316815

Schirmer, R Heiner; Adler, Heike; Pickhardt, Marcus; Mandelkow, Eckhard

2011-12-01

198

Emergency Department Poison Advice Telephone Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Requests for medical advice regarding treatment of poisonings are common in emergency departments. Although there are designated poison centers (PCs), most EDs are recognized by the community and medical staff as a poison information resource. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of poison information given by ED personnel.Design: A prospective, stratified-sample, telephone

Herbert N Wigder; Timothy Erickson; Thomas Morse; Victoria Saporta

1995-01-01

199

Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.  

PubMed

Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds. PMID:7923948

Epstein, W L

1994-07-01

200

Determination of low level sulfides in environmental waters by automated gas dialysis/methylene blue colorimetry  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive and rapid automated method has been developed for the selective analysis of acid extractable sulfide in environmental samples by combining gas dialysis separation techniques with methylene blue detection procedures. Acid extractable sulfide is separated from the sample matrix by the gas dialysis membrane and subsequently trapped in a dilute sodium hydroxide receiving stream. This stream is reacted with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and ferric chloride to produce methylene blue which is then quantitated colorimetrically at 660 nm. For standards and nonturbid environmental samples, there is good agreement between the results obtained by this procedure and the standard methylene blue method. The effect of interferences on the accurate determination of sulfide by both methods was also examined and it was found that cupric ions significantly interfered with sulfide estimation. To obtain adequate sulfide recoveries in tap water and environmental samples ascorbic acid must be added as an antioxidant. A detection limit of 2 {mu}g/L of sulfide has been obtained using this procedure.

Francom, D. Goodwin, L.R.; Dieken, F.P. (Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville (Canada))

1990-01-01

201

Pathogenesis of phosgene poisoning.  

PubMed

Phosgene inhalation in concentrations greater than 1 ppm may produce a transient bioprotective vagus reflex with rapid shallow breathing in some individuals. Phosgene concentrations greater than 3 ppm are moderately irritating to eyes and upper airways. Toxic phosgene doses (greater than or equal to 30 ppm X min) inhaled into the terminal respiratory passages render the blood-air-barrier more permeable to blood plasma, which gradually collects in the lung. Some time passes, however, until the collection of fluid provokes signs and symptoms. This period in which the patient experiences relative well-being is known as the clinical latent phase. The clinical symptoms which follow and the pathological changes underlying them are discussed in detail; dose-effect relationships are demonstrated. The regression phase after poisoning has been overcome is briefly sketched. PMID:3842189

Diller, W F

1985-10-01

202

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

203

Protecting Children from Poison Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protecting Children From Poison Emergencies Safety, treatment advice for ... to RSS Follow us on Twitter Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library ...

204

Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.  

PubMed

A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

1977-01-01

205

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... handlers become ill from working with organophosphate or carbamate insecticides in warm and hot environments, it is ... symptoms. Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Symptoms of Organophosphate/ Carbamate Poisoning Sweating Sweating Headache Headache Fatigue Fatigue Dry ...

206

Nonaccidental poisoning: the elusive diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

Although nonaccidental poisoning in childhood is now more often recognised, it is still difficult to establish a diagnosis despite correct investigative procedures. In 1978 we were unable, initially, to establish the cause of intermittent episodes of loss of consciousness in a boy admitted to Sheffield Children's Hospital. Subsequently it was conclusively shown that his mother systematically poisoned him with Tuinal (amylobarbitone and quinalbarbitone) both before admission and while he was being treated in the hospital.

Lorber, J; Reckless, J P; Watson, J B

1980-01-01

207

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

208

Amitraz poisoning treatment: still supportive?  

PubMed

Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an ?2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment. PMID:24363695

Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad

2011-01-01

209

Cholinergic crisis after rodenticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, "Tres Pasitos." The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

2010-12-01

210

Nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride) with carbon nanotubes (CNT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nanocomposites of PVC with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and single wall carbon nanotubes were prepared in THF solution, followed by film casting. The scanning electron microscopy allowed to confirm a homogeneous distribution of the CNTs in the PVC matrix. Depending on the CNTs concentration, changes of sorption in methylene chloride as well as of the characteristic temperature of PVC transformation,

Georg Broza; Kazimierz Piszczek; Karl Schulte; Tomasz Sterzynski

2007-01-01

211

[Chronic ethylene glycol poisoning].  

PubMed

Over a six-week period a 60-year-old patient had several unexplained intoxication-like episodes. He finally had severe abdominal cramps with changes in the level of consciousness and oligoanuric renal failure (creatinine 4.7 mg/dl). The history, marked metabolic acidosis (pH 7.15, HCO3- 2.2 mmol/l, pCO2 6.6 mmHg) as well as raised anion residue (43 mmol/l) and the presence of oxalates in urine suggested poisoning by ethylene glycol contained in antifreeze liquid. Intensive haemodialysis adequately eliminated ethylene glycol and its toxic metabolites (glycol aldehyde, glycolic acid). Renal function returned within 10 days, although the concentrating power of the kidney remained impaired for several weeks because of interstitial nephritis. The intoxication had been caused by a defective heating-pipe system from which the antifreeze had leaked into the hot-water boiler (the patient had habitually prepared hot drinks by using water from the hot-water tap). Gas chromatography demonstrated an ethylene glycol concentration of 21 g per litre of water. PMID:8482240

Kaiser, W; Steinmauer, H G; Biesenbach, G; Janko, O; Zazgornik, J

1993-04-30

212

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

213

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

214

Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides  

PubMed Central

Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice.

Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

1965-01-01

215

Dynamics of Hygenic Working Conditions and Occupational Disease Incidence among Workers in Suspension Polyvinyl Chloride Production over a Number of Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The occupational disease incidence in workers resulting from vinyl chloride air pollution was studied over a period of 17 years (1953-1969). Although industrial conditions have improved, there still occurs new cases of chronic occupational poisoning. Vari...

V. S. Filatova V. A. Antonyuzhenko

1974-01-01

216

Poly Iron Chloride and Poly Aluminum Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structures, basic chemistry, preparation procedures, and applications of poly iron chloride (PIC) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) are presented. PIC and PAC are unconventional inorganic polymers known to be extremely effective for treatment of water ...

L. K. Wang

1987-01-01

217

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of methylene blue active substances by spectrophotometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of methylene blue active substances in whole-water samples by liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric detection is described. Sulfate and sulfonate-based surfectants are reacted with methylene blue to form a blue-colored complex. The complex is extracted into chloroform, back-washed with an acidified phosphate-based buffer solution, and measured against external standards with a probe spectrophotometer. The method detection limt for routine analysis is 0.02 milligram per liter. The precision is plus/minus 10 percent relative standard deviation. The positive bias from nitrate and chloride and U.S. Geological Survey method O-3111-83 for methylene blue active substances is minized by adding a back-washing step.

Burkhardt, Mark R.; Cinotto, Pete J.; Frahm, Galen W.; Woodworth, Mark T.; Pritt, Jeffrey W.

1995-01-01

218

The Mechanochemical Reaction of Palladium(II) Chloride with a Bidentate Phosphine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment describes the reaction of palladium(II) chloride with 1,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)pentane by grinding the two powders together in the solid state. The product is the precursor for the metalation reaction at one of the methylene carbon atoms of the ligand's backbone. The final product is known to be a catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura

Berry, David E.; Carrie, Philippa; Fawkes, Kelli L.; Rebner, Bruce; Xing, Yao

2010-01-01

219

Analysis of nine known or suspected spindle poisons for mitotic chromosome malsegregation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae D61.M.  

PubMed

We tested nine (cadmium chloride, chloral hydrate, colchicine, diazepam, econazole nitrate, hydroquinone, pyrimethamine, thiabendazole, thimerosal) of the 10 known or suspected spindle poisons of the coordinated programme to study aneuploidy induction sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities using Saccharomyces cerevisiae D61.M (mitotic chromosomal malsegregation system). Mitotic malsegregation of chromosome VII was induced by chloral hydrate, thiabendazole and thimerosal. Diazepam, colchicine, cadmium chloride, econazole nitrate, hydroquinone and pyrimethamine revealed no induction of chromosomal malsegregation. PMID:2263203

Albertini, S

1990-09-01

220

Management of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of illness and death in the United States. Most cases result from exposure to the internal combustion engine and to stoves burning fossil fuels. Most cases of accidental exposure are preventable if proper precautions are taken; however, when cases arise, their presenting signs and symptoms are nonspecific and often lead to a misdiagnosis resembling a flu-like viral illness. As a result, the incidence of acute CO poisoning is underestimated. The effects of CO poisoning are due to tissue hypoxia, with the CNS and the heart being the most susceptible target organs due to their high oxygen needs. Prolonged hypoxia due to high CO levels may lead to cardiac arrhythmias or arrest (or both) and a variety of neurologic sequelae. Treatment is directed toward the relief of tissue hypoxia and the removal of CO from the body. Severity of poisoning can be divided into three levels based on CO levels in the blood. Administration of normobaric 100 percent oxygen is the therapy of choice for most cases, while hyperbaric oxygen therapy is reserved for severe poisonings. PMID:2403894

Ilano, A L; Raffin, T A

1990-01-01

221

Alsike clover poisoning: A review  

PubMed Central

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as alsike clover poisoning and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of alsike clover poisoning. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning.

Nation, P. Nicholas

1989-01-01

222

40 CFR 721.10581 - Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...Substances § 721.10581 Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...identified generically as brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene...

2013-07-01

223

Fatal 'Bhang' poisoning.  

PubMed

A young adult male of about 25 years of age consumed a glass (about 300 ml) of Bhang on the holy occasion of ShivRatri. The deceased died within 24 hours of consuming the Bhang. The deceased had suffered from rheumatic heart disease with multiple valvular involvements. He had also undergone open-heart surgery in the past. Fatality due to Bhang is extremely rare and therefore the case is presented. An attempt is made to review the literature. Bhang is one of the Indian preparations of Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa). It is prepared by the wet grinding of the leaves of the plant. The bolus is then consumed in various ways. Water is used as a vehicle. In the present case a bolus of about 1 to 2 gm was mixed in a glass of water. ShivRatri is a Hindu festival. On this day prayers are offered to Lord Shiva, who is the god of all evils and poisons. Bhang is a special article, which is offered to Lord Shiva on this auspicious day. Then, the devotees consume it as the God. Gujrat is a dry state (possession, consumption, sale, etc. of alcohol, Bhang, opium and other psychotropic substance, etc. is governed by particular laws), but on the holy occasion of ShivRati, for a day, the law is relaxed for the use of Bhang. In most other parts of the country, particularly, in northern India, it is a common practice to consume various preparations of Indian hemp like Bhang, Charas, Ganja, sweetmeat, etc. The bolus mentioned above is probably the minimum single dose. PMID:11693232

Gupta, B D; Jani, C B; Shah, P H

2001-10-01

224

Methylene Radical Reaction with Cis-Butene-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the pressure dependence of the C5 products from the reaction of cis-butene-2 and methylene is reported. Methylene was produced by the photolysis of diazomethane with 4358A light at 23 or 56C, and by photolysis of ketene with 3200A radiation at ...

D. F. Ring B. S. Rabinovitch

1968-01-01

225

OZONE TREATMENT OF METHYLENE BLUE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of ozonation of the sulfur dye Methylene Blue in aqueous solution is studied. The experiments have been carried out in a bubble column, using a single nozzle as gas sparger. The influence of the operating variables (initial concentration of Methylene Blue, ozone partial pressure, temperature and pH) on the oxidation process is established. A stoichiometric ratio of 3

F. JAVIER BENITEZ; JESUS BELTRAN-HEREDIA; TERESA GONZALEZ; ANGELA PASCUAL

1993-01-01

226

Poisonous Snakes of Central and South America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Central and South America; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of ...

1970-01-01

227

Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (espaol) Arabic (???????) Preventing Lead Poisoning English (Arabic) ?????? ??????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education ...

228

Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

229

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

230

Preserving the United States's poison control system.  

PubMed

The funding of United States's poison control centers is threatened. The following Commentary argues for support of the current outstanding poison control system by presenting the evidence for its cost-effectiveness. PMID:21563903

Woolf, Alan D; Karnes, David K; Kirrane, Barbara M

2011-04-01

231

Irreversible gettering of thionyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

The authors have successfully demonstrated the irreversible gettering of SOCl{sub 2} by ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon over a modest temperature range. While thionyl chloride decomposition was slow below {minus}20 C, lower temperatures are expected to be less of a problem than at higher temperatures. The approximately 30 cc of thionyl chloride in a typical D-cell would require 50 g of ZnO and 107 g of ASZMTEDA carbon. Fortunately, since it is unlikely to happen at all, it is common practice to assume only one cell will fail (leak) in a given battery pack. So, one charge of getter can protect the whole battery pack. In summary, ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon fulfills all of the requirements of an ideal getter including: irreversible binding or reaction with SOCl{sub 2}, high volumetric uptake capacity, high efficiency, non-volatile, air stable, insensitive to poisoning, non-toxic, cheap, non-corrosive, and the gettering product is not a liquid or oil that could block further flow or accessibility. Future work in this area includes incorporation of the ZnO and carbon into a structural open-celled porous monolith, as well as, gettering for other types of batteries (e.g., Li/MnO{sub 2}).

LeRoy Whinnery; Steve Goods; George Buffleben; Tim Sheppodd

1999-11-01

232

Blister beetle poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

Case records of 21 horses with acute illness following ingestion of hay containing dead striped blister beetles (Epicauta spp) were selected for review. Abdominal pain, fever, depression, frequent urination, shock, and, occasionally, synchronous diaphragmatic flutter characterized clinical illness. Hematologic findings included hemoconcentration, neutrophilic leukocytosis, and hypocalcemia. Hematuria and low urine specific gravity were abnormal urinalysis results. Sloughing of the epithelium of the esophageal part of the stomach, hemorrhagic and ulcerative cystitis, enterocolitis, and myocardial necrosis were important post-mortem findings. Signs and lesions in 5 horses experimentally poisoned were similar to those of the natural disease. The findings were regarded as sufficiently characteristic of blister beetle poisoning to be useful in differential diagnosis but were not constant in all cases. Therefore, when blister beetle poisoning is suspected, access of affected horses to hay containing striped blister beetles should be demonstrated. PMID:670055

Schoeb, T R; Panciera, R J

1978-07-01

233

Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.  

PubMed

This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. PMID:22632635

Warrell, David A

2012-06-01

234

Parathion Poisoning from Flannelette Sheets  

PubMed Central

Two small boys were admitted to the Lions Gate Hospital in coma and acute respiratory distress. They improved and the first boy was sent home; after two nights he was back in hospital in a worsened state. Poisoning with organic phosphate was suspected, and after investigation some flannelette sheets were taken from his home for testing. They proved to have been contaminated with parathion (nerve gas) in the hold of a ship sailing from Antwerp to Vancouver; the parathion had been offloaded in California. The remainder of the sheets were traced. The symptomatology and treatment of organic phosphate ester poisoning and the chemical testing of parathion are discussed.

Anderson, L. S.; Warner, D. L.; Parker, J. E.; Bluman, N.; Page, B. D.

1965-01-01

235

Lead Poisoning in Blind Children  

PubMed Central

Many partially sighted children use the mouth, lips, and tongue as an aid in identifying objectsthis has been termed discriminatory pica. Investigation of a case of lead poisoning in a pupil at a residential school for the blind led to the discovery of others with asymptomatic lead poisoning, all of whom had the same habit. All the children recovered without treatment when they abandoned their habit of discrimination by use of the mouth. Authorities responsible for schools for the blind should be aware of this risk.

Ames, A. C.; Swift, P. N.

1968-01-01

236

Management of the critically poisoned patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management

Jennifer S Boyle; Laura K Bechtel; Christopher P Holstege

2009-01-01

237

Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

Lipnickey, Susan Cross

1981-01-01

238

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

239

[Dimenhydrinate poisoning in childhood (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Treatment of a Dimenhydrinate poisoning (Vertirosan B6) with Physostigmine salicylate (Antrilirium) is reported. The symptoms of this anticholinergic poisoning (hyperactivity, ataxia, tremor, rubeosis faciei, hallucinations) disappeared rapidly after a single intravenous injection of Physostigmine salicylate. A table of some of the most common drugs capable of producing anticholinergic poisoning is added. PMID:643296

Borkenstein, M; Haidvogl, M

1978-01-01

240

Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 3: Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article is the third in a series on animal poisoning in Europe and represents a collation of published and non-published wildlife poisoning data from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last 10years. Birds, particularly waterfowl and raptors, were more commonly reported as victims of poisoning than wild mammals. In addition to specific but important toxicological disasters,

Raimon Guitart; Magda Sachana; Francesca Caloni; Siska Croubels; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Philippe Berny

2010-01-01

241

Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with

Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

242

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The

1996-01-01

243

SEASONAL VARIATION OF CHILDHOOD ACUTE POISONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Acute poisoning is a common medical emergency in paediatric unit. This was a retrospective study to see the seasonal variation of acute poisoning in children in a tertiary hospital. Conclusion: Poisoning was common during the summer season and kerosene was found to be most common ingredient. It was possibly due to easy availability of kerosene and during the summer

AKM Mamunur Rashid; Razia Sultana; HAM Nazmul Ahasan; CH Rasul

244

Neutralization of Shellfish Poison by Chemical Disinfectants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resistance of shellfish poison was evaluated in the presence of 7 chemical disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in neutralizing the toxicity of the poison at concentration of 3 parts NaOCl per million (ppm) per microgram of poison at room ...

