Note: This page contains sample records for the topic methylene chloride poisoning from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

1999-01-01

2

Treatment of Methylene Induced Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Hyperbaric Oxygenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methylene chloride is an organic solvent with many industrial uses. Inhalation of methylene chloride fumes can result in toxicity, caused by hepatic biotransformation of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide. A case of acute methylene chloride poisoning i...

F. W. Rudge

1989-01-01

3

Treatment of methylene-induced carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygenation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Methylene chloride is an organic solvent with many industrial uses. Inhalation of methylene chloride fumes can result in toxicity, caused by hepatic biotransformation of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide. A case of acute methylene chloride poisoning is presented, including successful treatment of this patient with the use of hyperbaric oxygenation. The rationale for the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of methylene chloride poisoning is discussed. (aw)

Rudge, F.W.

1989-01-01

4

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

5

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and...Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the...

2009-04-01

6

Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Statement was prepared to give information about methylene chloride and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,300 sites on its National Priorities List (NP...

C. Harper Y. N. Hales

1993-01-01

7

Current Intelligence Bulletin 46, Methylene Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

B6C3F1 mice exposed to methylene chloride in air developed cancers (alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas) and tumors (alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas) of the lung, and cancers (hepatocellular carcinomas) of the liver. Fischer 344/N rats exposed to methylene chlo...

1986-01-01

8

Health Assessment Document for Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is known to be metabolized to carbon monoxide in man and animals, primarily by the liver. Because the oxygen content of blood is decreased, depriving the brain and heart of the oxygen they require, serious permanent da...

I. W. F. Davidson J. C. Parker J. L. Egle M. M. Greenberg

1982-01-01

9

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is known to be metabolized to carbon monoxide in man and animals, primarily by the liver. Because the oxygen content of blood is decreased, depriving the brain and heart of the oxygen they require, serious permanent damage may result. Carboxyh...

10

Suicidal poisoning with barium chloride.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old male pharmacist suffering from depression phoned the emergency services telling of how he had ingested barium chloride. He was found semicomatose in bed and resuscitation attempts were to no avail and he died at the scene. A white plastic container labelled "Barium chloride... Poison", and a book with a writing on a blank page... "give sulphate... SO(4)" were found. At autopsy, 1l of whitish-yellow fluid was found in the stomach. Autopsy barium levels were: blood 9.9mg/l; bile 8.8mg/l; urine 6.3mg/l; gastric 10.0g/l. Cause of death was given as cardiorespiratory arrest due to barium chloride poisoning. The issue of barium toxicity in a variety of itatrogenic and non itatrogenic situation is discussed together with the two only other cases of suicidal barium ingestion, and the feasibility of early intervention at the scene by an emergency team. PMID:11376995

Jourdan, S; Bertoni, M; Sergio, P; Michele, P; Rossi, M

2001-06-15

11

Results of the Massachusetts Methylene Chloride End-Users Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of Massachusetts companies reporting use of methylene chloride between 1995 and 1999 was conducted to assess the status of industrial use of the chemical in 2000. Methylene chloride has had wide use in industry although it has been identified as potentially hazardous to exposed workers and the environment. New and tightened occupational and environmental regulations taking effect in

Cora R. Roelofs; Michael J. Ellenbecker

2003-01-01

12

Case Study: Control of Methylene Chloride Exposures During Furniture Stripping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene chloride, a potential occupational carcinogen, is one of the principal solvents used for furniture stripping. Methylene chloride exposures among workers in furniture stripping operations have been found to be high. This article describes a furniture stripping operation at a sheltered workshop before and after the ventilation system was modified. Previous to ventilation system modifications, workers who were stripping furniture

Cheryl Fairfield Estill; Amy Beasley Spencer

1996-01-01

13

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic...Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used as an...

2009-04-01

14

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic...Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used as an...

2010-04-01

15

THE MECHANISM OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

chloride with aqueous chloride solution and proposed the mechanism of the reaction!). The kinetics of the hydrolysis of methylene chloride has now been investigated over the pH range from to 12 under the same experimental conditions as those in the exchange reaction reported in the foregoing paper!). It has been found that the rate of the hydrolysis is approximately

Kozo TANABE; Masayuki MATSUDA

16

Fate and effects of methylene chloride in activated sludge.  

PubMed Central

Activated sludge obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was acclimated to methylene chloride at concentrations between 1 and 100 mg/liter by continuous exposure to the compound for 9 to 11 days. Acclimated cultures were shown to mineralize methylene chloride to carbon dioxide and chloride. Rates of methylene chloride degradation were 0.14, 2.3, and 7.4 mg of CH2Cl2 consumed per h per g of mixed-liquor suspended solids for cultures incubated in the presence of 1, 10, and 100 mg/liter, respectively. Concentrations of methylene chloride between 10 and 1,000 mg/liter had no significant effect on O2 consumption or glucose metabolism by activated sludge. A hypothetical model was developed to examine the significance of volatilization and biodegradation for the removal of methylene chloride from an activated sludge reactor. Application of the model indicated that the rate of biodegradation was approximately 12 times greater than the rate of volatilization. Thus, biodegradation may be the predominant process determining the fate of methylene chloride in activated sludge systems continuously exposed to the compound.

Klecka, G M

1982-01-01

17

Investigation of nonchlorinated substitute cleaning agents for methylene chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four nonchlorinated solvents, N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), arco solv DPM, Bio Act EC-7, and ethyl lactate, were evaluated as substitutes for the methylene chloride used as a cleaning solvent in a ceramic component production process. NMP showed a cleaning...

R. F. Salerno J. V. Dichiaro E. E. Egleston J. W. Koons

1990-01-01

18

75 FR 24509 - Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety...has completed a review of the Methylene Chloride (MC) Standard (29 CFR 1910.1052...Regulatory Impact Analysis (Methylene Chloride) ES-2, January 7,...

2010-05-05

19

76 FR 14432 - Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. OSHA-2011-0060] Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of...requirements specified by the Methylene Chloride Standard (29 CFR 1910.1052). DATES...The standard entitled ``Methylene Chloride'' (MC) (29 CFR 1910.1052;...

2011-03-16

20

Methylene Chloride Survey Report, Celanese Fibers Company, Celriver Plant, Rock Hill, South Carolina, Final Task III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial hygiene practices in the Celanese Fibers Company facility in South Carolina and worker exposure to methylene-chloride (75092) are investigated. Current literature on the toxicological effects of methylene-chloride was summarized, and the workpl...

M. Koketsu

1979-01-01

21

Temperature dependence of electron attachment to methylene chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependence of dissociative electron attachment to methylene chloride in the electron energy range of 0-10 eV was studied in a high-temperature electron swarm apparatus. The measurements were made using N2 and Ar as buffer gases. From the measured electron attachment rate constants, the electron attachment cross sections at 300, 400, and 500 K were determined using an unfolding technique. The maximum electron attachment cross sections at 300, 400, and 500 K were ~3.110-18, ~8.210-18, and ~1.710-17 cm2, and occurred at electron energies of ~0.8, ~0.65, and ~0.55 eV, respectively. The increase in electron attachment to methylene chloride with temperature is attributed to the increase in the vibrational energy of the molecule.

Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Tav, C.; McCorkle, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

1999-05-01

22

A neutron diffraction study of liquid methylene chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron diffraction data on four different isotopic samples of methylene chloride, containing 1H and 2H, are reported. Background, self-absorption of the sample and container and multiple scattering corrections were performed in the usual way, whereas a procedure for the inelasticity correction is presented, which is especially tested for liquids containing hydrogen. Separation of the coherent scattering contributions into intramolecular and intermolecular parts was performed to compare with a molecular dynamics simulation for the liquid structure.

Jung, W. G.; Zeidler, M. D.; Chieux, P.

23

Effects of hydrogen chloride addition to the direct reaction of methylene chloride with elemental silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct synthesis of bis(chlorosily)methanes has been reinvestigated by reacting elemental silicon simultaneously with methylene chloride and hydrogen chloride in the presence of copper catalyst using a stirred reactor equipped with a spiral band agitator at a carefully controlled temperature between 260 and 340C. Bis(dichlorosily)methane and (dichlorosily)(trichlorosily)methane were obtained as the major products and bis(trichlorosily)methane as a minor product along with

Seung Ho Yeon; Joon Soo Han; Bok Ryul Yoo; Il Nam Jung

1996-01-01

24

Molecular dynamics studies and neutron scattering experiments on methylene chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) with two different potentials are used to calculate the intermolecular static structure factor inter(q) for a series of isotopic substituted mixtures CX2Cl2. The intermolecular structure factors are compared with corresponding experimental data obtained from neutron diffraction. We discuss the validity of the rigid molecule approximation in the MD simulation and show that the quantitative comparison of the static structure factors of molecular liquids obtained from neutron diffraction experiments and MD simulation must be considered with some care for molecules containing hydrogen atoms with low effective masses.

Kneller, Gerald R.; Geiger, Alfons

25

Lead and methylene chloride exposures among automotive repair technicians.  

PubMed

Potential exposures among repair technicians engaged in vehicle resurfacing operations prior to spray painting have not been thoroughly characterized. Environmental and personal air monitoring conducted in the State of Rhode Island have shown that automotive repair technicians may be exposed to metal particulates in sanding dust and methylene chloride vapors during vehicle paint removal operations. Hand wipe samples demonstrated that metals in sanding dust adhered to the hands of workers throughout the duration of the work day and were available for incidental ingestion from the handling of food/nonfood items and hand-to-mouth contact. A blood lead (PbB) screening effort among 21 workers at 2 facilities showed that 4 non-/less-exposed workers had mean PbB levels at the U.S. geometric mean of 2.8 microg/dL, while 2 out of 9 (22%) dedicated vehicle repair technicians had PbB levels at or above 30 microg Pb/dL whole blood--the level for potential adverse reproductive effects. Methylene chloride exposures were also found to exceed the Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) action level and permissible exposure limit (PEL) in a limited number of samples (120 and 26 ppm, integrated work shift samples). Our findings suggest that thousands of professional technicians and vocational high school students may be at increased risk of adverse reproductive and/or other systemic effects. PMID:15204886

Enander, Richard T; Cohen, Howard J; Gute, David M; Brown, Linfield C; Desmaris, Anne Marie C; Missaghian, Richard

2004-02-01

26

Decomposition of methylene chloride by electron beam and pulsed corona processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the plasma-assisted decomposition of dilute concentrations of methylene chloride in atmospheric-pressure N2 and dry air streams by electron beam and pulsed corona processing are presented. This paper presents the first experimental evidence showing that the decomposition of methylene chloride in a non-thermal plasma at ambient gas temperature proceeds via reaction with nitrogen atoms. The decomposition is more efficient with energy deposition in electron beam generated plasmas because of the higher rate for electron-impact dissociation of N2. In dry air mixtures, the decomposition of methylene chloride is degraded substantially because the nitrogen atoms are consumed in the production of nitrogen oxides. At higher gas temperatures (300C), the decomposition of methylene chloride in dry air is shown to proceed via reaction with oxygen atoms. The main products of methylene chloride decomposition in dry air mixtures are CO, CO2, HCl, and probably Cl2.

Penetrante, B. M.; Hsiao, M. C.; Bardsley, J. N.; Merritt, B. T.; Vogtlin, G. E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C. P.; Bayless, J. R.

1997-02-01

27

Methylene chloride-free and optionally methanol-free paint stripper and/or gasket remover compositions  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is directed to methylene chloride-free, and optionally methanol-free, paint stripper and gasket remover formulations as alternatives to methylene chloride-based paint strippers and gasket removers.

Shank; Gary K. (Methuen, MA); Burdzy; Matthew P. (South Windsor, CT)

2006-08-08

28

Assess health effects associated with dichloromethane (methylene chloride). Final report  

SciTech Connect

On August 13-14, 1987 the Halogenated Organics Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board's Environmental Health Committee met in Washington, D.C. to review two documents prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development that assess health effects associated with dichloromethane (methylene chloride). The documents included: a June 1987 Draft Technical Analysis of New Methods and Data Regarding Dichloromethane: Pharmacokinetics, Mechanism of Action and Epidemiology, a July 1987 Draft Addendum to the Health Assessment Document for Dichloromethane: Pharmacokinetics, Mechanism of Action and Epidemiology. The Subcommittees concluded that the Addendum was one of the best documents it has received in terms of its clarity, coverage of the data and analysis of scientific issues. The document clearly demonstrates the potential utility of pharmacokinetics data in risk assessment.

Not Available

1988-03-09

29

The far-infrared spectrum of methylene chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The far-infrared spectrum of methylene chloride has been recorded in the region between 10 and 75 cm-1 with a resolution of 0.002 cm-1. Microwave spectra in the frequency range 26-40 GHz have also been recorded. Rotational transitions in the ground states of CH235Cl2 and CH235Cl37Cl and in the v4 = 1 vibrational state of CH235Cl2 have beem measured and assigned. Simultaneous analyses of these transitions and of microwave data have been performed. Improved values for the quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants of the ground state of CH2Cl2 have been obtained, while some octic distortion constants never reported before in the literature have been determined. For the first time, precise rotational and centrifugal distortion constants have been obtained for the ground state of CH235Cl37Cl and for the v4 = 1 state of CH235Cl2.

Tullini, F.; Nivellini, G. D.; Carlotti, M.; Carli, B.

1989-12-01

30

76 FR 55949 - Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. OSHA-2011-0060] Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of...requirements specified in the Methylene Chloride Standard (29 CFR 1910.1052). DATES...in the existing Standard on Methylene Chloride (29 CFR 1910.1052, ``the...

2011-09-09

31

Methylene chloride: a 2-year inhalation toxicity and oncogenicity study in rats  

SciTech Connect

Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 50, 200, or 500 ppm methylene chloride for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were elevated in a dose-dependent (less than linear) manner in rats exposed to 50-500 ppm methylene chloride. Histopathologic lesions related to methylene chloride exposure were confined to the liver and mammary tissue of rats. An increased incidence of hepatocellular vacuolization was observed in male and female rats exposed to 500 ppm methylene chloride. Female rats exposed to 500 ppm methylene chloride also had an increased incidence of multinucleated hepatocytes and number of spontaneous benign mammary tumors/tumor-bearing rat (adenomas, fibromas, and fibroadenomas with no progression toward malignancy); the incidence of benign mammary tumors in female rats exposed to 50 or 200 ppm methylene chloride was comparable to historical control values. No increase in the number of any malignant tumor type was observed in rats exposed to concentrations as high as 500 ppm methylene chloride. Additional groups of female rats were exposed to 500 ppm methylene chloride for the first 12 months or the last 12 months of the 24-month study. The response observed in female rats exposed to 500 ppm for the first 12 months was the same as that observed in female rats exposed to 500 ppm for 2 years. Conversely, the response observed in female rats exposed to 500 ppm during the last 12 months of the study was similar to that observed in control animals. Based upon the results of this study, the no-adverse-effect level for chronic inhalation exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats was judged to be 200 ppm methylene chloride.

Nitschke, K.D.; Burek, J.D.; Bell, T.J.; Kociba, R.J.; Rampy, L.W.; McKenna, M.J.

1988-07-01

32

Hepatic and pulmonary carcinogenicity of methylene chloride in mice: a search for mechanisms.  

PubMed

An inhalation study utilizing over 1400 female B6C3F1 mice was undertaken to study mechanistic factors associated with liver and lung tumor induction following exposure to 2000 ppm of methylene chloride. Mice were exposed to methylene chloride (treated) or chamber air (controls) 6 h per day, for varying durations up to 104 weeks. Several interim sacrifices and 'stop exposures' were included. Exposure to 2000 ppm methylene chloride caused an increase in liver and lung neoplasia in the absence of overt cytotoxicity. Measurement of replicative DNA synthesis done after 13, 26, 52 and 78 weeks of exposure showed a significant decrease in the hepatocyte labeling index at 13 weeks. Replicative DNA synthesis in pulmonary airways after 1, 2, 3, 4, 13 and 26 weeks of exposure to methylene chloride was significantly lower than in air-exposed controls. Likewise, the increase in tumor induction in treated mice was not associated with increased replicative DNA synthesis in liver foci or in alveolar parenchyma. The frequency and pattern of H-ras gene activation were similar in control and methylene chloride-induced liver neoplasms. Similarly, the frequency and pattern of K-ras activation in lung neoplasms were not altered by exposure to methylene chloride. Early exposure to methylene chloride for only 26 weeks was sufficient to cause an increase in lung tumors by 2 years, suggesting that methylene chloride may cause early and persistent loss of growth control in lung cells. This implies that risk management strategies should be aimed at minimizing or eliminating exposure to methylene chloride. Liver neoplasms continued to increase in incidence and multiplicity as exposure continued, suggesting that methylene chloride-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is facilitated by continuing exposure to methylene chloride. Since methylene chloride is a more potent inducer of lung than liver neoplasia, it is recommended that health risk assessment be based on the lung data. While no novel molecular lesions have been found to explain the induction of lung and liver neoplasia in mice, ongoing studies may identify other molecular changes that are important in the genesis of these neoplasms. Hence, it may be necessary to revise risk assessment and management strategies in light of future research findings. PMID:7482563

Maronpot, R R; Devereux, T R; Hegi, M; Foley, J F; Kanno, J; Wiseman, R; Anderson, M W

1995-09-01

33

Efficient synthesis of methylene exo-glycals: another use of glycosylthiomethyl chlorides.  

PubMed

A new approach to the synthesis of methylene exo-glycals is described. Oxidation of glycosylthiolmethyl chloride (GTM-Cl) with mCPBA afforded the corresponding glycosylchloromethyl sulfone in almost quantitative yield, which underwent KOtBu-induced Ramberg-Bcklund rearrangement to furnish the desired methylene exo-glycal in excellent yield. PMID:17326686

Zhu, Xiangming; Jin, Ying; Wickham, John

2007-02-28

34

Methylene chloride exposure and birthweight in Monroe County, New York  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the relationship between birthweight and exposure to emissions of methylene chloride (DCM) from manufacturing processes of the Eastman Kodak Company at Kodak Park in Rochester, Monroe County, New York. County census tracts were categorized as exposed to high, moderate, low or no DCM based on the Kodak Air Monitoring Program (KAMP) model, a theoretical dispersion model of DCM developed by Eastman Kodak Company. Birthweight and information on variables known to influence birthweight were obtained from 91,302 birth certificates of white singleton births to Monroe County residents from 1976 to 1987. No significant adverse effects of exposure to DCM on birthweight were found. Adjusted birthweight in high exposure census tracts was 18.7 g less than in areas with no exposure (95% confidence interval for the difference between high and no exposure - 51.6, 14.2 g). Problems inherent in the method of estimation of exposure, which may decrease power or bias the results, are discussed. Better methods to estimate exposure to emissions from multiple industrial point sources are needed.

Bell, B.P.; Franks, P.; Hildreth, N.; Melius, J. (Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York (USA))

1991-06-01

35

COMPARATIVE RENAL AND HEPATOTOXICITY OF HALOMETHANES: BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. BROMOFORM, CHLOROFORM, DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The subchronic renal and hepatotoxicities of five selected halomethanes, which are drinking water contaminants, were evaluated following a 14-day exposure period. Bromodichloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, dibromochloromethane and methylene chloride were administered at three d...

36

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of...

2013-04-01

37

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sprays, the Food and Drug Administration concludes that the use of methylene chloride in cosmetic products poses a significant cancer risk to consumers, and that the use of this ingredient in cosmetic products may render these products injurious to...

2011-04-01

38

Critical review of the epidemiology literature on the potential cancer risks of methylene chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To critically review and summarize the epidemiological evidence published to date on the carcinogenicity of methylene chloride\\u000a to humans. Methods: Papers for review were identified through Medline (National Library of Medicine) and were limited to epidemiology studies.\\u000a Studies were classified using three categories. Primary studies focused on the association between methylene chloride and cancer among occupational cohorts primarily exposed

Linda D. Dell; Kenneth A. Mundt; Margaret McDonald; Joseph P. Tritschler II; Diane J. Mundt

1999-01-01

39

Methylene chloride sampling with passive dosimeters under steady-state and transient conditions. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis investigates the application of passive charcoal dosimeters to monitor concentrations of methylene chloride vapors. Monitoring the workplace air for methylene chloride vapors requires the collection of air samples in the worker's breathing zone during the work day. The work day exposure usually fluctuates and the air samples must be integrated over periods of several hours or more. This sample integration determines the time-weighted average (TWA) concentration. TWA exposures assist the industrial hygienist in assessing the healthfulness of the occupational environment and are used for compliance purposes by comparison with established 8-hour time-weighted average standards. This study examined the methylene chloride sampling and retention abilities of passive dosimeters and their subsequent TWA determinations. To evaluate their performance, three commercially available dosimeters were exposed to known concentration profiles of methylene chloride. This comparison was done under laboratory conditions to minimize the differences in actual badge exposure. There are five hypotheses to be tested. Each hypotheses tests the central issue: passive dosimetry is an accurate method to sample fluctuating occupational exposures to methylene chloride.

Liebhaber, F.B.

1985-01-01

40

A Study for Health Hazard Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Evaporated from the Tear Gas Mixture  

PubMed Central

This study explored the health hazard of those exposed to methylene chloride by assessing its atmospheric concentration when a tear gas mixture was aerially dispersed. The concentration of methylene chloride ranged from 311.1-980.3 ppm (geometric mean, 555.8 ppm), 30 seconds after the dispersion started. However, the concentration fell rapidly to below 10 ppm after dispersion was completed. The concentration during the dispersion did not surpass the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 'immediately dangerous to life or health' value of 2,300 ppm, but did exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists excursion limit of 250 ppm. Since methylene chloride is highly volatile (vapor pressure, 349 mmHg at 20?), the postdispersion atmospheric concentration can rise instantaneously. Moreover, the o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile formulation of tear gas (CS gas) is an acute upper respiratory tract irritant. Therefore, tear gas mixtures should be handled with delicate care.

Chung, Eun-Kyo; Yi, Gwang-Yong; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, In-Seop

2010-01-01

41

Molecular-dynamics studies and neutron-scattering experiments on methylene chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate inelastic neutron-scattering intensities of methylene chloride for cold neutrons from molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations and compare them with experimental data. To obtain realistic scattering intensities, the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account by a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, using the dynamic structure factor calculated from our MD simulations as input. The MD simulations of methylene chloride are performed with the same potentials as in Part I of this work. The dynamic structure factor is calculated using fast correlation algorithm (FCA), which is based on the fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) algorithm and the Wiener-Khinchin theorem for discrete functions.

Kneller, Gerald R.; Geiger, Alfons

42

Demonstration of n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a pollution prevention alternative to paint stripping with methylene chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This objective of this paper is to demonstrate that NMP is a viable pollution prevention alternative to methylene chloride. Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB), Albany, GA, USA was the host site for the demonstration. MCLB's primary function is maintenance of military ground support vehicles, electronic equipment, and small arms. These maintenance processes require the use of methylene chloride to depaint

J. Kaye Whitfield; Geddes H Ramsey; Nancy H Adams; Carlos M Nez; Dan E Gillum

1999-01-01

43

SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulo...

44

IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

On March 31, 2010, the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) external review draft document and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The draft document and the charge to external peer reviewers were r...

45

Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Setting Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Methylene Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h. In the AEGL setting for methylene chloride, specific additional

P. M. J. Bos; Jozef Bos; Marco Jacob Zeilmaker; Jan Cornelis; Henri van Eijkeren

2006-01-01

46

Power absorption coefficient constants for water, acetonitrile, and methylene chloride at far infrared wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of multiple internal reflections within the windows of an optical cell is analysed using Abele's matrix method. The Beer-Lambert power law is modified by the standing waves formed in between the cell and the detector. Power absorption coefficient of a material is calculated by a fit to the modified version of the equation. Precise ? values for water, acetonitrile and methylene chloride are calculated at far infrared wavelengths using a molecular laser source.

Vij, J. K.

1989-07-01

47

Dissociation of benzene and methylene chloride based on enhanced dissociative electron attachment to highly excited molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results on a low-pressure glow-discharge-based process for the destruction of dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Methylene chloride and benzene were studied in dilute mixtures with Ar, Ne and He rare gases. The destruction efficiency was observed to increase with increasing pressure. This and other observations are compatible with molecular dissociation by dissociative electron attachment to high-lying Rydberg states of molecules produced via excitation transfer from the metastable states of the rare gases.

McCorkle, Dennis L.; Ding, Weixing; Ma, Cheng-Yu; Pinnaduwage, Lal A.

1999-01-01

48

Comparison of methylene chloride and chloroform for the extraction of fats from food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten food products with a wide range of total fat, fatty acid and sterol content were obtained from a supermarket in the Washington,\\u000a DC area. These food products were extraced by a new method, using methylene chloride\\/methanol as the extraction solvent. The\\u000a results were compared to the Folch et al. procedure, in which chloroform\\/methanol is the extraction solvent. Total fat

I. S. Chen; C.-S. J. SHEN; A. J. Sheppard

1981-01-01

49

Recovery of asphalt from methylene chloride and trichloroethylene by the abson method. Final report, November 1987August 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the in-house study was to determine if methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) can be used to recover asphalts using the Abson method (AASHTO T 170 and ASTM D 1856), and to compare its effects on recovered binder properties to those of trichloroethylene (C2HCl3). Current nationally standardized test procedures (AASHTO and ASTM) do not allow methylene chloride in the Abson

K. D. Stuart; D. Kumari; K. T. Tran

1989-01-01

50

ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

2012-06-07

51

Source characterization and personal exposure to methylene chloride from consumer products  

SciTech Connect

A recently completed bioassay, which found methylene chloride (CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/) to be an animal carcinogen, has increased the concern about consumer exposure to this chemical. To provide information on exposures sufficient to conduct a health risk assessment, CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ source strengths and personal exposures were characterized in a room-size (20 m/sup 3/) environmental chamber for representative applications of several paint removers and aerosol finishes as examples of the two major types of consumer products containing CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/. Exposure models based upon the concentration models were also developed and then evaluated by comparing theoretical and measured exposures for the experiments. The exposure models appeared to have sufficient accuracy and precision for use in assessment of consumer health risk from the use of consumer products containing CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/.

Girman, J.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

1986-03-01

52

DEMONSTRATION OF N-METHYL PYRROLIDONE (NMP) AS A POLLUTION PREVENTION ALTERNATIVE TO PAINT STRIPPING WITH METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This objective of this paper is to demonstrate that NMP is a viable pollution prevention alternative to methylene chloride. Maine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB), Albany, GA, USA was the host site for the demonstration. MCLB's primary function is maintenance of military ground supp...

53

In Vitro Metabolism in Rat, Mouse and Hamster Liver and Lung Fractions and in Human Liver Fractions with Methylene Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metabolism of methylene chloride (75-09-2) was compared in vitro in liver and lung fractions of male B6C3F1 mice, Fischer 344 rats, Charles River Lake View hamsters, and 4 human accident victims (liver tissue only) to attempt to explain marked species...

