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1

Treatment of methylene-induced carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygenation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Methylene chloride is an organic solvent with many industrial uses. Inhalation of methylene chloride fumes can result in toxicity, caused by hepatic biotransformation of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide. A case of acute methylene chloride poisoning is presented, including successful treatment of this patient with the use of hyperbaric oxygenation. The rationale for the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of methylene chloride poisoning is discussed. (aw)

Rudge, F.W.

1989-01-01

2

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2010-04-01

3

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2014-04-01

4

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2012-04-01

5

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2011-04-01

6

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2013-04-01

7

Fate and effects of methylene chloride in activated sludge.  

PubMed

Activated sludge obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was acclimated to methylene chloride at concentrations between 1 and 100 mg/liter by continuous exposure to the compound for 9 to 11 days. Acclimated cultures were shown to mineralize methylene chloride to carbon dioxide and chloride. Rates of methylene chloride degradation were 0.14, 2.3, and 7.4 mg of CH2Cl2 consumed per h per g of mixed-liquor suspended solids for cultures incubated in the presence of 1, 10, and 100 mg/liter, respectively. Concentrations of methylene chloride between 10 and 1,000 mg/liter had no significant effect on O2 consumption or glucose metabolism by activated sludge. A hypothetical model was developed to examine the significance of volatilization and biodegradation for the removal of methylene chloride from an activated sludge reactor. Application of the model indicated that the rate of biodegradation was approximately 12 times greater than the rate of volatilization. Thus, biodegradation may be the predominant process determining the fate of methylene chloride in activated sludge systems continuously exposed to the compound. PMID:7138008

Klecka, G M

1982-09-01

8

Toxicology and metabolism of methylene chloride. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning methylene chloride, its effects on biological systems, and its metabolic fate. Both animal and human studies, and case reports are examined for methylene chloride toxicity. Exposure to the chemical through inhalation, ingestion, and contact is examined. Occupational exposure to methylene chloride is included, and risk factors are discussed. Long term carcinogenicity of methylene chloride is also considered. Toxicity of other chlorinated organic compounds is referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 78 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

9

Fatal exposure to methylene chloride among bathtub refinishers - United States, 2000-2011.  

PubMed

In 2010, the Michigan Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program conducted an investigation into the death of a bathtub refinisher who used a methylene chloride-based paint stripping product marketed for use in aircraft maintenance. The program identified two earlier, similar deaths in Michigan. Program staff members notified CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which in turn notified the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition to the three deaths, OSHA identified 10 other bathtub refinisher fatalities associated with methylene chloride stripping agents that had been investigated in nine states during 2000-2011. Each death occurred in a residential bathroom with inadequate ventilation. Protective equipment, including a respirator, either was not used or was inadequate to protect against methylene chloride vapor, which has been recognized as potentially fatal to furniture strippers and factory workers but has not been reported previously as a cause of death among bathtub refinishers. Worker safety agencies, public health agencies, methylene chloride-based stripper manufacturers, and trade organizations should communicate the extreme hazards of using methylene chloride-based stripping products in bathtub refinishing to employers, workers, and consumers. Employers should strongly consider alternative methods of bathtub stripping and always ensure worker safety protections that reduce the risk for health hazards to acceptable levels. Employers choosing to use methylene chloride-based stripping products must comply with OSHA's standard to limit methylene chloride exposures to safe levels. PMID:22357403

2012-02-24

10

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Methylene chloride has been used as an ingredient of aerosol cosmetic products, principally hair sprays, at concentrations generally ranging...human exposure from the customary use of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration...

2013-04-01

11

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Methylene chloride has been used as an ingredient of aerosol cosmetic products, principally hair sprays, at concentrations generally ranging...human exposure from the customary use of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration...

2012-04-01

12

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

...Methylene chloride has been used as an ingredient of aerosol cosmetic products, principally hair sprays, at concentrations generally ranging...human exposure from the customary use of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration...

2014-04-01

13

COMPARATIVE RENAL AND HEPATOTOXICITY OF HALOMETHANES: BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. BROMOFORM, CHLOROFORM, DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The subchronic renal and hepatotoxicities of five selected halomethanes, which are drinking water contaminants, were evaluated following a 14-day exposure period. Bromodichloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, dibromochloromethane and methylene chloride were administered at three d...

14

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of...

2011-04-01

15

21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of...

2010-04-01

16

Fatal barium chloride poisoning: four cases report and literature review.  

PubMed

Barium is an alkaline earth metal which has a variety of uses including in the manufacturing industry and in medicine. However, adverse health effects and fatalities occur due to absorption of soluble barium compounds, notably the chloride, nitrate, and hydroxide, which are toxic to humans. Although rare, accidental and suicidal modes of poisoning are sporadically reported in the literature.We describe 4 cases of poisoning due to barium chloride in China. In witnessed cases, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, hypokalemia leading to muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, and respiratory failure were noted. Autopsy showed some nonspecific but common findings, such as subendocardial hemorrhage in the ventricles, visceral petechiae, and fatty changes in the liver. Interestingly, microscopic examination showed degenerative changes and amorphous, flocculent foamy materials in the renal tubules. Toxicology was relevant for barium in blood and tissues. Three of the cases were accidental and 1 homicidal in nature. A round-up of relevant literature on fatal barium compounds poisoning is also provided. Forensic pathologists should be aware of the clinical presentations of barium compound poisoning and especially look for any evidence of hypokalemia. Still, postmortem toxicological and histological studies are essential for an accurate identification of the cause of death. PMID:23629399

Ananda, Sunnassee; Shaohua, Zhu; Liang, Liu

2013-06-01

17

Derivation of an Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) for Methylene Chloride Based on Acute CNS Effects and Relative Potency Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) of 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is

Jan E. Storm; Karl K. Rozman

1998-01-01

18

IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

On March 31, 2010, the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) external review draft document and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The draft document and the charge to external peer reviewers were r...

19

POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF PAINT APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVES TO METHYLENE CHLORIDE AND METHYL ETHYL KETONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of demonstrations of technologies to prevent or control emissions of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from processes with high solvent usage: (1) paint stripping using methylene chloride, (2) cleaning paint equipment wi...

20

Reactive Extraction of Lactic Acid with Trioctylamine\\/Methylene Chloride\\/n-Hexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trioctylamine (TOA)\\/methylene chloride (MC)\\/n-hexane system was used as the extraction agent for the extraction of lactic acid. Curves of equilibrium and hydration were obtained at various temperatures and concentrations of TOA. A modified mass action model was proposed to interpret the equilibrium and the hydration curves. The reaction mechanism and the corresponding parameters which best represent the equilibrium data

Dong Hoon Han; Won Hi Hong

1996-01-01

21

Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors  

PubMed Central

Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as effective, might transfer risk and/or not be integrated with financial goals. However, technical assistance sensitive to environmental and health and safety impacts as well as production issues should be provided to guide companies' source reduction efforts. PMID:12904266

Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

2003-01-01

22

Chemical electron-transfer reactions in electrospray mass spectrometry: Effective oxidation potentials of electron-transfer reagents in methylene chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV\\/visible absorption spectroscopy, and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) are used in conjunction to study the mono- and \\/or dications produced in solution from the reaction of three model compounds ([beta]-carotene, cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin (Co[sup II]OEP), nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin (Ni[sup II]OEP), in three different solvent\\/electron-transfer reagent systems (methylene chloride\\/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (v\\/v), methylene chloride\\/0.1% TFA\\/2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) v\\/v\\/200 [mu]M), methylene

Gary J. Van Berkel; Feimeng. Zhou

1994-01-01

23

Fluxional behavior of a cadmium zwitterion complex: proton transport and tautomerism in methylene chloride solution.  

PubMed

The synthesis and structure of the tautomeric Cd(II) isoindoline zwitterion coordination compound [Cd(4'-MeLH)(NO(3))(2)].CH(3)OH (4'-MeLH = 1,3-bis[2-(4-methylpyridyl)imino]isoindoline) are reported. In methylene chloride solution, tautomer interconversion occurs as the N-H proton moves between the identical imine nitrogen atoms. We report the kinetics of proton transfer as followed by variable temperature (1)H NMR spectroscopy and demonstrate that methanol of solvation and adventitious water facilitate rapid proton transfer. PMID:12870937

Anderson, Oren P; la Cour, Agnete; Berg, Andrew; Garrett, Andrew D; Wicholas, Mark

2003-07-28

24

DEMONSTRATION OF N-METHYL PYRROLIDONE (NMP) AS A POLLUTION PREVENTION ALTERNATIVE TO PAINT STRIPPING WITH METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This objective of this paper is to demonstrate that NMP is a viable pollution prevention alternative to methylene chloride. Maine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB), Albany, GA, USA was the host site for the demonstration. MCLB's primary function is maintenance of military ground supp...

25

A preliminary study of extraction solvents for CW-agents and their decomposition products [3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) vs. methylene chloride  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of this study was to explore the possibility of using different extraction solvents (or solvent combinations) to isolate CW agents and their degradation products from environmental and industrial samples. The general approach for extracting, e.g. water samples, required the use of a 3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) extraction solvent. Although the 3:1 solvent extraction work-up methods provided excellent results in several Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests, the implementation of these methods for CW on-site analysis exercises was difficult (the methods require cumbersome equipment and are labor intensive). However, due to the time, power, and size restraints set forth by the Chemical Warfare Convention (CWC) for a CW on-site inspection, LLNL developed new sample work-up methods. The approach selected by LLNL incorporated solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques. It is evident from this preliminary study that new or previously used extraction solvents should be re-investigated. It was determined that care must be taken in handling the samples prior to NMR measurements. Also, it was determined that the four target compounds used in this study were extracted on average 18% higher with 3:1 (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: IPA) vs. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. However, additional target compounds need to be investigated using this extraction solvent to determine which classes of compounds are better extracted by the use of a 3:1 solvent system. This preliminary study clearly reveals that a mixed solvent system can yield better extraction efficiencies for mixture of compounds in aqueous samples.

Alcaraz, A.; Ward, R.L.; Hulsey, S.S.; Andresen, B.D.

1994-09-15

26

Pressurized liquid extraction of polar and nonpolar lipids in corn and oats with hexane, methylene chloride, isopropanol, and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of freshly ground corn kernels and freshly ground rolled oats were extracted via pressurized liquid extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) using four different organic solvents [hexane, methylene chloride\\u000a (also known as dichloromethane), isopropanol, and ethanol] at two temperatures (40 and 100C). Lipid yields varied from 2.9\\u000a to 5.9 wt% for ground corn and from 5.5 to 6.7 wt% for ground

Robert A. Moreau; Michael J. Powell; Vijay Singh

2003-01-01

27

Evaluation of a soil-flushing remediation project for a methylene chloride spill in Vinton County, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CSX-Zaleski site covers approximately one acre and is located immediately east of the Village of Zaleski. A rail car derailed at this site in November of 1984, spilling 20,000 gallons of methylene chloride into a water-filled low area adjacent to the railroad grade. Initial response included the installation of two purge wells and an air stripping tower. Heterogeneous soils

1992-01-01

28

Neurotoxic effects of methylene chloride: are they long lasting in humans?  

PubMed Central

The neurotoxicity of methylene chloride (MC) is of special interest because of its acute effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and its metabolic conversion to carbon monoxide. A cohort study of retired airline mechanics was conducted to examine the hypothesis that long term exposure to MC results in lasting effects on the CNS. Retirees were studied to eliminate effects of current occupational exposures. The total retiree population (n = 1758) was surveyed to identify mechanics who met specific occupational, demographic, and medical criteria. A group of eligible retirees having long term exposure to MC and another group with low probability of exposure to solvents were given a comprehensive battery of physiological and psychological tests. The exposure groups were similar for all potential confounders that were measured. No statistically significant differences between groups were detected on outcome measures, although subtle differences in attention and memory were identified. Thus no firm evidence was found to support the hypothesis of lasting CNS effects in retired mechanics with long term exposure to MC. PMID:2064980

Lash, A A; Becker, C E; So, Y; Shore, M

1991-01-01

29

Chemical characterization of sanding dust and methylene chloride usage in automotive refinishing: implications for occupational and environmental health.  

PubMed

Surface preparation activities conducted during automotive refinishing present several potential human health and environmental risks. This study examines the chemical composition of vehicle sanding dust and the prevalence of methylene chloride use as a basis for evaluating potential chemical exposures in the work environment, fugitive environmental releases, and take-home toxics. This article reports on the findings of (1) a statewide technology and work practices survey of 353 licensed auto body shops and (2) laboratory analyses of sanding dust representing more than 200 vehicles, 10 commercial body filler compounds, and work shirts worn during vehicle sanding while using nonventilated equipment. Survey data revealed that the majority of shops (78%) do not use ventilated sanding equipment, that most workers (55%) take their work clothes and shoes home at the end of the workday, and that 17% of the respondents used a methylene chloride-based paint stripper as an adjunct to mechanical sanding. Laboratory results showed that Pb, As, Cr, Mn, and Ni were present in the sanding dust at every facility tested. Lead concentrations in sanding dust were found to be highest at facilities that performed complete vehicle refinishing (range 770 to 7300 ppm) and at a collision repair shop that used a high-lead content body filler compound (1800 ppm). Hexavalent chromium also was found in two vocational high school paint dust samples at concentrations of 54 and 710 ppm. When total lead and chromium concentrations reached 7300 and 2300 ppm, respectively, facility sanding dust samples failed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure for hazardous waste. Metals found in the sanding dust also were present on the work shirts of technicians-ranging from 0.06 (Cd) to 81 (Mg) microg/inch2 of cloth-who sanded on paint without ventilated equipment. Results suggest that sanding dust and methylene chloride paint strippers used in vehicle resurfacing operations pose a potential hazard to human health and the environment. PMID:12570083

Enander, Richard T; Gute, David M; Cohen, Howard J; Brown, Linfield C; Desmaris, Anne Marie C; Missaghian, Richard

2002-01-01

30

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... breathing Unconsciousness (fainting) How can I prevent poisoning? The best way to guard against poisoning is to avoid exposure to harmful substances. The following are some tips: Keep all dangerous household ...

31

EVALUATION OF A TEFLON HELIX LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTOR FOR CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ORGANICS FROM WATER INTO METHYLENE CHLORIDE (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

A continuous liquid-liquid extraction system (CLLE) for concentrating trace organics from water into methylene chloride for analysis was designed, built and evaluated. The CLLE uses Teflon coils for phase contact and gravity phase separation. The system includes a self-contained ...

32

In-depth survey report: The control of methylene chloride in furniture stripping at Kwick Kleen Industrial Solvents, Inc. , Vincennes, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to document and evaluate effective techniques for the control of potential health hazards at Kwick Kleen Industrial Solvents, Inc., Vincennes, Indiana. This particular study was born out of a growing concern of the hazards of methylene-chloride and the need for technical advice to furniture strippers. This particular company produced, sold, and distributed furniture stripping solutions to over 2,000 furniture stripping shops. The study evaluated the local ventilation systems designed by the company for their ability to minimize the amount of methylene chloride to which workers were exposed. Three local ventilation systems were used in conjunction with a flow over furniture stripping tank: a hood ventilation system, a PVC pipe ventilation system, and a floor ventilation system. Five different sampling setups or configurations were evaluated. Personal exposures to methylene-chloride while using local ventilation systems were about 200 parts per million (ppm) while stripping which was lower than the control system which used no local ventilation and had an average exposure of 600ppm. Local ventilation systems should be improved to lower the personal exposure levels. No control system was demonstrably better than any of the others. According to the authors, increasing the amount of air exhausted locally from the stripping area might significantly reduce exposures to methylene-chloride. Other suggestions included enclosure of the tank, as well as other tank and ventilation system designs.

Fairfield, C.L.; Jensen, P.A.; Jones, J.H.; Fischbach, T.J.

1990-11-01

33

Niosh testimony to DOL on the occupational safety and health administration proposed rule on occupational exposure to methylene chloride by J. D. Millar, September 21, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The testimony indicated that the present 500 part per million permissible exposure limit for methylene-chloride is not adequate to protect worker health, and supported the attempts of OSHA to lower the standard. Laboratory animal studies have indicated the carcinogenic potential of the compound. Three areas of concern related to the pharmacokinetics section of the OSHA proposed rule were discussed: unproven mechanistic assumptions made in physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling; the impact of the variability in human metabolic parameters on the risk estimates; and the interpretation of a recent mechanistic study relevant to methylene-chloride risk assessment. Also discussed in the testimony were central nervous system health effects (short term exposure limit and prolonged neurobehavioral effects), studies of workers exposed to methylene-chloride, indirect evidence related to cardiovascular risk, estimates of carboxyhemoglobin levels in relation to methylene-chloride exposure, comparisons between the results of the animal and epidemiologic studies, exposure monitoring, control technology, respiratory protection and other protective clothing and equipment. NIOSH recommends that the exposure limit be reduced to the lowest feasible level.

Not Available

1992-09-21

34

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 84-419-1697, USGS Laboratory, Doraville, Georgia. [Benzene, methylene chloride, hexane, and acetone  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Doraville, Georgia requested an evaluation of physical complaints reported by employees to determine possible work related causes. Laboratory workers, in general, complained of physical symptoms which were irritative (rash, sore throat, nose or sinus irritation), neurological (numbness, muscle weakness) and nonspecific (dizziness, headache, emotional swings, insomnia, muscle aching, fatigue). Reported exposure to solvents such as benzene, methylene chloride, hexane and acetone were positively related with light headedness or dizziness, numbness, unexplained muscle weakness and muscle aching. Air sampling did not reveal any remarkable exposure to chemical contaminants. The authors conclude that no relationship could be established between chemical exposures and antinuclear antibody positivity. Exposure to chemicals measured by air sampling were below occupational health exposure limits.

Rondinelli, R.; Wilcox, T.; Roper, P.; Salisbury

1986-05-01

35

Toxicity of the mitochondrial poison dequalinium chloride in a murine model system.  

PubMed

Dequalinium chloride (DECA), a cationic, lipophilic mitochondrial poison, selectively targets the mitochondrial membrane of certain epithelial carcinoma cells, in which it inhibits cellular energy production. It has demonstrated potency as a cytotoxic agent specific for carcinomas and may provide a novel approach for cancer therapy, either as a single agent or as an adjunct to conventional chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity of DECA in the murine model. One hundred female BALB/c mice were divided into three schedule groups. Group one received a single intraperitoneal (ip) dose of DECA at 10, 15, 20, or 25 mg/kg of body weight. Group two received DECA at 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 mg/kg ip every other day (QOD), and group three received DECA at 10, 11, 12, 13, or 14 mg/kg ip every 7 days. Over a 30- to 60-day period, acute and subchronic toxicities were evaluated on the basis of the following clinical parameters: respiratory distress, weight loss, and mortality. After a single ip administration, we found a maximum tolerated dose of 15 mg/kg and a lethal dose (LD50) of 18.3 mg/kg. Single ip doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg produced > 50% mortality. Histologic examination of the tissues revealed significant damage to the liver and kidneys, with pulmonary congestion occurring secondary to renal-hepatic failure. A cumulative assessment revealed that 60% of the animals tolerated 15 doses of 6 and 7 mg/kg QOD and that 100% tolerated 5 doses of 11 and 12 mg/kg (every 7 days). Higher DECA doses under either regimen induced severe toxic effects and mortality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8450414

Gamboa-Vujicic, G; Emma, D A; Liao, S Y; Fuchtner, C; Manetta, A

1993-03-01

36

Reactivation of Plasma Butyrylcholinesterase by Pralidoxime Chloride in Patients Poisoned by WHO Class II Toxicity Organophosphorus Insecticides  

PubMed Central

Some clinicians assess the efficacy of pralidoxime in organophosphorus (OP) poisoned patients by measuring reactivation of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). However, the degree of BuChE inhibition varies by OP insecticide, and it is unclear how well oximes reactivate BuChE in vivo. We aimed to assess the usefulness of BuChE activity to monitor pralidoxime treatment by studying its reactivation after pralidoxime administration to patients with laboratory-proven World Health Organization (WHO) class II OP insecticide poisoning. Patient data were derived from 2 studies, a cohort study (using a bolus treatment of 1g pralidoxime chloride) and a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (comparing 2g pralidoxime over 20min, followed by an infusion of 0.5g/h, with placebo). Two grams of pralidoxime variably reactivated BuChE in patients poisoned by 2 diethyl OP insecticides, chlorpyrifos and quinalphos; however, unlike acetylcholinesterase reactivation, this reactivation was not sustained. It did not reactivate BuChE inhibited by the dimethyl OPs dimethoate or fenthion. The 1-g dose produced no reactivation. Pralidoxime produced variable reactivation of BuChE in WHO class II OP-poisoned patients according to the pralidoxime dose administered, OP ingested, and individual patient. The use of BuChE assays for monitoring the effect of pralidoxime treatment is unlikely to be clinically useful. PMID:24052565

Eddleston, Michael

2013-01-01

37

Acute Human Self-Poisoning with the N-Phenylpyrazole Insecticide Fipronil –A GABAA-Gated Chloride Channel Blocker  

PubMed Central

Objective Fipronil, a broad spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide that inhibits GABAA-gated chloride channels, has been in use since the mid-1990s. A high affinity for insect compared to mammalian GABA receptors results in lower animal toxicity than other insecticides blocking this channel. To date, only two accidental cases of fipronil poisoning in humans have been published. Case series We report seven patients with fipronil self-poisoning seen prospectively in Sri Lanka together with pharmacokinetics for four patients. Non-sustained generalized tonic-clonic seizures were seen in two patients (peak measured plasma fipronil concentrations 1600 and 3744 ?g/L); both were managed with diazepam without complications. A patient with a peak measured plasma concentration of 1040 ?g/L was asymptomatic throughout his stay. Plasma concentration was still high at discharge 3–4 days post-ingestion when the patients were well. Retrospective review of >1000 pesticide poisoning deaths since 1995 found only one death from fipronil-based products. In contrast to the good outcome of the above cases, this patient required intubation and ventilation and had continuous fits despite therapy with barbiturates and benzodiazepines. Conclusions Our experience with prospectively observed patients suggests that fipronil poisoning is characterized by vomiting, agitation, and seizures, and normally has a favorable outcome. Management should concentrate on supportive care and early treatment of seizures. However, further experience is needed to determine whether increased susceptibility to fipronil or larger doses can produce status epilepticus. PMID:15641641

Mohamed, Fahim; Senarathna, Lalith; Percy, Adrian; Abeyewardene, Manel; Eaglesham, Geoffrey; Cheng, Ron; Azher, Shifa; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Davies, Willie; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

2005-01-01

38

75 FR 24509 - Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...telephone (202) 693-1939. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background MC (also known as methylene dichloride or dichloromethane [DCM or MC]) is a common industrial solvent used in a number of different applications, including paint...

