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Sample records for methylene chloride poisoning

  1. Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

    1999-01-01

    More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

  2. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This...

  4. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  5. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  6. An investigation of nonchlorinated substitute cleaning agents for methylene chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Salerno, R.F.; Dichiaro, J.V.; Egleston, E.E.; Koons, J.W.

    1990-01-29

    Four nonchlorinated solvents, N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), arco solv DPM, Bio Act EC-7, and ethyl lactate, were evaluated as substitutes for the methylene chloride used as a cleaning solvent in a ceramic component production process. NMP showed a cleaning efficiency that was superior to the other nonchlorinated solvents and to methylene chloride. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fate and effects of methylene chloride in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Klecka, G M

    1982-09-01

    Activated sludge obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was acclimated to methylene chloride at concentrations between 1 and 100 mg/liter by continuous exposure to the compound for 9 to 11 days. Acclimated cultures were shown to mineralize methylene chloride to carbon dioxide and chloride. Rates of methylene chloride degradation were 0.14, 2.3, and 7.4 mg of CH2Cl2 consumed per h per g of mixed-liquor suspended solids for cultures incubated in the presence of 1, 10, and 100 mg/liter, respectively. Concentrations of methylene chloride between 10 and 1,000 mg/liter had no significant effect on O2 consumption or glucose metabolism by activated sludge. A hypothetical model was developed to examine the significance of volatilization and biodegradation for the removal of methylene chloride from an activated sludge reactor. Application of the model indicated that the rate of biodegradation was approximately 12 times greater than the rate of volatilization. Thus, biodegradation may be the predominant process determining the fate of methylene chloride in activated sludge systems continuously exposed to the compound. PMID:7138008

  8. Fate and effects of methylene chloride in activated sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Klecka, G M

    1982-01-01

    Activated sludge obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was acclimated to methylene chloride at concentrations between 1 and 100 mg/liter by continuous exposure to the compound for 9 to 11 days. Acclimated cultures were shown to mineralize methylene chloride to carbon dioxide and chloride. Rates of methylene chloride degradation were 0.14, 2.3, and 7.4 mg of CH2Cl2 consumed per h per g of mixed-liquor suspended solids for cultures incubated in the presence of 1, 10, and 100 mg/liter, respectively. Concentrations of methylene chloride between 10 and 1,000 mg/liter had no significant effect on O2 consumption or glucose metabolism by activated sludge. A hypothetical model was developed to examine the significance of volatilization and biodegradation for the removal of methylene chloride from an activated sludge reactor. Application of the model indicated that the rate of biodegradation was approximately 12 times greater than the rate of volatilization. Thus, biodegradation may be the predominant process determining the fate of methylene chloride in activated sludge systems continuously exposed to the compound. PMID:7138008

  9. Toxicology and metabolism of methylene chloride. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methylene chloride, its effects on biological systems, and its metabolic fate. Both animal and human studies, and case reports are examined for methylene chloride toxicity. Exposure to the chemical through inhalation, ingestion, and contact is examined. Occupational exposure to methylene chloride is included, and risk factors are discussed. Long term carcinogenicity of methylene chloride is also considered. Toxicity of other chlorinated organic compounds is referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 78 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Assess health effects associated with dichloromethane (methylene chloride). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-09

    On August 13-14, 1987 the Halogenated Organics Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board's Environmental Health Committee met in Washington, D.C. to review two documents prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development that assess health effects associated with dichloromethane (methylene chloride). The documents included: a June 1987 Draft Technical Analysis of New Methods and Data Regarding Dichloromethane: Pharmacokinetics, Mechanism of Action and Epidemiology, a July 1987 Draft Addendum to the Health Assessment Document for Dichloromethane: Pharmacokinetics, Mechanism of Action and Epidemiology. The Subcommittees concluded that the Addendum was one of the best documents it has received in terms of its clarity, coverage of the data and analysis of scientific issues. The document clearly demonstrates the potential utility of pharmacokinetics data in risk assessment.

  11. Fatal exposure to methylene chloride among bathtub refinishers - United States, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-02-24

    In 2010, the Michigan Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program conducted an investigation into the death of a bathtub refinisher who used a methylene chloride-based paint stripping product marketed for use in aircraft maintenance. The program identified two earlier, similar deaths in Michigan. Program staff members notified CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which in turn notified the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition to the three deaths, OSHA identified 10 other bathtub refinisher fatalities associated with methylene chloride stripping agents that had been investigated in nine states during 2000-2011. Each death occurred in a residential bathroom with inadequate ventilation. Protective equipment, including a respirator, either was not used or was inadequate to protect against methylene chloride vapor, which has been recognized as potentially fatal to furniture strippers and factory workers but has not been reported previously as a cause of death among bathtub refinishers. Worker safety agencies, public health agencies, methylene chloride-based stripper manufacturers, and trade organizations should communicate the extreme hazards of using methylene chloride-based stripping products in bathtub refinishing to employers, workers, and consumers. Employers should strongly consider alternative methods of bathtub stripping and always ensure worker safety protections that reduce the risk for health hazards to acceptable levels. Employers choosing to use methylene chloride-based stripping products must comply with OSHA's standard to limit methylene chloride exposures to safe levels. PMID:22357403

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  13. Methylene chloride exposure and birthweight in Monroe County, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, B.P.; Franks, P.; Hildreth, N.; Melius, J. )

    1991-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between birthweight and exposure to emissions of methylene chloride (DCM) from manufacturing processes of the Eastman Kodak Company at Kodak Park in Rochester, Monroe County, New York. County census tracts were categorized as exposed to high, moderate, low or no DCM based on the Kodak Air Monitoring Program (KAMP) model, a theoretical dispersion model of DCM developed by Eastman Kodak Company. Birthweight and information on variables known to influence birthweight were obtained from 91,302 birth certificates of white singleton births to Monroe County residents from 1976 to 1987. No significant adverse effects of exposure to DCM on birthweight were found. Adjusted birthweight in high exposure census tracts was 18.7 g less than in areas with no exposure (95% confidence interval for the difference between high and no exposure - 51.6, 14.2 g). Problems inherent in the method of estimation of exposure, which may decrease power or bias the results, are discussed. Better methods to estimate exposure to emissions from multiple industrial point sources are needed.

  14. Developmental toxicity of copper chloride, methylene chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide to embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.R.; Fisher, W.S.

    1999-05-01

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide, three known teratogenic chemicals. Two exposure periods were used, 4 d and 12 d, and both periods extended through hatching. The average 4-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.071% v/v, 1.82 mg/L, and 0.21 mg/ml, respectively. The average 12-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.031% v/v, 1.44 mg/L, and 0.057 mg/ml, respectively. Eye malformations were observed with embryos exposed to concentrations greater than 3 mg/L copper chloride or greater than 0.07% v/v methylene chloride. Very few abnormalities were observed in embryos exposed to 6-aminonicotinamide. Abnormal larval development was found with exposure to copper chloride at concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The sensitivity and low variability found here further supports the development of these relatively simple methods using grass shrimp embryos. Establishment of sublethal developmental endpoints warrants further investigation because of their potential correspondence to mechanisms of toxic action.

  15. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. PMID:27497327

  16. A Study for Health Hazard Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Evaporated from the Tear Gas Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun-Kyo; Yi, Gwang-Yong; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, In-Seop

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the health hazard of those exposed to methylene chloride by assessing its atmospheric concentration when a tear gas mixture was aerially dispersed. The concentration of methylene chloride ranged from 311.1-980.3 ppm (geometric mean, 555.8 ppm), 30 seconds after the dispersion started. However, the concentration fell rapidly to below 10 ppm after dispersion was completed. The concentration during the dispersion did not surpass the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 'immediately dangerous to life or health' value of 2,300 ppm, but did exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists excursion limit of 250 ppm. Since methylene chloride is highly volatile (vapor pressure, 349 mmHg at 20℃), the postdispersion atmospheric concentration can rise instantaneously. Moreover, the o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile formulation of tear gas (CS gas) is an acute upper respiratory tract irritant. Therefore, tear gas mixtures should be handled with delicate care. PMID:22953168

  17. 76 FR 14432 - Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR... requirements specified by the Methylene Chloride Standard (29 CFR 1910.1052). DATES: Comments must be submitted... entitled ``Methylene Chloride'' (MC) (29 CFR 1910.1052; the ``Standard'') protects workers from the...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 31, 2010, the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) external review draft document and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The draft document and the charge to external peer reviewers were r...

  19. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulo...