2000-01-01

54

Kinetic modeling of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and methylene chloride removal from aqueous solution using the electron beam process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative treatment process using high energy electrons has been shown to be effective for the destruction of various toxic (regulated) organic chemicals. This paper presents data for the destruction of chlorinated methanes, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and methylene chloride in treated groundwater. The studies were conducted at pilot scale, using a 75 kW electron beam at a flow rate of

Fei T. Mak; Sarita R. Zele; William J. Cooper; Charles N. Kurucz; Thomas D. Waite; Michael G. Nickelsen

1997-01-01

55

Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methylene chloride extract of Miconia ligustroides, isolated triterpene acids, and ursolic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

The methylene chloride extract of Miconia ligustroides (DC.) Naudin (Melastomataceae), the isolated compounds ursolic and oleanolic acids and a mixture of these acids, and ursolic acid derivatives were evaluated against the following microorganisms: Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579), Vibrio cholerae (ATCC 9458), Salmonella choleraesuis (ATCC 10708), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 6305). The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) during evaluation of the antibacterial activity. The methylene chloride extract showed no activity against the selected microorganisms. Ursolic acid was active against B. cereus, showing a MIC value of 20 microg/mL. Oleanolic acid was effective against B. cereus and S. pneumoniae with a MIC of 80 microg/mL in both cases. The mixture of triterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic acids, did not enhance the antimicrobial activity. However, the acetyl and methyl ester derivatives, prepared from ursolic acid, increased the inhibitory activity for S. pneumoniae. PMID:20645834

Cunha, Wilson R; de Matos, Geilton X; Souza, Maria Goreti M; Tozatti, Marcos G; Andrade e Silva, Mrcio L; Martins, Carlos H G; da Silva, Rosangela; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

2010-02-01

56

Neurotoxic effects of methylene chloride: are they long lasting in humans?  

PubMed Central

The neurotoxicity of methylene chloride (MC) is of special interest because of its acute effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and its metabolic conversion to carbon monoxide. A cohort study of retired airline mechanics was conducted to examine the hypothesis that long term exposure to MC results in lasting effects on the CNS. Retirees were studied to eliminate effects of current occupational exposures. The total retiree population (n = 1758) was surveyed to identify mechanics who met specific occupational, demographic, and medical criteria. A group of eligible retirees having long term exposure to MC and another group with low probability of exposure to solvents were given a comprehensive battery of physiological and psychological tests. The exposure groups were similar for all potential confounders that were measured. No statistically significant differences between groups were detected on outcome measures, although subtle differences in attention and memory were identified. Thus no firm evidence was found to support the hypothesis of lasting CNS effects in retired mechanics with long term exposure to MC.

Lash, A A; Becker, C E; So, Y; Shore, M

1991-01-01

57

Methylene chloride intoxication in a furniture refinisher. A comparison of exposure estimates utilizing workplace air sampling and blood carboxyhemoglobin measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 35-year-old furniture refinisher came to the occupational medicine clinic with complaints of upper respiratory irritation, fatigue, and lightheadedness occurring on a daily basis after using a methylene chloride-containing paint stripper. Determinations of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) on three occasions showed an apparently linear elevation of COHb as a function of hours worked on the day of sampling. COHb levels predicted

Dennis Shusterman; Patricia Quinlan; Ruth Lowengart; James Cone

1990-01-01

58

Effect of process conditions on the spray characteristics of a PLA + methylene chloride solution in the supercritical antisolvent precipitation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution imaging system was used to study the supercritical antisolvent precipitation process (SAS). The spray of a 1wt% solution of poly(l-lactic) acid (PLA) in methylene chloride into carbon dioxide was visualized at several distances from the nozzle outlet. Experiments were performed at a fixed density of 0.330.02g\\/cm3 with select pressure and temperature combinations and at a fixed temperature of

Daniel L. Obrzut; Philip W. Bell; Christopher B. Roberts; Steve R. Duke

2007-01-01

59

In-Depth Survey Report Assisting Furniture Strippers in Reducing The Risk from Methylene Chloride Stripping Formulations at The Strip Joint, Inc. Redondo Beach, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted research on ventilation controls for reducing furniture stripping exposures to methylene chloride. Low cost ventilation systems were designed by NIOSH researchers and built and ins...

C. F. Estill J. H. Jones R. Kovein

2004-01-01

60

Evaluation of a Teflon Helix Liquid-Liquid Extractor for Concentration of Trace Organics from Water into Methylene Chloride (Journal Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A continuous liquid-liquid extraction system (CLLE) for concentrating trace organics from water into methylene chloride for analysis was designed, built and evaluated. The CLLE uses Teflon coils for phase contact and gravity phase separation. The system i...

R. J. Baker J. Gibs A. K. Meng I. H. Suffet

1987-01-01

61

Chemical characterization of sanding dust and methylene chloride usage in automotive refinishing: implications for occupational and environmental health.  

PubMed

Surface preparation activities conducted during automotive refinishing present several potential human health and environmental risks. This study examines the chemical composition of vehicle sanding dust and the prevalence of methylene chloride use as a basis for evaluating potential chemical exposures in the work environment, fugitive environmental releases, and take-home toxics. This article reports on the findings of (1) a statewide technology and work practices survey of 353 licensed auto body shops and (2) laboratory analyses of sanding dust representing more than 200 vehicles, 10 commercial body filler compounds, and work shirts worn during vehicle sanding while using nonventilated equipment. Survey data revealed that the majority of shops (78%) do not use ventilated sanding equipment, that most workers (55%) take their work clothes and shoes home at the end of the workday, and that 17% of the respondents used a methylene chloride-based paint stripper as an adjunct to mechanical sanding. Laboratory results showed that Pb, As, Cr, Mn, and Ni were present in the sanding dust at every facility tested. Lead concentrations in sanding dust were found to be highest at facilities that performed complete vehicle refinishing (range 770 to 7300 ppm) and at a collision repair shop that used a high-lead content body filler compound (1800 ppm). Hexavalent chromium also was found in two vocational high school paint dust samples at concentrations of 54 and 710 ppm. When total lead and chromium concentrations reached 7300 and 2300 ppm, respectively, facility sanding dust samples failed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure for hazardous waste. Metals found in the sanding dust also were present on the work shirts of technicians-ranging from 0.06 (Cd) to 81 (Mg) microg/inch2 of cloth-who sanded on paint without ventilated equipment. Results suggest that sanding dust and methylene chloride paint strippers used in vehicle resurfacing operations pose a potential hazard to human health and the environment. PMID:12570083

Enander, Richard T; Gute, David M; Cohen, Howard J; Brown, Linfield C; Desmaris, Anne Marie C; Missaghian, Richard

62

Methylene chloride intoxication in a furniture refinisher. A comparison of exposure estimates utilizing workplace air sampling and blood carboxyhemoglobin measurements  

SciTech Connect

A 35-year-old furniture refinisher came to the occupational medicine clinic with complaints of upper respiratory irritation, fatigue, and lightheadedness occurring on a daily basis after using a methylene chloride-containing paint stripper. Determinations of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) on three occasions showed an apparently linear elevation of COHb as a function of hours worked on the day of sampling. COHb levels predicted from spot industrial hygiene measurements were in close concordance with those observed in the patient, indicating the potential usefulness of COHb monitoring in estimating airborne exposure levels. Methylene chloride (or dichloromethane) is an organic solvent that has found wide use as a degreaser, paint remover, aerosol propellant, and a blowing agent for polyurethane foams, and as a solvent in food processing, photographic film production, and plastics manufacturing. Discovery of its unusual metabolic fate--conversion to carbon monoxide in vivo--has earned the compound a special place in the solvent toxicology literature. Demonstration of oncogenicity in experimental animals has occasioned a reconsideration of exposure limits, with emphasis upon stricter controls. In some workplaces, conditions prevail in which controls are inadequate to prevent even acute toxicity, much less long-term exposure risks.

Shusterman, D.; Quinlan, P.; Lowengart, R.; Cone, J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco General Hospital (USA))

1990-05-01

63

Methylene chloride intoxication in a furniture refinisher. A comparison of exposure estimates utilizing workplace air sampling and blood carboxyhemoglobin measurements.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old furniture refinisher came to the occupational medicine clinic with complaints of upper respiratory irritation, fatigue, and lightheadedness occurring on a daily basis after using a methylene chloride-containing paint stripper. Determinations of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) on three occasions showed an apparently linear elevation of COHb as a function of hours worked on the day of sampling. COHb levels predicted from spot industrial hygiene measurements were in close concordance with those observed in the patient, indicating the potential usefulness of COHb monitoring in estimating airborne exposure levels. Methylene chloride (or dichloromethane) is an organic solvent that has found wide use as a degreaser, paint remover, aerosol propellant, and a blowing agent for polyurethane foams, and as a solvent in food processing, photographic film production, and plastics manufacturing. Discovery of its unusual metabolic fate--conversion to carbon monoxide in vivo--has earned the compound a special place in the solvent toxicology literature. Demonstration of oncogenicity in experimental animals has occasioned a reconsideration of exposure limits, with emphasis upon stricter controls. In some workplaces, conditions prevail in which controls are inadequate to prevent even acute toxicity, much less long-term exposure risks. PMID:2348262

Shusterman, D; Quinlan, P; Lowengart, R; Cone, J

1990-05-01

64

Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods: Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results: M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions: The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dimo, Theophile; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

2010-01-01

65

A Method of Correcting for Flow-Rate Fluctuations in Size Exclusion Chromatography Calculations: Applications to Methylene Chloride\\/Hexafluoroisopropanol Solvent System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixture of methylene chloride\\/hexafluoroisopropanol (70\\/30, v\\/v) is an excellent polyester solvent, but its low boiling point causes unstable flow when it is used for size exclusion chromatography (SEC). In high-performance SEC experiments, retention time is normally used to measure elution volume; however, unstable flow makes it difficult to calibrate an SEC column set or calculate molecular weight parameters from

Bruce L. Neff; J. R. Overton

1984-01-01

66

77 FR 1512 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Methylene...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review; Comment Request; Methylene Chloride Standard ACTION: Notice...request (ICR) titled, ``Methylene Chloride Standard,'' to the Office of Management...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The methylene chloride (MC) standard requires employers...

2012-01-10

67

Update to the health assessment document and addendum for dichloromethane (methylene chloride): pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, and epidemiology. External review draft  

SciTech Connect

The document represents EPA's analysis of the weight of evidence regarding the carcinogenic potential of dichloromethane (DCM, methylene chloride) for humans. It includes revised cancer risk estimates that take into account the newest information on pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, and epidemiology, and it discusses, in some detail, methods for incorporating pharmacokinetic information into the cancer risk assessment. The document draws on the body of work developed by the Hazard/Risk Assessment Committee (HRAC) of the Integrated Chlorinated Solvents Project, an interagency workgroup. For the present, EPA scientists have used methods that result in an approximate ninefold reduction from previous unit estimates which were based on applied dose.

Blancato, J.N.; Hopkins, J.; Rhomberg, L.

1987-07-01

68

?-Methylenation of ?,?-Unsaturated Ketones  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Methylene derivatives of ?,?-unsaturated ketones are obtained readily by a one-pot procedure exploiting the reaction of O-silylated dienolates with commercially available formaldehyde N, N-dimethyliminium chloride in anhydrous N, N-dimethylformamide, in situ oxidation of the Mannich reaction product with hydrogen peroxide, and elimination of N,N-dimethylhydroxylamine from the resultant N-oxide.

Romualdo Caputo; Carla Ferreri; Domenico Mastroianni; Giovanni Palumbo; Ernest Wenkert

1992-01-01

69

Ciguatera Fish Poison: A Cholinesterase Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substance responsible for the poisoning effect of ciguatera poison from fish is an anticholinesterase. In rats, mice, and rabbits ciguatera poison causes death by asphyxiation. Protopam chloride with atropine is an effective antidote.

Kwan-Ming Li

1965-01-01

70

Role of autophagy in apoptosis induction by methylene chloride extracts of Mori cortex in NCI-H460 human lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The root of Mori cortex has traditionally been used in Korea for the treatment of cutaneous inflammation, pulmonary asthma, and congestion for thousands of years. The present study was designed to validate the anticancer effects of methylene chloride extracts of the M. cortex root (MEMC) in NCI-H460 human lung carcinoma cells. Exposure to MEMC was found to result in growth inhibition by the induction of caspase?dependent apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells, which correlated with upregulated expression of death receptor (DR)4, DR5 and FasL, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression, cleavage of Bid, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, autophagosomes, a characteristic finding of autophagy, and markers of autophagy, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II and increased beclin-1 accumulation, were observed in MEMC-treated NCI-H460 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or LC3B small interfering (siRNA) resulted in enhanced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that MEMC-induced autophagy functions as a suppressor of apoptosis. MEMC-induced autophagy was also blocked by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and catalase, indicating that H2O2 can regulate autophagy. Our data demonstrate that MEMC triggers both ROS-mediated autophagy and caspase-dependent apoptosis, and that autophagy plays a protective role against apoptotic cell death. PMID:22367066

Park, Shin-Hyung; Chi, Gyoo Yong; Eom, Hyun Sup; Kim, Gi-Young; Hyun, Jin Won; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Su-Jae; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

2012-02-22

71

High Resolution Spectra and Rotational Analysis of the 2?8, ?2+ ?8, and 2?2Bands in Methylene Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared spectra of the 2?8, ?2+ ?8, and 2?2bands of methylene chloride have been recorded both for isotopically pure CH235Cl2and for a natural mixture with a resolution of 0.0044 cm-1in the range 2450-2900 cm-1using a Bruker IFS 120 HR Fourier transform interferometer. The 2?8overtone band was shown to be unperturbed. Weak global perturbations were observed, however, in the ?2+ ?8combination band, probably due to Fermi or Coriolis interaction with a distant perturber. The 2?2overtone was found to be locally perturbed, and a crossing aroundK'a= 10 with a perturbing level was evident from a line-by-line analysis. A satisfactory analysis of 2?2has been obtained by including anx-Coriolis interaction with a vibrational level ofA2symmetry, presumably the ?2+ ?4+ ?5combination band. A full rotational analysis for all bands has been carried out, yielding accurate effective rotational and distortion constants up to quartic terms for the excited states using Watson'sA-reduction Hamiltonian in theIrrepresentation. In addition a hot-band starting from the lowest lying vibrational level, ?4, the 2?8+ ?4- ?4band, has been partially analyzed. Vibrational shifts of the CH372Cl35Cl isotopic species have been obtained from difference spectra (i.e., spectra of natural abundant CH2Cl2minus those of isotopically pure CH352Cl2). In particular a full rotational analysis of the 2?8band of the CH372Cl35Cl isotopomer has been performed. Unfortunately, the spectral features due to the CH372Cl2isotopomer were too weak (about 6 times weaker than those of CH372Cl35Cl) to be observed.

Snels, Marcel

1997-03-01

72

Anti-diabetic activity of methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba Engl. and Diels and Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. are used in Africa for the treatment of various ailments, including diabetes mellitus. The anti-diabetic effects of the methanol/methylene chloride extracts of the stem barks on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were evaluated on male rats. Through the subcutaneous route, diabetes was induced using 60 mg/mL of streptozotocin. After 2 days, the rats received, by gavage, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of extract daily for 14 days. At 300 mg/kg, the two extracts (Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii), significantly showed at least 67.1% and 69.9% reduction in blood glucose level, respectively, while insulin (three units) given subcutaneously and once daily, had 76.8% reduction compared to diabetic untreated control rats. Similarly, the weight gains were 6.6% and 4.9%, respectively, and were comparable to the normal rats, whereas, diabetic untreated rats lost 14.1% body weight. Still with the same dose, there was 68.5% and 58.5% (p < 0.001) significant decrease in food consumption and 79.7% and 64.0% (p < 0.001) in fluid intake by diabetic rats treated with the respective plant extracts. The insulin-treated rats showed 56.4% and 75.8% decrease in food and fluid intake compared to an augmentation for diabetic control rats, 43.0% and 383.8%, respectively, at the end of the second week of experimentation. These results showed that the plant extracts can reverse hyperglycemia, polyphagia and polydipsia provoked by streptozotocin, and thus, they have anti-diabetic properties. PMID:16271836

Kamtchouing, P; Kahpui, S M; Dzeufiet, P-D Djomeni; Tdong, L; Asongalem, E A; Dimo, T

2005-11-04

73

Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish  

SciTech Connect

The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Shady Side, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

74

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

75

Poisoning Associated with Potassium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suicidal poisoning by intravenous administration of concentrated solution of potassium (K+) (chloride) is described in the study. A 30-year-old Caucasian female health professional was found dead in a motel. An intravenous needle was found inserted in the antecubital area in a right arm vein of the deceased. Attached to the needle, by a flexible tubing, was a 50 ml

A. K. Chaturvedi; N. G. S. Rao; M. D. Moon

1986-01-01

76

A fatal case of severe methaemoglobinemia due to nitrobenzene poisoning  

PubMed Central

An acute poisoning with nitrobenzene presenting as methaemoglobinemia is an uncommon medical emergency. A young girl with nitrobenzene induced methaemoglobinaemia died despite use of mechanical ventilator, administration of oral methylene blue and parenteral ascorbic acid. Here author highlights the rare occurrence of such cases, methaemoglobin induced severe oxidative stress, unexplained splenomegaly and leucocytosis and the ineffectivity of oral methylene blue and other supportive measures in evading death due to nitrobenzene poisoning.

Gupta, Alok; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Khanna, Arjun; Gutch, Manish

2011-01-01

77

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... proper temperature or are not reheated properly Raw fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables that have ... poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly ...

78

Malathion poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Fluids through a vein (IV) Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison Tube through the ... usually recover. Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning, including intensive care hospitalization and long- ...

79

Photographic fixative poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to ...

80

Severe chlorate poisoning: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe sodium chlorate poisoning was observed within 5 h after suicidal ingestion of 150200 g of the herbicide. Methaemoglobinaemia was the early symptom of the intoxication. Treatment with methylene blue and ascorbic acid could not prevent a massive haemolysis with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis could be treated successfully with exchange transfusions, heparin and fresh plasma.

Christian Steffen; Rainer Seitz

1981-01-01

81

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...signs or symptoms suggestive of heart disease (angina, coronary artery disease...carcinogen, of risk factors for heart disease, and the potential for exacerbation of underlying heart disease by exposure to MC through...

2013-07-01

82

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prescribed by paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a solvent in the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee...

2013-04-01

83

Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride (Update), 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Toxicological Profiles are a unique compilation of toxicological information on a given hazardous substance. Each profile reflects a comprehensive and extensive evaluation, summary, and interpretation of available toxicologic and epidemiologic information...

2000-01-01

84

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

85

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prescribed by paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a solvent in the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee...

2010-01-01

86

UPDATED HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analys...

87

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...metabolized to carbon dioxide as an end product (with formaldehyde and formic acid as metabolic intermediates) via the glutathione dependent enzyme found in the cytosolic fraction of the liver cell. Metabolites along this pathway are believed to be...

2010-07-01

88

29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...metabolized to carbon dioxide as an end product (with formaldehyde and formic acid as metabolic intermediates) via the glutathione dependent enzyme found in the cytosolic fraction of the liver cell. Metabolites along this pathway are believed to be...

2009-07-01

89

Stonefish poisoning.  

PubMed

Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given. PMID:15636379

Lyon, Richard Mark

2004-01-01

90

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

91

Poison ivy - oak - sumac  

MedlinePLUS

Poison ivy , oak, or sumac poisoning is an allergic reaction that results from touching the sap of these ... Bruised roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruit Pollen of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac Note: This list ...

92

Mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment\\u000a modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsWe analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 19942004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in\\u000a two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning.

M. Erguven; O. Yilmaz; M. Deveci; N. Aksu; F. Dursun; M. Pelit; N. Cebeci

2007-01-01

93

Refrigerant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

A refrigerant is a chemical that makes things cold. This article discusses poisoning from sniffing or swallowing such chemicals. ... occurs when people intentionally sniff a type of refrigerant called freon. This is for information only and ...

94

Mushroom Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... if vomiting has not already occurred. The person's temperature, heart rate and blood pressure will be checked. He or she will be watched closely for severe symptoms and complications due to mushroom poisoning. In severe cases that are caused by ...

95

Benzene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

96

Evaluation of mandibular invasion by head and neck cancers using 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate or 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate and 201 Tl chloride dual isotope single photon emission computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether a patient with head and neck cancer has mandibular invasion or not is important in determining the method of resection\\u000a surgery. But, no modality is adequately reliable when used alone in the evaluation of mandibular invasion. Therefore, to more\\u000a accurately diagnose mandibular invasion in head and neck cancer, we used a new modality, namely,99mTc methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or 99mTc

Aya Suzuki; Takashi Togawa; Junpei Kuyama; Tadaki Nakahara; Fujimi Kinoshita; Toshinao Takenouchi; Hiroyuki Harada; Ken Omura

2004-01-01

97

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

98

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE) UPDATED CARCINOGENICITY ASSESSMENT OF DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE): ADDENDUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The addendum contains a review of the data from the latest National Toxicology Program (NTP) inhalation bioassay of dichloromethane (DCM) and an update of the inhalation cancer risk value. In addition, there is a recommendation for an estimate of unit risk for ingestion exposure,...

99

Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity  

PubMed Central

A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

Kakhandki, Srinivas; Yahya, Mohammed; Praveen, Mudalgi

2012-01-01

100

Scombroid Poisoning  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table.

Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

1978-01-01

101

Pentachlorophenol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a pesticide commonly used as a wood preservative. Although exposure has been well controlled in large chemical manufacturing plants, over-exposures have recently becomes a concern at smaller facilities. Five cases of PCP poisoning, including two fatalities, occurred in two small wood preservative plants. All cases presented with fever, including severe hyperpyrexia in two; an increased anion gap and renal insufficiency were noted in two others. PCP may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a poisoning syndrome characterized by hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnea, abdominal pain, nausea, and even death.

Wood, S.; Rom, W.N.; White, G.L. Jr.; Logan, D.C.

1983-07-01

102

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... preservatives, and ointments Rust prevention coatings Vitamin and mineral supplements Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc acetate Zinc sulfate Heated or burned galvanized metal (releases zinc fumes) ...

103

Comparison of cholinergic effects of Hi-6 and pralidoxime-2-chloride (2-pam) in soman poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Open literature pub  

SciTech Connect

The effects of HI-6 and pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) on soman-induced lethality, time to death and several cholinergic parameters in rats were compared to understand the beneficial action of HI-6. Treatment with atropine sulfate (ATS) of HI-6 alone protected against 1.2 and 2.5 LD of soman respectively, whereas 2-Pam or methylated atropine (AMN) alone afforded no protection. Addition of ATS, but not AMN, to HI-6-treated rats enhanced the protection from 2.5 to 5.5 LD. HI-6 increased the time to death, while 2-PAM had no effect; a combination of HI-6 and ATS provided the most significant increase in time-to-death.

Shi, T.M.; Whalley, C.E.; Valdes, J.J.

1991-12-31

104

Indoxacarb poisoning: A rare presentation as methemoglobinaemia.  

PubMed

Indoxacarb is a broad-spectrum non-organophosphorus oxidiazine insecticide widely used in farming. Once absorbed it acts on sodium channels and blocks the flow of sodium ions. We report a case of indoxacarb poisoning in a farmer following suicidal consumption, manifested as unconsciousness, cyanosis and stationary SpO(2) values. Methemoglobinaemia was suspected on clinical presentation which was successfully managed with inj. methylene blue and other symptomatic and supportive treatment. PMID:20885872

Chhabra, Roopam; Singh, Ishwar; Tandon, Mansi; Babu, Ram

2010-05-01

105

Indoxacarb poisoning: A rare presentation as methemoglobinaemia  

PubMed Central

Indoxacarb is a broad-spectrum non-organophosphorus oxidiazine insecticide widely used in farming. Once absorbed it acts on sodium channels and blocks the flow of sodium ions. We report a case of indoxacarb poisoning in a farmer following suicidal consumption, manifested as unconsciousness, cyanosis and stationary SpO2 values. Methemoglobinaemia was suspected on clinical presentation which was successfully managed with inj. methylene blue and other symptomatic and supportive treatment.

Chhabra, Roopam; Singh, Ishwar; Tandon, Mansi; Babu, Ram

2010-01-01

106

Lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

Rekus, J.F.

1992-08-01

107

PHOSPHAMIDON POISONING  

PubMed Central

A fatal case of poisoning with phosphamidon, a recently developed organophosphate insecticide, is described. A second, probable case of mild phosphamidon poisoning is also reported. The clinical picture in both cases resembled that seen in poisoning with other organophosphate compounds. The first patient was an 18-year-old girl who had swallowed about 50 ml. of a 50% solution of phosphamidon and developed jaundice, bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary oedema. She died on the sixth day in hospital despite prolonged respiratory support and treatment with massive doses of atropine, PAM, and antibiotics. Post-mortem examination revealed a fatty liver, congestion of the internal organs, and brain damage of the type seen in anoxia. The second patient was a 50-year-old agricultural worker, who was engaged in uprooting and cutting shrubs which had been sprayed two weeks earlier with phosphamidon. He was admitted to hospital in a state of confusion and recovered within several hours. The importance of securing a free airway and of artificial ventilation as first-aid measures in organophosphate poisoning is stressed, and the value of early massive dosage of PAM is emphasized.

Gitelson, S.; Davidson, J. T.; Werczberger, A.

1965-01-01

108

Lead Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead has been mined and worked by men for millenniums. Its ductility, high resistance to erosion and other properties make it one of the most useful of metals. The inappropriate use of lead has, however, resulted in outbreaks of lead poisoning in humans from time to time since antiquity. The disease, which is sometimes called plumbism (from the Latin word

J. Julian Chisolm; J. J. Jr

1971-01-01

109

Methanol poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol ingestion is an uncommon form of poisoning that can cause severe metabolic disturbances, blindness, permanent neurologic dysfunction and death. While methanol itself may be harmless, it is converted in vivo to the highly toxic formic acid. The diagnosis is sometimes elusive and requires a high index of suspicion. Because antidotal treatment is available it is important to recognize methanol

J. A. Kruse

1992-01-01

110

Paraphenylenediamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Hair dye containing paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is widely used in India because of its free availability and low cost. PPD produces local as well as systemic toxic effects when applied topically and/or ingested. It is highly toxic when taken by mouth and the outcome depends mainly on the dose taken. Important clinical manifestations are angioedema leading to dysphasia and respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure and hepatic necrosis. Myocarditis or fatal arrhythmia may also occur in PPD poisoning. Mainstay of management is early recognition and supportive measures as there is no specific antidote. We hereby report a young female who presented to us with features of angioedema, cardiac manifestation and hepatic dysfunction after ingesting PPD, which was treated successfully. In the absence of laboratory facilities, clinical features like angioedema and chocolate brown-colored urine could be suggestive of PPD poisoning. PMID:23563473

Chaudhary, S C; Sawlani, K K; Singh, K

111

Arsine poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hocken, A. G., and Bradshaw, G. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 56-60. Arsine poisoning. A case of acute arsine poisoning is described, occurring in an industrial metallurgy worker. The clinical course was of associated oliguric renal failure with acute haemolytic anaemia which was self-limiting but accompanied by marked non-thrombotic phlebitis. There was minor hepatocellular damage. Skin pigmentation was disproportionate to the elevation of serum bilirubin. Transient initial pulmonary oedema was regarded as a local irritative phenomenon. All systems underwent complete recovery. Renal function in particular was explored in all modalities, and no abnormality could be found in glomerular filtration, concentrating power or acidification 12 months after exposure. There was no proteinuria. The clinical picture was of acute tubular necrosis, although interstitial fibrosis was present and its incomplete final resolution is possible. Contrary to the findings of other workers, no evidence was found of myocardial damage at any stage either clinically or electrocardiographically. Images

Hocken, A. G.; Bradshaw, G.

1970-01-01

112

Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).  

PubMed

Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates. PMID:6451640

Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

1981-01-01

113

Ink remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Brain damage Decreased breathing Stupor Unconsciousness Symptoms of methanol and isopropyl alcohol poisoning may include: Eyes, ears, ...