2010-05-05

39

Pharmacokinetics of pralidoxime chloride. A comparative study in healthy volunteers and in organophosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of a cholinesterase reactivating oxime, 2-PAM, was comparatively studied in healthy volunteers and in persons suffering from poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides. The elevation of plasma concentrations of the oxime and prolongation of its "effective half-life" were noticed in poisoned individuals. These changes were attributed to the disturbed general hemodynamics and reduced renal blood flow in organophosphorus intoxication rather than to the direct renal toxicity of anticholinesterases. PMID:2818204

Jovanovi?, D

1989-01-01

40

Protection by a transdermal patch containing eserine and pralidoxime chloride for prophylaxis against (±)-Anatoxin A poisoning in rats.  

PubMed

The prophylactic and neuroprotective impact of a transdermal patch containing eserine and pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) against (±)-Anatoxin A poisoning was investigated using Wistar strain albino rats. Rats were smooth-shaved on the dorsal side, attached with a drug-in-adhesive matrix type prophylactic transdermal patch for 72 h and challenged with subcutaneous injection of three doses (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×LD50) of (±)-Anatoxin A. The LD50 value of (±)-Anatoxin A was determined to be 1.25mg/kg, and at this particular dose (1.0×LD50) of toxin induced severe clinical symptom including extreme seizures in rats, resulting acute brain injuries in discrete brain regions, leading to 100% mortality within 5 min. The anticonvulsant effect, antiarrythmic effect, nerve conduction study, clinical observations and mortality, neuroprotective effect as well as skin histopathology of the prophylactic transdermal patch against (±)-Anatoxin A poisoning were investigated systematically. It was found that seizures, tachycardia, nerve damage, clinical symptoms, brain injuries and mortality induced by such lethal toxin were effectively prevented by the prophylactic patch treatment up to certain LD50 level. Hence, it could be a choice of potential therapeutic regimen against such lethal poisoning. PMID:24530375

Banerjee, Subham; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Ghosh, Animesh; Pathak, Manash Pratim; Gogoi, Jyotchna; Veer, Vijay

2014-06-01

41

Gas chromatographic determination of residual methylene chloride and trichloroethylene in decaffeinated instant and ground coffee with electrolytic conductivity and electron capture detection.  

PubMed

A method is described for the quantitative determination of residual methylene chloride (MC) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in decaffeinated instant and ground roasted coffees. The residual solvents were isolated by a closed system vacuum distillation technique with toluene as a carrier solvent, chromatographed on Chromosorb 102, detected by both electron capture and electrolytic conductivity detectors, and quantitated by comparison with an internal standard. Average recoveries of MC from instant and ground coffees spiked at 1, 10, and 25 ppm were 100.0 (88-113), 93.2 (92-95), and 97.7% (94-102%); and for TCE, 97.2 (92-101), 96.2 (95-99), and 96.5% (92-100%), respectively. The results from both detectors are compared. At lower attenuations, levels less than 1 ppm can be readily measured. The procedure developed was applied to domestic and imported coffee samples. PMID:858707

Page, B D; Charbonneau, C F

1977-05-01

42

Fluorescence Spectrometric Determination of Drugs Containing ?-Methylene Sulfone/Sulfonamide Functional Groups Using N1-Methylnicotinamide Chloride as a Fluorogenic Agent  

PubMed Central

A simple spectrofluorometric method has been developed, adapted, and validated for the quantitative estimation of drugs containing ?-methylene sulfone/sulfonamide functional groups using N1-methylnicotinamide chloride (NMNCl) as fluorogenic agent. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) (1), tinidazole (2), rofecoxib (3), and nimesulide (4) in pure forms, laboratory-prepared mixtures, pharmaceutical dosage forms, spiked human plasma samples, and in volunteer's blood. The method showed linearity over concentration ranging from 1 to 150??g/mL, 10 to 1000?ng/mL, 1 to 1800?ng/mL, and 30 to 2100?ng/mL for standard solutions of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and over concentration ranging from 5 to 150??g/mL, 10 to 1000?ng/mL, 10 to 1700?ng/mL, and 30 to 2350?ng/mL in spiked human plasma samples of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The method showed good accuracy, specificity, and precision in both laboratory-prepared mixtures and in spiked human plasma samples. The proposed method is simple, does not need sophisticated instruments, and is suitable for quality control application, bioavailability, and bioequivalency studies. Besides, its detection limits are comparable to other sophisticated chromatographic methods. PMID:21647288

Elokely, Khaled M.; Eldawy, Mohamed A.; Elkersh, Mohamed A.; El-Moselhy, Tarek F.

2011-01-01

43

Rapid Fixation of Methylene Chloride by a Macrocyclic Amine Jung-Jae Lee, Keith J. Stanger, Bruce C. Noll, Carlos Gonzalez, Manuel Marquez, and  

E-print Network

Vision, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 Received December 27, 2004; E-mail: smith.115@nd.edu Methylene). This mechanistic picture is consistent with the following experimental evidence. The X-ray crystal structure that the difference is due to crystal packing forces.5 In any case, the macrocyclic ammonium cation in 2 has a very

Smith, Bradley D.

44

Lanolin poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wool wax poisoning; Wool alcohol poisoning; Glossylan poisoning; Golden dawn poisoning; Sparklelan poisoning ... on your skin. Because it is similar to wax, eating large amounts of lanolin can cause a ...

45

Poison Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... eaten or drunk something poisonous. If you suspect poisoning because of a telltale odor, unexplained stains on ... million American children younger than 6 years suffer poisoning every year. Household cleaners, personal care products, and ...

46

Mistletoe poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... berries. Mistletoe poisoning occurs when someone eats any part of this plant. Poisoning can also occur if you drink tea ... The poisonous ingredient is found in all parts of the plant, but especially in the leaves.

47

21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals...and Decisions § 500.27 Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals...the status of drugs containing methylene blue (tetramethylthionine chloride) for...

2010-04-01

48

Methylene blue test  

MedlinePLUS

The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

49

Mushroom Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Food Poisoning | Mushroom Poisoning Is it possible to tell if a wild mushroom is poisonous? You can't tell for sure if a ... watch the person for any symptoms of mushroom poisoning for the next 24 hours. Written by familydoctor.org editorial staff ... Reviewed/Updated: 04/14 Created: 09/00

50

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

51

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... the poison ivy plant. The oil from the plant is carried in the smoke. Treatment How is poison ivy treated? Urushiol can bond to your skin within minutes. If you think that you've come in contact with poison ivy, you need to wash the area with plain cool water as soon as possible. This may help to ...

52

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE) UPDATED CARCINOGENICITY ASSESSMENT OF DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE): ADDENDUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The addendum contains a review of the data from the latest National Toxicology Program (NTP) inhalation bioassay of dichloromethane (DCM) and an update of the inhalation cancer risk value. In addition, there is a recommendation for an estimate of unit risk for ingestion exposure,...

53

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly people are at the greatest risk for food poisoning. You are also at higher risk if: ...

54

Methylmercury poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

55

Methanol poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The patient may receive: Dialysis Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison (fomepizole or ethanol) Medicines to ...

56

Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Links Insects and Scorpions Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Print page Get email updates Subscribe to RSS ... Insects and Scorpions Poisonous Plants Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Vector-Borne Diseases West Nile Virus Lyme Disease ...

57

Poisonous Contacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center;)

2010-04-09

58

Yew poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... is found in various kinds of the yew plant. The poison is in most parts of the yew plant, but the highest amount ... information: Patient's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

59

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

60

Zigadenus Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of

Katherine L Heilpern

1995-01-01

61

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

62

Zigadenus poisoning.  

PubMed

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of the morbidity caused by ingestion of some Zigadenus species. PMID:7832360

Heilpern, K L

1995-02-01

63

Crystal structures of 6-[(2-hydroxy-1,1-bishydroxymethylethylamino)methylene]-2, 4-dinitrocyclohexa-2, 4-dienone hydrate and complexes of copper(II) chloride and copper(II) nitrate with this ligand  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structures of 6-[(2-hydroxy-1,1-bishydroxymethylethylamino)methylene]-2, 4-dinitrocyclohexa-2, 4-dienone hydrate L . H{sub 2}O (I), chloro-(2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol-2-iminomethyl-4, 6-dinitrophenolo)aquacopper hydrate [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(L-H)Cl] . H{sub 2}O (II), and (2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol-2-iminomethyl-4,6-dinitrophenolo) aquacopper nitrate [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(L-H)]NO{sub 3} (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. It is established that the salicylidene fragment of azomethine L in the structure of compound I is in a quinoid tautomeric form. In the crystal, molecules L and water molecules are joined together by hydrogen bonds into two-dimensional layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. The copper atom in the structure of compound II coordinates the singly deprotonated tridentate molecule L (whose salicylidene fragment is in a benzenoid form), the chlorine ion, and the water molecule. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom is a distorted tetragonal pyramid. In the structure of compound III, the polymer chains are formed through the coordination bonds of the copper atom with two oxygen atoms of the amino alcohol fragment of azomethine L of the neighboring complex, which is related to the initial complex by the translation along the x axis. The coordination polyhedron of the central atom is an elongated tetragonal bipyramid. Polymers and nitro groups form a three-dimensional framework through hydrogen bonds.

Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)], E-mail: chumakov.xray@phys.asm.md; Tsapkov, V. I. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Jeanneau, E. [Universite Claude Bernard, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces (France); Bocelli, G. [National Research Council (IMEM-CNR), Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (Italy); Luneau, D. [Universite Claude Bernard, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces (France)

2006-07-15

64

Ink remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Brain damage Decreased breathing Stupor Unconsciousness Symptoms of methanol and isopropyl alcohol poisoning may include: Eyes, ears, ...

65

Poison Help Line  

MedlinePLUS

... LR, Green JL, Rumack BH, Giffin SL. 2008 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 26th Annual Report . 2009. Clinical Toxicology (2009) 47, 911–1084. Poison ...

66

Confirmation of interstellar methylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four spectral emission features of the N(sub KK) = 4(sub 04) -3(sub 13) rotational transition of methylene (CH2) have been detected at signal levels 5-7 sigma above noise toward the hot core of the Orion-KL nebula and the molecular cloud in proximity to the continuum source W51 M. Specifically, in both sources we have resolved the F = 6-5, 5-4, and 4-3 hyperfine transitions of the J = 5-4 fine-structure levels and detected the blended hyperfine structure of the J = 4-3 fine structure levels. At the J = 3-2 fine-structure levels, we have observed new transitions of NS, a known interstellar molecule, which severely contaminates the search for CH2 hyperfine transitions. These new sensitive observations finally confirm the existence of interstellar CH2 which was tentatively reported by us some years ago.

Hollis, J. M.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.

1995-01-01

67

Mania following organophosphate poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

2014-01-01

68

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

69

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has been washed off, there is no risk of spreading poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac to other parts of the body. Be sure to wash any ...

70

[Occupational phosphine poisoning].  

PubMed

The authors report their observations on late sequelae of phosphine poisoning. For 18 months after acute poisoning signs of nervous system damage persisted (objective changes, EEG abnormalities). PMID:3444514

Kurzbauer, H; Kiesler, A

1987-01-01

71

The Power of Poison  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This striking new exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History explores the cultural, historical, and biological powers of poison. Designed to complement an in situ exhibit, visitors can learn about poison in nature, myth, and legend. A video introduction to the exhibit is a great place to start and visitors can also meet the curator, Dr. Mark Siddall. In the Poison in Nature area, users can learn how poison is used by tree frogs and other species to defend their territory. The Villains and Victims area includes profiles of notable people in history who have used poison in a nefarious fashion. Additionally, this area contains a free app that features three poison "mysteries" for interested parties to solve. Finally, visitors should be sure to check out the Poison for Good area, which contains information about how treatments from the yew tree (which is quite poisonous) can be used as an anti-cancer medicine.

Siddall, Mark Edward, 1966-

2013-11-16

72

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

73

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

... blooming in the ocean, such as during “"red tide." A red tide occurs when there is a rapid increase in ... poisonings also increases when there is a "red tide." Shellfish poisoning occurs in seafood with two shells ...

74

Prevent Unintentional Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... emergency departments. And the number of deaths is rising. Learn what you can do to reduce your— ... of poisoning in the United States, including occurrence, costs and risk factors. Unintentional Poisoning: CDC Activities Summary ...

75

Boric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic poisoning ... and ant pesticides Photography chemicals Powders to kill roaches Some eye wash products Note: This list may ...

76

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

77

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

78

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

1981-12-01

79

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

1981-01-01

80

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE), EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dichloromethane (DCM) is a solvent widely used for a variety of purposes. It has been detected in the ambient air of urban and non-urban areas of the United States and also in natural and municipal waters. The weight of available evidence indicates that adverse toxicologic effect...

81

IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Dichloromethane that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Please refer to ...

82

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE). FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dichloromethane is used extensively in commercial and industrial solvent applications. The background atmospheric concentration is about 35 ppt. In surface water and drinking water, measured concentrations generally have been in the low parts per billion range. Available data sug...

83

62 FR 1494 - Occupational Exposure to Methylene Chloride  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fire and Explosion Hazards: MC has no flash point in a conventional closed tester...Diabetes d. Family history of heart attack, stroke, or blocked arteries 2. Have you ever...ever had heart disease, a heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, or blocked arteries...

1997-01-10

84

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... is an electrolyte. It is a negatively charged ion that works with other electrolytes, such as potassium , ... which is made up of sodium and chloride ions. Most of the chloride is absorbed by the ...

85

Unusual complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning: Development of hemolysis and methemoglobinemia and its successful treatment  

PubMed Central

Methemoglobinemia and hemolysis are rare findings following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, a case of aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia and hemolysis with a successful treatment is reported. A 28-year-old male patient presented following intentional ingestion of an AlP tablet. In this case, hematuria, hemolysis and methemoglobinemia were significant events. A methemoglobin level of 46% was detected by CO-oximetry. The patient was treated with ascorbic acid and methylene blue and he also received supportive care. Two weeks after admission, the patient was discharged from the hospital. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning. PMID:21814377

Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Nelson, Leiws S.; Khodakarim, Nastaran; Dadvar, Zohreh; Shadnia, Shahin

2011-01-01

86

Unusual complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning: Development of hemolysis and methemoglobinemia and its successful treatment.  

PubMed

Methemoglobinemia and hemolysis are rare findings following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, a case of aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia and hemolysis with a successful treatment is reported. A 28-year-old male patient presented following intentional ingestion of an AlP tablet. In this case, hematuria, hemolysis and methemoglobinemia were significant events. A methemoglobin level of 46% was detected by CO-oximetry. The patient was treated with ascorbic acid and methylene blue and he also received supportive care. Two weeks after admission, the patient was discharged from the hospital. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning. PMID:21814377

Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Nelson, Leiws S; Khodakarim, Nastaran; Dadvar, Zohreh; Shadnia, Shahin

2011-04-01

87

Severe acute copper sulphate poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

As copper sulphate pentahydrate (CSP) is a common compound used in agriculture and industry, chronic occupational exposures to CSP are well known, but acute poisoning is rare in the Western world. This case report describes acute poisoning of a 33-year-old woman who attempted suicide by ingesting an unknown amount of CSP. On admission to the hospital, she had symptoms and signs of severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, dehydration, renal dysfunction and methaemoglobinaemia with normal serum copper level. Therapy included early gastric lavage, fluid replacement, vasoactive drugs, furosemide, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, and antidotes methylene blue and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS). However, the patient developed severe intravascular haemolysis, acute severe hepatic and renal failure, as well as adrenal insufficiency. After prolonged, but successful hospital treatment, including haemodialysis and IV hydrocortisone, the patient was discharged with signs of mild renal and liver impairment. Our conclusion is that in severe cases of copper poisoning early supportive measures are essential. In addition, antidotes such as methylene blue for methaemoglobinaemia and chelating agent such as DMPS improve morbidity and survival of severely poisoned victims. PMID:18407869

Sinkovic, Andreja; Strdin, Alenka; Svensek, Franci

2008-03-01

88

Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and itching. Aluminum acetate ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

89

[Acute salicylate poisoning].  

PubMed

Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis. PMID:16467617

Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

2006-01-01

90

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

91

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

92

Role of Glutathione in protection against mercury induced poisoning.  

PubMed

Mercury is harmless in an insoluble form, such as mercuric sulfide, but it is poisonous in soluble forms such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury. Mercury is a neurotoxin. Outbreaks of mercuric chloride poisonings have made it clear that adults, children, and developing fetuses are at risk from ingestion exposure to mercury. It is very important and interesting to study the reaction of mercuric chloride and Glutathione as biomarker of Glutathione role in detoxification and conjugation in components (Plasma and Cytosolic Fraction). The effect of mercuric chloride's different concentrations was examined on GSH present in plasma and cytosolic fraction. Decrease in GSH level was dependant on mercuric chloride concentration. The decrease in GSH level of blood components was more prominent with the time of incubation of mercuric chloride. Decrease in the concentration of reduced state Glutathione may be due the interaction of reduced state Glutathione (GSH) and mercuric chloride to form oxidized Glutathione (GSSG) or mercuric-glutathione complex. This change in GSH metabolic status provides information regarding the role of GSH in detoxification of mercuric chloride. The effect of mercury metal on Glutathione in blood components has been discussed in this paper in vitro condition as a model for in Vivo condition. PMID:22459468

Khan, Haroon; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Mukhtiar, Muhammad; Ullah, Naseem; Anwar, Naveed

2012-04-01

93

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.

94

Sweet clover poisoning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sweet clover poisoning is a hemorrhagic disease produced when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alba) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This chapter reviews the clinical and pathologic lesions or poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and treat...

95

Suspected Pesticide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

1991-01-01

96

Human Pentachlorophenol Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was, and still is, one of the most frequently used fungicides and pesticides, Its toxicity is due to interference with oxidative phosphorylation. Acute and chronic poisoning may occur by dermal absorption, inhalation or ingestion. Chronic poisoning occurs mainly in sawmill workers or people living in log homes treated with PCPcontaining wood protecting formulations. Quantitative determination of PCP in

Philippe G. Jorens; Paul J. C. Schepens

1993-01-01

97

Paraquat Poisoning in Children  

PubMed Central

Four children with paraquat poisoning are described, with 2 fatalities. In one fatal case delay in treatment occurred as the nature of the ingested fluid was uncertain. A method for rapid detection of paraquat in the urine is referred to. The treatment of paraquat poisoning consists of immediate gastric lavage and forced osmotic diuresis. PMID:5427860

McDonagh, Brian J.; Martin, John

1970-01-01

98

Sodium bisulfate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

In the United States, call 1-800-222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center. This hotline number will let ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

99

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

100

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

101

Poisonous Plants Web Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spearheaded by Dr. Mary C. Smith and Professor Dan Brown of Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Animal Science respectively, Poisonous Plants Web Pages contains color images of poisonous plants and affected animals, and provides information concerning the biological mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of animal poisoning due to toxic plants and other natural flora (fungi, etc.). Pictures and information can be accessed through an alphabetical list of Latin botanical names (common names are also included), a list of the specific type of poisons present, or a list of species of animals commonly affected. Additionally, there are several links to related poisonous plant sites. Although text is not yet complete for many species, pictures for each plant and links to related sites are provided.

1997-01-01

102

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem environmental sources of lead exposure, especially from gasoline and food. But 83% of all homes built

103

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... effect on tumors. A few people have had life-threatening problems with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte (blood chemistry) imbalances after taking cesium chloride. How is it ...

104

Superwarfarin (brodifacoum) poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of self-ingestion of brodifacoum that resulted in spontaneous intra-abdominal haemorrhage, circulatory shock, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure is reported. Current knowledge and management of superwarfarin poisoning are discussed. PMID:9452861

Corke, P J

1997-12-01

105

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

106

Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin ... TN 37831 Online Email not for emergency use. Tennessee Florida Poison Information Center - Miami Address Jackson Memorial ...

107

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

108

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

109

Acid soldering flux poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

110

Metal polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

111

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

112

Occupational cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

113

Caladium plant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... oxalate crystals Asparagine, a protein found in the plant Note: All parts of the plants are poisonous if large amounts ... age, weight, and condition The name of the plant and the parts eaten The amount swallowed The time it was ...

114

Wart remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wart removers are medicines used to eliminate warts , which are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows ...

115

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair lightener poisoning ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach. ... al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap ...

116

Stoddard solvent poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Stoddard solvent is a flammable, liquid chemical that smells like kerosene. Stoddard solvent poisoning occurs when someone ... swelling Nervous system: Burning sensations Convulsions Dizziness ... problems Nervousness Numbness in arms and legs Unconsciousness ...

117

Rhubarb leaves poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Flush the skin and eyes with lots of water, if the plant touched these areas. ... the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment is received. ... in kidney failure. Deaths have been reported, but are rare.

118

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

119

Metal cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2 butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

120

Severe Propanil [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) propanamide] Pesticide Self-Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background propanil pesticide poisoning can produce methaemoglobinaemia, tissue hypoxia, and depression of CNS and respiratory system. It has been recorded only rarely worldwide and most current poison texts consider propanil to be of low toxicity. However, propanil self-poisoning is a significant clinical problem in parts of Sri Lanka and a not uncommon cause of death. Aim of study to report the clinical features and management of severe propanil poisoning. Patients and Methods we report a retrospective case series of patients who were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) of and/or died in Anuradhapura General Hospital between 1998 and early 2002. Results sixteen patients were identified. Common manifestations of toxicity included confusion, reduced conscious level, cyanosis, and respiratory depression. Marked haemolysis was noted in several patients. Nine deaths occurred due to respiratory depression and cardiorespiratory arrest. Management was difficult given the lack of IV methylene blue, inability to measure methaemoglobin levels, and paucity of ICU beds. Conclusions this series indicates that propanil poisoning can be a severe form of self-poisoning, particularly in resource-poor settings. We have now initiated the establishment of a prospective series of propanil poisoned patients to further describe its clinical features, responsiveness to therapy, and case fatality rate. PMID:12507053

Eddleston, Michael; Rajapakshe, Manjula; Roberts, Darren; Reginald, K; Sheriff, M H Rezvi; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Buckley, Nick

2007-01-01

121

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... to tell whether the person is suffering from heat exhaustion or pesticide poisoning. The table below compares the symptoms. Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Symptoms of Organophosphate/ Carbamate Poisoning Sweating Sweating Headache ...

122

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

123

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

Dolan, Michael C.

1985-01-01

124

Process for crosslinking methylene-containing aromatic polymers with ionizing radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for crosslinking aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups (-CH2-) by exposing the polymers to ionizing radiation thereby causing crosslinking of the polymers through the methylene groups is described. Crosslinked polymers are resistant to most organic solvents such as acetone, alcohols, hydrocarbons, methylene, chloride, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons, to common fuels and to hydraulic fluids in contrast to readily soluble uncrosslinked polymers. In addition, the degree of crosslinking of the polymers depends upon the percentage of the connecting groups which are methylene which ranges from 5 to 50 pct and preferably from 25 to 50 pct of the connecting groups, and is also controlled by the level of irradiation which ranges from 25 to 1000 Mrads and preferably from 25 to 250 Mrads. The temperature of the reaction conditions ranges from 25 to 200 C and preferably at or slightly above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The crosslinked polymers are generally more resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures such as greater than 150 C, have a reduced tendency to creep under load, and show no significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from the polymers.