  20. Mortality of workers exposed to methylene chloride employed at a plant producing cellulose triacetate film base.

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J A; Bonner, S M; Heijne, C G; Farrar, D G; Cummings, T F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study mortality among 1785 employees of a factory that produced cellulose triacetate film base at Brantham in the United Kingdom. Also, to investigate patterns of mortality after exposure to methylene chloride; in particular, mortality from liver and biliary tract cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and cardiovascular disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All male employees with a record of employment at the film factory in 1946-88. A total of 1473 subjects worked in jobs that entailed exposure to methylene chloride. The mean duration of exposure was nine years at 19 ppm (eight hour time weighted average). RESULTS: In the cohort, 334 deaths were identified up to 31 December 1994. Mortalities for the cohort were compared with national and local rates and expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMR). In the subcohort of workers exposed to methylene chloride, substantially reduced mortalities compared with national and local rates were found for all causes, all cancers, and the principal cancer sites of interest. The significantly reduced lung cancer mortalities in exposed workers (SMR 48) seemed to reflect the restrictions on smoking at the workplace. In contrast, mortality from ischaemic heart disease in exposed workers, although lower than national rates (SMR 92), was slightly increased compared with local rates. However, mortality from ischaemic heart disease was lower in active employees (SMR 83) where a direct effect of exposure to methylene chloride should be concentrated. No in service mortality due to ischaemic heart disease was found in workers with the highest cumulative exposure (> or = 800 ppm-years). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided no indication that employment at the plant, or exposure to methylene chloride, had adversely affected the mortalities of workers. PMID:9282122

  1. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF PAINT APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVES TO METHYLENE CHLORIDE AND METHYL ETHYL KETONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of demonstrations of technologies to prevent or control emissions of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from processes with high solvent usage: (1) paint stripping using methylene chloride, (2) cleaning paint equipment wi...

  3. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  4. Fluxional behavior of a cadmium zwitterion complex: proton transport and tautomerism in methylene chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Oren P; la Cour, Agnete; Berg, Andrew; Garrett, Andrew D; Wicholas, Mark

    2003-07-28

    The synthesis and structure of the tautomeric Cd(II) isoindoline zwitterion coordination compound [Cd(4'-MeLH)(NO(3))(2)].CH(3)OH (4'-MeLH = 1,3-bis[2-(4-methylpyridyl)imino]isoindoline) are reported. In methylene chloride solution, tautomer interconversion occurs as the N-H proton moves between the identical imine nitrogen atoms. We report the kinetics of proton transfer as followed by variable temperature (1)H NMR spectroscopy and demonstrate that methanol of solvation and adventitious water facilitate rapid proton transfer. PMID:12870937

  5. A fraction of methylene chloride from Geum japonicum Thunberg inhibits tumor metastatic and angiogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jin-Chul; Son, Minsik; Woo, Sang-Uk; Kweon, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Lee, Hee Kyung; Choi, Won-Sik; Cho, Kang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Han

    2008-06-01

    The plant Geum japonicum Thunberg (GjT) has been used as a diuretic in traditional medicine. Herein, we report that the GjT extract blocks both the spread of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on matrigel and the migration of B16 cells. We used various assays to test for cell attachment, spreading, wound healing and angiogenesis. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) assay were also carried out for the mechanistic study of GjT. Our results showed that a fraction of methylene chloride fraction from GjT inhibited B16 cells during cell attachment and migration and suppressed tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. An RT-PCR analysis showed that the methylene chloride extract decreased the mRNA expression of CD44 and TIMP-2. A Western blot analysis of the phosphorylation of MAPK kinases (ERK, JNK and p38) showed that the GjT fraction increased the expression of phospho-JNK, suggesting that GjT has the potential to alleviate metastatic and angiogenic activity, via a phospho-JNK signaling pathway. PMID:18497943

  6. Methylene chloride mortality study: dose-response characterization and animal model comparison.

    PubMed

    Hearne, F T; Grose, F; Pifer, J W; Friedlander, B R; Raleigh, R L

    1987-03-01

    To assess the potential chronic health effects of methylene chloride, the mortality experience of a maturing 1964 to 1970 cohort of 1,013 hourly men was evaluated through 1984. On average, employees were exposed at a rate of 26 ppm (eight-hour time-weighted average) for 22 years; median latency was 30 years. Compared with the general population, no statistically significant excesses were observed for such hypothesized causes as lung cancer (14 observed v 21.0 expected), liver cancer (0 v 0.8), and ischemic heart disease (69 v 98.1); dose-response relationships based on career methylene chloride exposure and latency were not demonstrated. Among nonhypothesized causes, a significant deficit was reported for total deaths (176 v 253.2). None of the industrial referent comparisons achieved statistical significance. Sufficient power was available to detect relative risks of 1.6 for lung malignancy and 1.3 for ischemic heart disease. In contrast, there was inadequate power to identify meaningful risk levels for hepatic cancer. With 14 combined lung and liver cancer deaths observed v 36.3 predicted (P less than .0001), the mortality estimate projected from a mathematical model derived from an animal bioassay substantially overestimated cancer mortality for these sites. This inconsistency emphasizes the need to incorporate epidemiologic evidence in assessing the human health risks associated with long-term exposure to this widely used solvent. PMID:3559766

  7. Headspace gas chromatographic determination of methylene chloride in decaffeinated tea and coffee, with electrolytic conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Page, B D; Charbonneau, C F

    1984-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatographic procedure is described for the determination of methylene chloride (MC) in decaffeinated tea and coffee. The tea or coffee sample, with added methylene bromide (MB) internal standard, is equilibrated for 1.5 h at 100 degrees C in aqueous sodium sulfate before manual headspace sampling. MC and MB are separated on a Porasil A column at 160 degrees C and detected by using a Coulson electrolytic conductivity detector. For coffee and tea samples spiked at 1.3 ppm MC, as well as commercially decaffeinated teas and coffees containing up to 8 ppm MC, coefficients of variation were 10% or less. For decaffeinated teas, problems involving sample homogeneity and loss of MC before sealing the headspace vial had to be overcome. Similar problems with decaffeinated instant and ground coffees were minimal. The headspace procedure was superior to a previously reported distillation technique. MC was readily detected at 0.05 ppm. Fourteen decaffeinated teas and 15 decaffeinated coffees were analyzed; MC was detected at levels that ranged up to 15.9 and 4.0 ppm, respectively. PMID:6469909

  8. Calix[4]arene coated QCM sensors for detection of VOC emissions: Methylene chloride sensing studies.

    PubMed

    Temel, Farabi; Tabakci, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the sensing studies of QCM sensors with coated some calixarene derivatives bearing different functional groups for some selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, acetonitrile, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride (MC), N,N-dimethylformamide, 1,4-dioxane, ethanol, ethyl acetate, xylene, methanol, n-hexane and toluene. The initial experiments have revealed that whole the calix[4]arene modified QCM sensors exhibited strongest sensing ability to MC emissions. Thus, the detailed studies were performed for only MC emissions after the determination of relatively more effective calix-coated QCM sensors for MC emissions in aqueous media. The results demonstrated that QCM sensor coated with calix-7 bearing both amino and imidazole groups was most useful sensor for MC emissions with 54.1ppm of detection limit. Moreover, it was understood that cyclic structures, H-bonding capabilities and also good preorganization properties of calixarene derivatives played an important role in VOC sensing processes. PMID:27130112

  9. Reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine/methylene chloride/n-hexane

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.H.; Hong, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    The trioctylamine (TOA)/methylene chloride (MC)/n-hexane system was used as the extraction agent for the extraction of lactic acid. Curves of equilibrium and hydration were obtained at various temperatures and concentrations of TOA. A modified mass action model was proposed to interpret the equilibrium and the hydration curves. The reaction mechanism and the corresponding parameters which best represent the equilibrium data were estimated, and the concentration of water in the organic phase was predicted by inserting the parameters into the simple mathematical equation of the modified model. The concentration of MC and the change of temperature were important factors for the extraction and the stripping process. The stripping was performed by a simple distillation which was a combination of temperature-swing regeneration and diluent-swing regeneration. The type of inactive diluent has no influence on the stripping. The stripping efficiencies were about 70%.

  10. High-Resolution Spectra and Analysis of the ν 8 Band of Methylene Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morone, A.; Snels, M.; Polanz, O.

    1995-09-01

    The infrared spectra of the ν 8 band of natural methylene chloride and isotopically pure CH 235Cl 2 have been recorded at a resolution of 0.0025 cm -1 in the range 1100-1400 cm -1 with a Bruker IFS 120 HR Fourier transform interferometer. The spectrum of the ν 8 fundamental band has been analyzed for the most abundant isotopic species CH 235Cl 2 and CH 235Cl 37Cl, as well as the ν 4 + ν 8 - ν 4 hot band of CH 235Cl 2. From a rotational analysis, excited state constants up to quartic terms have been obtained, using Watson's A-reduction Hamiltonian in the Ir representation. No perturbations have been observed. The standard deviations of the fits vary from 0.44 × 10 -3 to 0.62 × 10 -3 cm -1.

