Sample records for methylene chloride poisoning

  1. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is known to be metabolized to carbon monoxide in man and animals, primarily by the liver. Because the oxygen content of blood is decreased, depriving the brain and heart of the oxygen they require, serious permanent damage may result. Carboxyh...

  2. 75 FR 24509 - Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard AGENCY: Occupational...has completed a review of the Methylene Chloride (MC) Standard (29 CFR 1910...Regulatory Impact Analysis (Methylene Chloride) ES-2, January 7,...

  3. 76 FR 14432 - Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...Docket No. OSHA-2011-0060] Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the...requirements specified by the Methylene Chloride Standard (29 CFR 1910.1052...The standard entitled ``Methylene Chloride'' (MC) (29 CFR...

  4. Lead and Methylene Chloride Exposures Among Automotive Repair Technicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Enander; Howard J. Cohen; David M. Gute; Linfield C. Brown; Anne Marie C. Desmaris; Richard Missaghian

    2004-01-01

    Potential exposures among repair technicians engaged in vehicle resurfacing operations prior to spray painting have not been thoroughly characterized. Environmental and personal air monitoring conducted in the State of Rhode Island have shown that automotive repair technicians may be exposed to metal particulates in sanding dust and methylene chloride vapors during vehicle paint removal operations. Hand wipe samples demonstrated that

  5. Developmental toxicity of copper chloride, methylene chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide to embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.R. [Jacksonville State Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Fisher, W.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab.

    1999-05-01

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide, three known teratogenic chemicals. Two exposure periods were used, 4 d and 12 d, and both periods extended through hatching. The average 4-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.071% v/v, 1.82 mg/L, and 0.21 mg/ml, respectively. The average 12-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.031% v/v, 1.44 mg/L, and 0.057 mg/ml, respectively. Eye malformations were observed with embryos exposed to concentrations greater than 3 mg/L copper chloride or greater than 0.07% v/v methylene chloride. Very few abnormalities were observed in embryos exposed to 6-aminonicotinamide. Abnormal larval development was found with exposure to copper chloride at concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The sensitivity and low variability found here further supports the development of these relatively simple methods using grass shrimp embryos. Establishment of sublethal developmental endpoints warrants further investigation because of their potential correspondence to mechanisms of toxic action.

  6. Secondary substrate utilization of methylene chloride by an isolated strain of Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    LaPat-Polasko, L.T.; McCarty, P.L.; Zehnder, J.B.

    1984-04-01

    Secondary substrate utilization of methylene chloride was analyzed by using Pseudomonas sp. strain LP. Both batch and continuously fed reactors demonstrated that this strain was capable of simultaneously consuming two substrates at different concentrations: the primary substrate at the higher concentration (milligrams per liter) and the secondary substrate at the lower concentration (micrograms per liter). The rate of methylene chloride utilization at trace concentrations was greater in the presence of the primary substrate, acetate, than without it. However, when the substrate roles were changed, the acetate secondary substrate utilization rate was less when methylene chloride was present. Thus, substrate interactions are important in the kinetics of secondary substrate utilization. Pseudomonas sp. strain LP showed a preference toward degrading methylene chloride over acetate, whether it was the primary or secondary substrate, providing it was below an inhibitory concentration of ca. 10 mg/liter. 23 references.

  7. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...at concentrations generally ranging from 10 to 25 percent. In a 2-year animal inhalation study sponsored by the National Toxicology Program, methylene chloride produced a significant increase in benign and malignant tumors of the lung and liver...

  8. Results of the controlled exposure of human females to the vapor of methylene chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Hake; R. D. Stewart; H. V. Forester; A. J. Lebrun; J. E. Peterson

    1974-01-01

    The results of controlled exposure of human females to the vapor of methylene chloride (75092) are presented to supplement a previous comprehensive study of the effects of industrial exposure levels on male human subjects. The data obtained for nine healthy, volunteer human females, aged 20 to 41 years, concerned details of their general health and smoking habits, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels,

  9. The hydrogen-bonded heterodimer between methylene cyclobutane and hydrogen chloride: Observation of an endo conformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesarri, Alberto; Blanco, Susana; López, Juan C.; Alonso, José L.

    2002-03-01

    The formation of a hydrogen bond between methylene cyclobutane and hydrogen chloride has been investigated in the region 8-18 GHz using molecular-beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The rotational spectrum of an endo conformer in which methylene cyclobutane retains a puckered conformation and HCl is bonded in T-shape to the methylenic group has been observed. Searches for the exo form using Ar, Ne or He as carrier gases were unsuccessful. A Cs symmetry r0-like structure has been obtained for this conformer from the rotational data of three observed isotopomers (C5H8⋯H35Cl, C5H8⋯H37Cl, and C5H8⋯DCl). Ab initio calculations at MP2/6-311+G(d,p) level have been used to complement the analysis. These calculations predict the existence of both endo and exo conformers close in energy.

  10. Comparative renal and hepatotoxicity of halomethanes: bromodichloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, dibromochloromethane and methylene chloride.

    PubMed

    Condie, L W; Smallwood, C L; Laurie, R D

    1983-01-01

    The renal and hepatotoxicities of five selected halomethanes, which are drinking water contaminants, were evaluated following a 14-day exposure. Bromodichloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, dibromochloromethane and methylene chloride were administered at three dose levels. Toxicity was evaluated by measuring changes in total body weight, uptake of p-aminohippurate into renal cortical slices, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase levels and by performing a histopathologic examination of liver and kidney tissues. Dose-related effects on the liver and kidney were detected with the uptake of p-aminohippurate into kidney slices and with the histopathologic evaluation of tissues. Treatment-related effects seen in the methylene chloride exposed mice were less pronounced as compared to the other halomethane treatment groups. In general, histopathological changes were the most sensitive indicators of both liver and kidney damage. PMID:6653442

  11. POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF PAINT APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVES TO METHYLENE CHLORIDE AND METHYL ETHYL KETONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of demonstrations of technologies to prevent or control emissions of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from processes with high solvent usage: (1) paint stripping using methylene chloride, (2) cleaning paint equipment wi...

  12. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as effective, might transfer risk and/or not be integrated with financial goals. However, technical assistance sensitive to environmental and health and safety impacts as well as production issues should be provided to guide companies' source reduction efforts. PMID:12904266

  13. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  14. Chemical electron-transfer reactions in electrospray mass spectrometry: Effective oxidation potentials of electron-transfer reagents in methylene chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, G.J.; Zhou, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-10-15

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV/visible absorption spectroscopy, and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) are used in conjunction to study the mono- and /or dications produced in solution from the reaction of three model compounds ([beta]-carotene, cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin (Co[sup II]OEP), nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin (Ni[sup II]OEP), in three different solvent/electron-transfer reagent systems (methylene chloride/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (v/v), methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) v/v/200 [mu]M), methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/0.1% antimony pentafluoride (SbF[sub 5]) (v/v/v)). The reactions were carried out on-line with ES-MS by means of flow injection. Correlation of the CV data for these analytes with the ionic species determined to be in the solution on the basis of UV/visible absorption spectra and/or on the basis of the ionic species observed in the gas phase by ES-MS, along with our previously published data on these solvent/reagent systems, allowed an effective oxidation potential range, E, to be assigned to these solvent/reagent systems: methylene chloride/0.1% TFA (v/v), 0.6V [le] E[sub TFA] < 0.7 V; methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/DDQ (v/v/200 [mu]M), 0.8 [le] E[sub TFA/DDQ] < 1.0 V; methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/0.1% SbF[sub 5] (v/v/v), 1.3 [le] E[sub TFA/SbF(5)] < 1.5. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF N-METHYL PYRROLIDONE (NMP) AS A POLLUTION PREVENTION ALTERNATIVE TO PAINT STRIPPING WITH METHYLENE CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This objective of this paper is to demonstrate that NMP is a viable pollution prevention alternative to methylene chloride. Maine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB), Albany, GA, USA was the host site for the demonstration. MCLB's primary function is maintenance of military ground supp...

  16. 77 FR 1512 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Methylene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ...Review; Comment Request; Methylene Chloride Standard ACTION: Notice...request (ICR) titled, ``Methylene Chloride Standard,'' to the Office...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The methylene chloride (MC) standard requires...

  17. Decomposition characteristics and reaction mechanisms of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride using metal-loaded zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bala Ramachandran; Howard L. Greene; Sougato Chatterjee

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic activities and selectivities of four zeolite-Y catalysts (H?Y, Co?Y, Na?Y and Co-z.sbnd;Y\\/CA) for the oxidation of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride were compared. Reactor experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor with temperatures ranging from 150 to 350°C and a space velocity of 2400 h?1, at atmospheric pressure. Other catalyst characteristics, including oxygen adsorption capacities, surface

  18. Chemical characterization of sanding dust and methylene chloride usage in automotive refinishing: implications for occupational and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Gute, David M; Cohen, Howard J; Brown, Linfield C; Desmaris, Anne Marie C; Missaghian, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Surface preparation activities conducted during automotive refinishing present several potential human health and environmental risks. This study examines the chemical composition of vehicle sanding dust and the prevalence of methylene chloride use as a basis for evaluating potential chemical exposures in the work environment, fugitive environmental releases, and take-home toxics. This article reports on the findings of (1) a statewide technology and work practices survey of 353 licensed auto body shops and (2) laboratory analyses of sanding dust representing more than 200 vehicles, 10 commercial body filler compounds, and work shirts worn during vehicle sanding while using nonventilated equipment. Survey data revealed that the majority of shops (78%) do not use ventilated sanding equipment, that most workers (55%) take their work clothes and shoes home at the end of the workday, and that 17% of the respondents used a methylene chloride-based paint stripper as an adjunct to mechanical sanding. Laboratory results showed that Pb, As, Cr, Mn, and Ni were present in the sanding dust at every facility tested. Lead concentrations in sanding dust were found to be highest at facilities that performed complete vehicle refinishing (range 770 to 7300 ppm) and at a collision repair shop that used a high-lead content body filler compound (1800 ppm). Hexavalent chromium also was found in two vocational high school paint dust samples at concentrations of 54 and 710 ppm. When total lead and chromium concentrations reached 7300 and 2300 ppm, respectively, facility sanding dust samples failed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure for hazardous waste. Metals found in the sanding dust also were present on the work shirts of technicians-ranging from 0.06 (Cd) to 81 (Mg) microg/inch2 of cloth-who sanded on paint without ventilated equipment. Results suggest that sanding dust and methylene chloride paint strippers used in vehicle resurfacing operations pose a potential hazard to human health and the environment. PMID:12570083

  19. Complex methylene-blue-sensitized polyvinyl chloride: a polymer matrix for hologram recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Joseph, Rani

    2002-04-01

    A new polymer matrix sensitized with methylene blue for use as an optical recording material is described here. The characterization is done to determine the optimal recording conditions. These films need no chemical development and are found to be stable for several months. The matrix has excellent shelf life and needs an exposure only as short as 20 s. Direct imaging was done on this material.

  20. In-depth survey report: Assisting furniture strippers in reducing the risk from methylene chloride stripping formulations at Los Angeles Stripping and Refinishing Center, Los Angeles, California

    SciTech Connect

    Estill, C.F.; Kovein, R.J.; Jones, J.H.; Morton, A.

    1999-03-26

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is currently conducting research on ventilation controls to reduce furniture stripping exposures to methylene chloride to the OSHA PEL of 25 ppm. Low cost ventilation systems were designed by NIOSH researchers along with Benny Bixenman of Benco Sales, Inc. (Forney, TX). The controls were constructed and installed by Benco Sales. This report compares the methylene chloride levels of one worker stripping furniture using the recently installed ventilation controls and using the existing controls. During the survey, two different chemical stripping solutions (a standard formulation and a low methylene chloride content formulation) were used and compared. This survey tested three control combinations: (1) new ventilation, low methylene chloride stripper, (2) new ventilation, standard stripping solution, and (3) old ventilation, standard stripping solution. During each test, sorbent tube sampling and real-time sampling were employed. Sorbent tube, data collected in the worker's breathing zone, ranged from 300 to 387 ppm. Real-time data showed breathing zone exposures to range from 211 to 383 ppm while stripping and 164 to 230 ppm while rinsing. Data were inconclusive to determine which ventilation system or stripping solution produced the lowest exposures. Recommendations are made in the report to improve the newly installed ventilation controls.

  1. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 84-419-1697, USGS Laboratory, Doraville, Georgia. [Benzene, methylene chloride, hexane, and acetone

    SciTech Connect

    Rondinelli, R.; Wilcox, T.; Roper, P.; Salisbury

    1986-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Doraville, Georgia requested an evaluation of physical complaints reported by employees to determine possible work related causes. Laboratory workers, in general, complained of physical symptoms which were irritative (rash, sore throat, nose or sinus irritation), neurological (numbness, muscle weakness) and nonspecific (dizziness, headache, emotional swings, insomnia, muscle aching, fatigue). Reported exposure to solvents such as benzene, methylene chloride, hexane and acetone were positively related with light headedness or dizziness, numbness, unexplained muscle weakness and muscle aching. Air sampling did not reveal any remarkable exposure to chemical contaminants. The authors conclude that no relationship could be established between chemical exposures and antinuclear antibody positivity. Exposure to chemicals measured by air sampling were below occupational health exposure limits.

  2. Solid\\/liquid extraction of caffeine from guaraná with methylene chloride\\/Extracción solido-liquido de cafeina de guarana con cloruro de metileno

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Hulbert; R. N. Biswal; C. B. Mehr; T. H. Walker; J. L. Collins

    1998-01-01

    Methylene chloride decaffeination processes for ground and whole guaraná seed cores were evaluated. Ground seeds were contacted with solvent in shaking flasks in a controlled temperature water bath. The experimental design included three solid\\/liquid ratios [1:4, 1:6, 1:8 (w\\/w)] and two temperatures (25 and 30°C). Caffeine was also extracted from 100 g batches of whole seed cores in a solid\\/liquid

  3. Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

  4. [Chemical diagnosis of sodium chloride poisoning in thoroughbred fur-bearing animals (foxes, coypu) and in turkeys and pheasants].

    PubMed

    Kacmár, P; Samo, A; Knezik, J

    1980-12-01

    For laboratory diagnosis of sodium chloride poisoning, the concentration of chlorides was polarographically determined in the liver of minks (seven-month-old and older), polar and silver foxes (eight-month-old and older), coypus (nine to ten month old), turkeys (three-month-old), and pheasants. The physiological concentration of sodium chloride in the liver of mink (n = 32) is 2.47 to 3.64 g kg-1, polar foxes (n = 30) 2.46 to 4.23 g kg-1, silver foxes (n =3) 3.27 to 3.44 g kg-1, coypu (n = 23) 1.79 to 3.05 g kg-1, turkeys (n = 30) 1.0 to 2.1 g kg-1, and pheasants (n = 28) 0.95 to 2.37 g kg-1. The exposure of the organism of a pheasant to single lethal doses of common salt (3.4 and 5 g NaCl per kg 1. w.) resulted in a 2.5- to 6-fold increase of salt concentration in liver, as compared with physiological concentration. A decreased concentration of sodium chloride (lower than the physiological standard) was found in the liver of deceased lactating minks. PMID:6781123

  5. Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    ?ukasik-G??bocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Han?, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Bara?kiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Micha?; Zieli?ska-Psuja, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person. PMID:24794066

  6. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Shady Side, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  7. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or breathing in (sniffing) products to remove paint, lacquer , or varnish . This is for information only and ... Paint, lacquer, and varnish removers may contain the following poisonous ingredients: Benzyl alcohol Ethanol Formic acid Methyl alcohol Methylene ...

  8. Catalyst-free activation of methylene chloride and alkynes by amines in a three-component coupling reaction to synthesize propargylamines.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Vikas S; Bathini, Thulasiram; Govardan, S; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2014-09-14

    Propargylamines are synthesized via metal-free activation of the C-halogen bond of dihalomethanes and the C-H bond of terminal alkynes in a three-component coupling without catalyst or additional base and under mild reaction conditions. The dihalomethanes are used both as solvents as well as precursors for the methylene fragment (C1) in the final product. The scope of the reaction and the influence of various reaction variables has been investigated. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed and the involvement of various intermediates that can be generated in situ in the process is discussed. The metal-free conditions also make this protocol environmentally benign and atom economical. PMID:25047719

  9. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

  10. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePLUS

    The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

  11. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Poison Ivy Overview What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a very common plant found in most parts of the United States. ... This is because most people are allergic to poison ivy. Symptoms What does a poison ivy rash ...

  12. Mushroom Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Food Poisoning | Mushroom Poisoning Is it possible to tell if a wild mushroom is poisonous? You can't tell for sure if a ... watch the person for any symptoms of mushroom poisoning for the next 24 hours. Written by familydoctor.org editorial staff ... Reviewed/Updated: 04/14 Created: 09/00

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...stored in plain, galvanized or lead lined, mild steel containers in a cool, dry, well ventilated area away from direct sunlight, heat source and acute fire hazards. E. Piping Material: All piping and valves at the loading or unloading...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...stored in plain, galvanized or lead lined, mild steel containers in a cool, dry, well ventilated area away from direct sunlight, heat source and acute fire hazards. E. Piping Material: All piping and valves at the loading or unloading...

  15. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR METHYLENE CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  16. Insecticide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should ... emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222. See ...

  17. Methylene blue unresponsive methemoglobinemia

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Sibabratta; Natarajan, Manivachagan Muthappa; James, Ebor Jacob; Ebenezer, Kala

    2014-01-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon blood disorder induced by exposure to certain oxidizing agents and drugs. Although parents may not give any history of toxin ingestion; with the aid of pulse-oximetry and blood gas analysis, we can diagnose methemoglobinemia. Prompt recognition of this condition is required in emergency situations to institute early methylene blue therapy. We report an unusual case of severe toxic methemoglobinemia, which did not respond to methylene blue, but was successfully managed with exchange transfusion. PMID:24872659

  18. Mercury(II)–methylene blue interactions: Complexation and metallate formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mani Mohan Raj; Allimuthu Dharmaraja; Savaridasson Jose Kavitha; Krishnaswamy Panchanatheswaran; Daniel E. Lynch

    2007-01-01

    Reactions of HgX2 (X=Cl, Br, I) with methylene blue (MB) chloride dihydrate and the reaction of HgCl2 with MB nitrate dihydrate have been undertaken in an attempt to prepare metal derivatives of MB. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, UV–Vis, IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The reaction of HgCl2 with MB chloride dihydrate and subsequent crystallization in

  19. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given. PMID:15636379

  20. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

  1. Merthiolate poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    In the United States, call 1-800-222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center. This hotline number will let ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

  2. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... insecticide, a product used to kill or control bugs. Poisoning may occur if you swallow malathion, handle ... tearing Small or dilated pupils (not reactive to light) Heart and blood Low or high blood pressure ...

  3. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... insecticide, a product used to kill or control bugs. Poisoning can occur if you swallow this product. ... ears, nose, and throat Small pupils (unreactive to light) Tearing, increased Heart and blood circulation Low or ...

  4. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used on the inside and outside of ... surface. In 1977, federal regulations banned lead from paint for general use. But homes built before 1977 ...

  5. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur ...

  6. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments M - P Poison ivy Poison ivy, oak, and sumac Rash from poison ivy. ... to an emergency room immediately. Learn more about poison ivy: Poison ivy: Signs and symptoms Poison ivy: ...

  7. Poisonous Contacts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center; )

    2010-04-09

    In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

  8. Scientific Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chemist

    1876-01-01

    FOR giving instruction to one person in the art of poisoning without detection, the medical student, Vance, is undergoing the very lenient punishment of eighteen months' imprisonment. What would be the appropriate penalty to inflict upon the responsible editors of newspapers who initiate the public generally into Vance's secret?

  9. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

  10. Overview of Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on information gleaned from the poisoned person and bystanders, and sometimes on blood and urine tests. Drugs ... priority in helping a poisoned person is for bystanders not to become poisoned themselves. People exposed to ...

  11. CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING

    E-print Network

    CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING Marine Biological I · ·' iw« L I B R >*· ** Y JUL 3 -1350 WOODS POISONING By William Arcisz, Bacteriologist, Formerly with the Fishery Research Laboratory Branch in which Fish Poisoning is Prevalento........... 3 Symptoms of Ciguatera ...... 00

  12. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  13. Poison Help Line

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This Web site tells you about poisons, poison safety and prevention, and when to contact your poison center. ... Fund poison centers serving all states, Puerto Rico, District of Columbia, Guam, Federated States of Micronesia, and American Samoa. Establish and maintain a single, national ...

  14. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning. PMID:25540555

  15. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  16. Oak Poisoning in Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Dollahite, J. W.; Housholder, G. T.; Camp, B. J.

    1966-01-01

    April 1966 r Oak Poisoning *. . TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Texas Agricultural Experiment Station R. E. Patterson, Director, College Station, Texas Summary Oak poisoning is a major problem in the production of livestock in areas where oak occurs.... The blossoms, buds, young leaves and acorns are poisonous. Cattle, sheep, goats, swine, rabbits and guinea pigs are susceptible to oak poisoning. A gallotannin isolated from oak has been demonstrated to be poisonous. Calcium hydroxide is an antidote...

  17. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  18. Striatal neuroprotection with methylene blue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Rojas; N. Simola; B. A. Kermath; J. R. Kane; T. Schallert; F. Gonzalez-Lima

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that low-dose Methylene Blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone (Rot) in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion

  19. Organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Daniel R

    2002-11-01

    Stay safe! Certain scenes and scenarios invite a greater degree of caution. Wear protective gear (Level B for decon) and make sure the patient is hazmat-naked prior to decontamination. Use tincture of green soap or household dishwashing soap to decontaminate your patient. Maintain the patient's airway using oral/nasal airways; intubate if indicated. Give high-flow oxygen by nonrebreather oxygen mask or, if intubated, with a bagh-valve mask. Treat for shock by maintaining the patient's body temperature, keeping them supine if they will tolerate it, and gaining i.v. access. Administer oxygen, atropine, pralidoxime chloride and diazepam as required. Notify the ED and transport rapidly. If it is a terrorist incident, get your patient and get out. PMID:12440317

  20. 62 FR 1494 - Occupational Exposure to Methylene Chloride

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-01-10

    ...model incorporating rodent and human metabolic information. That analysis shows a...assumption that, as a general rule, metabolic parameters scale proportional to a function...those species lack the high level of GST metabolic activity to MC found in the mouse...