114

House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home

Keller, Rosanne

115

Crystal structures of 6-[(2-hydroxy-1,1-bishydroxymethylethylamino)methylene]-2, 4-dinitrocyclohexa-2, 4-dienone hydrate and complexes of copper(II) chloride and copper(II) nitrate with this ligand  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structures of 6-[(2-hydroxy-1,1-bishydroxymethylethylamino)methylene]-2, 4-dinitrocyclohexa-2, 4-dienone hydrate L . H{sub 2}O (I), chloro-(2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol-2-iminomethyl-4, 6-dinitrophenolo)aquacopper hydrate [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(L-H)Cl] . H{sub 2}O (II), and (2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol-2-iminomethyl-4,6-dinitrophenolo) aquacopper nitrate [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(L-H)]NO{sub 3} (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. It is established that the salicylidene fragment of azomethine L in the structure of compound I is in a quinoid tautomeric form. In the crystal, molecules L and water molecules are joined together by hydrogen bonds into two-dimensional layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. The copper atom in the structure of compound II coordinates the singly deprotonated tridentate molecule L (whose salicylidene fragment is in a benzenoid form), the chlorine ion, and the water molecule. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom is a distorted tetragonal pyramid. In the structure of compound III, the polymer chains are formed through the coordination bonds of the copper atom with two oxygen atoms of the amino alcohol fragment of azomethine L of the neighboring complex, which is related to the initial complex by the translation along the x axis. The coordination polyhedron of the central atom is an elongated tetragonal bipyramid. Polymers and nitro groups form a three-dimensional framework through hydrogen bonds.

Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)], E-mail: chumakov.xray@phys.asm.md; Tsapkov, V. I. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Jeanneau, E. [Universite Claude Bernard, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces (France); Bocelli, G. [National Research Council (IMEM-CNR), Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (Italy); Luneau, D. [Universite Claude Bernard, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces (France)

2006-07-15

116

Scombroid poisoning: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of toxicity, none of them proven. Histamine action levels are used

James M. Hungerford

2010-01-01

117

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

118

Cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

In recent years, the increasing use of laetrile has been added to the traditional sources of exposure to cyanide in industry, chemistry labs, and fumigation. The events in Jonestown in 1978 were a grim reminder of the lethality of cyanide. Nonetheless, advancement in new modes of treatment has been slow. The traditional method of treatment used in the United States is effective, but not without its own morbidity and mortality. Using two case reports as models, we review here the topic of cyanide poisoning including sources of exposure, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of both acute and chronic exposure, and modes of treatment. Although there is currently no accepted alternate treatment in this country, review of the literature shows promise in other modalities being investigated in Europe, including hydroxocobalamin, cobalt salts, and particularly aminophenols. PMID:7016420

Vogel, S N; Sultan, T R; Ten Eyck, R P

1981-03-01

119

Paraphenylene diamine poisoning  

PubMed Central

The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

2012-01-01

120

Paraphenylene diamine poisoning.  

PubMed

The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed. PMID:22701263

Prabhakaran, A C Jesudoss

2012-05-01

121

Organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

Stay safe! Certain scenes and scenarios invite a greater degree of caution. Wear protective gear (Level B for decon) and make sure the patient is hazmat-naked prior to decontamination. Use tincture of green soap or household dishwashing soap to decontaminate your patient. Maintain the patient's airway using oral/nasal airways; intubate if indicated. Give high-flow oxygen by nonrebreather oxygen mask or, if intubated, with a bagh-valve mask. Treat for shock by maintaining the patient's body temperature, keeping them supine if they will tolerate it, and gaining i.v. access. Administer oxygen, atropine, pralidoxime chloride and diazepam as required. Notify the ED and transport rapidly. If it is a terrorist incident, get your patient and get out. PMID:12440317

Gerald, Daniel R

2002-11-01

122

Hair straightener poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows chemicals used to straighten hair. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...

123

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

124

Bracken fern poisoning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

125

Calcium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... powder produced by mixing calcium oxide ("lime") with water. Calcium hydroxide poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have ...

126

[Natural toxin poisoning].  

PubMed

Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan. PMID:22894079

Tsunematsu, Satoshi

2012-08-01

127

Paraphenylene diamine poisoning  

PubMed Central

The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are discussed.

Prabhakaran, A. C. Jesudoss

2012-01-01

128

Lead Poisoning in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and

Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

129

Lead Poisoning: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is...

N. Gendel

1993-01-01

130

Terbufos Poisoning in a Dairy Herd  

PubMed Central

This report describes the accidental poisoning of over 200 head of Holstein cattle by the organophosphate, terbufos. The ingestion of an acutely toxic dose (approximately 7.5 mg/kg) of terbufos by 84 heifers resulted in severe respiratory distress as the primary clinical sign and death within 12 hours. There was no response to treatment with atropine sulfate. One hundred and twenty milking cows received a portion of the contaminated feed diluted approximately ten times. These cattle had typical signs of organophosphate poisoning and responded to atropine sulfate. Severely affected cows received pralidoxime chloride and activated carbon 48 h after terbufos ingestion but did not respond to the drugs. Diagnosis of organophosphate poisoning was confirmed by tissue and feed analysis for terbufos and measurement of whole blood cholinesterase activity.

Boermans, H. J.; Black, W. D.; Chesney, J.; Robb, R.; Shewfelt, W.

1984-01-01

131

Glyphosate poisoning.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.) (41% glyphosate as the IPA salt and 15% POEA). There is a reasonable correlation between the amount ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death. Advancing age is also associated with a less favourable prognosis. Ingestion of >85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults. Gastrointestinal corrosive effects, with mouth, throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common. Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion. Respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary oedema, infiltration on chest x-ray, shock, arrythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases. Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre-terminally. Dermal exposure to ready-to-use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo-contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally; these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel (benzisothiazolin-3-one). Severe skin burns are very rare. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling and throat irritation. Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis, and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate. Management is symptomatic and supportive, and skin decontamination with soap and water after removal of contaminated clothing should be undertaken in cases of dermal exposure. PMID:15862083

Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

2004-01-01

132

Potassium Chloride  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Potassium Chloride ... Active ingredient: Potassium Chloride ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

133

STUDIES IN PROTOPLASM POISONING  

PubMed Central

1. After equilibrium of distribution of a phenol between water and an animal immersed in it has been once attained, the poisoning of the animal proceeds with constant velocity. The criterion of toxicity adopted in the first part of this study was the time required for initial recovery from paralysis after a given time in the phenol solution. In later work observations were made of the percentages of animals which died after stated periods in a phenol solution. 2. The numerical value of the velocity constant of poisoning for a given solution is independent of the criterion of toxicity adopted, provided that the criterion serves to measure the intensity of effect of the poison, and not merely the rate at which the poison is absorbed. 3. Recovery from paralysis produced by phenol and death from this poison has the same velocity constant. From this it may be inferred that recovery is due to a reversal of the mechanism which underlies poisoning. 4. The velocity of poisoning by phenols is nearly proportional to the square of the concentration. 5. A strictly chemical (mass law) interpretation is shown to be inadequate for the description of poisoning by phenols. 6. Certain physical factors, involved in poisoning by phenols, are discussed. 7. A precise method for obtaining the velocity constant of poisoning by a given agent is outlined.

Shackell, L. F.

1923-01-01

134

Striatal neuroprotection with methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature indicates that low-dose Methylene Blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone (Rot) in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion

J. C. Rojas; N. Simola; B. A. Kermath; J. R. Kane; T. Schallert; F. Gonzalez-Lima

2009-01-01

135

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE). FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dichloromethane is used extensively in commercial and industrial solvent applications. The background atmospheric concentration is about 35 ppt. In surface water and drinking water, measured concentrations generally have been in the low parts per billion range. Available data sug...

136

Paraphenylene diamine poisoning.  

PubMed

The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are discussed. PMID:23225987

Prabhakaran, A C Jesudoss

2012-07-01

137

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... Guidelines It is important to use soap and water to wash all potentially exposed areas since the oil of the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has ...

138

Addendum to the Health Assessment Document for Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) Updated Carcinogenicity Assessment of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The addendum contains a review of the data from the latest National Toxicology Program (NTP) inhalation bioassay of dichloromethane (DCM) and an update of the inhalation cancer risk value. In addition, there is a recommendation for an estimate of unit ris...

D. V. Singh H. L. Spitzer P. D. White

1985-01-01

139

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

140

Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to compare the direct and indirect electrochemical oxidation of a synthetic solution containing methylene blue. The direct electrolysis was carried out using boron-doped diamond, while the indirect electrolyses were mediated by active chlorine electrogenerated on a TiRuO2 oxide anode. The effects of the operating factors that influence COD and colour removal were investigated for each type

Marco Panizza; Antonio Barbucci; Rico Ricotti; Giacomo Cerisola

2007-01-01

141

Plant fertilizer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

142

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

143

Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

1986-01-01

144

Methylene blue diffusion in skin tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of Methylene Blue penetration in both skin and subcutaneous fat is presented. Experiments have been carried out with both rat skin and human adipose tissue in vitro at room temperature. Microscopic analysis with digital imaging system has been applied for visualizing and investigation of the Methylene Blue diffusion in the epidermal, dermal and adipose tissue. Diffusion coefficient of Methylene Blue in skin in vitro has been estimated.

Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2004-07-01

145

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

146

Fuel oil poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Fuel oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in (inhales), or touches fuel oil. This is for information only and not ... Fuel oil Kerosene Note: This list may not include all sources of fuel oil.

147

Jerusalem cherry poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

The poison is found throughout the Jerusalem cherry plant, but especially in the unripened fruit and leaves. ... Diarrhea Drowsiness Enlarged (dilated) pupils Hallucinations Headache Low blood pressure Slowed breathing Slow pulse Stomach pain Vomiting

148

Clinitest tablets poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...

149

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

150

Cuticle remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Note: This list may not include all sources of cuticle remover. ... Medication to treat the effects of the poison Removal of burned skin (debridement) Washing of the skin ( ...

151

Sodium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...

152

Mineral spirits poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

153

Stoddard solvent poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

154

Potassium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...

155

Wart remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wart removers are medicines used to eliminate warts , which are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows ...

156

The Poisons Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

Crawford, Barbara A.

1998-01-01

157

Removal of plant poisoning dyes by adsorption on Tomato Plant Root and green carbon from aqueous solution and its recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic dyes directly pollute the soil, water, plants and all living systems in the environment. The dyes like cationic Methylene blue (MB) and Crystal violet (CV) adsorption has been studied on Tomato Plant Root powder (TPR) and green carbon from aqueous solution for identifying the plant poisoning nature of cationic dyes. TPR powder is a cellulose material and green

Chellapandian Kannan; Natesan Buvaneswari; Thayumanavan Palvannan

2009-01-01

158

Lead Poisoning in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does lead usually enter the body and what systems are usually involved? What one symptom above all others should arouse the suspicion of lead poison ing?In follow up of children with lead en cephalopathy, frequently they have a lower I.Q. than their peers. What is the evidence for this?Should the gastro-intestinal tract of chil dren with lead poisoning be

Ralph D. Feigin; Daniel C. Shannon; Stephen L. Reynolds; Lilian W. Shapiro; John P. Connelly

1965-01-01

159

CIGUATERA POISONING IN VANUATU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 55?75)\\/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI 19?43)\\/100,000 population

ANNA GOODMAN; THOMAS N. WILLIAMS; KATHRYN MAITLAND

160

Methylene blue diffusion in skin tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Methylene Blue penetration in both skin and subcutaneous fat is presented. Experiments have been carried out with both rat skin and human adipose tissue in vitro at room temperature. Microscopic analysis with digital imaging system has been applied for visualizing and investigation of the Methylene Blue diffusion in the epidermal, dermal and adipose tissue. Diffusion coefficient of

Elina A. Genina; Alexey N. Bashkatov; Valery V. Tuchin

2004-01-01

161

Prepare and Purify Urushiol from Poison Ivy and Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The active ingredients (urushiols) of poison ivy and poison oak were isolated in purified form by various chemical and physical procedures. Various properties were measured, including molecular weight, double bond value, refractive index and infrared spec...

M. D. Corbett

1973-01-01

162

Poisonous Snakes of Southeastern Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Southeastern Asia; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of the pois...

1969-01-01

163

Prognostic factors in methanol poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and laboratory factors in methanol poisoned patients to determine the prognosis of their toxicity. This survey was done as a prospective cross-sectional study in methanol-poisoned patients in Loghman-Hakim hospital poison center during 9 months from October 1999June 2000. During this time 25 methanol-poisoned patients were admitted. The mortality rate was

H. Hassanian-Moghaddam; A. Pajoumand; S. M. Dadgar; Sh. Shadnia

2007-01-01

164

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poison control center. If you believe you have been poisoned or injured by pesticides on an agricultural establishment covered under the WPS , ... about the pesticide to which you may have been exposed. See EPA's Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings for information on the health hazards of ...

165

Black-spot poison ivy.  

PubMed

In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare. PMID:18346397

Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

166

Prevention of molecular self-association by sodium salicylate: effect on methylene blue.  

PubMed

Sodium salicylate improves the rectal absorption of drugs which exhibit molecular self-association; it is suggested that salicylate may improve drug bioavailability by altering the drug self-association pattern. Methylene blue was chosen as a model molecule for investigating the interference of salicylate with drugs undergoing self-association. The effect of sodium salicylate on the concentration-dependent association of methylene blue as expressed by metachromasy was observed and compared with the effects of other additives: urea, sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium sulfate, and sodium benzoate. By increasing the methylene blue concentration from 10(-5) M to 2 X 10(-3) M, the lambda max peak shifts from the longer wavelength region (approximately 660 nm) of the monomer toward the shorter (approximately 600 nm) indicating the presence of dimers and other oligomers. Addition of increased concentrations of sodium salicylate had a deaggregative effect on a 10(-3) M methylene blue solution, shifting the peaks toward the monomer region. On the other hand, the addition of 0.5 M of any of the following salts: sulfate, acetate, or chloride, to a 10(-3) M, aqueous solution of methylene blue had the opposite effect, eliminating the lambda max peak at 660 nm and generating a spectrum with one peak at approximately 600 nm, which indicated a high degree of self-association. The sodium salicylate effect is concentration dependent, with a high excess (approximately 450 times on a molar scale) being necessary to reduce the self-association. At lower concentrations of salicylate, precipitation occurs in the system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3723360

Touitou, E; Fisher, P

1986-04-01

167

Characterizing polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate reactions ...  

Treesearch

Title: Characterizing polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate reactions with wood. ... adhesion, plant cell walls, loblolly pine, chemical reactions, nanotechnology, ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on...

168

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Chloride Related tests: Sodium , Potassium , Bicarbonate (total CO2) , Electrolytes , CMP , BMP , Blood Gases At a Glance Test ... if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor ...

169

THERAPY OF RADIOACTIVE POISONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an introduction to a discussion of the therapy of radiation ; poisoning, damaging radiations, measurement units, and the pathological and ; physiological bases of radiation injury are discussed. The acute radiation ; syndrome is described and chronic radiation damage is considered. The general ; treatment is then indicated. (J.S.R.);

Groessinger

1961-01-01

170

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

171

Recurrent neonatal organophoshorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus poisoning in neonates is extremely rare and needs high index of suspicion to diagnose it. The clinical presentation is often confused with the features of sepsis like apnea, copious oral secretions, diarrhea, letharginess, seizures. There may be recurrence of manifestations due to chronic exposure. We report a classic case admitted in the intensive care unit of our hospital. PMID:23024082

Parvez, Yusuf; Mathew, Aji; Kutti, Satheesh Kalantra

2012-09-01

172

Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

Bakir, F.; And Others

1973-01-01

173

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-05-28

174

Advances in poison management.  

PubMed

This article advances the most current concepts in the management of poisoned patients including the use of ipecac, lavage, activated charcoal, whole-bowel irrigation, and specific antidotes. The benefits vs the risks of each of these procedures are reviewed. PMID:8697613

Bayer, M J; McKay, C

1996-08-01

175

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)|

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

176

Poisonous Koda Millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE have been several well-ascertained examples of poisoning from diseased or improperly-prepared Koda millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) during the past year in India. Owing to the prevailing scarcity of the usual food-grains, it is probable that Koda millet has been extensively sold and eaten in localities where its use is ordinarily unknown.

A. E. Grant

1898-01-01

177

[Taxus baccata poisoning].  

PubMed

Common yew poisoning occurs by per oral application of needles or extracts of needles usually. The determination of the cause of death is more difficult in the latter case. In our article, we advise of circumstances which could be helpful in diagnostic. In addition, we describe the substances contained in yew, their effect, importance and toxicological detection. PMID:22145207

Balz, P; Toupalk, P; Havel, R; Bartos, P; Stankov, M

2011-10-01

178

Amnesic shellfish poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is caused by consumption of shellfish that have accumulated domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some strains of phytoplankton. The neurotoxic properties of domoic acid result in neuronal degeneration and necrosis in specific regions of the hippocampus. A serious outbreak of ASP occurred in Canada in 1987 and involved 150 reported cases, 19 hospitalisations and 4

B. Jeffery; T. Barlow; K. Moizer; S. Paul; C. Boyle

2004-01-01

179

Neem oil poisoning.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of neem oil poisoning in a previously normal 5 year old child. The child presented with refractory seizures and was having metabolic acidosis. Late neurological sequelae in the form of auditory and visual disturbances, and ataxia were present. PMID:18250509

Dhongade, Ramchandra K; Kavade, Sandeep G; Damle, Rushikesh S

2008-01-01

180

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, a newly identified marine toxin disease associated with blooms of the diatom Pseudonitschia pungens. The page describes clinical presentation (symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of domoic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-03-22

181

EFFECTS OF CHEMICALS ON RADIATION INJURY. III. EFFECT OF CENTRAL NERVOUS STIMULANTS, CENTRAL NERVOUS DEPRESSANTS PROTOPLASMIC POISONS, AUTONOMIC POISONS AND OTHER DRUGS ON RADIATION INJURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS> Administration (prior to x irradiation) of aminocordin, Picrotoxin, ; strychnine nitrate, caffeine sodium benzoate, or philopon exaggerated radiation ; injury and shortened the life span. Barbital, chloral-hydrate, and morphine ; chloride appeared to inhibit radiation injury, while alcohol and urethan ; exaggerated radiation injury. Effects of ethylene tetrachloride, nitromin, ; mapharsol, and autonomic poisons were similar to those of

Hamada

1959-01-01

182

Acute poisoning: an update.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of the patient who has taken an overdose of a harmful substance includes support of vital functions and toxicologic analysis. Early recognition of signs and symptoms indicating poisoning by a specific agent or group of related chemicals is essential since specific antidotes may be lifesaving. Activated charcoal is an effective gastrointestinal decontaminant that adsorbs many common drugs. Administration of weak acids as an antidote to alkali ingestion is to be condemned; the only treatment should be dilution with water. The use of physostigmine as a specific antidote for the anticholinergic syndrome has been very successful; the incidence of this syndrome as a result of poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants is increasing. Effective therapy for acetaminophen overdose is still being investigated, but activated charcoal and methionine, if given early enough, seem to be effective.

Raymond, C. W.

1977-01-01

183

Swimming pool cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... acids in them, or breathes in their fumes. Chlorine, a chemical in swimming pool cleaners, is more ... Bromine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Chelated copper ... bisulfate, phosphoric acid, sodium thiosulfate, cyanuric acid)

184

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.  

PubMed

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-04-02

185

Poisonous plant vouchers.  

PubMed

Every published report of plant poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, should document plant identification. The essential elements are: complete botanical Latin name including species, specific epithet and author(s); name of the collaborating botanist who identified the plant; and herbarium and collection number of a voucher specimen from the exposure lot. Additional information to aid identification might include plant photographs, drawings, and descriptions. PMID:10349708

Wagstaff, D J; Wiersema, J H; Lellinger, D B

1999-06-01

186

Les poisons du fuseau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rsum頠Les poisons du fuseau constituent un groupe de mdicaments anticancreux dorigine naturelle caractriss par leur cible,\\u000a le fuseau achromatique qui permet aux chromosomes de migrer lors de la mitose. Les vinca-alcalodes (vinblastine, vincristine,\\u000a vindsine, vinorelbine) inhibent la polymrisation de la tubuline en microtubules et les taxanes (paclitaxel et doctaxel)\\u000a inhibent la dpolymrisation des microtubules. La rsistance ces agents peut

J. Robert

2007-01-01

187

Chloride channelopathies.  

PubMed

Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms. Impaired chloride transport can cause diseases as diverse as cystic fibrosis, myotonia, epilepsy, hyperekplexia, lysosomal storage disease, deafness, renal salt loss, kidney stones and osteopetrosis. These disorders are caused by mutations in genes belonging to non-related gene families, i.e. CLC chloride channels and transporters, ABC transporters, and GABA- and glycine receptors. Diseases due to mutations in TMEM16E and bestrophin 1 might be due to a loss of Ca++-activated Cl- channels, although this remains to be shown. PMID:19708126

Planells-Cases, Rosa; Jentsch, Thomas J

2009-03-01

188

Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask.

2010-01-01

189

OXYGEN POISONING IN MAMMALS  

PubMed Central

1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined.

Binger, Carl A. L.; Faulkner, James M.; Moore, Richmond L.

1927-01-01

190

Chronic arsenic poisoning.  

PubMed

Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS). PMID:11869818

Hall, Alan H

2002-03-10

191

Endrin-food-poisoning  

PubMed Central

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end.

Weeks, D. E.

1967-01-01

192

Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.  

PubMed

Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22634487

Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

193

Seasonal trends in reported poisonings.  

PubMed Central

Review of 2,339 Duke Poison Control Center records for calendar year 1977 revealed that preschool children had an autumn peak for all poisonings; older victims a summer predominance. When the reports were stratified by poisoning agent, significant summer predominance was noted in preschool victims for plants, pesticides, paints, and cosmetics; winter predominance for external medicines. In older victims, spring predominance was found for pesticides and soaps, summer predominance for envenomations, plants, internal medicines, ethanol, soaps, and external medicines.

Greenberg, R S; Osterhout, S K

1982-01-01

194

Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.  

PubMed

Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country. PMID:7352816

Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B

1980-02-01

195

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

196

Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).  

PubMed

Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids. PMID:11376396

Guin, J D

2001-04-01

197

Detection of Brominism by an Automated Chloride Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the performance of routine determinations of serum chloride by the automated method, which depends on halide displacement of mercury from the thiocyanate to allow formation of ferric thiocyanate complex, 4 cases of bromide poisoning were detected. Experimental evidence shows the halide substitution to be an equilibrium, with higher formation constants for the heavier halide ions. As a result, the

J. L. Driscoll; H. F. Martin

198

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-06-30

199

Herbicide poisoning: A diagnostic challenge  

PubMed Central

Despite widespread availability, reports of herbicide poisoning from India are not common. Diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of proper history, non-specific clinical features and lack of diagnostic tests. A case of Paraquat poisoning is reported where diagnosis could be established only after the recovery of the patient. The literature is reviewed.

Ghosh, Supradip; Singh, Amandeep; Dewan, Himanshu; Walia, Gunwant; Bansal, Abhishek

2012-01-01

200

THE POISONING OF NRX PILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described. The operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to Septenber 1948. The poisons considered are Xe and Sm. (auth)

1948-01-01

201

[ 211At]Methylene blue for targeted radiotherapy of human melanoma xenografts: Dose fractionation in the treatment of cutaneous tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,7-(dimethylamino) phenazathionium chloride [methylene blue (MTB)]labelled with ?-particle emit- ter astatine-211 (211At) selectively accumulates in melanoma cells due to an exceptionally high affinity of MTB to melanin, and proves to be a very effective agent in targeted radiotherapy for pigmented human melanoma grown in mice. This study aimed at a selection of the most advantageous [211At]MTB dose fractionation leading to

E. M. Link; R. N. Carpenter; G. Hansen

1996-01-01

202

211At-methylene blue for targeted radiotherapy of disseminated melanoma: microscopic analysis of tumour versus normal tissue damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present stage of our preclinical investigations of targeted radiotherapy for melanoma with 3,7-(dimethylamino)phenazathionium chloride [methylene blue (MTB)] labelled with astatine-211 (211At), an ?-particle emitter, concerns toxicity of the treatment, as well as macro- and microscopic evaluation of its efficacy. Fragments of two human melanoma xenografts, pigmented HX118 and non-pigmented HX34 (used as a control), were implanted s.c. into nude

E. M. Link; A. S. Michalowski; F. Rsch

1996-01-01

203

Adsorption of methylene blue on kaolinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue was adsorbed on kaolin from a local deposit. The raw kaolin itself was a relatively good adsorbent. The adsorption capacity was improved by purification and by treatment with NaOH solution. Calcination of the kaolin reduced the adsorption capacity. The adsorption data could be fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Also, the thermodynamic parameters such as ?H0, ?S0

Dipa Ghosh; Krishna G Bhattacharyya

2002-01-01

204

New methylene homologation method for cyclic ketones.  

PubMed

Teaching new tricks to an old dog: By intercepting adducts between ketones and lithium trimethylsilyldiazomethane, a new Tiffeneau-Demjanov type methylene homologation could be realized in a single-step operation. Among proton sources and Lewis acids, silica gel was found to be the most effective reagent for the protonation of intermediates and their subsequent ring expansion (see scheme). PMID:22893575

Liu, Huaqing; Sun, Chunrui; Lee, Nam-Kyu; Henry, Roger F; Lee, Daesung

2012-08-14

205

Lest we forget you methylene blue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue (MB), the first synthetic drug, has a 120-year-long history of diverse applications, both in medical treatments and as a staining reagent. In recent years there was a surge of interest in MB as an antimalarial agent and as a potential treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly through its inhibition of the aggregation of tau

R. Heiner Schirmer; Heike Adler; Marcus Pickhardt; Eckhard Mandelkow

2011-01-01

206

Safe thyroidectomy with intraoperative methylene blue spraying  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to minimalize operative complications by spraying of methylene blue stain on thyroid glands and the perithyroidal area. Material and methods The intra-operative methylene blue spraying technique was used prospectively on a total of 56 patients who had undergone primary (not recurrent) thyroid surgery for a variety of thyroid diseases. Bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed in all cases. After superior but before inferior pole ligation, 0.5ml of methylene blue was sprayed over the thyroid lobe and perilober area. Tissues, especially parathyroides, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and the inferior thyroid artery, were identified and evaluated. Results Recurrent laryngeal nerve and arteries were not stained and thus they remained white in all cases while all other tissues were stained blue. Within three minutes parathyroid glands washed out the blue stain and the original yellow color was regained. Thyroid tissue wash-out time was not less than 15 minutes; perithyroideal muscles, tendinous and lipoid structures took no less than 25 minutes. Conclusion The safety of intravascular methylene blue guidance on thyroid surgery is known. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of the spraying technique, a new technique which ensures not only identification of parathyroid glands within three minutes, but also identification of recurrent laryngeal nerves and inferior thyroid arteries.

2012-01-01

207

Methylene blue selectively stains intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus resembles gastric intestinal metaplasia, which selectively stains with methylene blue. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the safety, accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and diagnostic yield of methylene bluedirected biopsy in detecting specialized columnar epithelium and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We performed upper endoscopy with methylene bluedirected biopsy and obtained 236 large cup biopsy specimens (145 stained,

Marcia Irene F. Canto; Sebouh Setrakian; Robert E. Petras; Edmond Blades; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak

1996-01-01

208

[Poisonings in pregnancy].  