C. D. Chin

1969-01-01

245

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince

Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

246

Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene.  

PubMed

Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions. PMID:24907994

Veis, Libor; Pittner, Ji?

2014-06-01

247

Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.

Veis, Libor; Pittner, Ji?

2014-06-01

248

Pesticide poisoning surveillance through regional poison control centers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to describe pesticide exposure in the population of callers to Minnesota Regional Poison Centers. Case files from 1988 reporting pesticide exposure to humans were identified in cooperation with the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. Data analysis was conducted by computer using SAS statistical package. Of the 1,428 case files indicating pesticide as the primary substance of exposure to Minnesota residents, a mean age of 5 years (range, one month to 85 years) was identified; 50 percent of all cases were below age 3 years. Males accounted for 1.3 times as many cases as females. Insecticide was identified in the largest percentage of case files (74 percent) followed by herbicide (12 percent), rodenticide (11 percent) and fungicide-nonmedicinal (3 percent). Ingestion was the most common route of exposure; 85 percent of all calls originated from a residence. While insecticides are still the most common types of pesticide call, herbicide has surpassed insecticide in production and sales in the US. In this study, herbicide type exposure calls present a much different picture than other pesticide types. The usefulness of poison control centers for examination of pesticide poisoning is explored. Since reporting occurs coincidental with the exposure and its associated symptoms, each pesticide poisoning report could potentially serve as a true sentinel health event. PMID:2029045

Olson, D K; Sax, L; Gunderson, P; Sioris, L

1991-06-01

249

Of pills, plants, and paraquat: the relevance of poison centers in emergency medicine.  

PubMed

The organization and work of a poisons center are demonstrated on the basis of GIZ-Nord Poisons Center Annual Report for 2011. In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the indications for gastric lavage and the application of activated charcoal. Moreover the means of enhanced elimination are presented: hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, multi-dose activated charcoal and molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS). Gastric lavage is indicated within one hour after ingestion of a life-threatening dose of a poison. In intoxications with CNS penetrating substances gastric lavage should be performed only after endotracheal intubation due to the risk of aspiration. The basic management of the intoxicated patient by emergency medicine personnel out of hospital and on the way into the hospital is presented. The "Bremen List", a compilation of five antidotes (atropine, 4-DMAP, tolonium chloride, naloxone, activated charcoal) for the out of hospital treatment by emergency doctors is introduced. PMID:23245927

Schaper, Andreas; Ceschi, Alessandro; Deters, Michael; Kaiser, Guido

2013-03-01

250

Lithium: poisonings and suicide prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns 81 cases of lithium poisoning and shows that deliberate intoxications are prevalent during the first 3 years of lithium treatment as well as in cases with a previous history of suicide attempt. Therapeutic intoxications could generally be avoided by education concerning hygiene and diet and careful monitoring in cases of intercurrent diseases.

F Montagnon; S Sad; J. P Lepine

2002-01-01

251

The Dose Makes the Poison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Toxicologist discusses common misconception that all chemicals are poisonous to people and the environment and how these misconceptions are perpetuated. Describes what makes a chemical toxic. Defines related concepts including dose, acute and chronic toxicity, and natural verses synthetic chemicals. (MCO)

Ottoboni, Alice

1992-01-01

252

[Poisonous animals registration in Poland].  

PubMed

The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Krakw municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

Mitrus, Ma?gorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

2005-01-01

253

Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented.

Gilbert, R. J.

1974-01-01

254

Unusual Manifestations after Malathion Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of organophosphate poisoning with a commercial preparation of malathion (deliberate ingestion of Malathane Garden Spray: malathion 15% in isopropyl alcohol) in which the initial cholinergic crisis was followed by cardiac, pulmonary, neurological and renal manifestations. They occurred when erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases were reactivating. A chemical analysis of the pesticide preparation revealed, apart from malathion itself,

A. Dive; P. Mahieu; R. Van Binst; A. Hassoun; D. Lison; H. De Bisschop; B. Nemery; R. Lauwerys

1994-01-01

255

Poisoning of Catalytic Methane Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methane sensors using the principle of catalytic oxidation of methane are employed for the determination of methane content in ambient air of coal mines. Certain foreign gases or vapors in the air poison the catalyst of the sensors affecting the sensor re...

M. Kawahata R. Lazzaro

1981-01-01

256

Accumulation of Methylene Blue Dye by Growing Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation bioaccumulation studies were performed for the removal of Methylene Blue dye from an aqueous solution using live Lemna minor. The effect of various parameters such as the biosorbent dosage (13g), pH (3-8) and initial dye concentration (210mg L) were studied. The maximum uptake capacity of the Methylene Blue using L. minor was observed as 10.93mg g

R. M. Reema; P. Saravanan; M. Dharmendira Kumar; S. Renganathan

2011-01-01

257

Pharmacokinetic interaction of chloroquine and methylene blue combination against malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The combination of chloroquine and methylene blue is potentially effective for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether methylene blue influences the pharmacokinetics of chloroquine. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group design, a 3-day course of therapeutic oral doses of chloroquine (total 2.5g in male, 1.875g in

Jens Rengelshausen; Jrgen Burhenne; Margit Frhlich; Yorki Tayrouz; Shio Kumar Singh; Klaus-Dieter Riedel; Olaf Mller; Torsten Hoppe-Tichy; Walter E. Haefeli; Gerd Mikus; Ingeborg Walter-Sack

2004-01-01

258

Poisonings at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.  

PubMed

Poisoning is an increasingly common social problem in Nepal. Studies on poisoning in semi urban areas of Nepal are minimal. Here we, present a prospective study of poisoning in semi urban area of capital, Kathmandu lasting for six years duration. Altogether there were 354 cases of various poisoning, admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from Baisakh 2062 (April 16, 2005) to Chaitra 2067 (April 15, 2011). Male: Female ratio was 135:219 (1:1.6) and Age +/- SD was age 29.3 +/- 13.8 years. Age group (20-29 years) comprised of 138 patients (38.9% followed by < 20 years age group (92, 25.9%). Brahman/ chhetri (150, 42.4%) and Mongolian (146, 41.2%) ethnic groups were the main sufferers of poisoning, followed by newars (41, 11.6%) patients. Deliberate self harm was the cause for poisoning in maximum number of patients (156, 44.1%), followed by depression (64, 18.1%) and accidental poisoning (42, 11.9%). Organophosphorus (152, 42.9%), medicines (71, 20.1%), and rodenticide poisoning (38, 10.7%) were common poisons. Metacid (Methyl parathion) (46, 15.5%) was the most popular brand of poisoning agent used in Nepal for suicidal purpose. The over all mortality rate of poisoning in general was 7.1% with organophosphorus poisoning topping the list (19, 12.5%). We also present mad honey poisonings in a small group of 9 (3.2%) patients with M:F 8:1, age 26.5 +/- 8.8 years. Due precaution should be undertaken during their management as some of them may go into cardiopulmonary arrest and should not be considered benign when more than 5 tablespoonful wild honey is consumed. PMID:22808816

Shrestha, B; Singh, P M; Bharati, U; Dhungel, S

2011-09-01

259

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

260

Datura stramonium poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

2013-01-01

261

Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method for dehydrating magnesium chloride hydrates or brines by complexing with amine hydrochlorides. Magnesium chloride hydrate or brine is reacted to an amine hydrochloride to form a complex which is then heated to fir...

H. Dolezal

1975-01-01

262

Chloride - urine test  

MedlinePLUS

The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...

263

Paraquat PoisoningLung Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 15-year-old boy ingested a mouthful of paraquat and developed severe respiratory distress. Treatment included the transplantation of one lung, but subsequently changes developed in the graft which are thought to have been due to paraquat, and the patient died two weeks after the operationThe dangers of keeping poisonous substances in incorrectly labelled bottles has once again been demonstrated, while

Henry Matthew; Andrew Logan; M. F. A. Woodruff; Brian Heard

1968-01-01

264

The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective

L. F. Prescott; J A J H Critchley

1983-01-01

265

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).  

PubMed

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

Vetter, J

2004-09-01

266

Acute fatal poisoning with Tolfenpyrad.  

PubMed

The authors present a fatal case of poisoning with Tolfenpyrad (TFP), a pesticide first approved in Japan in 2002. A man in his fifties was found dead in the supine position at his son's home and the small towel with a smell of naphthalene was found nearby. Forensic autopsy was unremarkable, except for a very small amount of light pink fluid in the stomach, with naphthalene odour. The toxicological analyses revealed the presence of TFP and its major metabolite PTCA (4-[4-[(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methylpyrazol-5-yl)carbonylaminomethyl]phenoxy]benzoic acid), together with naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes in the post-mortem sample, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The plasma concentrations of each substance were quantified as 1.97?g/ml (TFP), 2.88?g/ml (PTCA), 1.70?g/ml (naphthalene), 0.67?g/ml (1-methyl naphthalene) and 1.44?g/ml (2-methyl naphthalene). According to these results together with autopsy findings, the cause of his death was determined to be acute Tolfenpyrad poisoning. This is the first case report of fatal poisoning attributable to an intake of TFP product. PMID:24237799

Hikiji, Wakako; Yamaguchi, Koji; Saka, Kanju; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2013-11-01

267

Poisoning deaths in married women.  

PubMed

Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime. PMID:15261005

Kumar, Virendra

2004-02-01

268

Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.  

PubMed

Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern. PMID:23122015

Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

2012-10-01

269

Oxidative decolorization of methylene blue using pelagite.  

PubMed

Pelagite generally has large surface area and high adsorbing and oxidizing reactivity due to highly amorphous nature, and high reducing potential of Mn (hydro)oxide phases present in it. In the present study, pelagite, collected from the East Pacific Ocean, was tested as a potential oxidant for decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in a batch system under air-bubbling and motor-stirring conditions. The effects of suspension pH (3.0-10.0), MB concentration (10-100 mgL(-1)) and loading (0.2-3.0 gL(-1)), and particle size (100-200 mesh) of pelagite on kinetics of MB decolorization were assessed. Results show that in typical concentration range of dye wastewaters (10-50 mgL(-1)), pelagite can be used as a highly efficient material for oxidative degradation of MB. MB decolorization was through a surface mechanism, that is, formation of surface precursor complex between MB and surface bound Mn(III, IV) center, followed by electron transfer within the surface complex. Iron (hydro)oxide phases present in the pelagite did not play an important role in MB decolorization. Suspension pH exerted double-edged effects on MB decolorization by influencing the formation of surface precursor complex, and reducing potential of the system. Kinetic rate of MB decolorization is directly proportional to saturation degree of available reaction sites by MB adsorption. At the initial and later stages, the kinetics for MB decolorization with respect to MB concentration, pelagite loading, and particle size could be described separately using two pseudofirst rate equations, except at very high pelagite loading (3.0 mgL(-1)). Accumulation of Mn(2+) and probably some organic intermediates exerted marked inhibitory effect on MB decolorization. Vigorous dynamic condition was favorable for MB decolorization. The presence of oxygen could enhance MB decolorization to a limited extent. PMID:17513047

Zhu, Mao-Xu; Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Liang-Yong

2008-01-15

270

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of methylmercury poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An opportunity to study the effects of methylmercury poisoning in humans was provided by the large outbreak in Iraq in 1971-2. In adults, poisoning resulted from the ingestion of home-made bread prepared from methylmercury-treated seed grain and there was a highly significant correlation between the amount of bread ingested and blood mercury levels. Poisoning in infants resulted either from prior

F. Bakir; H. Rustam; S. Tikriti; S. F. Al-Damluji; H. Shihristani

1980-01-01

271

Health risk assessment of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in California ground water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved in California drinking water, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to DCM. This assessment is being provided to the California Environmental Protection Agency for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of DCM exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with DCM. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for observed and potential DCM-induced cancer in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that win protect members of the general public from this chronic toxicity endpoint resulting solely from groundwater-based exposures to DCM, based on information obtained from the scientific literature. The document consists of seven sections, plus one supporting appendix. Each section provides information that can be used to develop DCM drinking-water standards that will safeguard human health. Evaluation of this information in support of specific groundwater safety standards for DCM was not conducted in this report; rather, the basis for selection of alternative standards, along with a narrative description of certain key sources of underlying uncertainty, are presented for evaluation through the regulatory risk-management process.

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; Wright, K.; McKone, T.E.

1992-12-01

272

Health risk assessment of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in California ground water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved in California drinking water, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential cancer risk that may be ass...

K. T. Bogen L. C. Hall K. Wright T. E. McKone

1992-01-01

273

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

274

Poisoning severity score, Glasgow coma scale, corrected QT interval in acute organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate effectiveness of the poisoning severity score (PSS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and corrected QT (QTc) interval in predicting outcomes in acute organophosphates (OP) poisoning. Over a period of 2 years, 62 patients with OP poisoning were admitted to emergency department (ED) of Erciyes University Medical School Hospital. The age, sex, cause of

Okhan Akdur; Polat Durukan; Seda Ozkan; Levent Avsarogullari; Alper Vardar; Cemil Kavalci; Ibrahim Ikizceli

2010-01-01

275

[Lead poisoning--a case report].  

PubMed

Lead poisoning may cause irreversible health defects, including anaemia, central nervous system problems and various organ defects. We describe a patient with lead poisoning. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with anaemia and unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow aspirate showed basophilic stippling of erythrocytes suggestive of lead poisoning, which was confirmed by high concentrations of lead in her blood. The lead source was the glazing of a ceramic wine jug. Chelating therapy was started. Haemoglobin was normalised; the patient returned to work after nine months. Correct diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious health problems caused by lead poisoning. PMID:12185736

Amundsen, Tore; Naess, Inger Anne; Hammerstrm, Jens; Brudevold, Robert; Bjerve, Kristian S

2002-06-10

276

Is Nai Habarala (Alocasia cucullata) a poisonous plant?  

PubMed

Nai Habarala is not documented as a poisonous plant. However, we report two cases of fatal poisoning following ingestion of its fruit. The clinical manifestations have a similarity to cyanogenic glycoside poisoning. PMID:8342179

Goonasekera, C D; Vasanthathilake, V W; Ratnatunga, N; Seneviratne, C A

1993-06-01

277

Methylene blue inhibits amyloid Abeta oligomerization by promoting fibrillization.  

PubMed

Amyloid plaques are hallmark neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease, which consist of abnormally aggregated Abeta protein. Multiple Abeta aggregated species have been identified, and neurotoxicity appears to be correlated with the amount of nonfibrillar oligomers. Therefore, selective inhibition of Abeta oligomer formation has emerged as an attractive means of therapeutic intervention. To investigate whether small molecules can modulate aggregation to achieve selective inhibition of neurotoxic amyloid oligomers, Abeta aggregation was assayed in vitro in the presence of methylene blue, using immunoreactivity with the prefibrillar oligomer-specific antibody A11, transmission electron microscopy, and turbidity assays. Methylene blue inhibited oligomerization when used at substoichiometric concentrations relative to that of the Abeta monomer. Inhibition of Abeta oligomerization was achieved concomitant with promotion of fibrillization, suggesting that oligomer and fibril formation are distinct and competing pathways. Methylene blue-mediated promotion of fiber formation occurred via a dose-dependent decrease in the lag time and an increase in the fibrillization rate, consistent with promotion of both filament nucleation and elongation. Addition of methylene blue to preformed oligomers resulted in oligomer loss and promotion of fibrillization. The data show that Abeta oligomer formation is inhibited by promoting fibril formation, which suggests that the relative pathological significance of oligomers and fibrils may be tested in vivo using methylene blue. If Abeta oligomers represent the primary pathogenic species, then inhibition of this highly toxic species via promotion of formation of less toxic aggregates may be therapeutically useful. PMID:17595112

Necula, Mihaela; Breydo, Leonid; Milton, Saskia; Kayed, Rakez; van der Veer, Wytze E; Tone, Paul; Glabe, Charles G

2007-07-31

278

Ricin poisoning and forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

Ricin is one of the most fascinating poisons due to its high toxicity: as little as 500 microg can kill an adult. It gained fame by its use in the so-called 'umbrella murder' to kill the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov in 1978. Ricin also became known as a potential bio-terror agent to which people could be exposed through the air, food, or water. The origin, biochemistry, toxicity, and analytical procedures for the determination of ricin are summarized. The homicide of Markov is described as well as recent cases of criminal ricin use. PMID:20355196

Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

2009-04-01

279

Unusual manifestations after malathion poisoning.  