  1. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE), EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloromethane (DCM) is a solvent widely used for a variety of purposes. It has been detected in the ambient air of urban and non-urban areas of the United States and also in natural and municipal waters. The weight of available evidence indicates that adverse toxicologic effect...

  2. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning Causative organism: Karenia brevis Toxins produced: Brevetoxins Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) produces an intoxication ... and neurological symptoms predominate. In addition, formation of toxic aerosols by wave action can produce respiratory asthma- ...

  3. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use. Arizona BC Drug & Poison Information Centre Address 655 West 12th Avenue Vancouver, BC V5Z 4r4 Online ... Florida Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville Address 655 West Eighth Street, Box C-23 Jacksonville, FL ...

  4. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  5. [Occupational phosphine poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kurzbauer, H; Kiesler, A

    1987-01-01

    The authors report their observations on late sequelae of phosphine poisoning. For 18 months after acute poisoning signs of nervous system damage persisted (objective changes, EEG abnormalities). PMID:3444514

  6. The poison warrant: A powerful poison pill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Van Hulle; Koen Geens

    1993-01-01

    Following the hostile bid for Société Générale in Belgium, companies have adopted 'poison' warrants as a means of deterring raiders. They appear to circumvent many important rules of Belgian takeover legislation. Cynthia Van Hulle and Koen Geens demonstrate that poison warrants would mainly benefit larger shareholders in companies subject to attack.

  7. Methylene blue doped polymers: efficient media for optical recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, R.

    2004-05-01

    Polymer materials find application in optical storage technology, namely in the development of high information density and fast access type memories. A new polymer blend of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) in methanol is prepared and characterized and its comparison with methylene blue sensitized PVA in methanol and complexed methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride (CMBPVC) is presented. The optical absorption spectra of the thin films of these polymers showed a strong and broad absorption region at 670-650 nm, matching the wavelength of the laser used. A very slow recovery of the dye on irradiation was observed when a 7:3 blend of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid at a pH of 3.8 and a sensitizer concentration of 4.67 · 10-5 g/ml were used. A diffraction efficiency of up to 20% was observed for the MBPVA/alcohol system and an energetic sensitivity of 2000 mJ/cm2 was obtained in the photosensitive films with a spatial frequency of 588 lines/mm.

  8. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  9. LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Families AreForever LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION FOR PARENTS & PROSPECTIVE-lead levels There is no safe level of lead in the body. Often, symptoms are not obvious, so lead poisoning's medical examination in the U.S. or contact your state or local Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program

  10. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

    1981-12-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

  11. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  12. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence, tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  13. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.) (41% glyphosate as the IPA salt and 15% POEA). There is a reasonable correlation between the amount ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death. Advancing age is also associated with a less favourable prognosis. Ingestion of >85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults. Gastrointestinal corrosive effects, with mouth, throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common. Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion. Respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary oedema, infiltration on chest x-ray, shock, arrythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases. Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre-terminally. Dermal exposure to ready-to-use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo-contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally; these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel (benzisothiazolin-3-one). Severe skin burns are very rare. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling and throat irritation. Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis, and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate. Management is symptomatic and supportive, and skin decontamination with soap and water after removal of contaminated clothing should be undertaken in cases of dermal exposure. PMID:15862083

  14. Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem in the United States before 1978 still contain some lead- ScreeningfYoungfChildrenf orfLeadfPoisoning 13 #12

  15. [Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans. PMID:23243919

  16. Utilization of Guava Seeds as a Source of Activated Carbon for Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Rahman; B. Saad

    Guava seeds have been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon. Dried, milled, guava seeds were activated by pyrolysis at temperature up to 700 o C, and by using zinc chloride as chemical activation agent. The adsorption capacity was demonstrated by the isotherms of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Pyrolysis alone yields a poor adsorbing carbon with adsorbing

  17. Poisonous Plant Management. 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01

    inflammation, swelling and sloughing of the skin. In contrast, chronic poisoning from perennial broomweed is less obvious with the only symptom often being abortion. It is difficult to differentiate this symptom from problems arising from improper... :nay .b.e benefici~1. For example, Senecio poisoning is Identified many times by observing a hard, yellow liver in affected animals. Nitrate poisoning is often identified by chocolate-brown colored blood present for 2 to 4 hours after death_ After...

  18. Wheat Pasture Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

    1956-01-01

    Tech Field Laboratory near Panhandle by personnel of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas Technological College and the U. S. Department of Agriculture on wheat pasture poisoning. The condition known as wheat pasture poisoning occurs primarily... serum of normal cows was compared with the serum of cows affected with wheat pasture poisoning, a decrease in inarganic phos- phate, total and diffusible calcium, magnesium and the albumin-globulin ratio was found in the cases. The total serum protein...

  19. Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maneveldt, Gavin W.

    This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

  20. Convenient synthesis of methylene bisthiocyanate as microbiocide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi Muthusubramanian; V. S. Sundara Rao; Rajat B. Mitra

    2003-01-01

    Methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) is used as a biocide in the leather making industry. Commercial biocidal formulations containing a blend of 10% MBT (Methylene bisthiocyanate) and 10% TCMTB (2-Thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole are available. This blend of active ingredients combine the rapid antimicrobial action of MBT with the fungicidal properties of TCMTB. Such biocides are suitable for use over a wide range of tannery

  1. Copper Doped Methylene Blue Sensitized Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Acrylamide Films for Stable Diffraction Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Beena Mary; Joseph, Rani; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.

    2006-11-01

    Copper doped methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl alcohol) (MBPVA)-acrylamide films were fabricated to improve the storage life of recorded gratings. The films were fabricated using gravity settling method and the copper chloride concentration was optimized as 3.18× 10-3 mol/l for a dye concentration of 6.2× 10-4 mol/l. The gratings recorded on the optimized film constitution could be stored for months with stable diffraction efficiency (24%) without any chemical or thermal fixing techniques. The resolution of the material is found to be unaffected with the addition of copper chloride.

  2. Aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

    2006-01-01

    We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 1997-2003 are discussed. PMID:16373788

  3. Recording acute poisoning deaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Flanagan; C. Rooney

    2002-01-01

    Recording deaths from acute poisoning\\/substance abuse is not straightforward. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used to code mortality statistics, is aimed towards recording the underlying cause of death such as suicide or drug dependence rather than gathering data on poisoning per se. Despite the inherent difficulties clear trends can be observed from the data available for England and Wales.

  4. RECORDING ACUTE POISONING DEATHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RJ Flanagan; C Rooney

    Recording deaths from acute poisoning\\/substance abuse is not straightforward. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used to code mortality statistics, is aimed towards recording underlying cause of death such as suicide or drug dependence rather than gathering data on poisoning per se. Despite the inherent difficulties clear trends can be observed from the data available for England & Wales. There

  5. Histamine fish poisoning revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leigh Lehane; June Olley

    2000-01-01

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (?50 mg\\/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the

  6. Poisonous Plants Web Pages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Spearheaded by Dr. Mary C. Smith and Professor Dan Brown of Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Animal Science respectively, Poisonous Plants Web Pages contains color images of poisonous plants and affected animals, and provides information concerning the biological mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of animal poisoning due to toxic plants and other natural flora (fungi, etc.). Pictures and information can be accessed through an alphabetical list of Latin botanical names (common names are also included), a list of the specific type of poisons present, or a list of species of animals commonly affected. Additionally, there are several links to related poisonous plant sites. Although text is not yet complete for many species, pictures for each plant and links to related sites are provided.

  7. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  8. Study on Worm Poisoning Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Wu; Xiao-chun Yun; Xiang Cui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, concepts of worm poisoning and PoisonWorm are presented and the feasibility of worm poisoning is testified. A propagation model named SIRP Model and PoisonWorm's side-effect on network traffic are given and compared with the classical epidemic Kermack-Mckendrick model. The feasibility and necessity of PoisonWorm and its application are highlighted in an active defense system against Internet worms.

  9. Worm Poisoning Technology and Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Cui; Zhou Yonglin; Zou Xin; Wu Bing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of Worm Poisoning and PoisonWorm are presented and the feasibility of Worm Poisoning is emphatically testified. A propagation model called SIRP model and the side-effect to network traffic of PoisonWorm are given and compared to the classical epidemic Kermack-Mckendrick model. We highlight the feasibility and necessity of PoisonWorm and its application in active defense system

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

  11. Ink remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Ink remover is a chemical used to get out ink stains. Ink remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... Ink removers Liquid bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of ink removers.

  12. Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from breathing in the poison) Skin Irritation Burns Necrosis (tissue death) in the skin or tissues underneath ... severe blood loss has occurred Chest x-ray EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids through a vein ( ...

  13. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... describes poisoning caused by eating parts of the Caladium plant and other plants belonging to the Araceae ... Caladium and related plants may be purchased as houseplants or used in landscapes. Types include Caladium esculentum ...

  14. Nail polish poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  15. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  16. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... commonly, kids get lead poisoning from lead-based paint , which was used in many U.S. homes until ... 1970s, when the government banned the manufacture of paint containing lead. That's why kids who live in ...

  17. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  18. Household glue poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

  19. [Neurological symptoms in poisoning].

    PubMed

    Neu, I

    1980-10-01

    Acute and chronic intoxications become manifest in primary neurological symptoms. After a definition of poisoning the autonomic, neurological and psychological disturbances are briefly discussed and the therapeutic measures presented in a table. Later, the neurological symptoms are described with reference to oberservations of cases of lead, thallium, E 605 (parathion), carbon monoxide, mercury, amphetamine and botulin poisoning. Four table and 9 figures supplement the text. PMID:6775212

  20. Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep. 

    E-print Network

    Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1931-01-01

    A & f~l COLLEGE, 'PYAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, I COLLEGE STATION. BRAZO )IRECTC IS COUNT' ETIN NO. 433 C.. . .-, )R Y, TEXAS AUGUST, 1931 Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep. - *-. " AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... cooperation with U. S. Department nf Agriculture. Bitterweed, Actinea odorata (DC.) Kuntze, has been shown to be poisonous to sheep. This plant grows from Kansas south to Mexico and from central Texas west to California. In Texas it occurs in greatest...

  1. Is It Poison Ivy?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With this Web site from Florida Plants Online, you don't need to be a botanist to tell poison ivy apart from its benign look-alike, Virginia creeper. Photos and detailed identification tips, as well as numerous links to additional information, help readers learn how to avoid "one of nature's most dreaded plants." The site also includes information on how to diagnose a poison ivy reaction (including a link to images of contact dermatitis).

  2. Process for crosslinking methylene-containing aromatic polymers with ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L. (inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process for crosslinking aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups (-CH2-) by exposing the polymers to ionizing radiation thereby causing crosslinking of the polymers through the methylene groups is described. Crosslinked polymers are resistant to most organic solvents such as acetone, alcohols, hydrocarbons, methylene, chloride, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons, to common fuels and to hydraulic fluids in contrast to readily soluble uncrosslinked polymers. In addition, the degree of crosslinking of the polymers depends upon the percentage of the connecting groups which are methylene which ranges from 5 to 50 pct and preferably from 25 to 50 pct of the connecting groups, and is also controlled by the level of irradiation which ranges from 25 to 1000 Mrads and preferably from 25 to 250 Mrads. The temperature of the reaction conditions ranges from 25 to 200 C and preferably at or slightly above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The crosslinked polymers are generally more resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures such as greater than 150 C, have a reduced tendency to creep under load, and show no significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from the polymers.

  3. STRIATAL NEUROPROTECTION WITH METHYLENE BLUE

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Julio C.; Simola, Nicola; Kermath, Bailey A.; Kane, Jacqueline R.; Schallert, Timothy; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that low-dose methylene blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion volumes were performed and changes in oxidative energy metabolism in the striatum and related motor regions were mapped using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. The influence of MB on striatal levels of oxidative stress induced by rotenone was determined, and behavioral tests were used to investigate the effect of unilateral MB co-administration on motor asymmetry. Rotenone induced large anatomical lesions resembling “metabolic strokes”, whose size was greatly reduced in MB-treated rats. Moreover, MB prevented the decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity and the perilesional increase in oxidative stress associated with rotenone infusion in the striatum. MB also prevented the indirect effects of the rotenone-induced lesion on cytochrome oxidase activity in related motor regions, such as the striatal regions rostral and caudal to the lesion, the substantia nigra compacta and reticulata, and the pedunculopontine nucleus. At a network level, MB maintained a global strengthening of functional connectivity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuits, as opposed to the functional decoupling observed in rotenone-alone subjects. Finally, MB partially prevented the behavioral sensorimotor asymmetries elicited by rotenone. These results are consistent with protective effects of MB against neurotoxic damage in the brain parenchyma. This study provides the first demonstration of the anatomical, metabolic and behavioral neuroprotective effects of MB in the striatum in vivo, and supports the notion that MB could be a valuable intervention against neural damage associated with oxidative stress and energy hypometabolism. PMID:19596056

  4. Metal-free, one-pot, sequential protocol for transforming ?,?-epoxy ketones to ?-hydroxy ketones and ?-methylene ketones.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Eietsu; Arai, Saki; Tayama, Eiji; Iwamoto, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    A new sequential, one-pot protocol for transforming 1,3-disubstituted 2,3-epoxy ketones to ?-hydroxy ketones and ?-methylene ketones has been developed. Reaction of epoxy ketones with boron trifluoride etherate (BF3·OEt2) generates the cationic intermediates by regioselective epoxide ring opening and an acyl shift. Then, a treatment of these cations with 2-aryl-1,3-dimethylbenzimidazolines (DMBIH) results in formation of 1,2-disubstituted 3-hydroxy ketones. DMBIH serves as a hydride donor in the second step of this process. Finally, the ?-hydroxy ketones can be converted to 1,2-disubstituted 2-methylene ketones by treatment with methanesulfonic acid or a combination of methanesulfonyl chloride and triethylamine. Importantly, the sequential steps involved in formation of the ?-methylene ketone products can be carried out in one pot. PMID:25562397

  5. Polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Yu Sizov; Aleksei F Kolomiets; Alexandr V Fokin

    1992-01-01

    Data appearing since 1975 are correlated for the methods of synthesis of polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides, their reactions with O-, S-, N-, P- and C-nucleophiles, with unsaturated aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, for their behaviour in oxidation and heterocyclisation reactions and in free radical conversions. The bibliography includes 214 references.

  6. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    PurposeThere are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In

  7. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePLUS

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  8. Dieldrin poisoning of dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Harrison; B. W. Manktelow

    1960-01-01

    ExtractDieldrin poisoning in sheepdogs was suspected early in 1958, and during the next two years specimens from 40 similar cases were submitted to Wallaceville for examination. The symptoms described by field veterinarians were all of the same general pattern and similar to the syndrome producedin other species by the chlorinated hydrocarbon group of insecticides (Garner, 1957). Dieldrin was recovered from

  9. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  10. Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  11. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

  12. Methylene blue selectively stains intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia Irene F. Canto; Sebouh Setrakian; Robert E. Petras; Edmond Blades; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak

    1996-01-01

    Background: Specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus resembles gastric intestinal metaplasia, which selectively stains with methylene blue. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the safety, accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and diagnostic yield of methylene blue–directed biopsy in detecting specialized columnar epithelium and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We performed upper endoscopy with methylene blue–directed biopsy and obtained 236 large cup biopsy specimens (145 stained,

  13. Nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride) with carbon nanotubes (CNT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Broza; Kazimierz Piszczek; Karl Schulte; Tomasz Sterzynski

    2007-01-01

    The nanocomposites of PVC with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and single wall carbon nanotubes were prepared in THF solution, followed by film casting. The scanning electron microscopy allowed to confirm a homogeneous distribution of the CNT’s in the PVC matrix. Depending on the CNT’s concentration, changes of sorption in methylene chloride as well as of the characteristic temperature of PVC transformation,

  14. Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A Naun; Cody S Olsen; J Michael Dean; Lenora M Olson; Lawrence J Cook; Heather T Keenan

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED).DesignA statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into

  15. [Poisoning by bee sting].

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

  16. [Puffer fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ababou, A; Mosadik, A; Squali, J; Fikri, K O; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

    2000-03-01

    We report three cases of a collective tetrodotoxin poisoning, after ingestion of puffer fish eggs. This neurotoxin is the most potent membrane stabilizer, blocking the nervous conduction and resulting in death from respiratory paralysis in case of massive ingestion. The father died at admission, the mother and her daughter presented an acute respiratory failure and a flaccid tetraplegia, with favourable outcome after 24 hours. PMID:10782242

  17. Poisonous Plant Management.

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01

    milkweed Asclepias Horsetail subverticiLlata milkweed Asclepias verticiLLata Whorled milkweed AstragaLus Peavine, emoryanus emory loco AstragaLus spp. Locoweed Avena fatua vaL sativa Baileya Desert muLtiradiata baileya Baptisia spp. False indigo..., prostration, coma Calcium . rich feeds may reduce oxalate poisoning Oxytropis Lambert loco, Unknown See Astragalus spp. Rare in Texas lambert;; crazyweed, point loco Panicum Blue panic urn Unknown Labored respiration Blue panic urn is a valuable...

  18. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations. PMID:25344454

  19. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  20. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  1. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    E-print Network

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  2. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22634487

  3. Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Ronald E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file Alcohol Poisoning Deaths Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Details Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol poisoning deaths: ...

  5. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  6. Extended orientational correlation study for molecular liquids containing distorted tetrahedral molecules: Application to methylene halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothoczki, Szilvia; Temleitner, László; Pusztai, László

    2010-04-01

    The method of Rey [Rey, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 164506 (2007)] for describing how molecules orient toward each other in systems with perfect tetrahedral molecules is extended to the case of distorted tetrahedral molecules of c2v symmetry by means of introducing 28 subgroups. Additionally, the original analysis developed for perfect tetrahedral molecules, based on six groups, is adapted for molecules with imperfect tetrahedral shape. Deriving orientational correlation functions have been complemented with detailed analyses of dipole-dipole correlations. This way, (up to now) the most complete structure determination can be carried out for such molecular systems. In the present work, these calculations have been applied for particle configurations resulting from reverse Monte Carlo computer modeling. These particle arrangements are fully consistent with structure factors from neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements. Here we present a complex structural study for methylene halide (chloride, bromide, and iodide) molecular liquids, as possibly the best representative examples. It has been found that the most frequent orientations of molecules are of the 2:2 type over the entire distance range in these liquids. Focusing on the short range orientation, neighboring molecules turn toward each other with there "H,Y"-"H,Y" (Y: Cl, Br, I) edges, apart from CH2Cl2 where the H,H-H,Cl arrangement is the most frequent. In general, the structure of methylene chloride appears to be different from the structure of the other two liquids.

  7. Methylene blue treatment delays progression of perfusion-diffusion mismatch to infarct in permanent ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pavel; Jiang, Zhao; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q

    2014-11-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Low-dose methylene blue (MB), which has been used safely to treat methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning in humans, has energy enhancing and antioxidant properties. We tested the hypothesis that methylene blue treatment delays progression of at-risk tissue (ca. perfusion-diffusion mismatch) to infarct in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats at two MB treatment doses. Serial MRI was used to evaluate MB treatment efficacy. The major findings were: (i) MB significantly prolonged the perfusion-diffusion mismatch, (ii) MB mildly increased the CBF in the hypoperfused tissue, (iii) MB did not change the final infarct volume in permanent ischemic stroke, and (iv) there were no dose-dependent effects on mismatch progression for the 1 and 3mg/kg doses studied. This neuroprotective effect is likely the result of sustained ATP production and increased CBF to tissue at risk. This work has the potential to readily lead to clinical stroke trials given MB's excellent safety profile. PMID:25218555

  8. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Vale, J. A.; Widdop, B.; Bluett, N. H.

    1976-01-01

    Although an uncommon cause of death in Great Britain, ethylene glycol poisoning is potentially serious in that renal and cardiopulmonary failure and central nervous system dysfunction can occur when doses of the order of 100 ml or more are ingested. A case is described in which a child who swallowed approximately 100 ml of ethylene glycol was treated by prolonged peritoneal dialysis. In addition, measures were taken to correct a marked acidosis. Substantial amounts of ethylene glycol were removed by the dialysis fluid and the child made a complete physical and mental recovery. PMID:981106

  9. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  10. Halogeton poisoning in range cattle.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, S D; Black, B

    1980-04-15

    Acute Halogeton glomeratus poisoning occurred in 16 of 680 range cattle during and following a trail drive. Signs of toxicosis included posterior ataxia, recumbency, coma, and death. Histopathologically, abundant, refractile calcium oxalate crystals were seen in renal tubules. Inasmuch as the plant is generally unpalatable for cattle, poisoning in this case was enhanced by a preceding period of food deprivation. PMID:7410153

  11. Tips for Identifying Poison Ivy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article, from Biodiversity Counts, is a tip sheet to help students learn how to spot and avoid poison ivy. It has an overview of the different varieties of the plant that grow in the Americas and Asia, an illustration of the compound leaf with three leaflets (trifoliate) and details about poison ivy's leaf type, leaf arrangement, growth form, flowers, fruits, and relatives.

  12. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: a review.