PubMed

Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

2012-02-16

209

Nodularins in poisoning.  

PubMed

Nodularins are an important class of hepatotoxic cyclic pentapeptides that are produced by the cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena. These peptides have been found worldwide and have been implicated in the deaths of animals as well as a potent cyanotoxin in humans. To date, approximately 10 variants have been discovered, among which nodularin-R is the most abundant. Though the mechanisms of their potential hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity are not well understood, the most frequently proposed mechanisms are described here. Most importantly, a comprehensive review of nodularins in poisoning is presented, including their bioaccumulation in water, cyanobacterial blooms and aquatic animals, the IC50, LC50 and LD50 values determined in laboratories, and wild, domestic and laboratory animal cases. However, the hazard of these toxins to humans has not been fully elucidated, predominantly due to the lack of exposure data. One of reasons underlying is that most current methods are ill suited for clinical monitoring. Thus, the available assays for the detection and quantification of nodularins are described with an emphasis on the problems encountered with each assay. Our ultimate aim is to demonstrate the urgency of better understanding the toxicity of nodularins, especially in humans, and thus effectively protecting ourselves from their poisoning. PMID:23872223

Chen, Yun; Shen, Danfeng; Fang, Danjun

2013-07-17

210

Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate.

2011-01-01

211

Melitracenium chloride.  

PubMed

IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(10,10-dimethyl-anthracen-9-yl-idene)-N,N,N-trimethyl-propanaminium chlor-ide], C(21)H(26)N(+)Cl(-), the cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the terminal benzene rings is 40.43?(12). In the crystal, ions are linked through inter-molecular N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, forming supra-molecular layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:21837115

Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddegowda, M S; Yathirajan, H S; Narayana, B

2011-06-18

212

Poisoning mortality, 1985-1995.  

PubMed Central

Poisoning was reported as the underlying cause of death for 18,549 people in the United States in 1995 and was ranked as the third leading cause of injury mortality, following deaths from motor vehicle traffic injuries and firearm injuries. Poisoning was the leading cause of injury death for people ages 35 to 44 years. Poisoning death rates were higher in 1995 than in any previous year since at least 1979. From 1990 to 1995, the age-adjusted rate of death from poisoning increased 25%; all of the increase was associated with drugs. About three-fourths of poisoning deaths (77%) in 1995 were caused by drugs. The age-adjusted rate of drug-related poisoning deaths for males (7.2 per 100,000) in 1995 was more than twice that for females (3.0 per 100,000). From 1985 to 1995, poisoning death rates for males ages 35-54 years nearly doubled to 20.4 per 100,000, and the drug-related poisoning death rate for males ages 35-54 years nearly tripled, reaching 16.1 per 100,000. From 1990 to 1995, death rates associated with opiates and cocaine more than doubled among males ages 35-54 years. The numbers of opiate and cocaine poisoning deaths for 1995 more than doubled when all multiple cause of death codes were examined instead of only the underlying cause of death codes. Images p217-a p217-b p218-a p219-a

Fingerhut, L A; Cox, C S

1998-01-01

213

Super vasomol hair dye poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.

Kumar, Praveen A. S.; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T. K.

2012-01-01

214

Corrosive Poisonings in Adults  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery.

Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

2012-01-01

215

Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

Kirkpatrick, John N.

1987-01-01

216

Determination of low level sulfides in environmental waters by automated gas dialysis/methylene blue colorimetry  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive and rapid automated method has been developed for the selective analysis of acid extractable sulfide in environmental samples by combining gas dialysis separation techniques with methylene blue detection procedures. Acid extractable sulfide is separated from the sample matrix by the gas dialysis membrane and subsequently trapped in a dilute sodium hydroxide receiving stream. This stream is reacted with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and ferric chloride to produce methylene blue which is then quantitated colorimetrically at 660 nm. For standards and nonturbid environmental samples, there is good agreement between the results obtained by this procedure and the standard methylene blue method. The effect of interferences on the accurate determination of sulfide by both methods was also examined and it was found that cupric ions significantly interfered with sulfide estimation. To obtain adequate sulfide recoveries in tap water and environmental samples ascorbic acid must be added as an antioxidant. A detection limit of 2 {mu}g/L of sulfide has been obtained using this procedure.

Francom, D. Goodwin, L.R.; Dieken, F.P. (Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville (Canada))

1990-01-01

217

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

218

Anti-rust product poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...

219

Proposed Regulation: Vinyl Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OSHA proposes to regulate producers of vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and articles made from these substances by requiring that their employees not be exposed to vinyl chloride above specified levels. The major impact of the regulation is expected to...

1974-01-01

220

Gas phase reaction of formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride in the presence of zeolite Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen and metal alkali forms of Y zeolite were tested in chlorination of CH2O with HCl. It has been found that over alkali metal and hydrogen forms the only chlorinated product was methyl chloride, whereas in the presence of NH4Y zeolite both methyl and methylene chlorides were formed. The conversion pathway of CH2O itself seems to play an important

Iwona Bresi?ska; Russell S. Drago

1990-01-01

221

Extended orientational correlation study for molecular liquids containing distorted tetrahedral molecules: Application to methylene halides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of Rey [Rey, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164506 (2007)] for describing how molecules orient toward each other in systems with perfect tetrahedral molecules is extended to the case of distorted tetrahedral molecules of c2v symmetry by means of introducing 28 subgroups. Additionally, the original analysis developed for perfect tetrahedral molecules, based on six groups, is adapted for molecules with imperfect tetrahedral shape. Deriving orientational correlation functions have been complemented with detailed analyses of dipole-dipole correlations. This way, (up to now) the most complete structure determination can be carried out for such molecular systems. In the present work, these calculations have been applied for particle configurations resulting from reverse Monte Carlo computer modeling. These particle arrangements are fully consistent with structure factors from neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements. Here we present a complex structural study for methylene halide (chloride, bromide, and iodide) molecular liquids, as possibly the best representative examples. It has been found that the most frequent orientations of molecules are of the 2:2 type over the entire distance range in these liquids. Focusing on the short range orientation, neighboring molecules turn toward each other with there ``H,Y''-``H,Y'' (Y: Cl, Br, I) edges, apart from CH2Cl2 where the H,H-H,Cl arrangement is the most frequent. In general, the structure of methylene chloride appears to be different from the structure of the other two liquids.

Pothoczki, Szilvia; Temleitner, Lszl; Pusztai, Lszl

2010-04-01

222

Poly Iron Chloride and Poly Aluminum Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structures, basic chemistry, preparation procedures, and applications of poly iron chloride (PIC) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) are presented. PIC and PAC are unconventional inorganic polymers known to be extremely effective for treatment of water ...

L. K. Wang

1987-01-01

223

Chloride-Initiated Reinforcement Corrosion: Chloride Binding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report deals with chloride binding, which is one of the mechanisms which determines the service life of the structure with regard to chloride-initiated reinforcement corrosion. The report has been structured so that a model for chloride bindin...

K. Byfors

1990-01-01

224

Carbon dioxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases. PMID:16499405

Langford, Nigel J

2005-01-01

225

The Mechanochemical Reaction of Palladium(II) Chloride with a Bidentate Phosphine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment describes the reaction of palladium(II) chloride with 1,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)pentane by grinding the two powders together in the solid state. The product is the precursor for the metalation reaction at one of the methylene carbon atoms of the ligand's backbone. The final product is known to be a catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura

Berry, David E.; Carrie, Philippa; Fawkes, Kelli L.; Rebner, Bruce; Xing, Yao

2010-01-01

226

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

227

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)|

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

228

Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

229

Poison ivy on the leg (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

230

A Model Poison Control System  

PubMed Central

Responding to the need for a poison information, education, data collection and research resource in California's Bay Area and North Coast counties, the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center has become an integral part of the region's emergency medical services. In the first 33 months after it opened, more than 54,000 calls for assistance were received, nearly a third from medical professionals. Through the cooperation and collaboration of public, private and university resources and interests, a cost-effective, comprehensive and accessible system has evolved for public and professional use. Through our experience a system has developed that can serve as a model for poison information services throughout the western states. Emerging public concern for toxicology issues will continue to refine this model.

Tong, Theodore G.; Becker, Charles E.; Foliart, Donna; Morse, Linda

1982-01-01

231

National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,

Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

232

Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

deCastro, F.J.

1990-04-01

233

Pralidoxime in carbaryl poisoning: an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Poisoning from organophosphates and carbamates is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Concerns have been expressed over the safety and efficacy of the use of oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) in patients with carbamate poisoning in general, and more so with carbaryl poisoning specifically. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of 2-PAM

Maria Mercurio-Zappala; Jason B. Hack; Annabella Salvador; Robert S. Hoffman

2007-01-01

234

Neutralization of Shellfish Poison by Chemical Disinfectants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resistance of shellfish poison was evaluated in the presence of 7 chemical disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in neutralizing the toxicity of the poison at concentration of 3 parts NaOCl per million (ppm) per microgram of poison at room ...

C. D. Chin

1969-01-01

235

Management of the critically poisoned patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management

Jennifer S Boyle; Laura K Bechtel; Christopher P Holstege

2009-01-01

236

Metal poisons for criticality in waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals that may serve as neutron poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist;

T. G. Williamson; A. Q. Goslen

1996-01-01

237

Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

238

Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)|

Lipnickey, Susan Cross

1981-01-01

239

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

240

40 CFR 721.10581 - Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...Substances § 721.10581 Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...identified generically as brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene...

2013-07-01

241

Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.  

PubMed

This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. PMID:22632635

Warrell, David A

2012-04-24

242

Chloride channels as tools for developing selective insecticides.  

PubMed

Ligand-gated chloride channels underlie inhibition in excitable membranes and are proven target sites for insecticides. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(1)) receptor/chloride ionophore complex is the primary site of action for a number of currently used insecticides, such as lindane, endosulfan, and fipronil. These compounds act as antagonists by stabilizing nonconducting conformations of the chloride channel. Blockage of the GABA-gated chloride channel reduces neuronal inhibition, which leads to hyperexcitation of the central nervous system, convulsions, and death. We recently investigated the mode of action of the silphinenes, plant-derived natural compounds that structurally resemble picrotoxinin. These materials antagonize the action of GABA on insect neurons and block GABA-mediated chloride uptake into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes in a noncompetitive manner. In mammals, avermectins have a blocking action on the GABA-gated chloride channel consistent with a coarse tremor, whereas at longer times and higher concentrations, activation of the channel suppresses neuronal activity. Invertebrates display ataxia, paralysis, and death as the predominant signs of poisoning, with a glutamate-gated chloride channel playing a major role. Additional target sites for the avermectins or other chloride channel-directed compounds might include receptors gated by histamine, serotonin, or acetylcholine.The voltage-sensitive chloride channels form another large gene family of chloride channels. Voltage-dependent chloride channels are involved in a number of physiological processes including: maintenance of electrical excitability, chloride ion secretion and resorption, intravesicular acidification, and cell volume regulation. A subset of these channels is affected by convulsants and insecticides in mammals, although the role they play in acute lethality in insects is unclear. Given the wide range of functions that they mediate, these channels are also potential targets for insecticide development. PMID:14635176

Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

2003-12-01

243

Staining of water trees with methylene blue explained  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staining with a methylene blue solution, a popular technique for achieving the required high contrast images of water trees, was carried out at 70C. It is shown that methylene blue stains the complete tree, which justifies water tree length measurements after staining. The water tree is not stained exclusively, but rather faster and probably to a higher degree than the

R. Ross; J. J. Smit; P. Aukema

1992-01-01

244

Of pills, plants, and paraquat: the relevance of poison centers in emergency medicine.  

PubMed

The organization and work of a poisons center are demonstrated on the basis of GIZ-Nord Poisons Center Annual Report for 2011. In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the indications for gastric lavage and the application of activated charcoal. Moreover the means of enhanced elimination are presented: hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, multi-dose activated charcoal and molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS). Gastric lavage is indicated within one hour after ingestion of a life-threatening dose of a poison. In intoxications with CNS penetrating substances gastric lavage should be performed only after endotracheal intubation due to the risk of aspiration. The basic management of the intoxicated patient by emergency medicine personnel out of hospital and on the way into the hospital is presented. The "Bremen List", a compilation of five antidotes (atropine, 4-DMAP, tolonium chloride, naloxone, activated charcoal) for the out of hospital treatment by emergency doctors is introduced. PMID:23245927

Schaper, Andreas; Ceschi, Alessandro; Deters, Michael; Kaiser, Guido

2012-12-12

245

TOXICITY OF SODIUM CHLORIDE TO HOUSE SPARROWS (PASSER DOMESTICUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium chloride (NaCl) is widely used as a deicing agent on roadways. There are numerous anecdotal reports of poisoning of passerine birds by road salt in the United States and Canada, but little is known about the toxicity of NaCl to songbirds. The objectives of this study were to determine the lethal dose range for NaCl in a representative passerine

Trent K. Bollinger; Pierre Mineau; Mark L. Wickstrom

246

SOLUBLE POISONS FOR SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS  

DOEpatents

A study of B and Th poisoning of slightly enriched U/sup 235/ hetcrogeneous and homogencous systems has been made. This study indicates large processing plant capacity increases are possible by the incorporation of soluble neutron poisons. A tabulation of other readily available neutron poisons together with their poisoning effects has been made. The importance of being able to remove the ncutron poisons when desired as well as having them present under all conditions where nuclear safety is dependent upon them has also been presented. (auth)

Ketzlach, N.

1957-05-01

247

Sarin poisoning in Matsumoto, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA presumed terrorist attack with sarin occurred in a residential area of the city of Matsumoto, Japan, on June 27, 1994. About 600 residents and rescue staff were poisoned; 58 were admitted to hospitals, and 7 died. We examined clinical and laboratory findings of 264 people who sought treatment and the results of health examinations on 155 residents done 3

N Yanagisawa; H Morita; T Nakajima; H Okudera; M Shimizu; H Hirabayashi; M Nohara; Y Midorikawa; S Mimura

1995-01-01

248

PREVENTING LEAD POISONING IN CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning is the most significant and prevalent disease of environmental origin among US children. Despite over 100 years' knowledge of the special hazards of lead exposure for young children, it has taken over a century for ef- fective primary prevention to be adopted. Obstacles to primary prevention have included deliberate campaigns by industry to prevent restrictions upon such uses

Ellen K. Silbergeld

1997-01-01

249

Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... urushiol (you-ROO-shee-all). Urushiol is the oil in poison ivy, oak and sumac. You find this oil in all parts of the plants the leaves, ... days. If you have a reaction to the oil, you can have these signs (what you see) ...

250

Photocatalytic decolorisation of methylene blue (MB) over titania pillared zirconium phosphate (ZrP) and titanium phosphate (TiP) under solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) was studied in aqueous solution over titania pillared ZrP and TiP under solar radiation. The reaction was studied by varying different parameters such as pH, titania load, catalyst concentration, initial MB concentration, irradiation time, effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), effect of inorganic salts such as potassium persulphate (K2S2O8) and sodium chloride (NaCl). The initial

D. P. Das; N. Baliarsingh; K. M. Parida

2007-01-01

251

Choice of poison for intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background Although intentional self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural parts of the Asia-Pacific region, relatively little is known of its epidemiology. We aimed to determine why Sri Lankan self-poisoning patients choose particular poisons, and whether acts of self-harm with highly dangerous poisons were associated with more premeditation and effort. Methods We interviewed 268 self-poisoning patients presenting to two district general hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. Results 85% of patients cited easy availability as the basis for their choice of poison. There was little premeditation: more than 50% ingested the poison less than 30 minutes after deciding to self-harm. Patients had little knowledge about treatment options or lethality of the poison chosen. We found no difference in reasons for choice of poison between people ingesting different poisons, despite marked differences in toxicity, and between people who died and those who survived. Conclusions Poisons were chosen on the basis of availability, often at short notice. There was no evidence that people using highly toxic poisons made a more serious or premeditated attempt. Restrictions on availability of highly toxic poisons in rural communities must be considered in strategies to reduce the number of intentional self-poisoning deaths in the Asia Pacific region.

Eddleston, Michael; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; Weerakoon, Manjula; Kumarasinghe, Subashini; Rajapakshe, Manjula; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A; Gunnell, David

2007-01-01

252

Kinetics and mechanism of color removal of methylene blue with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by some supported alumina surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalyzed kinetics of the oxidative mineralization of the cationic dye methylene blue, phenothiazonium, 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)-chloride, with hydrogen peroxide were studied both in buffered and unbuffered solutions. The supported alumina catalysts used were in the form of copper(II), cobalt(II), manganese(II), and nickel(II)-ions. Also, some copper(II)-complexes were used, e.g. copper(II)-ammine ([Cu(amm)4]2+), copper(II)-ethylenediamine ([Cu(en)2]2+) and copper(II)-monoethanolamine ([Cu(mea)2]2+). The reaction is first order with

Ibrahim A. Salem; Mohamed S. El-Maazawi

2000-01-01

253

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

254

Reactivity and intersystem crossing of singlet methylene in solution  

SciTech Connect

Evidence is reported which demonstrates that singlet methylene, produced from the photolysis of diazomethane or diazirine, undergoes intersystem crossing to form triplet methylene in perfluorohexane solvent. The results of triplet sensitized photolysis and of direct photolysis experiments with dilute concentrations of substrate (cis- and trans-2-pentene and chloroform) appear to be essentially identical. Stern-Volmer analyses of the competition kinetics between acetonitrile and 2-pentenes or chloroform for singlet methylene are consistent with the near diffusion controlled reactivity of singlet methylene. With the assumption of diffusion-controlled reactions for singlet methylene, plots of the quantum yield for singlet vs. triplet reaction for methylene allow the first estimate (less than or equal to 8 x 10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/) of the rate of intersystem crossing of singlet methylene in the condensed phase. This value is considerably smaller than the value that is extrapolated to the solution phase from results in the gas phase. The possible reasons for this difference are discussed.

Turro, N.J.; Cha, Y.; Gould, I.R.

1987-04-01

255

Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method for dehydrating magnesium chloride hydrates or brines by complexing with amine hydrochlorides. Magnesium chloride hydrate or brine is reacted to an amine hydrochloride to form a complex which is then heated to fir...

H. Dolezal

1975-01-01

256

Chloride Removal Implementation Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment and procedures for the electrochemical removal of chloride from reinforced concrete structures are described. The guide provides basic information needed to implement the chloride removal process of field structures. Pretreatment and posttreatme...

J. Bennett T. J. Schue

1993-01-01

257

Chloride in smooth muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the functions of intracellular chloride expanded about twenty years ago but mostly this referred to tissues other than smooth muscle. On the other hand, accumulation of chloride above equilibrium seems to have been recognised more readily in smooth muscle.Experimental data is used to show by calculation that the Donnan equilibrium cannot account for the chloride distribution in smooth

A. R. Chipperfield; A. A. Harper

2000-01-01

258

Mechanisms for Binding between Methylene Blue and DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used absorption and fl uorimetric methods to study the interaction between methylene blue (MB) and calfthymus DNA. Based on Scatchard analysis of the experimental data, we plotted the methylene blue-DNA binding curve. This curve consists of two linear sections, which indicates two types of interaction, for which we determined the constants K and the number of binding sites n for binding of this ligand to DNA. Comparison of the data obtained with analogous values found for interaction between ethidium bromide and DNA allowed us to conclude that there are two modes of interaction between methylene blue and DNA: strong binding (semi-intercalation) and weak binding (electrostatic).

Vardevanyan, P. O.; Antonyan, A. P.; Parsadanyan, M. A.; Shahinyan, M. A.; Hambardzumyan, L. A.

2013-09-01

259

Pattern of acute poisoning in Tehran-Iran in 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the poisoning cases admitted to the Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center (a teaching reference hospital of poisoning) in Tehran, Iran. All admitted acutely poisoned patients from January to December 2003 were evaluated retrospectively. Information of socio-demographic characteristics, agents and cause of poisoning, and the mortality rate were collected from medical records of the hospital. During this period, 24 179

Shahin Shadnia; Hadi Esmaily; Ghazal Sasanian; Abdolkarim Pajoumand; Hosein Hassanian-Moghaddam; Mohammad Abdollahi

2007-01-01

260

Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acute pyrethroid poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews 573 cases of acute pyrethroid poisoning reported in the Chinese medical literatures during 19831988. There were 325 cases of acute deltamethrin poisoning (occupational 158, accidental 167), 196 patients of acute fenvalerate poisoning (occupational 63, accidental 133, including 2 cases of ingestive fenvalerate-organophosphate mixture poisoning), 45 cases of acute cypermethrin poisoning (occupational 6, accidental 39) and 7 cases

Fengsheng He; Shaoguang Wang; Lihui Liu; Shuyang Chen; Zuowen Zhang; Jinxiu Sun

1989-01-01

261

Zolpidem poisoning in a cat.  

PubMed

Zolpidem (Stilnox) is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug of the imidazopyridine class intended for treatment of insomnia in humans. A 16-year-old neutered cat, weighing 3.8 kg, was presented with sudden onset of stupor, disorientation, severe ataxia, vomiting and hypersalivation. Symptomatic treatment was given when ingestion of 1.25 mg/kg zolpidem (half of a 10-mg tablet) was confirmed, because no information on the efficacy and safety of the use of flumazenil in the treatment of zolpidem poisoning in cats has been published to date. As zolpidem is prescribed with increasing frequency in humans, the occurrence of accidental poisonings of pets is likely to increase. PMID:20633172

Czopowicz, M; Szalus-Jordanow, O; Frymus, T

2010-08-01

262

Malignant hyperthermia in endosulfan poisoning.  

PubMed

We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning, admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis was based on history, physical examination and positive reports from toxicological screening. After 8 hrs of admission, a sudden rise in EtCO(2), respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was noted. Masseter spasm was there and patient's elbow/knees could not be bent upon manipulation. Caffeine halothane contraction test later confirmed it to be malignant hyperthermia (MH). We suggest that if there is a sudden rise in body temperature, stiffness in limbs or massater spasm in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of MH should be considered as one possibility when etiology is not certain. PMID:22736908

Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Yadav, Ghanshyam

2012-01-01

263

Psychiatric aspects of methylmercury poisoning  

PubMed Central

Forty-three patients with methylmercury poisoning were studied; 744% showed some degree of depression. Their blood levels of mercury were higher than the average values for the whole group, and considerably higher than the blood levels of the non-depressed patients. Irritability was observed in 442% of the patients, all except one of the 19 being under 30 years of age. There was general improvement in the mental states of the patients who were hospitalized. Mercury binding compounds did not seem to have a significant effect in enhancing recovery from the depressive state. The possibility of there being two distinct syndromes, due to organic and inorganic mercury poisoning, is discussed.

Maghazaji, H. I.

1974-01-01

264

Management of poisoning in adults.  

PubMed

Nurses play a key role in the care of patients presenting with poisoning. Assessment and management of such patients can be challenging, especially if they are intoxicated, have co-ingested other agents or their mental health is compromised. In addition, some nurses may be unfamiliar with current management guidelines. This article outlines a number of protocols and initiatives aimed at improving consistency in the management of patients following an overdose. The article focuses on paracetamol poisoning, the most common overdose presentation in the UK. This article was updated on May 7 2013 to include current UK guidelines for management of paracetamol overdose, which changed in September 2012 following a review by the Commission on Human Medicines. In addition, the authors published recently an article in this journal that discussed the assessment and management of patients who present to hospital following a paracetamol overdose ( Pettie and Dow 2013 ). PMID:23987975

Pettie, Janice; Dow, Margaret

265

The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective

L. F. Prescott; J A J H Critchley

1983-01-01

266

Lead shot poisons bald eagles  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the controversy between the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Wildlife Federation and the increased mortality of bald eagles. The eagles are being poisoned by preying on waterfowl which have ingested lead shot or have been wounded by shot and not recovered. The controversy has resulted in the establishment of new criteria for so-called non-toxic shot waterfowl hunting.

Cohn, J.P.

1985-09-01

267

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.

1985-05-01

268

Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.  

PubMed

Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected. PMID:22082823

Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi

2011-11-14

269

[Relations between food poisoning and ascariasis].  

PubMed

During the examination of faeces for the causative agents of food poisoning, the search was also extended to the occurrence of worm eggs. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs occurred six times more frequently in persons affected with food poisoning than in consumers who were not harmed by the intake of poisoned food. This relationship was observed in non-specific cases of food poisoning and in those of unknown aetiology, whereas it was less pronounced in cases of specific poisoning. This difference has not been confirmed for Trichuris trichiura. It is safe to say that Ascaris infection increases the disposition to manifestation of symptoms of intoxication and represents, among other things, a factor in the aetiology of food poisoning. PMID:6322473

Bodnr, S; Nikodemusz, I; Mrton, M

1983-01-01

270

Circumstances of Accidental Poisoning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Of 377 children with accidental poisoning, the commonest ages were 1, 2, and 3. The most important contributory factor was that the poison was kept in an inappropriate place. Most containers were closed, but the children found them easy to open. In some cases the container itself was unsuitable for the contents. The frequency of poisoning in childhood might be reduced in six main ways: (1) a reduction in the quantity of drugs kept in the home; (2) the provision of drug cupboards; (3) the provision of containers that are difficult for children to open, or individually foil-wrapping tablets; (4) making tablets less attractive to children; (5) clear identification of potential poisons; and (6) increasing parental awareness of the circumstances under which poisoning occurs. A plea is made for further sociomedical research into the prevention of poisoning.

Jackson, R. H.; Walker, J. H.; Wynne, N. A.

1968-01-01

271

Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.  

PubMed

Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern. PMID:23122015

Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

2012-10-15

272

BAM R49: North Aniline (Oil) - Methylene Blue Stain  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Mix aniline oil with ethanol. Slowly add HCl with constant agitation. Add saturated methylene blue solution, dilute to 100 ml with water, and filter. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

273

Depth of penetration of methylene blue in mandibular cortical bone.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Surgeons treating keratinizing odontogenic tumors (KOT) and other intrabony lesions frequently use methylene blue as an adjunct in peripheral ostectomy in estimating the depth of bone that has been removed. Depth of methylene blue penetration in cortical bone has not been evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Specimens of mandible harvested from 9 fresh unembalmed cadaveric mandibles were stained with methylene blue. A microcaliper was used to measure total thickness of the cortical specimen along with the amount of dye penetration within the cortical block to the nearest 0.1 mm. RESULTS: Average depth of dye penetration was 0.48 mm in the symphysis. Average dye penetration was 0.53 mm in the body. Average depth of penetration of 0.42 mm in the angle. CONCLUSIONS: The use of methylene blue as a depth gauge to ensure adequate ostectomy with a single application of the dye may be inadequate to ensure complete removal of lesion from bony wall. PMID:22981092

Gailey, David G; Krishnan, Deepak G; Marciani, Robert D

2012-09-11

274

Prevention of poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis by quaternium-18 bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Poison ivy and poison oak are the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis in North America.Objective: We investigated whether a new topical lotion containing 5% quaternium-18 bentonite prevents experimentally induced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis.Methods: A single-blind, paired comparison, randomized, multicenter investigation was used to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of quaternium-18 bentonite lotion in

James G Marks; Joseph F Fowler; Elizabeth F Sherertz; Robert L Rietschel

1995-01-01

275

Thermoregulatory dysfunction secondary to acute ethanol poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute ethanol poisoning followed by drugs of abuse and psychiatric disorders is the most common cause of hypothermia. An attempt to evaluate the ethanol poisoning degree considering body temperature, serum osmolality, osmolal gap and ethanol concentration measurements was the aim of study. The lowest body temperature measured using infrared tympanic thermometer--First Temp Genius, Sherwood Medical was noted in the severely poisoned patients and was well correlated with the serum osmolality and with the osmolal gap. PMID:7644696

Szpak, D; Groszek, B; Obara, M; Kusiak, M

1995-01-01

276

Aluminium phosphide poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. PMID:22455303

Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Rahman, Arshalooz

277

Accumulation of Methylene Blue Dye by Growing Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation bioaccumulation studies were performed for the removal of Methylene Blue dye from an aqueous solution using live Lemna minor. The effect of various parameters such as the biosorbent dosage (13g), pH (3-8) and initial dye concentration (210mg L) were studied. The maximum uptake capacity of the Methylene Blue using L. minor was observed as 10.93mg g

R. M. Reema; P. Saravanan; M. Dharmendira Kumar; S. Renganathan

2011-01-01

278

Degradation of Methylene Blue by RF Plasma in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio frequency (RF) plasma in water was used for the degradation of methylene blue. The fraction of decomposition of methylene\\u000a blue and the intensity of the spectral line from OH radical increased with RF power. RF plasma in water also produced hydrogen\\u000a peroxide. The density of hydrogen peroxide increased with RF power and exposure time. When pure water (300mL) is

T. Maehara; I. Miyamoto; K. Kurokawa; Y. Hashimoto; A. Iwamae; M. Kuramoto; H. Yamashita; S. Mukasa; H. Toyota; S. Nomura; A. Kawashima

2008-01-01

279

Spectroscopy of Methylene Blue-Smectite Suspensions.  