PubMed

We report a case of organophosphate poisoning with a commercial preparation of malathion (deliberate ingestion of Malathane Garden Spray: malathion 15% in isopropyl alcohol) in which the initial cholinergic crisis was followed by cardiac, pulmonary, neurological and renal manifestations. They occurred when erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases were reactivating. A chemical analysis of the pesticide preparation revealed, apart from malathion itself, the presence of isopropylmalathion and O,O,S-trimethylphosphorothioate. Although pure malathion is regarded as one of the safest organophosphate insecticides, this observation underlines the possibility of severe complications after exposure to a preparation which has been stored for a long period of time. PMID:8204314

Dive, A; Mahieu, P; Van Binst, R; Hassoun, A; Lison, D; De Bisschop, H; Nemery, B; Lauwerys, R

1994-04-01

280

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

281

The Epidemiology and Prevention of Paraquat Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 In the UK there was an increase in the annual number of deaths associated with paraquat poisoning between 1966 and 1975. Since that time there has been little change in numbers.2 High mortality is associated commonly with suicidal intent. Serious accidental poisoning from paraquat has never been frequent in the UK and there have been no deaths reported in

Lesley J. Onyon; Glyn N. Volans

1987-01-01

282

Carbon monoxide poisoning from disposable charcoal barbeques.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a common cause of accidental death and suicide. This article reports 4 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning following the inhalation of fumes from disposable charcoal barbeques in a confined space. All of the cases occurred within a 2-year period in Northern Ireland. PMID:20139755

Lyness, James R; Crane, Jack

2011-09-01

283

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described, as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed

Josep Piqueras

1989-01-01

284

Harmful Algal Blooms: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), also known as domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The page discusses the production of domoic acid by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, geographic locations of detection, and economic impacts.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; Seagrant, University O.

285

An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged \\

Chun-Chi Lin; Chen-Chang Yang; Dong-Haur Phua; Jou-Fang Deng; Li-Hua Lu

2010-01-01

286

The prevalence of pancreatitis in organophosphate poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pancreatitis in cases of organophosphate (OP) poisonings admitted to Yznc Yl University Teaching Hospital over an 18-month period. Materials and Methods: A total of 47 patients of acute poisoning with OP insecticides attended the Emergency Department of the Yznc Yl Medical School Hospital, from May 1999 to December

I Sahin; K Onbasi; H Sahin; C Karakaya; Y Ustun; T Noyan

2002-01-01

287

Intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides inhibit both cholinesterase and pseudo-cholinesterase activities. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, and overstimulation of neurotransmission occurs as a result of this accumulation. The mortality rate of OP poisoning is high. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is often life saving. Treatment of OP poisoning consists of intravenous atropine and oximes. The clinical

Murat Sungur; Muhammed Gven

2001-01-01

288

Network security attacks. ARP Poisoning case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method

Lumini?a DEFTA

2010-01-01

289

Identification of pesticide poisoning in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme investigates incidents of suspected poisoning of wildlife (also honey bees and companion animals) by pesticides in the United Kingdom. The approach to these investigations has evolved over the past 30 years. Field investigations, post-mortem examinations, toxicological data and experience of previous poisoning incidents assist in the selection and interpretation of appropriate chemical analyses. Several multi-residue

Peter Brown; Andrew Charlton; Mary Cuthbert; Libby Barnett; Leigh Ross; Margaret Green; Liz Gillies; Kathryn Shaw; Mark Fletcher

1996-01-01

290

Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

291

Pediatric poisonings: recognition, assessment, and management.  

PubMed

Poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies encountered in young children in the United States, and accounts for a significant proportion of emergency room visits for the adolescent population. Poisoning is a significant and persistent cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents. The scope of toxic substances involved in poisoning is broad, and requires health care providers to have an extensive knowledge of signs and symptoms of poisoning and specific therapeutic interventions and antidotes. Most children who ingest poisons suffer no harm; however, health care providers must recognize, assess, and manage those exposures that are most likely to cause serious injury, illness, or death and initiate appropriate management to minimize the physical injury that may occur. PMID:16344209

Madden, Maureen A

2005-12-01

292

Mad honey poisoning mimicking acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute poisoning in a 48-year-old man who presented with chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweatiness, blurred vision, and severe hypotension after ingestion of honey. His electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and transient ST elevation. He made a good recovery after treatment with atropine and close monitoring. Grayanotoxin was detected in his urine and the honey he ingested, which confirmed a diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. This is a condition prevalent in the Black Sea region around Turkey but rarely seen locally. Although mad honey poisoning is life-threatening, early use of atropine is life-saving. Such poisoning may present with ST elevation in the electrocardiogram and symptoms mimicking acute myocardial infarction. It is therefore essential for clinicians to recognise this unusual form of poisoning and avoid the disastrous use of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:23918513

Chen, Sammy P L; Lam, Y H; Ng, Vember C H; Lau, F L; Sze, Y C; Chan, W T; Mak, Tony W L

2013-08-01

293

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

1988-01-01

294

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W. N.; Spann, J. W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J. C.

1988-01-01

295

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

296

Efficacy of Pro-PAM (N-methyl-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carbaldoxime Hydrochloride) as a Treatment for Organophosphate Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficacy of Pro-PAM (N-methyl-1-6-dihydropyridine-2-carbaldoxime hydrochloride) was compared to pyridine-2-aldoxime chloride (PAM) as a treatment for organophosphate poisoning in mice and guinea pigs. Pro-PAM was generally less toxic than PAM in mice ...

J. G. Clement

1978-01-01

297

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... that are too high Overdoses of illegal drugs Carbon monoxide from gas appliances Household products, such as laundry powder or furniture polish Pesticides Indoor or outdoor plants Metals such as lead ...

298

40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide. 721.4090 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N -[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N...

2013-07-01

299

Paraquat poisoning: clinical features and immediate general management  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 In contrast to 10-15 years ago most cases of paraquat poisoning are now due to deliberate self-poisoning with parasuicidal or suicidal intent rather than to accidental ingestion. Less commonly, poisoning may follow careless handling of paraquat during occupational use. Although paraquat can be absorbed through the skin if improperly handled, poisoning usually follows ingestion and has rarely been reported

J. A. Vale; T. J. Meredith; B. M. Buckley

1987-01-01

300

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

301

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVESPoisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODSToxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTSThree patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSIONA sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.??

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

302

Methadone toxicity in a poisoning referral center  

PubMed Central

Objective: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist. Findings: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean standard deviation of the age was 32.1 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications. Conclusion: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning.

Taheri, Fatemeh; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

2013-01-01

303

PERFORMANCE AND MECHANISM OF METHYLENE BLUE BIOSORPTION ON ORANGE PEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using orange peel biosorbent was experimentally investigated. The effects of dye concentration, solution pH, salt concentration and contact time were investigated in a batch model. The results showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within one hour at two initial MB concentrations (200 and 1000 mg l). The uptake of MB was significantly

L. Cui; C. Liu; G. Wu

2008-01-01

304

Adsorption behavior of methylene blue on halloysite nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were used as nano-adsorbents for the removal of the cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. The dye adsorption experiments were carried out by using bath procedure. Experimental results have shown that the basic pH, increasing initial dye concentration and lower temperature favored the adsorption. The dye adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 30 min

Mingfei Zhao; Peng Liu

2008-01-01

305

Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans.  

PubMed Central

The enzyme carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from CO autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans strain OM5, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was obtained in 26% yield and was purified 36-fold. The enzyme was stable for at least 6 days, had a molecular weight of 230,000, gave a single protein and activity band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was homogeneous by the criterion of sedimentation equilibrium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis revealed a single band of molecular weight 107,000. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase did not catalyze reduction of pyridine or flavin nucleotides but catalyzed the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, thionine, toluylene blue, dichlorophenolindophenol, or pyocyanine under strictly anaerobic conditions. The visible spectrum revealed maxima at 405 and 470 nm. The millimolar extinction coefficients were 43.9 (405 nm) and 395.5 (275 nm), respectively. Absorption at 470 nm decreased in the presence of dithionite, and the spectrum was not affected by the substrate CO. Maximum reaction rates were found at pH 7.0 and 63 degrees C; temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy (delta H degree) of 36.8 kJ/mol (8.8 kcal/mol). The apparent Km was 53 microM for CO. The purified enzyme was incapable of oxidizing methane, methanol, or formaldehyde in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. Images

Meyer, O; Schlegel, H G

1980-01-01

306

Empirical NMR Chemical Shift Correlations for Methyl and Methylene Protons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an internally consistent set of 63 substituent constants developed for use with the Schoolery Relationship to predict the chemical shifts of methylene protons of acyclic compounds. Chemical shift data used in deriving the constants were taken mainly from primary sources of HNMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra. (JN)

Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates

1984-01-01

307

Adsorption of Methylene Blue by Rice Hull Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice hull ash (RHA) is an effective and low-cost adsorbent for water purification. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of ashing temperature and atmosphere on the physic-chemical characteristics of RHA and its adsorption for methylene blue (MB). XRD, SEM, and BET analyses indicate that all RHA samples are porous materials that consist of carbon and amorphous silica. RHA

Xue-Gang Chen; Shuang-Shuang Lv; Su-Ting Liu; Ping-Ping Zhang; Ao-Bo Zhang; Jie Sun; Ying Ye

2012-01-01

308

Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours

Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

1997-01-01

309

Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.  

PubMed

We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. Inthe first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. COis one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale. PMID:22939664

Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

2012-08-01

310

Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

1980-07-01

311

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-14

312

Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

1972-01-01

313

Carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of mice to 50, 250, or 1000 ppm of vinyl chloride (VC) in the air for 6 h\\/d, 5 d\\/wk, caused a high incidence of bronchioloalveolar adenoma, mammary gland tumors, and hemangiosarcoma. Mammary gland tumors occurred in the females and included ductular odenocarcinoma and squamous and anaplastic cell carcinomas with metastasis to the lung. Hemangiosarcoma occurred in the liver

C. C. Lee; J. C. Bhandari; J. M. Winston; W. B. House; R. L. Dixon; J. S. Woods

1978-01-01

314

49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials. 176.605...2.3 (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 176.605...2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials. A...

2013-10-01

315

Enhancement of diffraction efficiency and storage life of poly(vinyl chloride)-based optical recording medium with incorporation of an electron donor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffraction efficiency, sensitivity, and storage life of methylene blue-sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) film was improved by the addition of an electron donor in the matrix. The addition of pyridine enhanced the diffraction efficiency by two times, and storage life of the gratings was increased to 2-3 days.

John, Beena Mary; Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Joseph, Rani; Sudha Kartha, C.

2007-01-01

316

Monitoring of photo-resist poisoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resist poisoning is one of the key issues linked to low-k dielectric and copper integration. This phenomenon tends to be amplified in dual damascene architecture, where both processes and materials are incriminated, especially when porous low-k dielectrics are integrated. In this paper we present and implement the dose to clear compensation method, easily undertaken with standard lithography and metrology tools, to evaluate quantitatively 248 and 193nm photo-resist poisoning on both MSQ and porous MSQ substrates. We show the amplification of resist poisoning due to the reservoir effect in porous MSQ, and address the role of the porosity in the phenomenon. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in evaluating hard masks compatibility, wet and dry stripping processes, and its ability in screening photo-resist in term of poisoning sensitivity.

Simon, Julia; Weisbuch, Francois; Quere, Yves; Louveau, Olivier; Bourlot, Christine

2003-06-01

317

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

318

Serious complications associated with Dettol poisoning.  

PubMed

Dettol is involved in 10% of self-poisoning-related hospital admissions in Hong Kong. Although serious poisonings and even deaths after ingesting this common household disinfectant have been reported, the frequency with which these complications may occur is not known. In a retrospective study of 67 cases of Dettol poisoning, we found that serious complications were relatively common (8%) and these included aspiration of Dettol with gastric contents resulting in pneumonia, cardiopulmonary arrest, bronchospasm, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and severe laryngeal oedema with upper airways obstruction. It is particularly important that the airways are adequately protected before the patient is lavaged following Dettol poisoning, and the immediate recognition of any upper airway obstruction requiring intubation will then be life-saving. PMID:8265774

Chan, T Y; Lau, M S; Critchley, J A

1993-11-01

319

Prophylactic and Treatment Drugs for Organophosphorus Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program is directed at the design and synthesis of candidate treatment or prophylactic drugs as potential defense against organophosphorus poisoning. During the past year, 17 compounds were submitted: 7 organophosphates, 4 organophosphates, one carbam...

C. L. Stevens P. Blumbergs P. L. Knutson C. L. Parks

1987-01-01

320

Congenital lead poisoning: an unusual presentation.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning presents a common acquired as well as congenital environmental threat to children's health today. An unusual case of severe lead poisoning in breast fed male infant is presented here. The objective of the study is to describe a patient who developed clinical lead intoxication with an uncommon source of poisoning. A 6months old male baby presented with gradual loss of weight, not feeding well and persistent vomiting. Laboratory investigation revealed that he was having anemia (Hb level 5.4gm/dl), abnormal liver enzymes (including elevated transaminase activity) and high blood lead value (83?g/dl). RBC morphology showed basophilic stippling with cabot ring, suggestive of a case of lead poisoning. A course of chelation treatment using calcium versenate (EDTACaNa2) was prescribed following which a radical solution for mobilization of lead from his systems was observed. PMID:24757314

Mazumdar, Ipsita; Goswami, K

2014-04-01

321

Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning.

Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

1982-01-01

322

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

323

Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

324

Lead Poisoning in Remodeling of Old Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article based on Dr. Muriel D. Wolf's study of elevated blood lead levels in children and adults present during the remodeling of old homes. Lead poisoning examples, symptoms, and precautions are given. (ST)

Barnes, Bart

1973-01-01

325

Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

1974-01-01

326

Prophylactic and Treatment Drugs for Organophosphorus Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program is directed at the design and synthesis of candidate treatment of prophylactic drugs as potential defenses against organophosphorus poisoning. During the past year, nine compounds were submitted: four organophosphinates, one organophosphonate,...

C. C. Tseng C. L. Parks C. L. Stevens J. R. Donaubauer P. Blumbergs

1988-01-01

327

Poison control center - Emergency number (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

328

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

329

The Poisoning of Thoriated Tungsten Cathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been made of the poisoning of the thermionic omission from thoriated tungsten cathodes by oxidizing gases. It is shown that rapid poisoning takes place when a critical partial pressure is exceeded. For a fully carburized cathode this critical pressure measured, using an omega-tron mass spectrometer, is as follows: O2 10torr, CO2 20 10 torr, and

R. O. JENKINS; W. G. TRODDEN

1962-01-01

330

Hair dye poisoning and the developing world  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

Sampathkumar, Krishnaswamy; Yesudas, Sooraj

2009-01-01

331

Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

2004-10-01

332

Nano-level monitoring of ytterbium(III) by a novel ytterbium(III) membrane sensor based on 3-hydroxy- N?-[(2-hydroxyphenyl) methylene]-2-naphthohydrazide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a highly sensitive ytterbium(III)-selective solvent polymeric membrane sensor based on 3-hydroxy-N?-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]-2-naphthohydrazide (HPMN), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), the plasticizer dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) anionic site is described. This sensor responds to Yb(III) activity in a linear range from 1.010?7 to 1.010?2M, with a slope of 19.20.2mV per decade and a detection limit of 4.010?8M at

Mohammad Reza Ganjali; Parviz Norouzi; Atefeh Tamaddon; Mehdi Adib

2006-01-01

333

Methylene Blue Reduced Abnormal Tau Accumulation in P301L Tau Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

In neurodegenerative disorders, abnormally hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau accumulates intracellularly, a mechanism which is thought to induce neuronal cell death. Methylene blue, a type of phenothiazine, has been reported to inhibit tau aggregation in vitro. However, the effect of methylene blue in vivo has remained unknown. Therefore, we examined whether methylene blue suppresses abnormal tau accumulation using P301L tau transgenic mice. At 8 to 11 months of age, these mice were orally administered methylene blue for 5 months. Subsequent results of Western blotting analysis revealed that this agent reduced detergent-insoluble phospho-tau. Methylene blue may have potential as a drug candidate for the treatment of tauopathy.