Bell, Vernon L. (inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (inventor)

1990-01-01

125

MR in trichloroethane poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of acute trichloroethane intoxication caused by inhalation of typewriter correction fluid. CT and MR findings revealed lesions in the basal ganglia and cortex similar to those observed in patients with methanol and carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:8791934

del Amo, M; Berenguer, J; Pujol, T; Mercader, J M

1996-01-01

126

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

127

Poisonous Koda Millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE have been several well-ascertained examples of poisoning from diseased or improperly-prepared Koda millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) during the past year in India. Owing to the prevailing scarcity of the usual food-grains, it is probable that Koda millet has been extensively sold and eaten in localities where its use is ordinarily unknown.

A. E. Grant

1898-01-01

128

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

129

Percutaneous organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

After cutaneous application of the organophosphate insecticide Diazinon for pubic lice, our patient had symptoms of cholinergic excess, lost consciousness, and had a seizure. Because of the high index of clinical suspicion for potentially lethal organophosphate poisoning, the patient received empiric therapy with pralidoxime and atropine and completely recovered. PMID:3629322

Halle, A; Sloas, D D

1987-09-01

130

Super Rat Poison Man  

E-print Network

Bob Square Tie. But Zheng Xiaoyu, the deposed head of China's State Food and Drug Administration begs to be excused. A rat poison manufacturer here in China applied for permission to name some of its products after him, partly because he's corrupt...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-04-04

131

Poison Ivy Dermatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly describes this woody vine with 2-4" leaflets in groups of three. The center leaf has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical surfaces with hair-like ...

132

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Carbolic acid is a sweet-smelling clear liquid that is added to many different products. Carbolic acid poisoning occurs when someone touches or swallows this chemical. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management ...

133

Metal-Free, One-Pot, Sequential Protocol for Transforming ?,?-Epoxy Ketones to ?-Hydroxy Ketones and ?-Methylene Ketones.  

PubMed

A new sequential, one-pot protocol for transforming 1,3-disubstituted 2,3-epoxy ketones to ?-hydroxy ketones and ?-methylene ketones has been developed. Reaction of epoxy ketones with boron trifluoride etherate (BF3·OEt2) generates the cationic intermediates by regioselective epoxide ring opening and an acyl shift. Then, a treatment of these cations with 2-aryl-1,3-dimethylbenzimidazolines (DMBIH) results in formation of 1,2-disubstituted 3-hydroxy ketones. DMBIH serves as a hydride donor in the second step of this process. Finally, the ?-hydroxy ketones can be converted to 1,2-disubstituted 2-methylene ketones by treatment with methanesulfonic acid or a combination of methanesulfonyl chloride and triethylamine. Importantly, the sequential steps involved in formation of the ?-methylene ketone products can be carried out in one pot. PMID:25562397

Hasegawa, Eietsu; Arai, Saki; Tayama, Eiji; Iwamoto, Hajime

2015-02-01

134

Acute poisoning: an update.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of the patient who has taken an overdose of a harmful substance includes support of vital functions and toxicologic analysis. Early recognition of signs and symptoms indicating poisoning by a specific agent or group of related chemicals is essential since specific antidotes may be lifesaving. Activated charcoal is an effective gastrointestinal decontaminant that adsorbs many common drugs. Administration of weak acids as an antidote to alkali ingestion is to be condemned; the only treatment should be dilution with water. The use of physostigmine as a specific antidote for the anticholinergic syndrome has been very successful; the incidence of this syndrome as a result of poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants is increasing. Effective therapy for acetaminophen overdose is still being investigated, but activated charcoal and methionine, if given early enough, seem to be effective. PMID:890634

Raymond, C. W.

1977-01-01

135

[Poisoning by bee sting].  

PubMed

Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

2005-01-01

136

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

137

[Familial lead poisoning].  

PubMed

A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl. PMID:2519417

Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

1989-06-01

138

Poisonous plant vouchers.  

PubMed

Every published report of plant poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, should document plant identification. The essential elements are: complete botanical Latin name including species, specific epithet and author(s); name of the collaborating botanist who identified the plant; and herbarium and collection number of a voucher specimen from the exposure lot. Additional information to aid identification might include plant photographs, drawings, and descriptions. PMID:10349708

Wagstaff, D J; Wiersema, J H; Lellinger, D B

1999-06-01

139

Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

2011-07-01

140

Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings  

PubMed Central

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

2011-01-01

141

Chronic arsenic poisoning.  

PubMed

Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS). PMID:11869818

Hall, Alan H

2002-03-10

142

Methylene blue selectively stains intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus resembles gastric intestinal metaplasia, which selectively stains with methylene blue. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the safety, accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and diagnostic yield of methylene blue–directed biopsy in detecting specialized columnar epithelium and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We performed upper endoscopy with methylene blue–directed biopsy and obtained 236 large cup biopsy specimens (145 stained,

Marcia Irene F. Canto; Sebouh Setrakian; Robert E. Petras; Edmond Blades; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak

1996-01-01

143

Allene Functionalization via Bicyclic Methylene Aziridines  

PubMed Central

The oxidative functionalization of olefins is a common method for the formation of vicinal carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, oxidative methods to transform allenes into synthetic motifs containing three contiguous carbon-heteroatom bonds are much less developed. This paper describes the use of bicyclic methylene aziridines (MAs), prepared via intramolecular allene aziridination, as scaffolds for functionalization of all three allene carbons. PMID:21438516

Boralsky, Luke A.; Marston, Dagmara; Grigg, R. David; Hershberger, John C.; Schomaker, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

144

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

145

The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.  

PubMed

Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

Ogada, Darcy L

2014-08-01

146

Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence. PMID:25339866

Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R.; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

2014-01-01

147

Poisonous snakebite in Utah.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

1995-01-01

148

Juniper tar poisoning.  

PubMed

Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day. PMID:15732446

Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

2005-01-01

149

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-06-30

150

Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

151

Population Cycles of Poisonous Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A poisonous plant is harmless until it is consumed. Once eaten the degree of damage depends on the amount of the plant consumed or more specifically the amount of toxin entering and absorbed by the body. Poisoning therefore, depends on two principal variables; the toxin level in the plant and the ...

152

Halogeton poisoning in range cattle.  

PubMed

Acute Halogeton glomeratus poisoning occurred in 16 of 680 range cattle during and following a trail drive. Signs of toxicosis included posterior ataxia, recumbency, coma, and death. Histopathologically, abundant, refractile calcium oxalate crystals were seen in renal tubules. Inasmuch as the plant is generally unpalatable for cattle, poisoning in this case was enhanced by a preceding period of food deprivation. PMID:7410153

Lincoln, S D; Black, B

1980-04-15

153

Acute poisonings with dipyridil herbicides.  

PubMed

Severe cases of poisoning with pesticides, especially suicidal ones, continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic problem in Regional Toxicological Centre in Lublin. The present author describes the pathomechanism of poisonings with dipyridil herbicides basing on the literature on the subject. The present article presents our own observations of the treatment of acute poisonings with the above herbicides, the clinical course, and complications from various internal organs, outcome and prognosis in this type of poisoning cases in the Lublin macro-region basing on the comprehensive material gathered. Our observations confirm high toxicity of dipyridil, especially in the cases of suicidal poisoning with changes in many internal organs and often a lethal outcome. High mortality rate in these cases motivates for finding better prevention methods not only when they are produced and distributed but also when they are used on fields. PMID:9478105

Brzeski, Z

1997-01-01

154

Fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old man committed suicide by ingestion of aluminum phosphide, a potent mole pesticide, which was available at the victim's workplace. The judicial authority ordered an autopsy, which ruled out any other cause of death. The victim was discovered 10 days after the ingestion of the pesticide. When aluminum phosphide comes into contact with humidity, it releases large quantities of hydrogen phosphine (PH3), a very toxic gas. Macroscopic examination during the autopsy revealed a very important asphyxia syndrome with major visceral congestion. Blood, urine, liver, kidney, adrenal, and heart samples were analyzed. Phosphine gas was absent in the blood and urine but present in the brain (94 mL/g), the liver (24 mL/g), and the kidneys (41 mL/g). High levels of phosphorus were found in the blood (76.3 mg/L) and liver (8.22 mg/g). Aluminum concentrations were very high in the blood (1.54 mg/L), brain (36 microg/g), and liver (75 microg/g) compared to the usual published values. Microscopic examination revealed congestion of all the organs studied and obvious asphyxia lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma. All these results confirmed a diagnosis of poisoning by aluminum phosphide. This report points out that this type of poisoning is rare and that hydrogen phosphine is very toxic. The phosphorus and aluminum concentrations observed and their distribution in the different viscera are discussed in relation to data in the literature. PMID:10732945

Anger, F; Paysant, F; Brousse, F; Le Normand, I; Develay, P; Gaillard, Y; Baert, A; Le Gueut, M A; Pepin, G; Anger, J P

2000-03-01

155

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-01-01

156

Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

2003-05-01

157

[Ciguatera fish poisoning].  

PubMed

Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. PMID:25001048

Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

2014-09-01

158

Corrosive Poisonings in Adults  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

2012-01-01

159

[Fatal paraquat poisoning].  

PubMed

Paraquat is a potent bipiridilium herbicide, largely used by farmers. Is very toxic in the concentrated liquid form supplied. When ingested, even a minimum quantity, can be letal. We present a case of a 69 years old man who intencionaly ingested 60 ml of paraquat and 20 ml of NaOH. Tow hours after the ingestion, the patient wes admited to the emergency service. He was treated with gastrointestinal lavage, activated charcoal, füller's hearth, catárticos, fluid and electrolytes, mannitol, dopamine and haemoperfusion. Despite therapy, the patient developed a multiple organic failure and died fiveteen hours after admission. Clinical course and therapeutical management are described of this deliberale self poisoning infrequently reported in Spain. PMID:8948818

Bajo Bajo, A; Sanz Ortega, F; Santos Perez, M E; Thomson Okatsu, K; Zapico Alvarez, N; Garcia Perez, A

1996-02-01

160

Pharmacokinetics of pralidoxime chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics of a cholinesterase reactivating oxime, 2-PAM, was comparatively studied in healthy volunteers and in persons suffering from poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides. The elevation of plasma concentrations of the oxime and prolongation of its “effective half-life” were noticed in poisoned individuals. These changes were attributed to the disturbed general hemodynamics and reduced renal blood flow in organophosphorus intoxication rather

Dušan Jovanovi?

1989-01-01

161

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of methylene blue active substances by spectrophotometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of methylene blue active substances in whole-water samples by liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric detection is described. Sulfate and sulfonate-based surfectants are reacted with methylene blue to form a blue-colored complex. The complex is extracted into chloroform, back-washed with an acidified phosphate-based buffer solution, and measured against external standards with a probe spectrophotometer. The method detection limt for routine analysis is 0.02 milligram per liter. The precision is plus/minus 10 percent relative standard deviation. The positive bias from nitrate and chloride and U.S. Geological Survey method O-3111-83 for methylene blue active substances is minized by adding a back-washing step.

Burkhardt, Mark R.; Cinotto, Pete J.; Frahm, Galen W.; Woodworth, Mark T.; Pritt, Jeffrey W.

1995-01-01

162

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

163

FTIR analysis of food poisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

Yasui, Sritana C.

1992-03-01

164

[Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of poisoning.  

PubMed

Experiments have suggested reduction of neurological sequelae from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by treatment with hyper-baric oxygen (HBO). Randomised clinical trials have, however, been ambiguous. The discrepancy may be explained by timing of HBO relative to exposure. For other asphyxiants data are too sparse for a qualified judgement. Until more evidence is avail-able, we suggest that HBO is used exclusively for moderate an d severe CO poisoning within a time window of 12 hours. PMID:25292230

Jacobsen, Peter; Carlsen, Rasmus; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

2014-07-21

165

Exposure to Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyante (MDI) among polyurethane roof workers.  

E-print Network

??A cross-sectional study was done to evaluate the association between methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) exposure and respiratory system deterioration among permanent male workers. The studied… (more)

Narvaez-Cuevas, Carmen Lourdes

2012-01-01

166

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

167

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

168

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

169

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

170

40 CFR 721.10581 - Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...Substances § 721.10581 Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...identified generically as brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene...

2013-07-01

171

40 CFR 721.10581 - Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) (generic).  

...2014-07-01 false Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...Substances § 721.10581 Brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene diphenyl...identified generically as brominated polyurethane prepolymers of methylene...

2014-07-01

172

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700...PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

2013-01-01

173

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

...2014-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700...PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

2014-01-01

174

Treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Context Calcium channel blocker poisoning is a common and sometimes life-threatening ingestion. Objective To evaluate the reported effects of treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and hemodynamic parameters. The secondary outcomes included length of stay in hospital, length of stay in intensive care unit, duration of vasopressor use, functional outcomes, and serum calcium channel blocker concentrations. Methods Medline/Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, TOXLINE, International pharmaceutical abstracts, Google Scholar, and the gray literature up to December 31, 2013 were searched without time restriction to identify all types of studies that examined effects of various treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning for the outcomes of interest. The search strategy included the following Keywords: [calcium channel blockers OR calcium channel antagonist OR calcium channel blocking agent OR (amlodipine or bencyclane or bepridil or cinnarizine or felodipine or fendiline or flunarizine or gallopamil or isradipine or lidoflazine or mibefradil or nicardipine or nifedipine or nimodipine or nisoldipine or nitrendipine or prenylamine or verapamil or diltiazem)] AND [overdose OR medication errors OR poisoning OR intoxication OR toxicity OR adverse effect]. Two reviewers independently selected studies and a group of reviewers abstracted all relevant data using a pilot-tested form. A second group analyzed the risk of bias and overall quality using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) checklist and the Thomas tool for observational studies, the Institute of Health Economics tool for Quality of Case Series, the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines, and the modified NRCNA (National Research Council for the National Academies) list for animal studies. Qualitative synthesis was used to summarize the evidence. Of 15,577 citations identified in the initial search, 216 were selected for analysis, including 117 case reports. The kappa on the quality analysis tools was greater than 0.80 for all study types. Results The only observational study in humans examined high-dose insulin and extracorporeal life support. The risk of bias across studies was high for all interventions and moderate to high for extracorporeal life support. High-dose insulin. High-dose insulin (bolus of 1 unit/kg followed by an infusion of 0.5–2.0 units/kg/h) was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and lower mortality, at the risks of hypoglycemia and hypokalemia (low quality of evidence). Extracorporeal life support. Extracorporeal life support was associated with improved survival in patients with severe shock or cardiac arrest at the cost of limb ischemia, thrombosis, and bleeding (low quality of evidence). Calcium, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These agents improved hemodynamic parameters and survival without documented severe side effects (very low quality of evidence). 4-Aminopyridine. Use of 4-aminopyridine was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and survival in animal studies, at the risk of seizures. Lipid emulsion therapy. Lipid emulsion was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and survival in animal models of intravenous verapamil poisoning, but not in models of oral verapamil poisoning. Other studies. Studies on decontamination, atropine, glucagon, pacemakers, levosimendan, and plasma exchange reported variable results, and the methodologies used limit their interpretation. No trial was documented in humans poisoned with calcium channel blockers for Bay K8644, CGP 28932, digoxin, cyclodextrin, liposomes, bicarbonate, carnitine, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, PK 11195, or triiodothyronine. Case reports were only found for charcoal hemoperfusion, dialysis, intra-aortic balloon pump, Impella device and methylene blue. Conclusions The treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning is supported by low-quality evidence drawn from a heterogeneous and heavily biased literature. High-dose insulin

Dubé, P.-A.; Gosselin, S.; Guimont, C.; Godwin, J.; Archambault, P. M.; Chauny, J.-M.; Frenette, A. J.; Darveau, M.; Le sage, N.; Poitras, J.; Provencher, J.; Juurlink, D. N.; Blais, R.

2014-01-01

175

[Poisoning with aluminum phospholipide used as a poison against moles].  

PubMed

Aluminium phosphide (AIP) is a poison used in Denmark to combat moles and vermines e.g. in granaries. On contact with water AIP releases phosphine gas, which has a strong cytotoxic action. We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy 83 year old man, caused by ingestion of pellets containing AIP. After ingestion the primary symptoms were burning retrosternal pain, severe vomiting and diarrhoea which progressed to cardiac failure, arrhythmias and severe metabolic acidosis. The patient and his excreta smelled of garlic, ammonium carbide and decaying fish, which is characteristic of this poisoning. In spite of intensive care support the patient died in cardiac and respiratory failure 17 hours after ingestion of the pellets. Treatment is supportive. Knowledge about the toxicity of AIP is described and discussed. PMID:8966781

Andersen, T S; Holm, J W; Andersen, T S

1996-09-16

176

The experimental treatment of poisonings with a new organophosphoric insecticide (methylnitrophos) with the use of cholinesterase reactivators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental treatment of poisoning (a new insecticide: methylnitrophos) using cholinesterase reactivators is reported. Two types of reactivators were tested; 2-PAM-chloride and TMB-4 in various doses. TMB-4 was the more effective, even in smaller doses. Tables and graphs are included.

Razsudov, V. N.

1973-01-01

177

Coralyne and related compounds as mammalian topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II poisons.  

PubMed

DNA topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes responsible for modifying the topological state of DNA. The development of agents capable of poisoning topoisomerases has proved to be an attractive approach in the search for novel cancer chemotherapeutics. Coralyne, an antileukemic alkaloid, has appreciable structural similarity to the potent topoisomerase I and II poison, nitidine. Analogues of coralyne were synthesized and evaluated for their activity as topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II poisons. These analogues were also evaluated for cytotoxicity in the human lymphoblast cell line, RPMI 8402, and its camptothecin-resistant variant, CPT-K5. The pharmacological activity of these analogues exhibited a strong dependence on the substitution pattern and the nature of substituents. Several 1-benzylisoquinolines and 3-phenylisoquinolines were also synthesized. These compounds, which incorporate only a portion of the ring structure of coralyne, were evaluated as topoisomerase poisons and for cytotoxicity. These structure-activity studies indicate that the structural rigidity associated with the coralyne ring system may be critical for pharmacological activity. The presence of a 3,4-methylenedioxy substituent on these coralyne analogues was generally associated with enhanced activity as a topoisomerase poison. 5,6-Dihydro-3,4-methylenedioxy-10,11-dimethoxydibenzo[a,g]quinoliz inium chloride was the most potent topoisomerase I poison among the coralyne analogues evaluated, having similar activity to camptothecin. This analogue also possessed exceptional potency as a topoisomerase II poison. Despite the pronounced activity of several of these coralyne derivatives as topoisomerase I poisons, none of these compounds had cytotoxic activity similar to camptothecin. Possible differences in cellular absorption between these coralyne analogs, which possess a quaternary ammonium group, and camptothecin may be responsible for the differences observed in their relative cytotoxicity. PMID:8818227

Makhey, D; Gatto, B; Yu, C; Liu, A; Liu, L F; LaVoie, E J

1996-06-01

178

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

179

CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking ... drinking. Issue Details Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol ...

180

Mescalbean (Sophora secundiflora) Poisonous for Livestock.  

E-print Network

. secundiflona leaf poisoning. It is interesting to note that the writers have also found a decided increase in the inorganic phos- phorus in the blood serum of sheep suffering from bitterweed, Actinea odorata, poisoning. The serum calcium in all cases...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1935-01-01

181

A Model Poison Control System  

PubMed Central

Responding to the need for a poison information, education, data collection and research resource in California's Bay Area and North Coast counties, the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center has become an integral part of the region's emergency medical services. In the first 33 months after it opened, more than 54,000 calls for assistance were received, nearly a third from medical professionals. Through the cooperation and collaboration of public, private and university resources and interests, a cost-effective, comprehensive and accessible system has evolved for public and professional use. Through our experience a system has developed that can serve as a model for poison information services throughout the western states. Emerging public concern for toxicology issues will continue to refine this model. PMID:7179955

Tong, Theodore G.; Becker, Charles E.; Foliart, Donna; Morse, Linda

1982-01-01

182

[Phosphine poisoning in healthcare workers].  

PubMed

Phosphine gas constitutes a potential and serious little-known cause of poisoning of professional nature of the medical staff and nursing care of patients who voluntarily swallow phosphides rodenticides purposes suicide. The objective of this paper is to inform to healthcare workers from urgencies, forensic and occupational health services on this occupational hazard. We present the case of a nurse who suffered from poisoning by gas phosphine confirmed through an environmental monitoring of gases in an emergency department carried out by the government service of civil protection of the State of Jalisco. PMID:21894233

Arredondo Trujillo, Francisco; Hurtado Pérez, Martha Patricia; Castañeda Borrayo, Yaocihuatl

2011-01-01

183

Lead Poisoning in Rural Scotland  

PubMed Central

Nine people from four families living in rural parts of Scotland have been found to suffer from clinical or biochemical effects of lead poisoning. Five had symptoms and four had unequivocal evidence of excessive lead exposure. The source of lead has been traced to the domestic water supply which in all cases was grossly contaminated with lead acquired from lead plumbing systems, including lead storage tanks. Clinical improvement followed the replacement of lead piping in two families studied. Lead poisoning is a possible cause of chronic ill health in areas of plumbosolvent water. PMID:5031206

Beattie, A. D.; Dagg, J. H.; Goldberg, A.; Wang, I.; Ronald, J.

1972-01-01

184

Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.

Veis, Libor; Pittner, Ji?í

2014-06-01

185

Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene  

E-print Network

Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in [Aspuru-Guzik et al., Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.