  11. Determination of Key Flavor Components in Methylene Chloride Extracts from Processed Grapefruit Juice.

    PubMed

    Jella; Rouseff; Goodner; Widmer

    1998-01-19

    The relative correlation of 52 aroma and 5 taste components in commercial not-from-concentrate grapefruit juices with flavor panel preference was determined. Methylene chloride extracts of juice were analyzed using GC/MS with a DB-5 column. Nonvolatiles determined included limonin and naringin by HPLC, degrees Brix, total acids, and degrees Brix/acid ratio. Juice samples were classified into low, medium, or high categories, based on average taste panel preference scores (nine-point hedonic scale). Principal component analysis demonstrated that highest quality juices were tightly clustered. Discriminant analysis indicated that 82% of the samples could be identified in the correct preference category using only myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, linalool, nootkatone, and degrees Brix. Nootkatone alone was not strongly associated with preference scores. The most preferred juices were strongly associated with low myrcene, low linalool, and intermediate levels of beta-caryophyllene. PMID:10554226

  12. A preliminary study of extraction solvents for CW-agents and their decomposition products [3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) vs. methylene chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Ward, R.L.; Hulsey, S.S.; Andresen, B.D.

    1994-09-15

    The major focus of this study was to explore the possibility of using different extraction solvents (or solvent combinations) to isolate CW agents and their degradation products from environmental and industrial samples. The general approach for extracting, e.g. water samples, required the use of a 3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) extraction solvent. Although the 3:1 solvent extraction work-up methods provided excellent results in several Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests, the implementation of these methods for CW on-site analysis exercises was difficult (the methods require cumbersome equipment and are labor intensive). However, due to the time, power, and size restraints set forth by the Chemical Warfare Convention (CWC) for a CW on-site inspection, LLNL developed new sample work-up methods. The approach selected by LLNL incorporated solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques. It is evident from this preliminary study that new or previously used extraction solvents should be re-investigated. It was determined that care must be taken in handling the samples prior to NMR measurements. Also, it was determined that the four target compounds used in this study were extracted on average 18% higher with 3:1 (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: IPA) vs. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. However, additional target compounds need to be investigated using this extraction solvent to determine which classes of compounds are better extracted by the use of a 3:1 solvent system. This preliminary study clearly reveals that a mixed solvent system can yield better extraction efficiencies for mixture of compounds in aqueous samples.

  13. Recovery of asphalt from methylene chloride and trichloroethylene by the abson method. Final report, November 1987-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, K.D.; Kumari, D.; Tran, K.T.

    1989-11-01

    The objective of the in-house study was to determine if methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) can be used to recover asphalts using the Abson method (AASHTO T 170 and ASTM D 1856), and to compare its effects on recovered binder properties to those of trichloroethylene (C2HCl3). Current nationally standardized test procedures (AASHTO and ASTM) do not allow methylene chloride in the Abson method. Virgin paving grade asphalts and hardened asphalts were used in the evaluation. Hardened asphalts consisted of paving grade asphalts aged by the thin film oven procedure, paving grade asphalts extracted from aged loose mixtures and cores, and coating grade roofing asphalts. The following tests were performed before and after recovering the asphalts from trichloroethylene or methylene chloride: penetration at 25 C, viscosity at 60 C, viscosity at 135 C, high pressure gel permeation chromatography, and infrared spectral analysis. The data indicated that methylene chloride can be used to recover asphalts from mixtures using the Abson method. Both solvents had some statistically significant effects on some asphalt properties, but neither solvent could clearly be recommended over the other.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF N-METHYL PYRROLIDONE (NMP) AS A POLLUTION PREVENTION ALTERNATIVE TO PAINT STRIPPING WITH METHYLENE CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This objective of this paper is to demonstrate that NMP is a viable pollution prevention alternative to methylene chloride. Maine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB), Albany, GA, USA was the host site for the demonstration. MCLB's primary function is maintenance of military ground supp...

  15. Neurotoxic effects of methylene chloride: are they long lasting in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Lash, A A; Becker, C E; So, Y; Shore, M

    1991-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of methylene chloride (MC) is of special interest because of its acute effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and its metabolic conversion to carbon monoxide. A cohort study of retired airline mechanics was conducted to examine the hypothesis that long term exposure to MC results in lasting effects on the CNS. Retirees were studied to eliminate effects of current occupational exposures. The total retiree population (n = 1758) was surveyed to identify mechanics who met specific occupational, demographic, and medical criteria. A group of eligible retirees having long term exposure to MC and another group with low probability of exposure to solvents were given a comprehensive battery of physiological and psychological tests. The exposure groups were similar for all potential confounders that were measured. No statistically significant differences between groups were detected on outcome measures, although subtle differences in attention and memory were identified. Thus no firm evidence was found to support the hypothesis of lasting CNS effects in retired mechanics with long term exposure to MC. PMID:2064980

  16. Effects of the aqueous and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa leaf on fructose-hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Dimo, T; Azay, J; Tan, P V; Pellecuer, J; Cros, G; Bopelet, M; Serrano, J J

    2001-08-01

    We investigated the effects of the aqueous (150-350 mg/kg) and methylene chloride (150-300 mg/kg) extracts of Bidens pilosa on fructose-induced hypertension in rats. Food and liquid intake were measured as well as systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine. Fructose feeding for 6 weeks induced hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and increased plasma triglyceride levels in male Wistar rats. The aqueous and methylene chloride extracts of B. pilosa reversed the high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia developed due to fructose feeding but did not have any effects on plasma levels of insulin and glucose. High doses of the extracts reduced plasma creatinine levels and tended to increase plasma cholesterol. These results suggest that the extracts of B. pilosa possess hypotensive effects whose mechanism of action is not related to insulin sensitivity. PMID:11448541

  17. Experimental exposure of rats to methylene chloride at varying controlled barometric altitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Lillquist, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated combined effects of three methylene chloride (MC) volume/volume concentrations (0,50, and 500 ppm) at three controlled barometric altitudes (760, 640, and 560 torr). This provided a three by three study design. For each scenario, three altitude acclimated (6 days) adult male rats were studied for eight hours in a nose-only inhalation chamber. Blood (0.35 mL) was drawn from the cannulated left carotid artery of each rat at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours and hematocrit, pO[sub 2], pCO[sub 2], pH , total hemoglobin (Hb) and carboxyhemoglobin (CHb) were measured. Time, MC concentration and altitude had significant effects on CHb production. CHb increased with increasing MC concentration over time. Increased barometric altitude (reduced partial pressure of MC vapor at altitude for equal ppm concentrations) resulted in lower blood CHb levels. A statistical model was derived to explain variation in CHb levels for these three independent variables (r = 0.983). The data were applied to an equation assessing the impact of altitude, MC concentration and time on the potential oxygen carrying capacity (POCC) of blood. The POCC of HB in the blood was calculated using blood Hb, CHb levels, Hb oxygen saturation (based on the blood pO[sub 2] and the oxygen dissociation curve for rats), and oxygen binding potential of Hb. It was determined for the altitudes and MC concentrations used, polycythemia associated with increased altitude had a greater impact on POCC than decreased pO[sub 2]. A regression equation was derived modeling variation in POCC of blood for the three independent variables (r = 0.995). This study demonstrated that altitude affects airborne ppm MC concentrations. This ultimately impacts CHb levels and oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. These finding indicate that occupationally acceptable ppm MC exposure levels at altitude do need barometric pressure correction.

  18. Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to mercuric chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dhanapriya, J; Gopalakrishnan, N; Arun, V; Dineshkumar, T; Sakthirajan, R; Balasubramaniyan, T; Haris, M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and occurs in organic and inorganic forms. Inorganic mercury includes elemental mercury and mercury salts. Mercury salts are usually white powder or crystals, and widely used in indigenous medicines and folk remedies in Asia. Inorganic mercury poisoning causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and gastrointestinal manifestations and can be life-threatening. We describe a case with unknown substance poisoning who developed AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. Later, the consumed substance was proven to be mercuric chloride. His renal failure improved over time, and his creatinine normalized after 2 months. PMID:27194836

  19. Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to mercuric chloride poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapriya, J.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Arun, V.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Haris, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and occurs in organic and inorganic forms. Inorganic mercury includes elemental mercury and mercury salts. Mercury salts are usually white powder or crystals, and widely used in indigenous medicines and folk remedies in Asia. Inorganic mercury poisoning causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and gastrointestinal manifestations and can be life-threatening. We describe a case with unknown substance poisoning who developed AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. Later, the consumed substance was proven to be mercuric chloride. His renal failure improved over time, and his creatinine normalized after 2 months. PMID:27194836

  20. Methylene chloride intoxication in a furniture refinisher. A comparison of exposure estimates utilizing workplace air sampling and blood carboxyhemoglobin measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shusterman, D.; Quinlan, P.; Lowengart, R.; Cone, J. )

    1990-05-01

    A 35-year-old furniture refinisher came to the occupational medicine clinic with complaints of upper respiratory irritation, fatigue, and lightheadedness occurring on a daily basis after using a methylene chloride-containing paint stripper. Determinations of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) on three occasions showed an apparently linear elevation of COHb as a function of hours worked on the day of sampling. COHb levels predicted from spot industrial hygiene measurements were in close concordance with those observed in the patient, indicating the potential usefulness of COHb monitoring in estimating airborne exposure levels. Methylene chloride (or dichloromethane) is an organic solvent that has found wide use as a degreaser, paint remover, aerosol propellant, and a blowing agent for polyurethane foams, and as a solvent in food processing, photographic film production, and plastics manufacturing. Discovery of its unusual metabolic fate--conversion to carbon monoxide in vivo--has earned the compound a special place in the solvent toxicology literature. Demonstration of oncogenicity in experimental animals has occasioned a reconsideration of exposure limits, with emphasis upon stricter controls. In some workplaces, conditions prevail in which controls are inadequate to prevent even acute toxicity, much less long-term exposure risks.

