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1

Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

1999-01-01

2

Phosgene Poisoning Caused by the Use of Chemical Paint Removers Containing Methylene Chloride in Ill-Ventilated Rooms Heated by Kerosene Stoves  

PubMed Central

Two cases resembling poisoning by phosgene following the use of a paint remover containing methylene chloride in ill-ventilated rooms heated by an oil stove are described. Experiments carried out under similar conditions demonstrated the production of phosgene in toxic concentrations. The potential hazards from non-inflammable solvents are discussed. PMID:13827592

Gerritsen, W. B.; Buschmann, C. H.

1960-01-01

3

Treatment of methylene-induced carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygenation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Methylene chloride is an organic solvent with many industrial uses. Inhalation of methylene chloride fumes can result in toxicity, caused by hepatic biotransformation of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide. A case of acute methylene chloride poisoning is presented, including successful treatment of this patient with the use of hyperbaric oxygenation. The rationale for the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of methylene chloride poisoning is discussed. (aw)

Rudge, F.W.

1989-01-01

4

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are ... mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

5

Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Authority  

E-print Network

Waste Management, Fire Protection, Radiation Safety, Insurance Services, Hazard Communication, AccidentMETHYLENE CHLORIDE MANAGEMENT PLAN #12;#12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Date #12;ii Methylene Chloride Management Plan #12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Table of Contents

Rubloff, Gary W.

6

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is known to be metabolized to carbon monoxide in man and animals, primarily by the liver. Because the oxygen content of blood is decreased, depriving the brain and heart of the oxygen they require, serious permanent damage may result. Carboxyh...

7

An investigation of nonchlorinated substitute cleaning agents for methylene chloride  

SciTech Connect

Four nonchlorinated solvents, N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), arco solv DPM, Bio Act EC-7, and ethyl lactate, were evaluated as substitutes for the methylene chloride used as a cleaning solvent in a ceramic component production process. NMP showed a cleaning efficiency that was superior to the other nonchlorinated solvents and to methylene chloride. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Salerno, R.F.; Dichiaro, J.V.; Egleston, E.E.; Koons, J.W.

1990-01-29

8

THE MECHANISM OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

chloride with aqueous chloride solution and proposed the mechanism of the reaction!). The kinetics of the hydrolysis of methylene chloride has now been investigated over the pH range from ° to 12 under the same experimental conditions as those in the exchange reaction reported in the foregoing paper!). It has been found that the rate of the hydrolysis is approximately

Kozo TANABE; Masayuki MATSUDA

9

Permeation of protective clothing materials by methylene chloride and perchloroethylene.  

PubMed

The permeation of methylene chloride and perchloroethylene through seven protective clothing materials was studied to determine the permeation parameters, and to investigate the effect of solubility (polymer weight gain) and material thickness on the permeation parameters. The materials tested were two different nitrile rubbers, neoprene, Combination (a blend of natural rubber, neoprene and nitrile), two different polyvinyl chlorides, and polyvinyl alcohol. Methylene chloride permeated through all materials, except PVA, with breakthrough times in the range of 2 to 8 min, and permeation rates in the range of 1250-5800 micrograms/cm2 X min. PVA and unsupported nitrile offered good protection against perchloroethylene with breakthrough time occurring after 2 hr. Perchloroethylene permeated through the other materials with breakthrough times in the range of 8 to 36 min and permeation rates in the range of 200 to 1600 micrograms/cm2 X min. It was shown that for both chemicals, there is a correlation between the solubility (weight gain) and the ratio of permeation rate to breakthrough time (PR/BT). For all material/chemical pairs, an increase in solubility, increased (PR/BT). The change in material thickness had an effect on breakthrough time and permeation rate, but no effect on normalized breakthrough time. An increase in thickness reduced permeation rate and increased breakthrough time. PMID:3618477

Vahdat, N

1987-07-01

10

Lead and methylene chloride exposures among automotive repair technicians.  

PubMed

Potential exposures among repair technicians engaged in vehicle resurfacing operations prior to spray painting have not been thoroughly characterized. Environmental and personal air monitoring conducted in the State of Rhode Island have shown that automotive repair technicians may be exposed to metal particulates in sanding dust and methylene chloride vapors during vehicle paint removal operations. Hand wipe samples demonstrated that metals in sanding dust adhered to the hands of workers throughout the duration of the work day and were available for incidental ingestion from the handling of food/nonfood items and hand-to-mouth contact. A blood lead (PbB) screening effort among 21 workers at 2 facilities showed that 4 non-/less-exposed workers had mean PbB levels at the U.S. geometric mean of 2.8 microg/dL, while 2 out of 9 (22%) dedicated vehicle repair technicians had PbB levels at or above 30 microg Pb/dL whole blood--the level for potential adverse reproductive effects. Methylene chloride exposures were also found to exceed the Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) action level and permissible exposure limit (PEL) in a limited number of samples (120 and 26 ppm, integrated work shift samples). Our findings suggest that thousands of professional technicians and vocational high school students may be at increased risk of adverse reproductive and/or other systemic effects. PMID:15204886

Enander, Richard T; Cohen, Howard J; Gute, David M; Brown, Linfield C; Desmaris, Anne Marie C; Missaghian, Richard

2004-02-01

11

Secondary substrate ultilization of methylene chloride by an isolated strain of Pseudomonas sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary substrate utilization of methylene chloride was analyzed by using Pseudomonas sp. strain LP. Both batch and continuously fed reactors demonstrated that this strain was capable of simultaneously consuming two substrates at different concentrations: the primary substrate at the higher concentration (milligrams per liter) and the secondary substrate at the lower concentration (micrograms per liter). The rate of methylene chloride

L. T. Lapat-Polasko; P. L. McCarty; A. J. B. Zehnder

1984-01-01

12

Fatal exposure to methylene chloride among bathtub refinishers - United States, 2000-2011.  

PubMed

In 2010, the Michigan Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program conducted an investigation into the death of a bathtub refinisher who used a methylene chloride-based paint stripping product marketed for use in aircraft maintenance. The program identified two earlier, similar deaths in Michigan. Program staff members notified CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which in turn notified the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition to the three deaths, OSHA identified 10 other bathtub refinisher fatalities associated with methylene chloride stripping agents that had been investigated in nine states during 2000-2011. Each death occurred in a residential bathroom with inadequate ventilation. Protective equipment, including a respirator, either was not used or was inadequate to protect against methylene chloride vapor, which has been recognized as potentially fatal to furniture strippers and factory workers but has not been reported previously as a cause of death among bathtub refinishers. Worker safety agencies, public health agencies, methylene chloride-based stripper manufacturers, and trade organizations should communicate the extreme hazards of using methylene chloride-based stripping products in bathtub refinishing to employers, workers, and consumers. Employers should strongly consider alternative methods of bathtub stripping and always ensure worker safety protections that reduce the risk for health hazards to acceptable levels. Employers choosing to use methylene chloride-based stripping products must comply with OSHA's standard to limit methylene chloride exposures to safe levels. PMID:22357403

2012-02-24

13

Methylene chloride exposure and birthweight in Monroe County, New York  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the relationship between birthweight and exposure to emissions of methylene chloride (DCM) from manufacturing processes of the Eastman Kodak Company at Kodak Park in Rochester, Monroe County, New York. County census tracts were categorized as exposed to high, moderate, low or no DCM based on the Kodak Air Monitoring Program (KAMP) model, a theoretical dispersion model of DCM developed by Eastman Kodak Company. Birthweight and information on variables known to influence birthweight were obtained from 91,302 birth certificates of white singleton births to Monroe County residents from 1976 to 1987. No significant adverse effects of exposure to DCM on birthweight were found. Adjusted birthweight in high exposure census tracts was 18.7 g less than in areas with no exposure (95% confidence interval for the difference between high and no exposure - 51.6, 14.2 g). Problems inherent in the method of estimation of exposure, which may decrease power or bias the results, are discussed. Better methods to estimate exposure to emissions from multiple industrial point sources are needed.

Bell, B.P.; Franks, P.; Hildreth, N.; Melius, J. (Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York (USA))

1991-06-01

14

Interim Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical paint stripper that include methylene chloride and phenol have been extensively used to remove polymer coatings from metallic substrates. These strippers are inexpensive and remove polymeric organic coatings quickly and easily from a variety of m...

C. N. Young, C. R. Clayton, J. H. Wynne, J. P. Yesinowski, K. E. Watson

2010-01-01

15

Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical paint strippers that include methylene chloride and phenol have been extensively used to remove coatings from metallic substrates. These strippers are inexpensive and remove polymeric organic coatings quickly and easily from a variety of metallic...

C. N. Young, C. R. Clayton, J. H. Wynne, J. P. Yesinowski, K. E. Watson

2011-01-01

16

COMPARATIVE RENAL AND HEPATOTOXICITY OF HALOMETHANES: BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. BROMOFORM, CHLOROFORM, DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The subchronic renal and hepatotoxicities of five selected halomethanes, which are drinking water contaminants, were evaluated following a 14-day exposure period. Bromodichloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, dibromochloromethane and methylene chloride were administered at three d...

17

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...significant increase in benign and malignant tumors of the lung and liver of male and female mice. Based on these findings and on...of methylene chloride in cosmetic products poses a significant cancer risk to consumers, and that the use of this ingredient in...

2010-04-01

18

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...significant increase in benign and malignant tumors of the lung and liver of male and female mice. Based on these findings and on...of methylene chloride in cosmetic products poses a significant cancer risk to consumers, and that the use of this ingredient in...

2011-04-01

19

SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulo...

20

Rapid Fixation of Methylene Chloride by a Macrocyclic Amine Jung-Jae Lee, Keith J. Stanger, Bruce C. Noll, Carlos Gonzalez, Manuel Marquez, and  

E-print Network

with the macrocyclic ether oxygens.4 The macrocyclic nitrogen attacks the methylene chloride with a classic SN2 by methylene chloride, but the reaction is very slow with half-lives of many weeks to several months.2 Here, we to give the quaternary ammonium salt 2. Initially, we studied the reaction using methylene chloride

Smith, Bradley D.

21

Power absorption coefficient constants for water, acetonitrile, and methylene chloride at far infrared wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of multiple internal reflections within the windows of an optical cell is analysed using Abele's matrix method. The Beer-Lambert power law is modified by the standing waves formed in between the cell and the detector. Power absorption coefficient of a material is calculated by a fit to the modified version of the equation. Precise ? values for water, acetonitrile and methylene chloride are calculated at far infrared wavelengths using a molecular laser source.

Vij, J. K.

1989-07-01

22

Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors  

PubMed Central

Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as effective, might transfer risk and/or not be integrated with financial goals. However, technical assistance sensitive to environmental and health and safety impacts as well as production issues should be provided to guide companies' source reduction efforts. PMID:12904266

Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

2003-01-01

23

Comparison of methylene chloride and chloroform for the extraction of fats from food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten food products with a wide range of total fat, fatty acid and sterol content were obtained from a supermarket in the Washington,\\u000a DC area. These food products were extraced by a new method, using methylene chloride\\/methanol as the extraction solvent. The\\u000a results were compared to the Folch et al. procedure, in which chloroform\\/methanol is the extraction solvent. Total fat

I. S. Chen; C.-S. J. SHEN; A. J. Sheppard

1981-01-01

24

Effects of methanol, cyclohexane and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa on various gastric ulcer models in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical studies have revealed that Bidens pilosa is used in the traditional management of wounds and chronic gastro–duodenal ulcers. This led us to screen the methanol, cyclohexane and methylene chloride extracts of the plant for anti-ulcerogenic activity using the HCl\\/ethanol gastric necrotizing solution. The methylene chloride extract, which showed the highest activity (100% inhibition) at a dose of 750 mg\\/kg

Paul V Tan; Théophile Dimo; Etienne Dongo

2000-01-01

25

Reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine/methylene chloride/n-hexane  

SciTech Connect

The trioctylamine (TOA)/methylene chloride (MC)/n-hexane system was used as the extraction agent for the extraction of lactic acid. Curves of equilibrium and hydration were obtained at various temperatures and concentrations of TOA. A modified mass action model was proposed to interpret the equilibrium and the hydration curves. The reaction mechanism and the corresponding parameters which best represent the equilibrium data were estimated, and the concentration of water in the organic phase was predicted by inserting the parameters into the simple mathematical equation of the modified model. The concentration of MC and the change of temperature were important factors for the extraction and the stripping process. The stripping was performed by a simple distillation which was a combination of temperature-swing regeneration and diluent-swing regeneration. The type of inactive diluent has no influence on the stripping. The stripping efficiencies were about 70%.

Han, D.H.; Hong, W.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Tajeon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

1996-04-01

26

Chemical Characterization of Sanding Dust and Methylene Chloride Usage in Automotive Refinishing: Implications for Occupational and Environmental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface preparation activities conducted during automotive refinishing present several potential human health and environmental risks. This study examines the chemical composition of vehicle sanding dust and the prevalence of methylene chloride use as a basis for evaluating potential chemical exposures in the work environment, fugitive environmental releases, and take-home toxics. This article reports on the findings of (1) a statewide

Richard T. Enander; David M. Gute; Howard J. Cohen; Linfield C. Brown; Anne Marie C. Desmaris; Richard Missaghian

2002-01-01

27

DEMONSTRATION OF N-METHYL PYRROLIDONE (NMP) AS A POLLUTION PREVENTION ALTERNATIVE TO PAINT STRIPPING WITH METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This objective of this paper is to demonstrate that NMP is a viable pollution prevention alternative to methylene chloride. Maine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB), Albany, GA, USA was the host site for the demonstration. MCLB's primary function is maintenance of military ground supp...

28

Methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue) induces autophagy and attenuates tauopathy in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

More than 30 neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease (AD), frontotemporal lobe dementia (FTD), and some forms of Parkinson disease (PD) are characterized by the accumulation of an aggregated form of the microtubule-binding protein tau in neurites and as intracellular lesions called neurofibrillary tangles. Diseases with abnormal tau as part of the pathology are collectively known as the tauopathies. Methylthioninium chloride, also known as methylene blue (MB), has been shown to reduce tau levels in vitro and in vivo and several different mechanisms of action have been proposed. Herein we demonstrate that autophagy is a novel mechanism by which MB can reduce tau levels. Incubation with nanomolar concentrations of MB was sufficient to significantly reduce levels of tau both in organotypic brain slice cultures from a mouse model of FTD, and in cell models. Concomitantly, MB treatment altered the levels of LC3-II, cathepsin D, BECN1, and p62 suggesting that it was a potent inducer of autophagy. Further analysis of the signaling pathways induced by MB suggested a mode of action similar to rapamycin. Results were recapitulated in a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy administered MB orally at three different doses for two weeks. These data support the use of this drug as a therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22361619

Congdon, Erin E; Wu, Jessica W; Myeku, Natura; Figueroa, Yvette H; Herman, Mathieu; Marinec, Paul S; Gestwicki, Jason E; Dickey, Chad A; Yu, W Haung; Duff, Karen E

2012-04-01

29

Methylene chloride intoxication in a furniture refinisher. A comparison of exposure estimates utilizing workplace air sampling and blood carboxyhemoglobin measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 35-year-old furniture refinisher came to the occupational medicine clinic with complaints of upper respiratory irritation, fatigue, and lightheadedness occurring on a daily basis after using a methylene chloride-containing paint stripper. Determinations of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) on three occasions showed an apparently linear elevation of COHb as a function of hours worked on the day of sampling. COHb levels predicted

Dennis Shusterman; Patricia Quinlan; Ruth Lowengart; James Cone

1990-01-01

30

Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods: Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results: M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions: The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity. PMID:20927244

Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dimo, Theophile; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

2010-01-01

31

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

32

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... in doses that are too high Overdoses of illegal drugs Carbon monoxide from gas appliances Household products, such as laundry powder or furniture polish Pesticides Indoor or outdoor plants Metals such as lead and mercury The effects of poisoning range from short-term illness to ...

33

Reactivation of plasma butyrylcholinesterase by pralidoxime chloride in patients poisoned by WHO class II toxicity organophosphorus insecticides.  

PubMed

Some clinicians assess the efficacy of pralidoxime in organophosphorus (OP) poisoned patients by measuring reactivation of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). However, the degree of BuChE inhibition varies by OP insecticide, and it is unclear how well oximes reactivate BuChE in vivo. We aimed to assess the usefulness of BuChE activity to monitor pralidoxime treatment by studying its reactivation after pralidoxime administration to patients with laboratory-proven World Health Organization (WHO) class II OP insecticide poisoning. Patient data were derived from 2 studies, a cohort study (using a bolus treatment of 1g pralidoxime chloride) and a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (comparing 2g pralidoxime over 20 min, followed by an infusion of 0.5 g/h, with placebo). Two grams of pralidoxime variably reactivated BuChE in patients poisoned by 2 diethyl OP insecticides, chlorpyrifos and quinalphos; however, unlike acetylcholinesterase reactivation, this reactivation was not sustained. It did not reactivate BuChE inhibited by the dimethyl OPs dimethoate or fenthion. The 1-g dose produced no reactivation. Pralidoxime produced variable reactivation of BuChE in WHO class II OP-poisoned patients according to the pralidoxime dose administered, OP ingested, and individual patient. The use of BuChE assays for monitoring the effect of pralidoxime treatment is unlikely to be clinically useful. PMID:24052565

Konickx, Lisa A; Worek, Franz; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Thiermann, Horst; Buckley, Nicholas A; Eddleston, Michael

2013-12-01

34

Simulation of the toxicokinetics of trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, styrene and n-hexane by a toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics model using experimental data.  

PubMed

The toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TKTD) model simulates the toxicokinetics of a chemical based on physiological data such as blood flow, tissue partition coefficients and metabolism. In this study, Andersen and Clewell's TKTD model was used with seven compartments and ten differential equations for calculating chemical balances in the compartments (Andersen and Clewell 1996, Workshop on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling and risk assessment, Aug. 5-16 at Colorado State University, U.S.A) . Using this model, the authors attempted to simulate the behavior of four chemicals: trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, styrene and n-hexane, and the results were evaluated. Simulations of the behavior of trichloroethylene taken in via inhalation and oral exposure routes were also done. The differences between simulations and measurements are due to the differences between the absorption rates of the exposure routes. By changing the absorption rates, the simulation showed agreement with the measured values. The simulations of the other three chemicals showed good results. Thus, this model is useful for simulating the behavior of chemicals for preliminary toxicity assessment. PMID:15793558

Nakayama, Yumiko; Kishida, Fumio; Nakatsuka, Iwao; Matsuo, Masatoshi

2005-01-01

35

Fluorescence Spectrometric Determination of Drugs Containing ?-Methylene Sulfone/Sulfonamide Functional Groups Using N1-Methylnicotinamide Chloride as a Fluorogenic Agent  

PubMed Central

A simple spectrofluorometric method has been developed, adapted, and validated for the quantitative estimation of drugs containing ?-methylene sulfone/sulfonamide functional groups using N1-methylnicotinamide chloride (NMNCl) as fluorogenic agent. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) (1), tinidazole (2), rofecoxib (3), and nimesulide (4) in pure forms, laboratory-prepared mixtures, pharmaceutical dosage forms, spiked human plasma samples, and in volunteer's blood. The method showed linearity over concentration ranging from 1 to 150??g/mL, 10 to 1000?ng/mL, 1 to 1800?ng/mL, and 30 to 2100?ng/mL for standard solutions of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and over concentration ranging from 5 to 150??g/mL, 10 to 1000?ng/mL, 10 to 1700?ng/mL, and 30 to 2350?ng/mL in spiked human plasma samples of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The method showed good accuracy, specificity, and precision in both laboratory-prepared mixtures and in spiked human plasma samples. The proposed method is simple, does not need sophisticated instruments, and is suitable for quality control application, bioavailability, and bioequivalency studies. Besides, its detection limits are comparable to other sophisticated chromatographic methods. PMID:21647288

Elokely, Khaled M.; Eldawy, Mohamed A.; Elkersh, Mohamed A.; El-Moselhy, Tarek F.

2011-01-01

36

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Poison Ivy Overview What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a very common plant found in most parts of the United States. ... This is because most people are allergic to poison ivy. Symptoms What does a poison ivy rash ...

37

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

38

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

...would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from...informs the employee of the risk to the employee's health from continued MC exposure...him or her at increased risk of impaired health from exposure to MC or...

2014-07-01

39

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...slightly soluble in water and completely miscible...be used to reduce environmental concentrations...104 °F). It is heavier than water with a specific...containers cool. Water spray may be used...for any additional plant safety and...

2010-07-01

40

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

...prescribed by paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a solvent in the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee...

2014-04-01

41

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... You can get poison ivy by touching the plant’s oils or something else that “urushiol” has touched. ... the sap oil that’s made by poison ivy plants that’s responsible for irritant reactions. It’s the same ...

42

Mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment\\u000a modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994–2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in\\u000a two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning.

M. Erguven; O. Yilmaz; M. Deveci; N. Aksu; F. Dursun; M. Pelit; N. Cebeci

2007-01-01

43

Kerosene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... by a health care provider. Do NOT give water or milk if the person is unconscious (has a decreased level of alertness). If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

44

Lacquer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

45

Ink poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Writing ink is a blend of: Dyes Pigments Solvents Water It is generally considered nonpoisonous. ... will give you further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers ...

46

Antifreeze poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Center at 1-800-222-1222. See also: Ethylene glycol poisoning ... Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little or ...

47

Methylene blue and iodine adsorption onto an activated desert plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although frequently less toxic than many colorless effluents, colored effluents are generally considered by the public as an indicator of pollution. The present investigation aimed at identifying the effectiveness of a local desert plant characteristic of Southwest Algeria and known as Salsolavermiculata, which was pyrolyzed and treated chemically with a 50% zinc chloride solution, to remove methylene blue and iodine.

B. Bestani; N. Benderdouche; B. Benstaali; M. Belhakem; A. Addou

2008-01-01

48

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

49

Caladium plant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... wings plant poisoning; Colocasia plant poisoning; Heart of Jesus plant poisoning; Texas Wonder plant poisoning ... For those who do not have severe oral contact with the plant, symptoms usually resolve within a few days. For those ...

50

Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... RSS Feed Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Search the Consumer Updates Section Consumer Updates by ... hours to several days after exposure to the plant oil found in the sap of these poisonous ...

51

Plant poisoning.  

PubMed

Each year over 100,000 exposures to toxic plants are reported to poison centers throughout the United States. Most of these exposures are of minimal toxicity largely because of the fact that they involve pediatric ingestions, which are of low quantity. The more serious poisonings usually involve adults who have either mistaken a plant as edible or have deliberately ingested the plant to derive perceived medicinal or toxic properties. The plants within this manuscript have been chosen because they have been documented to cause fatalities or account for emergency medicine visits. In this discussion, plants are grouped by their toxins rather than on the basis of their taxonomy. PMID:17482026

Froberg, Blake; Ibrahim, Danyal; Furbee, R Brent

2007-05-01

52

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments M - P Poison ivy Poison ivy, oak, and sumac Rash from poison ivy. ... to an emergency room immediately. Learn more about poison ivy: Poison ivy: Signs and symptoms Poison ivy: ...

53

Zigadenus Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of

Katherine L Heilpern

1995-01-01

54

Poisonous Contacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center;)

2010-04-09

55

Zigadenus poisoning.  

PubMed

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of the morbidity caused by ingestion of some Zigadenus species. PMID:7832360

Heilpern, K L

1995-02-01

56

Lead poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

1994-01-01

57

Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).  

PubMed

Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates. PMID:6451640

Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

1981-01-01

58

Crystal structures of 6-[(2-hydroxy-1,1-bishydroxymethylethylamino)methylene]-2, 4-dinitrocyclohexa-2, 4-dienone hydrate and complexes of copper(II) chloride and copper(II) nitrate with this ligand  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structures of 6-[(2-hydroxy-1,1-bishydroxymethylethylamino)methylene]-2, 4-dinitrocyclohexa-2, 4-dienone hydrate L . H{sub 2}O (I), chloro-(2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol-2-iminomethyl-4, 6-dinitrophenolo)aquacopper hydrate [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(L-H)Cl] . H{sub 2}O (II), and (2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol-2-iminomethyl-4,6-dinitrophenolo) aquacopper nitrate [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(L-H)]NO{sub 3} (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. It is established that the salicylidene fragment of azomethine L in the structure of compound I is in a quinoid tautomeric form. In the crystal, molecules L and water molecules are joined together by hydrogen bonds into two-dimensional layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. The copper atom in the structure of compound II coordinates the singly deprotonated tridentate molecule L (whose salicylidene fragment is in a benzenoid form), the chlorine ion, and the water molecule. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom is a distorted tetragonal pyramid. In the structure of compound III, the polymer chains are formed through the coordination bonds of the copper atom with two oxygen atoms of the amino alcohol fragment of azomethine L of the neighboring complex, which is related to the initial complex by the translation along the x axis. The coordination polyhedron of the central atom is an elongated tetragonal bipyramid. Polymers and nitro groups form a three-dimensional framework through hydrogen bonds.

Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)], E-mail: chumakov.xray@phys.asm.md; Tsapkov, V. I. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Jeanneau, E. [Universite Claude Bernard, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces (France); Bocelli, G. [National Research Council (IMEM-CNR), Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (Italy); Luneau, D. [Universite Claude Bernard, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces (France)

2006-07-15

59

House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

Keller, Rosanne

60

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

61

Pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant pesticide-produces oral ulcerations, followed by liver and renal toxicity, and is almost uniformly fatal. Physicians working in remote and rural areas need to be educated about early diagnosis and proper management using supportive care and antidotes, wherever available. PMID:18085124

Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

2007-01-01

62

Nitroethane poisoning from an artificial fingernail remover.  