Libor Veis; Ji?í Pittner

2014-04-17

186

Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

187

Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

188

Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

Lipnickey, Susan Cross

1981-01-01

189

Modern strategies in therapy of organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the various microscopic reactions as well as toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic principles in therapy of organophosphate poisoning, the administration of obidoxime by an initial bolus dose followed by continuous infusion appears rational. Using this protocol, six patients each with parathion or oxydemeton methyl poisoning were treated. In parathion poisoning, reactivation was possible up to 7 days. At paraoxon concentrations >0.1

H. Thiermann; L. Szinicz; F. Eyer; F. Worek; P. Eyer; N. Felgenhauer; T. Zilker

1999-01-01

190

Echocardiographic findings after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial lesions are frequently seen at necropsy after fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. Clinically, while there have been numerous reports of chest pain and electrocardiographic changes associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning, other evidence for left ventricular abnormality has not been reported. The echocardiographic findings in five cases of non-fatal poisoning are presented here. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion was shown

B C Corya; M J Black; P L McHenry

1976-01-01

191

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

192

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

193

Methylene blue reverses recalcitrant shock in ?-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose  

PubMed Central

?-blocker and calcium channel blocker toxicity generally present with bradycardia and hypotension. A 69-year-old woman presented after a suicide attempt with a ?-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose. Her blood pressure was 69/35?mm?Hg and her HR was in the 40s. She was treated with calcium chloride, glucagon, a dextrose–insulin infusion and three vasopressors, but remained hypotensive. She suffered two cardiac arrests and required a transvenous pacemaker. When all interventions failed, she was started on a methylene blue infusion for refractory vasodilatory shock which resulted in a dramatic improvement in her blood pressure. The patient was successfully weaned off all vasopressors and from mechanical ventilation without any end-organ damage. PMID:23334490

Aggarwal, Nidhi; Kupfer, Yizhak; Seneviratne, Chanaka; Tessler, Sidney

2013-01-01

194

Paraquat poisoning - management and prognosis.  

PubMed

Paraquat poisoning has become a significant clinical problem since the early 1960s. Its high mortality has posed a major challenge to clinicians treating these patients. Two patients who survived and one who did not are reported. The management of these patients and the possible factors affecting their outcome are discussed. PMID:7332290

Lee, E J; Pang, M; Woo, K T

1981-04-01

195

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

196

Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue  

PubMed Central

This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

2011-01-01

197

Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of poisoning and poisoning-related death in the United States. It manifests as broad spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild headache, nausea, and fatigue to dizziness, syncope, coma, seizures resulting in cardiovascular collapse, respiratory failure, and death. Cardiovascular complications of CO poisoning has been well reported and include myocardial stunning, left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary edema, and arrhythmias. Acute myocardial ischemia has also been reported from increased thrombogenicity due to CO poisoning. Myocardial toxicity from CO exposure is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels do not correlate well with the clinical severity of CO poisoning. Supplemental oxygen remains the cornerstone of therapy for CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases CO elimination and has been used with wide variability in patients with evidence of neurological and myocardial injury from CO poisoning, but its benefit in limiting or reversing cardiac injury is unknown. We present a comprehensive review of literature on cardiovascular manifestations of CO poisoning and propose a diagnostic algorithm for managing patients with CO poisoning. PMID:24518173

Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Khera, Sahil; Ahmad, Hasan; Jain, Diwakar; Aronow, Wilbert S; Frishman, William H

2014-02-10

198

Brodifacoum poisoning with toxicokinetic data.  

PubMed

The case of a 46-year-old woman who survived after a brodifacoum poisoning is presented. The patient was admitted due to a severe coagulopathy. Initial prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were both greater than 110 seconds and the patient suffered severe gastric and pulmonary hemorrhage requiring fresh frozen plasma transfusion and parenteral phytonadione administration (up to 100 mg per day). Serum brodifacoum levels were determined by HPLC during seven months. Five days after admission, serum brodifacoum level was 1302 ng/ml. Serum brodifacoum levels decreased till day 209 when became not detectable. Brodifacoum elimination showed a first order kinetic and a 56-day half-life. Investigation of superwarfarin should be considered in any patient with vitamin K dependent coagulation disorder. It would be also useful to obtain periodic brodifacoum levels and build the corresponding elimination curve to help direct phytonadione therapy in poisoned patients. PMID:17503253

Olmos, Valentina; López, Clara Magdalena

2007-01-01

199

Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

1977-11-01

200

Hybanthus calceolaria poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Hybanthus calceolaria, also known as "papaconha" or "ipepacuanha," is a herbaceous plant found in northeastern Brazil, which is often implicated by farmers as the cause of neurological signs in livestock grazing. Several poisoning outbreaks associated with the ingestion of this plant were observed in cattle in the municipalities of Colônia de Gurguéia in the state of Piauí and Sirinhaém in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The main clinical signs were ataxia, recumbency, and myokymia. No significant lesions were observed during necropsy or on histological examination. The disease was experimentally reproduced by the administration of 2 daily doses of 40 g/kg/body weight of the fresh green plant containing fruits. The plants without fruits were nontoxic, which is in accordance with the farmers' information, as it was stated that the poisoning only occurs when the plant is fruiting. PMID:25085870

Carvalho, Fabricio K L; Nascimento, Eduardo M; Rocha, Brena P; Mendonça, Fábio S; Veschi, Josir L A; Silva, Silvana M M S; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2014-09-01

201

Strychnine poisoning of aquatic birds.  

PubMed

Strychnine poisoning was diagnosed in free-flying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and a ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) found dead on a pond in a zoo. The probable source of toxin was improperly applied strychnine-treated grain used for control of rodents on adjacent farm land. Ingesta of the birds contained 19.7-85.1 mg/kg of strychnine. PMID:3586216

Wobeser, G; Blakley, B R

1987-04-01

202

Parkinsonism after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, parkinsonism was diagnosed in 23 (9.5%). There were 11 men and 12 women. The age at onset ranged from 16 to 69 (mean 45.8) years, with the peak incidence during the 6th decade. The latency before the appearance of parkinsonism varied from 2 to 26 (median 4)

Il Saing Choi

2002-01-01

203

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.

1985-05-01

204

Acute fatal poisoning with Tolfenpyrad.  

PubMed

The authors present a fatal case of poisoning with Tolfenpyrad (TFP), a pesticide first approved in Japan in 2002. A man in his fifties was found dead in the supine position at his son's home and the small towel with a smell of naphthalene was found nearby. Forensic autopsy was unremarkable, except for a very small amount of light pink fluid in the stomach, with naphthalene odour. The toxicological analyses revealed the presence of TFP and its major metabolite PTCA (4-[4-[(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methylpyrazol-5-yl)carbonylaminomethyl]phenoxy]benzoic acid), together with naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes in the post-mortem sample, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The plasma concentrations of each substance were quantified as 1.97 ?g/ml (TFP), 2.88 ?g/ml (PTCA), 1.70 ?g/ml (naphthalene), 0.67 ?g/ml (1-methyl naphthalene) and 1.44 ?g/ml (2-methyl naphthalene). According to these results together with autopsy findings, the cause of his death was determined to be acute Tolfenpyrad poisoning. This is the first case report of fatal poisoning attributable to an intake of TFP product. PMID:24237799

Hikiji, Wakako; Yamaguchi, Koji; Saka, Kanju; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2013-11-01

205

Epithelial chloride channel. Development of inhibitory ligands  

PubMed Central

Chloride channels are present in the majority of epithelial cells, where they mediate absorption or secretion of NaCl. Although the absorptive and secretory channels are well characterized in terms of their electrophysiological behavior, there is a lack of pharmacological ligands that can aid us in further functional and eventually molecular characterization. To obtain such ligands, we prepared membrane vesicles from bovine kidney cortex and apical membrane vesicles from trachea and found that they contain a chloride transport process that is electrically conductive. This conductance was reduced by preincubating the vesicles in media containing ATP or ATP-gamma-S, but not beta- methylene ATP, which suggests that the membranes contain a kinase that can close the channels. We then screened compounds derived from three classes: indanyloxyacetic acid (IAA), anthranilic acid (AA), and ethacrynic acid. We identified potent inhibitors from the IAA and the AA series. We tritiated IAA-94 and measured binding of this ligand to the kidney cortex membrane vesicles and found a high-affinity binding site whose dissociation constant (0.6 microM) was similar to the inhibition constant (1 microM). There was a good correlation between the inhibitory potency of several IAA derivatives and their efficacy in displacing [3H]IAA-94 from its binding site. Further, other chloride channel inhibitors, including AA derivatives, ethacrynic acid, bumetanide, and DIDS, also displaced the ligand from its binding site. A similar conductance was found in apical membrane vesicles from bovine trachea that was also inhibited by IAA-94 and AA-130B, but the inhibitory effects of these compounds were weaker than their effects on the renal cortex channel. The two drugs were also less potent in displacing [3H]IAA-94 from the tracheal binding site. PMID:2450168

1987-01-01

206

Ultrasonic reactivation of phosphonate poisoned calcite during crystal growth.  

PubMed

The effect of ultrasonic irradiation (42,150 Hz, 17 W dm(-3)/7.1 W cm(-2)) on the growth of calcite in the presence of the inhibitor nitrilotris(methylene phosphonic acid) (NTMP) was investigated at constant composition conditions. In seeded growth experiments, it was found that the inhibiting effect of NTMP on crystal growth could be seriously mitigated under influence of ultrasonic irradiation. An approximately twofold increase in volumetric growth rate was achieved during ultrasonic irradiation, and recovery of the growth rate following inhibition was strongly enhanced compared to growth experiments without ultrasonic irradiation. The results could be explained in part by the physical effect of ultrasound that causes breakage and attrition of poisoned crystals, which resulted in an increase in fresh surface area. Mass spectroscopy analysis of sonicated NTMP solutions revealed that there is also a chemical effect of ultrasound that plays an important role. Several breakdown products were identified, which showed that ultrasound caused the progressive loss of phosphonate groups from NTMP, probably by means of physicochemically generated free radicals and/or pyrolysis in the hot bubble-bulk interface. PMID:21463963

Boels, L; Wagterveld, R M; Witkamp, G J

2011-09-01

207

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

208

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

209

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

210

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

211

Is Nai Habarala (Alocasia cucullata) a poisonous plant?  

PubMed

Nai Habarala is not documented as a poisonous plant. However, we report two cases of fatal poisoning following ingestion of its fruit. The clinical manifestations have a similarity to cyanogenic glycoside poisoning. PMID:8342179

Goonasekera, C D; Vasanthathilake, V W; Ratnatunga, N; Seneviratne, C A

1993-06-01

212

[Congenital chloride diarrhea].  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death. PMID:16127986

Contreras, Mónica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, José Antonio

2005-01-01

213

Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Studies of Solid Methylene Bromide, Methylene Iodide and 1,1-DICHLOROETHENE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal structures of the three solid phases of methylene iodide and the stable phase of deuterated methylene bromide have been determined using the neutron powder profile structure refinement technique. For CH _2I_2, both phase I at 50 K and phase III at 16 K, and for CD _2Br_2, the stable phase at 15 K, have eight molecules per unit cell on general sites of the space group C2/c. The structure of CH _2I_2, phase II, has been determined at 16 K, 30 K, 50 K and 255 K. This phase is face centred orthorhombic, space group Fmm2, with four molecules per unit cell on sites with C_ {rm 2V} symmetry. Molecular bond lengths and angles, corrected for thermal motions, are given for all structures. The lattice energy of each structure has been calculated using an empirical potential. The most stable phase of CH_2I _2 is phase II, but the energy differences between all three phases are small. Neutron powder diffraction profiles of 1,1-dichloroethene -d_2 (CD_2CC l_2) at 12 K and 120 K have been recorded. The diffraction peaks are indexed on the basis of a non-primitive hexagonal unit cell containing 32 molecules. The molecular positions are not refined. The far infrared spectra of crystalline CH _2CCl_2 and CD_2CCl_2 have been recorded from 30 cm^{ -1} to 400 cm^{-1} at 20 K and 80 K. The corresponding Raman spectra have been recorded from 20 cm^{-1} to 3200 cm^{-1} at the same temperatures. The lattice spectra contain 29 Raman and 15 infrared active modes. A centrosymmetric crystal structure is indicated by these spectra. The lattice modes are assigned on the basis of their isotopic frequency shifts. Crystal field and isotopic splittings are observed in the internal mode spectra at 20 K.

Prystupa, David Allan

214

Profenofos metabolites in human poisoning.  

PubMed

Profenofos and its metabolites were determined in a case of fatal poisoning. Little profenofos and large amounts of metabolites were detected by gas chromatography/flame photometric detection in the acid extracts of blood and urine after methylation with diazomethane. Four major metabolites containing phosphorus were identified with the synthesized metabolites, namely, despropylated profenofos, desethylated profenofos and des-S-propylated profenofos, respectively. 4-Bromo-2-chlorophenol (BCP), an aryl moiety of profenofos, was also determined in blood and urine with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as free or conjugated metabolites. PMID:11182275

Gotoh, M; Sakata, M; Endo, T; Hayashi, H; Seno, H; Suzuki, O

2001-02-15

215

[Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].  

PubMed

Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye. PMID:22169568

Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

2012-01-01

216

Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING.... Beasley. $4. S., Asst. Agronomist S. D. Reynolds, Jr., Feed Inspector Publications : P. A. Moore, Feed Inspector A. I3 Jackson, Chief E. J. Wilson, B. S.. Feed Inspector H. G. Wickes. D. V. M.. Feed Inspector SUBSTATIO~L>'., No. 1. Beeville. Bee...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1934-01-01

217

40 CFR 721.10626 - 1,4-Butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene biscarbomonocycle, 2...  

...4-Butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene biscarbomonocycle...4-Butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene biscarbomonocycle...4-butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene...

2014-07-01

218

40 CFR 721.10626 - 1,4-Butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene biscarbomonocycle, 2...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4-Butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene biscarbomonocycle...4-Butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene biscarbomonocycle...4-butanediol, polymer with substituted alkane and substituted methylene...

2013-07-01

219

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning.  

PubMed

Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

Zhao, Shu Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu Tian

2010-04-01

220

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning  

PubMed Central

Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

2010-01-01

221

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

222

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

223

Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding  

PubMed Central

A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.???Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

2001-01-01

224

Datura poisoning--the Angel's Trumpet.  

PubMed

A group of seven ate flowers of Datura arborea ("The Angel's Trumpet" or "Trumpet Lilies") and suffered severe hallucinations. One member of the group drowned in shallow water while suffering from these effects. Although poisoning with related species is common, poisoning with this plant is rare, perhaps due to its terrifying rather than pleasurable hallucinogenic effect. PMID:4069765

Hayman, J

1985-07-01

225

FLUOROACETAMIDE (1081) POISONING IN WILD BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of poisoning in four greylag geese (Anser anser) and 35-45 teal (Aizas crecca) is described. Laboratory findings led to the conclusion that a wheat bait containing the rodenticide fluoracetamide (1081) caused the poisoning. Circumstantial evidence incriminated fluoracetamide as the cause of death in white- fronted geese (Anser albifrons), mallards (Anas platyr\\/zynclzos), and chukars (Alec-

A. SHLOSBERGand; M. N. EGYED; Beit Dagan; H. MENDELSSOHN; Y. LANGER; B. Nesin

1975-01-01

226

Treatment of methyl bromide poisoning with haemodialysis.  

PubMed Central

Acute accidental methyl bromide poisoning was treated with haemodialysis. The treatment was successful in removing bromide from the blood but the patient persists with severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. To the best of our knowledge haemodialysis has not been used previously for the treatment of organic bromide poisoning. PMID:7831171

Moosa, M. R.; Jansen, J.; Edelstein, C. L.

1994-01-01

227

Poison Ivy: Tips for Treating and Preventing  

MedlinePLUS

... to air turn brownish black. Before urushiol hits the air, it is clear or a pale yellow. It may have yellow-white berries. Poison sumac: This plant has 7 to 13 leaflets on each leaf. It grows in standing water as a tall shrub or small tree. How to protect your skin from poison ivy, ...

228

Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

229

Harmful Algal Blooms: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), also known as domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The page discusses the production of domoic acid by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, geographic locations of detection, and economic impacts.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; Seagrant, University O.

230

Management of the critically poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

2009-01-01

231

21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

2013-04-01

232

21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.  

...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

2014-04-01

233

21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

2011-04-01

234

21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...methylene blue cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats when used according to label...animals. (ii) The Heinz body hemolytic anemia reaction to methylene blue has also...Heinz bodies) and associated hemolytic anemia is unclear. (2) The...

2012-04-01

235

Accidental injection of a U.S. Air Force aviator by a pralidoxime chloride auto-injector: a case report.  

PubMed

To counter the threat of organophosphate nerve agents, military personnel may be issued auto-injectors containing pralidoxime chloride. This drug helps to dephosphorylate the nerve agent-acetylcholinesterase complex and, thus, regenerate the enzyme. In non-poisoned persons, pralidoxime chloride is rapidly excreted by the kidneys and is fairly well tolerated. We present the first reported case of an accidental injection of an Air Force aviator by an auto-injector. The patient recovered well with no specific treatment needed. The pharmacology and toxicology of pralidoxime chloride are discussed. PMID:10608609

Yamane, G K

1999-11-01

236

Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans.  

PubMed Central

The enzyme carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from CO autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans strain OM5, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was obtained in 26% yield and was purified 36-fold. The enzyme was stable for at least 6 days, had a molecular weight of 230,000, gave a single protein and activity band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was homogeneous by the criterion of sedimentation equilibrium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis revealed a single band of molecular weight 107,000. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase did not catalyze reduction of pyridine or flavin nucleotides but catalyzed the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, thionine, toluylene blue, dichlorophenolindophenol, or pyocyanine under strictly anaerobic conditions. The visible spectrum revealed maxima at 405 and 470 nm. The millimolar extinction coefficients were 43.9 (405 nm) and 395.5 (275 nm), respectively. Absorption at 470 nm decreased in the presence of dithionite, and the spectrum was not affected by the substrate CO. Maximum reaction rates were found at pH 7.0 and 63 degrees C; temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy (delta H degree) of 36.8 kJ/mol (8.8 kcal/mol). The apparent Km was 53 microM for CO. The purified enzyme was incapable of oxidizing methane, methanol, or formaldehyde in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. Images PMID:7354006

Meyer, O; Schlegel, H G

1980-01-01

237

Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

2004-01-01

238

Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

1997-01-01

239

Empirical NMR Chemical Shift Correlations for Methyl and Methylene Protons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an internally consistent set of 63 substituent constants developed for use with the Schoolery Relationship to predict the chemical shifts of methylene protons of acyclic compounds. Chemical shift data used in deriving the constants were taken mainly from primary sources of HNMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra. (JN)

Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates

1984-01-01

240

Mechanism of methylene blue removal from water by swelling clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive but separate studies have been conducted to focus on utilization of swelling clays to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution and to investigate the feasibility and applicability of using methylene blue (MB) adsorption for cation exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area (SSA) determination. This research aims at elucidating the mechanism of MB adsorption on low-charge montmorillonite in order

Zhaohui Li; Po-Hisang Chang; Wei-Teh Jiang; Jiin-Shuh Jean; Hanlie Hong

2011-01-01

241

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

242

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

243

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.?? PMID:9576536

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

244

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation. PMID:25109087

Weaver, Lindell K

2014-01-01

245

Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or  

E-print Network

Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or breathing lead. Children under 6 years old problems.FACT Lead poisoning hurts the brain and nervous system. Some of the effects of lead poisoning may and speech · Make it hard to pay attention and learn FACT Most children get lead poisoning from paint

246

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

247

An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish

A. P Sierra-Beltrán; A Cruz; E Núñez; L. M Del Villar; J Cerecero; J. L Ochoa

1998-01-01

248

Surreptitious superwarfarin poisoning with brodifacoum.  

PubMed

Because of the emergence of warfarin resistance in rodents, second-generation anticoagulants named "superwarfarins" were developed and marketed in over-the-counter rodenticide products. The availability of these compounds has resulted in accidental or intentional human ingestions, which cause severe bleeding. The methods for diagnosis and treatment of patients using superwarfarins are different from those for patients taking the regular warfarins. We report a case of intentional superwarfarin ingestion that caused petechiae and hematuria. Although the patient denied taking anticoagulant, the persistence of vitamin K-dependent factor deficiency led us to investigate the serum for anticoagulant rodenticides. We found high levels of brodifacoum, a superwarfarin compound. This case emphasizes the need for suspicion of superwarfarin poisoning in patients who show unexplained bleeding due to deficiency of vitamin K-dependent factors and resistance to treatment. PMID:9347822

Tecimer, C; Yam, L T

1997-10-01

249

Emergency care of insecticide poisonings.  

PubMed

Insecticide poisoning is an increasing event which requires a thorough knowledge base for diagnosis and management. Awareness of the importance of decontamination is fundamental not only in the prehospital care phase but also in the emergency department. A thorough knowledge of the essentials of emergency and critical care is indispensable for the management and support of ventilatory and circulatory functions. Specific antidotal therapy utilizing atropine and pralidoxime is usually necessary in the immediate care of acute cases. In addition, use of pralidoxime after acute exposure may contribute to a beneficial outcome. Appropriate laboratory determinations in the acute phase are necessary parameters for successful outcomes. The use of cholinesterase determinations for diagnostic and prognostic purposes is discussed. PMID:7815041

Hillman, J V

1994-11-01

250

Lead Poisoning Mimicking Acute Porphyria!  

PubMed Central

We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old autistic boy whose urine porphyrin test came positive on three separate occasions. The child was brought to emergency department of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India, with fever and acute abdominal pain, with no previous history of any serious illness. Investigations revealed thalassemia trait,microcytic hypochromic anaemia while the other biochemical and haematological parameters were normal. False positive urine porphyrin test may be seen in porphyria induced by liver cancer, hepatitis and heavy metal poisoning such as lead, arsenic and mercury. Blood lead (PbB) level was 59.5?g/dl. Further evaluation revealed a daily consumption of native medicine in the form of syrup. PMID:25653942

L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; P, Sadashiva Rao; B, Prashanth

2014-01-01

251

Connective tissue disease features after thallium poisoning.  