  1. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 84-419-1697, USGS Laboratory, Doraville, Georgia. [Benzene, methylene chloride, hexane, and acetone

    SciTech Connect

    Rondinelli, R.; Wilcox, T.; Roper, P.; Salisbury

    1986-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Doraville, Georgia requested an evaluation of physical complaints reported by employees to determine possible work related causes. Laboratory workers, in general, complained of physical symptoms which were irritative (rash, sore throat, nose or sinus irritation), neurological (numbness, muscle weakness) and nonspecific (dizziness, headache, emotional swings, insomnia, muscle aching, fatigue). Reported exposure to solvents such as benzene, methylene chloride, hexane and acetone were positively related with light headedness or dizziness, numbness, unexplained muscle weakness and muscle aching. Air sampling did not reveal any remarkable exposure to chemical contaminants. The authors conclude that no relationship could be established between chemical exposures and antinuclear antibody positivity. Exposure to chemicals measured by air sampling were below occupational health exposure limits.

  2. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dimo, Théophile; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods: Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results: M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions: The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity. PMID:20927244

  3. EVALUATION OF A TEFLON HELIX LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTOR FOR CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ORGANICS FROM WATER INTO METHYLENE CHLORIDE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A continuous liquid-liquid extraction system (CLLE) for concentrating trace organics from water into methylene chloride for analysis was designed, built and evaluated. The CLLE uses Teflon coils for phase contact and gravity phase separation. The system includes a self-contained ...

  4. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... gas heater and any other gas-, oil- or wood-fueled appliances serviced regularly. Be sure these appliances ... on the skin, rinse it off with running water and remove any poisoned clothing. If the poison ...

  5. A Case of Severe Chlorite Poisoning Successfully Treated With Early Administration of Methylene Blue, Renal Replacement Therapy, and Red Blood Cell Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardtova, Andrea; Vavrinec, Peter; Vavrincova-Yaghi, Diana; Seelen, Mark; Dobisova, Anna; Flassikova, Zora; Cikova, Andrea; Henning, Robert H.; Yaghi, Aktham

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The case of a 55-year-old man who attempted suicide by ingesting <100 mL of 28% sodium chlorite solution is presented. On arrival in the intensive care unit, the patient appeared cyanotic with lowered consciousness and displayed anuria and chocolate brown serum. Initial laboratory tests revealed 40% of methemoglobin. The formation of methemoglobin was effectively treated with methylene blue (10% after 29 hours). To remove the toxin, and because of the anuric acute renal failure, the patient received renal replacement therapy. Despite these therapeutic measures, the patient developed hemolytic anemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which were treated with red blood cell transfusion and intermittent hemodialysis. These interventions led to the improvement of his condition and the patient eventually fully recovered. Patient gave written informed consent. This is the third known case of chlorite poisoning that has been reported. Based upon this case, we suggest the management of sodium chlorite poisoning to comprise the early administration of methylene blue, in addition to renal replacement therapy and transfusion of red blood cells. PMID:25144325

  6. Evaluation of a soil-flushing remediation project for a methylene chloride spill in Vinton County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The CSX-Zaleski site covers approximately one acre and is located immediately east of the Village of Zaleski. A rail car derailed at this site in November of 1984, spilling 20,000 gallons of methylene chloride into a water-filled low area adjacent to the railroad grade. Initial response included the installation of two purge wells and an air stripping tower. Heterogeneous soils and poor recharge conditions at the site resulted in an upgraded system being installed which included nine purge wells, three sumps and 15 monitoring wells. This system was operated until August 1985 when it was discontinued because of insufficient recharge rates. In 1990, after further site evaluation, Ohio EPA determined that additional remediation was necessary. A pilot test was run at the site to determine the feasibility of a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system. The site was found to be unsuitable for a SVE system because of heterogeneous soil permeabilities. In 1991, a soil flushing system was installed and operated for four months. A significant removal of the remaining contaminant was observed. Monitoring to date indicates that the decreases in contaminant levels is permanent.

  7. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Try to have the following information ready: The container or bottle from the medicine or poison The ... dangerous gases. Always store household chemicals in the container they came in. Don't reuse containers. Keep ...

  8. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

  9. PBPK modeling/Monte Carlo simulation of methylene chloride kinetic changes in mice in relation to age and acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R S; Yang, R S; Morgan, D G; Moorman, M P; Kermani, H R; Sloane, R A; O'Connor, R W; Adkins, B; Gargas, M L; Andersen, M E

    1996-01-01

    During a 2-year chronic inhalation study on methylene chloride (2000 or 0 ppm; 6 hr/day, 5 days/week), gas-uptake pharmacokinetic studies and tissue partition coefficient determinations were conducted on female B6C3F1, mice after 1 day, 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years of exposure. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling coupled with Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap resampling for data analyses, a significant induction in the mixed function oxidase (MFO) rate constant (Vmaxc) was observed at the 1-day and 1-month exposure points when compared to concurrent control mice while decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) rate constant (Kfc) were observed in the 1-day and 1-month exposed mice. Within exposure groups, the apparent Vmaxc maintained significant increases in the 1-month and 2-year control groups. Although the same initial increase exists in the exposed group, the 2-year Vmaxc is significantly smaller than the 1-month group (p < 0.001). Within group differences in median Kfc values show a significant decrease in both 1-month and 2-year groups among control and exposed mice (p < 0.001). Although no changes in methylene chloride solubility as a result of prior exposure were observed in blood, muscle, liver, or lung, a marginal decrease in the fat:air partition coefficient was found in the exposed mice at p = 0.053. Age related solubility differences were found in muscle:air, liver:air, lung:air, and fat:air partition coefficients at p < 0.001, while the solubility of methylene chloride in blood was not affected by age (p = 0.461). As a result of this study, we conclude that age and prior exposure to methylene chloride can produce notable changes in disposition and metabolism and may represent important factors in the interpretation for toxicologic data and its application to risk assessment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:8875160

  10. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Yoon, Kyung J.

    2010-10-15

    The performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was evaluated in synthetic coal gas containing HCl in the temperature range 650 to 850oC. Exposure to up to 800 ppm HCl resulted in reversible poisoning of the Ni/zirconia anode by chlorine species adsorption, the magnitude of which decreased with increased temperature. Performance losses increased with the concentration of HCl to ~100 ppm, above which losses were insensitive to HCl concentration. Cell voltage had no effect on poisoning. No evidence was found for long-term degradation that can be attributed to HCl exposure. Similarly, no evidence of microstructural changes or formation of new solid phases as a result of HCl exposure was found. From thermodynamic calculations, solid nickel chloride phase formation was shown to be highly unlikely in coal gas. Further, the presence of HCl at even the highest anticipated concentrations in coal gas would minimally increase the volatility of nickel.

  11. N-acetylcysteine, Ascorbic Acid, and Methylene Blue for the Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning: Still Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Lavasanijou, Mohamad Reza; Moghaddam, Noushin Afshar; Khazaei, Majid; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Intentional and accidental intoxication with aluminium phosphide (ALP) remains a clinical problem, especially in the Middle East region. Considering the high mortality rate besides lack of any recommended first option drug for its treatment, this study was aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C (Vit C), and methylene blue; both in isolate and also in combination, for the treatment of ALP intoxication in a rat model. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal study, 80 male Wistar rats in eight groups were intoxicated with ALP (12.5 mg/kg) and treated with a single dose of NAC (100 mg/kg) or Vit C (500–1,000 mg/kg) or methylene blue (1 mg/kg/5 min, 0.1%) or two of these agents or all three of them (controls were not treated). Rats were monitored regarding the parameters of drug efficacy as increased survival time and reduced morbidity and mortality rate for 3 consecutive days to ensure toxin neutralization. Macroscopic changes were recorded and biopsy sections were taken from brain, cerebellum, kidney, liver, and heart for microscopic evaluation regarding cellular hypoxia. Results: The mean survival times of rats exposed to ALP and treated with VitC + NAC was 210.55±236.22 minutes. In analysis of survival times, there was a significant difference between Group 5 which received VitC + NAC and the other groups (P < 0.01). Serum magnesium levels after death were higher than normal (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Despite the higher survival rate of antioxidant-treated rats compared with controls, this difference was not statistically significant. PMID:26862259

  12. Source characterization and control technology assessment of methylene chloride emissions from Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY. Final report, July 1988-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Walata, S.A.; Rehm, R.M.