PubMed

Confusion between acetone fingernail polish removers and artificial fingernail products containing acetonitrile and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine has resulted in pediatric morbidity and mortality. In the present case, a 20-month-old boy drank less than one ounce of Remove Artificial Nail Remover containing 100% nitroethane. In the emergency department he displayed cyanosis and 39% methemoglobinemia. Following intravenous methylene blue, the child's methemoglobin level dropped to 5.7% and he recovered uneventfully. Toxicity from nitroethane has not previously been reported in humans. Poison centers and emergency department personnel should be alert to another nail product which may be easily confused with acetone-containing nail polish removers. PMID:8007041

Hornfeldt, C S; Rabe, W H

1994-01-01

63

Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention  

PubMed Central

Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

Turner, T. J.

1982-01-01

64

Organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

Stay safe! Certain scenes and scenarios invite a greater degree of caution. Wear protective gear (Level B for decon) and make sure the patient is hazmat-naked prior to decontamination. Use tincture of green soap or household dishwashing soap to decontaminate your patient. Maintain the patient's airway using oral/nasal airways; intubate if indicated. Give high-flow oxygen by nonrebreather oxygen mask or, if intubated, with a bagh-valve mask. Treat for shock by maintaining the patient's body temperature, keeping them supine if they will tolerate it, and gaining i.v. access. Administer oxygen, atropine, pralidoxime chloride and diazepam as required. Notify the ED and transport rapidly. If it is a terrorist incident, get your patient and get out. PMID:12440317

Gerald, Daniel R

2002-11-01

65

Poison Ivy Dermatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

66

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

67

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

68

Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.  

PubMed

Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

1993-01-01

69

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

1981-12-01

70

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... tachycardia after alternative treatment with cesium chloride for brain cancer. Mayo Clin Proc . 2004:79(8);1065-1069. ... Zero efficacy with cesium chloride self-treatment for brain cancer. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79:1588. Sartori HE. ...

71

Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

2008-01-01

72

Methylene blue and iodine adsorption onto an activated desert plant.  

PubMed

Although frequently less toxic than many colorless effluents, colored effluents are generally considered by the public as an indicator of pollution. The present investigation aimed at identifying the effectiveness of a local desert plant characteristic of Southwest Algeria and known as Salsolavermiculata, which was pyrolyzed and treated chemically with a 50% zinc chloride solution, to remove methylene blue and iodine. The natural plant adsorption capacities were respectively 23mg/g and 272mg/g for methylene blue and iodine. Corresponding results for the pyrolyzed plant uptakes were 53mg/g and 951mg/g, while those for the pyrolyzed plant, chemically treated and activated at 650 degrees C, were 130mg/g and 1178mg/g, respectively. In comparison, the standard Merck activated carbon capacities were 200mg/g for methylene blue and 950mg/g for iodine. Consequently, this low-cost local plant may also prove useful for the removal of large organic molecules as well as potential inorganic contaminants. PMID:18413283

Bestani, B; Benderdouche, N; Benstaali, B; Belhakem, M; Addou, A

2008-11-01

73

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

74

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

75

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.; Matthews, Sue; Pitcher, Grant; Van Der Vyver, Irma

2010-01-29

76

[Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].  

PubMed

Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice. PMID:9411893

Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

1997-09-30

77

Caulking compound poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If ...

78

Histamine fish poisoning revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (?50 mg\\/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the

Leigh Lehane; June Olley

2000-01-01

79

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

80

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

81

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem lead-based paint and industrial sites and smelters that use or produce lead-contain- ing materials

82

Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

1986-01-01

83

Convenient synthesis of methylene bisthiocyanate as microbiocide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) is used as a biocide in the leather making industry. Commercial biocidal formulations containing a blend of 10% MBT (Methylene bisthiocyanate) and 10% TCMTB (2-Thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole are available. This blend of active ingredients combine the rapid antimicrobial action of MBT with the fungicidal properties of TCMTB. Such biocides are suitable for use over a wide range of tannery

Lakshmi Muthusubramanian; V. S. Sundara Rao; Rajat B. Mitra

2003-01-01

84

Spectrophotometric determination of Zineb (a dithiocarbamate fungicide) by the methylene blue method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Zineb in water and vegetables. The method is based on the liberation of hydrogen sulphide from Zineb, which is trapped in an absorbing solution of triethanolamine, sodium hydroxide and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. The absorbing solution is treated with N-N-dimethyl-p-phenylene diamine sulphonate and ferric chloride to form methylene blue. Beer's law

V. Agrawal; P. Shivhare; V. K. Gupta

1992-01-01

85

Homicide by poisoning.  

PubMed

By studying the number and method of homicidal poisoning in Miami-Dade County, Florida; New York City, NY; Oakland County, Michigan; and Sweden, we have confirmed that this is an infrequently established crime.Several difficulties come with the detection of homicidal poisonings. Presenting symptoms and signs are often misdiagnosed as natural disease, especially if the crime is committed in a hospital environment, suggesting that an unknown number of homicides go undetected.In the reported cases analyzed, the lethal agent of choice has changed over the years. In earlier years, traditional poisons such as arsenic, cyanide, and parathion were frequently used. Such poisonings are nowadays rare, and instead, narcotics are more commonly detected in victims of this crime. PMID:23361068

Finnberg, Amanda; Junuzovic, Mensura; Dragovic, Ljubisa; Ortiz-Reyes, Ruben; Hamel, Marianne; Davis, Joseph; Eriksson, Anders

2013-03-01

86

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

87

Oven cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

88

Potassium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

89

The Poisons Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

Crawford, Barbara A.

1998-01-01

90

Dye remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... remover is a chemical used to remove dye stains. Dye remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this ... by IV Medicines to treat pain Oxygen Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Washing of the ...

91

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

92

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

93

Mineral spirits poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

94

Swimming pool cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances, touches the chemicals and acids in them, ... breathes in their fumes. Chlorine, a chemical in swimming pool cleaners, is more likely than the acids ...

95

Gloriosa superba poisoning.  

PubMed

Suicidal attempts by consuming poisonous extracts of a creeper plant Gloriosa superba are frequent in this region. An instance of such poisoning is reported here, wherein a family engaged in business dealing with this plant consumed the crude liquid extract of its root. The symptoms were mainly gastrointestinal. The children had more severe symptoms which included sweating, hypotension, jaundice, bradycardia and convulsions. The features were reversible with symptomatic treatment alone. PMID:1308494

Aleem, H M

1992-08-01

96

Poisonous Plant Management.  

E-print Network

parts of plant are nuttallii deathcamas weakness, low temperature, weak and poisonous, even when dry irregular pulse, irregular breathing, coma 11 County Extension Office ~ Texas Agricultural . Extension -':: Service The Texas A&M University System... parts of plant are nuttallii deathcamas weakness, low temperature, weak and poisonous, even when dry irregular pulse, irregular breathing, coma 11 County Extension Office ~ Texas Agricultural . Extension -':: Service The Texas A&M University System...

McGinty, Allan

1985-01-01

97

Dry cell battery poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries Manganese dioxide

98

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional poisoning if swallowed in large amounts.

99

Poison control center - emergency number  

MedlinePLUS

For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

100

Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... a poisonous plant: Immediately rinse skin with rubbing alcohol, poison plant wash, or degreasing soap (such as ... some protection. After use, clean tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and lots of water. Urushiol can ...

101

Methylene blue and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The relationship between methylene blue (MB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently attracted increasing scientific attention since it has been suggested that MB may slow down the progression of this disease. In fact, MB, in addition to its well characterized inhibitory actions on the cGMP pathway, affects numerous cellular and molecular events closely related to the progression of AD. Currently, MB has been shown to attenuate the formations of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and to partially repair impairments in mitochondrial function and cellular metabolism. Furthermore, various neurotransmitter systems (cholinergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic), believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of AD and other cognitive disorders, are also influenced by MB. Recent studies suggest that the combination of diverse actions of MB on these cellular functions is likely to mediate potential beneficial effects of MB. This has lead to attempts to develop novel MB-based treatment modalities for AD. In this review article, actions of MB on neurotransmitter systems and multiple cellular and molecular targets are summarized with regard to their relevance to AD. PMID:19433072

Oz, Murat; Lorke, Dietrich E; Petroianu, George A

2009-10-15

102

[Electronic poison information management system].  

PubMed

We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

2013-01-01

103

Acute blasticidin S poisoning.  

PubMed

Blasticidin S is an effective fungicidal aminocylonucleoside antibiotic against a rice blast disease. We presented the first 4 reported cases of acute poisoning from ingesting blasticidin S for suicidal attempts. Three of the patients were fatal. The symptoms observed in the patients included vomiting immediately after ingestion and severe, persistent, watery diarrhea. The toxic effects of blasticidin S were noted in ectodermal tissues including the skin, conjunctiva, cornea, and intestine. Massive loss of intestinal fluid resulted in progressively pronounced hypotension associated with tachycardia. The treatment of choice for the poisoning consists of intravenous fluid administration and the management of body water and electrolyte balance. PMID:3824882

Yamashita, M; Nakamura, K; Naito, H; Suzuki, H; Tsuchiya, T; Hattori, T; Iwasaki, M; Eguchi, J

1987-02-01

104

Mushroom Poisoning in Canada  

PubMed Central

At least 150 cases of mushroom poisoning occur in Canada each year, 75% in the Province of Ontario. Eighty per cent of the total are in children under the age of 9, and most do not require hospitalization. Amanita virosa poisoning is a potentially fatal medical emergency which presents as an acute gastroenteritis, progressing to hepatorenal failure. Treatment consists of elimination of undigested mushrooms, rapid rehydration, management of acute liver and renal failure, and prevention of infection during the recovery phase. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5445050

Lough, John; Kinnear, D. G.

1970-01-01

105

Poisoning and epidemiology: 'toxicoepidemiology'.  

PubMed

1. There is little hypothesis-testing clinical research performed in toxicology. Randomized clinical trials are rare and most observational studies are performed on highly selected patients and are subject to marked bias. Thus, for many poisonings, our approach has been based almost entirely on deduction from known pharmacological/toxicological effects, generalizations from drugs within the same therapeutic class, animal data and case reports. This is also far from satisfactory, as many toxicological mechanisms are poorly understood and not related to the therapeutic class. 2. Although we need much better data to address the clinical and public health aspects of poisoning, there are many practical and ethical reasons why randomized clinical trials are difficult in this field. However, the scope for observational research, in particular population-based clinical epidemiology, is almost unlimited. The collection of data on human poisoning is facilitated because most non-fatal overdoses are admitted to hospital and by legal requirements to report to the coroner deaths that are due to poisoning. In the present article I argue that 'toxicoepidemiology', meaning the application of epidemiological methods to the problem of acute poisoning, is the best means we have of addressing deficiencies in our knowledge of poisoning. 3. Examples are given of a variety of observational research strategies, ranging from audit to meta-analysis, that may be applied to clinical toxicology. From coronial and clinical data obtained from reasonably well-defined populations, it has been possible to identify a number of previously unrecognized differences in the severity and spectrum of toxicity between and within drug classes. Also, the demographic risk factors for poisoning and the reproducibility, validity and optimal use of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions can be assessed. 4. The major limitations to the range of associations and interventions that may be studied are the need to achieve adequate power to study uncommon outcomes or poisonings and the ability to replicate findings at other centres using similar methodology. The expansion of data collection to other centres has the potential largely to overcome these obstacles. PMID:9590568

Buckley, N A

1998-01-01

106

Process for crosslinking methylene-containing aromatic polymers with ionizing radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for crosslinking aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups (-CH2-) by exposing the polymers to ionizing radiation thereby causing crosslinking of the polymers through the methylene groups is described. Crosslinked polymers are resistant to most organic solvents such as acetone, alcohols, hydrocarbons, methylene, chloride, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons, to common fuels and to hydraulic fluids in contrast to readily soluble uncrosslinked polymers. In addition, the degree of crosslinking of the polymers depends upon the percentage of the connecting groups which are methylene which ranges from 5 to 50 pct and preferably from 25 to 50 pct of the connecting groups, and is also controlled by the level of irradiation which ranges from 25 to 1000 Mrads and preferably from 25 to 250 Mrads. The temperature of the reaction conditions ranges from 25 to 200 C and preferably at or slightly above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The crosslinked polymers are generally more resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures such as greater than 150 C, have a reduced tendency to creep under load, and show no significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from the polymers.

Bell, Vernon L. (inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (inventor)

1990-01-01

107

LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION  

E-print Network

issues (4,5). In very extreme cases, it can cause seizures or death. A blood lead concentration for Environmental Health, Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch Search engine keywords: CDC lead and Quarantine Search engine keywords: CDC international adoption immigrant health Child Welfare Information

108

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

109

Acute Paracetamol Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 41 cases of acute paracetamol poisoning one died of gastrointestinal haemorrhage and acute massive necrosis of the liver, three became jaundiced, and 13 others had biochemical evidence of hepatocellular damage. Liver damage is a toxic effect which is present in most patients who ingest more than 15 g. of paracetamol. One patient with liver damage survived renal failure due

A. T. Proudfoot; N. Wright

1970-01-01

110

Animals and Poisonous Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

WITH reference to Mr. Bennett's inquiry as to the consumption of poisonous berries by birds, I remember a young blackbird, some years back, who used to frequent the garden of the house in which I was staying, and who eagerly swallowed the berries of the Daphne mezereum. He was rather tame and would take them when I threw them to

Edward M. Langley

1898-01-01

111

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-05-28

112

[Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].  

PubMed

In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

Oztekin-Mat, A

1994-01-01

113

[Poisoning by bee sting].  

PubMed

Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

2005-01-01

114

Oak Poisoning in Livestock.  

E-print Network

(19). "Tannin" is a generic name for a group of complex ~tructures widely distributed in the higher plants. The )tanninsu yield gallic acid when subjected to acid Ilysis. Commercial "tannic acid" is an example of a snnin and is obtained from... of o:k poisoning were observed. - Purified shin oak tannin and commercial tannic acid \\we fed to rabbits in parallel studies. The serium tan- nin levels (1 8) (expressed as "tannic acid" equivalent) \\yere determined periodically. The times of death...

Dollahite, J. W.; Housholder, G. T.; Camp, B. J.

1966-01-01

115

Lead Poison Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

1976-01-01

116

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

117

[Puffer fish poisoning].  

PubMed

We report three cases of a collective tetrodotoxin poisoning, after ingestion of puffer fish eggs. This neurotoxin is the most potent membrane stabilizer, blocking the nervous conduction and resulting in death from respiratory paralysis in case of massive ingestion. The father died at admission, the mother and her daughter presented an acute respiratory failure and a flaccid tetraplegia, with favourable outcome after 24 hours. PMID:10782242

Ababou, A; Mosadik, A; Squali, J; Fikri, K O; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

2000-03-01

118

[Familial lead poisoning].  

PubMed

A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl. PMID:2519417

Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

1989-06-01

119

OXYGEN POISONING IN MAMMALS  

PubMed Central

1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined. PMID:19869294

Binger, Carl A. L.; Faulkner, James M.; Moore, Richmond L.

1927-01-01

120

Endrin-food-poisoning  

PubMed Central

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end. PMID:5301732

Weeks, D. E.

1967-01-01

121

Texas Plants Poisonous to Livestock.  

E-print Network

to death. Plants that interfere with growth in weight or milk produc- tion are included. Loss from poisonous plants is one of the major economic problems in livestock production. A compilation of numer- ous reports indicates that the .annual loss from... nursing. Prevention of poisoning should be practiced when possible. Since certain plants are more poisonous to one type of animal than to another, a change in kind of livestock may be in order. Reduction of weed population and improvement of desirable...

Sperry, Omer Edison

1964-01-01

122

Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer  

E-print Network

Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer Ai-Ling Lin1,2 *, Ethan Poteet3, methylene blue (MB) is an effective neuroprotectant in many neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson, Liu R, et al. (2012) Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer. PLoS ONE 7

Duong, Timothy Q.

123

Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-print Network

Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Lora Talley Watts,1 of death and disability worldwide. Methylene blue (MB) has known energy-enhancing and antioxidant injury. As such, mitochondria have become an important target for neuroprotection in TBI.2,3 Methylene

Duong, Timothy Q.

124

Photoacoustic lifetime contrast between methylene blue monomers and self-  

E-print Network

Photoacoustic lifetime contrast between methylene blue monomers and self- quenched dimers/03/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Photoacoustic lifetime contrast between methylene blue-state lifetime of methylene blue (MB), a fluorophore widely used in clinical therapeutic and diagnostic

Thomas, David D.

125

“Lest we forget you — methylene blue?…”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue (MB), the first synthetic drug, has a 120-year-long history of diverse applications, both in medical treatments and as a staining reagent. In recent years there was a surge of interest in MB as an antimalarial agent and as a potential treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly through its inhibition of the aggregation of tau

R. Heiner Schirmer; Heike Adler; Marcus Pickhardt; Eckhard Mandelkow

2011-01-01

126

Reduction of methylene blue by bacillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene Blue (MB) was specifically decolorized by growing cells of Bacillus subtilis IFO 13719, B. pumilus IFO 12092, B. licheniformis IFO 12200 and B. circulans IFO 13626, although it was not decolorized by B. subtilis IFO 3022. A reaction product of MB was identified as leuco MB by TLC. The product was ultimately oxidized by air since it was not

C. Yatome; T. Ogawa

1995-01-01

127

Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence. PMID:25339866

Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R.; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

2014-01-01

128

Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs. PMID:11348810

Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

2001-06-01

129

Cap mushroom poisonings.  

PubMed

This paper presents species of fungi of high toxicity. Their consumption might have serious consequences for health and in many cases it might lead to death. Toxic compounds present in fungi have also been characterised, mechanisms of their toxic activity have been presented and clinical symptoms of poisoning have been described. Hallucinogenic mushrooms have also been mentioned as they have recently become a serious problem: many people use them to intoxicate themselves. There are also species of mushrooms that can be consumed under certain conditions since they can occasionally trigger off serious disturbances for the functioning of organisms. PMID:16145968

Gromysz-Ka?kowska, Kazimiera; Szubartowska, Ewa; Wójcik, Kazimiera

2004-01-01

130

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-06-30

131

Ethylene glycol poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although an uncommon cause of death in Great Britain, ethylene glycol poisoning is potentially serious in that renal and cardiopulmonary failure and central nervous system dysfunction can occur when doses of the order of 100 ml or more are ingested. A case is described in which a child who swallowed approximately 100 ml of ethylene glycol was treated by prolonged peritoneal dialysis. In addition, measures were taken to correct a marked acidosis. Substantial amounts of ethylene glycol were removed by the dialysis fluid and the child made a complete physical and mental recovery. PMID:981106

Vale, J. A.; Widdop, B.; Bluett, N. H.

1976-01-01

132

Mushroom Poisoning-an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many thousands of mushroom species in the world, some are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. The edible mushroom is a common food item with tempting flavour, taste and nutritive value; nowadays quite often grown at home and cultured with commercial marketing. Mushroom poisoning usually results from ingestion of wild mushrooms due to misidentification

B. S. Patowary

2010-01-01

133

Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate. PMID:21575287

2011-01-01

134

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-01-01

135

Oxygen Poisoning in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Fruit flies live longer at the partial pressure of oxygen found in air than at either larger or smaller partial pressures. Flies exposed to 1 atm of oxygen for 8 hr every day do not recover completely in the remaining 16 hr. In general, intermittent exposures to 1 atm of oxygen are better tolerated than continuous exposure to the same average oxygen concentration per day, but exposures to higher pressures of 2–5 atm of oxygen for as little as a half hour every two days markedly shorten the life-span. Older flies consume more oxygen per minute and are more sensitive to oxygen poisoning than young flies, and the rate of dying in 6 atm of O2, or the reciprocal of the survival time, is a linear function of the age. The oxygen pressure-time curve can be well expressed by the general empirical equation (POO2)2 x time = 120 where P is in atmosphere and survival time in hours. The progress of oxygen poisoning appears to be linear with time rather than exponential. PMID:6034764

Fenn, Wallace O.; Henning, Marcia; Philpott, Mary

1967-01-01

136

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning.  

PubMed

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-04-01

137

Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

2003-05-01

138

"Lest we forget you--methylene blue...".  

PubMed

Methylene blue (MB), the first synthetic drug, has a 120-year-long history of diverse applications, both in medical treatments and as a staining reagent. In recent years there was a surge of interest in MB as an antimalarial agent and as a potential treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly through its inhibition of the aggregation of tau protein. Here we review the history and medical applications of MB, with emphasis on recent developments. PMID:21316815

Schirmer, R Heiner; Adler, Heike; Pickhardt, Marcus; Mandelkow, Eckhard

2011-12-01

139

Polyimides from a methylene-bridged dianhydride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-molecular weight, high-temperature, highly optically transparent films suitable for electronic and aerospace applications were prepared based on a novel methylene-bridged dianhydride 3,3-prime bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy) diphenylmethane dianhydride (PDMDA). All films had lower dielectric constants and significantly higher optical transparency than the commercial Kapton H film, with air-cured films having slightly higher dielectric constants and lower optical transparency than vacuum films, due to oxidative cross-linking.

Boston, Harold G.; St. Clair, Anne K.; Pratt, J. R.; Hubbard, T.

1990-01-01

140

The Mechanochemical Reaction of Palladium(II) Chloride with a Bidentate Phosphine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment describes the reaction of palladium(II) chloride with 1,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)pentane by grinding the two powders together in the solid state. The product is the precursor for the metalation reaction at one of the methylene carbon atoms of the ligand's backbone. The final product is known to be a catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura…

Berry, David E.; Carrie, Philippa; Fawkes, Kelli L.; Rebner, Bruce; Xing, Yao

2010-01-01

141

Poisoning mortality, 1985-1995.  

PubMed Central

Poisoning was reported as the underlying cause of death for 18,549 people in the United States in 1995 and was ranked as the third leading cause of injury mortality, following deaths from motor vehicle traffic injuries and firearm injuries. Poisoning was the leading cause of injury death for people ages 35 to 44 years. Poisoning death rates were higher in 1995 than in any previous year since at least 1979. From 1990 to 1995, the age-adjusted rate of death from poisoning increased 25%; all of the increase was associated with drugs. About three-fourths of poisoning deaths (77%) in 1995 were caused by drugs. The age-adjusted rate of drug-related poisoning deaths for males (7.2 per 100,000) in 1995 was more than twice that for females (3.0 per 100,000). From 1985 to 1995, poisoning death rates for males ages 35-54 years nearly doubled to 20.4 per 100,000, and the drug-related poisoning death rate for males ages 35-54 years nearly tripled, reaching 16.1 per 100,000. From 1990 to 1995, death rates associated with opiates and cocaine more than doubled among males ages 35-54 years. The numbers of opiate and cocaine poisoning deaths for 1995 more than doubled when all multiple cause of death codes were examined instead of only the underlying cause of death codes. Images p217-a p217-b p218-a p219-a PMID:9633866

Fingerhut, L A; Cox, C S

1998-01-01

142

Extended orientational correlation study for molecular liquids containing distorted tetrahedral molecules: Application to methylene halides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of Rey [Rey, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164506 (2007)] for describing how molecules orient toward each other in systems with perfect tetrahedral molecules is extended to the case of distorted tetrahedral molecules of c2v symmetry by means of introducing 28 subgroups. Additionally, the original analysis developed for perfect tetrahedral molecules, based on six groups, is adapted for molecules with imperfect tetrahedral shape. Deriving orientational correlation functions have been complemented with detailed analyses of dipole-dipole correlations. This way, (up to now) the most complete structure determination can be carried out for such molecular systems. In the present work, these calculations have been applied for particle configurations resulting from reverse Monte Carlo computer modeling. These particle arrangements are fully consistent with structure factors from neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements. Here we present a complex structural study for methylene halide (chloride, bromide, and iodide) molecular liquids, as possibly the best representative examples. It has been found that the most frequent orientations of molecules are of the 2:2 type over the entire distance range in these liquids. Focusing on the short range orientation, neighboring molecules turn toward each other with there ``H,Y''-``H,Y'' (Y: Cl, Br, I) edges, apart from CH2Cl2 where the H,H-H,Cl arrangement is the most frequent. In general, the structure of methylene chloride appears to be different from the structure of the other two liquids.

Pothoczki, Szilvia; Temleitner, László; Pusztai, László

2010-04-01

143

[Nitrofuran poisoning in veal calves].  

PubMed

Prolonged administration of furazolidone to calves may give rise to chronic furazolidone poisoning: retardation of growth, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, occasionally changing into haemorrhagic diathesis. In acute nitrofuran poisoning neurological signs are observed as a consequence of monoamine oxidase inhibition. Five incidents of acute nitrofuran poisoning on veal calf farms are reported in the present paper, each with a mortality rate varying frm 46.7 per cent ot 70 per cent. Ten times the recommended dose of furazolidone or furadoltone was administered in each case. PMID:6845339

Postema, H J

1983-03-15

144

Metformin poisoning: A complex presentation.  