PubMed

We present 5 patients in whom thallium poisoning (1) mimicked systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with positive antinuclear antibodies; (2) caused a SLE-like illness with positive antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor that was followed by a persistent chronic polyarthritis; (3) mimicked SLE with negative antinuclear antibodies and no residual disease; (4) caused arthralgia, Raynaud's phenomenon and palmar erythema with negative antinuclear antibodies followed by keratoconjunctivitis sicca; and (5) triggered the onset of SLE with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. Although the notion exists that thallium poisoning may simulate seronegative SLE, these associations between connective tissue diseases and thallium poisoning have not been previously recorded. PMID:2787403

Alarcón-Segovia, D; Amigo, M C; Reyes, P A

1989-02-01

252

Pattern of poisoning in Japan: selection of drugs and poisons for systematic toxicological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of poisoning are known to be different in different countries, because of the local environmental, cultural, and\\u000a religious situations. Therefore, in Japan, it is important to know the pattern of poisoning in our own country and to prepare\\u000a for every poisoning case by establishing an efficient systematic toxicological analysis system in forensic practice. We conducted\\u000a a retrospective study of

Keiko Kudo; Tomomi Ishida; Wakako Hikiji; Yosuke Usumoto; Takahiro Umehara; Kumi Nagamatsu; Akiko Tsuji; Noriaki Ikeda

2010-01-01

253

Pralidoxime in Acute Organophosphorus Insecticide Poisoning—A Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Poisoning with organophosphorus (OP) insecticides is a major global public health problem, causing an estimated 200,000 deaths each year. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of pralidoxime, this antidote's effectiveness remains unclear. We aimed to determine whether the addition of pralidoxime chloride to atropine and supportive care offers benefit. Methods and Findings We performed a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of pralidoxime chloride (2 g loading dose over 20 min, followed by a constant infusion of 0.5 g/h for up to 7 d) versus saline in patients with organophosphorus insecticide self-poisoning. Mortality was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included intubation, duration of intubation, and time to death. We measured baseline markers of exposure and pharmacodynamic markers of response to aid interpretation of clinical outcomes. Two hundred thirty-five patients were randomised to receive pralidoxime (121) or saline placebo (114). Pralidoxime produced substantial and moderate red cell acetylcholinesterase reactivation in patients poisoned by diethyl and dimethyl compounds, respectively. Mortality was nonsignificantly higher in patients receiving pralidoxime: 30/121 (24.8%) receiving pralidoxime died, compared with 18/114 (15.8%) receiving placebo (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–3.26, p?=?0.12). Incorporating the baseline amount of acetylcholinesterase already aged and plasma OP concentration into the analysis increased the HR for patients receiving pralidoxime compared to placebo, further decreasing the likelihood that pralidoxime is beneficial. The need for intubation was similar in both groups (pralidoxime 26/121 [21.5%], placebo 24/114 [21.1%], adjusted HR 1.27 [95% CI 0.71–2.29]). To reduce confounding due to ingestion of different insecticides, we further analysed patients with confirmed chlorpyrifos or dimethoate poisoning alone, finding no evidence of benefit. Conclusions Despite clear reactivation of red cell acetylcholinesterase in diethyl organophosphorus pesticide poisoned patients, we found no evidence that this regimen improves survival or reduces need for intubation in patients with organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The reason for this failure to benefit patients was not apparent. Further studies of different dose regimens or different oximes are required. Trial Registration Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN55264358 Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary PMID:19564902

Eddleston, Michael; Eyer, Peter; Worek, Franz; Juszczak, Edmund; Alder, Nicola; Mohamed, Fahim; Senarathna, Lalith; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azher, Shifa; Jeganathan, K.; Jayamanne, Shaluka; von Meyer, Ludwig; Dawson, Andrew H.; Sheriff, Mohamed Hussain Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A.

2009-01-01

254

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony.  

PubMed

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony's history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided. PMID:17616062

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Ma Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

2007-06-01

255

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

256

Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  

MedlinePLUS

... skin products taken from store shelves contained mercury . Photos of some illegal mercury-containing products are shown ... Lightening Products Found to Contain Mercury (includes product photos) Texas DSHS Warns of Mercury Poisoning Linked to ...

257

American Association of Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... and home, environmental toxins, drugs and medicine, and animal and insect bites and stings. Bath Salts Synthetic cathinones, or “bath salts” are powerful drugs that can cause hallucinations and violent behavior. E-Cigarette Devices and Liquid Nicotine Local poison ...

258

Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts  

MedlinePLUS

Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ... is found throughout the plant, but especially in green potatoes and new sprouts. Never eat potatoes that ...

259

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

I. K. Hart; P. G. Kennedy; J. H. Adams; N. E. Cunningham

1988-01-01

260

Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

2002-10-01

261

Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes  

PubMed Central

Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

2010-01-01

262

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

263

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

264

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

265

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C. P.; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

266

Uptake and therapeutic effectiveness of /sup 125/I- and /sup 211/At-methylene blue for pigmented melanoma in an animal model system  

SciTech Connect

The investigations concerning a targeted radiotherapy for pigmented melanoma with a radiolabeled phenothiazine derivative, 3,7-(dimethylamino)phenazathionium chloride (methylene blue (MTB)), were continued using melanotic and amelanotic sublines of B16 melanoma. Two radionuclides, 125I and 211At, emitting Auger electrons and alpha particles, respectively, replaced 35S previously studied since their biological effectiveness is significantly higher. In vitro autoradiography revealed a selective accumulation of methylene blue labeled with either of the radioisotopes in pigmented melanoma cells but its absence in nonpigmented cells. Treatments with (125I)MTB and (211At)MTB were performed both in vitro and in vivo, with their effectiveness determined by lung clonogenic assay. (125I)MTB proved to be relatively ineffective when incorporated into melanosomes distributed in the cytoplasm, i.e., too far away from the genome. Conspicuous therapeutic effects were achieved with (211At)MTB for pigmented melanoma only. 211At itself did not affect either of the investigated sublines of B16 melanoma confirming once again the high affinity of methylene blue to melanin. Calculations of cumulative radiation doses from (211At)MTB deposited in melanotic melanoma tumors and pigmented normal organs which would be at a particular risk led to the conclusion that (211At)MTB could be used for a highly selective and very efficient targeted radiotherapy of pigmented melanomas without damaging normal tissues.

Link, E.M.; Brown, I.; Carpenter, R.N.; Mitchell, J.S.

1989-08-01

267

The role of oximes in the management of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

The number of intoxications with organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) is estimated at some 3,000,000 per year, and the number of deaths and casualties some 300,000 per year. OPs act primarily by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), thereby allowing acetylcholine to accumulate at cholinergic synapses, disturbing transmission at parasympathetic nerve endings, sympathetic ganglia, neuromuscular endplates and certain CNS regions. Atropine is the mainstay of treatment of effects mediated by muscarine sensitive receptors; however, atropine is ineffective at the nicotine sensitive synapses. At both receptor types, reactivation of inhibited AChE may improve the clinical picture. The value of oximes, however, is still a matter of controversy. Enthusiastic reports of outstanding antidotal effectiveness, substantiated by laboratory findings of reactivated AChE and improved neuromuscular transmission, contrast with many reports of disappointing results. In vitro studies with human erythrocyte AChE, which is derived from the same single gene as synaptic AChE, revealed marked differences in the potency and efficacy of pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI 6 and HLö 7, the latter two oximes being considered particularly effective in nerve agent poisoning. Moreover, remarkable species differences in the susceptibility to oximes were revealed, requiring caution when animal data are extrapolated to humans. These studies impressively demonstrated that any generalisation regarding an effective oxime concentration is inappropriate. Hence, the 4 mg/L concept should be dismissed. To antagonise the toxic effects of the most frequently used OPs, pralidoxime plasma concentrations of around 80 mumol/L (13.8 mg/L pralidoxime chloride) should be attained while obidoxime plasma concentrations of 10 mumol/L (3.6 mg/L obidoxime chloride) may be sufficient. These concentrations should be maintained as long as circulating poison is expected to be present, which may require oxime therapy for up to 10 days. Various dosage regimens exist to reach this goal. The most appropriate consists of a bolus short infusion followed by a maintenance dosage. For pralidoxime chloride, a 1 g bolus over 30 minutes followed by an infusion of 0.5 g/h appears appropriate to maintain the target concentrtion of about 13 mg/L (70 kg person). For obidoxime chloride, the appropriate dosage is a 0.25 g bolus followed by an infusion of 0.75 g/24 h. These concentrations are well tolerated and keep a good portion of AChE in the active state, thereby retarding the AChE aging rate. AChE aging is particularly rapid with dimethyl phosphoryl compounds and may thwart the effective reactivation by oximes, particularly in suicidal poisoning with excessive doses. In contrast, patients with diethyl OP poisoning may particularly benefit from oxime therapy, even if no improvement is seen during the first days when the poison load is high. The low propensity to aging with diethyl OP poisoning may allow reactivation after several days, when the poison concentration drops. Rigorous testing of the benefits of oximes is only possible in randomised controlled trials with clear stratification according to the class of pesticides involved, time elapsed between exposure and treatment and severity of cholinergic symptoms on admission. PMID:15181665

Eyer, Peter

2003-01-01

268

Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available. PMID:21607993

Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

2011-08-01

269

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

270

Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution onto Perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutionsonto unexpanded and expanded perlite samples activatedby H2SO4 and NaCl solutions has beeninvestigated, to assess the possibility of usingperlite for removing cationic dyes from aqueoussolutions. The effects of pH and temperature of dyesolution on the adsorption capacities have beenevaluated. The experimental data were correlatedreasonably well by the Langmuir adsorption isothermand the isotherm parameters (Qm

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan; Yavuz Onganer

2000-01-01

271

SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents

G. Wobeser; T. Bollinger; F. A. Leighton; B. Blakley; P. Mineau

2004-01-01

272

[The study of status and advances on tetramine poisoning].  

PubMed

Tetramethylenedisulphotetramine(TETS) is virulent rodenticides which was strictly forbidden to use in China. Poison dose of TETS is very little, LD50 in rats in 0.1 mg/kg. Manifestations and signs of TETS poisoning are showed in 5 min. The long dated effect of poisoning is extremely strict. Mamy studys on TETS are restricted on the treatment of TETS poisoning, while that of poisoning mechanism is very few. This paper reviewed TETS poisoning mechanism, pathological changes and research advances. PMID:15150879

Zhu, Chuan-hong; Liu, Liang; Liu, Yan

2004-01-01

273

Acute pesticides poisonings in pregnant women.  

PubMed

44 pregnant women were treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology in years 1986-1996 as a result of acute poisonings with different xenobiotics. Acute pesticide poisoning that involved 4 cases were always severe and had dramatic clinical course. Carbofuran intoxication stated in a 17-year-old woman (18 weeks of pregnancy) resulted in fetus death. Toxicological findings revealed that the level of the poison in the mothers blood was comparable to that in the fetus. Carbofuran evidently passed the placental barrier in concentration which was sufficient to cause the fetus death. In the second woman (20-year-old, 12 weeks pregnant) who was classified as severely poisoned on admission to the clinic a spontaneous abortion was stated on 27th day after poisoning. The highest level of carbofuran in the blood of the mother was 9.71 micrograms/g. A 30-year-old woman, 10 weeks pregnant took formothion (50 ml) per vaginam in order to provoke abortion. She was classified as moderately poisoned. Gynecological examination and ultrasonography confirmed the pregnancy. The fetus heart tones were audible. The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 days at her own request in a good general condition. The concentration of formothion in washings from vagina was similar to the levels observed in blood serum on the patient admission to the Clinic, and 24 hour later. A 21-year-old woman, 5 month pregnant ingested an unknown amount of endosulfan to provoke abortion. Gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasonography revealed longitudinal pelvic presentation of fetus. Neither fetal movement nor heart tones were audible as early as four hours after the clinical symptoms occurred. Such low concentration of endosulfan in the blood of the mother as 0.47 microgram/g of the poison caused relatively quick fetus death. The highest levels of endosulfan were found in the liver and in the fetus kidneys. PMID:9478098

Sancewicz-Pach, K; Groszek, B; Pach, D; K?ys, M

1997-01-01

274

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs  

E-print Network

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs natural variation among poison frog species measured with spectral reflectance and toxicity assays, we components using natural variation among poison frog species. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) display some

Cummings, Molly E.

275

Pharmacokinetics of pralidoxime chloride in the rat.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) was studied in rats. Different groups of rats were given an intramuscular injection of 2-PAM at one of three doses (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg). This range of doses is used commonly in studies concerned with the efficacy of 2-PAM against poisoning by potent organophosphorus inhibitors of cholinesterase enzyme. Individual, sequential blood samples were collected during the course of the experiment. From these blood samples the plasma concentrations of 2-PAM were determined over time for each animal. Next the relationship of plasma concentration to time was expressed in terms of a standard pharmacokinetic model. Estimates of various pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using an open, one-compartment model: volume of distribution (Vd), maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), elimination rate constant (k10), absorption rate constant (k01), area under the curve (AUC) and clearance (CL). Of the pharmacokinetic estimates, only Cmax and AUC were found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.0001) when compared across all the doses; these pharmacokinetic estimates were highly correlated with doses with r = 0.998 and r = 0.997, respectively. However, when AUC and Cmax were normalized by dividing through by dose, no significant differences were found in the transformed data. The results of this study in rat indicate that the pharmacokinetics of 2-PAM is linearly related to dose in a range employed in therapeutic studies of 2-PAM. PMID:3784779

Green, M D; Talbot, B G; Clark, C R

1986-12-01

276

Liver histopathology of fatal phosphine poisoning.  

PubMed

Two commonly used pesticides in agriculture are phosphides of aluminium and zinc. Both of these metal phosphides act through elaboration of toxic phosphine gas. The poisoning in Iran is mostly oral and suicidal. Phosphine is rapidly absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion and it is partly carried to the liver by the portal vein. In this study the liver histopathology of fatal poisoning is scrutinized. A descriptive, retrospective study was performed on 38 fatal phosphine poisonings. The slides of liver specimens of the cases were retrieved and studied separately by two pathologists. The poisoning was suicidal in 33 (86.5%) of cases. Portal inflammation was negligible in 37 cases and only in one of the cases, a moderate degree of chronic inflammation accompanied by granuloma formation was observed. Major histopathologic findings were as follows: mild sinusoidal congestion; 12 cases (31.6%), severe sinusoidal congestion; 25 cases (45.8%), central vein congestion; 23 cases (60.5%), centrilobular necrosis; 3 cases (7.9%), hepatocytes nuclear fragmentation; 6 cases (15.8%), sinusoidal clusters of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; 12 cases (31.6%), and mild macrovesicular steatosis; 5 cases (13.2%). Fine isomorphic cytoplasmic vacuoles were observed in 36 cases (94.7%). These vacuoles were distributed uniformly in all hepatic zones in the majority (75%) of cases. This study reveals that the main histopathologic findings of fatal phosphine poisoning in the liver are fine cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes and sinusoidal congestion. PMID:16806774

Saleki, Sepideh; Ardalan, Farid Azmoudeh; Javidan-Nejad, Abdullah

2007-03-01

277

Nicotine replacement products: poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Nicotine is widely used in smoking cessation aids. They are marketed in many forms, including: chewing gum, sublingual tablets, lozenges, transdermal patches, cartridges for oral inhalation, and mouth spray. French poison control and toxico-vigilance centres identified 318 cases of exposure to nicotine replacement products in children under the age of 10 years between 2000 and 2010. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A U.S. analysis identified 1768 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 6 years involving smokeless tobacco products, reported between 2006 and 2008.84% of these cases occurred in children under the age of 3 years. The first signs of nicotine poisoning are gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and neuropsychological (tremor of the extremities). With higher doses, these effects are rapidly followed by loss of consciousness, convulsions or respiratory failure. In children, poisoning can occur after ingestion of 1 mg of nicotine per kilogram of body weight. A dose of this magnitude is sometimes fatal in adults. Most cases of poisoning involving transdermal patches occur when a child finds an unused patch, or a used patch that an adult has discarded in a bin without taking proper precautions. Sometimes they involve patches that have become detached from an adult's skin. In practice, it is important to warn adults using smoking cessation aids containing nicotine that these products are dangerous PMID:24926513

2014-05-01

278

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

279

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

280

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

281

An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

2014-10-24

282

Mean platelet volume in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is frequent and can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Some studies have indicated increased platelet activation and aggregation in CO poisoning. Thus, we investigated mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet activation, in patients with CO poisoning. We included 193 (117 women) patients who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2011 and March 2013. Control group was composed of 39 (15 women) patients. Troponin and creatine kinase MB levels were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Platelet counts were significantly higher in patients with CO poisoning (281 ± 76 vs 248 ± 65 × 10(9), respectively; P = .01). Similarly, MPV was significantly higher in the CO poisoning group (8.9 ± 0.8 vs 7.9 ± 0.9 fL, respectively; P < .001). Elevated MPV values may indicate that patients with CO poisoning have a higher risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications due to platelet activation. PMID:23901146

Karabacak, Mustafa; Varol, Ercan; Türkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Duman, Ali; Akpinar, Orhan; Karabacak, Pinar

2014-03-01

283

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and/or oxy acids: [D-O-Leu-D-Ala-L-O-Val-L-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the potassium ionophore valinomycin. Two of the three enterotoxins have been shown to be involved in food poisoning. They both consist of three different proteins that act together. One of these enterotoxins is also a haemolysin. This haemolytic enterotoxin is transcribed from one operon. The third enterotoxin is a single component protein, but has not been shown to be involved in food poisoning. PMID:9435100

Granum, P E; Lund, T

1997-12-15

284

Acute pesticide poisoning in England and Wales.  

PubMed

Between 1979 and 1983 less than 1% of admissions from acute poisoning in the UK were due to pesticides and fewer than 4% of admissions in those under 5 years were from this cause. Organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides account for only 10% of the total in both children and adults. Suspected pesticide poisoning was the cause of fewer than 0.3% of home accidents in those under 10 years of age and less than 4% of suspected poisonings documented by the Home Accident Surveillance System. Rodenticides were thought to be involved in 62% of these cases. Of children who presented to hospital 42% were admitted and 93% of these were discharged home within 2 days. In the UK, the morbidity from acute pesticide poisoning in children is low and the mortality is nil and there is therefore no evidence to support the view that paediatric pesticide intoxication is a significant clinical problem. Though no fatalities were recorded in children, pesticides were responsible for 1.3% of all deaths due to poisoning in the UK between 1979 and 1983. In adults admitted to hospital, the mortality from pesticide poisoning is approximately 12% and three quarters of these deaths are due to the deliberate ingestion of paraquat. The general term pesticide refers to a group of products that are used as insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, and plant growth agents. Chemically, the group includes bipyridilium compounds, carbamates, chloralose, chlorates, coumarins, dinitro compounds, dithiocarbamates, fluoroacetates, organochlorine organophosphorus and organotin compounds, pentachlorophenol, phenoxyacetates, phosphine (as magnesium and aluminium phosphides), pyrethrins, pyrethroids and triazines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10281618

Vale, T J; Meredith, T J; Buckley, B M

1987-02-01

285

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200?000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments—atropine, oximes, and diazepam—should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-01-01

286

Laboratory diagnosis of zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Zinc phosphide, a readily-available rodenticide, poses a significant risk for intoxication in animals. Animals have been poisoned by ingesting treated bait or the carcasses of poisoned rodents. Toxicity is due to the liberation of phosphine gas in the stomach. Clinical signs include central nervous system excitation, depression and vomition. Similarities of clinical signs with other central nervous system toxicants make the diagnosis difficult without a specific diagnostic test. The procedure outlined in this paper detects phosphine liberated from zinc phosphide by the addition of hydrochloric acid as well as the phosphine previously generated by contact with stomach acid. PMID:7900268

Guale, F G; Stair, E L; Johnson, B W; Edwards, W C; Haliburton, J C

1994-12-01

287

Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine  

PubMed Central

Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

2015-01-01

288

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. PMID:25035737

Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

2014-01-01

289

[The viper--Finland's only poisonous snake].  

PubMed

The viper (Vipera berus) is the most common poisonous snake in Europe, and the only one in Finland. In viper bites, highly varying amounts of venom end up into the victim, whereby prediction of the progression of symptoms of poisoning is very difficult. A severe clinical picture must always be anticipated. The size of the victim has also an effect on the outcome. Adequate monitoring and when necessary, massive fluid therapy are essential in the treatment. Due to possible kidney damage, anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended. Severe or rapidly progressing symptoms require the use of an antidote. PMID:21834338

Vuori, Arno

2011-01-01

290

Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:21264171

Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

2011-01-01

291

Early carbon monoxide intoxication: happy to be poisoned?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide poisoning is the commonest cause of death by poisoning in the UK and chronic exposure is thought to be a frequently missed diagnosis. Early recognition of carbon monoxide poisoning is vital to institute prompt treatment and to prevent exposure to others. An incident of mass exposure to carbon monoxide is presented where euphoria, lasting several hours, was the

S F J Clarke; A Crosby; D Kumar

2005-01-01

292

Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead

S Mohammadi; AH Mehrparvar; M Aghilinejad

2008-01-01

293

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2012-04-01

294

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2013-04-01

295

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2010-04-01

296

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2014-04-01

297

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2011-04-01

298

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2010-04-01

299

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2011-04-01

300

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2014-04-01

301

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2013-04-01

302

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2012-04-01

303

78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

2013-03-20

304

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

305

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The

Y S Kim

1985-01-01

306

Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

Keller, Rosanne

307

Chloride removal from ferrous substrates  

SciTech Connect

Chlorides will be summarized with respect to occurrence, electrolytic confinement of chlorides on pitted steel, action at the steel/paint interface, and removal. Processes which will be discussed for removal are (1) blast cleaning, (2) blast cleaning enhanced with electrode reversal and nocturnal humidity, (3) water spray and water jetting procedures.

Johnson, B. [KTA-Tator, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

308

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

309

Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

310

A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-03-01

311

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony  

PubMed Central

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided. PMID:17616062

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Mª Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

2007-01-01

312

Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries; fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or misdiagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxication is not known. The health effects associated with exposure to CO range from the more subtle cardiovascular and

James A. Raub; Monique Mathieu-Nolf; Neil B. Hampson; Stephen R. Thom

2000-01-01

313

Detection of Kaminsky DNS Cache Poisoning Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

We statistically investigated the total inbound standard DNS resolution traffic from the Internet to the top domain DNS server in a university campus network through January 1st to December 31st, 2010. The following results are obtained: (1) We found five Kaminsky DNS Cache Poisoning (Kaminsky) attacks in observation of rapid decrease in the unique source IP address based entropy of

Yasuo Musashi; Masaya Kumagai; Shinichiro Kubota; Kenichi Sugitani

2011-01-01

314

Dns cache poisoning-the next generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old problem of DNS cache poisoning has again reared its ugly head. While some would argue that the domain name system protocol is inherently vulnerable to this style of attack due to the weakness of 16-bit transaction IDs, we cannot ignore the immediate threat while waiting for something better to come along. There are new attacks, which make DNS

J. Stewart

2003-01-01

315

Important poisonous plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

316

Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

317

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

318

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-01-01

319

Poisonous Plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

320

"The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

Carnevale, Dan

2007-01-01

321

Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

Jacobs, Dan

322

Acute Oral Poisoning Due to Chloracetanilide Herbicides  

PubMed Central

Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO3 ¯ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2012-01-01

323

Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.  

PubMed

Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO?? was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2012-02-01

324

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

325

Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-01-01

326

Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

Carter, Constance, Comp.

327

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

328

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

1977-01-01

329

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy causes deterioration and relapse of cognitive ability and behavioural movement a few weeks after complete recovery from initial hypoxic injury. A case is reported of delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning, which was diagnosed with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is also reviewed.