    PubMed

    Morse, E V

    1977-12-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in man results from the consumption of mussels, clams, and oysters that have fed on toxic dinoflagellates. Motile, marine protozoa of the dinoflagellate group often produce "blooms," i.e., red tides, which color the sea. Not all genera or species are toxic to fish and mammals, nor are the toxic principles the same in all poisonous protozoa. At least 5 of the group are known to cause poisonings in man. Shellfish poisonings other than PSP are also recognized. The PSP toxin, saxitoxin, is concentrated in the viscera and occasionally in the mantle and syphon of marine bivalves. Cooking does not completely destroy the low molecular weight poisonous factor. Reported mortality ranges from 8.5 to 23.2%. The disease is of significant public health concern in some localities of the world from May to November. PMID:924835

  13. Oxygen Poisoning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Wallace O.; Henning, Marcia; Philpott, Mary

    1967-01-01

    Fruit flies live longer at the partial pressure of oxygen found in air than at either larger or smaller partial pressures. Flies exposed to 1 atm of oxygen for 8 hr every day do not recover completely in the remaining 16 hr. In general, intermittent exposures to 1 atm of oxygen are better tolerated than continuous exposure to the same average oxygen concentration per day, but exposures to higher pressures of 2–5 atm of oxygen for as little as a half hour every two days markedly shorten the life-span. Older flies consume more oxygen per minute and are more sensitive to oxygen poisoning than young flies, and the rate of dying in 6 atm of O2, or the reciprocal of the survival time, is a linear function of the age. The oxygen pressure-time curve can be well expressed by the general empirical equation (POO2)2 x time = 120 where P is in atmosphere and survival time in hours. The progress of oxygen poisoning appears to be linear with time rather than exponential. PMID:6034764

  14. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  15. Novelties of combustion synthesized titania ultrafiltration membrane in efficient removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous effluent.

    PubMed

    Doke, Suresh M; Yadav, Ganapati D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, titania nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion and used to make ultrafiltration membrane. Characteristics of titania membranes such as textural evaluation, surface morphology, pure water permeability and protein rejection were investigated. Titania membrane sintered at 450 °C showed pure water permeability 11 × 10?2 L h?1 m?2 kPa?1 and 76% protein rejection. The membrane presented good water flux and retention properties with regards to protein and methylene blue dye. Ultrafiltration process was operated at lower pressure (100 kPa) and showed 99% removal of methylene blue using adsorptive micellar flocculation at sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration below its critical micellar concentration. Ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. The method of making titania membrane and its use are new. These studies can be extended to other dyes and pollutants. PMID:25461945

  16. Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem?

    E-print Network

    CS239775 Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem? Approximately 500,000 U.S. children aged 1. Lead poisoning can affect nearly every system in the body. Because lead poisoning often occurs with no obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. Lead poisoning can cause learning disabilities

  17. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the distribution system, or in restaurants or homes. The key to keeping bacterial numbers and histamine levels low is the rapid cooling of fish after catching and the maintenance of adequate refrigeration during handling and storage. Despite the huge expansion in trade in recent years, great progress has been made in ensuring the quality and safety of fish products. This is largely the result of the introduction of international standards of food hygiene and the application of risk analysis and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles. PMID:10898459

  18. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. PMID:25001048

  19. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  20. Near fatal percutaneous paraquat poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Okonek; R. Wronski; W. Niedermayer; M. Okonek; A. Lamer

    1983-01-01

    Summary A fatal paraquat poisoning can occur when relatively large areas of skin are contaminated with a concentrated solution of paraquat (Gramoxone). A paraquat absorption takes place of the same magnitude as that with an equal dose per os.

  1. FTIR analysis of food poisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Sritana C.

    1992-03-01

    Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

  2. Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning 

    E-print Network

    Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

    2001-09-05

    Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

  3. RPV housed ATWS poison tank

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a boiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core and an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV. The improvement comprises: a pressurized vessel disposed in the steam dome containing a neutron poison effective for inactivating the core and a first line for assaying the poison which first line runs to the outside of the RPV, the vessel being vented to the steam dome to pressurize the poison contained therein, the vessel being connected by a second line terminating beneath the core, the second line containing a valve which is actuable to release the poison through the line upon its actuation.

  4. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01

    POISONING IN SHEEP A trouble occurring among sheep on numerous ranches in the Edwards plateau region of Texas characterized clinically by generalized icterus, hemoglobinuria and hematuria, inappetence, and extreme weakness, was found to be chronic copper... liver; enlarged, very dark brown to black kidneys; a swollen, "blackberry jam" spleen; generalized icterus; poorly- collapsed, doughy lungs, and a pale flaccid heart. As a matter of fact the condition is really a cumulative poisoning since...

  5. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep. 

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01

    LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING... of copper sulphate caused chronic copper poisoning among flocks of range sheep on several West Texas ranches during the past year. The salt licks were placed before the sheep as a means of preventing or controlling stomach worm infestation despite a...

  6. Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene

    E-print Network

    Libor Veis; Ji?í Pittner

    2014-04-17

    Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in [Aspuru-Guzik et al., Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.

  7. Treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, P.-A.; Gosselin, S.; Guimont, C.; Godwin, J.; Archambault, P. M.; Chauny, J.-M.; Frenette, A. J.; Darveau, M.; Le sage, N.; Poitras, J.; Provencher, J.; Juurlink, D. N.; Blais, R.

    2014-01-01

    Context Calcium channel blocker poisoning is a common and sometimes life-threatening ingestion. Objective To evaluate the reported effects of treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and hemodynamic parameters. The secondary outcomes included length of stay in hospital, length of stay in intensive care unit, duration of vasopressor use, functional outcomes, and serum calcium channel blocker concentrations. Methods Medline/Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, TOXLINE, International pharmaceutical abstracts, Google Scholar, and the gray literature up to December 31, 2013 were searched without time restriction to identify all types of studies that examined effects of various treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning for the outcomes of interest. The search strategy included the following Keywords: [calcium channel blockers OR calcium channel antagonist OR calcium channel blocking agent OR (amlodipine or bencyclane or bepridil or cinnarizine or felodipine or fendiline or flunarizine or gallopamil or isradipine or lidoflazine or mibefradil or nicardipine or nifedipine or nimodipine or nisoldipine or nitrendipine or prenylamine or verapamil or diltiazem)] AND [overdose OR medication errors OR poisoning OR intoxication OR toxicity OR adverse effect]. Two reviewers independently selected studies and a group of reviewers abstracted all relevant data using a pilot-tested form. A second group analyzed the risk of bias and overall quality using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) checklist and the Thomas tool for observational studies, the Institute of Health Economics tool for Quality of Case Series, the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines, and the modified NRCNA (National Research Council for the National Academies) list for animal studies. Qualitative synthesis was used to summarize the evidence. Of 15,577 citations identified in the initial search, 216 were selected for analysis, including 117 case reports. The kappa on the quality analysis tools was greater than 0.80 for all study types. Results The only observational study in humans examined high-dose insulin and extracorporeal life support. The risk of bias across studies was high for all interventions and moderate to high for extracorporeal life support. High-dose insulin. High-dose insulin (bolus of 1 unit/kg followed by an infusion of 0.5–2.0 units/kg/h) was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and lower mortality, at the risks of hypoglycemia and hypokalemia (low quality of evidence). Extracorporeal life support. Extracorporeal life support was associated with improved survival in patients with severe shock or cardiac arrest at the cost of limb ischemia, thrombosis, and bleeding (low quality of evidence). Calcium, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These agents improved hemodynamic parameters and survival without documented severe side effects (very low quality of evidence). 4-Aminopyridine. Use of 4-aminopyridine was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and survival in animal studies, at the risk of seizures. Lipid emulsion therapy. Lipid emulsion was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and survival in animal models of intravenous verapamil poisoning, but not in models of oral verapamil poisoning. Other studies. Studies on decontamination, atropine, glucagon, pacemakers, levosimendan, and plasma exchange reported variable results, and the methodologies used limit their interpretation. No trial was documented in humans poisoned with calcium channel blockers for Bay K8644, CGP 28932, digoxin, cyclodextrin, liposomes, bicarbonate, carnitine, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, PK 11195, or triiodothyronine. Case reports were only found for charcoal hemoperfusion, dialysis, intra-aortic balloon pump, Impella device and methylene blue. Conclusions The treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning is supported by low-quality evidence drawn from a heterogeneous and heavily biased literature. High-dose insulin

  8. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  9. Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

    1965-01-01

    Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice. PMID:5831217

  10. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

  11. Alsike clover poisoning: A review.

    PubMed

    Nation, P N

    1989-05-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as "alsike clover poisoning" and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933.This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of "alsike clover poisoning". The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

  12. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alerts Prevention National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison ... effects like psychotic episodes and seizures. View all alerts right left Safe Kids Worldwide 2015 Annual Medication ...

  13. Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.

    E-print Network

    Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

    1933-01-01

    , Anthonomus grandis Boh., secures a lethal dose of poison on cotton plants dusted with any arsenical is of fundamental importance to the question of weevil control by the use of poisons under cotton-field conditions. The discouraging results...

  14. Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

    This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

  15. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    PubMed

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. PMID:25839151

  16. MtdC, a novel class of methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Vorholt, Julia A; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Hagemeier, Christoph H; Lidstrom, Mary E; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2005-09-01

    Novel methylene tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) dehydrogenase enzymes, named MtdC, were purified after expressing in Escherichia coli genes from, respectively, Gemmata sp. strain Wa1-1 and environmental DNA originating from unidentified microbial species. The MtdC enzymes were shown to possess high affinities for methylene-H4MPT and NADP but low affinities for methylene tetrahydrofolate or NAD. The substrate range and the kinetic properties revealed by MtdC enzymes distinguish them from the previously characterized bacterial methylene-H4MPT dehydrogenases, MtdA and MtdB. While revealing higher sequence similarity to MtdA enzymes, MtdC enzymes appear to fulfill a function homologous to the function of MtdB, as part of the H4MPT-linked pathway for formaldehyde oxidation/detoxification. PMID:16109948

  17. 21 CFR 520.154a - Soluble bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...organisms susceptible to bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (iii) Limitations . Prepare a fresh solution daily. (2) Broiler and replacement chickens —(i) Amount. 100 milligrams per gallon in drinking water. (A) Indications for use...

  18. 21 CFR 520.154a - Bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...organisms susceptible to bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (iii) Limitations . Prepare a fresh solution daily. (2) Broiler and replacement chickens —(i) Amount. 100 mg per gal in drinking water. (A) Indications for use . Aid in...

  19. 21 CFR 520.154a - Bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...organisms susceptible to bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (iii) Limitations. Prepare a fresh solution daily. (2) Broiler and replacement chickens —(i) Amount. 100 mg per gal in drinking water. (A) Indications for use. Aid in...

  20. 21 CFR 520.154a - Bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...organisms susceptible to bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (iii) Limitations . Prepare a fresh solution daily. (2) Broiler and replacement chickens —(i) Amount. 100 mg per gal in drinking water. (A) Indications for use . Aid in...

  1. 21 CFR 520.154a - Soluble bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...organisms susceptible to bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (iii) Limitations . Prepare a fresh solution daily. (2) Broiler and replacement chickens —(i) Amount. 100 milligrams per gallon in drinking water. (A) Indications for use...

  2. [Dimenhydrinate poisoning in childhood (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Borkenstein, M; Haidvogl, M

    1978-01-01

    Treatment of a Dimenhydrinate poisoning (Vertirosan B6) with Physostigmine salicylate (Antrilirium) is reported. The symptoms of this anticholinergic poisoning (hyperactivity, ataxia, tremor, rubeosis faciei, hallucinations) disappeared rapidly after a single intravenous injection of Physostigmine salicylate. A table of some of the most common drugs capable of producing anticholinergic poisoning is added. PMID:643296

  3. A "Poisoning" Attack Against Online Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Freytag, Johann-Christoph

    A "Poisoning" Attack Against Online Anomaly Detection Marius Kloft Department of Computer Science it is robust against targeted "poisoning" attacks. The latter have been first investigated by Nelson et al. [1 of all data points observed so far. The key idea of a poisoning attack is to insert specially crafted

  4. Countering Poisonous Inputs with Memetic Neuroevolution

    E-print Network

    Togelius, Julian

    Countering Poisonous Inputs with Memetic Neuroevolution Julian Togelius1 , Tom Schaul1 , J-dimensional and/or ill-chosen state description. Evidently, some controller inputs are "poisonous also ex- plore which types of inputs are poisonous for two different reinforcement learning problems. 1

  5. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  6. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health Resources...SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer...Corporation d.b.a. the New York City Poison Control Center. These transfers are...

  7. Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

  8. Chapter 6: Research Priorities Childhood Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Chapter 6: Research Priorities 6 Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Research Priorities If we are to improve lead poisoning prevention strategies, we need additional research in the following areas: 1 to control lead hazards in housing. · The effectiveness of family education about lead poisoning prevention

  9. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies. PMID:16344524

  10. Pesticide poisoning surveillance through regional poison control centers.

    PubMed

    Olson, D K; Sax, L; Gunderson, P; Sioris, L

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe pesticide exposure in the population of callers to Minnesota Regional Poison Centers. Case files from 1988 reporting pesticide exposure to humans were identified in cooperation with the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. Data analysis was conducted by computer using SAS statistical package. Of the 1,428 case files indicating pesticide as the primary substance of exposure to Minnesota residents, a mean age of 5 years (range, one month to 85 years) was identified; 50 percent of all cases were below age 3 years. Males accounted for 1.3 times as many cases as females. Insecticide was identified in the largest percentage of case files (74 percent) followed by herbicide (12 percent), rodenticide (11 percent) and fungicide-nonmedicinal (3 percent). Ingestion was the most common route of exposure; 85 percent of all calls originated from a residence. While insecticides are still the most common types of pesticide call, herbicide has surpassed insecticide in production and sales in the US. In this study, herbicide type exposure calls present a much different picture than other pesticide types. The usefulness of poison control centers for examination of pesticide poisoning is explored. Since reporting occurs coincidental with the exposure and its associated symptoms, each pesticide poisoning report could potentially serve as a true sentinel health event. PMID:2029045

  11. Efficacy of a combination of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, HI-6 and obidoxime, against tabun and soman poisoning of mice.

    PubMed

    Clement, J G; Shiloff, J D; Gennings, C

    1987-01-01

    The bispyridinium oxime HI-6, 1-((((4-amino-carbonyl)pyridinio)methoxy) methyl)-2-(hydroxyimino)methyl)pyridinium dichloride monohydrate, combined with atropine is an effective treatment for soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) poisoning but is relatively ineffective against tabun (ethyl N-dimethyl phosphoroamidocyanidate) poisoning in mice. This contrasts with those results obtained using the bispyridinium oxime obidoxime[1,1'-(oxy bis(methylene)) bis(4-(hydroxyimino)methyl) pyridinium dibromide]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the combination of HI-6 and obidoxime plus atropine against poisoning by tabun and soman in mice. The combination of ineffective single doses of obidoxime (5 or 10 mg/kg) and HI-6 (25 or 50 mg/kg) improved the treatment of tabun poisoning over either oxime alone. Combinations employing higher concentrations of obidoxime (25 or 50 mg/kg) and HI-6 (100 or 200 mg/kg) resulted in significant toxicity in the absence of organophosphate poisoning. Against soman poisoning the addition of obidoxime to HI-6 did not attenuate the efficacy of HI-6. The half-life of elimination and peak serum concentrations of HI-6 and obidoxime were not altered following administration of the combined injection. Reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase was found consistently in the diaphragm but not in the brain. Using response surface methods it was possible to estimate the optimal therapy against soman and tabun poisoning (74.5 mg/kg HI-6 + 31.9 mg obidoxime against 1052 microns/kg obidoxime against 390 microns/kg challenge of soman).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3326546

  12. Prolonged toxicity of organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Merrill, D G; Mihm, F G

    1982-08-01

    A case of poisoning with a new organophosphate (fenthion) is reported in which the initial cholinergic crisis was delayed 5 days and recurred 24 days after ingestion. Psychosis was a persistent and sometimes singular manifestation. Because of the high lipid solubility of this pesticide, toxin analysis of repeated fat biopsies was an essential component of the management of this patient. PMID:7094603

  13. Approach to the poisoned patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerrold B. Leikin

    1996-01-01

    Routine poison management involves the following: (1) stabilization, (2) toxidrome recognition, (3) decontamination, (4) antidote administration, (5) enhanced elimination of toxin, and (6) supportive care. Stabilization involves airway, ventilation, and circulation support. In the patient with altered mental status, oxygen, naloxone, glucose, and thiamine should be administered. Symptom complexes that relate to specific classifications of toxins are referred to as

  14. The Solanaceae: foods and poisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The plant family Solanaceae contains important foodstuffs such as the potato, tomato and aubergine, together with powerful poisons including mandrake, henbane and deadly nightshade. In the first article in this short series on the family, the history and importance of the potato are described. It was first cultivated by the Inca people in the altiplano of the Andes in prehistoric

  15. Catalytic Poisons and Magnetic Susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Dilke; D. D. Eley; E. B. Maxted

    1948-01-01

    THE alkyl sulphides are powerful catalytic poisons for palladium, and the nature of the adsorption link is therefore of great interest. On chemical grounds., Maxted1 has suggested a co-ordinate link from the sulphur atom to the metal. Here We record some preliminary measurements on the change in magnetic susceptibility of palladium due to adsorption of dimethyl sulphide. We conclude that

  16. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10580 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2- ethanediyl)], alpha, alpha?-[1,4- cyclohexanediylbis(methylene)] bis [omega...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...cyclohexanediylbis(methylene)] bis [omega-(2-aminomethylethoxy)-. 721...cyclohexanediylbis(methylene)] bis [omega-(2-aminomethylethoxy)-. (a...4-cyclohexanediylbis(methylene)]bis [omega-(2- aminomethylethoxy)-...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10580 - Poly[oxy (methyl - 1,2 - ethanediyl)], alpha, alpha? - [1,4 - cyclohexanediylbis(methylene)] bis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...cyclohexanediylbis(methylene)] bis [omega - (2 - aminomethylethoxy)-. 721...cyclohexanediylbis(methylene)] bis [omega - (2 - aminomethylethoxy)-. (a...cyclohexanediylbis (methylene) ] bis [omega - (2 - aminomethylethoxy) -...

  19. Epithelial chloride channel. Development of inhibitory ligands

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Chloride channels are present in the majority of epithelial cells, where they mediate absorption or secretion of NaCl. Although the absorptive and secretory channels are well characterized in terms of their electrophysiological behavior, there is a lack of pharmacological ligands that can aid us in further functional and eventually molecular characterization. To obtain such ligands, we prepared membrane vesicles from bovine kidney cortex and apical membrane vesicles from trachea and found that they contain a chloride transport process that is electrically conductive. This conductance was reduced by preincubating the vesicles in media containing ATP or ATP-gamma-S, but not beta- methylene ATP, which suggests that the membranes contain a kinase that can close the channels. We then screened compounds derived from three classes: indanyloxyacetic acid (IAA), anthranilic acid (AA), and ethacrynic acid. We identified potent inhibitors from the IAA and the AA series. We tritiated IAA-94 and measured binding of this ligand to the kidney cortex membrane vesicles and found a high-affinity binding site whose dissociation constant (0.6 microM) was similar to the inhibition constant (1 microM). There was a good correlation between the inhibitory potency of several IAA derivatives and their efficacy in displacing [3H]IAA-94 from its binding site. Further, other chloride channel inhibitors, including AA derivatives, ethacrynic acid, bumetanide, and DIDS, also displaced the ligand from its binding site. A similar conductance was found in apical membrane vesicles from bovine trachea that was also inhibited by IAA-94 and AA-130B, but the inhibitory effects of these compounds were weaker than their effects on the renal cortex channel. The two drugs were also less potent in displacing [3H]IAA-94 from the tracheal binding site. PMID:2450168

  20. Enhancement of diffraction efficiency and storage life of poly(vinyl chloride)-based optical recording medium with incorporation of an electron donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Beena Mary; Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Joseph, Rani; Sudha Kartha, C.

    2007-01-01

    The diffraction efficiency, sensitivity, and storage life of methylene blue-sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) film was improved by the addition of an electron donor in the matrix. The addition of pyridine enhanced the diffraction efficiency by two times, and storage life of the gratings was increased to 2-3 days.

  1. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  2. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    PubMed

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40?years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  3. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  4. Dialysis in the poisoned patient.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, George

    2010-04-01

    Patients who ingest toxic substances may require extracorporeal removal of the poisons or their toxic metabolites if native renal clearance is not sufficient because of acute kidney injury, acuity of symptoms, or burden of toxin. Here, a case is presented, and the literature on renal replacement therapy in the event of acute intoxication is reviewed. Extracorporeal therapy efficacy is examined in terms of the characteristics of the toxin (molecular size, charge, protein, or lipid binding); the patient (body habitus and volume of distribution); and the process (membrane effects on extraction ratios and sieving, role of blood, and dialysate flow rates). The choice of extracorporeal therapy and hemodialysis prescriptions for specific poisonings are discussed. PMID:20337746

  5. Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

    1977-11-01

    Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

  6. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

  7. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tonghao; Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Yang, Guangming; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-02-01

    Graphene was prepared using a modified Hummers' method. The physico-chemical properties of graphene were characterized by TEM, BET specific surface area, FTIR, Raman and XRD measurements. The effect factors including pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto graphene were investigated. The experimental data of isotherm followed the Langmuir isotherm model better than the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation at 293 K was 153.85 mg/g, indicating graphene is a good adsorbent for the adsorption of MB. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene was an endothermic and spontaneous process. PMID:22036471

  8. Texas Plants Poisonous to Livestock.

    E-print Network

    Sperry, Omer Edison

    1964-01-01

    , MANAGEMENT AND TREAT- MENT. The signs antl lesions of this poisoning are similar to those of horsetail milkweed, and the same prevention and treatment me.thocls are recommended. Astragalus emoryanus-Peavine, Red-stemmed Peavine, Emory Loco DESCRIPTION... of Astragalus na\\e wen reduced to variety status of A. mollissimzls (GouIt1 1962). Although these three locos are similar in toxicity and management, the descriptions and clistributions differ and are presented for each variety concerned. Other information...