PubMed

The objective of this case report is to highlight presentation, complications and treatment of metformin poisoning. Patient after ingestion of 45gms of metformin developed colicky abdominal pain, severe tachypnea and vomiting. He developed severe lactic acidosis, cardiac arrest, pancreatitis and hemolytic anemia which was treated with charcoal, sodium bicarbonate, early initiation of high volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration and supportive therapy. Metformin poisoning is a rare presentation and we discuss course of events in the management of metformin poisoning and its associated complications. PMID:21712882

Jagia, Manish; Taqi, Salah; Hanafi, Mahmud

2011-03-01

145

Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED). Design A statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into substance categories. Using a reproducible algorithm facilitated by probabilistic linkage, codes from the PCC classification system were mapped into the same categories. A readily identifiable subset of PCC calls was selected for comparison. Measurements Correlations between frequencies of quarterly exposures by substance categories were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients with adjustment for seasonality. Results PCC reported exposures correlated with ED poisonings in nine of 10 categories. Partial correlation coefficients (rp) indicated strong associations (rp>0.8) for three substance categories that underwent large changes in their incidences (opiates, benzodiazepines, and muscle relaxants). Six substance categories were moderately correlated (rp>0.6). One category, salicylates, showed no association. Limitations Imperfect overlap between ICD-9 and PCC codes may have led to miscategorization. Substances without changes in exposure frequency have inadequate variability to detect association using this method. Conclusion PCC data are able to effectively identify trends in poisonings seen in EDs and may be useful as part of a pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance system. The authors developed an algorithm-driven technique for mapping American Association of Poison Control Centers codes to ICD-9 codes and identified a useful subset of poison control exposures for analysis. PMID:21422101

Olsen, Cody S; Dean, J Michael; Olson, Lenora M; Cook, Lawrence J; Keenan, Heather T

2011-01-01

146

[Accidental poisoning and test for it].  

PubMed

There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems. PMID:20821840

Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

2008-11-30

147

10 "Poison Pills" for Pets  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed for someone ... medications used in both animals and people, the effects, doses needed, and other ...

148

Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.  

PubMed

A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing. PMID:23799386

Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

2013-05-10

149

Poison Prevention Tips for Babysitters  

MedlinePLUS

... drops laundry products nail polish products and other cosmetics batteries bug and weed killers cigarettes alcohol mouthwash ... can be poisonous, such as a medicine or cosmetics in a purse, make sure to put your ...

150

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the United States, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands). For health care professionals: To search EPA's Pesticide ... to tell whether the person is suffering from heat exhaustion or pesticide poisoning. The table below compares ...

151

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

152

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

153

Accidental poisoning in young children.  

PubMed Central

Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

1982-01-01

154

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

155

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of methylene blue active substances by spectrophotometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of methylene blue active substances in whole-water samples by liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric detection is described. Sulfate and sulfonate-based surfectants are reacted with methylene blue to form a blue-colored complex. The complex is extracted into chloroform, back-washed with an acidified phosphate-based buffer solution, and measured against external standards with a probe spectrophotometer. The method detection limt for routine analysis is 0.02 milligram per liter. The precision is plus/minus 10 percent relative standard deviation. The positive bias from nitrate and chloride and U.S. Geological Survey method O-3111-83 for methylene blue active substances is minized by adding a back-washing step.

Burkhardt, Mark R.; Cinotto, Pete J.; Frahm, Galen W.; Woodworth, Mark T.; Pritt, Jeffrey W.

1995-01-01

156

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

157

40 CFR 721.10581 - Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) (generic).  

...2014-07-01 false Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...Substances § 721.10581 Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...identified generically as brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene...

2014-07-01

158

Treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Calcium channel blocker poisoning is a common and sometimes life-threatening ingestion. Objective. To evaluate the reported effects of treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and hemodynamic parameters. The secondary outcomes included length of stay in hospital, length of stay in intensive care unit, duration of vasopressor use, functional outcomes, and serum calcium channel blocker concentrations. Methods. Medline/Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, TOXLINE, International pharmaceutical abstracts, Google Scholar, and the gray literature up to December 31, 2013 were searched without time restriction to identify all types of studies that examined effects of various treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning for the outcomes of interest. The search strategy included the following Keywords: [calcium channel blockers OR calcium channel antagonist OR calcium channel blocking agent OR (amlodipine or bencyclane or bepridil or cinnarizine or felodipine or fendiline or flunarizine or gallopamil or isradipine or lidoflazine or mibefradil or nicardipine or nifedipine or nimodipine or nisoldipine or nitrendipine or prenylamine or verapamil or diltiazem)] AND [overdose OR medication errors OR poisoning OR intoxication OR toxicity OR adverse effect]. Two reviewers independently selected studies and a group of reviewers abstracted all relevant data using a pilot-tested form. A second group analyzed the risk of bias and overall quality using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) checklist and the Thomas tool for observational studies, the Institute of Health Economics tool for Quality of Case Series, the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines, and the modified NRCNA (National Research Council for the National Academies) list for animal studies. Qualitative synthesis was used to summarize the evidence. Of 15,577 citations identified in the initial search, 216 were selected for analysis, including 117 case reports. The kappa on the quality analysis tools was greater than 0.80 for all study types. Results. The only observational study in humans examined high-dose insulin and extracorporeal life support. The risk of bias across studies was high for all interventions and moderate to high for extracorporeal life support. High-dose insulin. High-dose insulin (bolus of 1 unit/kg followed by an infusion of 0.5-2.0 units/kg/h) was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and lower mortality, at the risks of hypoglycemia and hypokalemia (low quality of evidence). Extracorporeal life support. Extracorporeal life support was associated with improved survival in patients with severe shock or cardiac arrest at the cost of limb ischemia, thrombosis, and bleeding (low quality of evidence). Calcium, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These agents improved hemodynamic parameters and survival without documented severe side effects (very low quality of evidence). 4-Aminopyridine. Use of 4-aminopyridine was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and survival in animal studies, at the risk of seizures. Lipid emulsion therapy. Lipid emulsion was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and survival in animal models of intravenous verapamil poisoning, but not in models of oral verapamil poisoning. Other studies. Studies on decontamination, atropine, glucagon, pacemakers, levosimendan, and plasma exchange reported variable results, and the methodologies used limit their interpretation. No trial was documented in humans poisoned with calcium channel blockers for Bay K8644, CGP 28932, digoxin, cyclodextrin, liposomes, bicarbonate, carnitine, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, PK 11195, or triiodothyronine. Case reports were only found for charcoal hemoperfusion, dialysis, intra-aortic balloon pump, Impella device and methylene blue. Conclusions. The treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning is supported by low-quality evidence drawn from a heterogeneous and heavily biased literature. High-dose

St-Onge, M; Dubé, P-A; Gosselin, S; Guimont, C; Godwin, J; Archambault, P M; Chauny, J-M; Frenette, A J; Darveau, M; Le Sage, N; Poitras, J; Provencher, J; Juurlink, D N; Blais, R

2014-11-01

159

The epidemiology and prevention of paraquat poisoning.  

PubMed

In the UK there was an increase in the annual number of deaths associated with paraquat poisoning between 1966 and 1975. Since that time there has been little change in numbers. High mortality is associated commonly with suicidal intent. Serious accidental poisoning from paraquat has never been frequent in the UK and there have been no deaths reported in children since 1977. The National Poisons Information Service has monitored in detail all reports of paraquat poisoning since 1980. Of the 1074 cases recorded there were 209 deaths. In recent years serious poisoning has been more commonly associated with ingestion of concentrated products by males. Local exposure to paraquat has not resulted in systemic poisoning. International data for paraquat poisoning is incomplete and difficult to compare. There is a scarcity of morbidity data at both international and national levels. Information obtained from Poison Control Centres indicates that paraquat poisoning occurs in many countries but detailed comparisons are hindered by lack of standardised methods of recording. Various measures to prevent paraquat poisoning have been introduced. Their effectiveness has not been studied in detail. Some support is provided by the low incidence of serious accidental paraquat poisoning in the UK, but because of the suicidal nature of paraquat poisoning it is unlikely that current preventative measures will influence the number of deaths occurring each year. Preventative measures against paraquat poisoning should be tailored to national needs, based on and assessed by epidemiological studies. PMID:3546083

Onyon, L J; Volans, G N

1987-01-01

160

Alsike clover poisoning: A review  

PubMed Central

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P. Nicholas

1989-01-01

161

Alsike clover poisoning: A review.  

PubMed

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as "alsike clover poisoning" and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933.This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of "alsike clover poisoning". The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P N

1989-05-01

162

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

163

Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Search the Consumer ... these products on Flickr. Signs and Symptoms of Mercury Poisoning irritability shyness tremors changes in vision or ...

164

[Acute poisoning with industrial products].  

PubMed

Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens. PMID:10748668

Garnier, R

2000-02-15

165

Stability of [(N-piperidine)methylene]daunorubicin hydrochloride and [(N-pyrrolidine)methylene]daunorubicin hydrochloride in solid state.  

PubMed

The influence of temperature and relative air humidity on the stability of two novel derivatives of daunorubicin: [(N-piperidine)methylene]daunorubicin hydrochloride and [(N-pyrrolidine)methylene]daunorubicin hydrochloride was investigated. The process of degradation was studied by using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (UV) detection. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of degradation were calculated. PMID:25265823

Medenecka, Beata; Zalewski, Przemys?aw; Kycler, Witold; Piekarski, Miko?aj; Lemiech, Weronika; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Jeli?ska, Anna

2014-01-01

166

Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.  

E-print Network

, Anthonomus grandis Boh., secures a lethal dose of poison on cotton plants dusted with any arsenical is of fundamental importance to the question of weevil control by the use of poisons under cotton-field conditions. The discouraging results..., Anthonomus grandis Boh., secures a lethal dose of poison on cotton plants dusted with any arsenical is of fundamental importance to the question of weevil control by the use of poisons under cotton-field conditions. The discouraging results...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

1933-01-01

167

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

168

National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

169

76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health Resources...SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer...Corporation d.b.a. the New York City Poison Control Center. These transfers are...

2011-02-18

170

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

171

Echocardiographic findings after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial lesions are frequently seen at necropsy after fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. Clinically, while there have been numerous reports of chest pain and electrocardiographic changes associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning, other evidence for left ventricular abnormality has not been reported. The echocardiographic findings in five cases of non-fatal poisoning are presented here. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion was shown

B C Corya; M J Black; P L McHenry

1976-01-01

172

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

173

Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 3: Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article is the third in a series on animal poisoning in Europe and represents a collation of published and non-published wildlife poisoning data from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last 10years. Birds, particularly waterfowl and raptors, were more commonly reported as victims of poisoning than wild mammals. In addition to specific but important toxicological disasters,

Raimon Guitart; Magda Sachana; Francesca Caloni; Siska Croubels; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Philippe Berny

2010-01-01

174

Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene  

E-print Network

Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in [Aspuru-Guzik et al., Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.

Libor Veis; Ji?í Pittner

2014-01-14

175

Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene.  

PubMed

Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions. PMID:24907994

Veis, Libor; Pittner, Ji?í

2014-06-01

176

Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.

Veis, Libor; Pittner, Ji?í

2014-06-01

177

Kinetics and mechanism of color removal of methylene blue with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by some supported alumina surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalyzed kinetics of the oxidative mineralization of the cationic dye methylene blue, phenothiazonium, 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)-chloride, with hydrogen peroxide were studied both in buffered and unbuffered solutions. The supported alumina catalysts used were in the form of copper(II), cobalt(II), manganese(II), and nickel(II)-ions. Also, some copper(II)-complexes were used, e.g. copper(II)-ammine ([Cu(amm)4]2+), copper(II)-ethylenediamine ([Cu(en)2]2+) and copper(II)-monoethanolamine ([Cu(mea)2]2+). The reaction is first order with

Ibrahim A. Salem; Mohamed S. El-Maazawi

2000-01-01

178

Of pills, plants, and paraquat: the relevance of poison centers in emergency medicine.  

PubMed

The organization and work of a poisons center are demonstrated on the basis of GIZ-Nord Poisons Center Annual Report for 2011. In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the indications for gastric lavage and the application of activated charcoal. Moreover the means of enhanced elimination are presented: hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, multi-dose activated charcoal and molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS). Gastric lavage is indicated within one hour after ingestion of a life-threatening dose of a poison. In intoxications with CNS penetrating substances gastric lavage should be performed only after endotracheal intubation due to the risk of aspiration. The basic management of the intoxicated patient by emergency medicine personnel out of hospital and on the way into the hospital is presented. The "Bremen List", a compilation of five antidotes (atropine, 4-DMAP, tolonium chloride, naloxone, activated charcoal) for the out of hospital treatment by emergency doctors is introduced. PMID:23245927

Schaper, Andreas; Ceschi, Alessandro; Deters, Michael; Kaiser, Guido

2013-03-01

179

Preoperative methylene blue staining of galactographically suspicious breast lesions.  

PubMed

Microdochectomy is the standard treatment of galactographically suspicious breast lesions. Precise preoperative marking of the suspicious duct and intraductal lesions facilitates selective minimal-volume microdochectomy. Methylene blue dye staining fulfills this criterion. A retrospective review of our experience of preoperative methylene blue staining in 30 patients with unilateral spontaneous nonlactiferous single duct nipple discharge operated on during 1986-1995 in the Oulu University Hospital for galactographically suspicious breast lesions. Galactography was successful in 29 out of 30 (93.3%) cases. Preoperative methylene blue staining was attempted in all cases on the day of surgery and it was successful in 22 (73.3%) cases making subsequent selective minimal-volume microdochectomy easy to perform. The failure of methylene blue staining led to quadrantectomy in 4 cases and smaller breast resections in the remaining 4 cases. Preoperative methylene blue dye staining crucially facilitates selective minimal-volume microdochectomy. An interval between primary galactography and later methylene blue staining leads to failures in approximately one quarter of the cases. A higher success rate would necessitate scheduling the microdochectomy on the same day as the primary galactography (and the subsequent methylene blue staining in suspicious cases). PMID:9412841

Saarela, A O; Kiviniemi, H O; Rissanen, T J

1997-01-01

180

Extractive spectrophotometric determination of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs using methylene blue.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)--namely diclofenac sodium, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac tromethamine, mefenamic acid, and naproxen-in pure forms as well as their pharmaceutical dosage forms (tablets, capsules, effervescent granules, syrups, oral drops, ampules, eye drops, gels, and suppositories). The method depends on the formation of an intensely colored ion-pair complex between the acidic drug and methylene blue in alkaline medium. The complex is stable and extractable into methylene chloride. All parameters were optimized. Beer-Lambert's law was obeyed in concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 9 microg/mL. Statistical analysis of the calibration data was carried out, and correlation coefficients were in the range from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The developed method was fully validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, and complied with U.S. Pharmacopeia guidelines. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations, and good recoveries were obtained. The results obtained were compared with those of reported and official methods, and no significant differences were found with t- and F-tests. Interference effects of some compounds usually present in combination with NSAIDs were studied, and the tolerance limits of these compounds were determined. PMID:24000745

El-Kommos, Michael E; Mohamed, Niveen A; Hakiem, Ahmed F Abdel

2013-01-01

181

Sarin poisoning in Matsumoto, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA presumed terrorist attack with sarin occurred in a residential area of the city of Matsumoto, Japan, on June 27, 1994. About 600 residents and rescue staff were poisoned; 58 were admitted to hospitals, and 7 died. We examined clinical and laboratory findings of 264 people who sought treatment and the results of health examinations on 155 residents done 3

N Yanagisawa; H Morita; T Nakajima; H Okudera; M Shimizu; H Hirabayashi; M Nohara; Y Midorikawa; S Mimura

1995-01-01

182

Drugs prescribed for self poisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 230 adults admitted for self poisoning over two months, 153 (67%) had previously been taking a total of 309 prescribed drugs. Of these patients, 119 (78%) had been given psychotropic drugs (usually benzodiazepines), 81 (53%) obtained them on repeat prescription, and 47 (31%) had been prescribed multiple psychotropic drugs, often in seemingly illogical combinations. The use of these drugs

L F Prescott; M S Highley

1985-01-01

183

Mercuric oxide poisoning treated with whole-bowel irrigation and chelation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reported cases of inorganic mercury poisoning are from mercuric chloride. We report a case of mercuric oxide (HgO) powder ingestion. A 31-year-old man presented to an emergency department after ingestion of approximately 40 g of HgO. Soon after ingestion, he developed nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramping. Abdominal radiograph revealed densely radiopaque material in the stomach. Gastrointestinal decontamination was accomplished

Binh T. Ly; Saralyn R. Williams; Richard F. Clark

2002-01-01

184

21 CFR 520.154a - Bacitracin methylene disalicylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...organisms susceptible to bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (iii) Limitations . Prepare a fresh solution daily. (2) Broiler and replacement chickens —(i) Amount. 100 mg per gal in drinking water. (A) Indications for use . Aid in...

2012-04-01

185

21 CFR 520.154a - Soluble bacitracin methylene disalicylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...organisms susceptible to bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (iii) Limitations . Prepare a fresh solution daily. (2) Broiler and replacement chickens —(i) Amount. 100 milligrams per gallon in drinking water. (A) Indications for use...

2011-04-01

186

21 CFR 520.154a - Soluble bacitracin methylene disalicylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...organisms susceptible to bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (iii) Limitations . Prepare a fresh solution daily. (2) Broiler and replacement chickens —(i) Amount. 100 milligrams per gallon in drinking water. (A) Indications for use...

2010-04-01

187

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

188

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration concludes that...products poses a significant cancer risk to consumers, and that...a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act....

2014-04-01

189

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration concludes that...products poses a significant cancer risk to consumers, and that...a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act....

2013-04-01

190

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration concludes that...products poses a significant cancer risk to consumers, and that...a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act....

2012-04-01

191

Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue  

PubMed Central

This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

2011-01-01

192

Vasoplegic syndrome--the role of methylene blue.  

PubMed

Vasoplegic syndrome is a recognized complication following cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In several patients profound post-operative vasodilatation does not respond to conventional vasoconstrictor therapy. Methylene blue has been advocated as an adjunct to conventional vasoconstrictors in such situations. There is limited data pertaining to the use of methylene blue and a number of reports have been anecdotal observations. This article reviews the incidence and problems associated with the vasoplegic syndrome, the mechanism of action of methylene blue, its effects and adverse reactions and the literature supporting its intra-operative and post-operative use. In cases where first-line therapy fails, the use of methylene blue seems to be a potent approach to refractory vasoplegia. The early use of methylene blue may halt the progression of low systemic vascular resistance even in patients responsive to norepinephrine and mitigate the need for prolonged vasoconstrictor use. However, dosing regimens and protocols need to be clearly defined before widespread routine use. Whether methylene blue should be the first line of therapy in patients with vasoplegia is a matter of debate, and there is inadequate evidence to support its use as a first line drug. More scientific evidence is needed to define the role of MB in the treatment of catecholamine refractory vasoplegia. PMID:16143539

Shanmugam, Ganesh

2005-11-01

193

Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

1977-11-01

194

Malignant hyperthermia in endosulfan poisoning.  

PubMed

We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning, admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis was based on history, physical examination and positive reports from toxicological screening. After 8 hrs of admission, a sudden rise in EtCO(2), respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was noted. Masseter spasm was there and patient's elbow/knees could not be bent upon manipulation. Caffeine halothane contraction test later confirmed it to be malignant hyperthermia (MH). We suggest that if there is a sudden rise in body temperature, stiffness in limbs or massater spasm in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of MH should be considered as one possibility when etiology is not certain. PMID:22736908

Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Yadav, Ghanshyam

2012-01-01

195

Strontium-89 Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

Your doctor has ordered the drug strontium-89 chloride to help treat your illness. The drug is given by injection into a vein or a catheter that ... Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer ...

196

Strychnine poisoning of aquatic birds.  

PubMed

Strychnine poisoning was diagnosed in free-flying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and a ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) found dead on a pond in a zoo. The probable source of toxin was improperly applied strychnine-treated grain used for control of rodents on adjacent farm land. Ingesta of the birds contained 19.7-85.1 mg/kg of strychnine. PMID:3586216

Wobeser, G; Blakley, B R

1987-04-01

197

Parkinsonism after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, parkinsonism was diagnosed in 23 (9.5%). There were 11 men and 12 women. The age at onset ranged from 16 to 69 (mean 45.8) years, with the peak incidence during the 6th decade. The latency before the appearance of parkinsonism varied from 2 to 26 (median 4)

Il Saing Choi

2002-01-01

198

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).  

PubMed

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

Vetter, J

2004-09-01

199

Poisoning deaths in married women.  

PubMed

Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime. PMID:15261005

Kumar, Virendra

2004-02-01

200

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.  

PubMed Central

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development. PMID:3928346

Miller, R W

1985-01-01

201

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.  

PubMed

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development. PMID:3928346

Miller, R W

1985-05-01

202

[Lead poisoning--a case report].  

PubMed

Lead poisoning may cause irreversible health defects, including anaemia, central nervous system problems and various organ defects. We describe a patient with lead poisoning. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with anaemia and unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow aspirate showed basophilic stippling of erythrocytes suggestive of lead poisoning, which was confirmed by high concentrations of lead in her blood. The lead source was the glazing of a ceramic wine jug. Chelating therapy was started. Haemoglobin was normalised; the patient returned to work after nine months. Correct diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious health problems caused by lead poisoning. PMID:12185736

Amundsen, Tore; Naess, Inger Anne; Hammerstrøm, Jens; Brudevold, Robert; Bjerve, Kristian S

2002-06-10

203

Poisoning from accidental ingestion of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of mushrooms is an uncommon cause of morbidity within Australia and unlike many other countries no deaths have yet been recorded. This review seeks to draw attention to the various syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning and their management, thereby helping to keep our good record intact. Although the number of toxic species is relatively small, the collection and ingestion of field varieties should be left to those absolutely certain of their quest. In cases of poisoning, identification of the offending mushroom is of paramount importance in the management. In suspected or known amatoxin poisoning prompt treatment favourably influences outcome. PMID:8326897

Barbato, M P

1993-06-21

204

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

2010-04-01

205

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6 Section 509.6 Food...6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide...

2014-04-01

206

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6 Section 109.6 Food...6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide...

2014-04-01

207

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

208

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

209

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

210

Neuroprotective Efficacy of Methylene Blue in Ischemic Stroke: An MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Methylene blue (MB) has unique energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties and is FDA-approved drug to treat methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning. This study evaluated the efficacy of MB to treat ischemic stroke in rats using longitudinal MRI and behavioral measures. Rats were subjected to 60-minute middle-cerebral-artery occlusion. In a randomized double-blinded design, vehicle or MB was administered after reperfusion. The initial lesion volumes at 30 minutes post-ischemia were not significantly different between the two groups (P?=?0.92). The final infarct volumes two days after stroke increased in the vehicle group but decreased in the MB group, yielding a 30% difference in infarct volume (P?=?0.03). Tracking tissue fate on a pixel-by-pixel basis showed that MB salvaged more initial core pixels compared to controls (22±3% versus 11±3%, P?=?0.03), and more mismatch pixels compared to controls (83±3% versus 61±8%, P?=?0.02). This study demonstrates MB treatment minimizes ischemic brain injury and improves functional outcomes. PMID:24278191

Shen, Qiang; Du, Fang; Huang, Shiliang; Rodriguez, Pavel; Watts, Lora Talley; Duong, Timothy Q.

2013-01-01

211

Carbon monoxide poisoning from Sterno.  

PubMed Central

A high school student became ill and later unconscious while working over a heating table set over three cans of burning Sterno. Measurements of 1000 to 3000 parts per million of carbon monoxide were obtained around and above the apparatus. Although the room was well ventilated there was incomplete combustion of the canned heating fuel because the apparatus was surrounded by aluminum foil, which resulted in poor oxygenation of the flame area. This case demonstrates the hazards of carbon monoxide poisoning from incompletely burned Sterno. PMID:638911

Murray, T. J.

1978-01-01

212

Poisoning trends and the importance of educating patients about poison prevention.  

PubMed

Medical professionals are recognized as a vital link in communities for education and treatment of poisoning exposures. The Oklahoma Poison Control Center (OPCC) is a resource for medical professionals as well as the public. Nationally and in Oklahoma, among all age groups, analgesics are responsible for the most fatalities. Trends in common exposures in the age 5 and younger age group and the 13 through 19 age group, an acetaminophen protocol, information about the poison center and HIPPA privacy regulations, poison prevention tips and where to obtain educational materials are outlined. National Poison Prevention Week, March 21-27, 2004, is an excellent time to educate all age groups about poison prevention techniques and what to do when there is a poisoning emergency. Board certified toxicologists, pharmacists and registered nurses are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by calling 1-800-222-1222. PMID:15088817

McGoodwin, Lee; McKeown, Tracy

2004-03-01

213

Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene.  

PubMed

Graphene was prepared using a modified Hummers' method. The physico-chemical properties of graphene were characterized by TEM, BET specific surface area, FTIR, Raman and XRD measurements. The effect factors including pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto graphene were investigated. The experimental data of isotherm followed the Langmuir isotherm model better than the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation at 293 K was 153.85 mg/g, indicating graphene is a good adsorbent for the adsorption of MB. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene was an endothermic and spontaneous process. PMID:22036471

Liu, Tonghao; Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Yang, Guangming; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

2012-02-01

214

Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

215

Poison control center - Emergency number (image)  

MedlinePLUS

For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

216

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

217

Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem?  