    1989-07-01

    This report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulose triacetate film support. Work has involved: a plant visit where major DCM emission sources were inspected, and evaluation of current and potential control technologies for the DCM emission sources. The report contains information gathered during the plant visit to the Kodak Park facility. Included are emission estimates determined by Kodak of all emission points greater than 8000 lb (3600 kg)/yr DCM, as well as a description of each point observed during the visit. Also included are results of an evaluation of control technologies that might be applied to the major emission sources. A cost analysis of different add-on control devices is provided for four of the uncontrolled emission points.

  13. Gas chromatographic determination of residual methylene chloride and trichloroethylene in decaffeinated instant and ground coffee with electrolytic conductivity and electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Page, B D; Charbonneau, C F

    1977-05-01

    A method is described for the quantitative determination of residual methylene chloride (MC) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in decaffeinated instant and ground roasted coffees. The residual solvents were isolated by a closed system vacuum distillation technique with toluene as a carrier solvent, chromatographed on Chromosorb 102, detected by both electron capture and electrolytic conductivity detectors, and quantitated by comparison with an internal standard. Average recoveries of MC from instant and ground coffees spiked at 1, 10, and 25 ppm were 100.0 (88-113), 93.2 (92-95), and 97.7% (94-102%); and for TCE, 97.2 (92-101), 96.2 (95-99), and 96.5% (92-100%), respectively. The results from both detectors are compared. At lower attenuations, levels less than 1 ppm can be readily measured. The procedure developed was applied to domestic and imported coffee samples. PMID:858707

  14. Fluorescence Spectrometric Determination of Drugs Containing α-Methylene Sulfone/Sulfonamide Functional Groups Using N1-Methylnicotinamide Chloride as a Fluorogenic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Elokely, Khaled M.; Eldawy, Mohamed A.; Elkersh, Mohamed A.; El-Moselhy, Tarek F.

    2011-01-01

    A simple spectrofluorometric method has been developed, adapted, and validated for the quantitative estimation of drugs containing α-methylene sulfone/sulfonamide functional groups using N1-methylnicotinamide chloride (NMNCl) as fluorogenic agent. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) (1), tinidazole (2), rofecoxib (3), and nimesulide (4) in pure forms, laboratory-prepared mixtures, pharmaceutical dosage forms, spiked human plasma samples, and in volunteer's blood. The method showed linearity over concentration ranging from 1 to 150 μg/mL, 10 to 1000 ng/mL, 1 to 1800 ng/mL, and 30 to 2100 ng/mL for standard solutions of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and over concentration ranging from 5 to 150 μg/mL, 10 to 1000 ng/mL, 10 to 1700 ng/mL, and 30 to 2350 ng/mL in spiked human plasma samples of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The method showed good accuracy, specificity, and precision in both laboratory-prepared mixtures and in spiked human plasma samples. The proposed method is simple, does not need sophisticated instruments, and is suitable for quality control application, bioavailability, and bioequivalency studies. Besides, its detection limits are comparable to other sophisticated chromatographic methods. PMID:21647288

  15. Role of autophagy in apoptosis induction by methylene chloride extracts of Mori cortex in NCI-H460 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Hyung; Chi, Gyoo Yong; Eom, Hyun Sup; Kim, Gi-Young; Hyun, Jin Won; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Su-Jae; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2012-06-01

    The root of Mori cortex has traditionally been used in Korea for the treatment of cutaneous inflammation, pulmonary asthma, and congestion for thousands of years. The present study was designed to validate the anticancer effects of methylene chloride extracts of the M. cortex root (MEMC) in NCI-H460 human lung carcinoma cells. Exposure to MEMC was found to result in growth inhibition by the induction of caspase‑dependent apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells, which correlated with upregulated expression of death receptor (DR)4, DR5 and FasL, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression, cleavage of Bid, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, autophagosomes, a characteristic finding of autophagy, and markers of autophagy, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II and increased beclin-1 accumulation, were observed in MEMC-treated NCI-H460 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or LC3B small interfering (siRNA) resulted in enhanced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that MEMC-induced autophagy functions as a suppressor of apoptosis. MEMC-induced autophagy was also blocked by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and catalase, indicating that H2O2 can regulate autophagy. Our data demonstrate that MEMC triggers both ROS-mediated autophagy and caspase-dependent apoptosis, and that autophagy plays a protective role against apoptotic cell death. PMID:22367066

  16. A methylene chloride fraction of Saururus chinensis induces apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3 in prostate and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Young; Choi, Tae Won; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sung-Moo; Park, Kyung-Ran; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Chul Young; Jung, Sang Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2011-05-15

    The aerial parts of Saururus chinensis (SC) have been used for the treatment of edema, fever, jaundice, and inflammatory diseases in Korean folk medicine for centuries. However, the mechanism by which SC exerts these anti-tumorigenic activities in human prostate and breast cancer cells has not yet been fully understood. In this study, we report on the methylene chloride fraction from SC exerting cytotoxicity against prostate and breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, SC exerted the most potent cytotoxicity in LNCaP and MCF-7 cells. SC was shown to down-regulate various angiogenetic (VEGF), proliferative (Cyclin D₁, anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) gene products in these cells. SC also increased the number of annexin V-positive apoptotic bodies and the sub-G1 DNA contents of the cell cycle undergoing apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in both LNCaP and MCF-7 cells. We further confirmed that caspase-3 plays an important role in SC-induced apoptosis in LNCaP and MCF-7 cells through the use of the caspase-3 inhibitor. Moreover, we observed that SC potentiated paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and sauchinone is a major active constituent of SC, which could induce apoptosis in the cells. Taken together, our data provide the evidence that SC induces apoptosis depending on caspase-3 activation and overcomes the natural biological resistance to chemotherapy found in human prostate and breast cancer cells. PMID:21111586

  17. High Resolution Spectra and Rotational Analysis of the 2ν 8, ν 2+ ν 8, and 2ν 2Bands in Methylene Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snels, Marcel

    1997-03-01

    The infrared spectra of the 2ν8, ν2+ ν8, and 2ν2bands of methylene chloride have been recorded both for isotopically pure CH235Cl2and for a natural mixture with a resolution of 0.0044 cm-1in the range 2450-2900 cm-1using a Bruker IFS 120 HR Fourier transform interferometer. The 2ν8overtone band was shown to be unperturbed. Weak global perturbations were observed, however, in the ν2+ ν8combination band, probably due to Fermi or Coriolis interaction with a distant perturber. The 2ν2overtone was found to be locally perturbed, and a crossing aroundK‧a= 10 with a perturbing level was evident from a line-by-line analysis. A satisfactory analysis of 2ν2has been obtained by including anx-Coriolis interaction with a vibrational level ofA2symmetry, presumably the ν2+ ν4+ ν5combination band. A full rotational analysis for all bands has been carried out, yielding accurate effective rotational and distortion constants up to quartic terms for the excited states using Watson'sA-reduction Hamiltonian in theIrrepresentation. In addition a hot-band starting from the lowest lying vibrational level, ν4, the 2ν8+ ν4- ν4band, has been partially analyzed. Vibrational shifts of the CH372Cl35Cl isotopic species have been obtained from difference spectra (i.e., spectra of natural abundant CH2Cl2minus those of isotopically pure CH352Cl2). In particular a full rotational analysis of the 2ν8band of the CH372Cl35Cl isotopomer has been performed. Unfortunately, the spectral features due to the CH372Cl2isotopomer were too weak (about 6 times weaker than those of CH372Cl35Cl) to be observed.

  18. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  19. Lanolin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wool wax poisoning; Wool alcohol poisoning; Glossylan poisoning; Golden dawn poisoning; Sparklelan poisoning ... a minor skin rash. Lanolin is similar to wax, so eating large amounts of it can cause ...

  20. Methylene blue treatment in experimental ischemic stroke: a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhao; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Methylene blue, a drug grandfathered by the Food and Drug Administration with a long history of safe usage in humans for treating methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning, has recently been shown to be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. The goal of this paper is to review studies on methylene blue in experimental stroke models. PMID:27042692

  1. Mushroom Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  2. Deodorant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  4. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  5. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a solvent in the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee and in decaffeinated soluble coffee extract (instant coffee)....

  6. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the hops extract only as prescribed by paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a solvent in the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee and in decaffeinated...

  7. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a solvent in the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee and in decaffeinated soluble coffee extract (instant coffee)....