Hosokawa, Masato; Arai, Tetsuaki; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Nonaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Makiko; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Masato

2012-01-01

334

Chronic neurological sequelae to organophosphate pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This work was undertaken to determine whether there are any chronic neurological sequelae to acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. METHODS. California surveillance data were used in a study of neurological function among 128 men poisoned by organophosphate pesticides in California from 1982 to 1990 and 90 referents. Tests included a neurological physical examination, 5 nerve conduction tests, 2 vibrotactile sensitivity tests, 10 neurobehavioral tests, and 1 postural sway test. RESULTS. After correcting for confounding, the poisoned group performed significantly worse than the referent group on two neurobehavioral tests (sustained visual attention and mood scales). When the data were restricted to men with documented cholinesterase inhibition (n = 83) or to men who had been hospitalized (n = 36), the poisoned subjects also showed significantly worse vibrotactile sensitivity of finger and toe. Significant trends of increased impairment were found with increased days of disability on a wide spectrum of tests of both central and peripheral nerve function. CONCLUSIONS. While these findings are limited by low response rates and by small sample sizes for specific pesticides, this study was based on a large surveillance database and is the largest study to date of the chronic effects of organophosphate pesticide poisoning. The evidence of some long-term effects of poisoning is consistent with two prior studies.

Steenland, K; Jenkins, B; Ames, R G; O'Malley, M; Chrislip, D; Russo, J

1994-01-01

335

Reliability of routine hospital data on poisoning as measures of deliberate self poisoning in adolescents.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the extent to which routinely collected data on poisoning in adolescents reflected deliberate self poisoning and, in doing, so to assess the accuracy of the diagnostic information on poisoning in the routine hospital abstracts which form the joint data base of Hospital Activity Analysis and the Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS). DESIGN--A comparison was made (a) of all eligible ORLS records during the study period with an independent source of records; and (b) of a random sample of records from an independent source with ORLS. SETTING--Records of patients admitted to the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford were used. SUBJECTS--These were (a) patients aged 10-20 years between 1980 and 1985 with a diagnosis of poisoning by drugs and medicaments in ORLS; (b) a random sample of 500 patients selected from the self harm monitoring files at the hospital (12 patients were not eligible for inclusion in ORLS and were therefore excluded from the rest of the study). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The recorded diagnosis was compared on the records selected from the two files. Of the 1123 events of poisoning identified in ORLS, 1081 (96.3%) were correctly coded as poisoning and 1065 (95%) of these were deliberate self poisoning. Of the 488 cases from the monitoring files, 467 (95.7%) of all cases had a correct diagnosis of injury or poisoning on the ORLS file. Of the 453 poisoning cases 436 (96.2%) were correctly recorded in ORLS. CONCLUSIONS--Deliberate self poisoning in adolescents can be identified through routinely collected hospital statistics. A very high percentage of the diagnostic information on poisoning in ORLS files is correctly recorded.

Sellar, C; Goldacre, M J; Hawton, K

1990-01-01

336

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

337

Conversion of sodium chloride to hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reaction route is suggested, based on experimental results, for the conversion of sodium chloride particles to gaseous hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere. The first step is the hydrolysis of nitrogen dioxide (NO) to form nitric acid (HNO) vapor. The second step is either adsorption on the relatively dry sodium chloride and the fourth is desorption of the hydrogen chloride,

R. C. Robbins; R. D. Cadle; D. L. Eckhardt

1959-01-01

338

[Congenital chloride diarrhea].  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death. PMID:16127986

Contreras, Mnica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, Jos Antonio

2005-01-01

339

Hydrogen chloride test set  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

Workman, G. L.

1976-01-01

340

Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 386 patients with the diagnosis of poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Farabi Hospital of Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to gender, age, cause of poisoning, type of substance used, route of exposure, reason for the intake, signs and symptoms, time of

M. Mutlu; A. Cansu; T. Karakas; M. Kalyoncu; E. Erduran

2010-01-01

341

Toxicology of Poison Oak (Rhus toxicodendron) and Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans) Extracts in the Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to determine the toxicity of extracts of poison ivy, poison oak, and a polyethylene glycol vehicle (Carbowax R) when given orally to rats. Throughout a seven-month study four groups of rats (N=15) were administered the follo...

C. W. Waller I. W. Waters

1974-01-01

342

40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section...dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator...vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with...

2010-07-01

343

Removal of hydrogen chloride from high temperature coal gases  

SciTech Connect

The chlorine content of U.S. coals ranges from 0.01 to 0.5%, and some coals in U.K. contain as high as 1.0% chlorine. This element is present in the coal mainly as alkali chlorides, but it also occurs as oxychlorides of calcium and magnesium. The presence of HCl in the coal gas can lead to corrosion of metallic and ceramic components of the gasifier, attack gas turbine components and to poisoning of molten carbonate fuel cell electrodes. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, as the U.S. Department of Energy's lead center for coal gasification and gas stream cleanup technology, has been concerned for some years with the purification of coal-derived gases for a range of applications including gas turbine, fuel-cell, and combined-cycle power generation. This paper presents the results of a laboratory-scale evaluation conducted at SRI International to determine the effectiveness of naturally occurring minerals and commercially available sorbents to remove HCl vapor from simulated coal gas streams at temperatures from 550/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The thermodynamic stability and the volatility of the solid chloride products were the major criteria in selecting the nature of the sorbent. Alkaline earth chlorides, generally, are less volatile than alkali metal chlorides and transition metal. Bench-scale experiments were also conducted with these sorbents at the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL. The rate of chloride uptake was calculated from the analysis of the chloride content of the spent sorbent as a function of the bed depth. The results of bench-scale experiments were in general agreement with the laboratory-scale experiments although the HCl removal rate and the chloride capacities were somewhat lower than found in the laboratory-scale experiments.

Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Tong, G.T. (SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA (US)); Kothari, V.P. (U.S. Dept. of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 3600 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV (US))

1988-06-01

344

METHYLENE BLUE SORPTION CAPACITY OF SOME COMMON WASTE PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey tree and peepul leaves showed tremendous potential in sorbing methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution, with qmax values of 417 and 402mgg, respectively. But other tested biomass had considerably lower qmax (mgg): mango leaves (301), guava leaves (295), black gram husk (278), coir fibers (273), neem leaves (265), Indian elm leaves (264), Indian rosewood leaves (253), bermuda grass clippings

Manoj Kumar; Dhananjay Kumar; Lalit K. Pandey; J. P. Gaur

2010-01-01

345

Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution onto Perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutionsonto unexpanded and expanded perlite samples activatedby H2SO4 and NaCl solutions has beeninvestigated, to assess the possibility of usingperlite for removing cationic dyes from aqueoussolutions. The effects of pH and temperature of dyesolution on the adsorption capacities have beenevaluated. The experimental data were correlatedreasonably well by the Langmuir adsorption isothermand the isotherm parameters (Qm

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan; Yavuz Onganer

2000-01-01

346

New diphosphonate compounds for skeletal imaging: comparison with methylene diphosphonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-hour biodistribution of Tc-99m complexes of six diphosphonates was compared in rabbits with tibial lesions to determine which was best for detection of focal bone lesions. Sr-85 was used as a standard. N,N-dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate (DMAD) was the only agent with a higher lesion\\/normal bone ratio than methylene diphosphonate (MDP), attributable to lower concentration in normal bone. Hydroxymethane diphosphonate (HDP) and

G. Subramanian; J. G. McAfee; F. D. Thomas; T. A. Feld; C. Zapf-Longo; E. Palladino

1983-01-01

347

Simplified Method for Preparing Methylene-Blue-Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene-blue-sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) is a suitable material for recording full-color holograms in a single layer. However, a drying process in an ammonia atmosphere is necessary to prepare the MBDCG plate. This process is time-consuming and unstable. A simplified method for preparing the MBDCG plate is presented in which the MBDCG can be dried without ammonia. Elimination of the drying

Kazumasa Kurokawa; Satoshi Koike; Sinji Namba; Toru Mizuno; Toshihiro Kubota

1998-01-01

348

Unsymmetrical methylene derivatives of indoles as antiproliferative agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indole-3-carbinol is a natural product which has been shown to reduce the incidence of spontaneous and carcinogen-induced mammary tumours in animals. Eighteen unsymmetrical methylene derivatives of indoles were prepared by reaction of Mannich bases of 7-hydroxycoumarins with substituted indoles in acetic or propionic anhydride. The synthesised molecules were tested in vitro against the MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines

Mauro Mazzei; Mariangela Miele; Erika Nieddu; Federica Barbieri; Cristina Bruzzo; Angela Alama

2001-01-01

349

Methylene blue and serotonin toxicity: inhibition of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) confirms a theoretical prediction  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) are known to cause serotonin toxicity (ST) when administered with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Methylene blue (methylthionium chloride, MB), a redox dye in clinical use, has been reported to precipitate ST in patients using SSRI. MB was assessed for MAO inhibition and so for its potential to precipitate ST. Experimental approach: Inhibition of purified human MAO was quantified using kinetic assays and visible spectral changes to study the interactions of MB with MAO A. Key results: MB was a potent (tight binding) inhibitor for MAO A. It also inhibited MAO B but at much higher concentration. Interactions of MB with the active site of MAO A were confirmed by its action both as an oxidising substrate and as a one-electron reductant. Conclusions and implications: MB is a potent reversible inhibitor of MAO A with implications for gut uptake of amines when administered orally. At concentrations reported in the literature after intravenous administration, MAO B would be partially inhibited but MAO A would be completely inhibited. This inhibition of MAO A would be expected to lead to perturbations of 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism and hence account for ST occurring when administered to patients on SSRI treatment.

Ramsay, R R; Dunford, C; Gillman, P K

2007-01-01

350

Branchial and renal pathology in the fish exposed chronically to methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride  

SciTech Connect

Pathological manifestations causally related to pesticide poisoning have been described in both surficial and internal tissues of the fishes. Among the various organomercurials are phenyl mercuric acetate, methyl mercuric dicyanidiamide, methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride, methoxy ethyl mercuric silicate etc. Of these, the methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride (MEMC) is used in agriculture as an antifungal seed dressing, and its toxicity is primarily manifest in the Hg/sup 2 +/ ion. This report describes pathogenesis of branchial and renal lesions in the common freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius exposed chronically to sublethal levels of MEMC. Prior to this, alterations in the peripheral blood and metabolite levels in response to experimental MEMC poisoning have been demonstrated in this species.

Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.; Tewari, H.

1988-08-01

351

Blood and tissue concentration of cesium after exposure to cesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Complementary alternative medicine therapies based on the use of cesium chloride preparations for the treatment of cancer\\u000a and radiation poisoning, have generated therapeutic interest; but oral or intravenous administration of cesium chloride (CsCl)\\u000a to cancer patients as an alternative mode of cancer therapy have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration\\u000a (FDA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective: Cesium (Cs) levels

Jos A. Centeno; Joseph P. Pestaner; Bennet I. Omalu; Norca L. Torres; Frances Field; Glenn Wagner; Florabel G. Mullick

2003-01-01

352

[Problems introducing a pediatric poisoning treatment set].  

PubMed

Between 1995 and 1998 the Berlin poison center conducted a case-control study supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Berlin Medical Association, a health insurance company, and the Berlin Pediatric Society to test the efficacy of a pediatric poisoning treatment set. The aim of the study was to induce parents of small children to call the poison center immediately in cases of unintentional poisonings at home and to administer activated charcoal if advised to do so by the poison center specialist. This was achieved by handling over a so-called "emergency kit" to 24,000 parents during the regular pediatric office check-up when the children were 10-12 months of age. When an accident occurred, parents with an emergency kit at hand were able to give activated charcoal within 14 min compared to 51 min without this aid. Problems arose when attempts were undertaken to introduce the emergency kit into the routine counseling sessions throughout the country: restrictions imposed by the pharmaceutical law, lack of interest shown by pharmaceutical companies, and diverging responsibilities at county and federal political levels and between different health insurance companies have hitherto prevented the realization of this evidence-based method. PMID:15205817

Brockstedt, M

2004-01-01

353

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

354

[Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].  

PubMed

Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied. PMID:23243949

Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jaros?aw; Grska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzio?, Marek

2012-01-01

355

Poisonous Snakes of Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identific...

1969-01-01

356

Poisonous Snakes of Europe, Africa and Near East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Precautions against snakebites; First-aid measures for snakebite; Distribution of poisonous snakes in Europe, Africa, and the Near East; Identification and h...

1969-01-01

357

Massachusetts Strategic Plan to End Lead Poisoning by 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past year, the Massachusetts Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (MACLPPP) has been building a foundation for the creation of a strategic elimination plan to end lead poisoning by 2010. MACLPPP hired a consultant, gathered data, developed ...

2004-01-01

358

Snake venom poisoning in Greece. Experiences with 147 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSnake venom poisoning is a medical emergency requiring immediate attention. Bites from poisonous European snakes can lead to local tissue damage and systemic symptoms. Vipera ammodytes accounts for the most envenomation in Greece.

Christos Y. Frangides; Vasilios Koulouras; Sophia N. Kouni; Gerasimos V. Tzortzatos; Athanasios Nikolaou; John Pneumaticos; Christos Pierrakeas; Constantinos Niarchos; Nicholas G. Kounis; Constantinos M. Koutsojannis

2006-01-01

359

Poisonous Plants, Medical Toxicology of Plants of the Far East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents, in popular form basic information on poisonous plants and mushrooms distributed throughout the Far East. In addition to a botanical description of the examined plants, basic medical information is cited: the initial signs of poisoning, ...

N. K. Fruyentov T. N. Kadayev

1975-01-01

360

Lead poisoning: more than a medical problem.  

PubMed Central

Medical records of 236 Newark, New Jersey children hospitalized and chelated for lead poisoning in 1977 through 1980 were reviewed to determine whether or not any discernible progress had been made in eradicating the disease since 1972. Results show that the number of treated asymptomatic children, ages 1-6, began to rise after 1976 and was higher in 1980 than in 1972 when the Newark Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control Program first began. Although mean and peak blood lead levels have decreased over the nine-year period since 1972, signaling a lessening of disease severity, the increase in numbers and rates indicates that childhood lead poisoning still exists as an environmental and social problem.

Schneider, D J; Lavenhar, M A

1986-01-01

361

Electrophysiological studies in acute organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological studies in suicidal patients with organophosphate poisoning are reported. Patients often developed muscular weakness of variable severity owing to diplorisation block at nicotinic receptors. During such paralysis nerve conduction velocity and distal latencies were normal even in severely paralysed patients. The amplitude of the compound action potential was smaller than in controls and often showed a repetitive response. The amplitude tended to be lower in those more severely affected. On repetitive stimulation there was usually no decrement with three stimuli per second and only occasional decrement at 10 per second. At 30 Hz several cases showed a decrement even in the absence of paralysis. This response to repetitive stimuli is thus quite distinct from that seen in either myasthenia or Eaton Lambert syndrome. On three occasions after poisoning with dichlorovos there was first anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning and later delayed neurotoxicity as seen with triorthocresylphosphate. These cases showed all the features of a severe pure motor axonal degeneration neuropathy.

Wadia, R S; Chitra, S; Amin, R B; Kiwalkar, R S; Sardesai, H V

1987-01-01

362

Abdominal imaging in zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Radiography has been proved to be a good diagnostic tool in visualization of many radiopaque xenobiotics in clinical toxicology. Zinc is a potentially radiopaque material which is a constituent of the zinc phosphide (ZN2P3) rodenticide. We report two cases of zinc phosphide poisoning with positive abdominal X-rays in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal imaging. Positive abdominal imaging was an indication for aggressive management; however, aggressive treatment was not lifesaving in one of them. We aim to emphasize the diagnostic value of abdominal X-rays in zinc phosphide-poisoned patients. We also would like to suggest that zinc phosphide (ZP)-poisoned patients with positive X-rays have more chance to become unstable even if they are symptom free on presentation and should be more aggressively managed. PMID:24477450

Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, Nasim; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2014-06-01

363

A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L. J.

1994-01-01

364

Arrow poisons in China. Part I.  

PubMed

Arrow poisons have been used for at least 2500 years in various parts of China by the Han and other peoples. The preparation and use of these poisons is discussed on the basis of accounts in Chinese and Western sources. Mostly, the principal ingredient has been an extract derived from the tubers of Aconitum species, especially A. carmichaelii Debx. (wu t'ou, fu tzu, ts'ao wu). Certain peoples of the south-west and south, besides using Aconitum, have also obtained an essential ingredient from the juice (latex) of Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. (tu mu, hu, chien hseh feng hou, nu chien tzu, ka tuk). The chemistry and pharmacology of the active principles found in certain of the plants incorporated into the poisons are dealt with briefly (but this does not include Aconitum, which will be treated in some detail in Part II). PMID:397373

Bisset, N G

1979-12-01

365

The evaluation and management of acute poisoning emergencies.  