E-print Network

and treating children who have been poisoned by lead. · Lead hazards in a child's environment mustCS239775 Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem? Approximately 500,000 U.S. children aged 1­5 years have blood lead levels above 5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, the reference level

218

INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING  

E-print Network

of lead are eliminated from their environment. Terms used in the document are defined as follows: LINCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING IN YOUNG CHILDREN A STATDIE:"IT BY THE CEJde slnt:t! the Surgeon GenerJi's Statement. "~edicJI Aspects of Childhood Lead POisoning," was issued

219

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described, as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed

Josep Piqueras

1989-01-01

220

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

221

Intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides inhibit both cholinesterase and pseudo-cholinesterase activities. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, and overstimulation of neurotransmission occurs as a result of this accumulation. The mortality rate of OP poisoning is high. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is often life saving. Treatment of OP poisoning consists of intravenous atropine and oximes. The clinical

Murat Sungur; Muhammed Güven

2001-01-01

222

FLUOROACETAMIDE (1081) POISONING IN WILD BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of poisoning in four greylag geese (Anser anser) and 35-45 teal (Aizas crecca) is described. Laboratory findings led to the conclusion that a wheat bait containing the rodenticide fluoracetamide (1081) caused the poisoning. Circumstantial evidence incriminated fluoracetamide as the cause of death in white- fronted geese (Anser albifrons), mallards (Anas platyr\\/zynclzos), and chukars (Alec-

A. SHLOSBERGand; M. N. EGYED; Beit Dagan; H. MENDELSSOHN; Y. LANGER; B. Nesin

1975-01-01

223

HYDRODYNAMICS OF A LIQUID POISON SCRAM SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is nnade of the transient motion of a suddenly released column ; of liquid poison, such as mercury or borated water, as it moves through the ; control tubes of a reactor. Two basic systems are described. The first system ; consists of a tank of liquid poison, situated above the reactor, connecting ; directly to control tubes

Burgreen

1958-01-01

224

40 CFR 721.10626 - 1,4-Butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene biscarbomonocycle, 2...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4-Butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene biscarbomonocycle...4-Butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene biscarbomonocycle...4-butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene...

2013-07-01

225

Pediatric poisonings: recognition, assessment, and management.  

PubMed

Poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies encountered in young children in the United States, and accounts for a significant proportion of emergency room visits for the adolescent population. Poisoning is a significant and persistent cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents. The scope of toxic substances involved in poisoning is broad, and requires health care providers to have an extensive knowledge of signs and symptoms of poisoning and specific therapeutic interventions and antidotes. Most children who ingest poisons suffer no harm; however, health care providers must recognize, assess, and manage those exposures that are most likely to cause serious injury, illness, or death and initiate appropriate management to minimize the physical injury that may occur. PMID:16344209

Madden, Maureen A

2005-12-01

226

Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.  

PubMed Central

Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

1997-01-01

227

Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning may have existed in the Solomon Islands long ago though there has never been any ciguatera fish poisoning tests been carried to confirm its presence. Suspected occurrences are infrequent and seasonal. Most cases of ciguatera fish poisoning are undocumented that when cases do occur they depend largely on traditional-knowledge and anecdotal information. Areas suspected to have ciguatoxic poisoning problem in the Solomon Islands includes Santa Cruz, Rennell and Bellona, Indispensable reefs, Ontong Java and Wagina island. Fish species considered ciguatoxic includes red emperor, red snapper, roundfaced batfish, barracuda and blue lined sea-bream. In any way ciguatera fish poisoning is as yet not a big health problem in the Solomon Islands. PMID:1340336

Oreihaka, E

1992-01-01

228

Management of oil of citronella poisoning.  

PubMed

The management for ingestion of oil of citronella, an essential oil, has traditionally been rigorous, including dilution with milk or oil, and gastric lavage or emesis, taking care to prevent aspiration. Recently our Centre handled five oil of citronella poisonings and their outcomes led us to review our management protocol which had been based on information from standard poisoning texts. The source data used to determine the human toxicity of oil of citronella and the appropriate management of poisoning included a case report of a fatal ingestion of oil of citronella in a child. On scrutiny, however, the management of this poisoning included now out-moded techniques, giving rise to uncertainties in establishing the true cause of the child's death. Our own experiences indicate that advice given in standard texts based on poisoning cases managed with out-moded techniques should be carefully evaluated. PMID:1675696

Temple, W A; Smith, N A; Beasley, M

1991-01-01

229

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

230

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

1988-01-01

231

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

1988-01-01

232

The response to methylene blue in patients with severe hypotension during liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Methylene blue is a useful therapy for catecholamine-resistant vasoplegic shock. Three cases of methylene blue administration for the treatment of catecholamine-resistant hypotension during orthotopic liver transplantation are presented. PMID:22608589

Cheng, Sara S; Berman, Gregory W; Merritt, Glenn R; Hendrickse, Adrian; Fiegel, Matthew J; Teitelbaum, Isaac; Campsen, Jeffrey; Wachs, Michael; Zimmerman, Michael; Mandell, M Susan

2012-06-01

233

21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

2010-04-01

234

Methylene blue, spatial memory and anterior thalamic lesions relevant to amnesic disorders.  

E-print Network

??While recent studies have focused on methylene blue’s interaction with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease,!no studies have investigated the efficacy of methylene… (more)

Edlin, Shaun Michael

2011-01-01

235

Methylene Blue Binding to DNA with Alternating GC Base Sequence: A Modeling Study  

E-print Network

Methylene Blue Binding to DNA with Alternating GC Base Sequence: A Modeling Study Remo Rohs, HeinzVed January 18, 2000 Abstract: Photoactive methylene blue is one of the most efficient singlet oxygen-specific cleavage of the DNA backbone. Photophysical data obtained for methylene blue in complexes with DNA indicate

Rohs, Remo

236

Nonlinear chemoconvection in the methylene-blueglucose system: Two-dimensional shallow layers  

E-print Network

Nonlinear chemoconvection in the methylene-blue­glucose system: Two-dimensional shallow layers A. J-dimensional nonlinear numerical simulations for a member of this class of system: the methylene- blue­glucose reaction. The reaction is catalyzed by methylene-blue. We show that simulations help to disassemble the mechanisms

Bees, Martin

237

Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo  

E-print Network

Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo both methylene blue and radioactive tracers has a high identification rate, it still relies methylene blue injec- tion in a rat model. We successfully image a SLN with high optical contrast 146

Wang, Lihong

238

Flash Photolysis of Ketene and Diazomethane: The Production and Reaction Kinetics of Triplet and Singlet Methylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ketene and diazomethane have been flash photolyzed in their strongest absorption continua in the vacuum ultraviolet and far ultraviolet. Triplet methylene was monitored by kinetic spectroscopy at 141.5 nm. Singlet methylene was not observed directly, but the growth of the triplet absorption as a function of inert-gas pressure indicates that singlet methylene was the major primary product in both the

W. Braun; Arnold M. Bass; M. Pilling

1970-01-01

239

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation. PMID:25109087

Weaver, Lindell K

2014-01-01

240

Dual fluorescence of Methylene Blue encapsulated in silica matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics related to the optical effect of Methylene Blue (MB) dye molecules in solid host has been investigated. MB doped silica samples of varying concentrations are prepared by the sol–gel technique in acidic environment. Absorption and laser induced fluorescence spectra have been recorded for the samples. Interesting result of dual fluorescence at lower concentrations is explained. Attempt is done to

Umesh Gupta; D. Mohan; S. K. Ghoshal

2010-01-01

241

Vasoplegic syndrome—the role of methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 15 May 2005; received in revised form 27 July 2005; accepted 29 July 2005; Available online 6 September 2005 Summary Vasoplegic syndrome is a recognized complication following cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In several patients profound post-operative vasodilatation does not respond to conventional vasoconstrictor therapy. Methylenebluehasbeenadvocatedasanadjuncttoconventionalvasoconstrictorsinsuchsituations.Thereislimiteddatapertainingtotheuseof methylene blue and a number

Ganesh Shanmugam

2010-01-01

242

Removal of methylene blue by mango seed kernel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of methylene blue onto mango seed kernel particles. The operating variables studied were initial solution pH, temperature, adsorbent mass, initial dye concentration and contact time. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equation and the equilibrium data were found to well represented by Langmuir isotherm equation. The monolayer sorption capacity

K. Vasanth Kumar; A. Kumaran

2005-01-01

243

Effects of metabolic inhibitors on vital staining with methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripheral innervation of murine skin was vitally stained with methylene blue and the effects of various metabolic inhibitors on the staining process were investigated. The observed effects suggest that uptake of the dye is dependent on the integrity of a membrane-associated adenosine triphosphatase and an unidentified metallo-enzyme. Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and the cytochrome system are not necessary

J. A. Kiernan

1974-01-01

244

Beneficial network effects of methylene blue in an amnestic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior cingulate\\/retrosplenial cortex (PCC) hypometabolism is a common feature in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. In rats, PCC hypometabolism induced by mitochondrial dysfunction induces oxidative damage, neurodegeneration and memory deficits. USP methylene blue (MB) is a diaminophenothiazine drug with antioxidant and metabolic-enhancing properties. In rats, MB facilitates memory and prevents neurodegeneration induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. This study tested

Penny D. Riha; Julio C. Rojas; F. Gonzalez-Lima

2011-01-01

245

Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

1997-01-01

246

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

247

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-14

248

Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

1980-07-01

249

Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.  

PubMed

We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale. PMID:22939664

Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

2012-08-01

250

Prognostic Aspects of Benzene Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In 1955, a benzene mass-poisoning was detected in a shoe factory in Finland. One hundred and forty-seven persons were heavily exposed, and more than 100 had abnormal blood counts. One died and 10 required hospital treatment. This paper deals with a re-examination of the involved workers nine years later. One hundred and twenty-five persons attended for re-examination. Eight had died, two refused, and 11 could not be located. The possibility of death due to benzene poisoning having occurred among these persons was ruled out by checking the national death register. Each of the subjects underwent a haematological examination which included the haemoglobin value and the erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leucocyte, and thrombocyte counts. A differential count of the leucocytes was also made. A randomly chosen group of 86 persons served as a control group. The thrombocytes of the whole patient group and the erythrocytes of the men were significantly lower than those of the controls, whereas the leucocytes of the whole group and the erythrocytes of the women failed to show any statistical difference. In a multiple discriminant function analysis, considering all three counts at the same time, only the men differed slightly from the controls at the re-examination. The analysis also showed that the prognosis of the severe cases did not differ from that of the mild ones, provided the acute stage had been passed. Some illustrative case reports are added. One patient developed leukaemia after a latency of seven years, whereas most of the others—chosen because of grave symptoms in the initial stage—have recovered. The results are discussed from the point of view of prognosis. PMID:5946130

Hernberg, S.; Savilahti, M.; Ahlman, K.; Asp, S.

1966-01-01

251

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

252

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

253

Poisoned food, poisoned uniforms, and anthrax: or, how guerillas die in war.  

PubMed

Many people believe that Rhodesia, struggling to maintain minority rule in Africa, used chemical and biological weapons against African guerilla armies in the liberation war. Clothes and food were routinely poisoned, and Rhodesian agents, perhaps in concert with global forces of reaction, caused the largest single outbreak of anthrax in modern times. Oral interviews with traditional healers and Rhodesians' confessional memoirs of the war suggest that deaths by poisoning or disease were not so straightforward, that guerillas and healers and doctors struggled to understand not only what caused death but also what kind of death a poisoned uniform or poisoned boot was. PMID:15484386

White, Luise

2004-01-01

254

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

255

Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate  

PubMed Central

The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S)-8-aza-2-azonia­bicyclo­[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-8-meth­oxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro­quinoline-3-carb­oxy­lic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4 +·Cl?·H2O, crystallizes with two moxi­floxa­cinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water mol­ecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxi­floxa­cinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107?(3) and 0.118?(3)?Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water mol­ecule and chloride anions participate in O—H?O, O—H?Cl and N—H?Cl hydrogen bonding; weak inter­molecular C—H?O and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure. PMID:22058817

Qian, Jing-Jing; Gu, Jian-Ming; Shen, Jin; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

2011-01-01

256

PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

257

Pralidoxime in Acute Organophosphorus Insecticide Poisoning--A Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Poisoning with organophosphorus (OP) insecticides is a major global public health problem, causing an estimated 200,000 deaths each year. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of pralidoxime, this antidote's effectiveness remains unclear. We aimed to determine whether the addition of pralidoxime chloride to atropine and supportive care offers benefit. Methods and Findings We performed a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of pralidoxime chloride (2 g loading dose over 20 min, followed by a constant infusion of 0.5 g/h for up to 7 d) versus saline in patients with organophosphorus insecticide self-poisoning. Mortality was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included intubation, duration of intubation, and time to death. We measured baseline markers of exposure and pharmacodynamic markers of response to aid interpretation of clinical outcomes. Two hundred thirty-five patients were randomised to receive pralidoxime (121) or saline placebo (114). Pralidoxime produced substantial and moderate red cell acetylcholinesterase reactivation in patients poisoned by diethyl and dimethyl compounds, respectively. Mortality was nonsignificantly higher in patients receiving pralidoxime: 30/121 (24.8%) receiving pralidoxime died, compared with 18/114 (15.8%) receiving placebo (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–3.26, p?=?0.12). Incorporating the baseline amount of acetylcholinesterase already aged and plasma OP concentration into the analysis increased the HR for patients receiving pralidoxime compared to placebo, further decreasing the likelihood that pralidoxime is beneficial. The need for intubation was similar in both groups (pralidoxime 26/121 [21.5%], placebo 24/114 [21.1%], adjusted HR 1.27 [95% CI 0.71–2.29]). To reduce confounding due to ingestion of different insecticides, we further analysed patients with confirmed chlorpyrifos or dimethoate poisoning alone, finding no evidence of benefit. Conclusions Despite clear reactivation of red cell acetylcholinesterase in diethyl organophosphorus pesticide poisoned patients, we found no evidence that this regimen improves survival or reduces need for intubation in patients with organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The reason for this failure to benefit patients was not apparent. Further studies of different dose regimens or different oximes are required. Trial Registration Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN55264358 Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary PMID:19564902

Eddleston, Michael; Eyer, Peter; Worek, Franz; Juszczak, Edmund; Alder, Nicola; Mohamed, Fahim; Senarathna, Lalith; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azher, Shifa; Jeganathan, K.; Jayamanne, Shaluka; von Meyer, Ludwig; Dawson, Andrew H.; Sheriff, Mohamed Hussain Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A.

2009-01-01

258

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

259

Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

260

Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

2013-01-01

261

Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

1974-01-01

262

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

I. K. Hart; P. G. Kennedy; J. H. Adams; N. E. Cunningham

1988-01-01

263

Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

1982-01-01

264

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

265

Pesticide poisoning in Mexican seasonal farm workers.  

PubMed

The authors investigated pesticide poisoning in 200 seasonal farm workers employed in a small area in northwest Mexico. Of these workers, 45% were migrants from southern Mexico, and 70% were men. Most were about 20 years old; 59% could read at the third-grade level. Few had received information about pesticides; 30% did not wear personal protective gear; and 20% had experienced acute pesticide poisoning at least once during the season investigated. PMID:10026483

Chain-Castro, T J; Barrón-Aragón, R; Haro-García, L

1998-01-01

266

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

267

[Mushroom poisoning by brunneoincarnata: about two cases].  

PubMed

Amatoxin poisoning constitutes the main cause of death due to mushroom intoxication in Europe. This one was initially reported for the ingestion of Amanita phalloides with frequently fatal outcome. Prognosis of amatoxin poisoning initialy depends on the acute deshydratation and secondarily of the liver failure. Emergency liver transplantation is sometimes necessary. With the knowledge of mushroom, most of them involved other species which can often be linked to edible mushroom. We report a collective intoxication by Lepiota brunneoincarnata. PMID:18440193

Roux, X; Labadie, P; Morand, C; Fontaine, B; Coutant, G

2008-05-01

268

Kinetics and mechanism of color removal of methylene blue with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by some supported alumina surfaces.  

PubMed

The catalyzed kinetics of the oxidative mineralization of the cationic dye methylene blue, phenothiazonium, 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)-chloride, with hydrogen peroxide were studied both in buffered and unbuffered solutions. The supported alumina catalysts used were in the form of copper(II), cobalt(II), manganese(II), and nickel(II)-ions. Also, some copper(II)-complexes were used, e.g. copper(II)-ammine ([Cu(amm)4]2+), copper(II)-ethylenediamine ([Cu(en)2]2+) and copper(II)-monoethanolamine ([Cu(mea)2]2+). The reaction is first order with respect to methylene blue. On the other hand, the order with respect to hydrogen peroxide is concentration range dependent. This range depends strongly on the catalyst used. At lower [H2O2], the order was 1 which then decreases with increasing [H2O2] passing through 0 at the maximum rate and finally becomes negative. This phenomenon is parallel to the formation of a colored intermediate on the surface of the catalyst. This suggests that the intermediate has an inhibiting effect on the rate of color removal. Moreover, the rate of the reaction was found to be strongly dependent on the pH of the solution and its ionic strength. It increases with increasing both pH and the concentration of added potassium chloride. Also, the rate of reaction is inhibited in presence of sodium dodecylsulfate anionic surfactant. The repeated use of the different catalysts showed that their catalytic activities are almost unaffected. A reaction mechanism was proposed with the formation of free radicals as reactive intermediates. PMID:10901243

Salem, I A; El-Maazawi, M S

2000-10-01

269

Chloride ATPase Pumps in Epithelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Five widely documented mechanisms for chloride transport across biological membranes are known: anion-coupled antiport, Na+ and H(+)-coupled symport, Cl? channels and an electrochemical coupling process. These transport processes for chloride are either secondarily active or\\u000a are driven by the electrochemical gradient for chloride. Until recently, the evidence in favour of a primary active transport\\u000a mechanism for chloride has been inconclusive

George A. Gerencser

270

Acute Plant Poisoning and Antitoxin Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plants are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings - anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant anti-toxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

2007-01-01

271

Poisoning by Jatropha ribifolia in goats.  

PubMed

Human poisoning by Jatropha species and poisoning when livestock have been fed processed plant material has been described. Additionally, poisoning has been experimentally reproduced in various animal models. But, no cases of poisoning in livestock grazing standing and unprocessed Jatropha spp. has been reported. This study reports the poisoning of goats with Jatropha ribifolia in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil during the dry season. The mortality of the goats ranged from 6% to 40%. The main clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, soft feces, weight loss, and severe dehydration. The skin, lips, horns, and teeth of the affected goats were stained with a reddish pigment that is present in the J. ribifolia plant. Emaciation was the main lesion observed in one necropsied goat. In 2 out of 3 goats that ingested a single dose of J. ribifolia, 10 g or 20 g of leaves of the plant per kg body weight (g/kg), mild dehydration and soft feces were observed. The plant was also administered daily to two goats for 8 days. One animal received 10 g/kg per day, and the other received 20 g/kg per day and the goats showed clinical signs after 4 and 3 days, respectively. The goat that received 10 g/kg daily recovered, and the other was euthanized. The clinical signs and lesions that were observed were similar to those observed in the spontaneous cases. This is the first case of Jatropha spp. poisoning in grazing animals that ingested the plant spontaneously. PMID:22306581

Pimentel, Luciano A; Riet-Correa, Beatriz; Dantas, Antônio F; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2012-04-01

272

Nephrocalcinosis in chloride depleted rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural features of the nephrocalcinosis associated with chloride depletion in the rat are described. The extent of calcification appeared to depend on the degree of chloride restriction. Within 3 days of chloride deprivation electron-dense granules were deposited on the brush border of proximal tubules in a concentric manner. Coalescence of satellite deposits formed large, lobulated liths with laminations, which

K. Sarkar; G. Tolnai; D. Z. Levine

1973-01-01

273

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

274

Immobilization of methylene blue onto bentonite and its application in the extraction of mercury (II).  

PubMed

Methylene blue was immobilized onto bentonite (BNT). The modified clay (MB-BNT) was used to extract Hg(2+) at pH 6.0 yielding Hg-MB-BNT. BNT, MB-BNT and Hg-MB-BNT were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectra, and elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. MB is suggested to be intercalated into the major phase of BNT; montmorillonite mineral (MMT), lying parallel to the aluminosilicate layers, with a capacity of 36 mequiv./100g. MB-BNT shows good stability in 0.1-1M hydrochloric or nitric acids, ammonium hydroxide, and concentrated Na(+), K(+) or NH(4)(+) chlorides or iodides. It shows good selectivity towards Hg(2+) with an extraction capacity of 37 mequiv./100g in the presence of I(-) giving rise to a ratio of MB/Hg(2+)/I(-) 1:1:3 in the clay phase. Extracted Hg(2+) could be quantitatively recovered by ammonia buffer at pH 8.5. MB-BNT was successfully applied to recover Hg(2+) from spiked natural water and cinnabar mineral samples using the optimum conditions; pH 6.0, time of stirring 10 min and 10 mL of 0.05 M NH(4)Cl/NH(4)OH at pH 8.5 as eluent. PMID:20133060

Hassanien, Mohamed M; Abou-El-Sherbini, Khaled S; Al-Muaikel, Nayef S

2010-06-15

275

Vasopressin and methylene blue: alternate therapies in vasodilatory shock.  

PubMed

Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is frequently complicated by vasoplegic syndrome, a vasodilatory shock state. Traditional treatment based on fluid resuscitation and catecholamine drugs is ineffective in a number of patients. Clinical trials investigating both vasopressin and methylene blue as additional rescue or preventative therapy are reviewed. Vasopressin is suggested to retain its vasoconstrictive power in hypoxemia and acidosis, lower pulmonary hypertension, reduce supraventricular arrhythmias, and accelerate intensive care unit (ICU) recovery. Safety concerns include frequent thrombocytopenia and potentially altered mesenteric and renal perfusion. Methylene blue is suggested to facilitate CPB weaning, reduce renal, respiratory, arrhythmic, and septic complications, reduce mortality, and accelerate ICU and hospital recovery. Safety concerns include oximeter interference, pulmonary hypertension, neurotoxicity, arrhythmias, and potentially altered coronary, mesenteric, and renal perfusion. Research on both molecules is ongoing and has yet to confirm on a larger scale their efficacy and safety as treatments for post-CPB vasoplegic syndrome. PMID:20705641

Lavigne, Dominique

2010-09-01

276

Methylene blue adsorption on graphene oxide/calcium alginate composites.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide has been used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. However, the dispersibility in aqueous solution and the biotoxicity to human cells of graphene oxide limits its practical application in environmental protection. In this research, a novel environmental friendly adsorbent, calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was prepared. The effects of pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 181.81 mg/g. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion equation were used to evaluate the kinetic data. Thermodynamic analysis of equilibriums indicated that the adsorption reaction of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. PMID:23618299

Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Wang, Yonghao; Wu, Shaoling; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua

2013-06-01

277

Botulinum Neurotoxin: Unique Folding of Enzyme Domain of the Most Poisonous Poison  

E-print Network

phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4), containing 50 mM NaCl, 1 mM DTT, and urea at the required concentration in a 1Botulinum Neurotoxin: Unique Folding of Enzyme Domain of the Most Poisonous Poison Supporting simulations, Urea Denaturation #12;Figure S1. Secondary structure dynamics of the BoNT/A in urea solution from

Barsegov, Valeri

278

SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents

G. Wobeser; T. Bollinger; F. A. Leighton; B. Blakley; P. Mineau

2004-01-01

279

Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

2009-01-01

280

Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution onto Perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutionsonto unexpanded and expanded perlite samples activatedby H2SO4 and NaCl solutions has beeninvestigated, to assess the possibility of usingperlite for removing cationic dyes from aqueoussolutions. The effects of pH and temperature of dyesolution on the adsorption capacities have beenevaluated. The experimental data were correlatedreasonably well by the Langmuir adsorption isothermand the isotherm parameters (Qm

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan; Yavuz Onganer

2000-01-01

281

Batch kinetic study of sorption of methylene blue by perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch sorption kinetics of methylene blue by perlite have been studied in terms of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that sorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The correlation coefficients, r2, obtained from pseudo-second-order model were higher than 0.98 under all the experiment conditions. The effects of agitation speed, initial dye concentration and solution

Bilal Acemio?lu

2005-01-01

282

Prolonged postoperative disorientation after methylene blue infusion during parathyroidectomy.  

PubMed

Methylene blue 7.5 mg/kg is frequently given at our institution during parathyroidectomy. The dye preferentially stains the parathyroids so as to provide better surgical visualization. Other than causing a pseudocyanosis, the technique is generally considered to be rather innocuous. We report a case of a patient who, after this procedure, had a postoperative course that was unusual because of slowly resolving altered mental status. PMID:15502068

Bach, Kevin K; Lindsay, Fred W; Berg, Lamont S; Howard, Red S

2004-11-01

283

Spectrophotometric determination of Diclofenac sodium with Methylene Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive spectrophotometric method was established for the determination of Diclofenac sodium (DS) with Methylene Blue (MB) as analytical reagent. It was found that DS reacts with an excess of MB in the pH range 9.2–9.4, to form a chloroform-extractable blue ion-association complex. Good agreement with Beer's law was found in the range of DS concentrations of 0.8–6.4 ?g\\/ml with

Julio C. Botello; Guadalupe Pérez-Caballero

1995-01-01

284

Methylene Blue Provides Behavioral and Metabolic Neuroprotection Against Optic Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue (MB) is a diaminophenothiazine with potent antioxidant and unique redox properties that prevent morphologic\\u000a degenerative changes in the mouse retina induced by rotenone, a specific mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. This study evaluated\\u000a pigmented rats to determine whether MB’s neuroprotective effects against rotenone-mediated retinal neurotoxicity have functional\\u000a relevance and whether these effects are mediated by an improvement in neuronal

Julio C. Rojas; Joseph M. John; Jung Lee; F. Gonzalez-Lima

2009-01-01

285

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

286

Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.  