O Y Kwon; S P Chung; Y R Ha; I S Yoo; S W Kim

2004-01-01

330

Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

P Davous; P Rondot; M H Marion; B Gueguen

1986-01-01

331

Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

2009-01-01

332

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

333

Synthesis of amino acid conjugates to 2-imino-3-methylene-5-carboxypyrrolidine and 2-imino-3-methylene-6-carboxypiperidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four stereomers of 2-imino-3-methylene-5-l(carboxy-l-valyl)pyrrolidine, a bacterial metabolite that is inhibitory to the fire blight bacterium Erwinia amylovora, were synthesised and compared for antibacterial activity. Several alternative amino acid conjugates with l,l-stereochemistry were also prepared, and the synthesis was extended to 3-methylenepiperidine-6-l-carboxylic acid and a selection of 2-imino-3-methylenepiperidine-6-l-carboxy-l-amino acid conjugates. All synthetic amino acid conjugates (l,l-stereomers) were inhibitory to the

Robin E. Mitchell

2010-01-01

334

75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

2010-06-15

335

75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

2010-04-15

336

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2011-01-01

337

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2010-01-01

338

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2014-01-01

339

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2012-01-01

340

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2013-01-01

341

21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

342

Influence of negatively charged interfaces on the ground and excited state properties of methylene blue.  

PubMed

Properties of the ground and excited states of methylene blue (MB) were studied in negatively charged vesicles, normal and reverse micelles and sodium chloride solutions. All these systems induce dimer formation as attested by the appearance of the dimer band in the absorption spectra (lamdaD approximately 600 nm). In reverse micelles the dimerization constant (KD) corrected for the aqueous pseudophase volume fraction is two-three orders of magnitude smaller than KD of MB in water, and it does not change when W0 is increased from 0.5 to 10. Differences in the fluorescence intensity as a function of dimer-monomer ratio as well as in the resonance light scattering spectra indicate that distinct types of dimers are induced in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles and aerosol-OT (sodium dioctyl sulfoxinate, AOT) reversed micelles. The properties of the photoinduced transient species of MB in these systems were studied by time-resolved near infrared (NIR) emission (efficiency of singlet oxygen generation), by laser flash photolysis (transient spectra, yield and decay rate of triplets) and by thermal lensing (amount of heat deposited in the medium). The competition between electron transfer (dye*-dye) and energy transfer (dye*-O2) reactions was accessed as a function of the dimer-monomer ratio. The lower yield of electron transfer observed for dimers in AOT reverse micelles and intact vesicles compared with SDS micelles and frozen vesicles at similar dimer-monomer ratios is related with the different types of aggregates induced by each interface. PMID:12812286

Severino, Divinomar; Junqueira, Helena C; Gugliotti, Marcos; Gabrielli, Dino S; Baptista, Mauricio S

2003-05-01

343

sup 211 At-methylene blue for targeted radiotherapy of human melanoma xenografts: Treatment of micrometastases  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of micrometastases of HX34 human melanoma grown as xenografts in nude mice represents an advanced stage of preclinical investigations concerning targeted radiotherapy of this neoplasm using 3,7-(dimethylamino)phenazathionium chloride methylene blue (MTB) labeled with astatine-211 (211At) (alpha-particle emitter). The therapeutic effectiveness of 211At-MTB administered i.v. was determined by a lung colony assay combined with a search for metastases to organs other than the lungs. A single dose of 211At-MTB lowered the HX34 cell surviving fraction in lungs to below 10% almost independently of the time interval between cell inoculation and radioisotope injection and of 211At-MTB radioactivity within its investigated range. Radiation dose and the time of its administration did, however, influence the size of lung colonies. In contrast, the efficacy of 211At-MTB treatment as assessed by both surviving fraction and colony size was significantly dependent on a number of HX34 cells inoculated initially into mice. These results are explained by a short range of alpha-particles emitted by 211At and a mechanism of growth of lung colonies from tumor cells circulating with blood and blocking lung capillaries. Metastases in organs other than lungs and characteristic of control animals were not found in mice treated with 211At-MTB. The high therapeutic efficacy achieved proved that 211At-MTB is a very efficient scavenger of single melanoma cells distributed through blood and micrometastases with sizes below the limit of clinical detection.

Link, E.M.; Carpenter, R.N. (Univ. College, London (England))

1990-05-15

344

Aminothienopyridazines and Methylene Blue Affect Tau Fibrillization via Cysteine Oxidation*  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23443659

Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Smith, Amos B.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R.

2013-01-01

345

Death by potassium chloride intravenous injection: evaluation of analytical detectability.  

PubMed

Potassium chloride intravenous injection is used in suicide attempts and lethal procedures for state-sanctioned punishment. Owing to its relatively high concentrations in hemolyzed blood (25-80 mM) compared to serum (about 4 mM), it is difficult to conclude potassium poisoning by postmortem analysis of biologic samples. A 41-year-man was found dead with an injection sign on his foot and a syringe close to the corpse. No particular signs were noted during the autopsy. Blood, bile, and urine were submitted to xenobiotic screening procedures used in the laboratory. Syringe content was found positive to potassium ions. Blood potassium concentration was determined by ion-selective electrode measurement (range 3.0-150 mM). Blood was found positive for diazepam at therapeutic level. Potassium concentration was 160.0 (cardiac) and 87.3 mM (femoral blood). Our results show that potassium concentration was significantly higher in heart blood in a suicide case. Hence, the general issue of considering potassium poisoning hardly demonstrable by toxicology needs to be questioned and thoroughly studied. PMID:21923800

Bertol, Elisabetta; Politi, Lucia; Mari, Francesco

2012-01-01

346

Dose response of sheep poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea).  

PubMed

Locoweed poisoning occurs when livestock consume swainsonine-containing Astragalus and Oxytropis species over several weeks. Although the clinical and histologic changes of poisoning have been described, the dose or duration of swainsonine ingestion that results in significant or irreversible damage is not known. The purpose of this research was to document the swainsonine doses that produce clinical intoxication and histologic lesions. Twenty-one mixed-breed wethers were dosed by gavage with ground Oxytropis sericea to obtain swainsonine doses of 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Sheep receiving > or = 0.2 mg/kg gained less weight than controls. After 16 days, animals receiving > or = 0.4 mg/kg were depressed, reluctant to move, and did not eat their feed rations. All treatment groups had serum biochemical changes, including depressed alpha-mannosidase, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, as well as sporadic changes in lactate dehydrogenase, sodium, chloride, magnesium, albumin, and osmolarity. Typical locoweed-induced cellular vacuolation was seen in the following tissues and swainsonine doses: exocrine pancreas at > or = 0.05 mg/kg; proximal convoluted renal and thyroid follicular epithelium at > or = 0.1 mg/kg; Purkinje's cells, Kupffer's cells, splenic and lymph node macrophages, and transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder at > or = 0.2 mg/kg; neurons of the basal ganglia, mesencephalon, and metencephalon at > or = 0.4 mg/kg; and cerebellar neurons and glia at > or = 0.8 mg/kg. Histologic lesions were generally found when tissue swainsonine concentrations were approximately 150 ng/g. Both the clinical and histologic lesions, especially cerebellar lesions are suggestive of neurologic dysfunction even at low daily swainsonine doses of 0.2 mg/kg, suggesting that prolonged locoweed exposure, even at low doses, results in significant production losses as well as histologic and functional damage. PMID:12968759

Stegelmeier, B L; James, L F; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Molyneux, R J

1999-09-01

347

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene  

DOEpatents

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1982-03-31

348

Extraction rates of spiked versus native PAHs from heterogeneous environmental samples using supercritical fluid extraction and sonication in methylene chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative extraction rates of native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from naphthalene (M = 128) to benzo[b]fluoranthene (M = 252) and those of spiked deuterated PAHs (d-PAHs) from heterogeneous environmental samples including petroleum waste sludge, urban air particulate matter (SRM 1649), and railroad bed soil were compared using sequential extractions with pure supercritical CO[sub 2] or modified (10% v\\/v

Mark D. Burford; Steven B. Hawthorne; David J. Miller

1993-01-01

349

76 FR 14432 - Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...inspection and copying at the OSHA Docket Office. You may also contact Todd Owen at the address below to obtain a copy of the ICR. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd Owen, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, OSHA, U.S. Department of...

2011-03-16

350

76 FR 55949 - Methylene Chloride Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...instructed the Department of Labor to publish a second notice in...security numbers and dates of birth. Although all submissions are...MPH, Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and...et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010...

2011-09-09

351

Childhood self-poisoning: a one-year review.  

PubMed

Self-poisoning in children is a serious health concern accounting for 2% and 5% of childhood deaths in the developed and developing world, respectively. Type of poison and intent varies between age groups, with alcohol poisoning becoming increasingly common in teenagers. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of paediatric self-poisoning at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, as a function of age, sex, intent and type of poison. Data from patients under the age of 17 presenting to Ninewells Hospital's Emergency Department with self-poisoning from 1 December 2008 to 30 November 2009 inclusive were identified, classified and analysed using chi-square testing. Overall there was no significant difference in gender. However, females significantly dominated in the ?12<17 years age group, with older females also significantly more likely to deliberately self-poison. Alcohol was the sole cause of accidental self-poisoning in this age group while paracetamol was used in the majority of cases of deliberate self-poisoning. In the <6 years age group, household chemical ingestion and over-the-counter medications were the most common poisons. The findings reflect previous published data and national trends. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in the ?12<17 years age group is a major public health issue that must be addressed. PMID:23138578

Neilson, Z E; Morrison, W

2012-11-01

352

A search for methylene in the Orion nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A deep search for the J = 4-3 and 5-4 fine-structure components of the N(KK) = 4(04)-3(13) rotational transition of methylene toward the hot core of the Orion KL nebula is conducted. An approximate 4-sigma emission feature which is frequency-coincident with a hyperfine blend of the J = 4-3 component is detected, and weak features (about 2-3 sigma) frequency-coincident with the resolved F = 6-5 and 5-4 hyperfine components of the J = 5-4 component are observed. The relative intensities of these spectral features and their observational repeatability suggest that assignment to interstellar CH2 is likely correct, although the result must be confirmed.

Hollis, J. M.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.

1989-01-01

353

Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome: Is Methylene Blue the Silver Bullet?  

PubMed Central

Background. Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disorder characterized by unexplained, recurrent episodes of transient, abrupt increase in endothelial permeability, leading to severe hypotension, generalized edema, and hemoconcentration. Case Report. We report the case of a patient suffering from systemic capillary leak syndrome and present a possible interpretation of the pathophysiology of this condition. Besides the classical triad of hypotension, edema, and hemoconcentration, we recorded increased levels of methemoglobin, an index of NO overproduction. We present a possible interpretation of the pathophysiology of this condition based on the fast and complete reversal of symptoms after methylene blue administration (which opposes NO-induced effects) and speculate that increased NO levels could be implicated in the pathophysiology of the capillary leak phase. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? The safety of this treatment and its fluid- and cathecolamine-sparing effect deserve consideration and further research.

Umbrello, Michele; Gardinali, Marco; Ottolina, Davide; Zanforlin, Giancarlo; Iapichino, Gaetano

2014-01-01

354

[Mushroom poisoning--classification, symptoms and therapy].  

PubMed

The most serious poisonings are the hepatotoxic ones which are caused above all by Amanita phalloides, virosa, verna, Lepiota helveola, Galerina marginata, Gyromitra esculenta, Hypholoma fasciculare, and nephroptoxic intoxications which are caused above all by Cortinarius orrelanus and Paxillus involutus. Neurotoxic and psychotropic intoxications develop after ingestion of Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita-panterina, muscaria and Psilocybe. Most frequently the gastroenteric type of mushroom poisoning is encountered which is caused by many species e.g. Boletus satanas, Entoloma sinuatum and others. In the diagnosis anamnestic data are used, the clinical picture, mycological and toxicological examinations of residues of mushrooms, their spores and toxins. Therapeutic strategy comprises elimination methods gastric lavage, intestinal lavage and administration of large amounts of animal charcoal, forced diuresis, haemoperfusion, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administration of antidotes and symptomatic treatment, i.e. mainly rehydration and restoration of the mineral balance. Early and comprehensive treatment are important. PMID:9601842

Kohn, R; Mot'ovská, Z

1997-04-01

355

Accidental poisoning in children in Jaipur (Rajasthan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The study includes data of 80 cases of chemical poisoning in children under 12 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a 78.7% of all the poisonings occurred between 0–3 years, of which the maximum incidence (59.7%) was encountered between 1–3\\u000a years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Males were predominantly affected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Household substances were responsible for the maximum number of cases (73.7%) in which kerosene

Usha Sharma; S. Saxena Jaipur

1974-01-01

356

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

2008-01-01

357

Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

1995-01-01

358

Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.

1985-01-01

359

Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon  

PubMed Central

Hopkins, A. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 130-140. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon. Twelve large and three infant baboons were poisoned by the intratracheal injection of lead carbonate in doses ranging from 50 to 135 mg/kg for 39 to 362 days. Eight baboons had one or more epileptic fits. Weakness of the limbs, believed to be of central origin, was seen in three of them. The effect of single and multiple doses of lead on the blood lead is recorded. Anaemia and punctate basophilia were not found. Measurements of nerve conduction velocity, electromyography and histological examination showed no abnormality of the peripheral nerves. The different effects of lead upon different species are discussed. Images PMID:4987891

Hopkins, Anthony

1970-01-01

360

Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. PMID:25098904

Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

2015-01-01

361

[Fatal voluntary poisoning by parenteral paraquat].  

PubMed

Paraquat is a potent herbicide, very toxic in the concentrated liquid form as supplied to farmers. Suicidal poisoning represents a serious emergency with a known high mortality rate. Suicidal poisoning following the parenteral route has been rarely reported. A 16-year-old girl was admitted to our emergency unit after subcutaneous injection of gramoxone 20% (about 400 mg of paraquat). Despite immediate surgical excision and revision, and subsequent antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (400 mg/kg/day during 48 hours), she died 17 days later from refractory hypoxemia following pulmonary fibrosis. From this observation and from the literature, it appears that an effective treatment does not depend on changes in the toxicokinetics of the herbicide (hemoperfusion, antidotes, drugs). PMID:1925459

Pedrazzini, G B; Saglini, V; Pedrinis, E; Mombelli, G; Domenighetti, G

1991-09-01

362

Aluminum phosphide poisoning--a review.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide poisoning is common in the rural belt of Northern India. The release of cytotoxic phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys, although all organs can be involved. The cellular site of action of phosphine requires further definition. Diagnosis is made by clinical suspicion, silver nitrate test and biochemical examination of the gastric aspirate and viscera. Treatment consists of early gastric lavage, vasopressors and supportive care. Specific therapy with intravenous magnesium sulphate is recommended. PMID:7837309

Gupta, S; Ahlawat, S K

1995-01-01

363

Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup. PMID:23762709

Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram

2013-01-01

364

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except

W. Nelson Beyer; James W. Spann; Louis Sileo; J. Christian Franson

1988-01-01

365

Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.  

PubMed

Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

2014-01-01

366

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of methylmercury poisoning.  

PubMed Central

An opportunity to study the effects of methylmercury poisoning in humans was provided by the large outbreak in Iraq in 1971-2. In adults, poisoning resulted from the ingestion of home-made bread prepared from methylmercury-treated seed grain and there was a highly significant correlation between the amount of bread ingested and blood mercury levels. Poisoning in infants resulted either from prior exposure in utero or from suckling or both. Blood mercury levels were higher in infants and children than in adults. There was no increased incidence of congenital defects. Symptoms and signs of poisoning and histopathological changes were mainly confined to the CNS. Symptoms developed, on average, 1-2 months after exposure. In children there was mental retardation with delayed onset of speech and impaired motor, sensory and autonomic function. Severely affected children were blind and deaf. In adults, the clinical picture could be classified as 1, mild (mainly of sensory symptoms) 2, moderate (sensory symptoms accompanied by cerebellar signs) and 3, severe (gross ataxia with marked visual and hearing loss which, in some cases, progressed to akinetic mutism followed by coma). Grades 1 and 2 carried a better prognosis thant grade 3. Interference with transmission at the myoneural junction was found in 14% of patients studied. There was no evidence of peripheral nerve involvement per se and sensory symptoms may be of central origin. The clinical differences between the Iraqi and Japanese outbreaks may be a result, in part at least, of the severe, prolonged and continuous exposure which occurred in the latter outbreak. Improvement was observed among the mild and moderate group. Treatment with chelating agents, thiol resin, haemodialysis and exchange transfusion lowered blood mercury concentrations but produced no convincing clinical benefit. To be effective, treatment may need to be instituted soon after exposure. PMID:7383945

Bakir, F.; Rustam, H.; Tikriti, S.; Al-Damluji, S. F.; Shihristani, H.

1980-01-01

367

Acute phenylbutazone poisoning in a child.  

PubMed

Accidental acute intoxication with phenylbutazone in a 2 1/2-year-old child produced an acute picture of coma, convulsions, diarrhoea, and of cholestatic jaundice which evolved over the succeeding 10 days. Transient, unexplained hyperglycaemia occurred during the first few hours of the illness. Recovery was complete within three weeks after the poisoning. Her clinical progress was monitored with the aid of regular estimations of plasma phenylbutazone levels. PMID:6843432

Bury, R W; Mashford, M L; Glaun, B P; Saaroni, G

1983-05-14

368

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

369

INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

370

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-01-01

371

Delayed Movement Disorders after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, delayed movement disorders were diagnosed in 32 (13.2%). There were 15 men and 17 women. Ages at insult ranged from 9 to 69 years (mean 45.3 years). Of the 32 patients with delayed movement disorders, 23 (71.9%) had parkinsonism, 5 dystonia, 3 chorea and 1 myoclonus. All

Il Saing Choi; Hwa Young Cheon

1999-01-01

372

Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been studied extensively, including detailed adsorption studies at various temperatures and pressures. Predictive models have been developed that effectively predict anode tolerance to carbon monoxide. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H/sub 2/S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a graphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700/sup 0/C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e. higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the eletrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss. In addition, support corrosion may also cause loss of Pt into the separator. Support corrosion appears to be the life limiting factor for phosphoric acid fuel cells.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1985-06-01

373

Loading pattern sensitivity to burnable poison availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-core fuel management study was performed utilizing the FORMOSA optimization code. Specifically, the authors studied the effectiveness of burnable poisons independent of core reactivity hold-down needs for three different objective functions: assembly quadrant power peaking P{sub max}{sup quad} minimization, end-of-cycle reactivity k{sub eff}{sup EOC} maximization, and discharge burnup BU{sup dis} maximization. The study consisted of determining near-optimum loading patterns

S. Sun; G. I. Maldonado; P. J. Turnisky

1992-01-01

374

Moldy sweetclover poisoning in a horse.  

PubMed

A six year old Percheron mare was presented with a history of spontaneous unilateral epistaxis of 24 hours duration. The blood one stage prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were markedly prolonged. A diagnosis of moldy sweetclover poisoning was made on the basis of the history and clinical and laboratory findings. A single whole blood transfusion and four daily intravenous injections of vitamin K(3) proved to be a successful treatment. PMID:6159959

McDonald, G K

1980-09-01

375

An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

2011-12-31

376

Selected elements of Poison Pax Paxillus involutus.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sb, Sr, V, Tl and Zn have been determined in the whole fruiting bodies as well as separately in caps and stalks of Poison Pax collected from three geographically distant sites across Poland. The elements were determined using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS and CV-AAS, respectively. Based on arithmetic mean and median values for Poison Pax specimens from the Lezno site the elements such as Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Mn, Mo, K, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, V and Tl occur at similar concentration both in the caps and stalks, while for Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg and Zn around two-fold greater concentrations were noted in caps than stalks (cap/stalk concentration quotient > 1). Cs, Cd, Ni and Rb occurred at much greater concentration in specimens collected from the K?odzka Hollow in the Sudety Mountains when compared to the lowland site (Mann-Whitney U-test), and slightly greater values were noted also for Cr, Mo and Rb, while for Ca, Co, Mg and Mn were smaller The results provide useful environmental and biological baseline level of information for metallic elements of Poison Pax. PMID:17616889

Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Brzostowski, A; Justyna, Mazur A; Falandysz, J; Tanabe, S

2007-07-01

377

Acute paraquat poisoning with sinus bradycardia: A case report.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to a variety of complications. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may succumb to multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Although numerous studies have been performed investigating PQ poisoning, cases of extreme bradycardia caused by acute PQ-induced poisoning are rare. In the present case report, a 59-year-old male who ingested PQ was admitted to the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China) after three days. The patient received treatment known as the 'Qilu scheme', which was established in the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease. However, the heart rate of the patient remained low following the administration of conventional medicines, until thyroid tablets were administered. To the best of our knowledge, cases of bradycardia following PQ poisoning are rare. PMID:25289040

Song, Chengzhen; Kan, Baotian; Yu, Guangcai; Jian, Xiangdong; Wang, Jieru; Sun, Jing

2014-11-01

378

ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Gonullu, Hayriye; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aydin, Irfan; Vuruskan, Ertan

2011-01-01

379

ATROPINE AEROSOL SPRAY (AAS) BY NASAL APPLICATION IN ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atropine aerosol spray (AAS) was used to treat three organophosphorus (OP)-intoxicated patients to determine if alternate routes of drug administration were as efficacious as intramuscular or intravenous routes when treating OP poisoning. Case I was a seriously intoxicated 20-year-old man classified as Namba IV (severe poisoning). Case II was a 25- year-old man classified as Namba II (mild poisoning), with

Gurayten Özyurt; Hülya Bilgin; Melda Gedik Kutsal

380

Cyanobacterial poisoning in livestock, wild mammals and birds – an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poisoning of livestock by toxic cyanobacteria was first reported in the 19th century, and throughout the 20th century cyanobacteria–related poisonings of livestock and wildlife in all continents have been described. Some mass mortality\\u000a events involving unrelated fauna in prehistoric times have also been attributed to cyanotoxin poisoning; if correct, this\\u000a serves as a reminder that toxic cyanobacteria blooms predate anthropogenic

Ian Stewart; Alan A. Seawright; Glen R. Shaw

381

Multi-organ Dysfunction Syndrome with Dual Organophosphate Pesticides Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is common in developing countries. Poisoning with dual OP compounds is rare. Multi-organ dysfunction after OP poisoning has a high mortality rate. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome with fatal outcome after intentional ingestion of 50:50 mixture of two OP compounds, dichlorvos and profenofos. PMID:24403738

Mishra, Ajay; Pandya, Himanshu V.; Dave, Nikhil; Mehta, Manan

2013-01-01

382

Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Single Cooper-Pair Box  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the pheonomenon of quasiparticle poisoning in a single Cooper-pair box (SCB). We have designed, fabricated, and tested an SCB that demonstrates a transition between poisoned and unpoisoned Coulomb staircases, depending on the speed with which the gate charge is swept. Poisoning is shown to be suppressed at moderately high sweep rates. Coulomb staircases were measured for a variety of sweep rates, and quasiparticle tunneling rates were extracted from this data.

Schneiderman, J. F.; Delsing, P.; Johansson, G.; Shaw, M. D.; Bozler, H. M.; Echternach, P. M.

2006-09-01

383

Metachromasy as an indicator of photostabilization of methylene blue adsorbed to clays and minerals.  