PubMed

Emergency physicians will regularly be called upon to care for poisoned patients. The purpose of this article is to review the general approach to the poisoned patient. Specific signs and symptoms will be identified that may clue the clinician into a specific toxin class as a diagnosis. Necessary testing in poisonings will be highlighted. This article will also introduce the basics of gastrointestinal decontamination and antidotes against select poisons. PMID:18043563

Lawrence, D T; Bechtel, L; Walsh, J P; Holstege, C D

2007-10-01

366

Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test (?2). Results: A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning (n = 142; 35.5%). The most common poisoning agents were medicines (n = 124; 31.0%). The service provided was graded as Excellent for the majority of queries (n = 360; 86%; P < 0.001), followed by Very Good (n = 50; 12%) and Good (n = 9; 2%). Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.

Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.

2013-01-01

367

[The viper--Finland's only poisonous snake].  

PubMed

The viper (Vipera berus) is the most common poisonous snake in Europe, and the only one in Finland. In viper bites, highly varying amounts of venom end up into the victim, whereby prediction of the progression of symptoms of poisoning is very difficult. A severe clinical picture must always be anticipated. The size of the victim has also an effect on the outcome. Adequate monitoring and when necessary, massive fluid therapy are essential in the treatment. Due to possible kidney damage, anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended. Severe or rapidly progressing symptoms require the use of an antidote. PMID:21834338

Vuori, Arno

2011-01-01

368

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine.

Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

2014-01-01

369

Carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to hookah smoking.  

PubMed

Hookah smoking, at one time confined to North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean region, the Arabian peninsula, and Southeast Asia, has begun to spread throughout the world. As some practices of eastern and Arab cultures reach the United States, the number of people using hookah on an experimental or regular basis has increased. Carbon monoxide poisoning can be a common adverse effect, possibly undetected by physicians, in hookah smokers. The authors report a case of carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to smoking tobacco through a hookah. PMID:23055468

Ashurst, John V; Urquhart, Megan; Cook, Matthew D

2012-10-01

370

["Junk-food"-intervention in poisoning delusion].  

PubMed

Case report about a 29-year old US-American patient who suddenly flew to Germany due to a schizoaffektive disorder. During a stay in our psychiatric hospital she refused food, liquid and medication because of fear of being poisoned. After four days her general condition had worsened rapidly so that parenteral nutrition was discussed. Surprisingly her poisoning delusion could be overcome by offering American "Junk-Food". From this moment on compliance in taking of medication improved too, so that renormalisation of her condition was achieved. PMID:17160755

Schwerthffer, Dirk; Buml, Josef

2007-11-01

371

Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these

C J Botha

372

Lead poisoning: The invisible disease. Waterfowl Management handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed. Lead poisoning has affected every

Friend

1989-01-01

373

Warnings unheeded: A history of child lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child lead poisoning has been a major public health issue only for the last 20-25 years. However, awareness that lead-based paint is a source of lead poisoning in children dates back to the first few years of the twentieth century. Articles in medical journals and textbooks appeared in the United States and elsewhere, recounting cases of children poisoned by the

R Rabin

1989-01-01

374

Statistics and Epidemiology of Lead Poisoning (FY 72-L1).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the first in a quarterly series which will contain statistics and epidemiologic notes on lead poisoning at both the national and local levels. This report contains (a) statistics on childhood lead poisoning; (b) a status report on the Community Lead Poisoning Data System, which was designed to assist local lead control programs and

Morrison, John H., Jr.; And Others

375

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Developing Prevention Programs and Mobilizing Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook describes in detail the program requirements for effective childhood lead poisoning prevention programs at the local level based on the

Rochow, K. W. James

376

Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Disease for the History Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the mounting evidence for the neurological damage of childhood lead poisoning. Argues that ignoring lead poisoning is more expensive than preventing it. Reviews a recent plan to eradicate lead poisoning and the sociological factors that may impede its implementation. (CJS)

Needleman, Herbert L.

1991-01-01

377

Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most common pediatric health problems is childhood lead poisoning. This report examines the preventable problem of lead poisoning. The report describes childhood lead poisoning as both a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible, and as a housing problem. More than half the housing units in Rhode Island

Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.

1997-01-01

378

Two instances of chinese herbal medicine poisoning in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Datura metel L. (Yangjinghua, ???) is a toxic herb that contains anticholinergic compounds. Inappropriate consumption of this herb could result in anticholinergic poisoning. Clinical features of such poisoning have not been previously described. We report two such cases. Both patients had taken brews of Datura metel L; and developed poisoning soon afterwards. Prominent clinical features included confusion, dilated pupils, absence

Phua D H; Seow E

2008-01-01

379

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

380

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

381

Spectral manifestations of hybrid association of CdS colloidal quantum dots with methylene blue molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the spectral properties of mixtures formed by CdS colloidal quantum dots with an average diameter of 2.5 nm and methylene blue molecules and that are dispersed into gelatin. We have revealed that, in the presence of CdS quantum dots, the luminescence intensity of methylene blue increases. We suggest a model of this effect, which is based on electronic excitation energy transfer from luminescence centers of CdS quantum dots to methylene blue molecules.

Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Smirnov, M. S.; Shapiro, B. I.; Shatskikh, T. S.; Latyshev, A. N.; Mien, Pham Thi Hai; Khokhlov, V. Yu.

2013-09-01

382

Fast and Considerable Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye onto Graphene Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quite efficient adsorption of methylene blue dye from an aqueous solution by graphene oxide was studied. The favorable\\u000a electrostatic attraction is the main interaction between methylene blue and graphene oxide. As graphene oxide has the special\\u000a nanostructural properties and negatively charged surface, the positively charged methylene blue molecules can be easily adsorbed\\u000a on it. In the aqueous solution of

Chunjiao Zhou; Weichang Zhou; Aihua Lei; Qinglin Zhang; Qiang Wan; Bingsuo Zou

2011-01-01

383

Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs), but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related

Hsin-Ling Lee; Hung-Jung Lin; Steve Ting-Yuan Yeh; Chih-Hsien Chi; How-Ran Guo

2008-01-01

384

Methylene blue dye as an alternative to isosulfan blue dye for sentinel lymph node localization.  

PubMed

Isosulfan blue dye has been used with increasing frequency in localizing sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Few alternative types of dye have been investigated. In a prospective study of 30 patients, methylene blue dye was used instead of isosulfan blue dye to localize the sentinel lymph node. The methylene blue dye localization technique was successful in 90% of patients. These results are similar to those for isosulfan blue dye. This study describes methylene blue dye localization as a successful alternative to isosulfan dye in identifying the sentinel node in breast cancer patients. The methylene blue dye technique offers a substantial cost reduction. PMID:11469932

Simmons, R M; Smith, S M; Osborne, M P

2001-01-01

385

Fat necrosis in the breast from methylene blue dye injection  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the standard of clinical care in staging axillary lymph nodes for breast carcinoma. While deemed safe and effective, methylene blue dye has been associated with infection, fibrosis, and skin and fat necrosis. The variable appearance of surgical dye-related fibrosis and fat necrosis on imaging studies poses a challenge to both radiologists and clinicians. We present a patient in whom a new enhancing lesion was visualized on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging for known breast carcinoma in the setting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Parish, David; Hamilton, Raynal; Wang, Jean C.

2013-01-01

386

[Accidental staining of corneal nerves by methylene blue].  

PubMed

A 10-year-old child presented after accidental exposure of the left eye to a blue hair dye containing methylene blue. Mild ocular surface changes and a selective blue staining of the usually invisible corneal nerve fibre bundles were present. Corneal sensitivity was reduced. Despite copious lubrication a transient neurotrophic keratitis developed which did not resolve until corneal sensitivity became normal 2 weeks later. Association of mild chemical burns with neurotrophic keratitis is unusual but is of high clinical relevance as keratitis is a vision-threatening complication. PMID:23288315

Peter, S; Reichart, E; Poyntner, L; Mennel, S

2013-09-01

387

Costs of Poisoning in the United States and Savings From Poison Control Centers: A Benefit-Cost Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

See related editorial, p 246.Data on incidence, medical spending, and payment sources for poisoning were taken from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, 1991 US Vital Statistics, the 1992 National Hospital Discharge Survey, and 1992 poison control center surveillance data. Benefits, measured as percentage reductions in medical spending attributable to use of poison control centers, were calculated from analyses of

Ted R Miller; Diane C Lestina

1997-01-01

388

Mercury poisoning associated with a Mexican beauty cream  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe demographic characteristics, patterns of use, and symptoms associated with mercury poisoning among persons who used aMexican beauty cream containing mercurous chloride and to estimate the prevalence of cream use in Texas near the Mexico border. Design Case series and cross-sectional survey. Setting Border communities ofArizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. Participants Persons who used the cream and contacted a health department in response to announcements about the cream and households that participated in the Survey of Health andEnvironmental Conditions in Texas Border Counties and Colonias, 1997. Mainoutcome measures Urine mercury concentrations, self-reported symptoms, and prevalence of cream use among households. Results Of 330 cream users who contacted their health department, 96% were women, and 95% were Hispanic.The mean urine mercury concentration was 146.7 ?g/L (reference range : 0-20?g/L). In 5% of 2,194 randomly selected Texas households near the Mexico border, at least 1 person had used Crema de Belleza-Manning(Laboratorios Vida Natural, S.A., Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico) in the previous year. Conclusions Most cream users had increased urine mercury concentrations. Cream use was common in Texas near the Mexico border.Physicians should consider toxicity in patients with neurologic symptoms of unclear cause and use public health departments when investigating unusual illnesses.

Weldon, Minda M; Smolinski, Mark S; Maroufi, Azarnoush; Hasty, Brian W; Gilliss, Debra L; Boulanger, L Lucy; Balluz, Lina S; Dutton, Ronald J

2000-01-01

389

Lithium thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

1982-10-19

390

Ferrimagnetic copper chloride hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic properties of copper chloride hydroxide were studied by using a superconducting quantum interference device. The coercivity of this material was more than 10 000 Oe at 2 K, which is the highest observed in the copper compounds. The magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature revealed ferrimagnetism in the sample.

S G Yang; T Li; B L Xu; Y W Du

2003-01-01

391

(Perfluoroalkylimino)selenyl Chlorides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Very few examples of compounds containing discrete nitrogen-selenium double bonds exist. The first of these was reported in 1967 and involved the preparation of ((arylsulfonyl)imino)-selenyl chlorides. Other examples such as TeF5N--SeCl2 and SF5N--SeCl2 d...

J. S. Thrasher C. S. Bauknight D. D. DesMarteau

1985-01-01

392

PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

393

Photooxidation of Allyl Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a h...

E. O. Edney P. B. Shepson T. E. Kleindienst E. W. Corse

1986-01-01

394

Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

2010-10-01

395

Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis.

Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

2014-01-01

396

Automatic dishwasher detergent poisoning: opportunities for prevention.  

PubMed

We investigated the antecedents of ingestion of dishwashing machine detergent to enable the development of effective countermeasures. Parents who had sought advice from the Victorian Poisons Information Centre about dishwasher detergent poisoning exposures of their children were interviewed by telephone. Almost all the children (94 per cent) were aged between 6 and 29 months. Of the 61 children included in the survey, 53 (87 per cent) gained access to the detergent from the dishwasher. Of these, 50 (94 per cent) took the detergent from the dispenser on the internal surface of the door of the machine, and 38 (76 per cent) of these ingested detergent remaining in the dispenser after operation of the machine. Parents were present in the room on 78 per cent of occasions at the time of ingestion. Most parents (72 per cent) were aware of the toxicity of the detergents. Relocation of the dispenser or redesigning it to prevent access both before and after operation would have prevented most of the exposures to detergent. Altering the detergent to prevent caking or sludging might prevent many of the exposures to detergent remaining in the dispenser after operation of the machine. The level of prior knowledge about toxicity suggests that education or additional warnings are unlikely to contribute substantially to prevention of poisoning. Telephone call-back to identified cases is a useful method of investigating complex poisoning problems and developing effective countermeasures. PMID:8768418

Cornish, L S; Parsons, B J; Dobbin, M D

1996-06-01

397

Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

Franson, J. C.

1994-01-01

398

Castor Seed Poisoning in Humans: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work reviews 314 cases of poisoning, including 15 deaths which occurred in humans as a result of castor seed ingestion between 1738 and 1988. Castor seed toxicity is due to ricin, a powerful phytotoxin present in the plant and concentrated in the see...

G. J. Klain J. J. Jaeger

1990-01-01

399

Where to now with carbon monoxide poisoning?  

PubMed

The controversy regarding the role of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been re-ignited following the publication of a further randomized controlled trial by Weaver et al., the results of which appear to conflict with our findings. Comparative analysis suggests that the apparent outcome differences may be secondary to the design, analysis and interpretation of the results of the two studies. Following careful analysis of these two papers and further results from a study by Raphael et al on 385 CO-poisoned patients, we can still find no convincing evidence favouring HBO therapy. Pending further research to determine optimal oxygen therapy for CO-poisoning, current therapy should involve stratifying patients for risk of a poor outcome. This stratification may be aided by the evolving availability of biochemical markers of brain injury and the finding that patients with transient loss of consciousness and poor performance on neuropsychological tests of the supervisory attention system are at higher risk of neuropsychological sequelae. We propose that those patients most at risk be admitted and receive more prolonged normobaric oxygen therapy whilst those with more minor CO-poisoning should be provided with normobaric oxygen of no less than 6 h duration and certainly until sign and symptom free. PMID:15239731

Scheinkestel, Carlos D; Jones, Kerry; Myles, Paul S; Cooper, D Jamie; Millar, Ian L; Tuxen, David V

2004-04-01

400

Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

401

Experimental lead poisoning of Canada geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were experimentally exposed to known amounts of lead. The course of the lead and of the disease in geese was followed, utilizing established laboratory procedures. Gross signs of lead poisoning first appeared 5-7 days following ingestion. The length of time until signs of disease or death occurred was related to the amount of lead ingested. Twenty-five

R. S. Cook

1966-01-01

402

Lead poisoning: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead is found widely around the world's surface and is a material used in many products. Chronic exposure to lead is causing\\u000a significant health problems around the world. Many ocular manifestations of lead poisoning have been reported so far. In this\\u000a report, we present a case with ocular symptoms and signs of chronic exposure to lead.

Mehmet Citirik; Golge Acaroglu; Ayse H. Mutluay; Orhan Zilelioglu

2004-01-01

403

Optimization of Burnable Poison Application Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is designed to derive the optimum strategy of burnable poison application through a comparative evaluation of two types of burnable absorbers that have been used for Korean PWR plants; and integral type of variable enrichment Gd(sub 2)O(sub 3)/...

W. P. Choi S. H. Lee J. K. Kim W. S. Ko S. M. Bae

1993-01-01

404

Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general

Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

405

Management of poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute poisonings due to organophosphorus (OP) compounds often present as medical emergencies, which require management in intensive care. There is urgent need for resuscitation, support or correction of function of vital organs (correction of arrhythmias, provision of ventilatory care), decontamination and antidotes. The muscarinic effects of excess acetylcholine consequent to the inactivation of the acetylcholinesterase are countered by atropine and\\/or

P. T. Haywood; L. Karalliedde

2000-01-01

406

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

407

Lead poisoning in a bird of prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning has long been recognized as a serious disease of waterfowl. Birds feeding in areas of heavy waterfowl shooting ingest spent lead shot which is mistaken for seeds or grit. The shot is then ground up in the gizzard which makes the lead more absorbable from the intestinal tract. Although most of the lead is excreted in the feces,

W. W. Benson; Barry Pharaoh; Pamela Miller

1974-01-01

408

Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

2004-01-01

409

Organophosphorous poisoning at a chemical packaging company  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Six men packaging demeton-S-methyl concentrate developed organophosphorous poisoning. An account of the circumstances of the occurrence is given, together with the results of an investigation into the incidents. The clinical cases are described in outline and individual response to absorption of the pesticide considered. Some relevant issues on the use of protective clothing when working with organophosphorous compounds are discussed.

Jones, R D

1982-01-01

410

Treatment of Burnable Poison Pins in LWRWIMS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an investigation into the modelling approximations normally made when the LWR lattice code LWRWIMS is used for design calculations on assemblies containing burnable poison pins. An estimate is made of the effect of using pin-cell sme...

M. J. Halsall

1982-01-01

411

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

412

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient.

2011-01-01

413

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011.  