PubMed

The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Wolkin A , Schnall AH , Law R , Schier J . Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4 . PMID:25205009

Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

2014-10-01

287

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs  

E-print Network

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs natural variation among poison frog species measured with spectral reflectance and toxicity assays, we components using natural variation among poison frog species. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) display some

Cummings, Molly E.

288

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

289

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl.  

PubMed

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn. PMID:14676018

Sileo, Louis; Nelson Beyer, W; Mateo, Rafael

2003-12-01

290

Nicotine replacement products: poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Nicotine is widely used in smoking cessation aids. They are marketed in many forms, including: chewing gum, sublingual tablets, lozenges, transdermal patches, cartridges for oral inhalation, and mouth spray. French poison control and toxico-vigilance centres identified 318 cases of exposure to nicotine replacement products in children under the age of 10 years between 2000 and 2010. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A U.S. analysis identified 1768 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 6 years involving smokeless tobacco products, reported between 2006 and 2008.84% of these cases occurred in children under the age of 3 years. The first signs of nicotine poisoning are gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and neuropsychological (tremor of the extremities). With higher doses, these effects are rapidly followed by loss of consciousness, convulsions or respiratory failure. In children, poisoning can occur after ingestion of 1 mg of nicotine per kilogram of body weight. A dose of this magnitude is sometimes fatal in adults. Most cases of poisoning involving transdermal patches occur when a child finds an unused patch, or a used patch that an adult has discarded in a bin without taking proper precautions. Sometimes they involve patches that have become detached from an adult's skin. In practice, it is important to warn adults using smoking cessation aids containing nicotine that these products are dangerous PMID:24926513

2014-05-01

291

Unusual case of methanol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

1993-01-09

292

Mean platelet volume in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is frequent and can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Some studies have indicated increased platelet activation and aggregation in CO poisoning. Thus, we investigated mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet activation, in patients with CO poisoning. We included 193 (117 women) patients who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2011 and March 2013. Control group was composed of 39 (15 women) patients. Troponin and creatine kinase MB levels were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Platelet counts were significantly higher in patients with CO poisoning (281 ± 76 vs 248 ± 65 × 10(9), respectively; P = .01). Similarly, MPV was significantly higher in the CO poisoning group (8.9 ± 0.8 vs 7.9 ± 0.9 fL, respectively; P < .001). Elevated MPV values may indicate that patients with CO poisoning have a higher risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications due to platelet activation. PMID:23901146

Karabacak, Mustafa; Varol, Ercan; Türkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Duman, Ali; Akpinar, Orhan; Karabacak, Pinar

2014-03-01

293

Diagnosis and management of the poisoned child.  

PubMed

Pediatric toxic ingestions are treated commonly by pediatricians and emergency physicians. Significant injury after these ingestions is infrequent, but identifying the dangerous ingestion is sometimes a difficult task. By performing a detailed history, focused physical examination, and directed laboratory evaluation, an estimation of risk can be developed. This article introduced the term "toxic triage" to describe this process. The toxic triage estimation allows the clinician to make thoughtful decontamination and treatment decisions. Familiarity with the literature supporting or refuting each decontamination method allows educated decisions to be made. Supportive care is an integral part of treatment for all poisonings, from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Most antidotes are used rarely in clinical practice, but familiarity with common antidotes benefits those patients with specific hazardous ingestions. Prevention efforts have the potential to decrease the incidence of pediatric poisonings. The universal poison control center number provided should be distributed and posted in homes, clinics, and emergency departments. PMID:16419731

Barry, J Dave

2005-12-01

294

A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L.J.

1994-01-01

295

Abdominal imaging in zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Radiography has been proved to be a good diagnostic tool in visualization of many radiopaque xenobiotics in clinical toxicology. Zinc is a potentially radiopaque material which is a constituent of the zinc phosphide (ZN2P3) rodenticide. We report two cases of zinc phosphide poisoning with positive abdominal X-rays in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal imaging. Positive abdominal imaging was an indication for aggressive management; however, aggressive treatment was not lifesaving in one of them. We aim to emphasize the diagnostic value of abdominal X-rays in zinc phosphide-poisoned patients. We also would like to suggest that zinc phosphide (ZP)-poisoned patients with positive X-rays have more chance to become unstable even if they are symptom free on presentation and should be more aggressively managed. PMID:24477450

Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, Nasim; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2014-06-01

296

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments--atropine, oximes, and diazepam--should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-02-16

297

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200?000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments—atropine, oximes, and diazepam—should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-01-01

298

Observation unit experience for pediatric poison exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Short-Stay Emergency Department Observation Units (OU) are an alternative to hospitalization, but data on OU care of pediatric\\u000a poisoning exposures is limited. We report the experience of a pediatric OU with this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children with poison exposure admitted to a pediatric OU during a 30-month period.\\u000a Data was collected pertaining to demographics, type of

Diane P. Calello; Elizabeth R. Alpern; Maureen McDaniel-Yakscoe; Brianna L. Garrett; Kathy N. Shaw; Kevin C. Osterhoudt

2009-01-01

299

The many faces of methylmercury poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

Elhassani, S.B.

1982-10-01

300

Ciguatera-like poisoning in the Mediterranean.  

PubMed

A case of group poisoning from the consumption of the fish Sarpa salpa, caught in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Israel, is presented. Mullets and rabbitfish caught at the same site caused no harm. This is the third case of ciguatera poisoning in the region and the first to be transferred by a fish which is not a Red Sea immigrant. It implies that toxic algae dinoflagellates, originating from the Red Sea, crossed the Suez Canal and found their way to the Mediterranean coastal waters. PMID:3245127

Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B; Finkelstein, Y; Spanier, E

1988-12-01

301

Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

2002-08-27

302

Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

Keller, Rosanne

303

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The

Y S Kim

1985-01-01

304

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

305

[Poisoning with deadly agaric (Amanita virosa). Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Amatoxin poisonings are uncommon in Norway. We describe a case where a young couple was poisoned after accidental ingestion of Amanita virosa (deadly agaric). After hospital treatment they recovered without serious damage to the liver. We briefly review the biological actions of amatoxins, discuss the symptoms and signs of amatoxin poisoning in detail, and outline current recommendations on therapy. PMID:2363148

Madsen, S; Jenssen, K M

1990-05-30

306

Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning: A Growing Concern in Pediatric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium phosphide (ALP), a cheap and freely available pesticide, has emerged a common agent responsible for poisoning in children with a resultant high mortali- ty(1). The poisoning is usually accidental in children but may be suicidal in adoles- cents(2). Twenty cases of ALP poisoning aged between 7-12 years who were admitted in the Pediatric Emergency Services between July 1995 to

INDIAN PEDIATRICS

1997-01-01

307

78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

2013-03-20

308

The gas phase reactions of methylene with propionaldehyde  

E-print Network

carbonyls (30) was reported by Back . In this work acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and formaldehyde were reacted in the gas phase with methylene. The main products found in the reaction with acetaldehyde were carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene... on the basis of oxygen effects on the 1, Z-epoxybutane yield. A singlet biradical like (I) is expected to close to 1, 2-epoxybutane rapidly, and a radical scavanger such as oxygen would not react with a singlet biradical such as ( I) rapidly enough to trap...

Fuqua, Peter Joseph

2012-06-07

309

Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and

Meea Kang; Tasuku Kamei; Yasumoto Magara

2003-01-01

310

Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

2010-10-01

311

Acute nitrobenzene poisoning with severe associated methemoglobinemia: identification in whole blood by GC-FID and GC-MS.  

PubMed

A rare fatal case of self-poisoning with nitrobenzene following oral ingestion is reported. On presentation to the hospital, severe methemoglobinemia (70%) was observed in an 82-year-old male who had ingested 250 mL of an unknown substance in the previous 24 h. Methylene blue and exchange transfusion were the therapeutic methods applied in the treatment of the methemoglobinemia. Forty-eight hours after ingestion, a blood sample was collected in ICU and sent to our laboratory. We detected that the blood contained 3.2 microg/mL of nitrobenzene. The determination of nitrobenzene was performed using the combination of GC-FID for screening analysis and quantitation and GC-MS for confirmation of the obtained results. PMID:12820744

Martínez, M A; Ballesteros, S; Almarza, E; Sánchez de la Torre, C; Búa, S

2003-01-01

312

Dilute Solution Properties of Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) in Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions  

E-print Network

Dilute Solution Properties of Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) in Aqueous Sodium Chloride fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light(dimethyldial1ylammonium chloride) (PDMDAAC)were prepared by preparative size-exclusion chromatography

Dubin, Paul D.

313

Carbon monoxide poisoning: case studies and review.  

PubMed

This article describes carbon monoxide poisoning. Using a case study approach, the article covers pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and complications. A nursing care plan is presented to guide the critical care nurse in the care of patients in this type of condition. PMID:21983502

Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Zulkosky, Kristen; Fetter, Mary E

2011-01-01

314

"The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

Carnevale, Dan

2007-01-01

315

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

316

Food poisoning by clenbuterol in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the occurrence of four cases of acute food poisoning, involving a total of 50 people, due to the ingestion of lamb and bovine meat containing residues of clenbuterol. Symptoms shown by the intoxicated people may be generally described as gross tremors of the extremities, tachycardia, nausea, headaches and dizziness. Analytical methodology developed for the determination of clenbuterol

Jorge Barbosa; Clara Cruz; José Martins; José Manuel Silva; Celeste Neves; Carlos Alves; Fernando Ramos; Maria Irene Noronha Da Silveira

2005-01-01

317

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

318

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

319

Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog.  

PubMed

We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

Buchweitz, John P; Raverty, Stephen A; Johnson, Margaret B; Lehner, Andreas F

2014-11-01

320

Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries; fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or misdiagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxication is not known. The health effects associated with exposure to CO range from the more subtle cardiovascular and

James A. Raub; Monique Mathieu-Nolf; Neil B. Hampson; Stephen R. Thom

2000-01-01

321

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy causes deterioration and relapse of cognitive ability and behavioural movement a few weeks after complete recovery from initial hypoxic injury. A case is reported of delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning, which was diagnosed with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is also reviewed.

O Y Kwon; S P Chung; Y R Ha; I S Yoo; S W Kim

2004-01-01

322

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

1977-01-01

323

Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

P Davous; P Rondot; M H Marion; B Gueguen

1986-01-01

324

Suicide by sodium tetraoxoselenate(VI) poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium is one of the most toxic elements necessary for the life of mammals. Only a narrow range separates therapeutic (connected with a protective effect) and toxic doses. Selenium incorporated into animal or human tissues in larger amounts can exceed normal human levels and may be toxic (only elemental selenium and selenium sulphide are poorly absorbed). Acute poisonings with selenium

Teresa Lech

2002-01-01

325

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-01-01

326

?Health Education Policy and Accidental Child Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN THE last few months the topic of accidental child poisoning has been frequently discussed in the media. This has been primarily due to the Safety Packaging for Medi cines Bill which at time of writing is about to receive its second reading in the Commons. The Bill proposes to make it compulsory for all prescribed and non-prescribed medicines which

M. W. Calnan

1975-01-01

327

Lead Paint Poisoning - A Man - Made Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research paper defining the environmental problem of lead paint poisoning is presented by the Ohio Department of Health. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare estimates that in the United States 2.5 million children under the age of five live...

C. Pagnotto, G. Zelizer

1973-01-01

328

Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

2009-01-01

329

Management of poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute poisonings due to organophosphorus (OP) compounds often present as medical emergencies, which require management in intensive care. There is urgent need for resuscitation, support or correction of function of vital organs (correction of arrhythmias, provision of ventilatory care), decontamination and antidotes. The muscarinic effects of excess acetylcholine consequent to the inactivation of the acetylcholinesterase are countered by atropine and\\/or

P. T. Haywood; L. Karalliedde

2000-01-01

330

Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

331

[Fatal E 605 poisoning following intravenous administration].  

PubMed

Lethal toxification by organophosphate insecticides like E-605 are mostly the result of oral ingestion for the purpose of suicide or accidental ingestion by inhalation. An unusual case is reported of E-605 poisoning by injection into the basilic vein. Referring to this case, our findings on distribution of the noxa are presented and discussed. PMID:6720107

Lemke, R; Erkens, M

1984-01-01

332

Acute Oral Poisoning Due to Chloracetanilide Herbicides  

PubMed Central

Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO3 ¯ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2012-01-01

333

Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis. PMID:24826348

Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

2014-01-01

334

Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell  

PubMed Central

The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. PMID:15811881

Greene, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

2005-01-01

335

Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to the hospital, and it is necessary to seek appropriate treatment to prevent this significant side effect. PMID:24783168

Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

336

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

337

Aminothienopyridazines and Methylene Blue Affect Tau Fibrillization via Cysteine Oxidation*  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23443659

Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Smith, Amos B.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R.

2013-01-01

338

Aminothienopyridazines and methylene blue affect Tau fibrillization via cysteine oxidation.  

PubMed

Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23443659

Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Smith, Amos B; Trojanowski, John Q; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R

2013-04-19

339

Factorial design optimization of redox properties of methylene blue adsorbed on a modified silica gel surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue immobilized on silica surfaces modified with titanium dioxide and titanium phosphate were used in carbon paste mixtures to prepare electrodes. The electrochemical properties of methylene blue were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electron mediator property of the dye was optimized using a factorial design, consisting of two levels and three factors. The factorial analysis was carried out by

Ronaldo F. Rocha; Simone S. Rosatto; Roy E. Bruns; Lauro T. Kubota

1997-01-01

340

Methylene blue reduces mortality and morbidity in vasoplegic patients after cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe discovery of nitric oxide as mediator in cardiac postoperative vasoplegia encourages the use of inhibitory drugs such as methylene blue. This drug has been used with favorable results in isolated cases. The purpose of this article is to analyze the incidence of the postoperative vasoplegic syndrome, to consider its prognosis, and to evaluate the effect of intravenous methylene blue

Ricardo L Levin; Marcela A Degrange; Gustavo F Bruno; Carlos D Del Mazo; Daniel J Taborda; Jorge J Griotti; Fernando J Boullon

2004-01-01

341

Methylene blue: the drug of choice for catecholamine-refractory vasoplegia after cardiopulmonary bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesVasoplegia is a frequent complication after cardiopulmonary bypass that often requires the application of norepinephrine. In a number of cases, however, vasoplegia is refractory to norepinephrine. The guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue could be an attractive treatment alternative in such cases. This study examines the results of methylene blue therapy for norepinephrine-refractory vasoplegia after cardiopulmonary bypass.

Rainer G Leyh; Theo Kofidis; Martin Strüber; Stefan Fischer; Karsten Knobloch; Bjoern Wachsmann; Christian Hagl; Andre R Simon; Axel Haverich

2003-01-01

342

Methylene blue fails to inhibit Tau and polyglutamine protein dependent toxicity in zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue is an FDA approved compound with a variety of pharmacologic activities. It inhibits aggregation of several amyloidogenic proteins known to be deposited in neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, it has been proposed that methylene blue shows significant beneficial effects in a phase 2 clinical trial by slowing cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease patients. To analyze its therapeutic potential, we investigated

Frauke van Bebber; Dominik Paquet; Alexander Hruscha; Bettina Schmid; Christian Haass

2010-01-01

343

Methylene Blue Binding to DNA with Alternating AT Base Sequence: Minor Groove Binding  

E-print Network

Methylene Blue Binding to DNA with Alternating AT Base Sequence: Minor Groove Binding is Favored over Intercalation http://www.jbsdonline.com Abstract The results presented in this paper on methylene blue (MB) binding to DNA with AT alter- nating base sequence complement the data obtained in two former

Rohs, Remo

344

Relaxation-Optimized NMR Spectroscopy of Methylene Groups in Proteins and Nucleic Acids  

E-print Network

can be incorporated in many of today's most common 2D and 3D NMR experiments. As an example, we showRelaxation-Optimized NMR Spectroscopy of Methylene Groups in Proteins and Nucleic Acids Emeric acids is of the methylene type. Their detailed study, however, in terms of structure and dynamics by NMR

Clore, G. Marius

345

Evaluation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as an indoor air pollutant and biological assessment of methylene dianiline in the polyurethane factories  

PubMed Central

Today many raw materials used in factories may have a dangerous effect on the physiological system of workers. One of them, which is widely used in the polyurethane factories, is diisocyanates. These compounds are widely used in surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders, and sealants. Exposure to diisocyanates causes irritation to the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract. Methylene dianiline (MDA) is a metabolite of methylene diphenyle diisocyanate (MDI), an excretory material of worker's urine who are exposed to MDI. Around 100 air samples were collected among five factories by the Midget Impinger, which contained DMSO absorbent as a solvent and Tryptamine as a reagent. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an EC\\UV detector using the NIOSH 5522 method of sampling and analysis. Also, fifty urine samples were collected from workers by using William's biological analysis method. The concentration of MDI in all air samples was more than 88 ?g/m3, showing a high concentration of the pollutant in the workplaces in comparison with the NIOSH standard, and all the worker's urine was contaminated by MDA. The correlation and regression tests were used to obtain statistical model for MDI and MDA that is useful for prediction of diisocyanates pollution situation in the polyurethane factories. PMID:20165612

Mirmohammadi, Mirtaghi; Ibrahim, M. Hakimi; Ahmad, Anees; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abdul; Mohammadyan, M.; Mirashrafi, S. B.

2009-01-01

346

Dose response of sheep poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea).  

PubMed

Locoweed poisoning occurs when livestock consume swainsonine-containing Astragalus and Oxytropis species over several weeks. Although the clinical and histologic changes of poisoning have been described, the dose or duration of swainsonine ingestion that results in significant or irreversible damage is not known. The purpose of this research was to document the swainsonine doses that produce clinical intoxication and histologic lesions. Twenty-one mixed-breed wethers were dosed by gavage with ground Oxytropis sericea to obtain swainsonine doses of 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Sheep receiving > or = 0.2 mg/kg gained less weight than controls. After 16 days, animals receiving > or = 0.4 mg/kg were depressed, reluctant to move, and did not eat their feed rations. All treatment groups had serum biochemical changes, including depressed alpha-mannosidase, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, as well as sporadic changes in lactate dehydrogenase, sodium, chloride, magnesium, albumin, and osmolarity. Typical locoweed-induced cellular vacuolation was seen in the following tissues and swainsonine doses: exocrine pancreas at > or = 0.05 mg/kg; proximal convoluted renal and thyroid follicular epithelium at > or = 0.1 mg/kg; Purkinje's cells, Kupffer's cells, splenic and lymph node macrophages, and transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder at > or = 0.2 mg/kg; neurons of the basal ganglia, mesencephalon, and metencephalon at > or = 0.4 mg/kg; and cerebellar neurons and glia at > or = 0.8 mg/kg. Histologic lesions were generally found when tissue swainsonine concentrations were approximately 150 ng/g. Both the clinical and histologic lesions, especially cerebellar lesions are suggestive of neurologic dysfunction even at low daily swainsonine doses of 0.2 mg/kg, suggesting that prolonged locoweed exposure, even at low doses, results in significant production losses as well as histologic and functional damage. PMID:12968759

Stegelmeier, B L; James, L F; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Molyneux, R J

1999-09-01

347

Chemoconvection patterns in the methylene-blueglucose system: Weakly nonlinear analysis A. J. Pons* and F. Sagus  

E-print Network

Chemoconvection patterns in the methylene-blue­glucose system: Weakly nonlinear analysis A. J. Pons with methylene-blue as a catalyst in basic media can induce hydro- dynamic overturning instabilities, termed in an open Petri dish and in the presence of methylene-blue is oxidized in a basic medium, the blue oxidized

Bees, Martin

348

Efficient removal of methylene blue over composite-phase BiVO4 fabricated by hydrothermal control synthesis  

E-print Network

Efficient removal of methylene blue over composite-phase BiVO4 fabricated by hydrothermal control of methylene blue under visible light. It was found that composite-phase BiVO4 with hmono > 60% presented% of the 10 mg LÃ?1 methylene blue was degraded within 120 min catalyzed by the best catalyst BiVO4 with hmono

Cao, Guozhong

349

Methylene blue potentiates stimulus-evoked fMRI responses and cerebral oxygen consumption during normoxia and hypoxia  

E-print Network

Methylene blue potentiates stimulus-evoked fMRI responses and cerebral oxygen consumption during Forepaw stimulation Methylene blue USP (MB) at low doses has metabolic-enhancing and antioxidant Methylene blue USP (MB) is a unique auto-oxidizing pharmaceutical drug that has a hormetic dose

Duong, Timothy Q.

350

Determination of the cation exchange capacity and the surface area of bentonite, illite and kaolinite by methylene blue adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye cations like methylene blue will mainly adsorb on clay minerals by cation exchange. Therefore, the methylene blue adsorption is depending on the exchangeable cations of the clay mineral, on the pH and on the dye cation concentration. The cation exchange capacity of clays by methylene blue adsorption can be determined when the samples are in the sodium exchanged form

G. Kahr; F. T. Madsen

1995-01-01

351

75 FR 24509 - Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conditions, or other factors have changed in the area...developments in technology, economic conditions, or other factors affecting the ability of covered firms to comply with the standard...or federal rules. Economic and technological...

2010-05-05

352

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene  

DOEpatents

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1982-03-31

353

76 FR 55949 - Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...result of the Standards Improvement...transfer of records'' requirement contained in the Standard (former 29...the Office of Management and Budget's...to OMB. The Standard protects workers...examination records for...

2011-09-09

354

Contact sensitivity induced in mice by methylene bisphenyl diisocyanate.  

PubMed

An experimental model of contact sensitivity has been developed in C57BL/6 mice using methylene bisphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), a raw material of polyurethane resins. Sensitization through a single epidermal application of 1% MDI solution in ethyl acetate to the backs of the mice resulted in marked ear swelling. The time course of the swelling was characteristic of delayed-type hypersensitivity and the increment of the ear thickness was compatible with that induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Passive transfer of the MDI-induced contact sensitivity was successfully achieved using lymphocytes from the lymph nodes of MDI-sensitized syngeneic mice, and the effector cells were found to be T cells. Cross reaction between MDI and TDI has shown that MDI is not only a potent contact sensitizer but also can form a contact sensitizer group together with TDI. PMID:2827956

Tanaka, K; Takeoka, A; Nishimura, F; Hanada, S

1987-10-01

355

Methylene blue adsorption on a DMPA lipid langmuir monolayer.  

PubMed

Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto a dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) Langmuir air/water monolayer is studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, UV reflection spectroscopy and surface potential measurements. The free-energy profile associated with MB transfer from water to the lipid monolayer shows two minima of -66 and -60 kJ mol(-1) for its solid and gas phase, respectively, corresponding to a spontaneous thermodynamic process. From the position of the free-energy minima, it is possible to predict the precise location of MB in the interior of the DMPA monolayer. Thus, MB is accommodated in the phosphoryl or carbonyl region of the DMPA Langmuir air/water interface, depending on the isomorphic state (solid or gas phase, respectively). Reorientation of MB, measured from the bulk solution to the interior of the lipid monolayer, passes from a random orientation in bulk solution to an orientation parallel to the surface of the lipid monolayer when MB is absorbed. PMID:20544777

Giner Casares, Juan José; Camacho, Luis; Martín-Romero, Maria Teresa; López Cascales, José Javier

2010-07-12

356

[Hyperbaric oxygen for hydrogen sulfide poisoning].  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas produced in decaying substances containing organic sulfur. Exposure to the gas causes severe disturbances in the central nervous and respiratory systems. The mechanism of toxicity is disruption of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, resulting in intracellular hypoxia. Treatment of H2S poisoning includes mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen and immediate administration of sodium nitrate. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been studied in animal models, and has also been used in a number of patients. However, the clinical effectiveness of this mode of therapy has not been clearly proven. Having recently treated a case of H2S poisoning, we suggest HBO to reduce mortality. PMID:7843654

Goldenberg, I; Shoshani, O; Mushkat, Y; Bentur, Y; Melamed, Y; Shupak, A

1994-11-01

357

Evaluation and management of common childhood poisonings.  

PubMed

Family physicians often manage substance ingestions in children, most of which are nontoxic in nature. Physicians should know the phone number of the poison control center, understand the appropriate initial assessment of suspected toxin ingestion, and recognize important toxidromes. Rapid triage is crucial, including airway, respiration, and circulation stabilization. Appropriate supportive or toxin-specific treatment should be initiated. Gastric decontamination, such as activated charcoal and gastric lavage, are no longer routinely recommended. These methods should be reserved for the most severe cases, with poison control center support. The use of ipecac is no longer recommended. A child with few symptoms or a witnessed toxin exposure may be monitored at home. However, some long-acting medications have delayed toxin effects and require additional surveillance. PMID:19275069

McGregor, Tamara; Parkar, Mehjabin; Rao, Shobha

2009-03-01

358

Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.

1985-01-01

359

Lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer).  