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subject to the hazardous waste and emergency response provisions contained in 29 CFR 1910.120 (q).] (g... (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers must not select or use half masks of any type... requirements of 29 CFR 1910.133 or 29 CFR 1915.153, as applicable. (2) The employer shall clean,...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subject to the hazardous waste and emergency response provisions contained in 29 CFR 1910.120 (q).] (g... (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers must not select or use half masks of any type... requirements of 29 CFR 1910.133 or 29 CFR 1915.153, as applicable. (2) The employer shall clean,...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances... section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052....

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subject to the hazardous waste and emergency response provisions contained in 29 CFR 1910.120 (q).] (g... (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers must not select or use half masks of any type... requirements of 29 CFR 1910.133 or 29 CFR 1915.153, as applicable. (2) The employer shall clean,...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to the hazardous waste and emergency response provisions contained in 29 CFR 1910.120 (q).] (g... (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers must not select or use half masks of any type... requirements of 29 CFR 1910.133 or 29 CFR 1915.153, as applicable. (2) The employer shall clean,...

  13. Cologne poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ...

  14. Insecticide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  15. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  16. Copper poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  17. Merbromin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  18. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  19. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  20. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Foxglove poisoning most often occurs from sucking the flowers or eating the seeds, stems, or leaves of ... The poisonous substances are found in: Flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds of the foxglove plant Heart medicine (digitalis glycoside)

  1. Methylene blue unresponsive methemoglobinemia

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Sibabratta; Natarajan, Manivachagan Muthappa; James, Ebor Jacob; Ebenezer, Kala

    2014-01-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon blood disorder induced by exposure to certain oxidizing agents and drugs. Although parents may not give any history of toxin ingestion; with the aid of pulse-oximetry and blood gas analysis, we can diagnose methemoglobinemia. Prompt recognition of this condition is required in emergency situations to institute early methylene blue therapy. We report an unusual case of severe toxic methemoglobinemia, which did not respond to methylene blue, but was successfully managed with exchange transfusion. PMID:24872659

  2. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given. PMID:15636379

  3. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  4. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sal soda poisoning; Soda ash poisoning; Disodium salt poisoning; Carbonic acid poisoning; Washing soda poisoning ... have symptoms. In this rare situation, long-term effects, even death, are possible if you do not ...

  5. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  6. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ... The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

  7. Ink poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Naphthalene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  9. Ammonia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  10. Depilatory poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Wax PM, Young A. ...

  11. Aftershave poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 185. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  12. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002658.htm Iodine poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Iodine is a naturally occurring chemical. Small amounts are ...

  13. Lanolin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lanolin is an oily substance taken from sheep's wool. Lanolin poisoning occurs when someone swallows a product that contains lanolin. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or ...

  14. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  15. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for weeks or months, or even longer. ... RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ...

  16. Bee poison

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by a sting from a bee, wasp , or yellow jacket. This article is for information ... anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Bee, wasp, and yellow jacket stings contain a substance called ...

  17. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating or drinking: ...

  18. Refrigerant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    A refrigerant is a chemical that makes things cold. This article discusses poisoning from sniffing or swallowing such chemicals. ... occurs when people intentionally sniff a type of refrigerant called Freon. This article is for information only. ...

  19. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of mistletoe poisoning can affect many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, AND THROAT Blurred vision STOMACH AND INTESTINES Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Stomach pain HEART AND BLOOD Weakness NERVOUS SYSTEM Drowsiness

  20. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  1. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallows a lead object or breathes in lead dust, some of the poison can stay in the ... a health problem. Lead is everywhere, including dirt, dust, new toys, and old house paint. Unfortunately, you ...

  2. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  3. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  4. Pokeweed poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest amounts of poison are found in the roots, leaves, and stems. Small amounts are in the ... is no guarantee that they are safe. The roots should never be eaten. Symptoms most often appear ...

  5. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little ...

  6. Shellac poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These substances are found in: Paint remover Shellac Wood finishing products Other products may also contain these ... a vein (IV) Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison Surgery to remove burned skin ...

  7. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  8. Paraffin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Shannon MW. Emergency management of poisoning. In: Shannon MW, ed. Haddad and ...

  9. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002883.htm Mistletoe poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mistletoe is an evergreen plant with white berries. Mistletoe ...

  10. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  11. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

  12. Crystal structures of 6-[(2-hydroxy-1,1-bishydroxymethylethylamino)methylene]-2, 4-dinitrocyclohexa-2, 4-dienone hydrate and complexes of copper(II) chloride and copper(II) nitrate with this ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Chumakov, Yu. M. Tsapkov, V. I.; Jeanneau, E.; Bocelli, G.; Luneau, D.

    2006-07-15

    The crystal structures of 6-[(2-hydroxy-1,1-bishydroxymethylethylamino)methylene]-2, 4-dinitrocyclohexa-2, 4-dienone hydrate L . H{sub 2}O (I), chloro-(2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol-2-iminomethyl-4, 6-dinitrophenolo)aquacopper hydrate [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(L-H)Cl] . H{sub 2}O (II), and (2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol-2-iminomethyl-4,6-dinitrophenolo) aquacopper nitrate [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(L-H)]NO{sub 3} (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. It is established that the salicylidene fragment of azomethine L in the structure of compound I is in a quinoid tautomeric form. In the crystal, molecules L and water molecules are joined together by hydrogen bonds into two-dimensional layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. The copper atom in the structure of compound II coordinates the singly deprotonated tridentate molecule L (whose salicylidene fragment is in a benzenoid form), the chlorine ion, and the water molecule. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom is a distorted tetragonal pyramid. In the structure of compound III, the polymer chains are formed through the coordination bonds of the copper atom with two oxygen atoms of the amino alcohol fragment of azomethine L of the neighboring complex, which is related to the initial complex by the translation along the x axis. The coordination polyhedron of the central atom is an elongated tetragonal bipyramid. Polymers and nitro groups form a three-dimensional framework through hydrogen bonds.

  13. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention ... Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the emergency list next to every phone in your home and in your cell phone. A toddler or preschooler who vomits may ...

  14. Acetone poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  15. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for weeks or months, or even longer. ... Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); 2003.

  16. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

  17. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  18. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is found in various kinds of the yew plant. The poison is in most parts of the yew plant, but the highest amount ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  19. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... level of alertness). Before Calling Emergency Have this information ready: Person's age, weight, and condition (for example, is the person awake or alert?) Name of the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed However, DO NOT delay calling ... Poison Control Your local ...

  20. Nicotine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... 15 minutes. Before Calling Emergency Determine the following information: The person's age, weight, and condition Name of product (as well as the ingredients and strength, if known) When it was swallowed or inhaled The amount swallowed or ... Poison Control Your local ...

  1. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ground. It is usually found in groups of many plants and looks like weeds growing from 6 inches ... or anything else that may have touched the plant (like camping, sporting, fishing or hunting gear). If you develop a poison ivy rash, it will go away on its own in 1 to 3 ...

  2. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

  3. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Household plant food poisoning; Plant food - household - poisoning ... Belson M. Ammonia and nitrogen oxides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ...

  4. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Ink remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... be very poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Immediate kidney dialysis Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison Tube through the mouth into ...

  9. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  10. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  11. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  12. Acute dapsone poisoning in a 3-year-old child: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS-diamino diphenyl sulphone) is a sulfone antibiotic being used for a variety of clinical conditions. Poisoning in children by DDS is rarely reported. Poisoning in acute cases will be frequently unrecognized due to relative lack of severe signs and symptoms. Methemoglobinemia is the major life-threatening situation associated with poisoning of DDS. Hence, any delay for medical attention can lead to increased rate of mortality. In this case, we describe acute DDS poisoning in a 3-year-old child and the successful management using intravenous methylene blue. PMID:26488029

  13. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  14. Pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

    2007-01-01

    Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant

  15. Methylene blue related sterile endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Lim, A K E; Ulagantheran V, V; Siow, Y C; Lim, K S

    2008-08-01

    To report a case of methylene blue related endophthalmitis. Observational case report. Review of clinical record, photographs. A 60 year old man developed endophthalmitis after methylene blue was accidentally used to stain the anterior capsule during phacoemulsification of cataract. His left visual acuity deteriorated from 6/12 to 6/36 two weeks after the operation. Despite intensive treatment with topical and intravitreal antibiotics, his condition deteriorated. A vitrectomy and silicone oil injection eventually managed to control the progression of the disease and salvage the eye. However the visual outcome remained poor due to corneal decompensation and retinal ischemia. Both vitreous tap and vitreous biopsy were negative for any organism. Methylene blue is extremely toxic to ocular structures and should not be used intraocularly. PMID:19248701

  16. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  17. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Katabami, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Dichloromethane that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  19. Nitroethane poisoning from an artificial fingernail remover.