  9. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Prescott; J A J H Critchley

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective

  10. Poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vetter

    2004-01-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, ?-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. ?-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock

  11. Phencyclidine. Nine cases of poisoning.

    PubMed

    Liden, C B; Lovejoy, F H; Costello, C E

    1975-11-01

    In nine cases of phencyclidine hydrochloride poisoning, early signs of overdose included drowsiness, nystagmus, miotic pupils, blood pressure elevation, increased deep tendon reflexes, ataxia, anxiety, and agitation. In more severe cases, seizures, spasticity, and opisthotonos were seen in addition to deep coma and respiratory depression. Treatment included removal by emetics or lavage, hydration, and a quiet, reassuring environment. Spasticity, agitation, and ocular manifestions responded to diazepam. Psychiatric intervention was instituted after the patients were stable and no longer agitated. PMID:1242171

  12. Biomarkers of Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Abraham; Steven M. Plakas; Leanne J. Flewelling; Kathleen R. El Said; Edward L. E. Jester; Hudson R. Granade; Kevin D. White; Robert W. Dickey

    2008-01-01

    Urine specimens from patients diagnosed with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) were examined for biomarkers of brevetoxin intoxication. Brevetoxins were concentrated from urine by using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS). Urine extracts were fractionated by LC, and fractions analyzed for brevetoxins by ELISA. In subsequent LC-MS\\/MS analyses, several brevetoxin metabolites

  13. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  14. Acute fatal poisoning with Tolfenpyrad.

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Wakako; Yamaguchi, Koji; Saka, Kanju; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-11-01

    The authors present a fatal case of poisoning with Tolfenpyrad (TFP), a pesticide first approved in Japan in 2002. A man in his fifties was found dead in the supine position at his son's home and the small towel with a smell of naphthalene was found nearby. Forensic autopsy was unremarkable, except for a very small amount of light pink fluid in the stomach, with naphthalene odour. The toxicological analyses revealed the presence of TFP and its major metabolite PTCA (4-[4-[(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methylpyrazol-5-yl)carbonylaminomethyl]phenoxy]benzoic acid), together with naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes in the post-mortem sample, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The plasma concentrations of each substance were quantified as 1.97 ?g/ml (TFP), 2.88 ?g/ml (PTCA), 1.70 ?g/ml (naphthalene), 0.67 ?g/ml (1-methyl naphthalene) and 1.44 ?g/ml (2-methyl naphthalene). According to these results together with autopsy findings, the cause of his death was determined to be acute Tolfenpyrad poisoning. This is the first case report of fatal poisoning attributable to an intake of TFP product. PMID:24237799

  15. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

    PubMed

    Vetter, J

    2004-09-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

  16. The nation's first poison control center: taking a stand against accidental childhood poisoning in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Burda, A M; Burda, N M

    1997-04-01

    Prior to the 1950's, there existed no formal system for poison prevention or treatment in the US. Estimates place the number of pediatric poisoning fatalities at over 400/y at that time. After World War II, urbanization and modern technological methods brought forth over 250,000 different brand name products on the market. Health care professionals presented with cases of acute poisoning usually had little knowledge of what ingredients were contained in these new products, making it difficult to treat these patients. In the 1930's, pharmacist Louis Gdalman established a poison information service at St Luke's hospital. Because of Gdalman's training in pharmacy and chemistry, physicians throughout Chicago and the US called on him in search of assistance. In the late 1940's, Gdalman began recording information on small cards, and developed a standard data collection from. By the 1950's he had established an extensive library on the management of acute and chronic poisonings. In 1948, a national effort to reduce the number of accidents in children was started by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and a committee was formed in Chicago to address this public safety need. In November, 1953, the poison center at Presbyterian-St Luke's Hospital was formally recognized, and the poison program model spread nationwide. As the number of poison centers grew, coordination was achieved through the National Clearing House for Poison Control Centers, founded in 1957, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers, created in 1958. By 1970, the number of poison centers in the US was reported to be 597. The need for large and better centers led to regional poison control centers. Other outgrowths were the formation of the National Poison Prevention Week Council, the enactment of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, development of "Mr. Yuk" and other symbols, and formation of the National Animal Poison Control Center. As a result, the number of children dying from accidental poisoning has dropped to under 50/y. PMID:9080638

  17. Simple procedures for analyzing and purifying methylene green.

    PubMed

    Glusko, C A; Previtali, C M; Chesta, C A; Montejano, H A

    2012-07-01

    Methylene green is a versatile dye that can be used in a wide range of technical applications, most of which require the dye to be pure. Because commercial lots of methylene green are known to be heterogeneous, we report a thin layer chromatographic method for checking purity. We also describe a simple and effective flash chromatographic purification procedure for subsequent purification. The identity and purity of the dye can be checked easily using UV-visible absorption spectrum measurements or by more sophisticated procedures if necessary. PMID:22122553

  18. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-06-26

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper.

  19. 21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

  20. 21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

  1. 21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

  2. 21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

  3. 21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

  4. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

  5. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

  6. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

  7. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  8. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  9. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  10. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS placard must be as follows:...

  11. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS placard must be as follows:...

  12. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  13. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  14. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as...

  15. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be...

  16. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  17. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be...

  18. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS placard must be as follows:...

  19. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  20. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as...

  1. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as...

  2. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  3. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be...

  4. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  5. Effect of halideions on the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of methylene blue for borohydride-reduced silver colloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Gu, Huaimin; Liu, Fang

    2011-01-01

    The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of methylene blue (MB) was studied when adding a range of halideions to borohydride-reduced silver colloid. The halideions such as chloride, bromide and iodide were added as aggregating agents to study the effects of halideions on SERS spectroscopy of MB and observe which halideion gives the greatest enhancement for borohydride-reduced silver colloids. The SERS spectra of MB were also detected over a wide range of concentrations of halideions to find the optimum concentration of halideions for SERS enhancement. From the results of this study, the intensity of SERS signal of MB was enhanced significantly when adding halideions to the colloid. Among the three kinds of halideions, chloride gives the greatest enhancement on SERS signal. The enhancement factors for MB with optimal concentration of chloride, bromide and iodide are 3.44×104, 2.04×104, and 1.0×104, respectively. The differences of the SERS spectra of MB when adding different kinds and concentrations of halideions to the colloid may be attributed to the both effects of extent of aggregation of the colloid and the modification of silver surface chemistry. The purpose of this study is to further investigate the effect of halideions on borohydride-reduced silver colloid and to make the experimental conditions suitable for detecting some analytes in high efficiency on rational principles.

  6. Accidental injection of a U.S. Air Force aviator by a pralidoxime chloride auto-injector: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamane, G K

    1999-11-01

    To counter the threat of organophosphate nerve agents, military personnel may be issued auto-injectors containing pralidoxime chloride. This drug helps to dephosphorylate the nerve agent-acetylcholinesterase complex and, thus, regenerate the enzyme. In non-poisoned persons, pralidoxime chloride is rapidly excreted by the kidneys and is fairly well tolerated. We present the first reported case of an accidental injection of an Air Force aviator by an auto-injector. The patient recovered well with no specific treatment needed. The pharmacology and toxicology of pralidoxime chloride are discussed. PMID:10608609

  7. Methylene blue increases systemic vascular resistance in human septic shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Schneider; Ph. Lutun; M. Hasselmann; J. C. Stoclet; J. D. Tempé

    1992-01-01

    We report the hemodynamic improvements induced by intravenous methylene blue (MB), a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, in 2 patients with hyperdynamic septic shock treated with norepinephrine (NE) infusion, mechanical ventilation an hemodialysis. MB injection augmented the low vascular resistance, mean arterial pressure and induced a slight decrease of cardiac index, without any change of heart rate and pulmonary artery wedge pressure.

  8. Effect of methylene blue on refractory neonatal hypotension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Driscoll; Serge Thurin; Vivien Carrion; Robin H. Steinhorn; Frederick C. Morin

    1996-01-01

    Excess nitric oxide is a mediator of the hypotension in septic shock. Nitric oxide dilates vascular smooth muscle through activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. We report the increase in blood pressure caused by methylene blue (MB), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, in five neonates with presumed septic shock unresponsive to colloids, inotropic agents, and corticosteroids. MB was given intravenously at

  9. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, O; Schlegel, H G

    1980-01-01

    The enzyme carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from CO autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans strain OM5, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was obtained in 26% yield and was purified 36-fold. The enzyme was stable for at least 6 days, had a molecular weight of 230,000, gave a single protein and activity band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was homogeneous by the criterion of sedimentation equilibrium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis revealed a single band of molecular weight 107,000. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase did not catalyze reduction of pyridine or flavin nucleotides but catalyzed the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, thionine, toluylene blue, dichlorophenolindophenol, or pyocyanine under strictly anaerobic conditions. The visible spectrum revealed maxima at 405 and 470 nm. The millimolar extinction coefficients were 43.9 (405 nm) and 395.5 (275 nm), respectively. Absorption at 470 nm decreased in the presence of dithionite, and the spectrum was not affected by the substrate CO. Maximum reaction rates were found at pH 7.0 and 63 degrees C; temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy (delta H degree) of 36.8 kJ/mol (8.8 kcal/mol). The apparent Km was 53 microM for CO. The purified enzyme was incapable of oxidizing methane, methanol, or formaldehyde in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. Images PMID:7354006

  10. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  11. Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, M; Cansu, A; Karakas, T; Kalyoncu, M; Erduran, E

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, 386 patients with the diagnosis of poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Farabi Hospital of Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to gender, age, cause of poisoning, type of substance used, route of exposure, reason for the intake, signs and symptoms, time of referral to the hospital, hospitalization period, and prognosis. The age group of most poisoning cases was <5 years of age and constituted 51% (n = 197) of all cases. The main toxic agent was drugs (70.2%), followed by foods (8.8%), rodenticides (7%), insecticides/pesticides (4.9%), and carbon monoxide (4.7%). In childhood poisonings, accidental drug poisoning was frequent in toddlers, whereas suicidal poisoning was frequent in adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rate was 23.8% among all poisoning patients, and 98.9% of these patients were adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rates for males and females were 30% and 70%, respectively. An increase in suicidal and inhalation poisonings was observed when compared with previous studies that have been conducted in the same region. The results of the present study suggest that poisonings still represents an important health problem that could be prevented by safe drug storage at home, as well as parental education on adolescence issues, particularly those regarding females. PMID:20019095

  12. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Resources for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, DC.

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook, the third in a three-volume set, provides examples of specific materials currently or recently used in ongoing state and local childhood lead…

  13. Preventing ways of acute poisoning in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Ganieva; A I Iskandarov; M O Abdurahmanova

    2010-01-01

    Among evils, bringing children by civilisation and technical progress for the last decades, especially significant are traumas and poisoning. The aim of study is carry out of quantitative diagnostics criteria and evaluation severity degree of chemical traumas in children and recommendations on their prevention. Material for study were 62 cases of acute poisoning among children at the age from 5

  14. Summer Spurs Calls to Poison Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hot foods hot and cold foods cold. By programming 1-800-222-1222 into your phone, you can reach a poison center from anywhere in the United States. SOURCE: Nebraska Regional Poison Center, news release HealthDay Copyright (c) 2015 HealthDay . All rights reserved. More Health News ...

  15. Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  16. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  17. Effects of rodent poisoning on Powelliphanta traversi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun J. Bennett; Rachel J. Standish; Ian A. N. Stringer

    Rat predation is a threat to lowland Powelliphanta traversi (giant predatory land snail), and we have shown that 'press' poisoning of rodents (rats and mice) using brodifacoum baits significantly reduces rat abundance relative to non- poisoned areas. The effect on P. t. traversi was evident by the increase in population size, mainly due to adult migration, and a decrease in

  18. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  19. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  20. Xenon poisoning calculations based on tube power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkman

    1953-01-01

    A method of calculating the steady state xenon poisoning was developed using parameters derived from the power production of individual tubes in the pile. The power of individual tubes was recorded automatically at some of the production piles. The necessary parameter is derived from these data by the use of IBM computers. This method of calculating xenon poisoning eliminates the

  1. Management of the critically poisoned patient

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

  2. Emergency management of poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lau, F L

    2000-09-01

    The emergency management of poisoning is important in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity in poisoned patients. This article reviews the Hong Kong system of prehospital and emergency care of poisoning, with reference to recent advances in this field. Administering activated charcoal is recommended for the gastro-intestinal decontamination of most poisons, unless doing so is contra-indicated. Gastric lavage should be considered only in life-threatening cases of poisoning that present within the first hour. Newer antidotes that are available in Hong Kong accident and emergency departments include hydroxocobalamin, stonefish and snake antevenenes, digoxin-specific antibodies, esmolol hydrochloride, and octreotide. The 'golden hour' concept of gastro-intestinal decontamination is advocated and ways to ensure that decontamination is performed within the 'golden hour' are suggested. PMID:11025848

  3. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  4. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

  5. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

  6. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  7. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities. PMID:9456553

  8. Uptake and therapeutic effectiveness of /sup 125/I- and /sup 211/At-methylene blue for pigmented melanoma in an animal model system

    SciTech Connect

    Link, E.M.; Brown, I.; Carpenter, R.N.; Mitchell, J.S.

    1989-08-01

    The investigations concerning a targeted radiotherapy for pigmented melanoma with a radiolabeled phenothiazine derivative, 3,7-(dimethylamino)phenazathionium chloride (methylene blue (MTB)), were continued using melanotic and amelanotic sublines of B16 melanoma. Two radionuclides, 125I and 211At, emitting Auger electrons and alpha particles, respectively, replaced 35S previously studied since their biological effectiveness is significantly higher. In vitro autoradiography revealed a selective accumulation of methylene blue labeled with either of the radioisotopes in pigmented melanoma cells but its absence in nonpigmented cells. Treatments with (125I)MTB and (211At)MTB were performed both in vitro and in vivo, with their effectiveness determined by lung clonogenic assay. (125I)MTB proved to be relatively ineffective when incorporated into melanosomes distributed in the cytoplasm, i.e., too far away from the genome. Conspicuous therapeutic effects were achieved with (211At)MTB for pigmented melanoma only. 211At itself did not affect either of the investigated sublines of B16 melanoma confirming once again the high affinity of methylene blue to melanin. Calculations of cumulative radiation doses from (211At)MTB deposited in melanotic melanoma tumors and pigmented normal organs which would be at a particular risk led to the conclusion that (211At)MTB could be used for a highly selective and very efficient targeted radiotherapy of pigmented melanomas without damaging normal tissues.

  9. Immobilization of methylene blue onto bentonite and its application in the extraction of mercury (II).

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Mohamed M; Abou-El-Sherbini, Khaled S; Al-Muaikel, Nayef S

    2010-06-15

    Methylene blue was immobilized onto bentonite (BNT). The modified clay (MB-BNT) was used to extract Hg(2+) at pH 6.0 yielding Hg-MB-BNT. BNT, MB-BNT and Hg-MB-BNT were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectra, and elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. MB is suggested to be intercalated into the major phase of BNT; montmorillonite mineral (MMT), lying parallel to the aluminosilicate layers, with a capacity of 36 mequiv./100g. MB-BNT shows good stability in 0.1-1M hydrochloric or nitric acids, ammonium hydroxide, and concentrated Na(+), K(+) or NH(4)(+) chlorides or iodides. It shows good selectivity towards Hg(2+) with an extraction capacity of 37 mequiv./100g in the presence of I(-) giving rise to a ratio of MB/Hg(2+)/I(-) 1:1:3 in the clay phase. Extracted Hg(2+) could be quantitatively recovered by ammonia buffer at pH 8.5. MB-BNT was successfully applied to recover Hg(2+) from spiked natural water and cinnabar mineral samples using the optimum conditions; pH 6.0, time of stirring 10 min and 10 mL of 0.05 M NH(4)Cl/NH(4)OH at pH 8.5 as eluent. PMID:20133060

  10. Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nail polish remover and other personal care products Paint thinner Pesticides used in the house or in ... when using cleaners and chemicals. Avoid using pesticides, paint thinner or other chemicals inside the house or ...

  11. An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P Sierra-Beltrán; A Cruz; E Núñez; L. M Del Villar; J Cerecero; J. L Ochoa

    1998-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish

  12. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot

    E-print Network

    Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot #12;1 THE GOOD NEWS- Exposure to Lead is Preventable Lead Poisoning Is a REAL Problem; Did You Know? Lead is a highly toxic substance the effects of lead poisoning, but lead poisoning is much more frequent in children than in adults. For many

  13. International Symposium Women as Visionaries, Healers and Poisoners

    E-print Network

    Peters, Achim

    International Symposium Women as Visionaries, Healers and Poisoners ­ Autonomous Female Religious:45 Dinner SUNDAY 05.05.2013 CONTESTED GENDER AND SOCIAL ROLES: FEMALE HEALERS AND POISONERS 09:30 Anna) -- The gender of the poisoner: containership, analogic kinship and female poisoning lineages (dug rgyud) among

  14. SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning College of Computing

    E-print Network

    SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning Long Lu College of Computing Georgia Inst, search poison- ing techniques disregard any term relevance constraint and are em- ployed to poison-hungry web- sites for malicious purposes. To accurately detect search poisoning cases, we designed a novel

  15. Stealthy Poisoning Attacks on PCA-based Anomaly Detectors

    E-print Network

    Tygar, Doug

    Stealthy Poisoning Attacks on PCA-based Anomaly Detectors Benjamin I. P. Rubinstein1 Blaine Nelson1 detection, we present and evaluate short-term and long-term data poison- ing schemes that trade-off between poisoning duration and the volume of traffic injected for poisoning. Stealthy Boil- ing Frog attacks

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

  17. Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-01

    Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

  18. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  19. Methadone toxicity in a poisoning referral center

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Fatemeh; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist. Findings: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications. Conclusion: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning. PMID:24991620

  20. Simplified Method for Preparing Methylene-Blue-Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Kazumasa; Koike, Satoshi; Namba, Sinji; Mizuno, Toru; Kubota, Toshihiro

    1998-05-01

    Methylene-blue-sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) is a suitable material for recording full-color holograms in a single layer. However, a drying process in an ammonia atmosphere is necessary to prepare the MBDCG plate. This process is time-consuming and unstable. A simplified method for preparing the MBDCG plate is presented in which the MBDCG can be dried without ammonia. Elimination of the drying process is possible when the methylene blue in MBDCG does not separate. This is achieved by a decrease in the concentration of dichromate in the photosensitized solution and the addition of an ammonia solution to the photosensitized solution. Last, the gelatin is allowed to gel. A Lippmann color hologram grating with a diffraction efficiency of more than 80% is obtained by use of this MBDCG.

  1. Ti-containing mesoporous silica for methylene blue photodegradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Matos; Andreína García; Sang-Eon Park

    2011-01-01

    Photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) on Ti-containing mesoporous silica prepared by microwave-assisted irradiation as a function of Si\\/Ti molar ratio was studied. The materials were characterized by N2 adsorption, XRD, UV–vis\\/DR, and TEM. All solids showed mesoporous textures with high surface areas, relatively small pore size diameters and large pore volume. XRD showed that framework of solids consists of amorphous

  2. [Advancement of methanol poisoning mechanism research].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-min; Wang, Li-xin; Xia, Wen-tao

    2010-08-01

    The methanol poisoning by oral intake or skin contact occurs occasionally, which may have serious consequences including blindness and/or death. Methanol and its metabolites, formaldehyde and formic acid, are associated with metabolic acidosis, visual dysfunction and neurological symptoms. At present, the mechanism of methanol poisoning primarily focuses on the cell hypoxia, the alteration of structure and biological activity induced by free radical and lactic acid. Meanwhile, methanol poisoning causes changes in the balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant capacity and in the proteases-protease inhibitors system, which lead to a series of disturbances. PMID:20967961

  3. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, O?uz; Ata?, Bülent

    2010-01-01

    Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood. PMID:20808663

  4. Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-10-14

    Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

  5. Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Slaughter; D. M. Beasley; B. S. Lambie; G. T. Wilkins; L. J. Schep

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. AIM: The purpose of this

  6. Poisoning of resin supported catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.L.; Moore, S.E.

    1987-02-10

    A method is described of enhancing performance of a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction of an olefin liquid feed in the presence of a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst. The method comprises: (a) preparing a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst for use in a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction substantially free of halides and halide salts in the metal complex catalyst; and (b) introducing an olefin liquid feed to the resin-supported catalyst for conducting a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction, in the presence of CO and H/sub 2/. The olefin feed has a specified maximum limit of halide concentration sufficiently low to enable continued indefinite operation of the combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction process without halide poisoning.

  7. The NADP-dependent methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1.

    PubMed

    Vorholt, J A; Chistoserdova, L; Lidstrom, M E; Thauer, R K

    1998-10-01

    An NADP-dependent methylene tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) dehydrogenase has recently been proposed to be involved in formaldehyde oxidation to CO2 in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. We report here on the purification of this novel enzyme to apparent homogeneity. Via the N-terminal amino acid sequence, it was identified to be the mtdA gene product. The purified enzyme catalyzed the dehydrogenation of methylene H4MPT with NADP+ rather than with NAD+, with a specific activity of approximately 400 U/mg of protein. It also catalyzed the dehydrogenation of methylene tetrahydrofolate (methylene H4F) with NADP+. With methylene H4F as the substrate, however, the specific activity (26 U/mg) and the catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) were approximately 20-fold lower than with methylene H4MPT. Whereas the dehydrogenation of methylene H4MPT (E0 = -390 mV) with NADP+ (E0 = -320 mV) proceeded essentially irreversibly, the dehydrogenation of methylene H4F (E0 = -300 mV) was fully reversible. Comparison of the primary structure of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenase from M. extorquens AM1 with those of methylene H4F dehydrogenases from other bacteria and eucarya and with those of methylene H4MPT dehydrogenases from methanogenic archaea revealed only marginally significant similarity (<15%). PMID:9765566

  8. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  9. Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

  10. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  11. Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Dan L. Brown

    This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

  12. Chloride and Salinity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-15

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  13. FACTS AND FALLACIES ON INDUSTRIAL POISONING

    PubMed Central

    Thienes, Clinton H.

    1957-01-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and “compensation neuroses.” It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  14. Mescalbean (Sophora secundiflora) Poisonous for Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1935-01-01

    R6-103 5-6m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 519 DECEMBER', 1935 -- DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE MESCALBEAN (SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA) POISONOUS FOR LIVESTOCK... AGRJCULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President poisoning among range sheep resulting from eating green leaves of Sophora seczcndiflora (commonly known as mescalbean, mountain laurel, or coralbean) sometimes occurs' during the late...

  15. Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil. 

    E-print Network

    Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

    1933-01-01

    during the dusting operation. The activities of both sexes of weevils, observed under natural conditions and on cotton plants which had been dusted with calcium arsenate or talc, are influenced to a considerable degree by the presence of these dusts.... The effectiveness of calcium arsenate in controlling weevils when applied to plants in the absence of dew did not appear attributable to poison ingested with food alone. Furthermore, tests conducted on weevil control by the use of sweetened liquid poison mopped...