PubMed

Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight). PMID:7103895

Locke, L N; Kerr, S M; Zoromski, D

1982-01-01

360

Loading pattern sensitivity to burnable poison availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-core fuel management study was performed utilizing the FORMOSA optimization code. Specifically, the authors studied the effectiveness of burnable poisons independent of core reactivity hold-down needs for three different objective functions: assembly quadrant power peaking P{sub max}{sup quad} minimization, end-of-cycle reactivity k{sub eff}{sup EOC} maximization, and discharge burnup BU{sup dis} maximization. The study consisted of determining near-optimum loading patterns

S. Sun; G. I. Maldonado; P. J. Turnisky

1992-01-01

361

Intra-aural Route of Insecticide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphate (OP) compounds are commonly ingested with the intention of deliberate self-harm. Parenteral route of OP compound exposure is an uncommon yet significant source of toxicity. Deliberate injections via intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous routes and accidental dermal absorption due to occupational exposure have been described earlier. We report an unusual case of intentional insecticide poisoning by pouring the OP compound into both ears. This was successfully treated with aural irrigation using normal saline and prompt administration of the antidote. PMID:24082515

Kundavaram, Paul Prabhakar Abhilash; Majumdar, Swaratika; Das, Sohini

2013-05-01

362

INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

363

Use of dialytic therapies for poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nephrologist is often consulted in poisoning cases. Although management may involve attention to incident renal failure\\u000a or electrolyte and acid-base disorders, blood purification may also be necessary [1]. The application of dialysis therapies\\u000a or hemoperfusion to enhance clearance of intoxicants is an essential task for the nephrologist.\\u000a \\u000a This chapter will outline the principles and use of dialysis and related

James F. Winchester; Nikolas Harbord; Donald A. Feinfeld

364

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except

W. Nelson Beyer; James W. Spann; Louis Sileo; J. Christian Franson

1988-01-01

365

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

366

Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Fifteen range cows died of oxalate poisoning caused by ingestion of Rumex venosus. Ecchymotic and petechial hemorrhages were prominent on the abdominal serosal surfaces. Approximately 2 L of thin, yellowish fluid was in the abdominal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous. Other findings included catarrhal abomasitis; enteritis; pale, edematous kidneys; congested lungs; fatty infiltration of the liver; and nephrosis. In the kidneys, birefringent crystals resembling oxalate crystals were demonstrable only when frozen sections were examined. PMID:670054

Dickie, C W; Hamann, M H; Carroll, W D; Chow, F H

1978-07-01

367

Delayed Movement Disorders after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, delayed movement disorders were diagnosed in 32 (13.2%). There were 15 men and 17 women. Ages at insult ranged from 9 to 69 years (mean 45.3 years). Of the 32 patients with delayed movement disorders, 23 (71.9%) had parkinsonism, 5 dystonia, 3 chorea and 1 myoclonus. All

Il Saing Choi; Hwa Young Cheon

1999-01-01

368

Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been studied extensively, including detailed adsorption studies at various temperatures and pressures. Predictive models have been developed that effectively predict anode tolerance to carbon monoxide. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H/sub 2/S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a graphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700/sup 0/C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e. higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the eletrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss. In addition, support corrosion may also cause loss of Pt into the separator. Support corrosion appears to be the life limiting factor for phosphoric acid fuel cells.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1985-06-01

369

Storage stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in C toxins (C1- 2), GTX (gonyautoxin) 1-4, STX (saxitoxin) and NEO (neosaxitoxin) in scallop digestive glands and a mixture of purified paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were studied during storage at ?35, 5 and 25°C and at different pH levels. Heated and unheated samples of homogenates and purified toxin mixtures were stored for 1 year and 4 months,

W. M Indrasena; T. A Gill

2000-01-01

370

Acute Lead Poisoning In an Infant  

PubMed Central

A case of acute lead poisoning in an infant without overt clinical manifestations of encephalopathy is reported for the first time in Oman. The case was diagnosed at Rustaq Hospital on the basis of (i) history by the mother of giving the child a traditional remedy for treating constipation (ii) X-ray of abdomen showing radio-opaque speckles and (iii) detection of high blood lead levels (83.3 µg/dL) at the toxicology laboratory of the poison control centre. The source of lead was confirmed by high content of inorganic lead (20.2%) found in the sample of the traditional remedy (bint al dahab). The blood lead levels significantly decreased, after the intravenous calcium edetate (EDTA) therapy was given to the baby. The case highlights that early detection and treatment of acute lead poisoning in children can prevent morbidity and sequelae associated with encephalopathy. It also indicated the need for awareness and prevention programme for parents on this issue. PMID:22400095

Madhusudhanan, M.; Lall, S.B.

2007-01-01

371

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.  

PubMed

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

Reynolds, Tom

2005-06-01

372

Acute paraquat poisoning with sinus bradycardia: A case report  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to a variety of complications. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may succumb to multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Although numerous studies have been performed investigating PQ poisoning, cases of extreme bradycardia caused by acute PQ-induced poisoning are rare. In the present case report, a 59-year-old male who ingested PQ was admitted to the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China) after three days. The patient received treatment known as the ‘Qilu scheme’, which was established in the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease. However, the heart rate of the patient remained low following the administration of conventional medicines, until thyroid tablets were administered. To the best of our knowledge, cases of bradycardia following PQ poisoning are rare. PMID:25289040

SONG, CHENGZHEN; KAN, BAOTIAN; YU, GUANGCAI; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WANG, JIERU; SUN, JING

2014-01-01

373

Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides.  

PubMed

An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, constitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings. PMID:22668944

Rother, Hanna-Andrea

2012-06-01

374

Self-poisoning and Moon Phases in Oslo  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 During 1980 the relation between the moon phases and 1187 cases of self-poisonings in Oslo was studied.2 In contrast to a previous report from India no significant correlation was found between the full moon and self-poisoning.3 The aetiology of self-poisonings in western countries is rather more complex than to be explained by speculative 'human tidal waves'.

D. Jacobsen; P. S. Frederichsen; K. M. Knutsen; Y. Sørum; T. Talseth; O. R. Ødegaard

1986-01-01

375

Use of methylene blue for catecholamine-refractory vasoplegia from protamine and aprotinin.  

PubMed

We present two cases of catecholamine-refractory and vasopressin-refractory vasoplegic syndrome associated with intraoperative anaphylaxis during cardiac surgery. One case was related to the administration of protamine and the other case to the administration of aprotinin. Both cases were successfully managed using intravenous methylene blue. The use of methylene blue blocks accumulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate by competitively inhibiting the enzyme guanylate cyclase. This results in reduced responsiveness of the vasculature to cyclic guanosine monophosphate-mediated vasodilators, such as nitric oxide. This report provides a description of severe anaphylaxis induced by different agents, in which the use of methylene blue was associated with a significant clinical response. PMID:19161806

Del Duca, Danny; Sheth, Shashank S; Clarke, Ann E; Lachapelle, Kevin J; Ergina, Patrick L

2009-02-01

376

An Atropa belladonna L. poisoning with acute subdural hematoma.  

PubMed

Atropa belladonna L. is a plant long known to cause poisoning. But no cases of acute subdural hematoma resulting from such poisoning have been reported so far. Care must also be taken in terms of acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis in cases of such poisoning. The plant may sometimes be mistaken for the Caucasian blueberry, V. arctostaphylos L. At least one anti-cholinesterase toxidrome finding was determined in all the nine cases of belladonna poisoning in this series. No elevated creatine kinase was reported in one case with acute subdural hematoma and hyperamylasemia. PMID:21540312

Cikla, Ulas; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ayaz, Ahmet Faik; Turedi, Suleyman; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

2011-12-01

377

76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...

2011-12-16

378

78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...

2013-07-08

379

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2011-04-01

380

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2012-04-01

381

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2014-04-01

382

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2013-04-01

383

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2010-04-01

384

Corrosion of 304L and 316 in gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions  

SciTech Connect

Pitting corrosion has occurred on AISI Type 304L stainless steel (304L) conductivity probes used to monitor liquid levels of gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions (GPS). An electrochemical and immersion test program has led to a better understanding of the cause of corrosion of 304L probes. Results indicate that the alternating voltage applied to the probes to monitor contact with solution is the primary factor in the corrosion of the probes. A chloride-containing dye and low pH also contribute to the corrosion process, but appear to play a secondary role. AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) was found to behave similarly to 304L in GPS, while nickel-based alloys such as Hastelloy G30, Hastelloy C22, and Inconel 625 were found to be more susceptible to corrosion as compared to 304L.

Chandler, G.T.; Anderson, M.H.

1991-12-31

385

Erythrocytic and leukocytic responses to cadmium poisoning in freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius Ham  

SciTech Connect

Chronically sublethal concentrations of cadmium caused conspicuous hematological anomalies in the cyprinid fish, Puntius conchonius. Exposure to 0.63 and 0.84 mg/liter cadmium chloride (1/20 and 1/15 of 96-hr LC/sub 50/) induced morphological aberrations in mature erythrocytes including cytoplasmic vacuolation, hypochromia, deterioration of cellular membrane, basophilic stippling of cytoplasm, clumping of chromatin material and extrusion of nuclei, and schistocytosis. Anomalous basophils and monocytes were also encountered though less frequently. Decreased erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were also associated with chronic cadmium poisoning. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume increased (30 days) but mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration showed no obvious change. A significant thrombocytopenia (90 days), elevated small lymphocyte and basophil populations, and a mild neutropenia were manifested in the cadmium-exposed fish. Large lymphocytes were not significantly affected.

Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.

1985-04-01

386

CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

2007-11-30

387

Morphology and structure of microcapsules prepared by interfacial polycondensation of methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) with hexamethylene diamine.  

PubMed

Polyurea microcapsules containing 2- chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl) acetamide as the active agent were prepared by the method of interfacial polycondensation with methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) the multifunctional isocyanatae, hexamethylene diamine as the diamine, and anionic (SLS) as the emulsifying sodium lignin liinin the agent. The internal structure and morphology of the microcapsules were examined with transmission electron microscopy. The microcapsules had a micro-reservoir structure in which the wall extended well into the core and the active agent was accomodated by the micro-reservoirs, distributed uniformly throughout the entire volume of a microcapsule. Based on the observed morphology, permeability of the water soluble monomer in the polyurea film and its solubility in the oil phase have a significant effect on the morphology and microstructure of the microcapsules. The multivalent salt, calcium chloride, plays a significant role in stabilizing the microcapsule structure, by interacting with the anionic surfactant SLS, and physically crosslinks the SLS chains, by interacting with the negatively charged carboxylic and phenolic groups, with subsequent phase separation of the physically crosslinked chains to form a concentrated gel phase. This gel phase encompasses the microcapsule, increases the stability, and modifies its release behaviour. PMID:11695642

Jabbari, E

2001-01-01

388

Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9-10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (SBET 50 m2/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe2O3 phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (SBET 4 and 111 m2/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (kapp) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015-0.025 mM; sample content - 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration - 0.43 mM; pH 3-4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

Kadirova, Zukhra C.; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

2013-11-01

389

Poisoned Painters: Organized Painters' Responses to Lead Poisoning in Early 20th-Century America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers often have a complex relationship with the technologies they use in the workoplace, and many influences can affect that relationship. This is well demonstrated in the story of unionized painters who, at the turn of this century, were sufferingfrom occupational lead poisoning because the paints of the day used lead as their primary pigment. At the beginning of the

Christopher A. Eldridge

1998-01-01

390

Secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western Canada.  

PubMed

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents occurred in Saskatchewan, two were in Manitoba, and one occurred in each of Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The diagnosis was confirmed in eight instances by demonstration of pesticide in ingesta from eagles or known use of pesticide at the site together with brain cholinesterase (AChE) reduction of >50% in at least one animal. A presnmptive diagnosis of poisoning was made in 33 incidents based on brain AChE reduction of >50% in at least one animal; 13 incidents were considered suspicious because of circumstantial evidence of the death of eagles in association with other species and limited AChE reduction. Other wild species were found dead in 85% of the incidents involving eagles. Coyotes, foxes, black-billed magpies (Pica pica), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were associated with 34, six, six, and three incidents, respectively. There were eight additional incidents that did not involve eagles in which poisoning was diagnosed in coyotes. Carbofuran was identified in nine incidents. Carbamate poisoning was indicated on the basis of reactivation of brain AChE activity in two additional incidents. Brain AChE activity was not reduced from normal in eagles in four of seven incidents in which carbofuran was identified. The organophosplorous insecticide terbufos was found together with carbofuran in one incident. Brain AChE activity was measured in wild canids and in eagles in 15 incidents; in all of these incidents, brain AChE was redulced by >50% in at least one mammal, whereas this level of reduction occrred in eagles in only four incidents. Use of anticholinesterase pesticides to poison coyotes is illegal, but the practice continues and secondary poisoning of eagles is a problem of unknown proportions in western North America. PMID:15362815

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Leighton, F A; Blakley, B; Mineau, P

2004-04-01

391

Photoinduced electron transfer reactions at methylene blue adsorbed nafion and clay coated electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nafion and montmorillonite clay adsorbed methylene blue coated onto platinum electrode were prepared. These dye modified electrodes\\u000a were used as photoelectrodes in a photogalvanic cell in the presence of Fe2+ ions. The photoelectrochemical investigations showed that the dye coated electrodes behaved as cathode upon irradiation whereas\\u000a the plain platinum electrode dipped in a homogeneous solution containing methylene blue and Fe2+

S. Abraham John; K. V. Gobi; A. Ramasubbu; R. Ramaraj

1993-01-01

392

Pulmonary edema associated with methylene blue dye administration during sentinel lymph node biopsy.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an established procedure for staging early breast cancer. Recently, methylene blue dye has been advocated as a safe, efficacious and cost-effective substitute for isosulfan blue in sentinel lymph node mapping. In this case report, we describe a 44-year-old woman who developed pulmonary edema associated with the use of methylene blue dye for SLNB. PMID:19110921

Teknos, Daniel; Ramcharan, Alexius; Oluwole, Soji F

2008-12-01

393

N -demethylation of methylene blue by lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase (LiP) can degrade synthetic dyes such as heterocyclic, azo, and triphenylmethane on its activation by H2O2. Analysis of the reaction products indicated that N-demethylation reactions are involved in the degradation of crystal violet and methylene blue (MB). We studied LiP oxidation\\u000a of methylene blue and azure B (AB) in reaction mixtures containing different dye: H2O2 stoichiometric

Viridiana S. Ferreira; Denise B. Magalhães; Sérgio H. Kling; José G. Da Silva Jr.; Elba P. S. Bon

2000-01-01

394

Self-poisoning of the mind  

PubMed Central

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre. PMID:20026460

Elster, Jon

2010-01-01

395

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyte, Gabija; Plenta, Juris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaisa, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

396

Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

1990-01-01

397

Mushroom poisoning: a case report from Jordan.  

PubMed

An eight years male child with his family ate fresh mushroom at lunch time from back garden at their home in a village in the North of Jordan. By the evening approximately six hours later all started feeling nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting they rushed to nearest primary health care center. After getting general medical medication they were transfer to a referral hospital at city of Irbid. The boy got deteriorated with diarrhea in addition to the previous gastrointestinal complains and died on third day. The message from this case is to ascertain in the public opinion that unknown type of mushroom even eaten previously could be poisonous and fetal. PMID:22816180

Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina A; Samara, Omar; Obeidat, Jamal; Qasaimeh, G R

2012-02-15

398

DDE poisoning in an adult Bald eagle.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain. PMID:9131562

Garcelon, D K; Thomas, N J

1997-04-01

399

Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide  

PubMed Central

Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

2014-01-01

400

Methylene blue and vasoplegia: who, when, and how?  

PubMed

Systemic inflammatory response can be associated with clinically significant and, at times, refractory hypotension. Despite the lack of uniform definitions, this condition is frequently called vasoplegia or vasoplegic syndrome (VS), and is thought to be due to dysregulation of endothelial homeostasis and subsequent endothelial dysfunction secondary to direct and indirect effects of multiple inflammatory mediators. Vasoplegia has been observed in all age groups and in various clinical settings, such as anaphylaxis (including protamine reaction), sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, hemodialysis, and cardiac surgery. Among mechanisms thought to be contributory to VS, the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway appears to play a prominent role. In search of effective treatment for vasoplegia, methylene blue (MB), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylate cyclase (GC), has been found to improve the refractory hypotension associated with endothelial dysfunction of VS. There is evidence that MB may indeed be effective in improving systemic hemodynamics in the setting of vasoplegia, with reportedly few side effects. This review describes the current state of clinical and experimental knowledge relating to MB use in the setting of VS, highlighting the potential risks and benefits of therapeutic MB administration in refractory hypotensive states. PMID:18473936

Stawicki, S Peter; Sims, Carrie; Sarani, Babak; Grossman, Michael D; Gracias, Vicente H

2008-05-01

401

Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Candida albicans Treated with Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the phototoxic effect of methylene blue (MB) on Candida albicans cultures was studied using the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique. An aliquot of 50 ?L of C. albicans suspension—strain ATCC 10-231—was incubated with 50 ?L of MB solution (0.5 mg/mL), at room temperature. After the proper incubation time, a colony forming unit (CFU) with approximately 3 mm diameter was chosen in each plate. The CFU selected was irradiated using an InGaAlP laser during 20 s. After irradiation and new incubation, the CFUs were collected and stored at -70 °C, until spectroscopy analysis. The spectroscopy analysis was performed using an open PAS setup. The study was conducted in different groups: (1) control (non-treated); (2) irradiated with laser light; (3) treated with MB (non-irradiated); and (4) treated with MB and irradiated with laser light. The PAS measurements were performed on C. albicans in a sterile physiological solution. The measurements indicate that the presence of MB and irradiation promotes a change in the redox state of the cells to the reduced state. The absorption spectrum after photodynamic therapy (PDT) was observed 12 h and 36 h later. It was inferred that PDT can be related to structural changes in cytochrome molecules after 36 h. It is concluded that MB can be an efficient photosensitizer in C. albicans through modification of the cytochrome molecule affecting the cell metabolism.

Acosta-Avalos, D.; Jedlicka, L. D. L.; Costa, M. S.; Barja, P. R.; da Silva, E. C.

2012-11-01

402

Attenuation of noise-induced hearing loss using methylene blue  

PubMed Central

The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has been known to contribute to the pathogenesis of noise-induced hearing loss. In this study, we discovered that in BALB/c mice pretreatment with methylene blue (MB) for 4 consecutive days significantly protected against cochlear injury by intense broad-band noise for 3?h. It decreased both compound threshold shift and permanent threshold shift and, further, reduced outer hair cell death in the cochlea. MB also reduced ROS and RNS formation after noise exposure. Furthermore, it protected against rotenone- and antimycin A-induced cell death and also reversed ATP generation in the in vitro UB-OC1 cell system. Likewise, MB effectively attenuated the noise-induced impairment of complex IV activity in the cochlea. In addition, it increased the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) level, which could affect the synaptic connections between hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in the noise-exposed cochlea, and also promoted the conservation of both efferent and afferent nerve terminals on the outer and inner hair cells. These findings suggest that the amelioration of impaired mitochondrial electron transport and the potentiation of NT-3 expression by treatment with MB have a significant therapeutic value in preventing ROS-mediated sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:24763057

Park, J-S; Jou, I; Park, S M

2014-01-01

403

Study of Methylene Blue adsorption on keratin nanofibrous membranes.  

PubMed

In this work, keratin nanofibrous membranes (mean diameter of about 220nm) were prepared by electrospinning and tested as adsorbents for Methylene Blue through batch adsorption tests. The adsorption capacity of the membranes was evaluated as a function of initial dye concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, time and temperature. The adsorption capacity increased with increasing the initial dye concentration and pH, while it decreased with increasing the adsorbent dosage and temperature, indicating an exothermic process. The adsorption results indicated that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. A mean free energy evaluated through the Dubinin-Radushkevich model of about 16kJmol(-1), indicated a chemisorption process which occurred by ion exchange. The kinetic data were found to fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The obtained results suggest that keratin nanofibrous membranes could be promising candidates as dye adsorption filters. PMID:24491440

Aluigi, A; Rombaldoni, F; Tonetti, C; Jannoke, L

2014-03-15

404

Use of methylene blue for refractory septic shock during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration.  

PubMed

As an inhibitor of nitric oxide, methylene blue has been investigated as an alternative vasopressor in patients with septic shock refractory to catecholamine vasopressors and as an agent to maintain hemodynamic stability in patients receiving intermittent hemodialysis. However, to our knowledge, the use of methylene blue as a vasopressor in patents receiving continuous renal replacement therapy has not been evaluated. We describe a 56-year-old man who was receiving continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) for acute renal failure secondary to sepsis. After a difficult hospital stay for injuries sustained from a motor vehicle accident, the patient developed sepsis and subsequent renal failure. On hospital day 47, after an adequate course of antibiotics, the patient developed refractory shock while receiving norepinephrine, phenylephrine, vasopressin, and hydrocortisone. He was then given a continuous infusion of methylene blue, which increased his mean arterial pressure and allowed for weaning of the catecholamine vasopressors. Eight hours after the start of methylene blue, the CVVHDF filter failed, and the hemodiafiltration was stopped. Because the filter was blue, a sample of the patient's effluent was analyzed by using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. No methylene blue was detected in the sample, suggesting that the drug was not being removed by CVVHDF. Clinicians should use caution when they are considering the use of methylene blue in patients with refractory shock who are also receiving CVVHDF. PMID:20180614

Mount, Joshua C; Rowe, A Shaun

2010-03-01

405

POISON MIXTURES WHICH IMPROVE THERMAL REACTOR OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical investigation was made regarding the effect of binary ; poison mixtures on the temperature defect and temperature coefficient in a simple ; reactor model. The poison mixtures investigated were gadolinium - erbium, ; gadolinium- europium, europium -- erbium, and europium -cadmium. It was found ; that, in this model, the magnitude of the negative temperature coefficient could ;

Bick

1963-01-01

406

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

407

Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran – Tabriz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were

Iman Dianat; Jalil Nazari

2011-01-01

408

Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pesticide overexposure and poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the effectiveness of interventions to reduce pesticide overexposure and poisonings in worker populations.Methods: We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following databases for articles that tested the effectiveness of interventions in reducing human pesticide exposure or poisonings: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTC). Interventions considered included

Matthew C Keifer

2000-01-01

409

Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or  

E-print Network

on their hands and toys. FACT A lead test is the only way to know if your child has lead poisoning. Most. Sometimes lead comes from things other than paint in your home, such as: · Candy, toys, glazed potteryKnow the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or breathing lead. Children under 6 years old

410

Panther cap Amanita pantherina poisoning case report and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of patients with mushroom poisoning hospitalized in the Clinic of Toxicology in Cracow revealed that only a small percentage of cases had been caused by the death cap Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr.) Secr. The most important factors contributing to intoxication are confusion of toxic mushrooms with edible species, and non-specific mushroom poisoning. The genus Amanita has a

Leszek Satora; Dorota Pach; Krzysztof Ciszowski; Lidia Winnik

2006-01-01

411

Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

Steven H. Ferguson

2004-01-01

412

The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

2000-01-01

413

Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

B Roy; R Crawford

1996-01-01

414

Confirmation of the Pulse Oximetry Gap in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To demonstrate the degree to which pulse oximetry overestimates actual oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This phenomenon has been reported in fewer than 20 humans in the English medical literature. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 191 patients evaluated for CO poisoning at a regional hyperbaric center identified 124 patients 10 years of

William P Bozeman; Roy AM Myers; Robert A Barish

1997-01-01

415

Strategic Plan for Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The severity of the silent epidemic of lead poisoning and its long range effects on young children in impairment of intellectual ability, short-term memory, concentration, and reaction time have been recognized. A 3-year strategic plan for preventing childhood lead poisoning in Illinois was developed by a planning committee working through four…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

416

Significance of operating experience with poison splines at KE Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstrated operating efficiency performance which has resulted from poison spline usage forces an economic decision concerning the self-supported and bumper fuel element programs. As originally conceived the projection fuel elements would preclude the insertion of a spline under the fuel charge; thus it is very important that means be devised either to make poison spline usage compatible with future

1960-01-01

417

Serious paracetamol poisoning and the results of liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paracetamol poisoning is the most common cause of fulminant liver failure in the United Kingdom. An accurate assessment of prognosis at the time of referral will allow the appropriate application of liver transplantation in this setting. The outcome of 92 patients consecutively admitted to a specialist liver unit with severe poisoning has been examined. In patients who did not have

D J Mutimer; R C Ayres; J M Neuberger; M H Davies; J Holguin; J A Buckels; A D Mayer; P McMaster; E Elias

1994-01-01

418

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois 1958 #12;ABSTRACT Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of sodium cyanide

419

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

420

111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources  

E-print Network

111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources 5 CDC Resources and Information;112 Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources Blood lead surveillance data. CDC assists includes background information and space for additional state and local materials such as state policies

421

Case Report Lead Poisoning in Common Loons (Gavia immer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The

L. N. Locke; A S. M. Kerr; D. Zoromskic

422

Artifactual elevation of lactate in ethylene glycol poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning is based on nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs and indirect and direct laboratory measurement. Few institutions have timely access to direct measurement of ethylene glycol. As a result, diagnosis sometimes can be delayed and therapy initiated late. We present two cases of ethylene glycol poisoning. These cases demonstrate the need to recognize the false

Michael Y Woo; Donald C Greenway; Steven P Nadler; Pierre Cardinal

2003-01-01

423

"Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones"  

E-print Network

was born after the end of the Cold War. This standpoint allows for three observations to be made: 1"Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones" European Cultural Days 2014 Opening Address on Friday, 16 decided on the title of our symposium, "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones", one thing was clear

Stein, Oliver

424

SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning College of Computing  

E-print Network

, search poison- ing techniques disregard any term relevance constraint and are em- ployed to poison STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL]: Infor- mation Search and Retrieval--Relevance feedback General Terms Security of a website to the search crawlers, highlight its relevance under certain search terms, and promote its raking

425

Amanita poisoning during the second trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amanita phalloides-type mushroom poisoning is well recognized as causing acute liver injury and often death. Less is known, however, of whether maternal Amanita poisoning is associated with fetal damage or not. In August 1991 four members of a family were hospitalized with food intoxication caused by Amanita phalloides and Amanita verna. One of them died from hepatic and renal failure.