    PubMed

    Hornfeldt, C S; Rabe, W H

    1994-01-01

    Confusion between acetone fingernail polish removers and artificial fingernail products containing acetonitrile and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine has resulted in pediatric morbidity and mortality. In the present case, a 20-month-old boy drank less than one ounce of Remove Artificial Nail Remover containing 100% nitroethane. In the emergency department he displayed cyanosis and 39% methemoglobinemia. Following intravenous methylene blue, the child's methemoglobin level dropped to 5.7% and he recovered uneventfully. Toxicity from nitroethane has not previously been reported in humans. Poison centers and emergency department personnel should be alert to another nail product which may be easily confused with acetone-containing nail polish removers. PMID:8007041

  20. Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

    1986-07-01

    Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

  1. Organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Daniel R

    2002-11-01

    Stay safe! Certain scenes and scenarios invite a greater degree of caution. Wear protective gear (Level B for decon) and make sure the patient is hazmat-naked prior to decontamination. Use tincture of green soap or household dishwashing soap to decontaminate your patient. Maintain the patient's airway using oral/nasal airways; intubate if indicated. Give high-flow oxygen by nonrebreather oxygen mask or, if intubated, with a bagh-valve mask. Treat for shock by maintaining the patient's body temperature, keeping them supine if they will tolerate it, and gaining i.v. access. Administer oxygen, atropine, pralidoxime chloride and diazepam as required. Notify the ED and transport rapidly. If it is a terrorist incident, get your patient and get out. PMID:12440317

  2. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  3. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  4. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  5. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002702.htm Hair bleach poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows hair bleach or ...

  6. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  7. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  8. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  9. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  10. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  11. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you ...

  12. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  13. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Black nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. ... Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves.

  14. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  15. Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

    1993-01-01

    Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

  16. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  17. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  18. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  19. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  20. Methylene blue doped polymers: efficient media for optical recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, R.

    2004-05-01

    Polymer materials find application in optical storage technology, namely in the development of high information density and fast access type memories. A new polymer blend of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) in methanol is prepared and characterized and its comparison with methylene blue sensitized PVA in methanol and complexed methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride (CMBPVC) is presented. The optical absorption spectra of the thin films of these polymers showed a strong and broad absorption region at 670-650 nm, matching the wavelength of the laser used. A very slow recovery of the dye on irradiation was observed when a 7:3 blend of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid at a pH of 3.8 and a sensitizer concentration of 4.67 · 10-5 g/ml were used. A diffraction efficiency of up to 20% was observed for the MBPVA/alcohol system and an energetic sensitivity of 2000 mJ/cm2 was obtained in the photosensitive films with a spatial frequency of 588 lines/mm.

  1. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  2. Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Turner, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

  3. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  4. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  5. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Addison disease, or increased salt intake. If both chloride and sodium levels are high in a person on a ... anything else I should know? Drugs that affect sodium blood levels will also cause changes in chloride. In addition, swallowing large amounts of baking soda ...

  6. [Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans. PMID:23243919

  7. [Acute salicylate poisoning].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2006-01-01

    Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis. PMID:16467617

  8. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  9. Chemical warfare. Nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Holstege, C P; Kirk, M; Sidell, F R

    1997-10-01

    The threat of civilian and military casualties from nerve agent exposure has become a greater concern over the past decade. After rapidly assessing that a nerve agent attack has occurred, emphasis must be placed on decontamination and protection of both rescuers and medical personnel from exposure. The medical system can become rapidly overwhelmed and strong emotional reactions can confuse the clinical picture. Initially, care should first be focused on supportive care, with emphasis toward aggressive airway maintenance and decontamination. Atropine should be titrated, with the goal of therapy being drying of secretions and the resolution of bronchoconstriction and bradycardia. Early administration of pralidoxime chloride maximizes antidotal efficacy. Benzodiazepines, in addition to atropine, should be administered if seizures develop. Early, aggressive medical therapy is the key to prevention of the morbidity and mortality associated with nerve agent poisoning. PMID:9330846

  10. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of oxalic acid poisoning include: Abdominal pain Burns and blisters where the acid contacted the skin Collapse Convulsions Mouth pain Shock Throat pain Tremors (unintentional trembling) Vomiting

  11. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  12. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Weedoff poisoning; Roundup poisoning ... Glyphosate is the poisonous ingredient in some weed killers. ... Glyphosate is in weed killers with these brand names: Roundup Bronco Glifonox Kleen-up Rodeo Weedoff Other ...

  13. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S.) is a delayed allergic reaction. Brushing the plant on the skin results in blisters and slightly ... of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants. People typically have itchy bumps (papules) and blisters ( ...

  14. Synthesis and reactivity of 3-methylene-7-vinylidenebicyclo(3. 3. 1)nonane

    SciTech Connect

    Krasutskii, P.A.; Fokin, A.A.; Yurchenko, A.G.

    1986-05-10

    The synthesis of 3-methylene-7-vinylidenebicyclo(3.3.1)nonane - a new representative of pseudoconjugated allenes - was realized. In its reaction with electrophilic reagents (sulfuric acid, hydrogen chloride, bromine, and iodine) preferential cyclization to derivatives of adamantane occurs. Increase in the sulfuric acid concentration leads to the formation of 1,2-dimethylprotoadamantan-3-one - the product from more extensive rearrangement. In addition to transannular cyclization, hydrogen chloride in hexane gives rise to exo-endo isomerization of the ..pi.. bond. The differences in the regioselectivity of transannular cyclization under the influence of the acid and the halogen are discussed.

  15. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  16. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  17. Suspected Pesticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

  18. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  19. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  20. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 01 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  2. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  3. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  4. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  5. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  6. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. Toluene and xylene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... used in: Fingernail polish Glues and adhesives Lacquers Octane booster in gasoline Paints Paint thinners Printing and ... anywhere in the United States.This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ...

  9. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  10. Pine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  11. Bug spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective bug sprays contain pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally ... Borron SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  12. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe ... other tests such as: Arterial blood gas analysis Chemistry panel and liver function studies Chest x-ray ( ...

  13. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  14. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 151. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  15. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 97. Harchelroad FP Jr, Rottinghaus ... Textbook of Critical Care . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 187. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  16. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 48. Nelson LS, Ford MD. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Seger DL, Murray L. ...

  17. Plastic resin hardener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 41. Holland MG. Occupational toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. ...

  18. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... local take back programs in your community . Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Always read the label before using a product that may be poisonous. Keep chemical products in their original bottles or containers. Do ...

  19. Turpentine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called "huffing" ...

  20. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in this substance. This article is for information ... The ingredients in face powder that can be harmful are: Baking soda Talcum powder Many other types of powder

  1. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  2. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Field R, Panter KE, et al. Selected poisonous plants affecting animal and human health. In: Haschek WAM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, eds. Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 40.

  3. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  4. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves.

  5. Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... OJ, et al., eds. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide . 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2011:chap 211. Kulig K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. ...

  6. Trisodium phosphate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... removal of burned skin) Washing of the skin (irrigation). Perhaps every few hours for several days. Ointments ... For eye exposure, the person may receive: Extensive irrigation to flush out the poison Medicines

  7. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  8. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  9. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  10. Trisodium phosphate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... For swallowed poison, the person may receive: Endoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ... the nose or mouth into the lungs Bronchoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ...

  11. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... except Maricopa County Mail donation to: College of Pharmacy, Development Office PO Box 210202, Tucson, AZ 85721 ... ly/1HDxdHb Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison/ Email: boesen at pharmacy ...

  12. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... any major gas-burning appliances (such as a furnace or water heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters are being used ...

  14. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or hand cream. This article is for information only. DO ... These ingredients in hand lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols

  15. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and ... for recovery. Swallowing such poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. The ultimate ...

  16. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  17. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  18. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  19. Caulking compound poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Caulking compounds are substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not for use in the ...

  20. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  1. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... familiar skin rash. No one is born with sensitivity to Poison ivy, but if exposed enough most ... sensitized at some time and remain allergic. A sensitivity can change at any time. There's no way ...

  2. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... boric acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic ... vein (IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Note: Activated charcoal does not effectively treat (absorb) boric acid. For ...

  3. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  4. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... dishwasher soaps Some forms of potash (material from wood ashes that is used in fertilizers) Some home ... chance for recovery. Swallowing poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. Damage to ...