PubMed

Aqueoussuspensions of different Na-smectite type clay minerals were exchanged with methylene blue (Mb) and analyzed by visible spectroscopy. The spectra show bands of two types of monomers, protonated Mb, Mb-dimers, and higher aggregates. Their relative importance and the bandwidth was found to depend on parameters such as the particle morphology, the degree of dispersion, and the extent and location of the layer charge of the smectite. This can be qualitatively explained by the relative importance of three types of interactions, Mb-surface, H(2)O-surface, and Mb-Mb interactions. For hectorite and laponite at small loadings, H(2)O-surface interactions are dominant. Mb-islands are formed with a characteristic monomer absorption at 653 nm. Monomers at the surface absorb at 670 nm as found in barasym and saponite. Wyoming bentonite takes an intermediate position. As the loading increases Mb-Mb and Mb-surface interactions become dominant, giving rise to monomers absorbing at 670 nm, dimers, and higher aggregates. The bandwidths of the absorption bands reflect the structure of the clay particle associates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10550246

Jacobs; Schoonheydt

1999-12-01

280

Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: cases and developments.  

PubMed

Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and delayed polyneuropathy. In the Western world, the occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning is less prevalent due to the declining availability of organophosphate pesticides, which could render the recognition of this particular type of intoxication and its specific treatment more difficult. In this article we discuss some recent developments and treatment dilemmas, illustrated by cases from our clinic, followed by a review of the current recommendations in the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. PMID:18424861

Aardema, H; Meertens, J H J M; Ligtenberg, J J M; Peters-Polman, O M; Tulleken, J E; Zijlstra, J G

2008-04-01

281

49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON...

2011-10-01

282

Decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous suspensions of titanium peroxide.  

PubMed

The pretreatment of TiO(2)-photocatalysts in solutions of H(2)O(2) was studied by examining the decolorization of methylene blue in the dark. Incubation of TiO(2) particles in H(2)O(2) solutions increased the oxidizing capacity of TiO(2). Methylene blue (0.3 mM) was degraded in the presence of pretreated TiO(2), and a decolorizing ratio of 47% was obtained after a 48-h incubation period in the presence of 5.0 g/L pretreated TiO(2). Titanium peroxide as a stable oxidant, which can be synthesized with the reaction of titanium sulfate and H(2)O(2), was studied in the decolorizing process of methylene blue. Concentrations of methylene blue were significantly reduced in the presence of titanium peroxide, and a greater extent of decolorization was obtained with larger amounts of titanium peroxide. A 63% decrease in methylene blue concentration was achieved in 5h incubation in the presence of 4.0 g/L titanium peroxide. H(2)O(2) accelerated the decolorizing process in the presence of titanium peroxide. The addition of 100 mM H(2)O(2) to a methylene blue solution containing 2.0 g/L titanium peroxide increased the decolorizing ratio to 85% after 5 h incubation. The addition of a hydroxyl radical scavenger, dimethyl sulfoxide, significantly decreased the decolorizing ratio, indicating the role of hydroxyl radicals in the oxidation process. PMID:17920765

Ogino, Chiaki; Dadjour, Mahmoud Farshbaf; Iida, Yasuo; Shimizu, Nobuaki

2007-09-02

283

77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention In accordance...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...

2012-10-24

284

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

285

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

286

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

287

Health risk assessment of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in California ground water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved in California drinking water, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to DCM. This assessment is being provided to the California Environmental Protection Agency for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of DCM exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with DCM. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for observed and potential DCM-induced cancer in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that win protect members of the general public from this chronic toxicity endpoint resulting solely from groundwater-based exposures to DCM, based on information obtained from the scientific literature. The document consists of seven sections, plus one supporting appendix. Each section provides information that can be used to develop DCM drinking-water standards that will safeguard human health. Evaluation of this information in support of specific groundwater safety standards for DCM was not conducted in this report; rather, the basis for selection of alternative standards, along with a narrative description of certain key sources of underlying uncertainty, are presented for evaluation through the regulatory risk-management process.

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; Wright, K.; McKone, T.E.

1992-12-01

288

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

289

Development of a method for determination of methylene chloride emissions at stationary sources  

SciTech Connect

Prior to source sampling, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the best sample container in which to collect an integrated sample. It was found that CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ remained stable in Tedlar bags for at least four weeks. The analytical method selected was gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID). During the field portion of the study, both manufacturer and user emissions sources of CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ were tested. Multiple sets of simultaneous quadruplicate bag samples were collected to determine the precision of both sampling and analysis in the field. All samples were analyzed at the test site after collection and then returned to Research Triangle Park. Samples were subsequently reanalyzed in the laboratories of Radian and the US EPA using three GC/FID instruments and two types of GC columns. The range of concentrations from the sources was 100 ppm to 27,000 ppm CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/. A statistical analysis of samples collected simultaneously showed no difference in the samples, proving good precision in both sampling and analysis. Some of the sample bags returned from the test sites developed leaks indicating that immediate on-site analysis is best. A comparison of results obtained in the field and the two laboratories showed that inter- and intra-laboratory precision was within 10%.

Butler, F.E.; Coppedge, E.A.; Suggs, J.C.; Knoll, J.E.; Midgett, M.R.; Sykes, A.L.; Hartman, M.W.; Steger, J.L.

1988-03-01

290

Ultrasonic reactivation of phosphonate poisoned calcite during crystal growth.  

PubMed

The effect of ultrasonic irradiation (42,150 Hz, 17 W dm(-3)/7.1 W cm(-2)) on the growth of calcite in the presence of the inhibitor nitrilotris(methylene phosphonic acid) (NTMP) was investigated at constant composition conditions. In seeded growth experiments, it was found that the inhibiting effect of NTMP on crystal growth could be seriously mitigated under influence of ultrasonic irradiation. An approximately twofold increase in volumetric growth rate was achieved during ultrasonic irradiation, and recovery of the growth rate following inhibition was strongly enhanced compared to growth experiments without ultrasonic irradiation. The results could be explained in part by the physical effect of ultrasound that causes breakage and attrition of poisoned crystals, which resulted in an increase in fresh surface area. Mass spectroscopy analysis of sonicated NTMP solutions revealed that there is also a chemical effect of ultrasound that plays an important role. Several breakdown products were identified, which showed that ultrasound caused the progressive loss of phosphonate groups from NTMP, probably by means of physicochemically generated free radicals and/or pyrolysis in the hot bubble-bulk interface. PMID:21463963

Boels, L; Wagterveld, R M; Witkamp, G J

2011-04-03

291

The effect of sediment trap poisons on particulate phosphorus integrity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus (P) in marine systems has been complicated by a lack of information regarding the flux of particulate P from surface waters to the seafloor. This is because one of the most common ways to collect sinking particles is through the use of sediment traps where poisons are often added to reduce post depositional biological processing. Although few in number, several studies have suggested that these poisons may also affect sample integrity, particularly with respect to P. In this study, we examined the effects of three preservatives (mercuric chloride, formalin, and sodium azide) on P concentrations in marine sediments collected from a range of coastal and open ocean environments: the Black Sea (BS), Cariaco Basin (CB), Gulf of Mexico (GoM), and Winyah Bay (WB). Duplicate samples with controls were exposed to each preservative, and the loss of P to the supernatant was monitored over a period of six months. P losses to the supernatant happened rapidly, with most of the P loss occurring within the first 2 - 5 days of exposure. Formalin was consistently the least effective in preserving P sample integrity, with ~ 5 % of the initial P found in the supernatant for sediments of the BS, ~12 % from the GoM, ~ 20 % in CB, and as much as 40 % in WB. Mercuric chloride was the second least effective preservative, with P losses of 20 % in WB and < 5 % in the other sediments. In contrast, sodium azide, appeared to be the most effective trap solution, with P losses never exceeding more than 5 % of the total P measured in the sediment. In most of our experiments with formalin and sodium azide, the dominant form of P found in the supernatant occurred as soluble reactive P. However, mercuric chloride consistently had dissolved organic P concentrations greater than 50 % of the total P measured in the supernatant, confirming earlier studies that mercuric chloride releases ATP during preservation. Our results suggest that P losses in sediment traps may vary widely, depending on the region and initial composition of the material. In addition, sodium azide appears to be the best trap solution for preserving P integrity and should be used whenever possible.

Truesdale, K.; Benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Styles, R.; Tappa, E.

2004-12-01

292

Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning.  

PubMed

In the present study, 386 patients with the diagnosis of poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Farabi Hospital of Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to gender, age, cause of poisoning, type of substance used, route of exposure, reason for the intake, signs and symptoms, time of referral to the hospital, hospitalization period, and prognosis. The age group of most poisoning cases was <5 years of age and constituted 51% (n = 197) of all cases. The main toxic agent was drugs (70.2%), followed by foods (8.8%), rodenticides (7%), insecticides/pesticides (4.9%), and carbon monoxide (4.7%). In childhood poisonings, accidental drug poisoning was frequent in toddlers, whereas suicidal poisoning was frequent in adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rate was 23.8% among all poisoning patients, and 98.9% of these patients were adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rates for males and females were 30% and 70%, respectively. An increase in suicidal and inhalation poisonings was observed when compared with previous studies that have been conducted in the same region. The results of the present study suggest that poisonings still represents an important health problem that could be prevented by safe drug storage at home, as well as parental education on adolescence issues, particularly those regarding females. PMID:20019095

Mutlu, M; Cansu, A; Karakas, T; Kalyoncu, M; Erduran, E

2009-12-17

293

[Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].  

PubMed

Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane. PMID:23381711

Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrs

294

Ricin poisoning and forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

Ricin is one of the most fascinating poisons due to its high toxicity: as little as 500 microg can kill an adult. It gained fame by its use in the so-called 'umbrella murder' to kill the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov in 1978. Ricin also became known as a potential bio-terror agent to which people could be exposed through the air, food, or water. The origin, biochemistry, toxicity, and analytical procedures for the determination of ricin are summarized. The homicide of Markov is described as well as recent cases of criminal ricin use. PMID:20355196

Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

2009-04-01

295

Benzene hexachloride poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Of 174 cattle dipped in an emulsified preparation of benzene hexachloride labeled for plant use, 18 were fatally poisoned. The preparation contained 0.14% active ingredient, gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride (BHC), a normally safe concentration for cattle. Analyses revealed 0.08% gamma BHC in the used dip and 0.5, 7.9, and 198 ppm in liver, kidney, and hairskin specimens, respectively, from a fatally affected cow. Microscopic examination of the freshly prepared dip demonstrated emulsion droplets ranging from 5 to 60 mu in diameter. PMID:49345

Ray, A C; Norris, J D; Reagor, J C

1975-06-15

296

Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-07-02

297

Treatment of methyl bromide poisoning with haemodialysis.  

PubMed Central

Acute accidental methyl bromide poisoning was treated with haemodialysis. The treatment was successful in removing bromide from the blood but the patient persists with severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. To the best of our knowledge haemodialysis has not been used previously for the treatment of organic bromide poisoning.

Moosa, M. R.; Jansen, J.; Edelstein, C. L.

1994-01-01

298

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

299

Hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis following anticholinesterase poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was undertaken to find the incidence of hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis in patients with anticholinesterase poisoning. This was done by serial estimation of total serum amylase and pancreatic imaging by ultrasonography and confirmed, if necessary, by computerized tomography. Anticholinesterase poisoning was caused by either ingestion or accidental exposure to organophosphates or carbamates; it was diagnosed when patients

Surjit Singh; Udaybhan Bhardwaj; Suresh k. Verma; Ashish Bhalla; Kirandip Gill

2007-01-01

300

Age and paracetamol self-poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Whereas paracetamol poisoning is predominantly seen in adolescents and young adults, the majority of paracetamol associated deaths occur in an older population.Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate age as a risk factor for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and death in a large population of patients with paracetamol poisoning.Patients: A total of 746 patients transferred to

L E Schmidt

2005-01-01

301

Identification of pesticide poisoning in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme investigates incidents of suspected poisoning of wildlife (also honey bees and companion animals) by pesticides in the United Kingdom. The approach to these investigations has evolved over the past 30 years. Field investigations, post-mortem examinations, toxicological data and experience of previous poisoning incidents assist in the selection and interpretation of appropriate chemical analyses. Several multi-residue

Peter Brown; Andrew Charlton; Mary Cuthbert; Libby Barnett; Leigh Ross; Margaret Green; Liz Gillies; Kathryn Shaw; Mark Fletcher

1996-01-01

302

An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged \\

Chun-Chi Lin; Chen-Chang Yang; Dong-Haur Phua; Jou-Fang Deng; Li-Hua Lu

2010-01-01

303

Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding  

PubMed Central

A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.???Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat

Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

2001-01-01

304

Ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central Pacific Ocean has arguably more ciguatera poisoning than any other place on earth. Here we tested two competing hypotheses that outline the primary causes of ciguatera outbreaks: (1) the new surface hypothesis and (2) the climate oscillation hypothesis. Our findings indicated that in Rarotonga, from 1994 to 2010, the annual incidence of ciguatera poisoning ranged from 204 to

Teina Rongo; Robert van Woesik

2011-01-01

305

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

306

The Chemotherapy of Poisoning by Organophosphate Anticholinesterases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oximes (with or without atropine as an adjunct) have recently been used successfully in the treatment of humans poisoned by organophosphate anticholinesterases. The discovery of the nature of the biochemical lesion in organophosphate poisoning has permitted the design of drugs to repair specifically this particular lesion. This paper reviews historically the researches which led to the development of pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide

D. R. Davies; A. L. Green

1959-01-01

307

Newer antidotal therapies for pediatric poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific antidotal therapy is essential for the successful management of a limited number of intoxications. Newer antidotes have emerged in the last 10 years that target specific life-threatening poisonings. These newer therapies, including hormones, drug antagonists, enzyme inhibitors, and antibodies against drugs and venoms, illustrate the spectrum of mechanisms by which an antidote can reverse toxicity of a poison. This

Erica L. Liebelt

2000-01-01

308

Poisoning with Veratrum-containing Sneezing Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Nine cases of accidental poisoning of children with sneezing powder are reported. Symptoms, besides sneezing, included gastrointestinal disturbances and syncope, whilst examination demonstrated bradycardia and hypotension.2 The powder, as supplied, carried no information on its constituents but Veratrum alkaloids were identified on analysis. The signs and symptoms observed were compatible with poisoning from these compounds.3 As a result of

P. Carlier; M.-L. Efthymiou; R. Garnier; J. Hoffelt; E. Fournier

1983-01-01

309

Emergency management of poisoning in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

The emergency management of poisoning is important in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity in poisoned patients. This article reviews the Hong Kong system of prehospital and emergency care of poisoning, with reference to recent advances in this field. Administering activated charcoal is recommended for the gastro-intestinal decontamination of most poisons, unless doing so is contra-indicated. Gastric lavage should be considered only in life-threatening cases of poisoning that present within the first hour. Newer antidotes that are available in Hong Kong accident and emergency departments include hydroxocobalamin, stonefish and snake antevenenes, digoxin-specific antibodies, esmolol hydrochloride, and octreotide. The 'golden hour' concept of gastro-intestinal decontamination is advocated and ways to ensure that decontamination is performed within the 'golden hour' are suggested. PMID:11025848

Lau, F L

2000-09-01

310

Efficacy of Pro-PAM (N-methyl-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carbaldoxime Hydrochloride) as a Treatment for Organophosphate Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficacy of Pro-PAM (N-methyl-1-6-dihydropyridine-2-carbaldoxime hydrochloride) was compared to pyridine-2-aldoxime chloride (PAM) as a treatment for organophosphate poisoning in mice and guinea pigs. Pro-PAM was generally less toxic than PAM in mice ...

J. G. Clement

1978-01-01

311

Hydrogen Chloride Sparging Crystallization of Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of its effort to produce cell-grade alumina from clay, the Bureau of Mines investigated the hydrogen chloride gas-sparging crystallization of aluminum chloride hexahydrate (ACH) from aluminum chloride liquor, to provide information for optimizing ...

D. E. Shanks D. J. Bauer J. A. Eisle

1982-01-01

312

The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

1983-01-01

313

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

314

Platinized Silver Chloride Electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electrode made by platinizing silver-silver chloride has been found to combine the stable potential and low direct-current resistance properties of a silver-silver chloride electrode with the low high-frequency impedance characteristic of a platinized platinum electrode.

Kenneth S. Cole; Uichiro Kishimoto

1962-01-01

315

[Intraoperative identification of parathyroid glands with methylene blue (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Identification of parathyroid glands during surgery for treatment of hyperparathyroidism remains difficult. The staining with methylene blue was first described by Dudley. Twenty-one patients were explored. Thirty to sixty minutes before surgical incision, an intravenous perfusion of methylene blue was started. The dose varied between 5 to 10 mg per kg. Thirty-seven enlarged glands were found of which 33 were obviously stained; 13 showed some color that could not be attributed with certainty to the dye; 1 adenome was not stained at all. In 89.2% of the cases the staining had the favorable effect of shortening the operation. Only 4 normal glands showed the blue stain. The affinity for methylene blue is thus mainly found in pathological parathyroid glands. PMID:706976

Ann, T; Derom, F

316

Food poisoning and house gecko: myth or reality?  

PubMed

The reason behind the food-poisoning due to felling of house geckos in eatables is described in this paper. House geckos are known to carry various types of pathogens in their bodies which cause food-poisoning after consuming the contaminated foods. Since these geckos are non-poisonous, the food poisoning due to their presence in food is not possible. PMID:23033707

Kotangale, J P

2011-04-01

317

Acute plant poisoning and antitoxin antibodies.  

PubMed

Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plant poisonings are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings--anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant antitoxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

2003-01-01

318

Decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous suspensions of titanium peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pretreatment of TiO2-photocatalysts in solutions of H2O2 was studied by examining the decolorization of methylene blue in the dark. Incubation of TiO2 particles in H2O2 solutions increased the oxidizing capacity of TiO2. Methylene blue (0.3mM) was degraded in the presence of pretreated TiO2, and a decolorizing ratio of 47% was obtained after a 48-h incubation period in the presence

Chiaki Ogino; Mahmoud Farshbaf Dadjour; Yasuo Iida; Nobuaki Shimizu

2008-01-01

319

Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.  

PubMed

Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning. PMID:17052991

Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

2006-10-18

320

Lead poisoning in the world and Iran.  

PubMed

Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran. PMID:23022790

Azizi, M H; Azizi, F

2010-04-01

321

Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings  

PubMed Central

Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Huseyin; Tuncer, Oguz; Atas, Bulent

2010-01-01

322

Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

1980-07-01

323

Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well. PMID:16805148

Gladman, Aaron C

2006-01-01

324

Hallucinogenic plant poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Datura is a hallucinogenic plant found in urban or rural areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia KSA. It grows wildly in many parts of the country. Its taste and shape makes it unattractive to both man and animals, though deliberate use by young adults for its hallucinogenic effects have been widely reported for the past 30 years. Datura contains 3 main toxic alkaloids: atropine, scopolamine and hyoscamine. Consumption of any part of the plant can result in severe anticholinergic toxicity. Clinical symptoms are those seen in atropine poisoning, particularly mydriasis and hallucinations. Children have a special susceptibility to atropine toxicity; even small amount may produce central nervous system manifestations. Hospitalization is required for agitation and combative behavior although symptomatic treatment is usually sufficient. We report a case of acute Datura stramonium intoxication in a 6-year-old boy from Khamis Mushayt, KSA, who presented with restlessness, hallucinations and mydriasis 8 hours after ingesting the seeds of Datura plant. PMID:15756367

Al-Shaikh, Adnan M; Sablay, Zakira M

2005-01-01

325

Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. METHODS: Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings

Mari A Bjornaas; Brita Teige; Knut E Hovda; Oivind Ekeberg; Fridtjof Heyerdahl; Dag Jacobsen

2010-01-01

326

The response to methylene blue in patients with severe hypotension during liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Methylene blue is a useful therapy for catecholamine-resistant vasoplegic shock. Three cases of methylene blue administration for the treatment of catecholamine-resistant hypotension during orthotopic liver transplantation are presented. PMID:22608589

Cheng, Sara S; Berman, Gregory W; Merritt, Glenn R; Hendrickse, Adrian; Fiegel, Matthew J; Teitelbaum, Isaac; Campsen, Jeffrey; Wachs, Michael; Zimmerman, Michael; Mandell, M Susan

2012-06-01

327

40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide. 721.4090 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N -[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N...

2013-07-01

328

49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials...Requirements for Division 2.3 (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous)...

2012-10-01

329

49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials...Requirements for Division 2.3 (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous)...

2011-10-01

330

Poisoned food, poisoned uniforms, and anthrax: or, how guerillas die in war.  

PubMed

Many people believe that Rhodesia, struggling to maintain minority rule in Africa, used chemical and biological weapons against African guerilla armies in the liberation war. Clothes and food were routinely poisoned, and Rhodesian agents, perhaps in concert with global forces of reaction, caused the largest single outbreak of anthrax in modern times. Oral interviews with traditional healers and Rhodesians' confessional memoirs of the war suggest that deaths by poisoning or disease were not so straightforward, that guerillas and healers and doctors struggled to understand not only what caused death but also what kind of death a poisoned uniform or poisoned boot was. PMID:15484386

White, Luise

2004-01-01

331

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

332

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony  

PubMed Central

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the ponys history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodriguez, M? Jesus; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, Jose; Ruiz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

2007-01-01

333

Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ciguatera is a syndrome occuring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from eating toxic dinoflagellates. Previous research points to the presence of multi...

D. M. Miller

1988-01-01

334

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)|

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

335

Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  

MedlinePLUS

... are warning consumers not to use skin creams, beauty and antiseptic soaps, or lotions that might contain ... DSHS Warns of Mercury Poisoning Linked to Mexican Beauty Cream (includes product photos) California Department of Public ...

336

[Bull's blood as an ancient poison].  

PubMed

Article presents ancient tradition about poisoning with bull's blood and the modern attempts of its explanation. Greek and Roman literary sources are compared with the ancient medical texts. PMID:22010443

Ry?, Anna; Siek, Bart?omiej; Sein Anand, Jacek

2011-01-01

337

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

338

Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ciguatera is a syndrome occurring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from eating toxic dinoflagellates. Previous research points to the presence of mult...

D. L. Miller

1987-01-01

339

Removal of methylene blue by mango seed kernel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of methylene blue onto mango seed kernel particles. The operating variables studied were initial solution pH, temperature, adsorbent mass, initial dye concentration and contact time. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equation and the equilibrium data were found to well represented by Langmuir isotherm equation. The monolayer sorption capacity

K. Vasanth Kumar; A. Kumaran

2005-01-01

340

Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours

Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

1997-01-01

341

Empirical NMR Chemical Shift Correlations for Methyl and Methylene Protons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an internally consistent set of 63 substituent constants developed for use with the Schoolery Relationship to predict the chemical shifts of methylene protons of acyclic compounds. Chemical shift data used in deriving the constants were taken mainly from primary sources of HNMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra. (JN)|

Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates

1984-01-01

342

Pattern Formation in the MethyleneBlue?Glucose System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a systematic study of pattern formation in a thin fluid layer driven by a simple chemical reaction. The hydrodynamic instability arises due to the increase of fluid density in the subsurface layer caused by the O2 oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid with the methylene blue as a catalyst. We also report independent measurements of the kinetics of

A. J. Pons; F. Sagues; M. A. Bees; P. Graae Srensen

2000-01-01

343

Adsorption behavior of methylene blue on carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature on the equilibrium adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using carbon nanotubes was investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using two widely applied isotherms: Langmuir and Freundlich. The results revealed that Langmuir isotherm fit the experimental results well. Kinetic analyses were conducted using pseudo-first and second-order models and the intraparticle diffusion model. The

Yunjin Yao; Feifei Xu; Ming Chen; Zhongxiao Xu; Zhiwen Zhu

2010-01-01

344

Adsorption of methylene blue onto sonicated sepiolite from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to enhance the methylene blue (MB) adsorption of sepiolite by ultrasonic treatment. The natural sepiolite was pretreated by sonication to improve the surface characteristics and enhance the dye uptake capacity. Sonication process resulted in a significant increase in the specific surface area (SSA) of sepiolite. The FTIR spectrum of the sonicated sepiolite indicates

?lknur Kncek; Sava? ?ener

2010-01-01

345

Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by dehydrated peanut hull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are colour organic compounds which can colorize the other substances. These substances usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. To observe the potential feasibility of removing colour, peanut hull as an agricultural by-product was dehydrated with sulphuric acid (DPH) and used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous

Dursun zer; Glbeyi Dursun; Ahmet zer

2007-01-01

346

Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by peat was analyzed. The peat was collected from a peatland at Arroio do Silva Beach, in Santa Catarina state, in the south of Brazil. Adsorption was conducted using varied initial concentrations of the MB solutions and three different temperatures (35, 45 and 60C). An adsorption time of

A. N. Fernandes; C. A. P. Almeida; C. T. B. Menezes; N. A. Debacher; M. M. D. Sierra

2007-01-01

347

Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Methylene Blue Adsorption by Cereal Chaff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of solution temperature and the determination of the kinetic parameters of methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto cereal chaff were performed to understand the adsorption mechanism. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was fitted to the experimental data and found it was good to predict the adsorption behavior using nonlinear regressive method, suggesting that the mechanism may be a chemisorption

Congli Gao; Jiangyan Ma; Xiaotian He; Yuanfeng Wang; Runping Han

2010-01-01

348

Monitoring time and temperature by methylene blue containing polyacrylate film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redox characteristic of methylene blue in polyacrylate film has been investigated for applications in monitoring time and temperature. This monitoring capability is based on a color change from colorless to blue under exposure to air. The oxidation process is controlled by the air diffusion which is affected by the chemical structure of the polyacrylate. The activation energy of diffusion,

Yulia Galagan; Sheng-Hao Hsu; Wei-Fang Su

2010-01-01

349

Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours

Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

1997-01-01

350

Methylene Blue Adsorption on Natural and Modified Clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic methylene blue dye is removed from water by accumulating them on the surface of clay minerals. Clay adsorbents are obtained from kaolinite, montmorillonite and their acid activated forms. The adsorption experiments are carried out in a batch process in environments of different pH, initial dye concentration, amount of clay, interaction time and temperature. Adsorption of dye is best described

Gautam Kumar Sarma; Susmita SenGupta; Krishna G. Bhattacharyya

2011-01-01

351

Beneficial network effects of methylene blue in an amnestic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior cingulate\\/retrosplenial cortex (PCC) hypometabolism is a common feature in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. In rats, PCC hypometabolism induced by mitochondrial dysfunction induces oxidative damage, neurodegeneration and memory deficits. USP methylene blue (MB) is a diaminophenothiazine drug with antioxidant and metabolic-enhancing properties. In rats, MB facilitates memory and prevents neurodegeneration induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. This study tested

Penny D. Riha; Julio C. Rojas; F. Gonzalez-Lima

2011-01-01

352

Reactions of 2-methylene-3-oxoquinuclidine with carbonyl compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of 2-methylene3-oxoquinuclidine with ketones, -diketones, keto esters, and cyano esters was studied. Products of mono- and diaddition of the unsaturated ketone are formed in the presence of catalytic or equimolar amounts of sodium ethoxide, as well as without a catalyst (in the case of -keto esters and -diketones).