  16. Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

    2002-01-01

    Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

  17. Rhabdomyolysis in 114 patients with acute poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Mahdizadeh, Adeleh; Vafaee, Mansooreh; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Afshari, Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical and biochemical syndrome, which is observed in some patients with acute chemical and/or pharmaceutical poisonings. We aimed to investigate rhabdomyolysis in patients with acute poisonings due to different chemicals, natural toxins or drug overdose. Materials and Methods: Following approval of the University medical research committee and obtaining informed consents from the patients or their relatives, all patients with acute poisonings who were treated between March 2009 and February 2010 in the Toxicologic Ward of Imam Reza Hospital and had serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) above 975 IU/L (as a definition for rhabdomyolysis) were studied. Results: Of 3555 hospitalized poisoned patients, 114 patients had rhabdomyolysis with CPK of 5996 ± 892 IU/L (mean ± standard error). The most common intoxication to induce the rhabdomyolysis was opioid overdose (28%). Acute renal failure (ARF) was diagnosed in 11 (8.7%) patients. There was a linear correlation between CPK and creatinine (P < 0.001), which in turn had a significant correlation with death (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients with acute poisoning were at risk of rhabdomyolysis. Acute opioid poisoning was the most common cause of toxic rhabdomyolysis in the intoxicated patients, and ARF was the main complication.

  18. Methylene blue inhibits angiogenesis in chick chorioallontic membrane through a nitric oxide-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zacharakis, N; Tone, P; Flordellis, CS; Maragoudakis, ME; Tsopanoglou, NE

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methylene blue in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis model in vivo. In this well characterized model, methylene blue inhibited angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, when methylene blue was combined with sodium nitroprusside, a spontaneous generator of nitric oxide, an inhibition of angiogenesis was evident which was comparable with that observed by the application of methylene blue alone. Sodium nitroprusside, alone, caused a significant inhibition in basal angiogenesis. These results provide evidence that methylene blue inhibits angiogenesis independently of nitric oxide pathway and suggest that methylene blue may be useful for treating angiogenesis-dependent human diseases. PMID:16796814

  19. SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN CANADA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wobeser; T. Bollinger; F. A. Leighton; B. Blakley; P. Mineau

    2004-01-01

    Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents

  20. The Effects of Methylene Blue on Autophagy and Apoptosis in MRI-Defined Normal Tissue, Ischemic Penumbra and Ischemic Core

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhao; Watts, Lora Talley; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Rodriguez, Pavel; Chen, Chunhua; Zhou, Changman; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) USP, which has energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties, is currently used to treat methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning in humans. We recently showed that MB administration reduces infarct volume and behavioral deficits in rat models of ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. This study reports the underlying molecular mechanisms of MB neuroprotection following transient ischemic stroke in rats. Rats were subjected to transient (60-mins) ischemic stroke. Multimodal MRI during the acute phase and at 24hrs were used to define three regions of interest (ROIs): i) the perfusion-diffusion mismatch salvaged by reperfusion, ii) the perfusion-diffusion mismatch not salvaged by reperfusion, and iii) the ischemic core. The tissues from these ROIs were extracted for western blot analyses of autophagic and apoptotic markers. The major findings were: 1) MB treatment reduced infarct volume and behavioral deficits, 2) MB improved cerebral blood flow to the perfusion-diffusion mismatch tissue after reperfusion and minimized harmful hyperperfusion 24hrs after stroke, 3) MB inhibited apoptosis and enhanced autophagy in the perfusion-diffusion mismatch, 4) MB inhibited apoptotic signaling cascades (p53-Bax-Bcl2-Caspase3), and 5) MB enhanced autophagic signaling cascades (p53-AMPK-TSC2-mTOR). MB induced neuroprotection, at least in part, by enhancing autophagy and reducing apoptosis in the perfusion-diffusion mismatch tissue following ischemic stroke. PMID:26121129

  1. Myonecrosis in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Herman, G D; Shapiro, A B; Leikin, J

    1988-02-01

    Myonecrosis is an unusual sequelae to carbon monoxide poisoning with only 16 cases having been reported in the English-language literature. At the University of Illinois Hospital, we encountered a 25-year-old fire academy student who presented to our Emergency Department with a carboxyhemoglobin level of 16% following a training exercise in a smoke-filled room. The patient was not wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and his duration of exposure was 7-8 min, by which time he had blacked out for about 1 min. Upon arrival, the patient was lethargic, with a moderate inhalation burn. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen at 2 1/2 ATA. Following 90 min of hyperbaric oxygen, slight flexor compartment weakness, along with tenderness of the proximal lower extremities was noted. CPK was elevated to 65,998 (100% mm) with urine dipstick being positive for blood and only occasional rbc's seen in the urine sediment. The patient did well with forced diuresis and alkalinization of the urine. No oliguria was noted and the CPK fell to 893 five days later. This is the only case in the English-language literature who developed myonecrosis from carbon monoxide, despite hyperbaric oxygen treatment. We believe that this case demonstrates that hyperbaric oxygen cannot prevent the development of myonecrosis induced by carbon monoxide. PMID:3354179

  2. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Wolkin A , Schnall AH , Law R , Schier J . Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4 . PMID:25205009

  3. Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-27

    Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

  4. Chloride channels as drug targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis J. V. Galietta; Alan S. Verkman

    2008-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human

  5. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  6. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  7. Relationship between free chloride and total chloride contents in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. U. Mohammed; H. Hamada

    2003-01-01

    Linear relationships between free chloride and total chloride contents in concrete are proposed based on the results of several long-term exposure tests under marine environment for various cements, such as ordinary portland cement (OPC), high early strength portland cement (HES), moderate heat portland cement (MH), calcium aluminate cement (AL), slag cements of Types A (SCA) and B (SCB), and fly

  8. Nanomolar determination of 4-nitrophenol based on a poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Munusamy, Settu; Kumar, Sivakumar Praveen; Muthamizh, Selvamani; Narayanan, Vengidusamy

    2013-10-01

    A poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PMB/GCE) was fabricated by electropolymerisation of methylene blue on a GCE and further utilized to investigate the electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The morphology of the PMB on GCE was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An oxidation peak of 4-NP at the PMB modified electrode was observed at 0.28 V, and in the case of bare GCE, no oxidation peak was observed, which indicates that PMB/GCE exhibits a remarkable effect on the electrochemical determination of 4-NP. Due to this remarkable effect of PMB/GCE, a sensitive and simple electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of 4-NP. The effect of the scan rate and pH was investigated to determine the optimum conditions at which the PMB/GCE exhibits a higher sensitivity with a lower detection limit. Moreover, kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer number, proton transfer number and standard heterogeneous rate constant were calculated. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 4-NP is proportional to its concentration in the range of 15-250 nM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9963. The detection limit was found to be 90 nM (S/N = 3). The proposed method based on PMB/GCE is simple, easy and cost effective. To further confirm its possible application, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of 4-NP in real water samples with recoveries ranging from 97% to 101.6%. The interference due to sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, sulphate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate and phosphate was found to be almost negligible. PMID:23897002

  9. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  10. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  11. sup 211 At-methylene blue for targeted radiotherapy of human melanoma xenografts: Treatment of micrometastases

    SciTech Connect

    Link, E.M.; Carpenter, R.N. (Univ. College, London (England))

    1990-05-15

    Treatment of micrometastases of HX34 human melanoma grown as xenografts in nude mice represents an advanced stage of preclinical investigations concerning targeted radiotherapy of this neoplasm using 3,7-(dimethylamino)phenazathionium chloride methylene blue (MTB) labeled with astatine-211 (211At) (alpha-particle emitter). The therapeutic effectiveness of 211At-MTB administered i.v. was determined by a lung colony assay combined with a search for metastases to organs other than the lungs. A single dose of 211At-MTB lowered the HX34 cell surviving fraction in lungs to below 10% almost independently of the time interval between cell inoculation and radioisotope injection and of 211At-MTB radioactivity within its investigated range. Radiation dose and the time of its administration did, however, influence the size of lung colonies. In contrast, the efficacy of 211At-MTB treatment as assessed by both surviving fraction and colony size was significantly dependent on a number of HX34 cells inoculated initially into mice. These results are explained by a short range of alpha-particles emitted by 211At and a mechanism of growth of lung colonies from tumor cells circulating with blood and blocking lung capillaries. Metastases in organs other than lungs and characteristic of control animals were not found in mice treated with 211At-MTB. The high therapeutic efficacy achieved proved that 211At-MTB is a very efficient scavenger of single melanoma cells distributed through blood and micrometastases with sizes below the limit of clinical detection.

  12. Methylene blue upregulates Nrf2/ARE genes and prevents tau-related neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stack, Cliona; Jainuddin, Shari; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia; Starkov, Anatoly A; Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Launay, Nathalie; Pujol, Aurora; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Thomas, Bobby; Tampellini, Davide; Beal, M Flint; Dumont, Magali

    2014-07-15

    Methylene blue (MB, methylthioninium chloride) is a phenothiazine that crosses the blood brain barrier and acts as a redox cycler. Among its beneficial properties are its abilities to act as an antioxidant, to reduce tau protein aggregation and to improve energy metabolism. These actions are of particular interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with tau protein aggregates known as tauopathies. The present study examined the effects of MB in the P301S mouse model of tauopathy. Both 4 mg/kg MB (low dose) and 40 mg/kg MB (high dose) were administered in the diet ad libitum from 1 to 10 months of age. We assessed behavior, tau pathology, oxidative damage, inflammation and numbers of mitochondria. MB improved the behavioral abnormalities and reduced tau pathology, inflammation and oxidative damage in the P301S mice. These beneficial effects were associated with increased expression of genes regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE), which play an important role in antioxidant defenses, preventing protein aggregation, and reducing inflammation. The activation of Nrf2/ARE genes is neuroprotective in other transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and it appears to be an important mediator of the neuroprotective effects of MB in P301S mice. Moreover, we used Nrf2 knock out fibroblasts to show that the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE genes by MB is Nrf2 dependent and not due to secondary effects of the compound. These findings provide further evidence that MB has important neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases with tau pathology. PMID:24556215

  13. Aminothienopyridazines and Methylene Blue Affect Tau Fibrillization via Cysteine Oxidation*

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Smith, Amos B.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23443659

  14. Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

  15. "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones"

    E-print Network

    Stein, Oliver

    "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones" European Cultural Days 2014 Opening Address on Friday, 16 decided on the title of our symposium, "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones", one thing was clear

  16. Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac Rashes Can Be Serious

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152188.html Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac Rashes Can Be Serious ... 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Itchy, blistering rashes from poison ivy, oak and sumac are common and are ...

  17. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its direction and oversee activities. Methods The panel will consist of 4 presenters and 1 moderator, who are members of the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP leadership team. Each presenter will bring a unique perspective of the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance: CDC, state department of health, a local department of health, and a PC. Royal Law from the CDC National Center for Environmental Health will present on using PC data for identification of exposures and illnesses of public health significance identified from NPDS data collected from all 57 PCs. Dr. Jay Schauben from the Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville will discuss PC participation in surveillance and use of PC data for tracking and mitigation of PH events in Florida. Dr. Prakash Mulay from the Florida Department of Health will discuss utilization of PC data to enhance ESSENCE-based chemical-associated exposure and illness surveillance in Florida. Katherine Wheeler from the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will discuss NYC’s use of PC data in surveillance of potential emerging issues, from energy drinks to synthetic marijuana. Each presenter will discuss the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance in his or her organization and jurisdiction, the successes of using PC data, and their challenges. Results The moderator will engage the audience by facilitating discussion of the successes and challenges to using PC data for PH practice and surveillance with the audience. Sample questions: What are your current capacities and collaborative activities between your state/local health department and your poison center? What non-funding related barriers hinder the collaboration between your state/local health department and poison center? If more funding were available, how would you use this funding to increase the level of interactivity with the poison center and state/local health department?

  18. Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: Kinetics and equilibrium studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Hameed; A. T. M. Din; A. L. Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo, an abundant and inexpensive natural resource in Malaysia was used to prepare activated carbon by physiochemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as the activating agents at 850°C for 2h. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue dye on such carbon were then examined at 30°C. Adsorption isotherm of the methylene blue (MB) on the

  19. Methylene Blue in the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Tract Integrity: Potential Limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Prosst; Franziska Reinecke; G. Geginat

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The integrity of the gastrointestinal tract can be evaluated by oral or rectal application of methylene blue. In the presence of anastomotic leaks or fistulas, methylene blue can be recovered in adjacent drains. However, parts of the dye can biochemically be reduced by intestinal bacteria to its colorless form leucomethylene blue, limiting the prediction of the test. Materials and

  20. Acute poisoning with clenbuterol--a case report.

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the paper we have described a case of acute, unintentional intoxication with clenbuterol, a selective beta 2-agonist. A 21-year-old bodybuilder to improve his physical fitness and to increase his muscle bulk was using clenbuterol in a dose of two tablets (20 mg) daily for a week before poisoning. On a day of acute intoxication he drank orange juice containing 48 tablets (4.8 g) of clenbuterol, which had been placed there by his friends. The patient was admitted to our clinic with tachycardia at rate 160 bpm, headache, dizziness, tremor, sweats, muscle weakness, agitation. Serum potassium concentration was 2.6 mmol/L, blood glucose level 18.7 mmol/L. All the symptoms and biochemical abnormalities disappeared after intravenous treatment with propranolol (1.0 mg) and potassium chloride (60 mmol) within five hour period. This case indicates that more attention should be paid to clenbuterol widely used as a stimulant by athletes, especially by bodybuilders. PMID:9478104

  1. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y S

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

  2. Secondary phorate poisoning of large carnivores in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nallusamy Kalaivanan; Ragothaman Venkataramanan; Chirukandoth Sreekumar; Alagarsamy Saravanan; Rajeev K. Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    India, with its huge human population and fragmented wildlife habitat, is plagued with human–animal conflicts. In conflict\\u000a areas, large carnivores are often primary targets for malicious poisoning. The effects of certain poisons do not stop with\\u000a the target animal but also affects other species of wildlife in the form of secondary poisoning. This paper describes incidences\\u000a of secondary poisoning of

  3. Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

    2012-01-10

    Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides. PMID:21763089

  4. [Scombroid poisoning at an Icelandic restaurant].

    PubMed

    Sigmundsdóttir, Gudrún; Magnússon, Sigmundur; Ingólfsson, Rögnvaldur; Thorvaldsdóttir, Ingibjörg Rósa; Haraldsdóttir, Vilhelmína; Gíslason, Davíd

    2005-03-01

    We report four cases of scombroid poisoning. During a lunch meeting three males had the same dish: a club sandwich with raw tuna. All developed erythema over the face and neck within two hours of eating the tuna. The severity of symptoms varied. Other symptoms were profuse sweating, a feeling of intense thirst and palpitations. The symptoms disappeared after few hours. Samples obtained from the tuna revealed histamine levels above the recommended FDA levels. We also report a case with similar symptoms after eating canned tuna in a mixed salad. Scombroid poisoning has been associated with the consumption of dark-flesh fish with high levels of histidine, which can be converted to histamine by decarboxylase from Gram-negative bacteria in the fish. The fish most often implicated is tuna. It is of great importance to increase the awareness of this type of poisoning for correct diagnosis and to prevent other cases by improving storage. PMID:16155322

  5. Polyfluoro-tert-alkylsulfenyl chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yu. Sizov; A. F. Kolomiets; A. V. Fokin

    1988-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkylsulfenyl chlorides with tert-alkyl groups were obtained and these compounds were found to be similar to sulfenyl chlorides with primary polyfluoroalkyl groups in electrophilic addition at the C=C bond and are distinguished only in somewhat reduced reactivity.

  6. Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-20

    Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

  7. Modelling chloride diffusion in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. A. Thomas; Phil B. Bamforth

    1999-01-01

    Data from long-term field and laboratory studies of concrete exposed to chloride environments were analyzed using a chloride transport model developed at the University of Toronto. The results show that the incorporation of fly ash and slag may have little impact on transport properties determined at early ages (e.g., 28 days), but can lead to order of magnitude improvements in

  8. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  9. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  10. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  11. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  12. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  13. Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Mohammadi; AH Mehrparvar; M Aghilinejad

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Presenting as an Isolated Seizure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Y Herman

    1998-01-01

    Seizures are generally regarded as a manifestation of extreme, generally near-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. A case is described in which a seizure attributable to carbon monoxide poisoning occurred in a small child at a level not thought to be associated with serious neurologic toxicity. A literature review of the occurrence of seizures in carbon monoxide poisoning found that no particular

  15. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

  16. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  17. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  18. Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Dolev, Danny

    Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning Shimrit Tzur-David Kiril Lashchiver, or any other network resource. This paper presents a solution for the cache poisoning attack in which the attacker inserts incorrect data into the DNS cache. In order to successfully poison the cache, the attacker

  19. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  20. CDC Lead Poisoning Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Refugee Children

    E-print Network

    CDC Lead Poisoning Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Refugee Children 1. Background: · Lead poisoning remains one of the most common and preventable pediatric environmental conditions in the United States. · Lead is a poison that affects virtually every system in the human body. · Lead

  1. THE HYMENOPTEROUS POISON APPARATUS. VI. CAMPONOTU8 PENNSYLYANICUS

    E-print Network

    Villemant, Claire

    THE HYMENOPTEROUS POISON APPARATUS. VI. CAMPONOTU8 PENNSYLYANICUS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE:or illustrations are in millimeters. In preparation for chemical analysis, poison sacs were dissected rom workers compounds present in the poison gland secretion were re- solved by applying the .contents of fifty glands

  2. ANTIDOTE: Understanding and Defending against Poisoning of Anomaly Detectors

    E-print Network

    Rubinstein, Benjamin

    ANTIDOTE: Understanding and Defending against Poisoning of Anomaly Detectors Benjamin I. P poisoning techniques and develop a defense, in the context of a particular anomaly detector--namely the PCA-subspace method for detecting anomalies in backbone networks. For three poisoning schemes, we show how at- tackers

  3. Evidence for selection on coloration in a Panamanian poison frog

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Molly E.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evidence for selection on coloration in a Panamanian poison frog: a coalescent University, Durham, NC 27705, USA. ABSTRACT Aim The strawberry poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, has undergone in the strawberry poison frog. Keywords Aposematism, Bocas del Toro, coalescence, coloration, Dendrobates, Dendro

  4. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  5. Preventing CO poisoning: Tracking the impact of legislative and

    E-print Network

    Preventing CO poisoning: Tracking the impact of legislative and regulatory changes in New York City data partners ­ NYCDOHMH - Office of Vital Statistics, Injury Epidemiology, and the NYC Poison Control Poisoning Surveillance: Unintentional deaths 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Frequency

  6. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  7. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois as a fish poison. At concentrations of 1 p. p.m. sodium cyanide and at a variety of temperature and p

  8. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous Amir Herzberg and Haya Shulman

    E-print Network

    Lewenstein, Moshe

    Fragmentation Considered Poisonous Amir Herzberg and Haya Shulman Department of Computer Science--We present effective off-path DNS cache poisoning attacks, circumventing all widely-used defenses against poison- ing, based on echoing of random challenges from request to response, e.g., port randomisation

  9. 111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources

    E-print Network

    111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources 5 CDC Resources and Information poisoning prevention activities. Grant program. CDC provides funding to states and localities through the State and Community-Based Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program grants for screening, for ensuring

  10. A POWER CALIBRATION METHOD USING THE XENON POISONING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Damy de Souza Santos; P. Saraiva de Toledo

    1959-01-01

    A method of power calibration using the reactivity variation due to ; xenon poisoning is developed. Two cases are considered: reactivity variation ; after reacting the xenon equillbrium poisoning; time variation of reactiviyy due ; to the non-equilibrium xenon poisoning. Both methods are applicable in the high ; flux region. In the second method some care must be taken in

  11. Chloride thresholds in marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports results from an ongoing study of the performance of fly ash concrete in marine exposure. Reinforced concrete specimens exposed to tidal conditions were retrieved at ages ranging from 1 to 4 years. Steel reinforcement mass losses are compared with chloride contents at the location of the bar for concrete specimens of various strength grades and with a range of fly ash levels. The maximum level of chloride that could be tolerated without significant mass loss due to corrosion was found to vary with fly ash content. This threshold chloride level decreased with increasing fly ash content; values obtained were 0.70%, 0.65%, 0.50% and 0.20% acid-soluble chloride (by mass of cementitious material) for concrete with 0%, 15%, 30% and 50% ash, respectively. Despite the lower threshold values, fly ash concrete was found to provide better protection to the steel under these conditions, due to its increased resistance to chloride ion penetration.

  12. [Hemolysis in mushroom poisoning: facts and hypotheses].

    PubMed

    Flammer, R; Gallen, S

    1983-10-22

    Primary hemolysis induced by antigens and toxins of mushrooms must be distinguished from hemolysis secondary to shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation with disruption of erythrocytes caused by severe poisoning with many mushroom species. Primary hemolysis is well documented as immunohemolysis after repeated ingestion of involute paxillus (Paxillus involutus). Direct hemolysis is reported after eating raw mushrooms with a high content of hemolysins. Hemolysis is only speculative in monomethylhydrazine poisoning by false morels (Gyromitra esculenta). Secondary hemolysis due to shock is not uncommon. Hemolysis in connection with enzymopenia of erythrocytes has not been documented as yet. In the present study the various hemolytic syndromes are described and discussed. PMID:6359399

  13. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  14. Acute poisonings with drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Pach, J; Pach, K; Targosz, D; Winnik, L; Obara, M

    1995-01-01

    The drug overdose resulting in acute intoxication diagnosed in the 106 drug abusers in period form June to December 1994. The screening drugs identification was performed using immunoassays Triage and Vitalab Eclair manufactured by MERCK. Benzodiazepines followed by barbiturates and opiods were most often the cause of acute poisonings among the adult Kraków inhabitants. The results presented indicate that only adequate clinical observation, laboratory tests performance and establishing of intoxication state (acute poisoning, chronic intoxication or withdrawal) allows a complete patient evaluation. PMID:7644695

  15. The many faces of methylmercury poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Elhassani, S.B.

    1982-10-01

    Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

  16. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  17. Scombroid poisoning. Report of an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Lerke, P A; Werner, S B; Taylor, S L; Guthertz, L S

    1978-11-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  18. Evaluation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as an indoor air pollutant and biological assessment of methylene dianiline in the polyurethane factories.