I. Nagy; G. Pogátsa-Murray; S. Zalányi; P. Komlósi; F. László; I. Ungi

1994-01-01

426

Mechanism of cell destruction and cell protection during methylene-blue-induced PDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylene Blue (MB+) is a well-known dye in medicine and has been discussed as an easily applicable drug for the topical treatment in photodynamic therapy (PDT). MB+ can potentially be used as a redox indicator to detect the important redox reactions that are induced during PDT. MB+ induced PDT was successful in the intraluminal treatment of inoperable esophageal tumors and in the topical treatment of psoriasis. In order to improve the therapy, the reaction mechanism of MB+ was investigated in vivo by local injection of MB+ in a xenotransplanted subcutaneous tumor (adeno-carcinoma, G-3) in female nude mice. The MB+ preparation 'MB+1%' was applied both undiluted and diluted to 0.1% and 0.01% with isotonic sodium chloride. After an incubation period of 1 h, the tumors were irradiated at 662 nm. Treatment with 1% MB+ and subsequent irradiation with 100 J/cm2 led to complete tumor destruction in 79% of the treated animals. A decrease of the fluence rate from 100 mW/cm2 to 50 mW/cm2 significantly increased the phototoxic response, which was attributed to oxygen depletion but also to nonlinear redox reactions. In addition, fractionated light application with 15 s interruption intervals enhanced the effect. When 0.1% MB+ was used, complete tumor destruction was observed only in 10% of the treated animals. Below a relatively high threshold dose the therapeutic response was not significant. The efficiency of the therapy was correlated with nonlinear dynamics of MB+ on a subcellular level, using laser scanning microscopy. During MB+-PDT nonlinear redox- reactions were induced. This could be deduced from local fast changes of the MB+-fluorescence as well as the pH-value during irradiation of single cells. The light induced reaction of MB+ seems to be correlated with the nonlinear production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a consequence below a threshold dose the reducing ability of MB+ prevents tissue from oxidative damage. However, above this dose, as a point of no return, MB+ acts as an extremely potent oxidant.

Rueck, Angelika C.; Beck, G.; Heckelsmiller, K.; Knoedlsdorfer, U.; Genze, Felicitas; Orth, K.

1999-02-01

427

Evidence for intestinal chloride secretion.  

PubMed

Intestinal fluid secretion is pivotal in the creation of an ideal environment for effective enzymatic digestion, nutrient absorption and stool movement. Since fluid cannot be actively secreted into the gut, this process is dependent on an osmotic gradient, which is mainly created by chloride transport by the enterocyte. A pathological dysbalance between fluid secretion and absorption leads to obstruction or potentially fatal diarrhoea. This article reviews the widely accepted model of intestinal chloride secretion with an emphasis on the molecular players involved in this tightly regulated process. PMID:20233891

Murek, Michael; Kopic, Sascha; Geibel, John

2010-04-01

428

A case report of puffer fish poisoning in singapore.  

PubMed

Although many Asians regard puffer fish as a delicacy since ancient times, puffer fish (Lageocephalus scitalleratus) is also a well-known source of possibly lethal food poisoning. The fish is gaining popularity in Singapore and can be found in quite a few restaurants now. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent poison affecting the neural pathway. Puffer fish poisoning may cause a constellation of symptoms, such as giddiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the mouth, paresthesia, and muscle weakness. Severe cases may present with respiratory depression, circulatory failure, and death. TTX poisonings have been reported in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and the United States (Haque et al. 2008). We report a case of mild poisoning and suggest observation for such cases. PMID:24368916

Yong, Y S; Quek, L S; Lim, E K; Ngo, A

2013-01-01

429

Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity. PMID:24364054

Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

2013-01-01

430

Ponderosa pine and broom snakeweed: poisonous plants that affect livestock.  

PubMed

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the snakeweeds (Gutierrezia sarothrae and G. microcephala) are two groups of range plants that are poisonous to livestock. Ponderosa pine causes late-term abortions in cattle, and the snakeweeds are toxic and also cause abortions in cattle, sheep, and goats. Research is underway at the USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plants Research Laboratory to better understand livestock poisonings caused by grazing ponderosa pine needles and the snakeweeds and to provide methods of reducing losses to the livestock and supporting industries. This review includes the history of the problem, a brief description of the signs of poisoning, the research, to identify the chemical toxins, and current management practices on prevention of poisonings. PMID:10091125

Gardner, D R; James, L F; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L

1999-02-01

431

Lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.

Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia (Canada); Langelier, K.M. [Island Veterinary Hospital, Nanaimo, British Columbia (Canada); Scheuhammer, A.M. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bowes, V. [Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

432

Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32), 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8%) had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion) and delayed (6 h to 20 d). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9%) and six (2.1%) patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%). The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality. PMID:20535367

Eren, Sevki Hakan; Demirel, Yeltekin; Ugurlu, Serdal; Korkmaz, Ilhan; Aktas, Can; Guven, Fatma Mutlu Kukul

2010-01-01

433

The chemistry of poisons in amphibian skin.  

PubMed Central

Poisons are common in nature, where they often serve the organism in chemical defense. Such poisons either are produced de novo or are sequestered from dietary sources or symbiotic organisms. Among vertebrates, amphibians are notable for the wide range of noxious agents that are contained in granular skin glands. These compounds include amines, peptides, proteins, steroids, and both water-soluble and lipid-soluble alkaloids. With the exception of the alkaloids, most seem to be produced de novo by the amphibian. The skin of amphibians contains many structural classes of alkaloids previously unknown in nature. These include the batrachotoxins, which have recently been discovered to also occur in skin and feathers of a bird, the histrionicotoxins, the gephyrotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the pumiliotoxins and homopumiliotoxins, epibatidine, and the samandarines. Some amphibian skin alkaloids are clearly sequestered from the diet, which consists mainly of small arthropods. These include pyrrolizidine and indolizidine alkaloids from ants, tricyclic coccinellines from beetles, and pyrrolizidine oximes, presumably from millipedes. The sources of other alkaloids in amphibian skin, including the batrachotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the histrionicotoxins, the pumiliotoxins, and epibatidine, are unknown. While it is possible that these are produced de novo or by symbiotic microorganisms, it appears more likely that they are sequestered by the amphibians from as yet unknown dietary sources. PMID:7816854

Daly, J W

1995-01-01

434

Treatment of lead poisoning in wild geese.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven wild geese (Anser albifrons) suffering from lead poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shot were treated with disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in blood ranged from 0.4 to 23.0 micrograms/ml, with a mean concentration of 5.6 micrograms/ml. In 22 of the birds, 1 to 48 lead pellets (mean, 10.5 pellets/bird) were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. In the birds that recovered, the lead pellets were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetites in response to treatment, and disappeared radiographically between treatment days 17 and 52. The birds that did not survive died within 4 weeks, despite decreased concentrations of lead in blood. Of these 16 birds, 15 had radiographic evidence of impaction of the proventriculus at the first examination and no evidence of resolution of the impaction at the time of death. In contrast, only 2 of the 11 geese that recovered had impaction of the proventriculus at the time of admission. Thus, the condition of the proventriculus seems to be the first consideration to evaluate in the prognosis of lead poisoning in geese. PMID:1624358

Murase, T; Ikeda, T; Goto, I; Yamato, O; Jin, K; Maede, Y

1992-06-01

435

A comparison of lead hazards in the housing environment of lead poisoned children versus non poisoned controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study was undertaken to compare the lead hazards in the housing environment of lead poisoned children (aged 1–7) and matched non?poisoned control children. The results indicated a greater frequency and higher levels of lead in paint on both interior and exterior surfaces of the houses of the cases compared to the controls and suggested that intact painted surfaces

Charles Gilbert; Robert W. Tuthill; Edward J. Calabrese; Howard A. Peters

1979-01-01

436

[Effects of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids on the acute toxicity and weight of earthworm].  

PubMed

Standard contact filter paper test of OECD and artificial soil test were used to study the acute lethal effect of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids, 1-butyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim] Cl), 1-hexyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim] Cl), and 1-octyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim] Cl) on earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and the weight of the earthworms was measured after subtle exposure. The 24 h-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl using the contact filter paper method were 109.60, 50.38 and 7.94 microg x cm(-2), respectively. The 48 h-LC50 values were 98.52, 39.14 and 3.61 microg x cm(-2), respectively. Using the artificial soil method, the 7 d-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl were 447.78, 245.56 and 180.51 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the 14 d-LC50 values were 288.42, 179.75, 150.35 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There were differences in poisoning symptoms of the three ionic liquids on earthworms. The growth of Eisenia fetida was inhibited and declined with increasing ionic liquid concentration. The toxicity of ionic liquids on Eisenia fetida increased with the length of carbon chain. PMID:23798118

Huang, Ruo-Nan; Fan, Jun-Jie; Tu, Hong-Zhi; Tang, Ling-Yan; Liu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Dong-Mei

2013-04-01

437

Chloride thresholds in marine concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from an ongoing study of the performance of fly ash concrete in marine exposure. Reinforced concrete specimens exposed to tidal conditions were retrieved at ages ranging from 1 to 4 years. Steel reinforcement mass losses are compared with chloride contents at the location of the bar for concrete specimens of various strength grades and with a

Michael Thomas

1996-01-01

438

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt...Ammonium chloride is crystallized from the solution. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981),...

2014-04-01

439

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND...

2012-07-01

440

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

...following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND...

2014-07-01

441

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND...

2013-07-01

442

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture...Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

2013-04-01

443

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture...Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

2012-04-01

444

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture...Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

2011-04-01

445

Methylene blue inhibits function of the 5-HT transporter  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Methylene blue (MB) is commonly employed as a treatment for methaemoglobinaemia, malaria and vasoplegic shock. An increasing number of studies indicate that MB can cause 5-HT toxicity when administered with a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor. MB is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidases, but other targets that may contribute to MB toxicity have not been identified. Given the role of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) in the regulation of extracellular 5-HT concentrations, the present study aimed to characterize the effect of MB on SERT. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Live cell imaging, in conjunction with the fluorescent SERT substrate 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP+), [3H]5-HT uptake and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were employed to examine the effects of MB on SERT function. KEY RESULTS In EM4 cells expressing GFP-tagged human SERT (hSERT), MB concentration-dependently inhibited ASP+ accumulation (IC50: 1.4 ± 0.3 µM). A similar effect was observed in N2A cells. Uptake of [3H]5-HT was decreased by MB pretreatment. Furthermore, patch-clamp studies in hSERT expressing cells indicated that MB significantly inhibited 5-HT-evoked ion currents. Pretreatment with 8-Br-cGMP did not alter the inhibitory effect of MB on hSERT activity, and intracellular Ca2+ levels remained unchanged during MB application. Further experiments revealed that ASP+ binding to cell surface hSERT was reduced after MB treatment. In whole-cell radioligand experiments, exposure to MB (10 µM; 10 min) did not alter surface binding of the SERT ligand [125I]RTI-55. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS MB modulated SERT function and suggested that SERT may be an additional target upon which MB acts to produce 5-HT toxicity. PMID:21542830

Oz, Murat; Isaev, Dmytro; Lorke, Dietrich E; Hasan, Muhammed; Petroianu, Georg; Shippenberg, Toni S

2012-01-01

446

Methylene Blue Based Device for Pathogen Reduction in Human Plasma  

PubMed Central

Background Despite improvement in safety of plasma transfusion some virus transmission still remains a problem. So as World Health Organization (WHO) recommends, many countries developed Pathogen Reduction Technologies (PRT) to inactivate pathogens, in plasma components. The Methylene Blue (MB) based methods is one of the most universal one. The purpose of this research was, produce a device that can inactivate viruses in MB environment. Materials and Methods In this interventional study, each Plasma Sample was illuminated by 70Pieces (PCs) of 1 w red Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) from one side. These LEDs emit light at central wavelength of 627 nm with 20 nm Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). Two model viruses Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) were used and Tissue Culture 50% Infection Dose (TCID50) was used to calculate virus Log reduction. Two concentration of MB and 5 different illumination times were used. Results In 10 µm concentration of MB, HSV had 6.00±0.2 maximum log reduction that obtain after 60 minutes illumination and VSV had 5.50± 0.3 maximum log reduction after 75 minutes illumination. In 1 µM concentration of MB, HSV had 5.20±0.3 maximum log reduction that obtain after 60 minutes illumination and VSV had 4.90± 0.2 maximum log reduction after 75 minutes illumination. Conclusion Results of virus inactivation in this method were similar to other methods (P-value<0.05 in comparison with Spring method, and P-value>0.05 in comparison with Theraflex), and it showed this device could inactivate viruses according to WHO recommendation. PMID:24575279

Elikaei, A; Hosseini, S M; Sharifi, Z; Latifi, H; Nikbakht, H; Mirshafiee, H; Asadollahi, A

2013-01-01

447

Methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegia following severe burns.  

PubMed

Vasoplegia resulting from severe burns may persist despite adequate fluid resuscitation and treatment with norepinephrine (NE), vasopressin (VP), and steroids. The adenylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (MB), currently used in the burn patient to treat methemoglobinemia, has been used to treat vasoplegia after cardiopulmonary bypass. We report the case of MB infusion in two burn patients refractory to NE. The patients had severe burns, 95 and 80% TBSA not responding to conventional treatment. Fluid requirements were estimated according to Parkland formula and then to maintain a urinary output of 30-50 ml/hr. Patient #1, 95% TBSA, was adrenally insufficient and was receiving steroids according to the Annane protocol, as well as VP at 0.2 U/min. His NE requirements were 55 mcg/kg/min. Patient #2, 80% TBSA, was receiving 20 mcg/kg/min of NE. Circulatory failure was defined as inability to maintain mean arterial pressure >70 mm Hg. Hemodynamic and physiologic parameters were measured before and after infusion of a single dose of 2 mg/kg of MB. Both patients showed dramatic improvements in their shock after MB. Patient #1 had an initial reaction within 30 minutes and reached peak effect at 1 hour. His NE requirements decreased to 0.2 mcg/kg/min and VP decreased to 0.04 U/min. Patient #2 showed effects within 15 minutes of the infusion and by 2 hours the NE was stopped. No adverse side effects were noted in either of the two patients. The fact that MB successfully reversed refractory vasoplegia after severe burns suggests a new tool for treating a small subgroup of patients who exhibit persistent vasoplegia from their burn injury. A controlled randomized trial is needed to test its effects on a large number of patients and graft survival. PMID:18354304

Jaskille, Amín D; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H

2008-01-01

448

Behavioral effects of 6-methylene naltrexone (nalmefene) in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

Nalmefene [17-N-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14-beta-dihydroxy-4,5-alpha-epoxy-6- methylenemorphinan hydrochloride (also NIH 10365)], a 6-methylene derivative of naltrexone, was compared to naltrexone for its behavioral effects in rhesus monkeys. Nalmefene had opioid antagonist actions under all conditions, having a potency similar to that of naltrexone. In morphine-treated monkeys, discriminating between 0.01 mg/kg of naltrexone and saline, nalmefene substituted completely for naltrexone at doses larger than 0.001 mg/kg. The onset of discriminative stimulus effects was similar for nalmefene and naltrexone. A dose of 0.032 mg/kg of either antagonist occasioned > or = 90% naltrexone-level responding beginning 6 to 8 min after s.c. administration; the effects of this dose of either antagonist persisted for more than 1 hr. Like the parent compound naltrexone, nalmefene also antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of opioid agonists. Nalmefene prevented the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in monkeys acutely deprived of morphine and antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine in a separate group of monkeys discriminating between nalbuphine and saline. At the dose of naltrexone and nalmefene that produced an equivalent antagonism of morphine when the antagonist was administered 0.25 hr before morphine (0.01 mg/kg), the duration of antagonist action was < 4 hr and > 6 hr, respectively. Nalmefene also attenuated the antinociceptive effects of the mu agonist alfentanil and the kappa agonist CI-977 [5R-(5,7,8-beta)-N-methyl- N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)1-oxaspiro[4,5]dec-8-yl]-4-benzofuranaceta mide], being 55 times more potent in attenuating the antinociceptive effects of alfentanil as compared to Cl-977.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7932212

France, C P; Gerak, L R

1994-09-01

449

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22

450

Case reports of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning: historical trends.  

PubMed

There are currently limited data on the trends in case reporting of poisoned patients undergoing enhanced elimination with an extracorporeal treatment (ECTR). The present manuscript specifically reviews the longitudinal trends of reports according to technique, poison, and country of publication. To identify case reports of ECTR use in the management of poisoning, multiple databases were searched. There were no limitations on language and year of publication. All case reports describing individual patients undergoing ECTR with the intent of enhancing the elimination of a poison were included in the analysis. Since 1913, 2908 reports were identified. There were an increasing number of published reports with time except for a slight decrease during the 1990s. Hemodialysis was by far the most commonly used ECTR in poisoning, followed by hemoperfusion. The number of reported peritoneal dialyses decreased steadily since 1980s. Methanol, ethylene glycol, lithium, and salicylates remained among the most commonly reported poisons in every decade. The large majority of publications originated from either Europe or North America, and more specifically from the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, and China. Despite the emerging apparition of new techniques, hemodialysis remains to this day the favoured ECTR in the treatment of poisoned patients. PMID:24823834

Mardini, Joelle; Lavergne, Valery; Roberts, Darren; Ghannoum, Marc

2014-01-01

451

Chronic Neurobehavioral Effects of Tokyo Subway Sarin Poisoning in Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic neurobehavioral effects of acute sarin poisoning were evaluated in 9 male and 9 female patients who were exposed to sarin poisoning in the Tokyo subway incident in Japan. The investigators used nine neurobehavioral tests, as well as a posttraumatic stress disorder checklist, 6–8 mo after the poisoning occurred. Serum cholinesterase activity in patients on the day of poisoning (i.e.,

Kazuhito Yokoyama; Shunichi Araki; Katsuyuki Murata; Mariko Nishikitani; Tetsu Okumura; Shinichi Ishimatsu; Nobukatsu Takasu; Roberta F. White

1998-01-01

452

Subsumed under the vernacular name "poison frogs", the superfamily Dendrobatoidea contains the "non-  

E-print Network

Subsumed under the vernacular name "poison frogs", the superfamily Dendrobatoidea contains the "non- poisonous poison frogs" in the family Aromobatidae and the "true poison frogs" in the family Dendrobatidae and Comeault, 2009). Allobates femoralis is a semi-cryptic pan-Amazonian aromobatid frog (Amézquita et al

Ringler, Eva

453

S100B protein in carbon monoxide poisoning: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common form of lethal poisoning. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to assess the possible role of S100B, the structural protein in the astroglia, as a biochemical marker of brain injury in carbon monoxide poisoning. Serum S100B determination was performed in 38 consecutive patients poisoned by carbon monoxide who were admitted

Miran Brvar; Hugon Možina; Josko Osredkar; Martin Možina; Marko No?; Andrej Bru?an; Matjaž Bunc

2004-01-01

454

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

2010-04-01

455

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

2014-04-01

456

Vinyl Chloride Loss during Laboratory Holding Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it is important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure to groundwater users. This study investigated the current allowable holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. Samples containing an initial concentration of 2 ?g\\/liter of vinyl chloride showed

Richard Soule; Daniel Symonik; David Jones; Doug Turgeon; Betsy Gerbec

1996-01-01

457

The third-order elastic constants of potassium chloride, sodium chloride and lithium fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete set of third-order elastic constants of potassium chloride, sodium chloride and lithium fluoride have been measured at room temperature under conditions which eliminate the possibility that plastic deformation occurred during the experiments. A partial check on these values, provided by the pressure derivatives of the elastic constants, shows satisfactory agreement with experiment for potassium chloride and sodium chloride

J. R. Drabble; R. E. B. Strathen

1967-01-01

458

Community partnerships in preventing childhood lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Childhood lead poisoning is an environmental health problem that has no socio-economic, racial/ethnic, or regional boundaries. Because the key element in the exposure pathway is lead-based paint, it is more likely to impact inner city urban populations than those living in suburban areas. Suburban development primarily occurred after lead was removed from lead-based paint. It is maximally effective to adopt strategies that promote grassroots community development in designing preventive interventions. This paper reviews such a strategy for building community partnerships that have been instrumental in the development and implementation of an innovative lead education program. Saint Louis University School of Public Health reaches out to private and public nonprofit community organizations in this community-based lead education program.

Dugbatey, K. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States); Evans, R.G.; Lienhop, M.T.; Stelzer, M.

1995-11-01

459

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

2011-01-01

460

Clinical and radiological findings in chlorfenapyr poisoning  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of suicidal ingestion of chlorfenapyr, presenting with neurological complications after a latent period of more than a week, and rapidly progressing to death within days of symptoms. Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous pesticide according to World Health Organization toxicity classification, and kills target organism by depriving it of energy through interference with oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondrial level. A pro-pesticide, chlorfenapyr takes time to convert to its active form and either this active form or a toxic metabolite causes delayed neurological symptoms. It causes significant neurotoxicity in rat models. This case report provides for the first time from India (second worldwide), clinical and “radiological evidence” (magnetic resonance imaging showing demyelinating/oedematous changes) of “chlorfenapyr neurotoxicity in humans.” It also highlights the “latent period” between ingestion and onset of fatal manifestations. Earlier, similar case reports of human deaths with delayed onset neurological symptoms, due to chlorfenapyr poisoning have been reported, from Japan, Columbia, and Korea. PMID:23956576

Tharaknath, Vemuri Rama; Prabhakar, Y. V. S.; Kumar, K. Suseel; Babu, Noorthi Kalyan

2013-01-01

461

[Salinomycin poisoning in a Polish stud horse].  

PubMed

24 cases of salinomycin poisoning in horses occurring recently in Silesia are discussed. All of these horses, used for riding-purposes, were fed with concentrate containing 61 mg/kg salinomycin as faulty prepared by the manufacturer. Each horse received approximately two to three kilograms of this forage. All horses developed severe clinical signs of intoxication. Despite therapy eight horses died within three to six days. Ten others became recumbent and had to be euthanased. Only six horses survived. Clinical and laboratory examinations were performed and are discussed. Laboratory examination of blood included red blood cell count, haematocrit, concentration of haemoglobin, enzyme activities of ASAT, ALAT and AP, also levels of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and inorganic phosphor. Blood gas was also analysed. The dominating laboratory results were very high enzyme levels and alkalosis. The most characteristic clinical change appeared as paralysis of the hindlimbs. PMID:9441047

Nicpon, J; Czerw, P; Harps, O; Deegen, E

1997-08-01

462

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management  

PubMed Central

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

2014-01-01

463

Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

2004-06-01

464

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

Gunturu, Krishna S; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; McPhedran, Peter; Goodman, Thomas R; Hodsdon, Michael E; Strout, Matthew P

2011-01-01

465

Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide, a byproduct of incomplete hydrocarbon combustion, has been responsible for many accidental poisonings worldwide. The signs and symptoms of poisoning are diverse, ranging from headache, dizziness, and confusion to cardiac and neurological disturbances. Oxygen is the cornerstone of treatment, because it accelerates the dissociation of carbon monoxide from heme proteins. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of CO poisoning is still questionable. Only a few randomized, controlled studies have been conducted, and their results are inconsistent. In the present review, we discuss the conclusions of four randomized controlled studies and propose a hyperbaric oxygen treatment protocol based on these conclusions. PMID:15902792

Domachevsky, Liran; Adir, Yochai; Grupper, Motti; Keynan, Yoav; Bentur, Yedidia

2005-01-01

466

Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

2004-01-01

467

Paraquat poisoning: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (1, r-dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridium dichloride), a brown syrupy liquid is an effective herbicide that has low chronic toxicity because of its rapid deactivation on contact with soil. A high dose of paraquat or severe poisoning has a poor prognosis. At present there is no specific antidote to paraquat poisoning, hence the need to focus on prevention and in case of exposure or ingestion, aggressive decontamination to prevent further absorption. Although uncommon, paraquat ingestion can lead to severe and often fatal toxicity. However, despite its widespread availability, reports of this herbicide poisoning in India are uncommon. PMID:24672279

Raghu, Kondle; Mahesh, Vidavalur; Sasidhar, Parri; Reddy, Polam R.; Venkataramaniah, Vajja; Agrawal, Amit

2013-01-01

468

Pediatric toxicology: specialized approach to the poisoned child.  