PubMed

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Lloyd, Jennifer K; Duchin, Jeffrey S; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-08-01

414

Amisulpride poisoning: a report on two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first two observations of human poisoning involving the recently developed neuroleptic amisulpride are described. In both cases drug determination was per formed using reversed-phase HPLC coupled with diode- array detection. Case 1 was a nonfatal overdosage in which the ingestion of 3.0 g amisulpride induced an attack of seizures, then light coma with agitation, hyperthermia, mydriasis, minimal extrapyramidal features,

A. Tracqui; C. Mutter-Schmidt; P. Kintz; C. Berton; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

415

Adverse haematological outcome and environmental lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South-eastern Area (SA) of the Municipality of La Spezia (Liguria Region, Italy) is characterised by a heavy environmental lead (Pb) contamination, chiefly due to the emissions of a Pb-processing plant in operation since 1930. In order to assess the risk of Pb poisoning of residents of SA, and to estimate the degree of association between the blood Pb level

Vincenzo Fontana; Roberta Baldi; Michela Franchini; Paola Gridelli; Roberto Neri; Franco Palmieri; Riccardo Puntoni; Umberto Ricco; Stefano Parodi

2004-01-01

416

Cyanide Poisoning and Cardiac Disorders: 161 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inhalation of hydrogen cyanide from smoke in structural fires is common, but cardiovascular function in these patients is poorly documented. Objective: The objective was to study the cardiac complications of cyanide poisoning in patients who received early administration of a cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany [in the United States, marketed by Meridian Medical Technologies, Bristol, TN]).

Jean-Luc Fortin; Thibault Desmettre; Cyril Manzon; Virginie Judic-Peureux; Caroline Peugeot-Mortier; Jean-Pascal Giocanti; Mohamed Hachelaf; Marie Grangeon; Ulrike Hostalek; Julien Crouzet; Gilles Capellier

2010-01-01

417

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J. H.; Cunningham, N. E.

1988-01-01

418

Utilizing diagnostic investigations in the poisoned patient.  

PubMed

Numerous diagnostic tests may be useful to clinicians caring for poisoned patients. Clinicians should not order a broad range of tests indiscriminately,but rather thoughtfully consider appropriate tests. The results'of the tests should be reviewed in the context of the clinical scenario. PMID:16227055

Eldridge, David L; Dobson, Trey; Brady, William; Holstege, Christopher P

2005-11-01

419

Chloride ATPase Pumps in Epithelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Five widely documented mechanisms for chloride transport across biological membranes are known: anion-coupled antiport, Na+ and H(+)-coupled symport, Cl? channels and an electrochemical coupling process. These transport processes for chloride are either secondarily active or\\u000a are driven by the electrochemical gradient for chloride. Until recently, the evidence in favour of a primary active transport\\u000a mechanism for chloride has been inconclusive

George A. Gerencser

420

Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to the hospital, and it is necessary to seek appropriate treatment to prevent this significant side effect.

Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

421

Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

2002-10-01

422

[A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].  

PubMed

Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls. PMID:17124355

Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina

2006-01-01

423

Aminothienopyridazines and Methylene Blue Affect Tau Fibrillization via Cysteine Oxidation*  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents.

Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Smith, Amos B.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R.

2013-01-01

424

Worker Exposure to Vinyl Chloride in Vinyl Chloride and Polyvinyl Chloride Production and Fabrication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In assessment of worker exposure to vinyl-chloride (75014) (VC) and polyvinyl-chloride (9002862) (PVC) was reported. Toxicological data were presented, including acute and chronic animal and human studies, as well as reported worker exposures. Common meth...

J. H. Jones

1977-01-01

425

Efficacy of oxime plus atropine treatment against Soman poisoning in the atropinesterase-free rabbit. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

The oximes pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), MMB4, and HI-6 were evaluated in combination with atropine as treatments against soman poisoning in atropinesterase-free rabbits. Animals were challenged i.m. with 2 x LD50 soman and treated at the onset of toxic signs with 50 micron mol/kg of oxime and 5 or 13 mg/kg atropine. Survival and time to death were compared at 48 hours post-soman challenge. Survival rates in MMB4 and HI-6 treated animals were higher than in 2-PAM-treated animals. The increase in survival was significant at the 13 mg/kg dose of atropine. MMB4 and HI-6 also significantly delayed time to death after soman compared to 2-PAM. The results suggest that MMB4 and HI-6 have potential as useful oximes for treating soman poisoning.... Soman, Nerve agent, Treatment, Rabbit, HI-6, 2-PAM, Oxime therapy.

Koplovitz, I.; Stewart, J.R.

1992-12-31

426

Evaluation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as an indoor air pollutant and biological assessment of methylene dianiline in the polyurethane factories  

PubMed Central

Today many raw materials used in factories may have a dangerous effect on the physiological system of workers. One of them, which is widely used in the polyurethane factories, is diisocyanates. These compounds are widely used in surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders, and sealants. Exposure to diisocyanates causes irritation to the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract. Methylene dianiline (MDA) is a metabolite of methylene diphenyle diisocyanate (MDI), an excretory material of worker's urine who are exposed to MDI. Around 100 air samples were collected among five factories by the Midget Impinger, which contained DMSO absorbent as a solvent and Tryptamine as a reagent. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an EC\\UV detector using the NIOSH 5522 method of sampling and analysis. Also, fifty urine samples were collected from workers by using William's biological analysis method. The concentration of MDI in all air samples was more than 88 ?g/m3, showing a high concentration of the pollutant in the workplaces in comparison with the NIOSH standard, and all the worker's urine was contaminated by MDA. The correlation and regression tests were used to obtain statistical model for MDI and MDA that is useful for prediction of diisocyanates pollution situation in the polyurethane factories.

Mirmohammadi, Mirtaghi; Ibrahim, M. Hakimi; Ahmad, Anees; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abdul; Mohammadyan, M.; Mirashrafi, S. B.

2009-01-01

427

Methylene blue upregulates Nrf2/ARE genes and prevents tau-related neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Methylene blue (MB, methylthioninium chloride) is a phenothiazine that crosses the blood brain barrier and acts as a redox cycler. Among its beneficial properties are its abilities to act as an antioxidant, to reduce tau protein aggregation and to improve energy metabolism. These actions are of particular interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with tau protein aggregates known as tauopathies. The present study examined the effects of MB in the P301S mouse model of tauopathy. Both 4 mg/kg MB (low dose) and 40 mg/kg MB (high dose) were administered in the diet ad libitum from 1 to 10 months of age. We assessed behavior, tau pathology, oxidative damage, inflammation and numbers of mitochondria. MB improved the behavioral abnormalities and reduced tau pathology, inflammation and oxidative damage in the P301S mice. These beneficial effects were associated with increased expression of genes regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE), which play an important role in antioxidant defenses, preventing protein aggregation, and reducing inflammation. The activation of Nrf2/ARE genes is neuroprotective in other transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and it appears to be an important mediator of the neuroprotective effects of MB in P301S mice. Moreover, we used Nrf2 knock out fibroblasts to show that the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE genes by MB is Nrf2 dependent and not due to secondary effects of the compound. These findings provide further evidence that MB has important neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases with tau pathology. PMID:24556215

Stack, Cliona; Jainuddin, Shari; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia; Starkov, Anatoly A; Jov, Mariona; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Launay, Nathalie; Pujol, Aurora; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Thomas, Bobby; Tampellini, Davide; Beal, M Flint; Dumont, Magali

2014-07-15

428

Adsorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon derived from periwinkle shells: kinetics and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periwinkle shell, an abundant and inexpensive natural resource, was used to prepare activated carbon by physicochemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as the activating agents at 850C for 2 h. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue dye on such carbon were then examined at 25C. Adsorption isotherm of the methylene blue (MB) on the

Olugbenga Solomon Bello; Idowu Abideen Adeogun; John Chijioke Ajaelu; Ezekiel Oluwaseun Fehintola

2008-01-01

429

Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: Kinetics and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo, an abundant and inexpensive natural resource in Malaysia was used to prepare activated carbon by physiochemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as the activating agents at 850C for 2h. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue dye on such carbon were then examined at 30C. Adsorption isotherm of the methylene blue (MB) on the

B. H. Hameed; A. T. M. Din; A. L. Ahmad

2007-01-01

430

Removal of Basic Dyes (Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) from Aqueous Solutions Using Bagasse Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into an inexpensive adsorbent material and utilized for the removal of two basic dyes, rhodamine B and methylene blue. Results include the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and presence of surfactant on the removal of rhodamine B and methylene blue. The adsorption data have

VINOD K. GUPTA; DINESH MOHAN; SAURABH SHARMA; MONICA SHARMA

2000-01-01

431

Decoloration of 1% methylene blue solution in contact with dental filling materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Leakage studies have been performed frequently, since a tight seal provided by various dental fillings has been considered clinically important. The dye penetration experiment using a methylene blue solution as a tracer is one of the most common methods applied in these types of studies. The stability of the colour of methylene blue in contact with six dental filling

M.-K. Wu; E. G. Kontakiotis; P. R. Wesselink

1998-01-01

432

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

433

Chloride channels as drug targets  

PubMed Central

Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery.

Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

2013-01-01

434

New diphosphonate compounds for skeletal imaging: comparison with methylene diphosphonate  

SciTech Connect

Three-hour biodistribution of Tc-99m complexes of six diphosphonates was compared in rabbits with tibial lesions to determine which was best for detection of focal bone lesions. Sr-85 was used as a standard. N,N-dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate (DMAD) was the only agent with a higher lesion/normal bone ratio than methylene diphosphonate (MDP), attributable to lower concentration in normal bone. Hydroxymethane diphosphonate (HDP) and 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate (DPD) demonstrated higher concentration than MDP in normal bone without improving lesion contrast. They also exhibited much higher uptake in the liver and kidney, as well as muscle and red marrow in the case of DPD. None was superior to MDP as an all-purpose skeletal agent, though others may be better for specific applications.

Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Feld, T.A.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.

1983-12-01

435

Adsorption studies of methylene blue dye on tunisian activated lignin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon prepared from natural lignin, providing from a geological deposit, was used as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate various experimental parameters like pH and contact time for the removal of this dye. Effective pH for MB removal was 11. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye was gradual process. Quasi equilibrium reached in 4 h. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data. Pseudo-second-order rate equation was able to provide realistic description of adsorption kinetics. The experimental isotherms data were also modelled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equation of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g. Activated lignin was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of MB from aqueous solutions.

Kriaa, A.; Hamdi, N.; Srasra, E.

2011-02-01

436

Methylene blue dye injection for identification of occult gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

The exact site of small bowel bleeding is difficult to detect intraoperatively. We present a simple method of on-table identification of the site of the bleed. A 55-year-old lady presented with recurrent episodes of melena and drop in hemoglobin. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed angiodysplasia of a vessel supplying the proximal jejunum. A microcatheter was placed at this site in the DSA suite, just prior to laparotomy. Two cubic centimeters of methylene blue dye was injected into the microcatheter on-table which demarcated the 6 in. of involved jejunum which was then resected. Patient is currently doing well over a 6-month follow up with no further episodes of melena. In conclusion, preoperative DSA and selective catheterization of the affected vessel allow for on-table localization of the exact site of bleed. This simple method avoids more invasive techniques of detection and enables limited segmental resection of the affected bowel. PMID:23990392

D'Mello, Adrianna; Sawant, Abhijeet D; Kulkarni, Anirudha; Joshi, Anand; Shah, Sudeep R

2014-01-01

437

[What is a "poison"? Proposal of definition].  

PubMed

We discuss different interpretations of the term poison as well as the need of bringing up to date the changes in this matter according to the science progress. A clear and exact definition is proposed after analysing the factors that affect the relativity of the concept and its boundaries. The proposal for a definition is presented taking into account the most broadly extended concepts concerning its significance. That is to say: "a poison is, for human beings and their non-pathogenic and non-harmful biological environment, an electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation, or a non-infectious chemical agent, structured no larger in size than a small particle or fibre that, after being generated internally or after contact, penetration and/or absorption by a live organism, in sufficiently high dose, can produce or produces a direct or indirect adverse effect unrelated to its temperature or measurable electrical potential difference". The scientific knowledge needs accurate definitions to avoid ambiguities. PMID:21453940

Guitart, Raimon; Gimnez, Nuria

2012-02-18

438

Accidental poisoning in children in Jaipur (Rajasthan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1.\\u000a \\u000a The study includes data of 80 cases of chemical poisoning in children under 12 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2.\\u000a \\u000a 78.7% of all the poisonings occurred between 03 years, of which the maximum incidence (59.7%) was encountered between 13\\u000a years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3.\\u000a \\u000a Males were predominantly affected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4.\\u000a \\u000a Household substances were responsible for the maximum number of cases (73.7%) in which kerosene

Usha Sharma; S. Saxena Jaipur

1974-01-01

439

Brain MRI Findings of Carbon Disulfide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Materials and Methods Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. Results T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). Conclusion In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results.

Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Heon; Kim, Rok Ho; Yim, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Mi Jung

2002-01-01

440

Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide variety of applications and are a serious threat for self-poisoning, unintentional misuse, terrorist attack, occupational hazard and warfare attack. The present standard treatment has been reported to be unsatisfactory. Many novel approaches are being used and tested for acute organophosphorus (OP) poison treatment. The bioscavenger concept captured high attention among the scientific community during the last few decades. Other approaches like alkalinisation of blood plasma/serum and use of weak inhibitors against strong inhibitors, though it showed promising results, did not get such wide attention. The introduction of a novel broad-spectrum oxime has also been in focus. In this mini-review, an update of the overview of four different approaches has been discussed. The standard therapy that is atropine+oxime+benzodiazepine along with supportive measures will continue to be the best option with only the replacement of a single oxime to improve its broad-spectrum efficacy. PMID:23866522

Nurulain, Syed Muhammad

2012-07-01

441

A new cutaneous sign of mercury poisoning?  

PubMed

Chronic mercury poisoning is becoming a health concern because of extensive pollution of water and fish, and the increasing consumption of fish in the human diet. Mercury is extremely toxic to the body, especially the central nervous system, but diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific signs. A total of 11 patients were observed to have a nonpruritic or mildly pruritic discreet papular and papulovesicular eruption that correlated with high blood mercury levels. The mercury evidently came from increased seafood consumption. All of the patients improved when they were placed on either a seafood-free diet or chelation therapy. Physicians should suspect mercury poisoning in patients who eat a high-seafood diet who present with an asymptomatic or mildly pruritic papular or papulovesicular eruption. PMID:14639393

Dantzig, Paul I

2003-12-01

442

Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Fifteen range cows died of oxalate poisoning caused by ingestion of Rumex venosus. Ecchymotic and petechial hemorrhages were prominent on the abdominal serosal surfaces. Approximately 2 L of thin, yellowish fluid was in the abdominal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous. Other findings included catarrhal abomasitis; enteritis; pale, edematous kidneys; congested lungs; fatty infiltration of the liver; and nephrosis. In the kidneys, birefringent crystals resembling oxalate crystals were demonstrable only when frozen sections were examined. PMID:670054

Dickie, C W; Hamann, M H; Carroll, W D; Chow, F H

1978-07-01

443

Neonatal paracetamol poisoning: treatment by exchange transfusion.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism and excretion of paracetamol was studied in an infant of 29 weeks' gestation who was exposed to the drug when his mother ingested 32.5 g 16 hours before delivery. We have confirmed that sulphation is the major pathway and that the mixed function oxidase system is sufficiently active at this gestational age to produce hepatotoxic metabolic products. As most of the recognised drug treatments for paracetamol poisoning seemed unsuitable in this case, the infant was treated with exchange transfusions.

Lederman, S; Fysh, W J; Tredger, M; Gamsu, H R

1983-01-01

444

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-01-01

445

Loading pattern sensitivity to burnable poison availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-core fuel management study was performed utilizing the FORMOSA optimization code. Specifically, the authors studied the effectiveness of burnable poisons independent of core reactivity hold-down needs for three different objective functions: assembly quadrant power peaking P{sub max}{sup quad} minimization, end-of-cycle reactivity k{sub eff}{sup EOC} maximization, and discharge burnup BU{sup dis} maximization. The study consisted of determining near-optimum loading patterns

S. Sun; G. I. Maldonado; P. J. Turnisky

1992-01-01

446

White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.  

PubMed

Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked. PMID:15636320

Pande, T K; Pandey, S

2004-03-01

447

Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

Pillion, Joseph P.