    PubMed

    Mirmohammadi, Mirtaghi; Ibrahim, M Hakimi; Ahmad, Anees; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abdul; Mohammadyan, M; Mirashrafi, S B

    2009-04-01

    Today many raw materials used in factories may have a dangerous effect on the physiological system of workers. One of them, which is widely used in the polyurethane factories, is diisocyanates. These compounds are widely used in surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders, and sealants. Exposure to diisocyanates causes irritation to the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract. Methylene dianiline (MDA) is a metabolite of methylene diphenyle diisocyanate (MDI), an excretory material of worker's urine who are exposed to MDI. Around 100 air samples were collected among five factories by the Midget Impinger, which contained DMSO absorbent as a solvent and Tryptamine as a reagent. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an EC\\UV detector using the NIOSH 5522 method of sampling and analysis. Also, fifty urine samples were collected from workers by using William's biological analysis method. The concentration of MDI in all air samples was more than 88 mug/m(3), showing a high concentration of the pollutant in the workplaces in comparison with the NIOSH standard, and all the worker's urine was contaminated by MDA. The correlation and regression tests were used to obtain statistical model for MDI and MDA that is useful for prediction of diisocyanates pollution situation in the polyurethane factories. PMID:20165612

  19. Evaluation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as an indoor air pollutant and biological assessment of methylene dianiline in the polyurethane factories

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Mirtaghi; Ibrahim, M. Hakimi; Ahmad, Anees; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abdul; Mohammadyan, M.; Mirashrafi, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Today many raw materials used in factories may have a dangerous effect on the physiological system of workers. One of them, which is widely used in the polyurethane factories, is diisocyanates. These compounds are widely used in surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders, and sealants. Exposure to diisocyanates causes irritation to the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract. Methylene dianiline (MDA) is a metabolite of methylene diphenyle diisocyanate (MDI), an excretory material of worker's urine who are exposed to MDI. Around 100 air samples were collected among five factories by the Midget Impinger, which contained DMSO absorbent as a solvent and Tryptamine as a reagent. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an EC\\UV detector using the NIOSH 5522 method of sampling and analysis. Also, fifty urine samples were collected from workers by using William's biological analysis method. The concentration of MDI in all air samples was more than 88 ?g/m3, showing a high concentration of the pollutant in the workplaces in comparison with the NIOSH standard, and all the worker's urine was contaminated by MDA. The correlation and regression tests were used to obtain statistical model for MDI and MDA that is useful for prediction of diisocyanates pollution situation in the polyurethane factories. PMID:20165612

  20. 40 CFR 721.10253 - Butanedioic acid, 2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc...2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc...2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10253 - Butanedioic acid, 2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc...2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc...2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10253 - Butanedioic acid, 2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc...2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium zinc...2-methylene-, polymer with 2,5 furanedione, copper(2+) manganese(2+) sodium...

  3. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  4. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  5. Clinical predictors of completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning in 8895 self-poisoning patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Allgulander; L. D. Fisher

    1990-01-01

    Summary The diagnoses of 8895 patients who were admitted for intentional self-poisoning with psychoactive drugs were studied in order to find predictors for subsequent completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning. Automated record linkage by means of the Swedish personal identification numbers was performed between the Stockholm County inpatient registry and the cause-of-death registry. With Cox regression models, several diagnostic predictors were

  6. Nanosized ZSM-5 will improve photodynamic therapy using Methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Kariminezhad, H; Habibi, M; Mirzababayi, N

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, nanotechnology is growing to improve Photodynamic Therapy and reduce its side effects. In this research, the synthesized co-polymeric Zeolite Secony Mobile-5 (ZSM-5) was employed to modify Methylene Blue (MB) for these reasons. UV-Visible, FTIR, XRD analysis and SEM images were used to investigate obtained nanostructure. The crystal size for these nanostructures were determined 75nm and maximum adsorption capacity of MB in the nanostructure was estimated 111 (mgg(-1)). Also, the role of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) was studied as a capable non-toxic polymeric coating to overcome biological barriers. Moreover, potential of singlet oxygen production of the synthesized nanostructure was compared with MB and ZSM-5 nanoparticles control samples. Synthesized nanodrugs show impressive light induced singlet oxygen production efficiency. PMID:25900556

  7. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome: Is Methylene Blue the Silver Bullet?

    PubMed Central

    Umbrello, Michele; Gardinali, Marco; Ottolina, Davide; Zanforlin, Giancarlo; Iapichino, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Background. Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disorder characterized by unexplained, recurrent episodes of transient, abrupt increase in endothelial permeability, leading to severe hypotension, generalized edema, and hemoconcentration. Case Report. We report the case of a patient suffering from systemic capillary leak syndrome and present a possible interpretation of the pathophysiology of this condition. Besides the classical triad of hypotension, edema, and hemoconcentration, we recorded increased levels of methemoglobin, an index of NO overproduction. We present a possible interpretation of the pathophysiology of this condition based on the fast and complete reversal of symptoms after methylene blue administration (which opposes NO-induced effects) and speculate that increased NO levels could be implicated in the pathophysiology of the capillary leak phase. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? The safety of this treatment and its fluid- and cathecolamine-sparing effect deserve consideration and further research. PMID:25544902

  8. Texas Range Plants Poisonous to Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Sperry, Omer Edison

    1955-01-01

    tobacco Phytolaccn ctmericana, Pokeweed Psoralea te?z,uiflora, Scurf pea ---------..--..-. Ricinzts conzmunis, Castor bean -.------....--. .. REFERENCES INDEX ---------. .----------------------------------------- Tws Range Plants Poisonous... mo; of the time and eventually, in the more seriou cases, is unable to rise. Most cases of poisoninr result in constipation, vomiting, quickened an1 labored respiration and almost continuous drib bling of urine. The abnormal respiration in sick...

  9. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  10. A Case report: Ammonium dichromate poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asif Hasan

    We have presented a case report on ammonium dichromate poisoning to highlight the awareness of medical professionals about the toxicity of chromates and to minimize the fatalities. Its diagnosis depends mainly on history, clinical examination and post mortem findings. Chemical analysis is usually not helpful in this case, as it is a highly dissociable compound. In this case report, we

  11. Mercury poisoning in a wild mink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. WOBESER; M. SWIFT

    1976-01-01

    Mercury poisoning was diagnosed in a clinically-ill wild mink (Mustela vision) on the basis of clinical signs, histopathologic lesions and tissue mercury concentrations. The probable source of mercury was through ingestion of fish from the nearby South Saskatchewan River which is known to be contaminated with mercury. This is believed to be the first documented case of mercury intoxication of

  12. Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew Kane

    This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

  13. Anticholinergic poisoning with adulterated intranasal cocaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L Weiner; Marc J Bayer; Charles A McKay; Margaret DeMeo; Elizabeth Starr

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, emergency physicians have encountered a growing number of patients who present with anticholinergic toxicity after using adulterated heroin. Anticholinergic poisoning caused by adulterated cocaine is far less common. This report describes the case of a 39-year-old man who arrived in the emergency department several hours after the nasal insufflation of cocaine. Classic symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity were

  14. Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

  15. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-02-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  16. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  17. Coturnism: Human Poisoning By European Migratory Quail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Lewis; Elizabeth Metallinos-Katzaras; Louis E. Grivetti

    1987-01-01

    Coturnism is human poisoning from European migratory quail (Coturnix commix coturnix L.). While the name is recent, coturnism has been documented since antiquity. Most cases exhibit generalized weakness, progressing to severe muscle pain and lower limb paralysis, vomiting and discolored urine (myoglobinuria). Patients may experience severe gastroenteritis-diarrhea, fever, voice loss and death from cardiac or kidney failure. Toxic quail cannot

  18. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and ?-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the

  19. PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN TENAKEE, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA

    E-print Network

    NOTES PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN TENAKEE, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA: A POSSIBLE CAUSE PSP and Hilliard 1955; Sparks 1966; Neal 1967), it has often been assumed that this species is the cause of PSP by the University of Alaska failed to find a significant correlation between the occurrence of PSP and G. catenella

  20. Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

  1. Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

  2. Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

    This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

  3. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Zook; R. M. Sauer; F. M. GARNERL

    1972-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots

  4. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  5. Poisoning with delayed-release tablets

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, S. R.; Leeson, Gerald A.

    1974-01-01

    Accidental poisoning with delayed-release tablets causes symptoms at a time when the tablets can no longer be retrieved from the stomach. A child died from eating 23 tablets of Debendox, which is a delayed-release tablet containing dicyclomine and doxylamine. A second child survived a similar overdose, having been subjected to vigorous purgation and peritoneal dialysis. PMID:4830120

  6. Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas YK Chan; Kenneth KC Lee; Albert YW Chan; Julian AJH Critchley

    1995-01-01

    1 To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese pro prietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admit ted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied.2 There were 54 women and 17 men with their

  7. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  8. BURNABLE POISONS IN SMALL POWER REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Smith; J. Jeffrey

    1959-01-01

    In the design of small reactors suitable for propulsion purposes the ; need for a large amount of excess reactivity to compensate for the effects of ; depletion and fission product poisoning leads to a difficult engineering problem ; in the accommodation of an adequate amount of control rods to shut the reactor ; down. Moreover, unless a complex control

  9. Soluble poison flux quenching in nuclear reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ravetto; B. D. Ganapol

    1990-01-01

    Recently, there have been significant developments in the area of inherently safe nuclear reactor conceptual designs. Among these there is much interest in the so-called PIUS reactor, where safety is to be guaranteed by the timely introduction of borated water into the core. In the event of an accidental reactivity insertion followed by a power excursion, the poison introduction would

  10. [Laser conization guided by endocervical staining with methylene blue].

    PubMed

    Sopracordevole, F; Campagnutta, E; Parin, A; Scarabelli, C

    1994-03-01

    The authors report their experience of the use of a vital stain--methylene blue--as a surgical guide in laser cervical conization for CIN2-CIN3/CIS. During the period 1 October 1991-31 December 1992 a total of 40 laser cervical conizations were performed under local anesthesia using a CO2 laser connected to a microhandpiece and colposcope in patients with exo-endocervical lesions which were histologically positive for CIN2-CIN3/CIS. In 33/40 patients an aqueous solution of 1% methylene blue was introduced preoperatively in the endocervix using a cotton-wool bud with consequent impregnation of the pseudoglandular crypts: laser biopsy was performed along the guidelines of the stain itself. This enabled the direction of resection to be varied: in 3 patients due to an anomalous and eccentric direction of cervical canal; in 10 patients to remove glandular structures surrounding or underneath lesions; in 8 patients following pseudoglandular section to carry out deep vaporization (3 patients) or correct cutting edges (5 patients). The apex and edges of the cone were always intact. Fourteen patients completed a 12-month follow-up and a further 6 were followed up for 9 months; only 1/14 patients (with AIDS) showed recidivation after 1 year. In the authors' experience the use of a vital stain as a guide during laser cervical cone biopsy is an easily used method which ensures the greatest possible respect for healthy cervical structures, also in order to preserve fertility in young patients. PMID:8015701

  11. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  12. Poison control centers: can their value be measured?

    PubMed

    King, W D; Palmisano, P A

    1991-06-01

    Most regions of the United States are served by poison control centers that provide 24-hour toxicologic guidance resulting in the home management of most poison exposures. It has been suggested that without public access to a poison control hotline the majority of poison-exposed patients would seek medical care in emergency departments or other outpatient visits. This study compares the patterns of community response to poison exposure in Louisiana before and after the discontinuance of the state poison control service, and also compares these patterns to the situation in Alabama, which maintained poison center services throughout the study period. After discontinuance of the poison control service in Louisiana, poison exposure cases had up to four times the rate of "self-referral" to health care facilities and less than half the rate of home management when compared to Alabama cases. Before the closing of the Louisiana center, Alabama and Louisiana triage patterns for poison exposures were nearly identical. The maximum annual cost attributable to unnecessary outpatient service utilization in Louisiana was estimated to be $1.4 million, an amount more than three times the annual poison control center state appropriation. PMID:2052960

  13. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-06-01

    Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed. PMID:26069169

  14. Effects of the surface modification of silver nanoparticles on the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of methylene blue for borohydride-reduced silver colloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Gu, Huaimin; Kang, Jian; Yuan, Xiaojuan; Wu, Jiwei

    2010-12-01

    The paper further investigated the relationship between the modification of the surface chemistry and the enhancement mechanisms of borohydride-reduced silver particles (BRSC). The bands of residual ions die down while the anomalous bands increase gradually with the increasing of the concentration of Cl - and Br -. It means the residual ions are displaced gradually by the added Cl - or Br - and the two halides can lead to the aggregation of the BRSC to a certain extent. However, the most strongly binding anions - I -, cannot cause any aggregation of silver particles. From the detection of methylene blue (MB), the relationship between the modification of silver surface chemistry and the enhancement mechanisms was discussed. Chloride gives the greatest enhancement while the iodide gives the lowest enhancement among the different kinds of anions. There are also some anomalous bands in the SERS spectra of MB, and these anomalous bands were given rational explanation in this paper.

  15. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  16. Degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency plasmas in water under ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Tsunehiro; Nishiyama, Kyohei; Onishi, Shingo; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Kuramoto, Makoto; Nomura, Shinfuku; Kawashima, Ayato

    2010-02-15

    The degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency (RF) plasmas in water under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied experimentally. When the methylene blue solution was exposed to RF plasma, UV irradiation from a mercury vapor lamp enhanced degradation significantly. A lamp without power supply also enhanced degradation since weak UV light was emitted weakly from the lamp due to the excitation of mercury vapor by stray RF power. Such an enhancement is explained by the fact that after hydrogen peroxide is produced via the recombination process of OH radicals around the plasma, OH radicals reproduced from hydrogen peroxide via the photolysis process degrade methylene blue. PMID:19819072

  17. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  18. New method to measure the rapid chloride migration coefficient of chloride-contaminated concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lay; S. Liebl; H. Hilbig; P. Schießl

    2004-01-01

    The apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, Dapp, which is obtained by fitting chloride profiles as the result of time-consuming immersion tests can be substituted in a model on chloride ingress by the rapid chloride migration (RCM) coefficient of concrete, DRCM, which is determined under electrically accelerated conditions. Until now, it was not possible to measure DRCM of chloride-contaminated concrete, as already

  19. Morphology and structure of microcapsules prepared by interfacial polycondensation of methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) with hexamethylene diamine.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, E

    2001-01-01

    Polyurea microcapsules containing 2- chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl) acetamide as the active agent were prepared by the method of interfacial polycondensation with methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) the multifunctional isocyanatae, hexamethylene diamine as the diamine, and anionic (SLS) as the emulsifying sodium lignin liinin the agent. The internal structure and morphology of the microcapsules were examined with transmission electron microscopy. The microcapsules had a micro-reservoir structure in which the wall extended well into the core and the active agent was accomodated by the micro-reservoirs, distributed uniformly throughout the entire volume of a microcapsule. Based on the observed morphology, permeability of the water soluble monomer in the polyurea film and its solubility in the oil phase have a significant effect on the morphology and microstructure of the microcapsules. The multivalent salt, calcium chloride, plays a significant role in stabilizing the microcapsule structure, by interacting with the anionic surfactant SLS, and physically crosslinks the SLS chains, by interacting with the negatively charged carboxylic and phenolic groups, with subsequent phase separation of the physically crosslinked chains to form a concentrated gel phase. This gel phase encompasses the microcapsule, increases the stability, and modifies its release behaviour. PMID:11695642

  20. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl?) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl? channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl? channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl? channel and Cl?/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl? channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl? channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl? current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl? channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl? channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  1. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma source techniques on 3,7- bis (dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowich, Steven

    Studies of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma source on an organic heterocycle were conducted to determine reaction parameters and rearrangement conditions. The target compound 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, commonly referred to as methylene blue, was determine to polymerize after exposure to a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma source. The presence of charge retention and a free electron radical were detected inherent to the polymer. Evaluation of the structure and mechanism of the polymer were also presented for evidence and clarification. Additional description of the plasma source environment was correlated to the manipulation of the target compound.

  2. alpha-Methylene and glycidic acid analogs of IPPA as potential myocardial imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Ruyan, M K; Bakan, D A; Skinner, R W; Newman, C; Gross, M D; Counsell, R E

    1995-01-01

    Using organozinc cross-coupling reactions, two radiolabeled analogs of 15-(p-iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) have been designed and synthesized as potential scintigraphic imaging agents for the heart. Both 15-(4-iodophenyl)-tridecylglycidic acid and 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene pentadecanoic acid were synthesized and radioiodinated. In tissue biodistribution studies in rats, only the alpha-methylene derivative of IPPA displayed a consistently higher heart to blood ratio and a substantially lower degree of thyroid accumulation than did IPPA alone. With respect to a scintigraphic imaging efficacy, the alpha-methylene analog of IPPA and IPPA itself showed essentially equivalent cardiac imaging profiles in rabbits, with a slight extension in imaging time for the alpha-methylene analog of IPPA. PMID:7735176

  3. Cyclopropanation of styrenes and stilbenes using lithiomethyl trimethylammonium triflate as methylene donor.

    PubMed

    Sarria Toro, Juan M; den Hartog, Tim; Chen, Peter

    2014-09-21

    Lithiomethyl trimethylammonium triflate, prepared from tetramethylammonium triflate, cyclopropanates several styrenes and stilbenes with electron-donating and selected electron-withdrawing substituents efficiently. Kinetic data support a stepwise nucleophilic addition-ring closure mechanism for this methylenation. PMID:25076071

  4. Detoxification of Organophosphate Poisoning Using Nanoparticle Bioscavengers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Fei; Chuluun, Erdembileg; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Lu, Weiyue; Jiang, Xinguo; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-06-23

    Organophosphate poisoning is highly lethal as organophosphates, which are commonly found in insecticides and nerve agents, cause irreversible phosphorylation and inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to neuromuscular disorders via accumulation of acetylcholine in the body. Direct interception of organophosphates in the systemic circulation thus provides a desirable strategy in treatment of the condition. Inspired by the presence of AChE on red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we explored a biomimetic nanoparticle consisting of a polymeric core surrounded by RBC membranes to serve as an anti-organophosphate agent. Through in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the biomimetic nanoparticles retain the enzymatic activity of membrane-bound AChE and are able to bind to a model organophosphate, dichlorvos, precluding its inhibitory effect on other enzymatic substrates. In a mouse model of organophosphate poisoning, the nanoparticles were shown to improve the AChE activity in the blood and markedly improved the survival of dichlorvos-challenged mice. PMID:26053868

  5. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  6. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  7. Accidental poisoning in children in Jaipur (Rajasthan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usha Sharma; S. Saxena Jaipur

    1974-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The study includes data of 80 cases of chemical poisoning in children under 12 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a 78.7% of all the poisonings occurred between 0–3 years, of which the maximum incidence (59.7%) was encountered between 1–3\\u000a years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Males were predominantly affected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Household substances were responsible for the maximum number of cases (73.7%) in which kerosene

  8. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

  9. Lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer).

    PubMed

    Locke, L N; Kerr, S M; Zoromski, D

    1982-01-01

    Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight). PMID:7103895

  10. Towards optimum diffraction efficiency for methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changkakoti, R.; Pappu, S. V.

    1989-08-01

    A systematic investigation has been carried out into the optimization of diffraction efficiency ( ?) of methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) holograms. The influence of the following parameters on ? have been studied: prehardener concentration ( CH), concentrations of ammonium dichromate ( CA) and methylene blue ( CM) as photosensitizers, and exposure ( E). This study revealed that with CH ? 0.5, CA ? 30, CM ? 0.3, and E ? 400-600, optimum diffraction efficiency of over 80%, can be easily achieved in MBDCG holograms.

  11. Effect of chromium doping on the diffraction efficiency of methylene blue sensitized PVA\\/acrylamide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beena Mary John; Rani Joseph; K. Sreekumar; C. Sudha Kartha

    2009-01-01

    The effect of chromium doping on methylene blue sensitized Poly (vinyl alcohol)\\/Acrylamide was carried out by varying the\\u000a ratios of Ammonium dichromate and methylene blue. In the case of films without ammonium dichromate, the diffraction efficiency\\u000a was found to decrease on storage. On chromium doping the storage life was improved. Interestingly, a self-enhancement in efficiency\\u000a was observed for a particular

  12. N -demethylation of methylene blue by lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viridiana S. Ferreira; Denise B. Magalhães; Sérgio H. Kling; José G. Da Silva Jr.; Elba P. S. Bon

    2000-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase (LiP) can degrade synthetic dyes such as heterocyclic, azo, and triphenylmethane on its activation by H2O2. Analysis of the reaction products indicated that N-demethylation reactions are involved in the degradation of crystal violet and methylene blue (MB). We studied LiP oxidation\\u000a of methylene blue and azure B (AB) in reaction mixtures containing different dye: H2O2 stoichiometric

  13. Case study: fatal poisoning by malathion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S Thompson; R. G Treble; A Magliocco; J. R Roettger; J. C Eichhorst

    1998-01-01

    A case involving a fatal poisoning (suicide) by the insecticide malathion is described. The intact insecticide was found in the post-mortem blood and gastric contents at concentrations of 1.8 and 978 ?g\\/ml, respectively. None of the insecticide was found in the autopsied liver tissue. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) techniques were used for the identification and quantification of malathion in the

  14. Metal poisons for criticality in waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q. [Westinghouse Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals that may serve as neutron poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist; the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper. In an earlier study, the authors demonstrated safe ratios for iron, manganese, and chromium oxides to {sup 235}U. In these studies, the Hansen-Roach 16-group cross sections were used with the Savannah River site code HRXN. Multiplication factors were computed, and safe ratios were defined such that the adjusted neutron multiplication factors (k values) were <0.95. These safe weight ratios were Fe:{sup 235}U - 77:1; Mn:{sup 235}U - 30:1; and Cr:{sup 235}U - 52:1. Palmer has shown that for certain mixtures of aluminum, iron, and zirconium with {sup 235}U, the computed infinite multiplication factors may differ by as much as 20% with different cross sections and processing systems. Parks et al. have further studied these mixtures and state, {open_quotes}...these metal/uranium mixtures are very sensitive to the metal cross-section data in the intermediate-energy range and the processing methods that are used.{close_quotes} They conclude with a call for more experimental data. The purpose of this study is to reexamine earlier work with cross sections and processing codes used at Westinghouse Savannah River Company today. This study will focus on {sup 235}U mixtures with iron, manganese and chromium. Sodium will be included in the list of poisons because it is abundant in many of the waste materials.