PubMed

The poisoned child presents unique considerations in circumstances of exposure, clinical effects, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic interventions. The emergency provider must be aware of the pathophysiologic vulnerabilities of infants and children and substances that are especially toxic. Awareness is essential for situations in which the risk of morbidity and mortality is increased, such as child abuse by poisoning. Considerations in treatment include the need for attentive supportive care, pediatric implications for antidotal therapy, and extracorporeal removal methods such as hemodialysis in children. In this article, each of these issues and emerging poison hazards are discussed. PMID:24275168

Calello, Diane P; Henretig, Fred M

2014-02-01

469

Emergency management and treatment of the poisoned small animal patient.  

PubMed

This article reviews management of the acutely poisoned veterinary patient, including initial telephone triage, appropriate communication and history gathering from the pet owner, decontamination methods (including the use of appropriate emetic agents and dosing of activated charcoal), and general treatment of the poisoned patient. Symptomatic and supportive care of the poisoned patient includes the use of fluid therapy, gastrointestinal support (eg, antacids), central nervous system support (eg, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants), sedatives/reversal agents (eg, phenothiazines, naloxone, flumazenil), hepatoprotectants, and miscellaneous antidotal therapy. PMID:23747259

Lee, Justine A

2013-07-01

470

Synthesis of large-pore methylene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas and its implications.  

PubMed

In this article, we report the synthesis of methylene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) of the SBA-15 type. The materials were characterized by SAXS, BET, NMR, FESEM, and TEM. It was found that the synthesis of methylene-bridged SBA-15 PMOs requires more rigorous conditions than that of SBA-15 PMOs bearing organic bridges other than methylene. A mild acidic environment, which slows down the hydrolysis and condensation rates of the precursor, with the assistance of a salt, which enhances precursor-template interaction, should be used to synthesize high-quality large-pore methylene-bridged PMOs. We attributed this to the fast hydrolysis and condensation rates and the rigid backbone of precursor 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)methylene. By examining and comparing the synthesis of three large-pore PMOs with different bridges, we concluded that the inductive, bridging, and conformation effects of the organic bridging group play an important role in the synthesis of large-pore PMO materials. PMID:16471868

Bao, Xiao Ying; Li, Xu; Zhao, X S

2006-02-16

471

Methylene Blue Modulates Transendothelial Migration of Peripheral Blood Cells  

PubMed Central

Vasoplegia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Within the last years the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor methylene blue (MB) became a new therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to investigate the role of MB on transendothelial migration of circulating blood cells, the potential role of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS in this process, and the influence of MB on endothelial cell apoptosis. Human vascular endothelial cells (HuMEC-1) were treated for 30 minutes or 2 hours with different concentrations of MB. Inflammation was mimicked by LPS stimulation prior and after MB. Transmigration of PBMCs and T-Lymphocytes through the treated endothelial cells was investigated. The influence of MB upon the different subsets of PBMCs (Granulocytes, T- and B-Lymphocytes, and Monocytes) was assessed after transmigration by means of flow-cytometry. The effect of MB on cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide stainings. Analyses of the expression of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS were performed by means of RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results were analyzed using unpaired Students T-test. Analysis of endothelial cell apoptosis by MB indicated a dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cells. We observed time- and dose-dependent effects of MB on transendothelial migration of PBMCs. The prophylactic administration of MB led to an increase of transendothelial migration of PBMCs but not Jurkat cells. Furthermore, HuMEC-1 secretion of cGMP correlated with iNOS expression after MB administration but not with eNOS expression. Expression of these molecules was reduced after MB administration at protein level. This study clearly reveals that endothelial response to MB is dose- and especially time-dependent. MB shows different effects on circulating blood cell-subtypes, and modifies the release patterns of eNOS, iNOS, and cGMP. The transendothelial migration is modulated after treatment with MB. Furthermore, MB provokes apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose/time-dependent manner. PMID:24340007

Werner, Isabella; Guo, Fengwei; Bogert, Nicolai V.; Stock, Ulrich A.; Meybohm, Patrick; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

2013-01-01

472

Methylene blue modulates transendothelial migration of peripheral blood cells.  

PubMed

Vasoplegia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Within the last years the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor methylene blue (MB) became a new therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to investigate the role of MB on transendothelial migration of circulating blood cells, the potential role of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS in this process, and the influence of MB on endothelial cell apoptosis. Human vascular endothelial cells (HuMEC-1) were treated for 30 minutes or 2 hours with different concentrations of MB. Inflammation was mimicked by LPS stimulation prior and after MB. Transmigration of PBMCs and T-Lymphocytes through the treated endothelial cells was investigated. The influence of MB upon the different subsets of PBMCs (Granulocytes, T- and B-Lymphocytes, and Monocytes) was assessed after transmigration by means of flow-cytometry. The effect of MB on cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide stainings. Analyses of the expression of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS were performed by means of RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results were analyzed using unpaired Students T-test. Analysis of endothelial cell apoptosis by MB indicated a dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cells. We observed time- and dose-dependent effects of MB on transendothelial migration of PBMCs. The prophylactic administration of MB led to an increase of transendothelial migration of PBMCs but not Jurkat cells. Furthermore, HuMEC-1 secretion of cGMP correlated with iNOS expression after MB administration but not with eNOS expression. Expression of these molecules was reduced after MB administration at protein level. This study clearly reveals that endothelial response to MB is dose- and especially time-dependent. MB shows different effects on circulating blood cell-subtypes, and modifies the release patterns of eNOS, iNOS, and cGMP. The transendothelial migration is modulated after treatment with MB. Furthermore, MB provokes apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose/time-dependent manner. PMID:24340007

Werner, Isabella; Guo, Fengwei; Bogert, Nicolai V; Stock, Ulrich A; Meybohm, Patrick; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

2013-01-01

473

Methylene blue inhibits the function of ?7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  

PubMed

Methylene Blue (MB) is being investigated in clinical studies for its beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer disease. However, its exact mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated. The modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of MB on the function of the cloned ?7 subunit of the human nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes was investigated using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. MB reversibly inhibited ACh (100 ?M)-induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 3.4±0.3 ?M. The effect of MB was not dependent on the membrane potential. MB did not affect the activity of endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels, since the inhibition by MB was unaltered in oocytes injected with the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis (o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid and perfused with Ca2+-free bathing solution containing 1.8 mM Ba2+. MB decreased the maximal ACh-induced responses without significantly affecting ACh potency. Furthermore, specific binding of [125I] ?-bungarotoxin, a radioligand selective for the ?7 nAChR, was not altered by MB (10 ?M), indicating that MB acts as a noncompetitive antagonist on ?7 nAChRs. In hippocampal slices, whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons indicated that the increases in the frequency and amplitudes of the ?-aminobutyric acid-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents induced by bath application of 2 mM choline, a specific agonist for ?7 nAChRs, were abolished after 10 min application of 3 ?M MB. These results demonstrate that MB inhibits the function of human ?7 nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and of ?7 nAChR-mediated responses in rat hippocampal neurons. PMID:22483305

Al Mansouri, Abdulla S; Lorke, Dietrich E; Nurulain, Syed M; Ashoor, Abrar; Keun-Hang, Susan Yang; Petroianu, Georg; Isaev, Dmytro; Oz, Murat

2012-09-01

474

The Spectrum of Gold Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of gold chloride vapor excited by streaming active nitrogen was photographed. It was found to consist of 43 bands comprising, for each isotope of AuCl, two intermingled systems in the green region. All the bands are shaded toward the red. No other bands were found between lambdalambda7000-2000. The band heads of each system were measured, and equations are

W. F. Ferguson

1928-01-01

475

Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

1985-01-01

476

[Use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome of post-operative heart surgery].  

PubMed

Vasoplegia is a frequent complication in post-operative heart surgery and determines a significant increase in morbidity-mortality. When vasoplegia persists in spite of optimized fluid therapy with the use of Swan-Ganz catheter, we have a safe, effective and economical alternative, methylene blue. We present the case of a patient who developed vasoplegia refractory to treatment and shock in the scheduled post-operative period of myocardial revascularization. The use of a single dose of methylene blue resolved the hemodynamic instability and allowed for total discontinuation of vasoactive drugs. Thus, we present this new indication of methylene blue, still not approved by the corresponding bodies, for which no national publications have been found and its clinical management and the absence of adverse effects after its use. PMID:16949005

Mora-Ordóñez, J M; Sánchez-Llorente, F; Galeas-López, J L; Hernández Sierra, B; Prieto-Palomino, M A; Vera-Almazán, A

2006-01-01

477

Photo-degradation of methylene blue using Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The structural, morphological properties and photocatalytic activity of 1 mol % Ta-doped ZnO samples annealed at different temperatures were characterized. The photo-oxidation of methylene blue under the visible-light irradiation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. It is found that the photocatalysis of 1% Ta-doped ZnO annealed at 700 °C showed excellent performance of the photodegradation of methylene blue, which was attributed to a competitive trade-off among the crystallinity, surface hydroxyl groups, and specific surface area. The processing parameter such as the pH value also played an important role in tuning the photocatalytic activity. The maximum photodecomposed rate was achieved at pH=8, and an novel model about the absorption of methylene blue on the surface of the catalysts was proposed.

Kong, Ji-Zhou; Li, Ai-Dong; Li, Xiang-Yu; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Zhang, Wen-Qi; Gong, You-Pin; Li, Hui; Wu, Di

2010-06-01

478

Toxic Bradycardias in the Critically Ill Poisoned Patient  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular drugs are a common cause of poisoning, and toxic bradycardias can be refractory to standard ACLS protocols. It is important to consider appropriate antidotes and adjunctive therapies in the care of the poisoned patient in order to maximize outcomes. While rigorous studies are lacking in regards to treatment of toxic bradycardias, there are small studies and case reports to help guide clinicians' choices in caring for the poisoned patient. Antidotes, pressor support, and extracorporeal therapy are some of the treatment options for the care of these patients. It is important to make informed therapeutic decisions with an understanding of the available evidence, and consultation with a toxicologist and/or regional Poison Control Center should be considered early in the course of treatment. PMID:22545217

Givens, Melissa L.

2012-01-01

479

Treatment rationale for dogs poisoned with aldicarb (carbamate pesticide).  

PubMed

The treatment rationale for dogs poisoned by aldicarb is reviewed from a pharmacological perspective. The illegal use of aldicarb to maliciously poison dogs is a major problem in some parts of the world. In South Africa, it is probably the most common canine poisoning treated by companion animal veterinarians. Aldicarb poisoning is an emergency and veterinarians need to be able to diagnose it and start with effective treatment immediately to ensure a reasonable prognosis. Successful treatment depends on the timely use of an anti-muscarinic drug (e.g. atropine). Additional supportive treatment options, including fluid therapy, diphenhydramine, benzodiazepines and the prevention of further absorption (activated charcoal) should also be considered. Possible complications after treatment are also briefly discussed. PMID:22616438

Arnot, L F; Veale, D J H; Steyl, J C A; Myburgh, J G

2011-12-01

480

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or...

2010-04-01

481

DepenDNS: Dependable Mechanism against DNS Cache Poisoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNS cache poisoning attacks have been proposed for a long time. In 2008, Kaminsky enhanced the attacks to be powerful based on nonce query method. By leveraging Kaminsky's attack, phishing becomes large-scale since victims are hard to detect attacks. Hence, DNS cache poisoning is a serious threat in the current DNS infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure, DepenDNS, to prevent from cache poisoning attacks. DepenDNS queries multiple resolvers concurrently to verify an trustworthy answer while users perform payment transactions, e.g., auction, banking. Without modifying any resolver or authority server, DepenDNS is conveniently deployed on client side. In the end of paper, we conduct several experiments on DepenDNS to show its efficiency. We believe DepenDNS is a comprehensive solution against cache poisoning attacks.

Sun, Hung-Min; Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Chang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Yue-Hsun

482

Pattern of poisoning in a developing agricultural country  

PubMed Central

Four hundred and seventy-two cases of poisoning were seen over a two-year period in Kandy, Ceylon. The overall mortality was 23·7%. The pattern of poisoning was different from that in western countries in that 49·8% of the cases were due to insecticide poisoning and only 10·7% were due to drugs, including barbiturates. Insecticides accounted for 73·2% and drugs for only 4·5% of the 112 fatal cases. Of the fatal cases 51·7% were between the ages of 20 and 40 years and only 6·2% were over 50 years. The wastage of economically useful lives indicates the need for a poison centre. PMID:4816585

Senewiratne, B.; Thambipillai, Shanthi

1974-01-01

483

Nek4 Status Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Microtubule Poisons  

E-print Network

Microtubule poisons are widely used in cancer treatment, but the factors determining the relative efficacy of different drugs in this class remain obscure. In this study, we identified the NIMA kinase Nek4 in a genetic ...

Doles, Jason D.

484

Enzymes and bioscavengers for prophylaxis and treatment of organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world, with upwards of 3 million people poisoned each year. Although OP poisoning is not common in developed countries, recently greater attention has been given to these chemicals because of their similarity to chemical warfare agents. Despite the agricultural use of OP pesticides for roughly 60 years, no new therapies have been developed since the 1960s. A promising field of novel antidotes for OP poisoning, OP hydrolases, has recently garnered increased support. These bacterial enzymes have demonstrated tremendous prophylactic and antidotal efficacy against a few different OP classes in animal models. These studies, as well as the limitations and challenges of therapeutic development of these enzymes, are discussed. PMID:20036941

Bird, Steven B; Dawson, Andrew; Ollis, David

2010-01-01

485

Coating a nuclear fuel with a burnable poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for coating a nuclear fuel with a burnable poison, comprising: (a) cleaning at least a section of the surface of the nuclear fuel; (b) choosing a burnable poison sputtering deposition rate that will heat the surface of the nuclear fuel to a generally steady-state temperature less than about 200°C; (c) sputtering, at the chosen deposition rate,

1986-01-01

486

Recent Advances in the Treatment of Organophosphorous Poisonings  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorous compounds have been employed as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Toxicity of organophosphorous compounds is a result of excessive cholinergic stimulation through inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous system and cardiovascular disorders. Organophosphorous pesticide poisonings are common in developing worlds including Iran and Sri Lanka. Nerve agents were used during the Iraq-Iran war in 1983-1988 and in a terrorist attack in Japan in 1994-1995. Following decontamination, depending on the severity of intoxication the administration of atropine to counteract muscarinic over-stimulation, and an oxime to reactivate acetyl cholinesterase are indicated. Supportive and intensive care therapy including diazepam to control convulsions and mechanical respiration may be required. Recent investigations have revealed that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate to produce mild to moderate alkalinization is effective. Gacyclidine; an antiglutamatergic compound, was also proved to be beneficial in conjunction with atropine, pralidoxime, and diazepam in nerve agent poisoning. Intravenous magnesium sulfate decreased hospitalization duration and improved outcomes in patients with organophosphorous poisoning. Bio-scavengers including fresh frozen plasma or albumin have recently been suggested as a useful therapy through clearing of free organophosphates. Hemofiltration and antioxidants are also suggested for organophosphorous poisoning. Recombinant bacterial phosphotriesterases and hydrolases that are able to transfer organophosphorous-degrading enzymes are very promising in delayed treatment of organophosphorous poisoning. Recently, encapsulation of drugs or enzymes in nanocarriers has also been proposed. Given the signs and symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning, health professionals should remain updated about the recent advances in treatment of organophosphorous poisoning poisonings. PMID:23115436

Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Saber, Hamidreza

2012-01-01

487

Long-term consequences of soman poisoning in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organophosphorus compound soman produces long-lasting epileptic seizure activity which is associated to brain damage, more particularly in the hippocampus and the amygdala. The companion paper (see part 1 in the same journal issue) describes the neuropathology in the amygdala of soman-poisoned mice. The present paper examines the long-term effects of soman poisoning on emotional reactivity in mice, 30 or

Stéphanie Coubard; Daniel Béracochéa; Jean-Marc Collombet; Jean-Nicolas Philippin; Ali Krazem; Pierrette Liscia; Guy Lallement; Christophe Piérard

2008-01-01

488

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) poisoning and congestive heart failure in cattle.  

PubMed

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea), when fed to calves at high elevations, increased the prevalence and severity of congestive heart failure. Forced exercise did not increase the prevalence of congestive heart failure, but it did increase severity. Calves consuming locoweed at high elevations developed signs and gross lesions of congestive heart failure and microscopic lesions of congestive heart failure and locoweed poisoning. Calves fed locoweed at low elevations developed only signs and lesions of locoweed poisoning. PMID:3793593

James, L F; Hartley, W J; Nielsen, D; Allen, S; Panter, K E

1986-12-15

489

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

SciTech Connect

An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

1989-10-01

490

Nodal Diffusion Burnable Poison Treatment for Prismatic Reactor Cores  

SciTech Connect

The prismatic block version of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) considered as a candidate Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)design may use burnable poison pins in locations at some corners of the fuel blocks (i.e., assembly equivalent structures). The presence of any highly absorbing materials, such as these burnable poisons, within fuel blocks for hexagonal geometry, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) causes a local inter-block flux depression that most nodal diffusion-based method have failed to properly model or otherwise represent. The location of these burnable poisons near vertices results in an asymmetry in the morphology of the assemblies (or blocks). Hence the resulting inadequacy of traditional homogenization methods, as these “spread” the actually local effect of the burnable poisons throughout the assembly. Furthermore, the actual effect of the burnable poison is primarily local with influence in its immediate vicinity, which happens to include a small region within the same assembly as well as similar regions in the adjacent assemblies. Traditional homogenization methods miss this artifact entirely. This paper presents a novel method for treating the local effect of the burnable poison explicitly in the context of a modern nodal method.

A. M. Ougouag; R. M. Ferrer

2010-10-01

491

Structural equation modeling of pesticide poisoning, depression, safety, and injury.  

PubMed

The role of pesticide poisoning in risk of injuries may operate through a link between pesticide-induced depressive symptoms and reduced engagement in safety behaviors. The authors conducted structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data to examine the pattern of associations between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms, safety knowledge, safety behaviors, and injury. Interviews of 1637 Colorado farm operators and their spouses from 964 farms were conducted during 1993-1997. Pesticide poisoning was assessed based on a history of ever having been poisoned. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Safety knowledge and safety behaviors were assessed using ten items for each latent variable. Outcomes were safety behaviors and injuries. A total of 154 injuries occurred among 1604 individuals with complete data. Pesticide poisoning, financial problems, health, and age predicted negative affect/somatic depressive symptoms with similar effect sizes; sex did not. Depression was more strongly associated with safety behavior than was safety knowledge. Two safety behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury. This study emphasizes the importance of financial problems and health on depression, and provides further evidence for the link between neurological effects of past pesticide poisoning on risk-taking behaviors and injury. PMID:24125049

Beseler, Cheryl L; Stallones, Lorann

2013-01-01

492

Evaluation of the kinetics of Cr-51 methylene diphosphonate: a potential therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for osteogenic sarcoma  

E-print Network

of Nuclear Hedicine. 24: 334-338, 1983. Caniggia A. , Vattimo A. : Kinetics of 99m Technetium- Tin-Methylene Diphosphonate in Normal Subjects and Pathological Conditions: A Simple Index of Bone Netabolism. ~~51 ~ 1980. 30: 5-13, Fogelman, I. : Skeletal... of Nuclear Hedicine. 24: 334-338, 1983. Caniggia A. , Vattimo A. : Kinetics of 99m Technetium- Tin-Methylene Diphosphonate in Normal Subjects and Pathological Conditions: A Simple Index of Bone Netabolism. ~~51 ~ 1980. 30: 5-13, Fogelman, I. : Skeletal...

Poteet, Brian Allen

2012-06-07

493

[Methylene blue in the therapy of vasoplegic syndrome after cardiac surgery procedure].  

PubMed

Vasoplegic syndrome after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is severe complication with high morbidity and mortality. Without appropriate therapy the syndrome advances to the shock state with subsequent multiorgan failure. Basic haemodynamic parameters of vasoplegic syndrome include low systemic vascular resistance with severe hypotension, tachycardia, and normal or increased cardiac output and low filling pressures. In therapy norepinephrine and vasopressin or its analogues are used. Methylene blue is other therapeutic option. The case of successful application of methylene blue for the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome is presented. PMID:16639934

Ríha, H; Ríhová, L; Pind'ák, M; Brezina, A; Pirk, J

2006-01-01

494

Endonyx toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye*  

PubMed Central

This study shows the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye for the treatment of endonyx toenail onychomycosis. Four patients with endonyx onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum were treated with 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode at 630 nm and an energy density of 36 J/cm2 for 6 months at 2-week intervals. The preliminary study showed the effectiveness of this therapy in the treatment of endonyx onychomycosis, and also indicated that the disease can be caused by T. rubrum. PMID:24474123

Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

2013-01-01

495

Methylene blue sensitized poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix: a novel holographic material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylene blue sensitized poly(methyl methacrylate) is shown to be an efficient medium for recording three-dimensional holographic gratings. Phase and/or amplitude holograms can be written in the methylene blue sensitized films of poly(methyl methacrylate) with a conventional source of light, a He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm. Diffraction efficiencies of 60% were found for thick holograms. Multiple holograms were recorded in the described system, and an optical erasing of holograms was achieved. Hologram recording speed was found to increase with temperature.

Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw; Miniewicz, Andrzej

1995-08-01

496

Review: CNS toxicity involving methylene blue: the exemplar for understanding and predicting drug interactions that precipitate serotonin toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue has only recently been noted to cause severe central nervous system toxicity. Methylene blue is used for various conditions, including, intravenously, in methemoglobinemia, vasoplegia and as an aid to parathyroidectomy (at doses of 1—7.5 mg kg-1). This review of the current evidence concludes that 13 of 14 of the reported cases of CNS toxicity were serotonin toxicity that

P. Ken Gillman

2011-01-01

497

A study of the oral toxicity of calcium chloride in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The effects of oral administration of calcium chloride solutions to dairy cows were studied. When a 0.3 per cent solution was given ad libitum, and as the sole source of water for a period of 75 days, we observed no significant changes in feed consumption, body weight or milk production. The average daily water intake was increased by approximately 20 per cent, and signs of slight gastro-intestinal irritation were seen. No major changes in blood hemoglobin levels, hematocrits, total and differential white cell counts or thrombocyte numbers could be attributed to the treatment. We observed no significant effect on the serum calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, or sodium content. The level of inorganic phosphate in the serum rose to higher, but still normal values. During the entire experiment the urine pH was abnormally acid for dairy cows. Electrocardiograms were taken after 45 days of calcium chloride administration, and they appeared normal. When 0.1 and 0.2 per cent solutions were given as the sole source of water for a period of 81 days, the cows remained in good condition, and we observed no changes in appetite, body weight or milk production. In general, dairy cows will refuse to drink calcium chloride solutions when the concentration exceeds 0.5 per cent, even when they have been deprived of water for 18-24 hours. On the other hand, since the administration of lower concentrations for periods of 75 and 81 days did not cause any clinical sign of disease, it seems that on farms where more than one source of water are usually available, poisoning of dairy cattle by calcium chloride in solution is quite unlikely. PMID:4223697

Mathieu, L G; Pelletier, R P

1966-02-01

498

Lipid rescue 911: Are poison centers recommending intravenous fat emulsion therapy for severe poisoning?  

PubMed

Intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) therapy is a novel treatment that has been used to reverse the acute toxicity of some xenobiotics with varied success. We sought to determine how US Poison Control Centers (PCCs) have incorporated IFE as a treatment strategy for poisoning. A closed-format multiple-choice survey instrument was developed, piloted, revised, and then sent electronically to every medical director of an accredited US PCC in March 2011. Addresses were obtained from the American Association of Poison Control Centers listserv, and participation was voluntary and remained anonymous. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The majority of PCC medical directors completed the survey (45 out of 57; 79 %). Of the 45 respondents, all felt that IFE therapy played a role in the acute overdose setting. Most PCCs (30 out of 45; 67 %) have a protocol for IFE therapy. In a scenario with "cardiac arrest" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their center would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (43 out of 45; 96 %), verapamil (36 out of 45; 80 %), amitriptyline (31 out of 45; 69 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (12 out of 45; 27 %). In a scenario with "shock" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their PCC would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (40 out of 45; 89 %), verapamil (28 out of 45; 62 %), amitriptyline (25 out of 45; 56 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (8 out of 45; 18 %). IFE therapy is being recommended by US PCCs; protocols and dosing regimens are nearly uniform. Most directors feel that IFE is safe but are more likely to recommend IFE in patients with cardiac arrest than in patients with severe hemodynamic compromise. PMID:23661336

Christian, Michael R; Pallasch, Erin M; Wahl, Michael; Mycyk, Mark B

2013-09-01

499

Clinical findings and follow-up evaluation of an outbreak of mushroom poisoning — survey of amanita phalloides poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One hundred and sixty cases of mushroom poisoning during the period July–November 1981 are reported. The survey details 116 observations of short incubation syndromes and 44 cases of delayed syndrome, identified asAmanita Phalloides poisoning. Of the latter, 40 patients were adult (mean age 46 years, range 20–77; 18 females and 22 males) and 4 were children (= 12 years

R. Fantozzi; F. Ledda; L. Caramelli; F. Moroni; P. Blandina; E. Masini; P. Botti; S. Peruzzi; M. Zorn; P. F. Mannaioni

1986-01-01

500

Molecular Orientation Study of Methylene Blue at an Air/Fused-Silica Interface Using Evanescent-Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Molecular Orientation Study of Methylene Blue at an Air/Fused-Silica Interface Using Evanescent of methylene blue (MB) at an air/fused-silica interface while varying the polarization of the incident light

Zare, Richard N.

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