PubMed

The influence of methylene blue adsorption to different clays on its photodegradation was studied. Methylene blue in solution was decomposed by sunlight in a zero-order process. Adsorption to some clay minerals (sepiolite and vermiculite) and a zeolite (clinoptilolite) accelerated the degradation process, and converted it to a first-order reaction. On the other hand, adsorption to other clay minerals (palygorskite and montmorillonite) stabilized the dye and prevented its degradation. Interestingly, in the clay-dye complexes that exhibited stability, clear metachromasy of the adsorbed methylene blue occurred, whereas the effect was not observed in the clay-dye complexes that underwent photodegradation. PMID:23474529

Samuels, Maya; Mor, Omer; Rytwo, Giora

2013-04-01

384

Hemolytic anemia after methylene blue therapy for aniline-induced methemoglobinemia.  

PubMed

Methylene blue is utilized as the main treatment of methemoglobinemia conventionally, but it may be ineffective in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We report a G6PD-deficient patient who suffered from aniline-induced methemoglobinemia with initial good response Heinz body but hemolytic anemia appeared later 3 d after methylene blue therapy. G6PD deficiency was identified. He recovered uneventfully with hydration, packed blood transfusion and adjuvant luvela-N(dl-alpha-tocopheryl nicotinate) medication. Caution should be taken in using methylene blue as antidote of acute methemoglobinemia, especially when a history of G6PD deficiency is obscure. PMID:11824767

Liao, Yao-Pan; Hung, Dong-Zong; Yang, Dar-Yu

2002-02-01

385

The antimicrobial properties of light-activated polymers containing methylene blue and gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We report the formation of polysiloxane polymers containing embedded methylene blue and gold nanoparticles incorporated by a swell-encapsulation-shrink method. These polymers show significant antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with up to a 3.5 log(10) reduction in the viable count when exposed for 5 min to light from a low power 660 nm laser. The bacterial kill is due to the light-induced production of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species by the methylene blue. Interestingly, the presence of 2 nm gold nanoparticles significantly enhanced the ability of the methylene blue to kill bacteria. PMID:18838166

Perni, Stefano; Piccirillo, Clara; Pratten, Jonathan; Prokopovich, Polina; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Parkin, Ivan P; Wilson, Michael

2009-01-01

386

Corrosion of 304L and 316 in gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions  

SciTech Connect

Pitting corrosion has occurred on AISI Type 304L stainless steel (304L) conductivity probes used to monitor liquid levels of gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions (GPS). An electrochemical and immersion test program has led to a better understanding of the cause of corrosion of 304L probes. Results indicate that the alternating voltage applied to the probes to monitor contact with solution is the primary factor in the corrosion of the probes. A chloride-containing dye and low pH also contribute to the corrosion process, but appear to play a secondary role. AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) was found to behave similarly to 304L in GPS, while nickel-based alloys such as Hastelloy G30, Hastelloy C22, and Inconel 625 were found to be more susceptible to corrosion as compared to 304L.

Chandler, G.T.; Anderson, M.H.

1991-12-31

387

Corrosion of 304L and 316 in gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions  

SciTech Connect

Pitting corrosion has occurred on AISI Type 304L stainless steel (304L) conductivity probes used to monitor liquid levels of gadolinium nitrate neutron poison solutions (GPS). An electrochemical and immersion test program has led to a better understanding of the cause of corrosion of 304L probes. Results indicate that the alternating voltage applied to the probes to monitor contact with solution is the primary factor in the corrosion of the probes. A chloride-containing dye and low pH also contribute to the corrosion process, but appear to play a secondary role. AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) was found to behave similarly to 304L in GPS, while nickel-based alloys such as Hastelloy G30, Hastelloy C22, and Inconel 625 were found to be more susceptible to corrosion as compared to 304L.

Chandler, G.T.; Anderson, M.H.

1991-01-01

388

An Atropa belladonna L. poisoning with acute subdural hematoma.  

PubMed

Atropa belladonna L. is a plant long known to cause poisoning. But no cases of acute subdural hematoma resulting from such poisoning have been reported so far. Care must also be taken in terms of acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis in cases of such poisoning. The plant may sometimes be mistaken for the Caucasian blueberry, V. arctostaphylos L. At least one anti-cholinesterase toxidrome finding was determined in all the nine cases of belladonna poisoning in this series. No elevated creatine kinase was reported in one case with acute subdural hematoma and hyperamylasemia. PMID:21540312

Cikla, Ulas; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ayaz, Ahmet Faik; Turedi, Suleyman; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

2011-12-01

389

Corrosion of structural and poison material in spent fuel storage pools  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of this paper are three-fold: (1) to review the corrosion experience in general of the structural and nuclear poison materials in spent fuel storage pools around the country; (2) to describe our in-house experience at the spent fuel storage facilities at Brookhaven on the behavior of the nuclear poison boral and aluminum and stainless steel structures; and (3) to present the results obtained at Brookhaven on evaluating the causes of the stress corrosion cracking that occurred in the Three Mile Island, Unit 1 spent fuel storage pool heat exchangers. Conclusions are: (1) The performance of structural and poison material in spent fuel storage pools to date has been excellent. (2) Intergranular stress corrosion of sensitized stainless steel can occur in these environments if the material is heavily sensitized and heavily stressed, as might occur in areas with extensive weld repairs. (3) Accidental contamination of the pool with materials such as chloride or reduced forms of sulfur could lead to initiation of stress corrosion cracking of such materials. (4) Boral can be exposed to nuclear coolant without detectable loss of the boron carbide from the matrix. (5) Pitting corrosion of the aluminum cladding on the boral, however, is possible where the cladding is in contact with stainless steel, especially at those points of contact where access to oxygen is highest, and in pools containing boric acid. (6) Pitting of aluminum racks, where they are in contact with stainless steel can occur. (7) Type 17-4 PH stainless steel should be used in the H-1025-1100 condition and the heat treatment scale removed by either chemical or mechanical means to avoid possible stress corrosion cracking, pitting, and sludge formation in the pool. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Czajkowski, C.; Weeks, J.R.; Protter, S.R.

1981-01-01

390

Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse reactions and costs. 2014 #12;Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse

Edinburgh, University of

391

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2013-04-01

392

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2010-04-01

393

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2011-04-01

394

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

...2014-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2014-04-01

395

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2012-04-01

396

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2010-04-01

397

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2012-04-01

398

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2011-04-01

399

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2013-04-01

400

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2014-04-01

401

3 CFR 8352 - Proclamation 8352 of March 13, 2009. National Poison Prevention Week, 2009  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...thousand deaths due to poisoning take place in the United States every year. Poisoning most frequently...dosages, and installing carbon monoxide detectors can all help...event of a potential poisoning, experts at...

2010-01-01

402

Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9-10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (SBET 50 m2/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe2O3 phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (SBET 4 and 111 m2/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (kapp) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015-0.025 mM; sample content - 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration - 0.43 mM; pH 3-4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

Kadirova, Zukhra C.; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

2013-11-01

403

Effects of methylene blue on the uptake, release and metabolism of noradrenaline in mesenteric arterial vessels.  

PubMed

Methylene blue (3, 10 and 30 microM) increased the spontaneous outflow of endogenous dopamine and noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves supplying the dog mesenteric artery and drastically reduced the formation of endogenous dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG). In addition, it decreased the accumulation of [3H]noradrenaline in the tissue, reduced the formation of [3H]DOPEG and [3H]normetanephrine, without altering the formation of [3H]dihydroxymandelic acid. In tissue homogenates of the same blood vessel, methylene blue 30 and 100 microM produced a significant reduction in the deamination of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) and tyramine. Methylene blue increased the accumulation of [3H]isoprenaline in the tissue, and markedly reduced the formation of [3H]O-methylisoprenaline ([3H]OMI). These results show that methylene blue alters the storage and disposition of the adrenergic transmitter. PMID:2907005

Soares-da-Silva, P; Caramona, M M

1988-08-01

404

Fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using a low-power diode laser.  

PubMed

This study focused on the application of diode lasers as alternative light sources for the fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under 443nm laser light irradiation was found to be technically feasible using Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as photocatalysts. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, light source, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, and laser energy on decolorization and degradation were investigated. The mineralization of methylene blue was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand analysis. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced photocatalytic process can effectively degrade methylene blue under the optimum conditions (pH 9.63, 4mg/L MB concentration, and 1.4g/L Ag/AgCl nanoparticles). PMID:25285998

Liu, Xianhua; Yang, Yulou; Shi, Xiaoxuan; Li, Kexun

2015-02-11

405

Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

2012-10-30

406

Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.  

PubMed

The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings. PMID:24661202

Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

2014-07-30

407

Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents. The effects of irradiation temperature and humidity on the radiation response of the dosimeter films are discussed.

Chung, W.H. (Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics); Miller, A. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

1994-05-01

408

Secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western Canada.  

PubMed

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents occurred in Saskatchewan, two were in Manitoba, and one occurred in each of Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The diagnosis was confirmed in eight instances by demonstration of pesticide in ingesta from eagles or known use of pesticide at the site together with brain cholinesterase (AChE) reduction of >50% in at least one animal. A presnmptive diagnosis of poisoning was made in 33 incidents based on brain AChE reduction of >50% in at least one animal; 13 incidents were considered suspicious because of circumstantial evidence of the death of eagles in association with other species and limited AChE reduction. Other wild species were found dead in 85% of the incidents involving eagles. Coyotes, foxes, black-billed magpies (Pica pica), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were associated with 34, six, six, and three incidents, respectively. There were eight additional incidents that did not involve eagles in which poisoning was diagnosed in coyotes. Carbofuran was identified in nine incidents. Carbamate poisoning was indicated on the basis of reactivation of brain AChE activity in two additional incidents. Brain AChE activity was not reduced from normal in eagles in four of seven incidents in which carbofuran was identified. The organophosplorous insecticide terbufos was found together with carbofuran in one incident. Brain AChE activity was measured in wild canids and in eagles in 15 incidents; in all of these incidents, brain AChE was redulced by >50% in at least one mammal, whereas this level of reduction occrred in eagles in only four incidents. Use of anticholinesterase pesticides to poison coyotes is illegal, but the practice continues and secondary poisoning of eagles is a problem of unknown proportions in western North America. PMID:15362815

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Leighton, F A; Blakley, B; Mineau, P

2004-04-01

409

Self-poisoning of the mind.  

PubMed

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre. PMID:20026460

Elster, Jon

2010-01-27

410

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

411

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

412

Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.  

E-print Network

AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President STATION STAFF? Administration : Veterinary Science : A. B. Conner, M. S., Director *M. Francis. D. V. M., Chief R. E. Karper, M. S., Vice-Director H. Schmidt. D. V. M., Veterinarian... made daily over a period of four to six days, and the final mortality per- centages which were attributed to each articular combination of Fig. 1. Cal~es used in studying the ingestion poison-dust distribution on the of roison by the boll weevil...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

1933-01-01

413

Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.  

PubMed

Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home. PMID:24325774

Forrester, Mathias B

2013-01-01

414

DDE poisoning in an adult Bald eagle.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain. PMID:9131562

Garcelon, D K; Thomas, N J

1997-04-01

415

Mechanism of cell destruction and cell protection during methylene-blue-induced PDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylene Blue (MB+) is a well-known dye in medicine and has been discussed as an easily applicable drug for the topical treatment in photodynamic therapy (PDT). MB+ can potentially be used as a redox indicator to detect the important redox reactions that are induced during PDT. MB+ induced PDT was successful in the intraluminal treatment of inoperable esophageal tumors and in the topical treatment of psoriasis. In order to improve the therapy, the reaction mechanism of MB+ was investigated in vivo by local injection of MB+ in a xenotransplanted subcutaneous tumor (adeno-carcinoma, G-3) in female nude mice. The MB+ preparation 'MB+1%' was applied both undiluted and diluted to 0.1% and 0.01% with isotonic sodium chloride. After an incubation period of 1 h, the tumors were irradiated at 662 nm. Treatment with 1% MB+ and subsequent irradiation with 100 J/cm2 led to complete tumor destruction in 79% of the treated animals. A decrease of the fluence rate from 100 mW/cm2 to 50 mW/cm2 significantly increased the phototoxic response, which was attributed to oxygen depletion but also to nonlinear redox reactions. In addition, fractionated light application with 15 s interruption intervals enhanced the effect. When 0.1% MB+ was used, complete tumor destruction was observed only in 10% of the treated animals. Below a relatively high threshold dose the therapeutic response was not significant. The efficiency of the therapy was correlated with nonlinear dynamics of MB+ on a subcellular level, using laser scanning microscopy. During MB+-PDT nonlinear redox- reactions were induced. This could be deduced from local fast changes of the MB+-fluorescence as well as the pH-value during irradiation of single cells. The light induced reaction of MB+ seems to be correlated with the nonlinear production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a consequence below a threshold dose the reducing ability of MB+ prevents tissue from oxidative damage. However, above this dose, as a point of no return, MB+ acts as an extremely potent oxidant.

Rueck, Angelika C.; Beck, G.; Heckelsmiller, K.; Knoedlsdorfer, U.; Genze, Felicitas; Orth, K.

1999-02-01

416

Lessons to be learnt from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for the treatment of nerve agent poisoning.  

PubMed

The increasing threat of nerve agent use for terrorist purposes against civilian and military population calls for effective therapeutic preparedness. At present, administration of atropine and an oxime are recommended, although effectiveness of this treatment is not proved in clinical trials. Here, monitoring of intoxications with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides may be of help, as their actions are closely related to those of nerve agents and intoxication and therapy follow the same principles. To this end, the clinical course of poisoning and the effectiveness of antidotal therapy were investigated in patients requiring artificial ventilation being treated with atropine and obidoxime. However, poisoning with OP pesticides shows extremely heterogeneous pictures of cholinergic crisis frequently associated with clinical complications. To achieve valuable information for the therapy of nerve agent poisoning, cases resembling situations in nerve agent poisoning had to be extracted: (a) intoxication with OPs forming reactivatable OP-AChE-complexes with short persistence of the OP in the body resembling inhalational sarin intoxication; (b) intoxication with OPs resulting rapidly in an aged OP-AChE-complex resembling inhalational soman intoxication; (c) intoxications with OPs forming a reactivatable AChE-OP complex with prolonged persistence of the OP in the body resembling percutaneous VX intoxication. From these cases it was concluded that sufficient reactivation of nerve agent inhibited non-aged AChE should be possible, if the poison load was not too high and the effective oximes were administered early and with an appropriate duration. When RBC-AChE activity was higher than some 30%, neuromuscular transmission was relatively normal. Relatively low atropine doses (several milligrams) should be sufficient to cope with muscarinic symptoms during oxime therapy. PMID:17161895

Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Eyer, P; Felgenhauer, N; Zilker, T; Worek, F

2007-04-20

417

Aggregation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine with methylene blue in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied self-association of aromatic molecules of the thiazine dye methylene blue in aqueous solution, using a dimer model. We have determined the dimerization equilibrium constant for the dye molecules KD = 3900 ± 800 M-1 at T = 293 K. We have decomposed the experimental spectrum into dimer and monomer components. Using the ratio of the molar absorption coefficients for two absorption bands of the dimer spectrum, we obtained the “average” value of the angle between the electronic transition moments of the molecules in the dimers, ? = 48°. We have studied heteroassociation of methylene blue (MB) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) molecules in aqueous solution. We have calculated the heteroassociation constant as 200 ± 34 M-1. We conclude that heteroassociation of methylene blue and caffeine molecules leads to a lower effective dye concentration in solution, which hypothetically may affect its biological activity. We have determined the values of the Gibbs free energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy for dimerization of methylene blue molecules: ?G293 = -(20 ± 3) kJ/mol, ?H = -(25 ± 9) kJ/mol, ? S293 = -(17 ± 6) J/mol·K; and for methylene blue-caffeine heteroassociation: ?G293 = -(13 ± 3) kJ/mol, ?H = -(14 ± 10) kJ/mol, ?S293 = -(2.4 ± 0.2) J/mol·K, respectively. We have shown that the methylene blue aggregates and the heteroassociates with caffeine are predominantly stabilized by dispersion interactions between the chromophore molecules in the associates.

Baranovskii, S. F.; Bolotin, P. A.; Evstigneev, M. P.

2006-03-01

418

[Adsorption of methylene blue onto vanadium-doped magnetite].  

PubMed

A series of vanadium-doped magnetite (Fe3-x VxO4, x < 0.4) synthesized by an oxidation-precipitation method, were characterized using chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analyses. The obtained results show that the synthetic Fe3-x VxO4 has spinel structure while vanadium mostly replaces Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. The synthetic Fe3-x VxO4 is magnetic material, with crystal size ranging from 28 to 35 nm. The substitution of vanadium in the magnetite structure increases the amount of surface hydroxyls. The experimental adsorption results indicate that, in neutral pH condition, the maximum adsorption capacities of Fe3-x VxO4 increase obviously with the increase of vanadium concentration in magnetite while the adsorption isotherm complies well with the Langmuir model. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on Fe3-x VxO4 can get equilibrium in the first 25 min, supporting a pseudo-second order equation. Moreover, the rise of the solution pH value results in an increase of the adsorption capability of MB on Fe3-x VxO4. PMID:20698274

Zhong, Yuan-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Liang; Zhu, Jian-Xi; He, Hong-Ping; Yuan, Peng

2010-06-01

419

Methylene blue is neuroprotective against mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Methylene blue (MB) has known energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties. This study tested the hypothesis that MB treatment reduces lesion volume and behavioral deficits in a rat model of mild TBI. In a randomized double-blinded design, animals received either MB (n=5) or vehicle (n=6) after TBI. Studies were performed on 0, 1, 2, 7, and 14 days following an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. MRI lesion was not apparent 1 h after TBI, became apparent 3 h after TBI, and peaked at 2 days for both groups. The MB-treated animals showed significantly smaller MRI lesion volume than the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. The MB-treated animals exhibited significantly improved scores on forelimb placement asymmetry and foot fault tests than did the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. Smaller numbers of dark-stained Nissl cells and Fluoro-Jade(®) positive cells were observed in the MB-treated group than in vehicle-treated animals 14 days post-TBI. In conclusion, MB treatment minimized lesion volume, behavioral deficits, and neuronal degeneration following mild TBI. MB is already approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat a number of indications, likely expediting future clinical trials in TBI. PMID:24479842

Talley Watts, Lora; Long, Justin Alexander; Chemello, Jonathan; Van Koughnet, Samantha; Fernandez, Angelica; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q

2014-06-01

420

Study of Methylene Blue adsorption on keratin nanofibrous membranes.  

PubMed

In this work, keratin nanofibrous membranes (mean diameter of about 220nm) were prepared by electrospinning and tested as adsorbents for Methylene Blue through batch adsorption tests. The adsorption capacity of the membranes was evaluated as a function of initial dye concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, time and temperature. The adsorption capacity increased with increasing the initial dye concentration and pH, while it decreased with increasing the adsorbent dosage and temperature, indicating an exothermic process. The adsorption results indicated that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. A mean free energy evaluated through the Dubinin-Radushkevich model of about 16kJmol(-1), indicated a chemisorption process which occurred by ion exchange. The kinetic data were found to fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The obtained results suggest that keratin nanofibrous membranes could be promising candidates as dye adsorption filters. PMID:24491440

Aluigi, A; Rombaldoni, F; Tonetti, C; Jannoke, L

2014-03-15

421

Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Nowadays plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has great interest and achievement due to its eco-benign and low time consuming properties. In this study silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Morinda tinctoria leaf extract under different pH. The aqueous leaf extract was added to silver nitrate solution; the color of the reaction medium was changed from pale yellow to brown and that indicates reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Thus synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Dispersity and morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM); crystalline nature and purity of synthesized silver nanoparticles were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum was examined to identify the effective functional molecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined by degradation of methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were effectively degrading the dye nearly 95% at 72?h of exposure time. PMID:24772055

Vanaja, M.; Paulkumar, K.; Baburaja, M.; Rajeshkumar, S.; Gnanajobitha, G.; Malarkodi, C.; Sivakavinesan, M.; Annadurai, G.

2014-01-01

422

Photoacoustic lifetime imaging of dissolved oxygen using methylene blue.  

PubMed

Measuring distribution of dissolved oxygen in biological tissue is of prime interest for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy optimization. Tumor hypoxia indicates poor prognosis and resistance to radiotherapy. Despite its major clinical significance, no current imaging modality provides direct imaging of tissue oxygen. We present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) for noninvasive, 3-D imaging of tissue oxygen. The technique is based on photoacoustic probing of the excited state lifetime of methylene blue (MB) dye. MB is an FDA-approved water soluble dye with a peak absorption at 660 nm. A double pulse laser system (pump probe) is used to excite the dye and probe its transient absorption by detecting photoacoustic emission. The relaxation rate of MB depends linearly on oxygen concentration. Our measurements show high photoacoustic signal contrast at a probe wavelength of 810 nm, where the excited state absorption is more than four times higher than the ground state absorption. Imaging of a simple phantom is demonstrated. We conclude by discussing possible implementations of the technique in clinical settings and combining it with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for real-time therapy monitoring. PMID:20799768

Ashkenazi, Shai

2010-01-01

423

Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Candida albicans Treated with Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the phototoxic effect of methylene blue (MB) on Candida albicans cultures was studied using the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique. An aliquot of 50 ?L of C. albicans suspension—strain ATCC 10-231—was incubated with 50 ?L of MB solution (0.5 mg/mL), at room temperature. After the proper incubation time, a colony forming unit (CFU) with approximately 3 mm diameter was chosen in each plate. The CFU selected was irradiated using an InGaAlP laser during 20 s. After irradiation and new incubation, the CFUs were collected and stored at -70 °C, until spectroscopy analysis. The spectroscopy analysis was performed using an open PAS setup. The study was conducted in different groups: (1) control (non-treated); (2) irradiated with laser light; (3) treated with MB (non-irradiated); and (4) treated with MB and irradiated with laser light. The PAS measurements were performed on C. albicans in a sterile physiological solution. The measurements indicate that the presence of MB and irradiation promotes a change in the redox state of the cells to the reduced state. The absorption spectrum after photodynamic therapy (PDT) was observed 12 h and 36 h later. It was inferred that PDT can be related to structural changes in cytochrome molecules after 36 h. It is concluded that MB can be an efficient photosensitizer in C. albicans through modification of the cytochrome molecule affecting the cell metabolism.

Acosta-Avalos, D.; Jedlicka, L. D. L.; Costa, M. S.; Barja, P. R.; da Silva, E. C.

2012-11-01

424

Hydrolytic stability of terephthaloyl chloride and isophthaloyl chloride.  