V. A. Bondarenko; E. E. Mikhlina; T. Ya. Filipenko; K. F. Turchin; Yu. N. Sheinker; L. N. Yakhontov

1981-01-01

353

Methylene blue photoinactivation abolishes West Nile virus infectivity in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) infections and associated morbidity has accelerated in recent years. Of particular concern is the recent demonstration that this virus can be transmitted by blood products and can cause severe illness and mortality in transfusion recipients. We have evaluated methylene blue (MB)+light as a safe and cost-effective means to inactivate WNV in vitro. This

James F. Papin; Robert A. Floyd; Dirk P. Dittmer

2005-01-01

354

Photodegradation of methylene blue dye using bentonite as a catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involves removal of methylene blue (MB) dye using the photodegradation process. Raw and activated bentonite has been considered as a photo-catalyst. Generally, complete removal of MB by bentonite alone or UV-radiation alone could not be achieved, as demonstrated in this study. However, MB could be successfully decolorized and degraded when using the UV and bentonite combination. Use of

Fawzi Banat; Sameer Al-Asheh; Rwaida Zomaout; Belal Qtaishat; Taghreed Alateat; Salam Almayta

2009-01-01

355

Cation exchange resins as pharmaceutical carriers for methylene blue: Binding and release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue is a competitive inhibitor of the glutathione reductase of Plasmodium falciparum and is used in combination with other antimalarial drugs leading to a renaissance of methylene blue in malaria therapy. Its bitter flavour and tissue colouring property impair compliance, especially in children. These problems may be solved by binding the cationic methylene blue to cation exchange materials as

Felix Gut; Wolfgang Schiek; Walter E. Haefeli; Ingeborg Walter-Sack; Jrgen Burhenne

2008-01-01

356

Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively reviewed poisoning admissions to all government health facilities from 1999 to 2001, in an effort to expand our current knowledge on poisoning in Malaysia to a level that better reflects a nationwide burden. There were 21 714 admissions reported with 779 deaths. The case-fatality rate was 35.88\\/1000 admissions. The majority of admissions (89.7%) and deaths (98.9%) occurred in

R. Rajasuriar; R. Awang; S. B. H. Hashim; H. R. B. H. Rahmat

2007-01-01

357

History of USDA poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research on poisonous plants was instituted by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as a result of serious livestock poisoning by plants as the pioneers moved west in the mid-to-late 1800s and early 1900s. Historical records indicate the USDA began poisonous plant research in 1894 under the direction of Mr. V. K. Chestnut, a botanist (Table 1 briefly summarizes those who have directed poisonous plant research from the inception to the present). Mr. Chestnut's responsibility (1894-1904) was primarily administrative, although he did extensive field work in Washington and Montana. Temporary field stations were set up to study specific poisonous plant problems. These included field stations at Hugo and Woodland Park, Colorado, and Imperial, Nebraska (1905-1909), to study locoweed; Gunnison, Colorado (1910-1912), to primarily study larkspur; and Greycliff, Montana (1912-1915), to study the poisonous plants of the Yellowstone Valley. Dr. Rodney True replaced Mr. Chestnut in 1904 and in 1905 hired Dr. C. D. Marsh (1905-1930) to establish the temporary field stations listed above. In 1915 a permanent facility was established at Salina, Utah, under the direction of C. D. Marsh who remained in charge until 1930 when he retired; he was followed by A. B. Clawson until 1937 when Dr. Ward Huffman was placed in charge. Research on poisonous plants was located at the Salina Experiment Station until 1955 when the station was closed and the laboratory moved to the campus of Utah State Agricultural College at Logan, Utah, where it is currently located. Dr. Wayne Binns was hired as the director of the laboratory in 1954 and retired in 1972. In 1972 Dr. Lynn F. James, who joined the PRPL staff in July 1957, was appointed as Research Leader and presently directs the research at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. PMID:10091124

James, L F

1999-02-01

358

Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:1567533

Allen, H

1992-03-01

359

Ciguatera fish poisoning--Texas, 1997.  

PubMed

On October 21, 1997, the Southeast Texas Poison Center was contacted by a local physician requesting information about treatment for crew members of a cargo ship docked in Freeport, Texas, who were ill with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle weakness. This report summarizes an investigation of this outbreak by the Texas Department of Health (TDH), which indicated that 17 crew members experienced ciguatera fish poisoning resulting from eating a contaminated barracuda. PMID:9733416

1998-08-28

360

Chronic neurological sequelae to organophosphate pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This work was undertaken to determine whether there are any chronic neurological sequelae to acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. METHODS. California surveillance data were used in a study of neurological function among 128 men poisoned by organophosphate pesticides in California from 1982 to 1990 and 90 referents. Tests included a neurological physical examination, 5 nerve conduction tests, 2 vibrotactile sensitivity tests, 10 neurobehavioral tests, and 1 postural sway test. RESULTS. After correcting for confounding, the poisoned group performed significantly worse than the referent group on two neurobehavioral tests (sustained visual attention and mood scales). When the data were restricted to men with documented cholinesterase inhibition (n = 83) or to men who had been hospitalized (n = 36), the poisoned subjects also showed significantly worse vibrotactile sensitivity of finger and toe. Significant trends of increased impairment were found with increased days of disability on a wide spectrum of tests of both central and peripheral nerve function. CONCLUSIONS. While these findings are limited by low response rates and by small sample sizes for specific pesticides, this study was based on a large surveillance database and is the largest study to date of the chronic effects of organophosphate pesticide poisoning. The evidence of some long-term effects of poisoning is consistent with two prior studies.

Steenland, K; Jenkins, B; Ames, R G; O'Malley, M; Chrislip, D; Russo, J

1994-01-01

361

Childhood and adolescence poisoning in NSW, Australia: an analysis of age, sex, geographic, and poison types  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate whether there is any association between the types of poison substances and geographic locations for different age groups and sex. Design: This is a population based epidemiological study utilising routinely collected inpatient statistics. Setting: Data are collected as part of the routine vital health information system via all hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Patients: All patients aged between 019 years who were admitted to a hospital because of poisoning by the four major types of substances that were defined in the study in NSW in 2000. Main results: The standardised incidence ratios of poisoning related hospitalisation between metropolitan and rural areas varied across different poison types when compared with the NSW average. While there are few differences between metropolitan and rural areas for analgesic and chemical related poisoning admissions across different age groups and sex, differences in the standardised incidence ratios between geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning admissions were found. No significant difference in standardised mortality ratios were found between metropolitan and rural areas except for females in the 1014 years age group (standardised mortality ratio 3.24, 95% confidence interval 1.69 to 6.21). Conclusions: The results obtained in this study, on the whole, provide some evidence for an association between poison types and geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning.

Lam, L

2003-01-01

362

Toxicology of Poison Oak (Rhus toxicodendron) and Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans) Extracts in the Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to determine the toxicity of extracts of poison ivy, poison oak, and a polyethylene glycol vehicle (Carbowax R) when given orally to rats. Throughout a seven-month study four groups of rats (N=15) were administered the follo...

C. W. Waller I. W. Waters

1974-01-01

363

Methylene Blue Reduced Abnormal Tau Accumulation in P301L Tau Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

In neurodegenerative disorders, abnormally hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau accumulates intracellularly, a mechanism which is thought to induce neuronal cell death. Methylene blue, a type of phenothiazine, has been reported to inhibit tau aggregation in vitro. However, the effect of methylene blue in vivo has remained unknown. Therefore, we examined whether methylene blue suppresses abnormal tau accumulation using P301L tau transgenic mice. At 8 to 11 months of age, these mice were orally administered methylene blue for 5 months. Subsequent results of Western blotting analysis revealed that this agent reduced detergent-insoluble phospho-tau. Methylene blue may have potential as a drug candidate for the treatment of tauopathy.

Hosokawa, Masato; Arai, Tetsuaki; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Nonaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Makiko; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Masato

2012-01-01

364

The utility of poison control centres in diagnosing and managing cases of poisoning and overdose.  

PubMed

The practice of establishing poison control centres is yet to catch on in a big way in India, even though most developed countries have this concept well in place. This has helped these countries in diagnosing and managing cases of poisoning and overdose much more effectively, thereby bringing down the morbidity and mortality, while India lags far behind with a staggering mortality rate, much of which is because of lack of access to latest methodologies of diagnosing and managing poisoning, as also the lack of facility to analyse body fluids and other samples for the presence and/or concentration of the toxic agent or its metabolites. Establishing properly equipped and staffed poison control centres would constitute a major step in ameliorating the situation, as exemplified by the Cochin (Kerala) experience, which has a fully equipped poison control centre in a major hospital that is recognised by the World Health Organisation. PMID:21043354

Pillay, V V

2010-03-01

365

Blood and tissue concentration of cesium after exposure to cesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Complementary alternative medicine therapies based on the use of cesium chloride preparations for the treatment of cancer\\u000a and radiation poisoning, have generated therapeutic interest; but oral or intravenous administration of cesium chloride (CsCl)\\u000a to cancer patients as an alternative mode of cancer therapy have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration\\u000a (FDA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective: Cesium (Cs) levels

Jos A. Centeno; Joseph P. Pestaner; Bennet I. Omalu; Norca L. Torres; Frances Field; Glenn Wagner; Florabel G. Mullick

2003-01-01

366

Acute pesticides poisonings in pregnant women.  

PubMed

44 pregnant women were treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology in years 1986-1996 as a result of acute poisonings with different xenobiotics. Acute pesticide poisoning that involved 4 cases were always severe and had dramatic clinical course. Carbofuran intoxication stated in a 17-year-old woman (18 weeks of pregnancy) resulted in fetus death. Toxicological findings revealed that the level of the poison in the mothers blood was comparable to that in the fetus. Carbofuran evidently passed the placental barrier in concentration which was sufficient to cause the fetus death. In the second woman (20-year-old, 12 weeks pregnant) who was classified as severely poisoned on admission to the clinic a spontaneous abortion was stated on 27th day after poisoning. The highest level of carbofuran in the blood of the mother was 9.71 micrograms/g. A 30-year-old woman, 10 weeks pregnant took formothion (50 ml) per vaginam in order to provoke abortion. She was classified as moderately poisoned. Gynecological examination and ultrasonography confirmed the pregnancy. The fetus heart tones were audible. The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 days at her own request in a good general condition. The concentration of formothion in washings from vagina was similar to the levels observed in blood serum on the patient admission to the Clinic, and 24 hour later. A 21-year-old woman, 5 month pregnant ingested an unknown amount of endosulfan to provoke abortion. Gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasonography revealed longitudinal pelvic presentation of fetus. Neither fetal movement nor heart tones were audible as early as four hours after the clinical symptoms occurred. Such low concentration of endosulfan in the blood of the mother as 0.47 microgram/g of the poison caused relatively quick fetus death. The highest levels of endosulfan were found in the liver and in the fetus kidneys. PMID:9478098

Sancewicz-Pach, K; Groszek, B; Pach, D; K?ys, M

1997-01-01

367

On the efficiency of methylene blue versus persulfate catalysis of polyacrylamide gels, as investigated by capillary zone electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a novel method of photopolymerization, based on photoinitiating the reaction with methylene blue (MB), in presence of a redox couple (sodium toluenesulfinate and diphenyliodonium chloride), vs, the conventional persulfate--N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine redox couple was investigated as a function of different effectors in solution. Oxygen dissolved in the gelling mixture strongly quenches persulfate catalysis, while leaving essentially unaltered the process initiated by photopolymerization. On the contrary, the presence of 8 M urea substantially accelerates a persulfate-driven reaction, boosting the conversion of monomers to near completion (> 98%) while leaving the photopolymerization process largely unaffected. Polyacrylamide polymerization has also been performed in a number of hydroorganic solvents (all in a 50:50 v/v ratio): dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), tetramethylurea, formamide and dimethylformamide. In all cases, the persulfate-catalyzed reaction was strongly quenched and even completely inhibited (in DMSO), whereas the photopolymerization process was essentially unaffected by any of these organic solvents. The reaction kinetics of the methylene blue-driven reaction could not be ameliorated when admixing an anionic dye (e.g., eosin Y) to the cationic MB, even when amply changing their molar ratios. Thus, it appears that photocatalysis with MB (and the redox couple sodium toluene-sulfinate and diphenyliodonium chloride) is a unique process, proceeding at optimum rate under the most adverse conditions, completely insensitive to any kind of positive and negative effectors and able to ensure at least 95% monomer conversion under the standard conditions of 1 h reaction time at room temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8125068

Caglio, S; Righetti, P G

1993-10-01

368

Kinetics and mechanism of color removal of methylene blue with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by some supported alumina surfaces.  

PubMed

The catalyzed kinetics of the oxidative mineralization of the cationic dye methylene blue, phenothiazonium, 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)-chloride, with hydrogen peroxide were studied both in buffered and unbuffered solutions. The supported alumina catalysts used were in the form of copper(II), cobalt(II), manganese(II), and nickel(II)-ions. Also, some copper(II)-complexes were used, e.g. copper(II)-ammine ([Cu(amm)4]2+), copper(II)-ethylenediamine ([Cu(en)2]2+) and copper(II)-monoethanolamine ([Cu(mea)2]2+). The reaction is first order with respect to methylene blue. On the other hand, the order with respect to hydrogen peroxide is concentration range dependent. This range depends strongly on the catalyst used. At lower [H2O2], the order was 1 which then decreases with increasing [H2O2] passing through 0 at the maximum rate and finally becomes negative. This phenomenon is parallel to the formation of a colored intermediate on the surface of the catalyst. This suggests that the intermediate has an inhibiting effect on the rate of color removal. Moreover, the rate of the reaction was found to be strongly dependent on the pH of the solution and its ionic strength. It increases with increasing both pH and the concentration of added potassium chloride. Also, the rate of reaction is inhibited in presence of sodium dodecylsulfate anionic surfactant. The repeated use of the different catalysts showed that their catalytic activities are almost unaffected. A reaction mechanism was proposed with the formation of free radicals as reactive intermediates. PMID:10901243

Salem, I A; El-Maazawi, M S

2000-10-01

369

Uptake and therapeutic effectiveness of /sup 125/I- and /sup 211/At-methylene blue for pigmented melanoma in an animal model system  

SciTech Connect

The investigations concerning a targeted radiotherapy for pigmented melanoma with a radiolabeled phenothiazine derivative, 3,7-(dimethylamino)phenazathionium chloride (methylene blue (MTB)), were continued using melanotic and amelanotic sublines of B16 melanoma. Two radionuclides, 125I and 211At, emitting Auger electrons and alpha particles, respectively, replaced 35S previously studied since their biological effectiveness is significantly higher. In vitro autoradiography revealed a selective accumulation of methylene blue labeled with either of the radioisotopes in pigmented melanoma cells but its absence in nonpigmented cells. Treatments with (125I)MTB and (211At)MTB were performed both in vitro and in vivo, with their effectiveness determined by lung clonogenic assay. (125I)MTB proved to be relatively ineffective when incorporated into melanosomes distributed in the cytoplasm, i.e., too far away from the genome. Conspicuous therapeutic effects were achieved with (211At)MTB for pigmented melanoma only. 211At itself did not affect either of the investigated sublines of B16 melanoma confirming once again the high affinity of methylene blue to melanin. Calculations of cumulative radiation doses from (211At)MTB deposited in melanotic melanoma tumors and pigmented normal organs which would be at a particular risk led to the conclusion that (211At)MTB could be used for a highly selective and very efficient targeted radiotherapy of pigmented melanomas without damaging normal tissues.

Link, E.M.; Brown, I.; Carpenter, R.N.; Mitchell, J.S.

1989-08-01

370

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

371

Illiteracy: a contributing factor to poisoning.  

PubMed

It is estimated that over 60 million Americans (1/3 of the adult population) are functionally or marginally illiterate. To recognize and gain an understanding of illiteracy and its impact on poisoning, we determined if the illiterate in our community could recognize potential poisons. A prospective study involving 29 male and 21 female adult illiterates was undertaken. A personal interview was conducted to determine their ability to purchase medication and household products, their understanding of the uses and associated dangers of medications, and their manner of storage of these products in their homes. Of the participants, 66% were at reading levels of 0-3rd grade and 34% were at 3rd through 6th grade reading level. Each participant was shown 3 separate products and asked to distinguish and interpret caution statements and directions. In the 0-3rd grade group, 30% were unable to identify any of the products and none could explain the cautions or directions. In the second group (3rd-6th grade), all were able to identify the products and 76% could explain the cautions; everyone in this group correctly read the directions. We concluded that a large percentage of the adult population are potential poisoning victims due to their inability to read and comprehend label instructions. Poison Centers should recognize illiteracy as a contributing factor in poisonings and consider education and prevention programs for this segment of our population. PMID:8249274

Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

1993-10-01

372

Unusual case of methanol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

1993-01-09

373

New diphosphonate compounds for skeletal imaging: comparison with methylene diphosphonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-hour biodistribution of Tc-99m complexes of six diphosphonates was compared in rabbits with tibial lesions to determine which was best for detection of focal bone lesions. Sr-85 was used as a standard. N,N-dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate (DMAD) was the only agent with a higher lesion\\/normal bone ratio than methylene diphosphonate (MDP), attributable to lower concentration in normal bone. Hydroxymethane diphosphonate (HDP) and

G. Subramanian; J. G. McAfee; F. D. Thomas; T. A. Feld; C. Zapf-Longo; E. Palladino

1983-01-01

374

Methylene Blue Provides Behavioral and Metabolic Neuroprotection Against Optic Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue (MB) is a diaminophenothiazine with potent antioxidant and unique redox properties that prevent morphologic\\u000a degenerative changes in the mouse retina induced by rotenone, a specific mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. This study evaluated\\u000a pigmented rats to determine whether MBs neuroprotective effects against rotenone-mediated retinal neurotoxicity have functional\\u000a relevance and whether these effects are mediated by an improvement in neuronal

Julio C. Rojas; Joseph M. John; Jung Lee; F. Gonzalez-Lima

2009-01-01

375

METHYLENE BLUE SORPTION CAPACITY OF SOME COMMON WASTE PLANT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey tree and peepul leaves showed tremendous potential in sorbing methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution, with qmax values of 417 and 402mgg, respectively. But other tested biomass had considerably lower qmax (mgg): mango leaves (301), guava leaves (295), black gram husk (278), coir fibers (273), neem leaves (265), Indian elm leaves (264), Indian rosewood leaves (253), bermuda grass clippings

Manoj Kumar; Dhananjay Kumar; Lalit K. Pandey; J. P. Gaur

2010-01-01

376

Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene oxide (GO) is a highly effective absorbent of methylene blue (MB) and can be used to remove MB from aqueous solution. A huge absorption capacity of 714mg\\/g is observed. At initial MB concentrations lower than 250mg\\/L, the removal efficiency is higher than 99% and the solution can be decolorized to nearly colorless. The removal process is fast and more

Sheng-Tao Yang; Sheng Chen; Yanli Chang; Aoneng Cao; Yuanfang Liu; Haifang Wang

2011-01-01

377

Early detection of melanoma metastases with radioiodinated methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Melanin synthesised in melanoma cells presents a unique target to which the treatment can be selectively addressed, provided\\u000a the pigment is recognised by a suitable drug. Methylene blue (MTB) possesses a high affinity for melanin and, therefore, accumulates\\u000a preferentially in melanoma cells. Since not directly toxic to the tumour, MTB serves as a carrier for radioisotopes and, once\\u000a taken

E. M. Link; P. J. Blower; D. C. Costa; D. Lui; R. S. D. Brown; P. J. Ell; M. F. Spittle

1998-01-01

378

Prevalence of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism in South Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations in South Indian population was investigated from a total of 608 samples, 420 adults and 188 newborns. Detection of mutation was carried out focussing on the two most common mutations of the MTHFR gene (C677T and A1298C) using PCR- based RFLP method. T-allele frequency was almost simi- lar between the newborns and

A. Radha; Rama Devi; V. Govindaiah; G. Ramakrishna; S. M. Naushad

379

Methylene blue prevents neurodegeneration caused by rotenone in the retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental optic neuropathy model was used to test the hypothesis that methylene blue may protect the retinal ganglion\\u000a cell layer from neurodegeneration caused by rotenone. Rotenone is a widely used pesticide that inhibits complex I, the first\\u000a enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Complex I dysfunction is linked to the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells\\u000a in Lebers optic neuropathy.

Xian Zhang; Julio C. Rojas; F. Gonzalez-Lima

2006-01-01

380

ANXIOLYTIC AND ANTIDEPRESSANT PROPERTIES OF METHYLENE BLUE IN ANIMAL MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue (MB) has been intermittently used in manic depressive illness over the past century. However, to our knowledge, it has not been studied in the behavioural animal models. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the intravenous (i.v.) administration of MB in a dose range of 1.8760 mg kg?1would affect the performance of rats in the elevated plus-maze

L. EROGLU; B. AGLAYAN

1997-01-01

381

Degradation of methylene blue under multibubble sonoluminescence condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue (MB) is one of typical textile dyestuffs that cannot be degraded by a conventional method such as biological treatment. In this study, degradation of MB in aqueous solution under ultrasonic field at the multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) condition was tried for the first time. At the optimum condition of MBSL, 0.1mM MB solution was degraded completely within 30min, which

Ki-Taek Byun; Ho-Young Kwak

2005-01-01

382

Photocatalytic degradation pathway of methylene blue in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TiO2\\/UV photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) has been investigated in aqueous heterogeneous suspensions. In addition to a prompt removal of the color, TiO2\\/UV-based photocatalysis was simultaneously able to oxidize the dye, with an almost complete mineralization of carbon and of nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms into CO2, NH4+, NO3? and SO42?, respectively. A detailed degradation pathway has been determined

Ammar Houas; Hinda Lachheb; Mohamed Ksibi; Elimame Elaloui; Chantal Guillard; Jean-Marie Herrmann

2001-01-01

383

Methylene Blue Interactions with Reduced-Charge Smectites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to prepare series of reduced-charge materials from different parent Li-saturated dioctahedral smectites, to investigate the effects of temperature, chemical composition and charge location in smectites on the charge reduction and to characterize reduced-charge smectites (RCSs) using methylene blue (MB) adsorption. The layer charge decrease, induced by Li fixation, is correlated with the trends in

Juraj Bujdk; JANA MADEJOVA; PETER KOMADEL

2001-01-01

384

Batch kinetic study of sorption of methylene blue by perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch sorption kinetics of methylene blue by perlite have been studied in terms of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that sorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The correlation coefficients, r2, obtained from pseudo-second-order model were higher than 0.98 under all the experiment conditions. The effects of agitation speed, initial dye concentration and solution

Bilal Acemio?lu

2005-01-01

385

Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution onto Perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutionsonto unexpanded and expanded perlite samples activatedby H2SO4 and NaCl solutions has beeninvestigated, to assess the possibility of usingperlite for removing cationic dyes from aqueoussolutions. The effects of pH and temperature of dyesolution on the adsorption capacities have beenevaluated. The experimental data were correlatedreasonably well by the Langmuir adsorption isothermand the isotherm parameters (Qm

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan; Yavuz Onganer

2000-01-01

386

Methylene blue and the neurotoxic mechanisms of ifosfamide encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cancer chemotherapy with ifosfamide the occurrence of a drug-related encephalopathy represents a severe adverse-effect\\u000a of unknown origin. We found that the underlying mechanism resides in the mitochondrial toxicity of ifosfamide metabolites.\\u000a The electron accepting drug methylene blue can substitute for the demonstrated flavoprotein deficiency and its administration\\u000a leads to resolution of the encephalopathy in patients. The prophylactic administration of

A. Kpfer; C. Aeschlimann; T. Cerny

1996-01-01

387

Monitoring Vinyl Chloride Around Polyvinyl Chloride Fabrication Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to measure vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride fabrication plants was carried out. Four charcoal collectors were stationed around each of five PVC fabrication plants. 24-hour samples were collected daily for 14 days around each plan...

1975-01-01

388

Preparation of Anhydrous Magnesium Chloride from Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was proposed for the preparation of high-purity anhydrous magnesium chloride by using magnesium chloride hexahydrate and ammonium chloride as raw materials, and alumina as covering agent. X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the process. The mechanism involved in the process was proposed. The factors affecting the purity of anhydrous magnesium chloride were investigated. Dehydrated ammonium carnallite was formed in the process to facilitate the dehydration process. Alumina as covering agent can guarantee that the formation of high-purity anhydrous magnesium chloride was obtained. The content of magnesia in anhydrous magnesium chloride was 0.02 pct under the optimum conditions: molar ratio of ammonium chloride to dehydrated magnesium chloride was 2:1, thickness of alumina 1.3 cm, reaction temperature 723 K (450 C), reaction time 1 hour, and the number of crystallized water 0.6 to 2.2.

Zhang, Zhimin; Lu, Xuchen; Pan, Feng; Wang, Yun; Yang, Suping

2013-04-01

389

Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

Not Available

1991-03-29

390

Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 1980-2008  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Brief Number 81, December 2011 Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 19802008 On This ... File Poisoning is now the leading cause of death from injuries in the United States and nearly ...

391

14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137...dispense or cause to be dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered...person dispensing economic poisons for experimental purposes under (1) The...

2013-01-01

392

FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 7 - Poisonous or Toxic ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 7 - Poisonous or Toxic Materials. ... Pf. Container Prohibitions. 7-203.11 Poisonous or Toxic Material Containers. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

393

Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its direction and oversee activities. Methods The panel will consist of 4 presenters and 1 moderator, who are members of the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP leadership team. Each presenter will bring a unique perspective of the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance: CDC, state department of health, a local department of health, and a PC. Royal Law from the CDC National Center for Environmental Health will present on using PC data for identification of exposures and illnesses of public health significance identified from NPDS data collected from all 57 PCs. Dr. Jay Schauben from the Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville will discuss PC participation in surveillance and use of PC data for tracking and mitigation of PH events in Florida. Dr. Prakash Mulay from the Florida Department of Health will discuss utilization of PC data to enhance ESSENCE-based chemical-associated exposure and illness surveillance in Florida. Katherine Wheeler from the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will discuss NYCs use of PC data in surveillance of potential emerging issues, from energy drinks to synthetic marijuana. Each presenter will discuss the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance in his or her organization and jurisdiction, the successes of using PC data, and their challenges. Results The moderator will engage the audience by facilitating discussion of the successes and challenges to using PC data for PH practice and surveillance with the audience. Sample questions: What are your current capacities and collaborative activities between your state/local health department and your poison center? What non-funding related barriers hinder the collaboration between your state/local health department and poison center? If more funding were available, how would you use this funding to increase the level of interactivity with the poison center and state/local health department?

Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

2013-01-01

394

Electrophysiological studies in acute organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological studies in suicidal patients with organophosphate poisoning are reported. Patients often developed muscular weakness of variable severity owing to diplorisation block at nicotinic receptors. During such paralysis nerve conduction velocity and distal latencies were normal even in severely paralysed patients. The amplitude of the compound action potential was smaller than in controls and often showed a repetitive response. The amplitude tended to be lower in those more severely affected. On repetitive stimulation there was usually no decrement with three stimuli per second and only occasional decrement at 10 per second. At 30 Hz several cases showed a decrement even in the absence of paralysis. This response to repetitive stimuli is thus quite distinct from that seen in either myasthenia or Eaton Lambert syndrome. On three occasions after poisoning with dichlorovos there was first anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning and later delayed neurotoxicity as seen with triorthocresylphosphate. These cases showed all the features of a severe pure motor axonal degeneration neuropathy.

Wadia, R S; Chitra, S; Amin, R B; Kiwalkar, R S; Sardesai, H V

1987-01-01

395

Lead poisoning: more than a medical problem  

SciTech Connect

Medical records of 236 Newark, New Jersey children hospitalized and chelated for lead poisoning in 1977 through 1980 were reviewed to determine whether or not any discernible progress had been made in eradicating the disease since 1972. Results show that the number of treated asymptomatic children, ages 1-6, began to rise after 1976 and was higher in 1980 than in 1972 when the Newark Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control Program first began. Although mean and peak blood lead levels have decreased over the nine-year period since 1972, signaling a lessening of disease severity, the increase in numbers and rats indicates that childhood lead poisoning still exists as an environmental and social problem.

Schneider, D.J.; Lavenhar, M.A.

1986-03-01

396

A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L. J.

1994-01-01

397

Secondary phorate poisoning of large carnivores in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India, with its huge human population and fragmented wildlife habitat, is plagued with humananimal conflicts. In conflict\\u000a areas, large carnivores are often primary targets for malicious poisoning. The effects of certain poisons do not stop with\\u000a the target animal but also affects other species of wildlife in the form of secondary poisoning. This paper describes incidences\\u000a of secondary poisoning of

Nallusamy Kalaivanan; Ragothaman Venkataramanan; Chirukandoth Sreekumar; Alagarsamy Saravanan; Rajeev K. Srivastava

2011-01-01

398

Preparation of anhydrous magnesium chloride from ammonium magnesium chloride hexahydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride hydrate can be dehydrated to some extent by heating. However, it is not possible to fully dehydrate magnesium chloride by heating in air because of hydrolytic decomposition. Accordingly, the dehydration should be carried out in hydrogen chloride gas atmosphere. However, this process causes many problems, including HCl gas storage and corrosive nature, consuming a large amount of HCl

Hyoung-Choon Eom; Ho-Sung Yoon

2010-01-01

399

The NADP-Dependent Methylene Tetrahydromethanopterin Dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1  

PubMed Central

An NADP-dependent methylene tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) dehydrogenase has recently been proposed to be involved in formaldehyde oxidation to CO2 in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. We report here on the purification of this novel enzyme to apparent homogeneity. Via the N-terminal amino acid sequence, it was identified to be the mtdA gene product. The purified enzyme catalyzed the dehydrogenation of methylene H4MPT with NADP+ rather than with NAD+, with a specific activity of approximately 400 U/mg of protein. It also catalyzed the dehydrogenation of methylene tetrahydrofolate (methylene H4F) with NADP+. With methylene H4F as the substrate, however, the specific activity (26 U/mg) and the catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) were approximately 20-fold lower than with methylene H4MPT. Whereas the dehydrogenation of methylene H4MPT (E0 = ?390 mV) with NADP+ (E0 = ?320 mV) proceeded essentially irreversibly, the dehydrogenation of methylene H4F (E0 = ?300 mV) was fully reversible. Comparison of the primary structure of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenase from M. extorquens AM1 with those of methylene H4F dehydrogenases from other bacteria and eucarya and with those of methylene H4MPT dehydrogenases from methanogenic archaea revealed only marginally significant similarity (<15%).

Vorholt, Julia A.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

1998-01-01

400

PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

401

Lithium thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

1982-10-19

402

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

403

THEORY OF RADIOACTIVE POISONING BY MILITARY ATOMIC TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>The poisoning which occurs during the continuation of atomic tests is ; distinguished from that occurring later. The earth and body poisoning and the ; quantity of radiation causing poisoning of critical organs are calculated. The ; calculation is simplified by the assumption that during the tests the fall-out is ; continuous. With umlimited continuation of atomic tests, earth and

Bechert

1958-01-01

404

Occupational lead poisoning in Ohio: surveillance using worker's compensation data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the utility of workers' compensation (WC) data in a system for the surveillance of occupational lead poisoning, we reviewed workers' compensation claims for lead poisoning in Ohio. For the period 1979 through 1983, 92(81 per cent) of the 114 claims attributed to lead met our case definition of lead poisoning. The likelihood that a company had a case

P. J. Seligman; W. E. Halperin; R. J. Mullan; T. M. Frazier

1986-01-01

405

Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead

S Mohammadi; AH Mehrparvar; M Aghilinejad

2008-01-01

406

Prevalence of autonomic signs and symptoms in antimuscarinic drug poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classically described antimuscarinic poisoning signs and symptoms include mydriasis, decreased secretions, ileus, urinary retention, hyperthermia, tachycardia, and altered mental status. These features may be used clinically to assist in the diagnosis of patients with unknown poisonings. We sought to analyze the prevalence of antimuscarinic physical examination findings in evaluating patients presenting with acute poisoning from antimuscarinic agents. We conducted a

Raj J Patel; Tim Saylor; Saralyn R Williams; Richard F Clark

2004-01-01

407

Tactile Vibration Thresholds after Acute Poisonings with Organophosphate Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the association between acute poi- soning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and quan- titative tactile vibration thresholds. Thresholds of the dominant index fingers and big toes of 56 men hospital- ized for acute poisoning with OPs were measured at hos- pital discharge (1-24 days after poisoning) and around seven weeks later (24-176 days after poisoning), and com- pared

JAMILETTE MIRANDA; ROB MCCONNELL; EDGAR DELGADO; RICARDO CUADRA; MATTHEW KEIFER; CATHARINA WESSELING; EDMUNDO TORRES; INGVAR LUNDBERG

408

Experience with soluble neutron poisons for criticality control at ICPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble neutron poisons assure criticality control in two of the headend fuel reprocessing systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Soluble poisons have been used successfully since 1964 and will be employed in the projected new headend processes. The use of soluble poisons (1) greatly increases the process output (2) allows versatility in the size of fuel assemblies processed and

R. E. Wilson; S. R. Mortimer

1978-01-01

409

Chronic Neurological Sequelae of Acute Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the latent neurological effects of organophosphate pesticide poisoning, this epidemiologic study examined 100 matched-pairs of individuals with previous acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning and nonpoisoned controls. No significant difference between poisoned subjects and controls was found on audiometric tests, ophthalmic tests, electroencephalograms, or the clinical serum and blood chemistry evaluations. Of the more than 50 scores from the neurological

Eldon P. Savage; Thomas J. Keefe; Lawrence M. Mounce; Robert K. Heaton; James A. Lewis; Patricia J. Burcar

1988-01-01

410

Thallium poisoning: emphasis on early diagnosis and response to haemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallium poisoning is known for its diverse manifestations and these can delay the diagnosis if a clear history of poisoning is not forthcoming. A 42 year old man presented on the third day of illness with flaccid quadriparesis and paresthesia, which were confused with Guillain-Barre? syndrome. Because of associated loose motions, skin lesions, and liver and kidney dysfunction arsenic poisoning

U K Misra; J Kalita; R K Yadav; P Ranjan

2003-01-01

411

78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

2013-03-20

412

The many faces of methylmercury poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

Elhassani, S.B.

1982-10-01

413

Observation unit experience for pediatric poison exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundShort-Stay Emergency Department Observation Units (OU) are an alternative to hospitalization, but data on OU care of pediatric\\u000a poisoning exposures is limited. We report the experience of a pediatric OU with this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the charts of children with poison exposure admitted to a pediatric OU during a 30-month period.\\u000a Data was collected pertaining to demographics, type of

Diane P. Calello; Elizabeth R. Alpern; Maureen McDaniel-Yakscoe; Brianna L. Garrett; Kathy N. Shaw; Kevin C. Osterhoudt

2009-01-01

414

Emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus.  

PubMed

Symptoms of acute food poisoning developed in eight members of a group who ate lunch at a cafeteria. After brief incubation periods, all affected individuals complained of nausea and abdominal cramps. Four persons promptly experienced vomiting. None of those affected was found to have fever and all recovered with 48 hours. Epidemiologic investigation incriminated macaroni and cheese as a cause of the illness and samples of this food contained large numbers of Bacillus cereus. Previous outbreaks of B cereus emetic food poisoning have been associated with consumption of contaminated fried rice and may occur after ingestion of other foods. PMID:6786233

Holmes, J R; Plunkett, T; Pate, P; Roper, W L; Alexander, W J

1981-05-01

415

Kerosene poisoning in children in Iraq.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and three children with kerosene poisoning were studied. The majority of the patients were under five years of age and included a newborn baby. More patients were seen in spring and fewer in winter months. Most of the patients were children of poor families living in overcrowded conditions. Negligence and ignorance were the main causes of poisoning. Respiratory and central nervous systems were mainly involved. Chest X-ray abnormalities were frequently seen. The patients were treated symptomatically. Only one patient died, he had been in a coma on admission to the hospital. All other patients had rapid and complete recoveries.

Nagi, N. A.; Abdulallah, Z. A.

1995-01-01

416

Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs), but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related

Hsin-Ling Lee; Hung-Jung Lin; Steve Ting-Yuan Yeh; Chih-Hsien Chi; How-Ran Guo

2008-01-01

417

Chloride removal from plutonium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution

1983-01-01

418

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

419

Gas chromatographicmass spectrometric identification and quantitation of benzyl alcohol in serum after derivatization with perfluorooctanoyl chloride: a new derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzyl alcohol is commonly used as an antibacterial agent in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations. Several fatalities in neonates have been linked to benzyl alcohol poisoning. Most methods for measuring benzyl alcohol concentrations in serum utilize direct extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. We describe here a novel derivatization of benzyl alcohol using perfluorooctanoyl chloride after extraction from human serum

Amitava Dasgupta; Peter E Humphrey

1998-01-01

420

Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

2010-10-01

421

Predicting Outcome in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning with a Poison Severity Score or the Glasgow Coma Scale  

PubMed Central

Background: Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning kills around 200,000 people each year, principally due to self poisoning in the Asia-Pacific region. Aim: We wished to assess whether patients at high risk of death could be identified accurately using clinical parameters soon after hospital admission. Design: We evaluated the usefulness of the International Program on Chemical Safety Poison Severity Score (IPCS PSS) and the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) prospectively for predicting death in patients poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides. Methods: Data were collected as part of a multicentre cohort study in Sri Lanka. Study doctors saw all patients on admission, collecting data on pulse, blood pressure, pupil size, need for intubation, and GCS. Results: 1365 patients with a history of acute organophosphorus poisoning were included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the IPCS PSS and GCS on admission. The IPCS PSS and GCS had similar ROC area under the curves (AUC) and best cut points as determined by Youden's index (AUC/sensitivity/specificity 0.81/0.78/0.79 for IPCS PSS ? grade 2 and 0.84/0.79/0.79 for GCS ?13). The predictive value varied with the pesticide ingested, being more accurate for dimethoate poisoning and less accurate for fenthion poisoning (GCS AUC 0.91 compared to 0.69). Conclusions: GCS and the IPCS PSS were similarly effective at predicting outcome. Patients presenting with a GCS ? 13 need intensive monitoring and treatment. However, the identity of the organophosphate must be taken into account since the half of all patients who died from fenthion poisoning only had mild symptoms at presentation.

Davies, James O. J.; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A.

2008-01-01

422

Carbon monoxide poisoning: case studies and review.  

PubMed

This article describes carbon monoxide poisoning. Using a case study approach, the article covers pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and complications. A nursing care plan is presented to guide the critical care nurse in the care of patients in this type of condition. PMID:21983502

Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Zulkosky, Kristen; Fetter, Mary E

423

Dns cache poisoning-the next generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old problem of DNS cache poisoning has again reared its ugly head. While some would argue that the domain name system protocol is inherently vulnerable to this style of attack due to the weakness of 16-bit transaction IDs, we cannot ignore the immediate threat while waiting for something better to come along. There are new attacks, which make DNS

J. Stewart

2003-01-01

424

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-01-01

425

"The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in

Carnevale, Dan

2007-01-01

426

Acute renal dysfunction in acetaminophen poisoning.  

PubMed

Although acetaminophen (APAP)-associated liver injury is well recognized, there are few reports describing APAP nephrotoxicity, and most of them are single cases. It has also been suggested that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), used to treat the hepatotoxicity, may be harmful to the kidneys. To examine this contention and to determine whether renal involvement in APAP poisoning is at all common, we analyzed the incidence and outcome of acute renal dysfunction in patients hospitalized for APAP overdose reported to our regional poison center over a year. Eleven APAP-poisoned patients had elevated liver function tests; nine of them had azotemia. Those with higher AST levels tended to be younger and to have lower APAP levels on admission. Two patients with acute renal injury died after admission. The other seven patients with renal dysfunction recovered in 2 to 7 days. Six of these received NAC; their mean serum creatinine fell from 3.2 +/- 2.0 versus 1.7 +/- 0.9 mg/dL (p < 0.05). We conclude that acute renal failure is not uncommon in APAP poisoning and appears to be unrelated to the degree of liver injury. NAC therapy did not seem to worsen nephrotoxicity. PMID:16060123

Mour, Girish; Feinfeld, Donald A; Caraccio, Thomas; McGuigan, Michael

2005-01-01

427

Management of Beta-Adrenergic Blocker Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta-adrenergic blocking agents or ?-blockers are prescribed for the treatment of a broad array of common disorders. Their widespread use, coupled with a narrow therapeutic index, contributes to their being a significant cause of poisoning from overdose and the second most common cause of mortality from cardiovascular agents. This article provides an overview of beta-adrenergic system pathophysiology and the properties

Angela C. Anderson

2008-01-01

428

49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON placard must be white. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be black. The word TOXIC may be used in lieu of the word POISON....

2010-10-01

429

49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON placard must be white. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be black. The word TOXIC may be used in lieu of the word POISON....

2009-10-01

430

Accidental colchicine poisoning in a dog.  

PubMed

A 14-month-old toy poodle-cross was presented, after ingesting the owner's colchicine medication, with severe gastrointestinal disturbances and in shock. Despite aggressive medical management, the patient was euthanized approximately 24 hours after the ingestion. The clinical features, treatment, and necropsy findings of colchicine poisoning are discussed. PMID:14992256

Wagenaar, Zo

2004-01-01

431

Measurement of Endrin Following Epidemics of Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967, four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha, Qatat and Hofuf, Saudi Arabia. They resulted in the hospitalization of 874 persons and the death of 26 persons. This paper reports o...

A. Curley R. W. Jennings H. T. Mann V. Sedlak

1970-01-01

432

A new cutaneous sign of mercury poisoning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic mercury poisoning is becoming a health concern because of extensive pollution of water and fish, and the increasing consumption of fish in the human diet. Mercury is extremely toxic to the body, especially the central nervous system, but diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific signs. A total of 11 patients were observed to have a nonpruritic

Paul I. Dantzig

2003-01-01

433

Poison Exposure in Children before Passover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Extensive cleaning of homes in Israel before Passover may result in increased exposure of chil- dren to cleaning substances. Objectives: To evaluate the potential danger of Pass- over cleaning to children, and to study the risk factors in order to identify areas for prevention. Methods: All cases of poison exposure in Jewish and Arab children under the age of

Yona Amitai; Yedidia Bentur; Matityahu Lifshitz; Pinhas Fainmesser; David Applebaum; Yehezkel Waisman; Nadine Cohen; Samuel D. Oman

434

Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general

Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

435

Paracetamol poisoning in children and hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed Central

1. Paracetamol is one of the most common drugs that children accidentally ingest. Unlike the situation in adults, death and hepatotoxicity in children from paracetamol poisoning are exceedingly uncommon events. A review of the literature has revealed only seven deaths and fourteen cases of hepatotoxicity in children, with most of the cases resulting from chronic poisoning and not acute poisoning. 2. Children may be less prone to paracetamol hepatotoxicity because of developmental differences in the drug's metabolism and its pathways of detoxification. In the therapeutic setting of treatment of fever and pain in children, paracetamol is regarded as a drug with a higher therapeutic index, and as such, there seems to be little concern with strict adherence to dosage regimes. 3. Scrutiny of the above paediatric cases associated with chronic paracetamol poisoning suggests that the margin of safety of frequent therapeutic doses of paracetamol in infants and young children to be a lot lower than previously appreciated. This review highlights the need to re-evaluate the safety of paracetamol in the context of chronic therapy in infants and young children.

Penna, A; Buchanan, N

1991-01-01

436

Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritis and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the

Jan M. Jones

1984-01-01

437

Bat Mortality: Pesticide Poisoning and Migratory Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in

Kenneth N. Geluso; J. Scott Altenbach; Don E. Wilson

1976-01-01

438

Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.|

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

2004-01-01

439

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses.  

PubMed

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introduced in a small paddock invaded by the plant. The first nervous signs were observed 44 days from the start of grazing. The animal was euthanized on day 59. No significant gross lesions were observed upon necropsies of the experimental horse as well as one spontaneously affected horse. Upon histologic examination neuronal lipofuscinosis was observed in the brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Wallerian-type degeneration was observed on some mesencephalic tracts. Neuronal and axonal degeneration and lipofuscinosis were observed on electron microscopy examination. Indospicine was detected in four samples of I. lespedezioides with concentrations ranging from 63 to 1178 ?g/g whereas nitro toxins could be detected in only one of the samples at a concentration of 2.5 mg/g. In conclusion, poisoning by I. lespedezioides is very similar to those poisonings by Indigofera linnaei and Indigofera hendecaphylla. Based on the preponderance of indospince and lack of nitro toxins in the samples it is proposed that indospicine is the toxic compound responsible for the poisoning. PMID:22560887

Lima, Everton F; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Gardner, Dale R; Barros, Severo S; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Soares, Mauro P; Riet-Correa, Gabriela

2012-04-25

440

A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-03-01

441

Chemistry of animal venoms, poisons and toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic products from animals have attracted steadily increasing interest during the last years. New methods and techniques for isolation, purification and structural analysis of these natural compounds enabled a rapid progress in our knowledge of their chemistry and mode of action. Various toxins and components from venoms and poisons were applied in biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine as valuable tools. This

D. Mebs

1973-01-01

442

Amisulpride poisoning: a report on two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first two observations of human poisoning involving the recently developed neuroleptic amisulpride are described. In both cases drug determination was per formed using reversed-phase HPLC coupled with diode- array detection. Case 1 was a nonfatal overdosage in which the ingestion of 3.0 g amisulpride induced an attack of seizures, then light coma with agitation, hyperthermia, mydriasis, minimal extrapyramidal features,

A. Tracqui; C. Mutter-Schmidt; P. Kintz; C. Berton; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

443

Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning  

PubMed Central

This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of ALL-OUT a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus.

Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish

2013-01-01

444

Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning.  

PubMed

This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of "ALL-OUT" a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus. PMID:23983421

Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish

2013-03-01

445

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

446

Food poisoning by clenbuterol in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the occurrence of four cases of acute food poisoning, involving a total of 50 people, due to the ingestion of lamb and bovine meat containing residues of clenbuterol. Symptoms shown by the intoxicated people may be generally described as gross tremors of the extremities, tachycardia, nausea, headaches and dizziness. Analytical methodology developed for the determination of clenbuterol

Jorge Barbosa; Clara Cruz; Jos Martins; Jos Manuel Silva; Celeste Neves; Carlos Alves; Fernando Ramos; Maria Irene Noronha Da Silveira

2005-01-01

447

Fast and Considerable Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye onto Graphene Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quite efficient adsorption of methylene blue dye from an aqueous solution by graphene oxide was studied. The favorable\\u000a electrostatic attraction is the main interaction between methylene blue and graphene oxide. As graphene oxide has the special\\u000a nanostructural properties and negatively charged surface, the positively charged methylene blue molecules can be easily adsorbed\\u000a on it. In the aqueous solution of

Chunjiao Zhou; Weichang Zhou; Aihua Lei; Qinglin Zhang; Qiang Wan; Bingsuo Zou

2011-01-01

448

Sonocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with TiO 2 pellets in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were carried out to study the degradation of methylene blue by the irradiation of ultrasound onto TiO2 in aqueous solution. A statistically significant decrease in the concentration of methylene blue was observed after 60min irradiation. While the reduction was 22% of the initial concentration without H2O2, addition of H2O2 significantly enhanced the degradation of methylene blue

Nobuaki Shimizu; Chiaki Ogino; Mahmoud Farshbaf Dadjour; Tomoyuki Murata

2007-01-01

449

[A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].  

PubMed

Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls. PMID:17124355

Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina

2006-01-01

450

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

451

Oxomemazine hydro-chloride  

PubMed Central

In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxophenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethylpropanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+Cl?, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothiazine unit is 30.5?(2). In the crystal, the components are linked by NH?Cl and CH?Cl hydrogen bonds and CH?? interactions.

Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

2011-01-01

452

Epidemiology of organomercury poisoning in Iraq  

PubMed Central

A survey was carried out in a defined area in rural Iraq where there had been many cases of organomercury poisoning following the consumption of bread contaminated by mercury, in order to determine the true incidence of the disorder. The results were compared with those obtained from a similar rural area from which few cases had been reported. A questionnaire was used to determine the amount of contaminated bread eaten and the frequency of symptoms; a simple clinical examination was performed and blood and hair samples were collected for estimation of total mercury concentration. Of 700 people over the age of 5 years in the high-exposure area, 66% admitted to having eaten contaminated bread, while none of the 864 persons in the low exposure area had done so. The mean period during which contaminated bread was eaten was 32 days, but some people had eaten it for as long as 3 months. A mean of 121 loaves was eaten, the maximum being 480 loaves. For the mean number of loaves the intake of methylmercury was likely to have been between 80 mg and 250 mg, but the people who had consumed the largest amount of contaminated bread may have ingested up to 1 000 mg of methylmercury over a 3-month period. Of those with signs of alkylmercury poisoning at the time of the survey, 80% had eaten more than 100 loaves, and 53 (71%) out of 75 persons who had eaten more than 200 loaves showed some evidence of poisoning. The incidence rate for poisoning was estimated at 271 per 1 000; this figure includes a mortality rate of 59 per 1 000, 32 per 1 000 cases with severe disability, 41 per 1 000 cases with mild or moderate disability and 138 per 1 000 cases with only subjective evidence of poisoning at the time of the study.

Al-Mufti, A. W.; Copplestone, J. F.; Kazantzis, G.; Mahmoud, R. M.; Majid, M. A.

1976-01-01

453

Efficacy of oxime plus atropine treatment against Soman poisoning in the atropinesterase-free rabbit. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

The oximes pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), MMB4, and HI-6 were evaluated in combination with atropine as treatments against soman poisoning in atropinesterase-free rabbits. Animals were challenged i.m. with 2 x LD50 soman and treated at the onset of toxic signs with 50 micron mol/kg of oxime and 5 or 13 mg/kg atropine. Survival and time to death were compared at 48 hours post-soman challenge. Survival rates in MMB4 and HI-6 treated animals were higher than in 2-PAM-treated animals. The increase in survival was significant at the 13 mg/kg dose of atropine. MMB4 and HI-6 also significantly delayed time to death after soman compared to 2-PAM. The results suggest that MMB4 and HI-6 have potential as useful oximes for treating soman poisoning.... Soman, Nerve agent, Treatment, Rabbit, HI-6, 2-PAM, Oxime therapy.

Koplovitz, I.; Stewart, J.R.

1992-12-31

454

[Accidental staining of corneal nerves by methylene blue].  

PubMed

A 10-year-old child presented after accidental exposure of the left eye to a blue hair dye containing methylene blue. Mild ocular surface changes and a selective blue staining of the usually invisible corneal nerve fibre bundles were present. Corneal sensitivity was reduced. Despite copious lubrication a transient neurotrophic keratitis developed which did not resolve until corneal sensitivity became normal 2 weeks later. Association of mild chemical burns with neurotrophic keratitis is unusual but is of high clinical relevance as keratitis is a vision-threatening complication. PMID:23288315

Peter, S; Reichart, E; Poyntner, L; Mennel, S

2013-09-01

455

Spinal cord necrosis after intrathecal injection of methylene blue.  

PubMed Central

A 59 year old man had 6 ml of unbuffered methylene blue injected into the lumbar theca in an attempt to localise the source of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea. After injection of the dye he became shocked, and within the next few days he developed a mild paraparesis which subsequently progressed to a total paraplegia. The distribution of the spinal cord damage found at necropsy, eight and a half years after injection of the dye, is described and its relationship to the clinical picture discussed.

Sharr, M M; Weller, R O; Brice, J G

1978-01-01

456

Determination of Ascorbic Acid by Electrocatalytic Voltammetry with Methylene Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid voltammetric method was developed for the determination of l-ascorbate using methylene blue as a mediator with a glassy carbon electrode. The magnitude of the peak current that occurs near?0.04V vs. Ag\\/AgCl is proportional to l-ascorbate concentration in the range of 1.2נ10 to 1.12נ10M. The limit of detection is 1נ10M. Eight replicate analyses of 5.0נ10M and 4.5נ10M l-ascorbate yielded

Ali A. Ensafi

2003-01-01

457

Vapor pressure isotope effect in liquid methylene fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapor pressures of the isotopic methylene fluorides ¹²CHF, ¹²CDF and ¹³CHF have been measured at temperatures between 149 and 244°K by differential manometric techniques in a precision cryostat. Over the entire temperature range of the measurements, P(¹²CHF) > P(¹²CDF) and P(¹²CHF) < P(¹³CHF). The data are best represented by T 1n(f\\/sub c\\/\\/f\\/sub g\\/) = (632.26 +- 97.62)\\/T + (19.175

A. Kanungo; T. Ishida

1986-01-01

458

The influence of chloride binding on the chloride induced corrosion risk in reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride binding by the cement in concrete may affect the rate of chloride ingress and chloride threshold level which in turn determine the time to chloride induced corrosion initiation. In this work, a theoretical assessment of the influence of binding when chloride ingress results from diffusion, is presented. While chloride binding reduces the free chloride content within the concrete, it

G. K. Glass; N. R. Buenfeld

2000-01-01

459

Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems butanols + water + sodium chloride or + potassium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems water + sodium chloride + 2-butanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol, water + potassium chloride + 1-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, and water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol have been measured at 25 C.

Gomis, V.; Ruiz, F.; Asensi, J.C.; Saquete, M.D. [Univ. de Alicante (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-03-01

460

Seasonal changes in poisoning exposures reported to a regional poison center from coastal resort areas.  