  15. Organophosphate poisonings with parathion and dimethoate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Hoffmann; Thomas Papendorf

    2006-01-01

    Objective  Organophosphate toxicity is the leading cause of morbidity and death in poisoning by insecticides. The clinical symptoms of\\u000a pesticide toxicity range from the classic cholinergic syndrome to flaccid paralysis and intractable seizures. The mainstays\\u000a of therapy are atropine, oximes, benzodiazepines and supportive care. The toxicokinetics vary not only with the extent of\\u000a exposure, but also with the chemical structure of

  16. INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

    Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

  17. Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

  18. POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

    2004-01-01

    A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

  19. White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.

    PubMed

    Pande, T K; Pandey, S

    2004-03-01

    Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked. PMID:15636320

  20. Use of dialytic therapies for poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Winchester; Nikolas Harbord; Donald A. Feinfeld

    The nephrologist is often consulted in poisoning cases. Although management may involve attention to incident renal failure\\u000a or electrolyte and acid-base disorders, blood purification may also be necessary [1]. The application of dialysis therapies\\u000a or hemoperfusion to enhance clearance of intoxicants is an essential task for the nephrologist.\\u000a \\u000a This chapter will outline the principles and use of dialysis and related

  1. Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

  2. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  3. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed Central

    Heldaas, S S; Langård, S L; Andersen, A

    1984-01-01

    The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed. PMID:6691932

  4. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

  5. Acute paraquat poisoning with sinus bradycardia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SONG, CHENGZHEN; KAN, BAOTIAN; YU, GUANGCAI; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WANG, JIERU; SUN, JING

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to a variety of complications. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may succumb to multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Although numerous studies have been performed investigating PQ poisoning, cases of extreme bradycardia caused by acute PQ-induced poisoning are rare. In the present case report, a 59-year-old male who ingested PQ was admitted to the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China) after three days. The patient received treatment known as the ‘Qilu scheme’, which was established in the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease. However, the heart rate of the patient remained low following the administration of conventional medicines, until thyroid tablets were administered. To the best of our knowledge, cases of bradycardia following PQ poisoning are rare. PMID:25289040

  6. Mechanism of cell destruction and cell protection during methylene-blue-induced PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueck, Angelika C.; Beck, G.; Heckelsmiller, K.; Knoedlsdorfer, U.; Genze, Felicitas; Orth, K.

    1999-02-01

    Methylene Blue (MB+) is a well-known dye in medicine and has been discussed as an easily applicable drug for the topical treatment in photodynamic therapy (PDT). MB+ can potentially be used as a redox indicator to detect the important redox reactions that are induced during PDT. MB+ induced PDT was successful in the intraluminal treatment of inoperable esophageal tumors and in the topical treatment of psoriasis. In order to improve the therapy, the reaction mechanism of MB+ was investigated in vivo by local injection of MB+ in a xenotransplanted subcutaneous tumor (adeno-carcinoma, G-3) in female nude mice. The MB+ preparation 'MB+1%' was applied both undiluted and diluted to 0.1% and 0.01% with isotonic sodium chloride. After an incubation period of 1 h, the tumors were irradiated at 662 nm. Treatment with 1% MB+ and subsequent irradiation with 100 J/cm2 led to complete tumor destruction in 79% of the treated animals. A decrease of the fluence rate from 100 mW/cm2 to 50 mW/cm2 significantly increased the phototoxic response, which was attributed to oxygen depletion but also to nonlinear redox reactions. In addition, fractionated light application with 15 s interruption intervals enhanced the effect. When 0.1% MB+ was used, complete tumor destruction was observed only in 10% of the treated animals. Below a relatively high threshold dose the therapeutic response was not significant. The efficiency of the therapy was correlated with nonlinear dynamics of MB+ on a subcellular level, using laser scanning microscopy. During MB+-PDT nonlinear redox- reactions were induced. This could be deduced from local fast changes of the MB+-fluorescence as well as the pH-value during irradiation of single cells. The light induced reaction of MB+ seems to be correlated with the nonlinear production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a consequence below a threshold dose the reducing ability of MB+ prevents tissue from oxidative damage. However, above this dose, as a point of no return, MB+ acts as an extremely potent oxidant.

  7. Methylene blue is neuroprotective against mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Talley Watts, Lora; Long, Justin Alexander; Chemello, Jonathan; Van Koughnet, Samantha; Fernandez, Angelica; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Methylene blue (MB) has known energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties. This study tested the hypothesis that MB treatment reduces lesion volume and behavioral deficits in a rat model of mild TBI. In a randomized double-blinded design, animals received either MB (n=5) or vehicle (n=6) after TBI. Studies were performed on 0, 1, 2, 7, and 14 days following an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. MRI lesion was not apparent 1 h after TBI, became apparent 3 h after TBI, and peaked at 2 days for both groups. The MB-treated animals showed significantly smaller MRI lesion volume than the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. The MB-treated animals exhibited significantly improved scores on forelimb placement asymmetry and foot fault tests than did the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. Smaller numbers of dark-stained Nissl cells and Fluoro-Jade(®) positive cells were observed in the MB-treated group than in vehicle-treated animals 14 days post-TBI. In conclusion, MB treatment minimized lesion volume, behavioral deficits, and neuronal degeneration following mild TBI. MB is already approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat a number of indications, likely expediting future clinical trials in TBI. PMID:24479842

  8. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Candida albicans Treated with Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Avalos, D.; Jedlicka, L. D. L.; Costa, M. S.; Barja, P. R.; da Silva, E. C.

    2012-11-01

    In the present work the phototoxic effect of methylene blue (MB) on Candida albicans cultures was studied using the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique. An aliquot of 50 ?L of C. albicans suspension—strain ATCC 10-231—was incubated with 50 ?L of MB solution (0.5 mg/mL), at room temperature. After the proper incubation time, a colony forming unit (CFU) with approximately 3 mm diameter was chosen in each plate. The CFU selected was irradiated using an InGaAlP laser during 20 s. After irradiation and new incubation, the CFUs were collected and stored at -70 °C, until spectroscopy analysis. The spectroscopy analysis was performed using an open PAS setup. The study was conducted in different groups: (1) control (non-treated); (2) irradiated with laser light; (3) treated with MB (non-irradiated); and (4) treated with MB and irradiated with laser light. The PAS measurements were performed on C. albicans in a sterile physiological solution. The measurements indicate that the presence of MB and irradiation promotes a change in the redox state of the cells to the reduced state. The absorption spectrum after photodynamic therapy (PDT) was observed 12 h and 36 h later. It was inferred that PDT can be related to structural changes in cytochrome molecules after 36 h. It is concluded that MB can be an efficient photosensitizer in C. albicans through modification of the cytochrome molecule affecting the cell metabolism.

  9. Optical Stark Spectroscopy of Chloro-Methylene HCCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-06-01

    The optical spectrum of chloro-methylene, HCCl, has been studied for more than 40 years by both conventional and laser-based spectroscopy. Surprisingly, numerous visible bands have yet to be characterized, due in part to known perturbations. Furthermore, the permanent electric dipole moment, ?El, for any state has yet to be determined. Here we report on the field-free and optical Stark spectrum of the tilde{A}1A'' (060)- tilde{X}1A '(000) band system. A cold molecular beam sample was produced by skimming the output of a pulsed discharge source and the spectrum recorded at a resolution of approximately 30 MHz via LIF detection. The field-free spectrum was analyzed to produce an improved set of spectroscopic parameters for the tilde{A}1A''(060)state. The Stark induced shifts were analyzed to determine the values of the a-component of ?El for the tilde{X}1A^ {'}(000)state of 0.498(8)D. Small perturbations in the tilde{A}1A''(060)state will be described. A. J. Merer and D.N. Travis Can. J. Phys., 44, 525 1966. M.Kakimoto, S.Saito and E. Hirota J.Mol.Spectrosc., 97, 194 1983. B.-C.Chang and T. Sears J.Mol.Spectrosc., 173, 391 1995. H. Fan, I. Ionescu, C. Annesley, J. Cummins, M. Bowers and S. A. Reid J.Mol.Spectrosc., 225, 43 2004.

  10. UVA photoinduced yeast protein modifications by methylene blue and naproxen.

    PubMed

    Bracchitta, Giuseppina; Catalfo, Alfio; De Guidi, Guido

    2013-06-01

    UVA photosensitization by methylene blue (MB) or by naproxen (NAP) towards cell proteins in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated in order to compare this system with two simpler models, such as free Trp in solution and as a component of bovine and human serum albumin. The process was studied by monitoring protein tryptophan (Trp) residue integrity. The sensitized photodegradation of proteins resulted in different degrees of Trp damage with different Trp (photo)-products. Indeed, many of these Trp derivatives are diagnostic for the photosensitization mechanism and some of them were obtained from cells by UVA photosensitization for the first time in this work. The analysis of quantum yields of photoproduct distribution allowed us to weigh up the type I/II contribution on a UVA photosensitization mechanism. The UVA mediated generation of these Trp derivatives is consistent with the occurrence of singlet oxygen formation (almost dominant in MB), and photoionization (significant in NAP) within the protein matrix. The results obtained in the case of this more complex system (cell) are in agreement with the two simpler models recently studied in our lab. The quantum yields of Trp photoinduced degradation, as well as of its photoproducts formation, decrease with increasing the complexity of the investigated target. PMID:23529213

  11. Self-poisoning and Moon Phases in Oslo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Jacobsen; P. S. Frederichsen; K. M. Knutsen; Y. Sørum; T. Talseth; O. R. Ødegaard

    1986-01-01

    1 During 1980 the relation between the moon phases and 1187 cases of self-poisonings in Oslo was studied.2 In contrast to a previous report from India no significant correlation was found between the full moon and self-poisoning.3 The aetiology of self-poisonings in western countries is rather more complex than to be explained by speculative 'human tidal waves'.

  12. Comparison of chlorine-poisoned experiments to calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.; Wilson, R.E.

    2000-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has fissile materials in salt, which could be processed for disposal more efficiently if the nuclear poison effect of the chlorine were validated. The authors conclude that chlorine can be credited as poison when present in thermal systems. The 27-, 44-, and 238-group libraries in SCALE and the ENDFB-B libraries with MCNP underpredict the poisonous effect of chlorine in thermal systems.

  13. Electrocardiographic Predictors of Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Suspected Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex F. Manini; Lewis S. Nelson; Adam H. Skolnick; William Slater; Robert S. Hoffman

    2010-01-01

    Poisoning is the second leading cause of injury-related fatality in the USA and the leading cause of cardiac arrest in victims\\u000a under 40 years of age. The study objective was to define the electrocardiographic (ECG) predictors of adverse cardiovascular\\u000a events (ACVE) complicating suspected acute poisoning (SAP). This was a case-control study in adults at three tertiary-care\\u000a hospitals and one regional Poison

  14. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

  15. Delay among the general public in telephoning a poison center.

    PubMed

    McKnight, R H; Dawson, S K; Westneat, S C; Rodgers, G C; Ross, M P

    1996-04-01

    Delay in seeking treatment for poisonings can hinder patient recovery. Our study examined delay in notifying a poison center about green tobacco sickness (GTS), a form of nicotine poisoning resulting from dermal contact with tobacco leaves. We conducted a follow-up survey of 55 cases of GTS reported by telephone to the kentucky Regional Poison Center in 1993. The "delay" group (38.2% of the cases) was defined as those callers who stated in the follow-up report that they should have phoned the poison center sooner than they did. Characteristics of the callers who delayed and the GTS patients they reported were compared with characteristics of the "non-delay" group. Delay was associated with callers' awareness of the poison center's expertise in agricultural poisonings and with age and sex of the patient. Our findings point to the need to target groups such as farmers with an educational campaign to make them more aware of the extent of the poison center's services and to encourage timely reporting of occupational poisonings. PMID:8693693

  16. An Atropa belladonna L. poisoning with acute subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Cikla, Ulas; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ayaz, Ahmet Faik; Turedi, Suleyman; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

    2011-12-01

    Atropa belladonna L. is a plant long known to cause poisoning. But no cases of acute subdural hematoma resulting from such poisoning have been reported so far. Care must also be taken in terms of acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis in cases of such poisoning. The plant may sometimes be mistaken for the Caucasian blueberry, V. arctostaphylos L. At least one anti-cholinesterase toxidrome finding was determined in all the nine cases of belladonna poisoning in this series. No elevated creatine kinase was reported in one case with acute subdural hematoma and hyperamylasemia. PMID:21540312

  17. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  18. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  19. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  20. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  1. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

  2. CDC Recommendations for Lead Poisoning Prevention in Newly Arrived Refugee Children

    E-print Network

    CDC Recommendations for Lead Poisoning Prevention in Newly Arrived Refugee Children Lead poisoning remains one of the most common and preventable pediatric environmental conditions even though Poisoning Prevention Branch and Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, in collaboration

  3. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP) – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Li; XueZhong Yu; Zhong Wang; HouLi Wang; XiangHuai Zhao; YuPing Cao; WeiZhan Wang; Michael Eddleston

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine

  4. Using poison center data for national public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposure and associated illness.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, Colleen A; Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration. PMID:21937144

  5. Intoxication aigu et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    poisoning Summary (176 words): Key words : cadmium - poisoning - pneumonia - nephropathy - osteomalacia of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by IARC

  6. Methylene Blue Based Device for Pathogen Reduction in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Elikaei, A; Hosseini, S M; Sharifi, Z; Latifi, H; Nikbakht, H; Mirshafiee, H; Asadollahi, A

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite improvement in safety of plasma transfusion some virus transmission still remains a problem. So as World Health Organization (WHO) recommends, many countries developed Pathogen Reduction Technologies (PRT) to inactivate pathogens, in plasma components. The Methylene Blue (MB) based methods is one of the most universal one. The purpose of this research was, produce a device that can inactivate viruses in MB environment. Materials and Methods In this interventional study, each Plasma Sample was illuminated by 70Pieces (PCs) of 1 w red Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) from one side. These LEDs emit light at central wavelength of 627 nm with 20 nm Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). Two model viruses Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) were used and Tissue Culture 50% Infection Dose (TCID50) was used to calculate virus Log reduction. Two concentration of MB and 5 different illumination times were used. Results In 10 µm concentration of MB, HSV had 6.00±0.2 maximum log reduction that obtain after 60 minutes illumination and VSV had 5.50± 0.3 maximum log reduction after 75 minutes illumination. In 1 µM concentration of MB, HSV had 5.20±0.3 maximum log reduction that obtain after 60 minutes illumination and VSV had 4.90± 0.2 maximum log reduction after 75 minutes illumination. Conclusion Results of virus inactivation in this method were similar to other methods (P-value<0.05 in comparison with Spring method, and P-value>0.05 in comparison with Theraflex), and it showed this device could inactivate viruses according to WHO recommendation. PMID:24575279

  7. Characterization of a second methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1.

    PubMed

    Hagemeier, C H; Chistoserdova, L; Lidstrom, M E; Thauer, R K; Vorholt, J A

    2000-06-01

    Cell extracts of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 were recently found to catalyze the dehydrogenation of methylene tetrahydromethanopterin (methylene H4MPT) with NAD+ and NADP+. The purification of a 32-kDa NADP-specific methylene H4MPT dehydrogenase (MtdA) was described already. Here we report on the characterization of a second methylene H4MPT dehydrogenase (MtdB) from this aerobic alpha-proteobacterium. Purified MtdB with an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa was shown to catalyze the oxidation of methylene H4MPT to methenyl H4MPT with NAD+ and NADP+ via a ternary complex catalytic mechanism. The Km for methylene H4MPT was 50 microM with NAD+ (Vmax = 1100 U x mg(-1) and 100 microM with NADP+ (Vmax = 950 U x mg(-1). The Km value for NAD+ was 200 microM and for NADP+ 20 microM. In contrast to MtdA, MtdB could not catalyze the dehydrogenation of methylene tetrahydrofolate. Via the N-terminal amino-acid sequence, the MtdB encoding gene was identified to be orfX located in a cluster of genes whose translated products show high sequence identities to enzymes previously found only in methanogenic and sulfate reducing archaea. Despite its location, MtdB did not show sequence similarity to archaeal enzymes. The highest similarity was to MtdA, whose encoding gene is located outside of the archaeal island. Mutants defective in MtdB were unable to grow on methanol and showed a pronounced sensitivity towards formaldehyde. On the basis of the mutant phenotype and of the kinetic properties, possible functions of MtdB and MtdA are discussed. We also report that both MtdB and MtdA can be heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli making these two enzymes readily available for structural analysis. PMID:10848995

  8. Skeletal rearrangement of o-propargylic formaldoximes by a gold-catalyzed cyclization/intermolecular methylene transfer sequence.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Itaru; Gima, Shinya; Kudo, Yu; Terada, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal rearrangement of O-propargylic formaldoximes, in the presence of gold catalysts, afforded 4-methylene-2-isoxazolines in good to excellent yields by an intermolecular methylene transfer. In addition, the cascade reaction with maleimide in the presence of a gold catalyst afforded isoxazole derivatives by cyclization/methylene transfer and a subsequent ene reaction, whereas that using a copper catalyst gave oxazepines through a 2,3-rearrangement. PMID:25932619

  9. Partial molar volumes of uni-univalent electrolytes in methanol + water; 1: Lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Nobuo; Takemura, Takeshi; Sakurai, Masao (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. for Electronic Science)

    1994-04-01

    Densities of methanol + water + lithium chloride, + sodium chloride, and + potassium chloride were measured at 15, 25, 35, and 45 C. The apparent molar volumes of the electrolytes in these mixtures were calculated, and the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution, the partial molar volumes, and partial molar thermal expansivities were evaluated.

  10. Effects of low chloride intake on performance, clinical characteristics, and chloride, sodium, potassium, and nitrogen metabolism in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, D L; Neathery, M W; Miller, W J; Whitlock, R H; Allen, J C

    1979-12-01

    Young male Holstein calves were fed either a control (.5% chloride) or a low-chloride (.038% chloride) practical diet for 7 wk. Both groups received low-chloride (.00038% chloride) well water. Feeding the low-chloride diet did not produce definite clinical symptoms of chloride deficiency. Neither body weight gains, feed intake, feed digestibility, nor body retention of chloride, sodium, potassium, or nitrogen were effected adversely. Although the chloride intake of the low-chloride calves was only one-sixteenth that of controls, body chloride retention was similar for the two groups. The similar retention of body chloride was due to effective homeostatic mechanisms in which urinary chloride excretion was reduced by 95% in the low-chloride calves. Low-chloride calves consumed more water and excreted more urine than control calves. Although the exact minimum chloride requirement for growth in calves was not established, .038% chloride was adequate for normal growth for the 7 wk. PMID:541461

  11. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

    2014-07-30

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings. PMID:24661202

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  16. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  3. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  4. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  5. Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

  6. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  7. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  8. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Dhir; M. A. K. El-Mohr; T. D. Dyer

    1997-01-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimise resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole\\/litre were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50%

  9. [Acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Berg, E; Fischer, R

    1976-09-10

    Three cases of acute CCI4 poisoning are reported which came for admission in the stage of hepatorenal insufficiency. All three intoxications occurred in the home by inhalation as a result of disregarding the safety precautions. The patients remembered using the noxa only after renewed questioning by the doctors. All three patients were able to be discharged cured after appropriate therapy, including peritoneal or hemodialysis. A disturbance of the capacity for urine concentration could be demonstrated up to 3 years after the exposure, as a last limitation of function. PMID:822322

  10. Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

  11. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2013-01-01

    Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home. PMID:24325774

  12. DDE poisoning in an adult Bald eagle.

    PubMed

    Garcelon, D K; Thomas, N J

    1997-04-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain. PMID:9131562

  13. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  14. Majorana qubit decoherence by quasiparticle poisoning

    E-print Network

    Rainis, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of quasiparticle poisoning in a nanowire-based realization of a Majorana qubit, where a spin-orbit-coupled semiconducting wire is placed on top of a (bulk) superconductor. By making use of recent experimental data exhibiting evidence of a low-temperature residual non-equilibrium quasiparticle population in superconductors, we show by means of analytical and numerical calculations that the dephasing time due to the tunneling of quasiparticles into the nanowire may be problematically short to allow for qubit manipulation.

  15. Majorana qubit decoherence by quasiparticle poisoning

    E-print Network

    Diego Rainis; Daniel Loss

    2012-05-30

    We consider the problem of quasiparticle poisoning in a nanowire-based realization of a Majorana qubit, where a spin-orbit-coupled semiconducting wire is placed on top of a (bulk) superconductor. By making use of recent experimental data exhibiting evidence of a low-temperature residual non-equilibrium quasiparticle population in superconductors, we show by means of analytical and numerical calculations that the dephasing time due to the tunneling of quasiparticles into the nanowire may be problematically short to allow for qubit manipulation.