2012-01-01

448

Anticholinergic poisoning due to Chinese herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Serious poisoning may occur following the consumption of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) containing anticholinergics. The great majority of cases are probably related to the use of yangjinhua, the dried flower of Datura metel L, for treating bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pains and flu symptoms. In some cases the use of CHM contaminated by atropine-like substances or fake herbs were suspected. Some ginseng (Panax ginseng) preparations might have been adulterated with Mandragora officinarum (scopolamine) and other herbs. PMID:7631497

Chan, T Y

1995-04-01

449

Determination of the cation exchange capacity and the surface area of bentonite, illite and kaolinite by methylene blue adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye cations like methylene blue will mainly adsorb on clay minerals by cation exchange. Therefore, the methylene blue adsorption is depending on the exchangeable cations of the clay mineral, on the pH and on the dye cation concentration. The cation exchange capacity of clays by methylene blue adsorption can be determined when the samples are in the sodium exchanged form

G. Kahr; F. T. Madsen

1995-01-01

450

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.  

PubMed

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

Reynolds, Tom

2005-06-01

451

Review article: management of cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning is uncommon, but generates interest because of the presumed utility of an antidote immediately available in those areas with a high risk of cyanide exposure. As part of its regular review of guidelines, the Australian Resuscitation Council conducted a systematic review of the human evidence for the use of various proposed cyanide antidotes, and a narrative review of the relevant pharmacological and animal studies. There have been no relevant comparative or placebo-controlled human trials. Nine case series were identified. Treatment with hydroxocobalamin was reported in a total of 361 cases. No serious adverse effects of hydroxocobalamin were reported, and many patients with otherwise presumably fatal poisoning survived. Sodium thiosulphate use was reported in two case series, similarly with no adverse effects. Treatment with a combination of sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate was reported in 74 patients, with results indistinguishable from those of hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate. No case series using dicobalt edetate or 4-dimethylaminophenol were identified, but successful use in single cases has been reported. Hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate differ from alternatives in having negligible adverse effects, and on the basis of current evidence are the antidotes of choice. The indications for the use of an antidote, the requirements for supportive care and a recommended approach for workplaces where there is a risk of cyanide poisoning are presented. PMID:22672162

Reade, Michael C; Davies, Suzanne R; Morley, Peter T; Dennett, Jennifer; Jacobs, Ian C

2012-06-01

452

Acute Lead Poisoning In an Infant  

PubMed Central

A case of acute lead poisoning in an infant without overt clinical manifestations of encephalopathy is reported for the first time in Oman. The case was diagnosed at Rustaq Hospital on the basis of (i) history by the mother of giving the child a traditional remedy for treating constipation (ii) X-ray of abdomen showing radio-opaque speckles and (iii) detection of high blood lead levels (83.3 g/dL) at the toxicology laboratory of the poison control centre. The source of lead was confirmed by high content of inorganic lead (20.2%) found in the sample of the traditional remedy (bint al dahab). The blood lead levels significantly decreased, after the intravenous calcium edetate (EDTA) therapy was given to the baby. The case highlights that early detection and treatment of acute lead poisoning in children can prevent morbidity and sequelae associated with encephalopathy. It also indicated the need for awareness and prevention programme for parents on this issue.

Madhusudhanan, M.; Lall, S.B.

2007-01-01

453

Food poisoning in hospitals in Scotland.  

PubMed

A review of 50 hospital-based outbreaks of food poisoning which were reported in Scotland during 1973--7, is described. At least 1530 persons consuming hospital-prepared food were involved. Thirty-one episodes were associated with Clostridium perfringens (C. welchii), 11 were due to food-borne salmonella infection, three to enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus, and five incidents were of undetermined aetiology. This differs noticeably from the experience in England and Wales where salmonellas appear to predominate as the main cause of hospital outbreaks. Twenty-two incidents occurred in hospitals for psychiatric or mentally subnormal patients, and ten others were located in geriatric units. Only 33 hospitals were involved in the 50 outbreaks as nine hospitals experienced two or more episodes. The role of the hospital in the occurrence of food poisoning may be over-emphasized in comparison with other catering establishments, as outbreaks are more readily recognized and laboratory facilities are usually available for investigation, but it is also believed that many episodes may not be reported. The peculiar problems of the hospital-catering service and particularly those of the older long-stay hospitals, are discussed in relation to preventive measures which would minimize the hazards of food poisoning. PMID:489961

Sharp, J C; Collier, P W; Gilbert, R J

1979-10-01

454

Anticholinergic poisoning from a large dose of Scopolia extract.  

PubMed

Scopolia extract (SE) contains hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are both anticholinergic. It is usually used as a patent medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, to relieve spasmotic discomfort, or to decrease the secretion of gastric acid. Poisoning by SE presents similar symptoms and signs as other types of anticholinergic poisoning. We report a case of severe anticholinergic poisoning after accidentally drinking 8 ml of SE. The patient presented with acute delirium and was successfully treated with physostigmine. PMID:12136971

Cheng, Sheng-Wen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung; Hung, Dong-Zong; Yang, Dar-Yu

2002-08-01

455

[Toxicity of chemicals produced by thermal destruction of synthetic materials based on polyvinyl chloride and used in coal mines].  

PubMed

The experiments on mongrel white rats studied toxicity of the products appearing during thermal destruction of conveyer tape TK-200 based on polyvinyl chloride and used in coal mines. The studies helped to define parameters of acute toxicity and the MACs for products of the conveyer tape burning, considering the main contents and the exposure intensity for 30-120 minutes; to determine jeopardy class; to calculate specific volatilization; to design recommendations for prevention of poisoning during fire in the mines. PMID:8673396

Bolonova, L N; Sukhanov, V V; Teplova, T E

1996-01-01

456

Magnesium-lead chloride batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of lead chloride cathodes, and their discharge in magnesium-lead chloride batteries, is described. The lead chloride blended with graphite is pasted on grids of expanded copper, using urea formaldehyde solutions as the binder. One-, five-, and fifteen-cell batteries were discharged at temperatures between -40C and +45C, at low current drains. For five-cell batteries energy densities in the range

J. R. Coleman

1971-01-01

457

Effects of methylene blue on rhythmic activity and membrane potential in the canine proximal colon.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that methylene blue has a direct effect on colonic muscle cells was tested. Intracellular recordings were made from cross-sectional preparations of canine proximal colon. Cells through the circular layer were impaled and membrane potentials ranging from -81 mV at the submucosal surface to -46 mV at the myenteric border were recorded. Methylene blue (10(-5) M) depolarized cells near the submucosal border by an average of 43 mV and slow-wave activity ceased. The loss of slow-wave activity could be explained by the depolarizing effects of methylene blue rather than a specific effect of methylene blue on the pacemaker mechanism. Other experiments suggested that the depolarizing effects of methylene blue were not confined to muscle cells within the submucosal pacemaker region. Depolarization of cells was noted throughout the circular layer, but the magnitude of the depolarization decreased with distance from the submucosal border. After methylene blue, the gradient in resting potential across the circular layer was greatly reduced or abolished. The data suggest that methylene blue is not necessarily a specific probe for interstitial cells and has direct effects on smooth muscle cells in the canine proximal colon. This effect is similar to treatments that are known to block the electrogenic sodium pump. PMID:2705531

Sanders, K M; Burke, E P; Stevens, R J

1989-04-01

458

Lead poisoning in cattle and its implications for food safety.  

PubMed

The lead poisoning incidents in cattle investigated by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency between 1990 and 2003 are reviewed. Lead poisoning was most commonly encountered in young calves, but cattle of all ages were affected. The lead was derived mainly from lead paint, lead accumulator batteries and lead in soil from old mine workings. Paint was responsible for the majority of cases of poisoning in young calves; yearling animals were most at risk from discarded batteries, and adult cows were most commonly poisoned by geochemical sources of lead. There was a marked seasonal incidence, with most cases occurring after turnout in the spring and early summer. PMID:16844817

Sharpe, R T; Livesey, C T

2006-07-15

459

49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD...

2013-10-01

460

49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD...

2013-10-01

461

Herbal poisoning caused by adulterants or erroneous substitutes.  

PubMed

Six cases of herbal poisoning involving six patients in Hong Kong, Taipei and Kuala Lumpur are reported. The sources of poisoning were identified as adulterants (Podophyllum emodi) or erroneous substitutes (Datura metel). In cases of suspected herbal poisoning, it is recommended that the prescriptions, herbal residues and herb samples should be collected for pharmacognostical and chemical analysis to substantiate the cause of poisoning. Insofar as it is possible, an estimate of the amount of herbs consumed should also be obtained, to establish whether the amount of toxin present is sufficient to account for the symptoms. PMID:7966541

But, P P

1994-12-01

462

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene  

DOEpatents

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1982-03-31

463

Electron attachment products of methylene chloride in solid argon: an experimental and quantum chemical IR spectroscopic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature and structure of electron attachment products in the photoinduced electron transfer reaction DMA + CH2Cl2limit?hvDMA+ + ( electron attachment products) in solid argon has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy (DMA = N,N-dimethylaniline, h? = 4.88 eV Hg lamp radiation) along with extensive ab initio calculations. Two attachment products have been identified: the radical anion of CH 2Cl 2 and the dichloromethane anion (HCCl 2-. The radical anion turns out to have a C 1 hydrogen bridged structure (ClHCHCl -1). This structure as well as the species of HCCl 2- have not been detected before.

Richter, Andreas; Meyer, Hermann; Kausche, Thorsten; Mller, Thomas; Sporleder, Walter; Schweig, Armin

1997-01-01

464

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2013-04-01

465

46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...

2010-10-01

466

46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...

2009-10-01

467

Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, for the first time, presents a coordinated federal program to eliminate childhood lead poisoning in the United States. It describes how lead poisoning harms children, how pervasive lead poisoning is, and how lead paint hazards in housing can ...

2000-01-01

468

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2009-04-01

469

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2010-04-01

470

Complications of Methylene Blue Dye in Breast Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Methylene blue dye has been used worldwide successfully with few complications in breast surgery. We present two different complications involving methylene blue: 1) skin and parenchymal necrosis when dye was injected in a subdermal fashion and 2) Mycoplasma infection caused by contaminated methylene blue in breast reduction surgery. Methods: We present two cases seen at the University of Arizona during 2008 and referred to a breast surgeon for management. We evaluated and managed complications of methylene blue dye injected by 2 referring surgeons for different indications. A review of the literature was performed. Results: The first case is a 67 year old female diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast for which she was treated by her initial surgeon with left segmental mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy. The operating surgeon injected methylene blue in a subareolar subdermal fashion (distant from the primary tumor); unfortunately the patient suffered skin and breast necrosis requiring multiple surgical debridements and finally achieving delayed primary closure. The second case is a 45 year old female with infiltrating lobular carcinoma with a history of Mycoplasma infection secondary to methylene blue injected for breast reduction surgery. She required multiple debridements and had granulomas masquerading as cancer on MRI that confounded her extent of disease. Conclusions: The use of methylene blue dye in breast surgery is not without risk. In both cases methylene blue was responsible for complications requiring surgical debridement for local wound problems. In each case severe necrosis and infection were present. Methylene blue may cause not only significant morbidity, but may also produce cosmetically unsatisfactory results.

Reyes, FJ; Noelck, MB; Valentino, C; Grasso-LeBeau, L; Lang, JE

2011-01-01

471

Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP) a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine

Yi Li; XueZhong Yu; Zhong Wang; HouLi Wang; XiangHuai Zhao; YuPing Cao; WeiZhan Wang; Michael Eddleston

2006-01-01

472

Metachromasy as an indicator of photostabilization of methylene blue adsorbed to clays and minerals.  

PubMed

The influence of methylene blue adsorption to different clays on its photodegradation was studied. Methylene blue in solution was decomposed by sunlight in a zero-order process. Adsorption to some clay minerals (sepiolite and vermiculite) and a zeolite (clinoptilolite) accelerated the degradation process, and converted it to a first-order reaction. On the other hand, adsorption to other clay minerals (palygorskite and montmorillonite) stabilized the dye and prevented its degradation. Interestingly, in the clay-dye complexes that exhibited stability, clear metachromasy of the adsorbed methylene blue occurred, whereas the effect was not observed in the clay-dye complexes that underwent photodegradation. PMID:23474529

Samuels, Maya; Mor, Omer; Rytwo, Giora

2013-04-01

473

Corrosion of structural and poison material in spent fuel storage pools  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of this paper are three-fold: (1) to review the corrosion experience in general of the structural and nuclear poison materials in spent fuel storage pools around the country; (2) to describe our in-house experience at the spent fuel storage facilities at Brookhaven on the behavior of the nuclear poison boral and aluminum and stainless steel structures; and (3) to present the results obtained at Brookhaven on evaluating the causes of the stress corrosion cracking that occurred in the Three Mile Island, Unit 1 spent fuel storage pool heat exchangers. Conclusions are: (1) The performance of structural and poison material in spent fuel storage pools to date has been excellent. (2) Intergranular stress corrosion of sensitized stainless steel can occur in these environments if the material is heavily sensitized and heavily stressed, as might occur in areas with extensive weld repairs. (3) Accidental contamination of the pool with materials such as chloride or reduced forms of sulfur could lead to initiation of stress corrosion cracking of such materials. (4) Boral can be exposed to nuclear coolant without detectable loss of the boron carbide from the matrix. (5) Pitting corrosion of the aluminum cladding on the boral, however, is possible where the cladding is in contact with stainless steel, especially at those points of contact where access to oxygen is highest, and in pools containing boric acid. (6) Pitting of aluminum racks, where they are in contact with stainless steel can occur. (7) Type 17-4 PH stainless steel should be used in the H-1025-1100 condition and the heat treatment scale removed by either chemical or mechanical means to avoid possible stress corrosion cracking, pitting, and sludge formation in the pool. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Czajkowski, C.; Weeks, J.R.; Protter, S.R.

1981-01-01

474

Micronucleus test and metaphase analyses in mice exposed to known and suspected spindle poisons.  

PubMed

Micronucleus (Mn) and metaphase chromosome analyses were performed in mouse bone marrow cells with two known and eight suspected mitotic spindle poisons. Polychromatic (PCEs) and normochromatic (NCEs) erythrocytes were scored for presence of Mn, while structural (CAs) and numerical chromosome aberrations (NCAs), i.e. hyperploid cells, were evaluated by metaphase analysis. CAs were scored in first, and NCAs in the second metaphases, identified by BrdUrd differential staining. Hydroquinone induced Mn, NCAs and CAs; colchicine, vinblastine and, to a lesser extent, chloral hydrate, diazepam and econazole induced both Mn and NCAs; cadmium chloride and thimerosal induced Mn and CAs, while pyrimethamine and thiabendazole induced Mn only. The proposed stepwise protocol allowed satisfactory statistical evaluation of the effects induced with a reduction in the number of animals killed. An acceptable agreement was found between induction of Mn and NCAs, suggesting a possible use of the Mn test for revealing compounds with aneugenic properties. PMID:7854141

Marrazzini, A; Betti, C; Bernacchi, F; Barrai, I; Barale, R

1994-11-01

475

Corrosion of 304L and 316 in gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions  

SciTech Connect

Pitting corrosion has occurred on AISI Type 304L stainless steel (304L) conductivity probes used to monitor liquid levels of gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions (GPS). An electrochemical and immersion test program has led to a better understanding of the cause of corrosion of 304L probes. Results indicate that the alternating voltage applied to the probes to monitor contact with solution is the primary factor in the corrosion of the probes. A chloride-containing dye and low pH also contribute to the corrosion process, but appear to play a secondary role. AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) was found to behave similarly to 304L in GPS, while nickel-based alloys such as Hastelloy G30, Hastelloy C22, and Inconel 625 were found to be more susceptible to corrosion as compared to 304L.

Chandler, G.T.; Anderson, M.H.

1991-01-01

476

Corrosion of 304L and 316 in gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions  

SciTech Connect

Pitting corrosion has occurred on AISI Type 304L stainless steel (304L) conductivity probes used to monitor liquid levels of gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions (GPS). An electrochemical and immersion test program has led to a better understanding of the cause of corrosion of 304L probes. Results indicate that the alternating voltage applied to the probes to monitor contact with solution is the primary factor in the corrosion of the probes. A chloride-containing dye and low pH also contribute to the corrosion process, but appear to play a secondary role. AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) was found to behave similarly to 304L in GPS, while nickel-based alloys such as Hastelloy G30, Hastelloy C22, and Inconel 625 were found to be more susceptible to corrosion as compared to 304L.

Chandler, G.T.; Anderson, M.H.