PubMed

This study examined the role of seasonality in the reporting of poisoning exposures from geographically distinct regions, specifically from coastal resort and vacation areas. The monthly distribution of calls received by a regional poison control center from counties with popular beach and vacation resorts was compared with the monthly distribution of the overall calls to the center. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if there was a significant difference between the monthly distribution of calls received from the resort counties and the overall calls received by the poison center. Further, exposure and information calls from the resort counties were separately examined to determine if they were equally distributed between months. The monthly distribution of calls received from coastal resort counties was significantly different from the monthly distribution of overall calls received by the center. Significantly more calls were received from the resort counties during the months of July and August at the height of the vacation season. While there was no seasonal variation in the number of information calls from these counties, the poisoning exposure calls were not equally distributed between months, as there were more such calls during the months of July and August. Seasonality appears to play a role in the number of calls received by a regional poison center from coastal areas with popular beach resorts. Poisoning exposure calls seem to increase particularly during the months of July and August. A greater effort may have to be put into activities related to poison control and prevention into such areas during the vacation season. PMID:15799624

Vassilev, Zdravko P; Marcus, Steven M

2005-03-12

461

Aminothienopyridazines and methylene blue affect Tau fibrillization via cysteine oxidation.  

PubMed

Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23443659

Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Smith, Amos B; Trojanowski, John Q; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R

2013-02-26

462

Childhood self-poisoning: a one-year review.  

PubMed

Self-poisoning in children is a serious health concern accounting for 2% and 5% of childhood deaths in the developed and developing world, respectively. Type of poison and intent varies between age groups, with alcohol poisoning becoming increasingly common in teenagers. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of paediatric self-poisoning at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, as a function of age, sex, intent and type of poison. Data from patients under the age of 17 presenting to Ninewells Hospital's Emergency Department with self-poisoning from 1 December 2008 to 30 November 2009 inclusive were identified, classified and analysed using chi-square testing. Overall there was no significant difference in gender. However, females significantly dominated in the ?12<17 years age group, with older females also significantly more likely to deliberately self-poison. Alcohol was the sole cause of accidental self-poisoning in this age group while paracetamol was used in the majority of cases of deliberate self-poisoning. In the <6 years age group, household chemical ingestion and over-the-counter medications were the most common poisons. The findings reflect previous published data and national trends. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in the ?12<17 years age group is a major public health issue that must be addressed. PMID:23138578

Neilson, Z E; Morrison, W

2012-11-01

463

Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self-poisoning. Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history of pesticide poisoning and having ended an emotional relationship in the past year was clearly associated with intentional self-poisoning. The presence of mental disorders could only be assessed for a subsample of the cases and controls and this showed that alcohol dependence was a risk factor. This study shows that acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka is determined by a combination of sociodemographic and psychological factors. Suggestions are given for interventions that could control the morbidity and mortality due to acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries. PMID:15941423

van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

2005-06-01

464

Lurasidone hydro-chloride  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, C28H37N4O2S+Cl? [systematic name: 4-(1,2-benzothiazol-3-yl)-1-({2-[(3,5-dioxo-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]decan-4-yl)methyl]cyclohexyl}methyl)piperazin-1-ium chloride], the anions and cations are linked by NH?Cl hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by CH?? and CH?O interactions.

Zhang, Hua; Wang, Hubo; Zhu, Xueyan; Yuan, Zhedong; Jiang, Huijuan

2012-01-01

465

Neurotoxicity of methyl chloride.  

PubMed

Methyl chloride is encountered in the chemical industry as a methylating agent in the production of butyl rubber, tetramethyl lead, and other products as well as a blowing agent for some polystyrene foams. It is a potent CNS depressant whose principal route of absorption is by inhalation, although it can be absorbed through the skin. Symptoms of the neurotoxicity include headache, drowsiness, giddiness, ataxia, convulsion, and coma. This review focuses on the human case reports of acute and chronic exposures as well as some of the more important inhalation studies conducted with animals. The chemical and physical properties and the more important industrial uses are also discussed. PMID:7038527

Repko, J D

1981-01-01

466

Niobium- and tantalum-based ethylene polymerisation catalysts bearing methylene- or dimethyleneoxa-bridged calixarene ligands.  

PubMed

Treatment of p-tert-butylcalix[6]areneH(6) (H(6)tBu-L) or p-tert-butylcalix[8]areneH(8) (H(8)tBu-L(1)) with [MCl(5)] (M=Nb, Ta) in refluxing toluene or dichloromethane affords, after work-up, the complexes [{M(NCMe)Cl(2)}(2)(tBu-L)] (M=Nb (1), Ta (2)) and [(MCl(2))(2)(tBu-L(1)H(2))] (M=Nb (4), Ta (5)), respectively. Complex 1, as well as [{Nb(2)(mu-O)(2)(mu-Cl)(tBu-LH)}(2)] (3), is also available from [NbOCl(3)] and H(6)tBu-L. Reaction of [MOCl(3)] (M=Nb, Ta) with Li(3)(tBu-L(2)) in diethyl ether, where H(3)tBu-L(2) is p-tert-butylhexahomotrioxacalix[3]areneH(3), affords, after work-up, the trimeric complexes [{M(tBu-L(2))(mu-O)}(3)] (M=Nb (6), Ta (7)). The behaviour of 1 to 7 (not 3), as well as the known complexes [{(MCl)p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene}(2)] (M=Nb (8), Ta (9)) and [(MCl(2))p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene(OMe)] (M=Nb (10), Ta (11)), as pro-catalysts for the polymerisation of ethylene has been investigated. In the presence of dimethyl (or diethyl)aluminium chloride, methylaluminoxane or trimethylaluminium, these niobium and tantalum procatalysts are all active (<35 g mmol(-1) h(-1) bar(-1)), for the polymerisation of ethylene affording high-molecular-weight linear polyethylene. The dimethyleneoxa-bridged systems (derived from 6 and 7) are more active (84 and 46 g mmol(-1) h(-1) bar(-1), respectively) than the methylene-bridged systems. The molecular structures of 1-6 and 10 (acetonitrile solvate) are reported. PMID:17918176

Redshaw, Carl; Rowan, Michael; Homden, Damien M; Elsegood, Mark R J; Yamato, Takehiko; Prez-Casas, Carol

2007-01-01

467

sup 211 At-methylene blue for targeted radiotherapy of human melanoma xenografts: Treatment of micrometastases  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of micrometastases of HX34 human melanoma grown as xenografts in nude mice represents an advanced stage of preclinical investigations concerning targeted radiotherapy of this neoplasm using 3,7-(dimethylamino)phenazathionium chloride methylene blue (MTB) labeled with astatine-211 (211At) (alpha-particle emitter). The therapeutic effectiveness of 211At-MTB administered i.v. was determined by a lung colony assay combined with a search for metastases to organs other than the lungs. A single dose of 211At-MTB lowered the HX34 cell surviving fraction in lungs to below 10% almost independently of the time interval between cell inoculation and radioisotope injection and of 211At-MTB radioactivity within its investigated range. Radiation dose and the time of its administration did, however, influence the size of lung colonies. In contrast, the efficacy of 211At-MTB treatment as assessed by both surviving fraction and colony size was significantly dependent on a number of HX34 cells inoculated initially into mice. These results are explained by a short range of alpha-particles emitted by 211At and a mechanism of growth of lung colonies from tumor cells circulating with blood and blocking lung capillaries. Metastases in organs other than lungs and characteristic of control animals were not found in mice treated with 211At-MTB. The high therapeutic efficacy achieved proved that 211At-MTB is a very efficient scavenger of single melanoma cells distributed through blood and micrometastases with sizes below the limit of clinical detection.

Link, E.M.; Carpenter, R.N. (Univ. College, London (England))

1990-05-15

468

Performance of titanium dioxide microcapsules as a photo-oxidation catalyst for decolourization of methylene blue.  

PubMed

The performance of anatase type titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) encapsulated with styrenic copolymers via the solvent evaporation or suspension polymerization process was investigated as a photocatalyst for the decolourization of methylene blue (MB, 3,4-bis(dimethylamino)-phenothiazine-5-thionium chloride) in the aqueous phase. The TiO(2) microcapsules, loaded with 4-8 wt% TiO(2), were dispersed in a MB aqueous solution containing an adequate amount of hydroperoxide as an oxygen source, and the mixture was exposed to 365 nm UV light. The decolourization of MB proceeded according to the first order of the MB concentration. The apparent rate constant, defined based on the unit weight of loaded TiO(2), depended on the initial concentration of MB. The capsule walls, composed of cross-linked and/or uncross-linked poly(styrene-co-2-ethylhexyl acrylate), favoured the adsorption of MB on the capsule surface and promoted the decomposition. The observations of the cross-section of microcapsules by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed similar morphology of microcapsules regardless of preparation method; a thin layer of hydrophilic TiO(2) particles being localized near the particle surface. The sustainability of the microcapsules was also proved by doing experiments successively for 7 days. Smaller size microcapsules were favoured for the decomposition of MB, and the rate constant increased with the surface area of microcapsules in unit volume of the reaction mixture. Although large size microcapsules with uncross-linked polymer wall had a disadvantage of breaking under high shear agitation, those prepared with cross-linked polymer wall by suspension polymerization still remained effective after the sustainability test for 7 days. PMID:12519699

Supsakulchai, A; Ma, G H; Nagai, M; Omi, S

469

Study on the adsorption of Methylene blue by fly ash modified with activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash was modified with activated sludge, then the adsorption property on Methylene blue was studied. And the results indicated that fly ash modified with activated sludge showed very effective adsorption on Methylene blue compared with fly ash, and the adsorption capacity increased with the adding amount of activated sludge, achieving 9.08 mg\\/g when wt% of sludge was 50%? higher

Hong Wei; Juan Li; Haixia Shi; Kebin Li

2011-01-01

470

Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by dehydrated wheat bran carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. The effectiveness of dye adsorption from wastewater has made to get alternative different low cost adsorbent to other expensive treatment methods. The adsorption of methylene blue onto dehydrated wheat bran (DWB) was investigated at temperatures (2545C), initial methylene blue (MB) concentrations

Ahmet zer; Glbeyi Dursun

2007-01-01

471

Feasibility study of photoelectrochemical degradation of methylene blue with three-dimensional electrode-photocatalytic reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoelectrochemical degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution was investigated with three-dimensional electrode-photocatalytic reactor. It was found that the methylene blue could be degraded more efficiently by photoelectrochemical process than by photocatalytic oxidation or electrochemical oxidation alone. The decolorization efficiency and COD reduction were 95% and 87% for a photoelectrochemical process, respectively, while they were only 78% and 68%

Tai-Cheng An; Xi-Hai Zhu; Ya Xiong

2002-01-01

472

Analysis of the degradation mechanism of methylene blue by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of a methylene blue solution using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique is proposed in this paper. The effect of pH on the degradation rate is also investigated. The concentration of oxidants in the liquid phase is tested through iodimetry. The key factors that affect the degradation rate of the methylene blue solution are analyzed. The intermediate and

Fangmin Huang; Li Chen; Honglin Wang; Zongcheng Yan

2010-01-01

473

Degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency plasmas in water under ultraviolet irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency (RF) plasmas in water under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied experimentally. When the methylene blue solution was exposed to RF plasma, UV irradiation from a mercury vapor lamp enhanced degradation significantly. A lamp without power supply also enhanced degradation since weak UV light was emitted weakly from the lamp due to the

Tsunehiro Maehara; Kyohei Nishiyama; Shingo Onishi; Shinobu Mukasa; Hiromichi Toyota; Makoto Kuramoto; Shinfuku Nomura; Ayato Kawashima

2010-01-01

474

Chloride channels as drug targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human

Luis J. V. Galietta; Alan S. Verkman

2008-01-01

475

Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

2002-08-27

476

Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon  

PubMed Central

Hopkins, A. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 130-140. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon. Twelve large and three infant baboons were poisoned by the intratracheal injection of lead carbonate in doses ranging from 50 to 135 mg/kg for 39 to 362 days. Eight baboons had one or more epileptic fits. Weakness of the limbs, believed to be of central origin, was seen in three of them. The effect of single and multiple doses of lead on the blood lead is recorded. Anaemia and punctate basophilia were not found. Measurements of nerve conduction velocity, electromyography and histological examination showed no abnormality of the peripheral nerves. The different effects of lead upon different species are discussed. Images

Hopkins, Anthony

1970-01-01

477

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

2008-01-01

478

Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide variety of applications and are a serious threat for self-poisoning, unintentional misuse, terrorist attack, occupational hazard and warfare attack. The present standard treatment has been reported to be unsatisfactory. Many novel approaches are being used and tested for acute organophosphorus (OP) poison treatment. The bioscavenger concept captured high attention among the scientific community during the last few decades. Other approaches like alkalinisation of blood plasma/serum and use of weak inhibitors against strong inhibitors, though it showed promising results, did not get such wide attention. The introduction of a novel broad-spectrum oxime has also been in focus. In this mini-review, an update of the overview of four different approaches has been discussed. The standard therapy that is atropine+oxime+benzodiazepine along with supportive measures will continue to be the best option with only the replacement of a single oxime to improve its broad-spectrum efficacy. PMID:23866522

Nurulain, Syed Muhammad

2012-07-01

479

Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1.

Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

1995-01-01

480

Readability and its application to poison prevention.  

PubMed

To improve communication with the general public, poison prevention materials must be written in a language suited to the population to be reached. The information should be nontechnical, concise and easily understood. Sentence length of written material should be short and the vocabulary kept simple. Recall can be significantly improved by organizing statements and labeling categories (12). The readability level must be kept low enough for the general public to read, comprehend and remember the material. This generally means writing no higher than the seventh or eighth-grade level. By using readability formulas to evaluate written poison prevention educational materials and simplifying the reading level, writers can improve comprehension of the information. PMID:7257165

Ross, J W; Metts, B C; Parrish, J S

1981-02-01

481

Cestrum parqui (green cestrum) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring cases of poisoning of cattle by Cestrum parqui were characterised by ataxia, depression, recumbency, convulsions and death. Three cattle were dosed experimentally by intrarumenal administration of fresh plant material. One calf died 48 h after receiving 30 g (wet weight) of plant/kg bodyweight. Doses of 11 and 17 g/kg caused only mild intoxication, with dullness and anorexia lasting 2 days. In natural and experimental cases the main lesion was hepatic periacinar necrosis. Elevated levels of plasma aspartate transaminase and prolonged prothrombin times were demonstrated in experimental cases. Haemorrhage beneath the serosa and into the intestinal lumen occurred in field cases, but not in the experimental. It is concluded that C. parqui poisoning in cattle is a primary hepatotoxicity. PMID:6517779

McLennan, M W; Kelly, W R

1984-09-01

482

Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.  

PubMed Central

Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption.

Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.

1989-01-01

483

Glucosylated isoflavones as DNA topoisomerase II poisons.  

PubMed

Since topoisomerase poisons allow the enzyme to cut and covalently bind to DNA but abort the subsequent rejoining of the molecule after relieving the torsional stress. To study their action we have made use of a supercoiled form of the pRYG plasmid that bears a specific topoisomerase recognition and binding region. The conversion of the supercoiled circular double-stranded DNA to the linear and open circle forms in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison and a denaturation step by proteinase K-SDS is indicative of the efficiency of our test agents to stabilize the cleavable complex. Using this system, three glucosylated isoflavones (6'-methoxy-pseudobaptigenin-7-O-beta-glucoside, genistin, and daidzin) isolated from cytotoxic chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Retama sphaerocarpa Boissier, were found to have the ability to stabilize the cleavage complex human DNA topoisomerase II. PMID:11030085

Martn-Cordero, C; Lpez-Lazaro, M; Piero, J; Ortiz, T; Corts, F; Ayuso, M J

2000-01-01

484

Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.

1985-01-01

485

Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup. PMID:23762709

Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram

2013-05-15

486

Bat mortality: pesticide poisoning and migratory stress.  

PubMed

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in populations of this bat. PMID:959845

Geluso, K N; Altenbach, J S; Wilson, D E

1976-10-01

487

An esoteric occupational hazard for lead poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of life threatening lead poisoning was diagnosed clinically in a Jewish scribe and verified by appropriate laboratory studies. The special ink used by the scribe was found to contain lead in appreciable amounts. Eleven more asymptomatic subjects, both scribes and manufacturers of the ink, were studied and five were found to have subclinical lead overload. Handling or production of this ink is a potential hazard for lead intoxication. PMID:3084807

Cohen, N; Modai, D; Golik, A; Pik, A; Weissgarten, J; Sigler, E; Averbukh, Z

1986-01-01

488

Kontaktallergie auf Poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung\\u000a Zwei Patientinnen erkrankten innerhalb von 3 Tagen mit Erythemen, demen und Blschen\\/Blasen in exanthematischer Aussaat an\\u000a einer vermutlichen Poison-ivy-Allergie. Der kausale Zusammenhang konnte durch die detaillierte Anamnese und die positive Epikutantestung\\u000a geklrt werden. In der Bundesrepublik ist die Sensibilisierungsgefahr durch Toxicodendron-Arten, die wohl ausschlielich in Botanischen Grten stehen, zwar gering, doch sind andere Pflanzen aus der Familie der Anacardiaceae,

Regina Flster-Holst; B. M. Hausen; J. Brasch; E. Christophers

2001-01-01

489

Evaluation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as an indoor air pollutant and biological assessment of methylene dianiline in the polyurethane factories.  

PubMed

Today many raw materials used in factories may have a dangerous effect on the physiological system of workers. One of them, which is widely used in the polyurethane factories, is diisocyanates. These compounds are widely used in surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders, and sealants. Exposure to diisocyanates causes irritation to the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract. Methylene dianiline (MDA) is a metabolite of methylene diphenyle diisocyanate (MDI), an excretory material of worker's urine who are exposed to MDI. Around 100 air samples were collected among five factories by the Midget Impinger, which contained DMSO absorbent as a solvent and Tryptamine as a reagent. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an EC\\UV detector using the NIOSH 5522 method of sampling and analysis. Also, fifty urine samples were collected from workers by using William's biological analysis method. The concentration of MDI in all air samples was more than 88 mug/m(3), showing a high concentration of the pollutant in the workplaces in comparison with the NIOSH standard, and all the worker's urine was contaminated by MDA. The correlation and regression tests were used to obtain statistical model for MDI and MDA that is useful for prediction of diisocyanates pollution situation in the polyurethane factories. PMID:20165612

Mirmohammadi, Mirtaghi; Ibrahim, M Hakimi; Ahmad, Anees; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abdul; Mohammadyan, M; Mirashrafi, S B

2009-04-01

490

Soluble poison flux quenching in nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there have been significant developments in the area of inherently safe nuclear reactor conceptual designs. Among these there is much interest in the so-called PIUS reactor, where safety is to be guaranteed by the timely introduction of borated water into the core. In the event of an accidental reactivity insertion followed by a power excursion, the poison introduction would be triggered automatically by natural physical thermal-hydraulic phenomena without any need for the intervention of externally operated control systems. In a first rough approach to reactor kinetics, the poison introduction can be modeled by a region characterized by higher neutron capture properties with respect to the core and whose boundary moves all the way through with a given velocity. It seems there are no adequate treatments of moving boundary problems in reactor physics, and the usual point kinetics techniques are obviously unsatisfactory. The authors present here a first attempt to study the poison flux quenching within a homogenized reactor, using multigroup diffusion theory and taking into account the presence of the delayed neutron generation. Only slab geometry will be considered, but the model is easily extendable to more realistic configurations, such as cylinders, and different spectral describes can be introduced, such as continuous energy by means of suitable slowing down kernels.

Ravetto, P. (Politecnico di Torino (Italy)); Ganapol, B.D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

1990-06-01

491

Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures.  

PubMed

In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation, and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic. Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U.S. waters and the Caribbean are painful but rarely deadly. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Treatment is symptomatic. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation. The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Surgical dbridement occasionally is needed. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention. PMID:14989575

Perkins, R Allen; Morgan, Shannon S

2004-02-15

492

[Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning: a complicated medical challenge].  

PubMed

Exposure to insecticides, mainly cholinesterase inhibitors, is a global problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Risk of intoxication is increased in rural areas where there is high availability and proximity of insecticides to families and children. Neglected storage and inadequate practice lead to dangerous exposure. Strict regulations and appropriate safety measures are needed for the prevention of exposure to insecticides. Broad toxicological knowledge is necessary in order to treat organophosphate and carbamate poisoned patients. Diagnosis is not trivial, since the identity of the poison is not always apparent. Multiple exposures including organic solvents are possible. The clinical presenting can be confusing. Measurement of cholinesterase activity is mandatory in establishing the diagnosis. Prompt treatment with proper antidotes and respiratory support is indicated. Early administration of anticonvulsants may mitigate central neurologic complications. Monitoring neurologic and cardiac function is advised for rapid identification of complications and prognosis evaluation. Meticulous preparedness of health care providers for insecticide poisoning is needed from the pre-hospital phase to emergency departments and the different hospital wards. PMID:23957084

Lavon, Ophir; Sagi, Ram

2013-07-01

493

Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines.  

PubMed

1. To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admitted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied. 2. There were 54 women and 17 men with their age ranging from 15 to 86 years. Twenty-three subjects (32%) also took alcohol, chemicals or drugs. Of the 51 subjects (72%) who had taken topical medicaments, 22 had no symptoms while 28 had minor features of gastrointestinal irritation (n = 26), mild (n = 2) or severe (n = 1) salicylate poisoning. Of the 17 subjects (24%) who had taken CPM tablets/capsules, nine had mild symptoms including nausea/vomiting and drowsiness. The three remaining patients (4%) who had ingested liquid CPM preparations were asymptomatic. Elevated plasma salicylate or paracetamol concentrations (> 0.1 mmol l-1) were found in some patients who had taken topical medicaments and CPM tablets/capsules, respectively. All the 71 patients completely recovered. 3. Most of the CPM used for self-poisoning in Hong Kong were of low to moderate toxicity except for those containing wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate). PMID:7612306

Chan, T Y; Lee, K K; Chan, A Y; Critchley, J A

1995-05-01

494

Digitalis poisoning: historical and forensic aspects.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of digitalis into therapy approximately 200 years ago, there have been continuing admonitions concerning its toxicity. Over 400 years ago, herbalists listed the plant as being poisonous. In fiction, the homicidal use of digitalis has appeared in the writings of Mary Webb, Dorothy Sayers and Agatha Christie. Ten instances in real life of alleged homicide by digitalis and trials of the accused are listed. The drug has been used with suicidal intent rather infrequently, compared with other medications. Possibly, it is more commonly used for such a purpose in France than in England or the United States. The fraudulent use of digitalis in the support of claims for disability because of heart disease has occurred, and one large conspiracy of physicians and lawyers in the swindle of insurance companies during the 1930s is a shameful episode in the record of these professions. Although innocent, one professor of medicine who was involved committed suicide. Two pharmaceutical (manufacturing) blunders that occurred in Belgium and Holland with mislabeling are mentioned. These resulted in numerous deaths and the profession seemed rather slow to recognize the nature of these small epidemics of poisoning. Instances of psychiatric illness with digitalis seem well documented. The story of digitalis toxicity continues into the present and physicians should be vigilant regarding the drug's potential for poisoning that can result from prescribing digitalis with ignorance of proper dosage, pharmacodynamics or drug interactions, as well as from accidental overdose as in children and use with self-destructive or homicidal intent. PMID:6338083

Burchell, H B

1983-02-01

495

Microbiology of infected poison ivy dermatitis.  

PubMed

We report the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected poison ivy dermatitis. The study involved retrospective review of clinical and microbiology laboratory records of patients with secondarily infected poison ivy lesions. Bacterial growth was noted in 33 specimens. Aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria only were present in 18 (55%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in seven (21%), and mixed anaerobic-aerobic bacteria in eight (24%). Forty-five isolates were recovered (1.4 per specimen): 27 aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 18 strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13 isolates) and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (six). The predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (seven isolates), pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. (four) and Fusobacterium spp. (two). Single bacterial isolates were recovered in 18 (55%) patients, eight of which were S. aureus. Nineteen of the organisms isolated from 16 (48%) patients produced the enzyme beta-lactamase. Organisms that resided in the mucous membranes close to the lesions predominated in those infections. Enteric gram-negative rods and Bacteroides fragilis group predominated in leg and buttock lesions. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp. were most frequently recovered from lesions of the finger, face and neck. The polymicrobial aetiology of secondarily infected poison ivy lesions, and the association of bacterial flora with the anatomical site of the lesions, are demonstrated. PMID:10809852

Brook, I; Frazier, E H; Yeager, J K

2000-05-01

496

Lead poisoning: The invisible disease. Waterfowl Management handbook  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed. Lead poisoning has affected every major species of waterfowl in North America and has also been reported in a wide variety of other birds. The annual magnitude of lead poisoning losses for individual species cannot be precisely determined. However, reasonable estimates of lead-poisoning losses in different species can be made on the basis of waterfowl mortality reports and gizzard analyses. Within the United States, annual losses from lead poisoning have been estimated at between 1.6 and 2.4 million waterfowl, based on a fall flight of 100 million birds.

Friend, M.

1989-01-01

497

[Cyanide poisoning: forensic toxicology observations in the study of 54 cases of fatal poisoning].  

PubMed

The present study describes various observations made during the examination of 54 cases of lethal cyanide intoxication at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the University of Zrich during a period of more than 40 years. Data pertain to the scene of death, the medicolegal inspection, the autopsy, the histological examinations, the chemical analyses, the various types of poisoning observed and the diagnostic criteria used. The intoxicated victims were mostly adults who had professional access to various cyanogenic compounds and had ingested them with the intention of committing suicide. Cases of accidental and criminal poisoning were rare. In spite of this fact, and although its frequency has not increased in the last few decades, cyanide poisoning has maintained undiminished importance. PMID:4060897

Pasi, A; Morath, M; Hartmann, H

1985-01-01

498

Clinical predictors of completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning in 8895 self-poisoning patients.  

PubMed

The diagnoses of 8895 patients who were admitted for intentional self-poisoning with psycho-active drugs were studied in order to find predictors for subsequent completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning. Automated record linkage by means of the Swedish personal identification numbers was performed between the Stockholm County inpatient registry and the cause-of-death registry. With Cox regression models, several diagnostic predictors were identified although they were generally unspecific and insensitive. This may be due both to the low base rate of suicides, and to the omission of other more powerful non-clinical predictors, such as personality traits, hopelessness and social disruption. It is concluded that secondary psychiatric prevention may still be justified, although it will be applied to large numbers of patients who will not eventually commit suicide or repeat self-poisoning. PMID:2138552

Allgulander, C; Fisher, L D

1990-01-01

499

Structure of Aluminum Chloride-Sodium Chloride Melts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equilibrium constants were calculated for reactions governing the species present at 175C in molten mixtures of aluminum chloride and sodium chloride. The equilibria postulated pertain to formation of the complex ions AlCl4(-), Al2Cl7(-), and Al3Cl1o(-) f...

A. A. Fannin D. W. Seegmiller L. A. King

1971-01-01

500

Psychological picture of manifest and latent carbon disulphide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hnninen, H. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 374-381. Psychological picture of manifest and latent carbon disulphide poisoning. A battery of psychological tests was administered to 50 viscose workers with carbon disulphide (CS2) poisoning, 50 viscose workers exposed to CS2 without known poisoning, and 50 workers not exposed to CS2. There were large and statistically significant differences between the group means of

Helena Hnninen

1971-01-01