  16. Lessons to be learnt from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for the treatment of nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Eyer, P; Felgenhauer, N; Zilker, T; Worek, F

    2007-04-20

    The increasing threat of nerve agent use for terrorist purposes against civilian and military population calls for effective therapeutic preparedness. At present, administration of atropine and an oxime are recommended, although effectiveness of this treatment is not proved in clinical trials. Here, monitoring of intoxications with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides may be of help, as their actions are closely related to those of nerve agents and intoxication and therapy follow the same principles. To this end, the clinical course of poisoning and the effectiveness of antidotal therapy were investigated in patients requiring artificial ventilation being treated with atropine and obidoxime. However, poisoning with OP pesticides shows extremely heterogeneous pictures of cholinergic crisis frequently associated with clinical complications. To achieve valuable information for the therapy of nerve agent poisoning, cases resembling situations in nerve agent poisoning had to be extracted: (a) intoxication with OPs forming reactivatable OP-AChE-complexes with short persistence of the OP in the body resembling inhalational sarin intoxication; (b) intoxication with OPs resulting rapidly in an aged OP-AChE-complex resembling inhalational soman intoxication; (c) intoxications with OPs forming a reactivatable AChE-OP complex with prolonged persistence of the OP in the body resembling percutaneous VX intoxication. From these cases it was concluded that sufficient reactivation of nerve agent inhibited non-aged AChE should be possible, if the poison load was not too high and the effective oximes were administered early and with an appropriate duration. When RBC-AChE activity was higher than some 30%, neuromuscular transmission was relatively normal. Relatively low atropine doses (several milligrams) should be sufficient to cope with muscarinic symptoms during oxime therapy. PMID:17161895

  17. [The differential diagnosis of severe poisoning using electroencephalographic findings].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovski?, V N

    1976-01-01

    The author conducted a clinical and EEG study of 308 patients with severe acute poisoning (by barbiturates, phosphororganic compounds, ethyl alcohol, noxiron, elenium, narcotics, carbon monoxide, tubazide, ethylenglycole and dichlorethan). It is shown that EEG changes in combination with clinical and toxicological data permit to qualify more precisely the form of poisoning and conduct specific therapy. PMID:1266493

  18. A prospective study of acute poisonings in Finnish hospital patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Outi Lapatto-Reiniluoto; Kari T Kivistö; Sinikka Pohjola-Sintonen; Kimmo Luomanmäki; Pertti J Neuvonen

    1998-01-01

    1 We have carried out a prospective study of all adult patients presenting with acute poisoning during one month to the Helsinki University Central Hospital (Meilahti Hospital).2 Two hundred and twenty-six cases of acute poisoning (113 males and 113 females) presented to the emergency department. Most cases in both men (66%) and women (67%) involved alcohol. As to drugs, psychotropic

  19. An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaram, Shireen S.

    2007-01-01

    This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

  1. Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven H. Ferguson

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

  2. Intentional Self-Poisoning with Glyphosate-Containing Herbicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Menkes; W. A. Temple; I. R. Edwards

    1991-01-01

    Four cases of self-poisoning with 'Roundup' herbicide are described, one of them fatal. One of the survivors had a protracted hospital stay and considerable clinical and laboratory detail is presented. Serious self-poisoning is associated with massive gastrointestinal fluid loss and renal failure. The management of such cases and the role of surfactant toxicity are discussed.

  3. 790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning --

    E-print Network

    790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning -- Eastern and Central Provinces laboratory testing of food collected from the affected area revealed high levels of aflatoxin, suggesting that the outbreak was caused by afla toxin poisoning, as was a previous outbreak in the same area in 1981 (1

  4. The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

    2000-01-01

    Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

  5. Case Report Lead Poisoning in Common Loons (Gavia immer)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Locke; A S. M. Kerr; D. Zoromskic

    SUMMARY Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The

  6. Acute Poisoning in Children; Data of a Pediatric Emergency Unit

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Sabiha; Bora Carman, Kursat; Dinleyici, Ener Cagr?

    2011-01-01

    Objective Acute Poisoning in children is still an important public health problem and represents a frequent cause of admission in emergency units. The epidemiological surveillance specific for each country is necessary to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken. Methods The present retrospective study describes the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in a pediatric population admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department of Eskisehir Osmangazi University Hospital during the year 2009. Findings Two hundred eighteen children were reffered to the emergency department due to acute poisoning. 48.4% of patients were boys and 51.6% were girls. The majority of cases were due to accidental poisoning (73.3% of all patients). Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning (48.3%), followed by ingestion of corrosive substance (23.1%) and carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication (12.5%). Tricyclic antidepressant was the most common drug (11.7%). Methylphenidate poisoning, the second common drug. 262 patients were discharged from hospital within 48 hours. Conclusion Preventable accidental poisonings are still a significant cause of morbidity among children in developing countries. Drugs and corrosive agents are the most frequent agents causing poisoning. PMID:23056835

  7. Selenium Poisoning in Livestock: A Review and Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. James; K. E. Panter; H. F. Mayland; M. R. Miller; Dale C. Baker

    Selenium in certain soils may be taken up by plants in amounts to render them toxic. Seleniferous forage can be found in most of the western states. Intoxication of livestock by seleniferous plants has been classified as acute and chronic. Acute poisoning results from consumption of plants having high levels of Se; chronic Se poisoning has been described in two

  8. Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R F White; R Diamond; S Proctor; C Morey; H Hu

    1993-01-01

    The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on

  9. Coupled IVPs to Investigate a Nuclear Reactor Poison Burn Up

    SciTech Connect

    Faghihi, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University 71348-51154, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-09

    A set of coupled IVPs that describe the change rate of an important poison, in a nuclear reactor, has been written herein. Specifically, in this article, we have focused on the samarium-149 (as a poison) burnup in a desired pressurized water nuclear reactor and its concentration are given using our MATLAB-linked 'solver'.

  10. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Grossbeck; J. P. A. Renier; Tim Bigelow

    2003-01-01

    Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers

  11. Electrochemical chloride removal from concrete prisms containing chloride penetrated from sea water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob B. Polder

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal tests were carried out in the laboratory of reinforced concrete prisms containing chloride due to 16 years' submersion in the North Sea. After 39 days of treatment using current densities of about 1 and 4 Am2 steel surface, about 40% to 70% of the initial chloride was removed from the concrete on average. The chloride contents close

  12. Analysis of the isotope effect in the hydrogen exchange reaction between pyridinium chloride and hydrogen chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Szydlowski; M. Zielinski

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope exchange between pyridinium chloride and gaseous hydrogen chloride has been studied both experimentally and theoretically over the temperature range of 273 to 353 K. The experimental fractionation factor obtained shows some dependence on the composition of the substrates. This phenomenon can be accounted for by specific interactions in pyridinium chloride + hydrogen chloride system. The calculated fractionation factor

  13. Synthetic method and biological activities of cis-fused alpha-methylene gamma-lactones.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yohsuke; Shimoma, Fumito; Ando, Masayoshi

    2003-06-01

    A reliable method was developed for the synthesis of cis-fused alpha-methylene gamma-lactones via alpha-methyl gamma-lactones. Bromination of alpha-methyl gamma-lactones with LDA/CBr(4) or TMSOTf/PTAB and successive dehydrobromination with DBU or TBAF of the resulting alpha-bromo-alpha-methyl gamma-lactones gave the desired alpha-methylene gamma-lactones in high yield. This method was successfully applied to the synthesis of biologically active compounds. alpha-Methylene gamma-lactone derivatives 1c, 2c, 4c, and 17 showed cell growth inhibitory activity to P388 lymphocytic leukemia. They also showed significant activities to crop diseases. Thus, alpha-methylene gamma-lactone 1c showed preventive activity in controlling scab of apple caused by Venturia inaequalis. alpha-Methylene gamma-lactones 2c, 4c, 17, and 18 also showed significant preventive activities in controlling damping off of cucumber caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. PMID:12828467

  14. Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

  15. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J H

    1981-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

  16. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  17. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (?H=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (?G=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (?S=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (?) and molar adsorption coefficient (?a) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when tested with agar, alginate and glucose. Therefore the sensor is able to detect carrageenans specifically and offers rapid detection without the need of sample pretreatment when compared to conventional methods.

  18. Acute suicidal self-poisonings during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Ciechanowicz, Robert; Klimaszyk, Dorota; Lukasik-G?ebocka, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Selected clinical aspects of suicidal attempts during pregnancy were presented. Nineteen pregnant females, in the age range 17-27 (mean 22 +/- 2.58), were admitted to the Clinic of Acute Poisonings in Gda?sk and Toxicological Ward in Pozna? between 2001 and 2004 because of acute suicidal intoxication. The main attention was put on reasons of self-intoxication, the timing of attempted suicide as well as the influence of intoxication on the mother and the child. For most admitted women it was their first pregnancy (12 cases, 63.2%). The week of pregnancy varied from 4 to 37 (mean 19 +/- 9.3) weeks. The most popular drugs for attempting suicide among pregnant females were benzodiazepines (7 cases, 36.8%). The most often reason of suicidal attempts was unplanned pregnancy (9 cases, 47.4%). There were two miscarriages and one premature birth observed in our cases. Acute self-poisonings during pregnancy appeared to be a relatively marginal problem in the analyzed toxicology clinics and occurred in merely 0.38% of all women hospitalized between 2001 and 2004 in both clinics. The main reason of suicidal attempts in pregnant women was unplanned pregnancy (9 cases, 47.4%). None of the studied females admitted that the main reason of suicidal attempt was an abortion induction. PMID:16225088

  19. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. W. Vassie

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analysing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater

  20. Effects of Low Chloride Intake on Performance, Clinical Characteristics, and Chloride, Sodium, Potassium, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Dairy Calves1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Burkhalter; M. W. Neathery; W. J. Miller; R. H. Whitlock; J. C. Allen

    1979-01-01

    Young male Holstein calves were fed either a control (.5% chloride) or a low-chloride (.038% chloride) practical diet for 7 wk. Both groups received low-chloride (.00038% chloride) well water. Feeding the low-chloride diet did not produce definite clinical symptoms of chloride deficiency. Neither body weight gains, feed intake, feed digestibility, nor body retention of chloride, sodium, potassium, or nitrogen were

  1. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    SciTech Connect

    Dhir, R.K.; El-Mohr, M.A.K.; Dyer, T.D. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimize resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole/liter were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50% and to then decline. It increased with chloride exposure concentration as well as water/binder ratio. The coefficient of chloride diffusion of concrete samples was found to be dependent on both the intrinsic permeability of the concrete and the ability of its cement matrix to bind chlorides.

  2. An Exocyclic Methylene Group Acts As a Bioisostere of the 2?-Oxygen Atom in LNA

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Punit P.; Allerson, Charles R.; Berdeja, Andres; Siwkowski, Andrew; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Gaus, Hans; Prakash, Thazha P.; Watt, Andrew T.; Egli, Martin; Swayze, Eric E. (Isis Pharm.); (Vanderbilt)

    2010-12-07

    We show for the first time that it is possible to obtain LNA-like (Locked Nucleic Acid 1) binding affinity and biological activity with carbocyclic LNA (cLNA) analogs by replacing the 2{prime}-oxygen atom in LNA with an exocyclic methylene group. Synthesis of the methylene-cLNA nucleoside was accomplished by an intramolecular cyclization reaction between a radical at the 2{prime}-position and a propynyl group at the C-4{prime} position. Only methylene-cLNA modified oligonucleotides showed similar thermal stability and mismatch discrimination properties for complementary nucleic acids as LNA. In contrast, the close structurally related methyl-cLNA analogs showed diminished hybridization properties. Analysis of crystal structures of cLNA modified self-complementary DNA decamer duplexes revealed that the methylene group participates in a tight interaction with a 2{prime}-deoxyribose residue of the 5{prime}-terminal G of a neighboring duplex, resulting in the formation of a CH...O type hydrogen bond. This indicates that the methylene group retains a negative polarization at the edge of the minor groove in the absence of a hydrophilic 2{prime}-substituent and provides a rationale for the superior thermal stability of this modification. In animal experiments, methylene-cLNA antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) showed similar in vivo activity but reduced toxicity as compared to LNA ASOs. Our work highlights the interchangeable role of oxygen and unsaturated moieties in nucleic acid structure and emphasizes greater use of this bioisostere to improve the properties of nucleic acids for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  3. Viral Inactivation of Human Osteochondral Grafts with Methylene Blue and Light

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhixing; Call, Gazell M.; Gao, Jizong; Yao, Jian Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cartilage injury is one of the most common disorders of synovial joints. Fresh osteochondral allografts are becoming a standard treatment; however, they are supply constrained with a potential risk of disease transmission. There are no known virucidal processes available for osteochondral allografts and most methods presently available are detrimental to cartilage. Methylene blue light treatment has been shown to be successful in the literature for viral inactivation of fresh frozen plasma. The purpose of this study was to determine the capacity of methylene blue light treatment to inactivate a panel of clinically relevant viruses inoculated onto osteochondral allografts. Design: Osteochondral grafts recovered from human cadaveric knees were inoculated with one of the following viruses: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), porcine parvovirus (PPV), and pseudorabies virus (PrV). The samples were processed through a methylene blue light treatment, which consisted of an initial soak in nonilluminated circulating methylene blue at ambient temperature, followed by light exposure with circulating methylene blue at cool temperatures. The final titer was compared with the recovery control for the viral log reduction. Results: HIV-1, BVDV, and PrV were reduced to nondetectable levels while HAV and PPV were reduced by 3.1 and 5.6 logs, respectively. Conclusions: The methylene blue light treatment was effective in reducing (a) enveloped DNA and RNA viruses to nondetectable levels and (b) nonenveloped DNA and RNA viruses of inoculated human osteochondral grafts by 3.1 to 5.6 logs. This study demonstrates the first practical method for significantly reducing viral load in osteochondral implants.

  4. Enhanced ARP: Preventing ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

    E-print Network

    Nam, Seung Yeob

    1 Enhanced ARP: Preventing ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Attacks Seung Yeob Nam, Member- tion Protocol (ARP) is proposed to prevent ARP poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks deployable. Index Terms--ARP cache poisoning, Man-in-the-Middle attack, ARP poisoning prevention, voting. I

  5. Acute poisoning is a common reason for visits to emergency departments and for hospitalization

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    ACUTE POISONING jUNE 2012, Issue 6 Acute poisoning is a common reason for visits to emergency departments and for hospitalization worldwide. The prevalence of acute poisoning in Southern Africa varies between 1 and 17%1 and available evidence from Botswana suggests that acute poisoning ranks third among

  6. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON METHYLENE BLUE SORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ALMOND PEEL: EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES AND MODELLING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Benaïssa

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, the influence of temperature on kinetics and equilibrium of methylene blue sorption from synthetic aqueous solutions, in single dye solutions, using almond peel as a sorbent material has been investigated in batch conditions. Temperature played an important part in sorption phenomenon: the methylene blue sorption increased as temperature increased. The pseudo second-order model was selected to

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of obidoxime in sarin-poisoned rats.

    PubMed

    Alioth-Streichenberg, C M; Bodmer, D M; Waser, P G

    1991-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the oxime obidoxime (Toxogonin, 50 mg/kg iv) were investigated in anesthetized normal rats and in sarin-poisoned (50 micrograms/kg iv) rats. The kinetics were described by a two-compartment open model. The elimination half-life ranged from 35 min in normal rats to 86 min in sarin-poisoned rats. Obidoxime excretion occurred predominantly by the renal route, amounting to 4.6% of the administered dose in normal rats and to 0.9% in sarin-poisoned rats within the first hour of administration. The significantly diminished glomerular filtration rate confirmed the retardation of obidoxime excretion in sarin poisoning. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) response to obidoxime, measured in normal rats, was a transient hypotension, but to sarin an immediate hypertension. In sarin-poisoned rats the therapeutic sequence of administration of obidoxime and atropine (5 mg/kg iv) seemed to be important: the administration of atropine 10 min after and of obidoxime 20 min after sarin poisoning exerted a stabilizing effect on MAP. No serum albumin binding was found for obidoxime. Competition experiments at the isolated nicotinic receptor demonstrated the anticholinergic activity of obidoxime. The affinity of obidoxime was 1000 times smaller than that of acetylcholine. It is concluded that obidoxime, due to its prolonged residence time in the organism in sarin poisoning, exerts a "curare-like" inhibition and protection of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, combined with atropine, a synergistic effect on blood pressure normalization. PMID:2020972

  8. Intermediate syndrome with delayed distal polyneuropathy from ethyl parathion poisoning.

    PubMed

    Nisse, P; Forceville, X; Cezard, C; Ameri, A; Mathieu-Nolf, M

    1998-12-01

    An acute poisoning in a 44-y-old female who ingested 50 ml of ethyl parathion concentrate (25 g) is described. She was treated by gastric lavage, administration of pralidoxime and atropine, and mechanical ventilation. As signs of intoxication disappeared at day 3, treatment was discontinued. The patient had a relapse of acute cholinergic crisis at day 4, and the same treatment was applied again. The acute poisoning phase was followed by an intermediate syndrome and delayed distal polyneuropathy. The clinical course of this severe ethyl parathion poisoning was favorable after 40 d. PMID:9830697

  9. The selected information sources on poisoning and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Sato, C

    1998-03-01

    The third leading cause of unintentional injury death in 1993 was poisoning by solids and liquids, just behind motor vehicle accidents and falls. Poisoning and toxicology impacts all health care professionals. Physicians and emergency medicine professionals manage acute care, health educators address prevention and public education, and researchers focus on advancements. This article is an introduction to selected basic through advanced print and electronic information sources for anyone interested in poisoning and toxicology. All sources are available through the Hawaii Medical Library. PMID:9581051

  10. Acute copper sulphate poisoning: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Franchitto, Nicolas; Gandia-Mailly, Peggy; Georges, Bernard; Galinier, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Ducassé, Jean Louis; Rougé, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Voluntary copper poisoning is a rare mode of suicide. We report a case of copper sulphate poisoning in a patient presenting delusions with mystic demands for purification. The initial gastrointestinal symptoms were followed by intravascular haemolysis and renal failure. The course was favourable after symptomatic treatment and specific copper chelation therapy. However, the pathogenesis is not fully understood and with the present state of knowledge, no one treatment can be said to be superior to another. The authors discuss the various treatments of this rare poisoning through a review of the available literature. PMID:18482790

  11. Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management.

    PubMed

    Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P

    2014-05-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

  12. Prolonged cardiotoxicity from poison lilly (Veratrum viride).

    PubMed

    Prince, L A; Stork, C M

    2000-10-01

    A 51-y-o otherwise healthy male presented to the emergency department 45 min after ingesting a soup made with boiled "leeks". Physical examination was significant for severe vomiting depressed mental status, and sluggishly reactive 2-3 mm pupils. Heart rate was 30 bpm and bp was 40/p mmHg requiring atropine and fluid resuscitation. After 60 min substernal chest pressure was noted and an ECG showed new V2-V6 ST segment depression. Recurrent hypotension required the use ofa dopamine infusion. At this time, the regional poison control center botanist identified a sample of the ingested material as Veratrum viride. The patient improved slowly over the next 24 hours, although bradycardia and heart block persisted for approximately 48 hours. PMID:11003119

  13. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    PubMed

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

  14. Curare: the South American arrow poison.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R

    2005-02-01

    The history of curare is both curious and convoluted. A product of South American culture it emerged in the sixteenth century from the mists of antiquity at the same time as quinine, coca, and chocolate. Like quinine, at first came the extract but no plant, and later the plant but no chemical compound. It took more than 300 years and the efforts of many explorers and scientists to resolve the problem. These included Condamine, Humboldt, Brodie, Waterton, Bernard, Dale, Walker, and King. Finally, the pure compound d-tubocurarine was isolated from the liana Chondrodendron and synthesised. Its specific physiological action was blockade of the effect of acetylcholine at the neuro-muscular junction. Such a paralytic poison could be used to kill oneself or others. The bizarre plot to kill the Prime Minister, Lloyd George, during the First World War is described. Fortunately this nefarious plan was thwarted by the Secret Service! PMID:15825249

  15. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient's symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  16. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient’s symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  17. Community partnerships in preventing childhood lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Dugbatey, K. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States); Evans, R.G.; Lienhop, M.T.; Stelzer, M.

    1995-11-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is an environmental health problem that has no socio-economic, racial/ethnic, or regional boundaries. Because the key element in the exposure pathway is lead-based paint, it is more likely to impact inner city urban populations than those living in suburban areas. Suburban development primarily occurred after lead was removed from lead-based paint. It is maximally effective to adopt strategies that promote grassroots community development in designing preventive interventions. This paper reviews such a strategy for building community partnerships that have been instrumental in the development and implementation of an innovative lead education program. Saint Louis University School of Public Health reaches out to private and public nonprofit community organizations in this community-based lead education program.

  18. Grayanotoxin poisoning: 'mad honey disease' and beyond.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Suze A; Kleerekooper, Iris; Hofman, Zonne L M; Kappen, Isabelle F P M; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2012-09-01

    Many plants of the Ericaceae family, Rhododendron, Pieris, Agarista and Kalmia, contain diterpene grayanotoxins. Consumption of grayanotoxin containing leaves, flowers or secondary products as honey may result in intoxication specifically characterized by dizziness, hypotension and atrial-ventricular block. Symptoms are caused by an inability to inactivate neural sodium ion channels resulting in continuous increased vagal tone. Grayanotoxin containing products are currently sold online, which may pose an increasing risk. In humans, intoxication is rarely lethal, in contrast to cattle and pet poisoning cases. Scientific evidence for the medicinal properties of grayanotoxin containing preparations, such as honey or herbal preparation in use in folk medicine, is scarce, and such use may even be harmful. PMID:22528814

  19. Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management

    PubMed Central

    Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

  20. Clinical management of field worker organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Midtling, J E; Barnett, P G; Coye, M J; Velasco, A R; Romero, P; Clements, C L; O'Malley, M A; Tobin, M W; Rose, T G; Monosson, I H

    1985-04-01

    A group of 16 cauliflower workers poisoned by residues of the organophosphate insecticides mevinphos and phosphamidon was followed in weekly clinics with interviews and determinations of plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase levels. None had preexposure baseline values. Although six had initial erythrocyte cholinesterase values within the laboratory normal range, subsequent testing showed their erythrocyte activity had been significantly inhibited. While the most severe symptoms of the 16 subjects resolved after 28 days, their erythrocyte cholinesterase levels did not reach a plateau until an average of 66 days after exposure, after which most patients continued to report blurred vision, headache, weakness or anorexia. These findings support the view that the diagnostic utility of single cholinesterase levels is limited in the absence of baseline values. PMID:4013266