1991-12-31

477

Immunologic Studies of Poisonous Anacardiaceae: Oral Desensitization to Poison Ivy and Oak urushiols in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poison ivy and oak urushiols or their components were compared with the respective esterified derivatives for efficacy in oral desensitization of Hartley guinea pigs sensitized to urushiols. The esterified derivatives produced a significantly greater degree of hyposensitization than did free urushiol counterparts. Suppression produced by esterified urushiols was of longer duration than that produced by free urushiols. Groups of sensitized

Edna S. Watson; James C. Murphy; Mahmoud A. ElSohly

1983-01-01

478

Aqueductal stenosis and development of hydrocephalus in prenatal methylmercury poisoning in mice  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that can cause irreparable CNS damage, particularly upon the developing fetal CNS. As an ongoing study of the effects of MeHg upon the developing CNS, timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were poisoned by intraperitoneal injections of methylmercuric chloride (MMC), 12 mg/kg, in divided doses on E-14, 15 and 16. In another experiment, the pregnant animals were fed MMC (2 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water, starting on E-2 and continuing throughout gestation. The animals were allowed to come to term and the offspring sacrificed on postnatal days 5, 10, and 20. In both of these experiments, up to 9% of the offspring affected by prenatal MeHg poisoning developed marked hydrocephalus. Serial on ..mu..m sections of the aqueductus revealed severe stenosis associated with marked edema and spongy changes of ependymal cells and surrounding neuropil. No inflammatory or gliotic reactions of the periaqueductal tissue was seen. These changes are very similar to those observed in congenital hydrocephalus in humans and suggest that toxic damage to developing ependymal cells due to prenatal exposures of agents such as MeHg may have etiological role in some of the human congenital hydrocephalus. The details of the scanning and transmission electron microscopy along with demonstration of mercury grains in tissues will be presented.

Choi, B.H.; Caple, M.; Espinosa, T.; Kim, D.; Song, D.

1986-03-01

479

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

480

Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.  

PubMed

Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

2014-01-01

481

Poisoning due to Savlon (cetrimide) liquid.  

PubMed

1. Seven adult cases of deliberate oral exposure to 'Savlon' liquid (chlorhexidine gluconate 0.3%, cetrimide 3%) are presented. 2. In six patients, the symptoms were relatively mild including nausea, vomiting, sore throat and abdominal pain. 3. One patient who had concomitantly taken 'Dettol' liquid was comatose and hypotensive at presentation and was complicated by aspiration pneumonia and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). She was ventilated for a total of 10 days and was hospitalised for 5 weeks. 4. The data from this study suggest that symptoms associated with Savlon poisoning are usually mild. When aspirated, Savlon together with 'Dettol' liquid can cause ARDS. PMID:7826685

Chan, T Y

1994-10-01

482

A nonfatal case of intentional scopolamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Scopolamine, a drug not usually found in poisoning, was found to be the cause of toxicity in three persons. This paper stresses the need to confirm any unusual iodoplatinate spots that may occur in emergency drug screening. Gastric lavages appear to be the most useful source for recovering belladonna compounds as no scopolamine was found in the urine, either at admission or the day after. Atropine and scopolamine are easily separated from each other by TLC and GLC but homatropine separates poorly from atropine. PMID:4442247

Kaplan, M; Register, D C; Bierman, A H; Risacher, R L

1974-01-01

483

Efficacy of methylene blue dye in localization of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an important surgical advance in the management of early breast cancer. Localization of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer and other cancer patients is widely used now utilizing isosulfan blue dye. Few alternative types of dye have been used and investigated. In a prospective study of 54 patients, methylene blue dye was used as an alternative to isosulfan blue to localize the SLN in breast cancer patients. The methylene blue dye technique was successful in 91.1% of patients after excluding the initial learning cases; the results are similar for isosulfan blue dye. This study describes methylene blue dye localization as a successful alternative to isosulfan blue dye in identifying the sentinel node in breast cancer patients. Methylene blue dye is readily available in most Egyptian institutes, with a very low cost. PMID:15327490

Nour, Ashraf

2004-01-01

484

Thermochemistry of Charge-Unsymmetrical Binary Fused Halide Systems. Ii. Mixtures of Magnesium Chloride with the Alkali Chlorides and with Silver Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integral enthalpies of mixing of the liquid mixtures of magnesium chloride with the alkali chlorides and with silver chloride were determined calorimetrically. The magnesium chloride-silver chloride system is slightly endothermic, while the alkali chl...

O. J. Kleppa F. G. McCarty

1965-01-01

485

Determination of the tumorigenic potential of methylene-bis-orthochloroaniline.  

PubMed

Methylene-bis-orthochloroaniline (MOCA) induced a wide spectrum of neoplasms in male rats fed either a protein-adequate (27 percent casein) or a protein-deficient (8 percent casein) diet. The concentrations of MOCA used were 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm. Increasing doses of MOCA in either diet resulted in decreased survival times. MOCA induced pulmonary adenomas, adenocarcinomas, mammary gland adenocarcinomas, Zymbal gland carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, and hemangiosarcomas. In both diet groups the lungs were the most sensitive organs to the induction of neoplasms by MOCA. The incidence of primary pulmonary neoplasms in the lowest dose tested (125 ppm) was 6 percent (p less than or equal to 0.01), while in the highest dose (1000 ppm) it was 70 percent (p less than or equal to 0.01). The hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in rats fed a protein-deficient diet with 500 ppm MOCA was 18 percent, whereas in rats fed a protein-adequate diet with the same MOCA concentration this incidence was only 4 percent. The mean urinary concentration of MOCA in the group of rats fed the lowest dose (125 ppm-PD) was 0.63 ppm, a concentration comparable to that measured in the urine of workers exposed to MOCA. PMID:512554

Kommineni, C; Groth, D H; Frockt, I J; Voelker, R W; Stanovick, R P

1979-01-01

486

Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Candida albicans Treated with Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the phototoxic effect of methylene blue (MB) on Candida albicans cultures was studied using the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique. An aliquot of 50 ?L of C. albicans suspensionstrain ATCC 10-231was incubated with 50 ?L of MB solution (0.5 mg/mL), at room temperature. After the proper incubation time, a colony forming unit (CFU) with approximately 3 mm diameter was chosen in each plate. The CFU selected was irradiated using an InGaAlP laser during 20 s. After irradiation and new incubation, the CFUs were collected and stored at -70 C, until spectroscopy analysis. The spectroscopy analysis was performed using an open PAS setup. The study was conducted in different groups: (1) control (non-treated); (2) irradiated with laser light; (3) treated with MB (non-irradiated); and (4) treated with MB and irradiated with laser light. The PAS measurements were performed on C. albicans in a sterile physiological solution. The measurements indicate that the presence of MB and irradiation promotes a change in the redox state of the cells to the reduced state. The absorption spectrum after photodynamic therapy (PDT) was observed 12 h and 36 h later. It was inferred that PDT can be related to structural changes in cytochrome molecules after 36 h. It is concluded that MB can be an efficient photosensitizer in C. albicans through modification of the cytochrome molecule affecting the cell metabolism.

Acosta-Avalos, D.; Jedlicka, L. D. L.; Costa, M. S.; Barja, P. R.; da Silva, E. C.

2012-11-01

487

Neuroprotective Actions of Methylene Blue and Its Derivatives  

PubMed Central

Methylene blue (MB), the first lead chemical structure of phenothiazine and other derivatives, is commonly used in diagnostic procedures and as a treatment for methemoglobinemia. We have previously demonstrated that MB could function as an alternative mitochondrial electron transfer carrier, enhance cellular oxygen consumption, and provide protection in vitro and in rodent models of Parkinsons disease and stroke. In the present study, we investigated the structure-activity relationships of MB in vitro using MB and six structurally related compounds. MB reduces mitochondrial superoxide production via alternative electron transfer that bypasses mitochondrial complexes I-III. MB mitigates reactive free radical production and provides neuroprotection in HT-22 cells against glutamate, IAA and rotenone toxicity. Distinctly, MB provides no protection against direct oxidative stress induced by glucose oxidase. Substitution of a side chain at MBs 10-nitrogen rendered a 1000-fold reduction of the protective potency against glutamate neurototoxicity. Compounds without side chains at positions 3 and 7, chlorophenothiazine and phenothiazine, have distinct redox potentials compared to MB and are incapable of enhancing mitochondrial electron transfer, while obtaining direct antioxidant actions against glutamate, IAA, and rotenone insults. Chlorophenothiazine exhibited direct antioxidant actions in mitochondria lysate assay compared to MB, which required reduction by NADH and mitochondria. MB increased complex IV expression and activity, while 2-chlorphenothiazine had no effect. Our study indicated that MB could attenuate superoxide production by functioning as an alternative mitochondrial electron transfer carrier and as a regenerable anti-oxidant in mitochondria.

Poteet, Ethan; Winters, Ali; Yan, Liang-Jun; Shufelt, Kyle; Green, Kayla N.; Simpkins, James W.; Wen, Yi; Yang, Shao-Hua

2012-01-01

488

Attenuation of noise-induced hearing loss using methylene blue.  

PubMed

The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has been known to contribute to the pathogenesis of noise-induced hearing loss. In this study, we discovered that in BALB/c mice pretreatment with methylene blue (MB) for 4 consecutive days significantly protected against cochlear injury by intense broad-band noise for 3 h. It decreased both compound threshold shift and permanent threshold shift and, further, reduced outer hair cell death in the cochlea. MB also reduced ROS and RNS formation after noise exposure. Furthermore, it protected against rotenone- and antimycin A-induced cell death and also reversed ATP generation in the in vitro UB-OC1 cell system. Likewise, MB effectively attenuated the noise-induced impairment of complex IV activity in the cochlea. In addition, it increased the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) level, which could affect the synaptic connections between hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in the noise-exposed cochlea, and also promoted the conservation of both efferent and afferent nerve terminals on the outer and inner hair cells. These findings suggest that the amelioration of impaired mitochondrial electron transport and the potentiation of NT-3 expression by treatment with MB have a significant therapeutic value in preventing ROS-mediated sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:24763057

Park, J-S; Jou, I; Park, S M

2014-01-01

489

Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.  

PubMed

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Methylene blue (MB) has known energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties. This study tested the hypothesis that MB treatment reduces lesion volume and behavioral deficits in a rat model of mild TBI. In a randomized double-blinded design, animals received either MB (n=5) or vehicle (n=6) after TBI. Studies were performed on 0, 1, 2, 7, and 14 days following an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. MRI lesion was not apparent 1?h after TBI, became apparent 3?h after TBI, and peaked at 2 days for both groups. The MB-treated animals showed significantly smaller MRI lesion volume than the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. The MB-treated animals exhibited significantly improved scores on forelimb placement asymmetry and foot fault tests than did the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. Smaller numbers of dark-stained Nissl cells and Fluoro-Jade() positive cells were observed in the MB-treated group than in vehicle-treated animals 14 days post-TBI. In conclusion, MB treatment minimized lesion volume, behavioral deficits, and neuronal degeneration following mild TBI. MB is already approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat a number of indications, likely expediting future clinical trials in TBI. PMID:24479842

Talley Watts, Lora; Long, Justin Alexander; Chemello, Jonathan; Van Koughnet, Samantha; Fernandez, Angelica; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q

2014-06-01

490

Optical Stark Spectroscopy of Chloro-Methylene HCCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical spectrum of chloro-methylene, HCCl, has been studied for more than 40 years by both conventional and laser-based spectroscopy. Surprisingly, numerous visible bands have yet to be characterized, due in part to known perturbations. Furthermore, the permanent electric dipole moment, ?El, for any state has yet to be determined. Here we report on the field-free and optical Stark spectrum of the tilde{A}1A'' (060)- tilde{X}1A '(000) band system. A cold molecular beam sample was produced by skimming the output of a pulsed discharge source and the spectrum recorded at a resolution of approximately 30 MHz via LIF detection. The field-free spectrum was analyzed to produce an improved set of spectroscopic parameters for the tilde{A}1A''(060)state. The Stark induced shifts were analyzed to determine the values of the a-component of ?El for the tilde{X}1A^ {'}(000)state of 0.498(8)D. Small perturbations in the tilde{A}1A''(060)state will be described. A. J. Merer and D.N. Travis Can. J. Phys., 44, 525 1966. M.Kakimoto, S.Saito and E. Hirota J.Mol.Spectrosc., 97, 194 1983. B.-C.Chang and T. Sears J.Mol.Spectrosc., 173, 391 1995. H. Fan, I. Ionescu, C. Annesley, J. Cummins, M. Bowers and S. A. Reid J.Mol.Spectrosc., 225, 43 2004.

Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C.; Wang, Zhong

2011-06-01

491

Adsorption of methylene blue onto sonicated sepiolite from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to enhance the methylene blue (MB) adsorption of sepiolite by ultrasonic treatment. The natural sepiolite was pretreated by sonication to improve the surface characteristics and enhance the dye uptake capacity. Sonication process resulted in a significant increase in the specific surface area (SSA) of sepiolite. The FTIR spectrum of the sonicated sepiolite indicates that the tetrahedral sheet is probably distorted after sonication process. The effect of various parameters such as sonication, pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on dye adsorption has been investigated. The adsorbed amount of MB on sepiolite increased after sonication as well as with increasing pH and temperature. The experimental data were evaluated by applying the pseudo-first- and second-order, and the intraparticle diffusion adsorption kinetic models. Adsorption process of MB onto sepiolite followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and found that the isotherm data were reasonably well correlated by Langmuir isotherm. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of sepiolite for MB increased from 79.37 to 128.21 mg/g after the sonication. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as Delta G(0), Delta H(0) and DeltaS(0) were calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/sepiolite system indicated spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. Adsorption measurements showed that the process was very fast and physical in nature. PMID:19505836

Kncek, Ilknur; Sener, Sava?

2010-01-01

492

Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer  

PubMed Central

By restoring mitochondrial function, methylene blue (MB) is an effective neuroprotectant in many neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinsons and Alzheimers diseases). MB has also been proposed as a brain metabolic enhancer because of its action on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine how MB affects brain metabolism and hemodynamics. For in vitro, we evaluated the effect of MB on brain mitochondrial function, oxygen consumption, and glucose uptake. For in vivo, we applied neuroimaging and intravenous measurements to determine MBs effect on glucose uptake, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in rats. MB significantly increases mitochondrial complex IIII activity in isolated mitochondria and enhances oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in HT-22 cells. Using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we observed significant increases in brain glucose uptake, CBF, and CMRO2 under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Further, MRI revealed that MB dramatically increased CBF in the hippocampus and in the cingulate, motor, and frontoparietal cortices, areas of the brain affected by Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases. Our results suggest that MB can enhance brain metabolism and hemodynamics, and multimetric neuroimaging systems offer a noninvasive, nondestructive way to evaluate treatment efficacy.

Lin, Ai-Ling; Poteet, Ethan; Du, Fang; Gourav, Roy C.; Liu, Ran; Wen, Yi; Bresnen, Andrew; Huang, Shiliang; Fox, Peter T.; Yang, Shao-Hua; Duong, Timothy Q.

2012-01-01

493

75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

2010-06-15

494

75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

2010-04-15

495

49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation...Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be packaged in any of the following...

2013-10-01

496

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

497

Morphology and structure of microcapsules prepared by interfacial polycondensation of methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) with hexamethylene diamine.  

PubMed

Polyurea microcapsules containing 2- chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl) acetamide as the active agent were prepared by the method of interfacial polycondensation with methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) the multifunctional isocyanatae, hexamethylene diamine as the diamine, and anionic (SLS) as the emulsifying sodium lignin liinin the agent. The internal structure and morphology of the microcapsules were examined with transmission electron microscopy. The microcapsules had a micro-reservoir structure in which the wall extended well into the core and the active agent was accomodated by the micro-reservoirs, distributed uniformly throughout the entire volume of a microcapsule. Based on the observed morphology, permeability of the water soluble monomer in the polyurea film and its solubility in the oil phase have a significant effect on the morphology and microstructure of the microcapsules. The multivalent salt, calcium chloride, plays a significant role in stabilizing the microcapsule structure, by interacting with the anionic surfactant SLS, and physically crosslinks the SLS chains, by interacting with the negatively charged carboxylic and phenolic groups, with subsequent phase separation of the physically crosslinked chains to form a concentrated gel phase. This gel phase encompasses the microcapsule, increases the stability, and modifies its release behaviour. PMID:11695642

Jabbari, E

2001-01-01

498

Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9-10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (SBET 50 m2/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe2O3 phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (SBET 4 and 111 m2/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (kapp) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015-0.025 mM; sample content - 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration - 0.43 mM; pH 3-4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

Kadirova, Zukhra C.; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

2013-11-01

499

Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement.

Ciftci, Ozgur; Gunday, Murat; Cal?skan, Mustafa; Gullu, Hakan; Dogan, Rafi; Guven, Aytekin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

2013-01-01

500

Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 1: Farm livestock and poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of a reference Veterinary Poison Control Centre for the European Union (EU) means that clinicians find it difficult to obtain information on poisoning episodes. This three-part review collates published and unpublished data obtained from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last decade in order to provide a broader toxicoepidemiological perspective. The first article critically evaluates the

Raimon Guitart; Siska Croubels; Francesca Caloni; Magda Sachana; Franca Davanzo; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Philippe Berny

2010-01-01