  5. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  6. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  7. Pyopneumothorax Following Kerosene Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B. E.; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully. PMID:24748745

  8. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2005-11-01

    CO is an ubiquitous poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms that are often subtle and may be easily misdiagnosed. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and permit continued exposure to a dangerous environment. Treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may also prevent DNS. Absolute indications forHBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most authors would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose or neurologically abnormal, have a history of LOC with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level(>15%-20%) is also widely, considered an indication for treatment.HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOTtreatment protocols. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit may assist the treating physician with decisions regarding therapy. PMID:16227059

  9. Methemoglobinemia as a result of accidental lacquer thinner poisoning.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranju; Vinayagam, Stalin; Vajifdar, Homay

    2012-01-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain a mixture of various aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha; if ingested, it may cause methemoglobinemia. We report two cases who presented to us with a history of accidental ingestion of paint thinner. Both the patients had very high levels of methemoglobin and were treated with methylene blue (MB), but did not respond to the MB therapy. One of them received an exchange transfusion followed again by MB and survived. Unfortunately the other patient succumbed to the poisoning. PMID:22557834

  10. Process for crosslinking methylene-containing aromatic polymers with ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process for crosslinking aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups (-CH2-) by exposing the polymers to ionizing radiation thereby causing crosslinking of the polymers through the methylene groups is described. Crosslinked polymers are resistant to most organic solvents such as acetone, alcohols, hydrocarbons, methylene, chloride, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons, to common fuels and to hydraulic fluids in contrast to readily soluble uncrosslinked polymers. In addition, the degree of crosslinking of the polymers depends upon the percentage of the connecting groups which are methylene which ranges from 5 to 50 pct and preferably from 25 to 50 pct of the connecting groups, and is also controlled by the level of irradiation which ranges from 25 to 1000 Mrads and preferably from 25 to 250 Mrads. The temperature of the reaction conditions ranges from 25 to 200 C and preferably at or slightly above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The crosslinked polymers are generally more resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures such as greater than 150 C, have a reduced tendency to creep under load, and show no significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from the polymers.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2004-11-01

    CO is an insidious poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms, which often are subtle and can be misdiagnosed easily. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and allow continued exposure to a dangerous environment. In the ED, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for occult CO exposure. Headache, particularly when associated with certain environments, and flulike illness in the wintertime with symptomatic cohabitants should raise the index of suspicion in the ED significantly for occult CO poisoning. Emergency treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may prevent DNS. Absolute indications for HBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose, are neurologically abnormal, have a history of loss of consciousness with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level (>15-20%) also is widely considered an indication for treatment. HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOT protocols. The emergency physician may be confronted with the difficult decision regarding disposition and even transfer to a hyperbaric facility. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit can assist the emergency physician with the decision-making process. PMID:15474779

  12. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  13. Severe Propanil [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) propanamide] Pesticide Self-Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Rajapakshe, Manjula; Roberts, Darren; Reginald, K; Sheriff, M H Rezvi; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Buckley, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Background propanil pesticide poisoning can produce methaemoglobinaemia, tissue hypoxia, and depression of CNS and respiratory system. It has been recorded only rarely worldwide and most current poison texts consider propanil to be of low toxicity. However, propanil self-poisoning is a significant clinical problem in parts of Sri Lanka and a not uncommon cause of death. Aim of study to report the clinical features and management of severe propanil poisoning. Patients and Methods we report a retrospective case series of patients who were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) of and/or died in Anuradhapura General Hospital between 1998 and early 2002. Results sixteen patients were identified. Common manifestations of toxicity included confusion, reduced conscious level, cyanosis, and respiratory depression. Marked haemolysis was noted in several patients. Nine deaths occurred due to respiratory depression and cardiorespiratory arrest. Management was difficult given the lack of IV methylene blue, inability to measure methaemoglobin levels, and paucity of ICU beds. Conclusions this series indicates that propanil poisoning can be a severe form of self-poisoning, particularly in resource-poor settings. We have now initiated the establishment of a prospective series of propanil poisoned patients to further describe its clinical features, responsiveness to therapy, and case fatality rate. PMID:12507053

  14. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  15. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  16. Boric Acid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

    1964-01-01

    Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

  17. Modified pineapple peel cellulose hydrogels embedded with sepia ink for effective removal of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongjie; Huang, Huihua

    2016-09-01

    Novel composite hydrogels based on pineapple peel cellulose and sepia ink were synthesized by homogeneous acetylation of cellulose in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. The structure and morphology of the prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The effects of acetylation time, acetylation temperature, molar ratio of acetic anhydride/anhydroglucose unit and the additive amount of sepia ink on methylene blue adsorption capacity of the hydrogels embedded with sepia ink were also investigated. Methylene blue adsorption of the hydrogels followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model and sepia ink improved adsorption capacity significantly. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium was increased from 53.72 to 138.25mg/g when the additive amount of sepia ink of the hydrogels was 10%. PMID:27185109

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

  19. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  20. Successful treatment of potentially fatal heavy metal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ernest E; Mahajan, Niraj; Wills, Brandon; Leikin, Jerrold

    2007-04-01

    Pure inorganic heavy metal ingestions for suicidal intent are a rare occurrence. Most case reports on this subject focus on the serious neurological, hepatic, or renal side effects. We describe two cases of significant heavy metal poisonings (arsenic trioxide and mercuric chloride) that were successfully managed with aggressive decontamination and combined chelation therapy. Both chemicals were obtained in pure powder form through the Internet. PMID:17394994

  1. Methylene Salicylicacidyl Hexamer (MSH) Has DNAse Activity.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ankit; Gade, Chandrasekhar Reddy; Dixit, Manjusha; Sharma, Nagendra K

    2015-07-01

    Salicylic acid and formaldehyde form heterogenous methyl/methylene salicylicacidyl oligomers and polymers in presence of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2). One of the oligomers as aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), methelene bridged salicylic acid trimer, has been identified and explored in biochemical research, which is a potent inhibitor of many biological processes. A very few reports are also available on dimer, trimer, and tetramer of methelene bridged salicylic acids from same reaction mixture. Herein, we report the isolation and biochemical screening of partial purified low-molecular component as methylene salicylicacidyl hexamer (MSH) from the above reaction mixture. The interaction of methylene salicylicacidyl oligomer with DNA was studied by agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which suggest that methylene salicylicacidyl oligomer has DNAse activity. So far, no such significant reports are available on low-molecular oligomer of methelene bridged salicylic acids. In further, we also attempted to investigate the nature of nuclease activity, which clearly indicates DNA exonuclease type of activity. Further studies are needed to establish the mechanism of actions. PMID:26077682

  2. Safe thyroidectomy with intraoperative methylene blue spraying

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to minimalize operative complications by spraying of methylene blue stain on thyroid glands and the perithyroidal area. Material and methods The intra-operative methylene blue spraying technique was used prospectively on a total of 56 patients who had undergone primary (not recurrent) thyroid surgery for a variety of thyroid diseases. Bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed in all cases. After superior but before inferior pole ligation, 0.5ml of methylene blue was sprayed over the thyroid lobe and perilober area. Tissues, especially parathyroides, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and the inferior thyroid artery, were identified and evaluated. Results Recurrent laryngeal nerve and arteries were not stained and thus they remained white in all cases while all other tissues were stained blue. Within three minutes parathyroid glands washed out the blue stain and the original yellow color was regained. Thyroid tissue wash-out time was not less than 15 minutes; perithyroideal muscles, tendinous and lipoid structures took no less than 25 minutes. Conclusion The safety of intravascular methylene blue guidance on thyroid surgery is known. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of the spraying technique, a new technique which ensures not only identification of parathyroid glands within three minutes, but also identification of recurrent laryngeal nerves and inferior thyroid arteries. PMID:23148801

  3. Allene Functionalization via Bicyclic Methylene Aziridines

    PubMed Central

    Boralsky, Luke A.; Marston, Dagmara; Grigg, R. David; Hershberger, John C.; Schomaker, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    The oxidative functionalization of olefins is a common method for the formation of vicinal carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, oxidative methods to transform allenes into synthetic motifs containing three contiguous carbon-heteroatom bonds are much less developed. This paper describes the use of bicyclic methylene aziridines (MAs), prepared via intramolecular allene aziridination, as scaffolds for functionalization of all three allene carbons. PMID:21438516

  4. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  5. Age and criminal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Evgenia; Gesheva, Margarita; Hubenova, Aneta

    2005-01-01

    We present a series of 8 cases of acute combined poisonings, occurred in an identical way in patients over 70 years of age for a period of 6 months. The way of exposure, characteristic of the clinical presentation, complications and the outcome of the intoxications, as well as the therapeutic approach is described. In all of the cases combined drug intoxication with benzodiazepines and opiates have been proved. The impact of the combination of two toxic substances: the first causing rapid and brief suppression of the consciousness and the second, causing prolonged continuation of the already suppressed consciousness, on the clinical course is discussed. The similarities in the circumstances of the exposure, clinical course of the poisonings, the identified toxic substances, lead to the consideration of criminal characteristic of the poisonings. The contact with the corresponding authorities brought off the disclosure of a group of criminals, committed the intentional intoxications with the aim of robbery. Age, with all its various characteristics, has been discussed as a factor for occurrence of criminal poisonings. PMID:16225098

  6. Methyl Bromide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Rathus, E. M.; Landy, P. J.

    1961-01-01

    Seven cases of methyl bromide poisoning which occurred amongst workers engaged on a fumigation project are described. The methods adopted for investigation of the environmental situation are discussed and the measurement of blood bromide levels on random samples of workers is suggested as an index of the effectiveness of equipment and working methods. PMID:13739738

  7. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  8. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  9. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  10. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…