PubMed

The phthaloyl chloride isomers, terephthaloyl chloride (TCl) and isophthaloyl chloride (ICl), are high production volume chemicals used in polymers to impartflame resistance, chemical resistance, and temperature stability and as water scavengers. In these studies, we determined the hydrolytic stability of TCl and ICl and their hydrolysis products in aqueous solutions. Hydrolysis rates for TCl and ICl were initially determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection in water buffered at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 and 0 degrees C for up to 30 min. Subsequent studies determined the products from TCl and ICl hydrolysis. The parent phthaloyl chlorides (TCl and ICl), their intermediate hydrolysis products (designated as the "half-acids"), and their stable hydrolysis products (terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA)) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives (t(1/2)) of TCl and ICl ranged from an average of 1.2 to 2.2 min and from 2.2 to 4.9 min, respectively, at pH 4-9 and 0 degrees C. The observed first-order rate constants (k(obs)) ranged from an average of 530 to 1100 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for TCl and 240 to 520 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for ICl. Both phthaloyl chlorides formed their respective short-lived intermediates, in which one of the two carboxylic acid chloride functionalities reacts with water to form the carboxylic acid ("half-acid"). Subsequently, the half-acids underwent further hydrolysis so that greater than 90% of the initial phthaloyl chloride hydrolyzed in less than 60 min at 0 degrees C. The hydrolysis products TPA and IPA were hydrolytically stable, undergoing no further transformations after 20 min at pH 7 and 25 degrees C. This work demonstrated that TCl, ICl, and their respective half-acids will not be persistent in aqueous systems for a time sufficient to have a sustained toxicological effect on aquatic organisms (less than 1 h). Performing additional aquatic toxicity studies, biodegradation studies, and potentially mammalian studies on TCl and ICl are unnecessary since the existing information on TPA and IPA with the hydrolysis data presented here is sufficient to address questions on the fate and effects of these two substances in aqueous environments. PMID:17120561

Berti, William R; Wolstenholme, Barry W; Kozlowski, John J; Sobocinski, Raymond L; Freerksen, Robert W

2006-10-15

425

Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on

R F White; R Diamond; S Proctor; C Morey; H Hu

1993-01-01

426

Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning  

E-print Network

Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning Shimrit Tzur-David Kiril Lashchiver,kiril,dolev,anker@cs.huji.ac.il Abstract. The Domain Name System (DNS) protocol is used as a naming sys- tem for computers, services the attacker inserts incorrect data into the DNS cache. In order to successfully poison the cache, the attacker

Dolev, Danny

427

An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

Rajaram, Shireen S.

2007-01-01

428

Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

429

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

430

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

431

GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

432

Deaths from Pesticide Poisoning: Are we lacking a global response?  

PubMed Central

Self-poisoning with pesticides accounts for around a third of all suicides worldwide. To tackle this problem, WHO announced a Global Public Health initiative in 2005. Planned approaches will range from Government regulatory action to the development of new treatments for pesticide poisoning. With broad-based support this strategy will have a major impact on the global burden of suicide. PMID:16946353

Bertolote, JM; Fleischmann, A; Eddleston, M; Gunnell, D

2008-01-01

433

Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pesticide overexposure and poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the effectiveness of interventions to reduce pesticide overexposure and poisonings in worker populations.Methods: We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following databases for articles that tested the effectiveness of interventions in reducing human pesticide exposure or poisonings: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTC). Interventions considered included

Matthew C Keifer

2000-01-01

434

Collection of lead-poisoned catalysts in houston. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project involving the testing of lead-poisoned catalytic converters in the Houston, Texas, area. Five lead-poisoned catalysts were collected from motor vehicles. Various methods to evaluate the conditions of the degraded catalysts included weight and backpressure measurements, and x-ray diffraction to define substrate structure.

Harvey, C.A.

1986-09-01

435

Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

B Roy; R Crawford

1996-01-01

436

Confirmation of the Pulse Oximetry Gap in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To demonstrate the degree to which pulse oximetry overestimates actual oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This phenomenon has been reported in fewer than 20 humans in the English medical literature. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 191 patients evaluated for CO poisoning at a regional hyperbaric center identified 124 patients 10 years of

William P Bozeman; Roy AM Myers; Robert A Barish

1997-01-01

437

The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

2000-01-01

438

[Fatal poisoning by Atractylis gummifera L.: a case report].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 13-year-old child admitted to the ICU because of Atractylis gummifera poisoning. This plant is poisonous, with a liver tropism and is a public health problem in the pediatric population. Beyond this observation, we review this intoxication, whose diagnosis is clinical, treatment is symptomatic and prevention is crucial. PMID:23562315

Mouaffak, Y; Boutbaoucht, M; Ejlaidi, A; Toufiki, R; Younous, S

2013-05-01

439

Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran – Tabriz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were

Iman Dianat; Jalil Nazari

2011-01-01

440

Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

Steven H. Ferguson

2004-01-01

441

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning --  

E-print Network

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning -- Eastern and Central Provinces laboratory testing of food collected from the affected area revealed high levels of aflatoxin, suggesting that the outbreak was caused by afla toxin poisoning, as was a previous outbreak in the same area in 1981 (1

442

Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

443

Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized. PMID:788340

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

1976-01-01

444

Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity. PMID:24364054

Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

2013-01-01

445

Ponderosa pine and broom snakeweed: poisonous plants that affect livestock.  

PubMed

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the snakeweeds (Gutierrezia sarothrae and G. microcephala) are two groups of range plants that are poisonous to livestock. Ponderosa pine causes late-term abortions in cattle, and the snakeweeds are toxic and also cause abortions in cattle, sheep, and goats. Research is underway at the USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plants Research Laboratory to better understand livestock poisonings caused by grazing ponderosa pine needles and the snakeweeds and to provide methods of reducing losses to the livestock and supporting industries. This review includes the history of the problem, a brief description of the signs of poisoning, the research, to identify the chemical toxins, and current management practices on prevention of poisonings. PMID:10091125

Gardner, D R; James, L F; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L

1999-02-01

446

Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-10-01

447

Lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.

Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia (Canada); Langelier, K.M. [Island Veterinary Hospital, Nanaimo, British Columbia (Canada); Scheuhammer, A.M. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bowes, V. [Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

448

Adrenocortical involvement in aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

The effect of aluminium phosphide (AlP) which is a systemic poison on the adrenal cortex was studied in 30 patients of AlP poisoning. A significant rise in the plasma cortisol level (greater than 1048 nmol/l) was observed in the twenty patients. Mortality was 50 per cent. Autopsy study could be undertaken only in 10 patients. Histopathology showed mild to moderate changes. In the rest (10 patients), the adrenal cortex was critically involved and the cortisol level failed to rise beyond normal levels (less than 690 nmol/l). The histopathology revealed severe changes (complete lipid depletion, haemorrhage, necrosis etc.) and all these patients died. In the critically ill patients, the cortisol levels remained low because of severe adreno-cortical involvement. The changes in the adrenal cortex could be due to shock or to cellular toxic effect of phosphine. The histopathological changes in various viscera showed congestion, edema and cellular infiltration. In the heart, there were patchy areas of necrosis, while the liver showed fatty changes and the lungs showed, in addition areas of gray/red hepatization. There was no adrenal apoplexy or extensive haemorrhage that could explain shock in these patients. Cardiogenic shock could not be confirmed due to lack of facilities for haemodynamic monitoring, but there was histopathological evidence in support of cardiovascular shock. PMID:2620956

Chugh, S N; Ram, S; Sharma, A; Arora, B B; Saini, A S; Malhotra, K C

1989-08-01

449

The Anaemia of Lead Poisoning: A Review  

PubMed Central

Lead intoxication has been recognized as a clinical entity since ancient times. Hippocrates (370 B.C.) was probably the first person to associate lead with clinical symptoms, since when the harmful effects of lead on the body have been well documented. Early observations culminated in the brilliant monograph of Tanquerel des Planches (1839) in which the clinical aspects of the disease were completely outlined and most of the early signs of the disease were mentioned. So complete was this work that virtually nothing has been added to des Planches's observations since their publication. The earliest reference to lead anaemia was made in 1831 by Laennec, who described thinness of the blood and pallor of the tissues in cases of lead poisoning at necropsy. The first direct evidence of the effect of lead on red blood cells was presented by Andral and Gavarret (1840), who counted the number of red blood cells in cases of lead poisoning and found the count to be much lower than normal. Since these early reports a great deal of work has been undertaken to try to discover the means by which lead causes anaemia, but it is probably true to say that at the present time this mechanism is still not fully understood. This review is an attempt to draw together at least some of the theories which have been advanced in the past and to present them, it is hoped, in an easily accessible manner for future workers in this field. Images PMID:5326074

Waldron, H. A.

1966-01-01

450

Dynamic transition in etching with poisoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a lattice model for etching of a crystalline solid including the deposition of a poisoning species. The model considers normal and lateral erosion of the columns of the solid by a flux of etching particles and the blocking effects of impurities formed at the surface. As the probability p of formation of this poisoning species increases, the etching rate decreases and a continuous transition to a pinned phase is observed. The transition is in the directed percolation (DP) class, with the fraction of the exposed columns as the order parameter. This interpretation is consistent with a mapping of the interface problem in d+1 dimensions onto a d-dimensional contact process, and is confirmed by numerical results in d=1 and d=2. In the etching phase, the interface width scales with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) exponents, and shows a crossover from the critical DP behavior (W˜t) to KPZ near the critical point, at etching times of the order of (pc-p)-??. Anomalous roughening is observed at criticality, with the roughness exponent related to DP exponents as ?c=??/??>1. The main differences from previously studied DP transitions in growth models and isotropic percolation transitions in etching models are discussed. Investigations in real systems are suggested.

Aarão Reis, F. D.

2003-10-01

451

Treatment of lead poisoning in wild geese.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven wild geese (Anser albifrons) suffering from lead poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shot were treated with disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in blood ranged from 0.4 to 23.0 micrograms/ml, with a mean concentration of 5.6 micrograms/ml. In 22 of the birds, 1 to 48 lead pellets (mean, 10.5 pellets/bird) were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. In the birds that recovered, the lead pellets were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetites in response to treatment, and disappeared radiographically between treatment days 17 and 52. The birds that did not survive died within 4 weeks, despite decreased concentrations of lead in blood. Of these 16 birds, 15 had radiographic evidence of impaction of the proventriculus at the first examination and no evidence of resolution of the impaction at the time of death. In contrast, only 2 of the 11 geese that recovered had impaction of the proventriculus at the time of admission. Thus, the condition of the proventriculus seems to be the first consideration to evaluate in the prognosis of lead poisoning in geese. PMID:1624358

Murase, T; Ikeda, T; Goto, I; Yamato, O; Jin, K; Maede, Y

1992-06-01

452

Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)-induced nephrotoxicity was diagnosed in 6 herds of cattle from 3 counties in southwest Missouri. Forty-eight cows and calves died and another 35 were clinically affected. Serum urea nitrogen concentration, determined in 4 affected calves, was between 55 and 284 mg/dl, and serum creatinine concentration was between 6.7 and 29.9 mg/dl. Postmortem examination of affected cows and calves revealed amber-colored fluid in peritoneal cavities and retroperitoneal perirenal edema. Histologic examination of kidney sections revealed widespread degeneration and necrosis of proximal and distal tubules. Compared with archived kidney sections from cattle with Quercus (oak) poisoning, distal renal tubules were more severely affected. Oak poisoning also was associated with a higher prevalence of interstitial fibrosis and renal tubular oxalosis. We concluded that ingestion of the aerial and leafy portions of pigweed by cattle in drought situations does not necessarily lead to nitrate-induced sudden death associated with consumption of the nitrate-containing stems. PMID:8045809

Casteel, S W; Johnson, G C; Miller, M A; Chudomelka, H J; Cupps, D E; Haskins, H E; Gosser, H S

1994-04-01

453

Dynamic transition in etching with poisoning.  

PubMed

We study a lattice model for etching of a crystalline solid including the deposition of a poisoning species. The model considers normal and lateral erosion of the columns of the solid by a flux of etching particles and the blocking effects of impurities formed at the surface. As the probability p of formation of this poisoning species increases, the etching rate decreases and a continuous transition to a pinned phase is observed. The transition is in the directed percolation (DP) class, with the fraction of the exposed columns as the order parameter. This interpretation is consistent with a mapping of the interface problem in d+1 dimensions onto a d-dimensional contact process, and is confirmed by numerical results in d=1 and d=2. In the etching phase, the interface width scales with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) exponents, and shows a crossover from the critical DP behavior (W approximately t) to KPZ near the critical point, at etching times of the order of (pc-p)(-nu(||)). Anomalous roughening is observed at criticality, with the roughness exponent related to DP exponents as alphac=nu(||)/nu(perpendicular)>1. The main differences from previously studied DP transitions in growth models and isotropic percolation transitions in etching models are discussed. Investigations in real systems are suggested. PMID:14682948

Aarão Reis, F D A

2003-10-01

454

The good and the bad of poisonous plants: An introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL, and the potential assistance we can provide to plant poisoning incidences. Discussion: The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of th...

455

CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

456

MACROMINERALS - SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon

457

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2-ethyl-hexyl)-hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b...Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d...entitled “Colorimetric Determination of Residual Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Arquad...

2011-04-01

458

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-ethyl-hexyl)-hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b...Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d...entitled “Colorimetric Determination of Residual Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Arquad...

2010-04-01

459

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

460

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

461

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2011-04-01

462

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

463

21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

464

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2012-04-01

465

21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

466

21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

467

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2014-04-01

468

21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

469

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

2014-02-11

470

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22

471

Methylene blue solder re-absorption in microvascular anastomoses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soldered vascular anastomoses have been reported using several chromophores but little is known of the optimal conditions for microvascular anastomosis. There are some indications of the optimal protein contents of a solder, and the effects of methylene blue on anastomotic strength. The effects of varying laser power density in vivo have also been described, showing a high rate of thrombosis with laser power over 22.9Wcm-2. However no evidence exists to describe how long the solder remains at the site of the anastomosis. Oz et al reported that the fibrin used in their study had been almost completely removed by 90 days but without objective evidence of solder removal. In order to address the issue of solder re-absorption from the site of an anastomosis we used radio-labelled albumin (I-125) incorporated into methylene blue based solder. This was investigated in both the situation of the patent and thrombosed anastomosis with anastomoses formed at high and low power. Iodine-125 (half life: 60.2 days) was covalently bonded to porcine albumin and mixed with the solder solution. Radio-iodine has been used over many years to determine protein turnover using either I-125 or I-131. Iodine-125 labelled human albumin is regularly used as a radiopharmaceutical tool for the determination of plasma volume. Radio-iodine has the advantages of not affecting protein metabolism and the label is rapidly excreted after metabolic breakdown. Labelling with chromium (Cr-51) causes protein denaturation and is lost from the protein with time. Labelled albumin has been reported in human studies over a 21-day period, with similar results reported by Matthews. Most significantly McFarlane reported a different rate of catabolism of I-131 and I-125 over a 22-day period. The conclusion from this is that the rate of iodine clearance is a good indicator of protein catabolism. In parallel with the surgery a series of blank standards were prepared with a known mass of solder to correct for isotope decay and allow data interpretation in terms of the actual amount of the solder remaining after a particular time. The anastomoses were formed with a known amount of solder and allowed to continue for up to 60 days before being sacrificed. The explanted vessels were then placed into a gamma counter and the amount of solder remaining expressed as a percentage. In this way the proportion of albumin left at the site of the anastomosis could be determined. By changing the power density of the laser it has been shown that the patency of soldered microvascular anastomoses is altered. By doing this it was hoped to determine any effect thrombosis might have on solder re-absorption. In addition the explanted vessels were inspected for inflammation, patency and aneurysm formation.

Birch, Jeremy F.; Hepplewhite, J.; Frier, Malcolm; Bell, Peter R. F.

2003-06-01

472

Beneficial network effects of methylene blue in an amnestic model  

PubMed Central

Posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex (PCC) hypometabolism is a common feature in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. In rats, PCC hypometabolism induced by mitochondrial dysfunction induces oxidative damage, neurodegeneration and memory deficits. USP methylene blue (MB) is a diaminophenothiazine drug with antioxidant and metabolic-enhancing properties. In rats, MB facilitates memory and prevents neurodegeneration induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. This study tested the memory-enhancing properties of systemic MB in rats that received an infusion of sodium azide, a cytochrome oxidase inhibitor, directly into the PCC. Lesion volumes were estimated with unbiased stereology. MB’s network-level mechanism of action was analyzed using graph theory and structural equation modeling based on cytochrome oxidase histochemistry-derived metabolic mapping data. Sodium azide infusions induced PCC hypometabolism and impaired visuospatial memory in a holeboard food-search task. Isolated PCC cytochrome oxidase inhibition disrupted the cingulo-thalamo-hippocampal effective connectivity, decreased the PCC functional networks and created functional redundancy within the thalamus. An intraperitoneal dose of 4 mg/kg MB prevented the memory impairment, reduced the PCC metabolic lesion volume and partially restored the cingulo-thalamo-hippocampal network effects. The effects of MB were dependent upon the local sub-network necessary for memory retrieval. The data support that MB’s metabolic-enhancing effects are contingent upon the neural context, and that MB is able to boost coherent and orchestrated adaptations in response to physical alterations to the network involved in visuospatial memory. These results implicate MB as a candidate intervention to improve memory. Because of its neuroprotective properties, MB may have disease-modifying effects in amnestic conditions associated with hypometabolism. PMID:21087672

Riha, Penny D.; Rojas, Julio C.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

2010-01-01

473

21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178.3290 Food...Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride...

2010-04-01

474

A study on poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Acute poisoning with various substance is common everywhere. The earlier the initial resuscitations, gastric decontamination and use of specific antidotes, the better the outcome. The aim of this study was to characterize the poisoning cases admitted to the tertiary care hospital, Warangal district, Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. All cases admitted to the emergency department of the hospital between the months of January and December, 2007, were evaluated retrospectively. We reviewed data obtained from the hospital medical records and included the following factors: socio-demographic characteristics, agents and route of intake and time of admission of the poisoned patients. During the outbreak in 2007, 2,226 patients were admitted to the hospital with different poisonings; the overall case fatality rate was 8.3% (n = 186). More detailed data from 2007 reveals that two-third of the patients were 21–30 years old, 5.12% (n = 114) were male and 3.23% (n = 72) were female, who had intentionally poisoned themselves. In summary, the tertiary care hospitals of the Telangana region, Warangal, indicate that significant opportunities for reducing mortality are achieved by better medical management and further sales restrictions on the most toxic pesticides. This study highlighted the lacunae in the services of tertiary care hospitals and the need to establish a poison information center for the better management and prevention of poisoning cases. PMID:22096334

Kumar, Subash Vijaya; Venkateswarlu, B.; Sasikala, M.; Kumar, G. Vijay

2010-01-01

475

Effects of packaging and appearance on childhood poisoning. Vacor rat poison  

SciTech Connect

Over a 13-month period, 14 patients were hospitalized at Milwaukee Children's Hospital for rodenticide ingestions. Ten of the 14 patients ingested Vacor Rat Poison (N-3-pyridylmethyl N'-p-nitrophenyl urea). Small children could easily mistake Vacor, which resembles corn meal, for breakfast cereal. To intervene for safer packaging of toxic substances, pediatricians need to be aware of the health hazard posed to children by attractive packaging.

Schum, T.R.; Lachman, B.S.

1982-05-01

476

S100B protein in carbon monoxide poisoning: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common form of lethal poisoning. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to assess the possible role of S100B, the structural protein in the astroglia, as a biochemical marker of brain injury in carbon monoxide poisoning. Serum S100B determination was performed in 38 consecutive patients poisoned by carbon monoxide who were admitted

Miran Brvar; Hugon Možina; Josko Osredkar; Martin Možina; Marko No?; Andrej Bru?an; Matjaž Bunc

2004-01-01

477

Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

2004-06-01

478

Acute poisoning with methidathion: a case.  

PubMed

An acute poisoning in a 50-year-old man who ingested approximately 6.2 g of the phosphorus ester methidathion is described. The patient was treated with three haemoperfusions 23, 44 and 115 h after ingestion, with continuous gastric lavage, atropine and pralidoxime administration and with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Haemoperfusion was an ineffective epuration technique since it removed only 0.22% of the ingested methidathion. The clinical course wavered because of a probable redistribution of phosphorus ester from fat to blood. A plasma level higher than 100 micrograms l-1 was associated with the most serious phases. Methidathion was present in the plasma until the sixth day, in the urine until the seventh and in the gastric juice until the eighth. Its absence in the fat biopsy made on the tenth day was an aid to therapy. The phosphorus ester did not inhibit lymphocyte neuropathy target esterase (NTE), neither did it induce development of delayed polyneuropathy. PMID:2271234

Zoppellari, R; Targa, L; Tonini, P; Zatelli, R

1990-11-01

479

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management  

PubMed Central

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

2014-01-01

480

Retrospective searching for poisonous plant vouchers.  

PubMed

Few published reports of plant poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, document vouchers. This can be rectified by retrospective location of vouchers through determination of a collaborating botanist or herbarium of deposit. An absolute voucher is referenced in the toxicology report. For a probable voucher the report does not identify an herbarium specimen, but the report and the specimen label or sheet agree on plant name, collector's name, collection date and place. A possible voucher is perhaps from the exposure lot, but was collected by the collaborating botanist at a somewhat earlier or later date than the exposure date. On the other hand, a supporting specimen was collected by the collaborating botanist but is not from the exposure lot. Vouchers and supporting specimens for some species of Asclepias tested for toxicity by CD Marsh and coworkers were found in the US National Herbarium at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. PMID:10349707

Wagstaff, D J; Lellinger, D B; Wiersema, J H

1999-06-01

481

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P

2014-05-01

482

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

2011-01-01

483

Paraquat poisoning: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (1, r-dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridium dichloride), a brown syrupy liquid is an effective herbicide that has low chronic toxicity because of its rapid deactivation on contact with soil. A high dose of paraquat or severe poisoning has a poor prognosis. At present there is no specific antidote to paraquat poisoning, hence the need to focus on prevention and in case of exposure or ingestion, aggressive decontamination to prevent further absorption. Although uncommon, paraquat ingestion can lead to severe and often fatal toxicity. However, despite its widespread availability, reports of this herbicide poisoning in India are uncommon. PMID:24672279

Raghu, Kondle; Mahesh, Vidavalur; Sasidhar, Parri; Reddy, Polam R.; Venkataramaniah, Vajja; Agrawal, Amit

2013-01-01

484

Standardized treatment of severe methanol poisoning with ethanol and hemodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Seven patients with methanol poisoning were treated with ethanol, hemodialysis and supportive measures. The interval between ingestion and initiation of ethanol therapy varied from 3 to 67 hours and from ingestion to dialysis from 9 to 93 hours. All patients survived, but one had permanent visual impairment. A 10% ethanol solution administered intravenously is a safe and effective antidote for severe methanol poisoning. Ethanol therapy is recommended when plasma methanol concentrations are higher than 20 mg per dl, when ingested doses are greater than 30 ml and when there is evidence of acidosis or visual abnormalities in cases of suspected methanol poisoning. 13 references, 1 figure, 2 table.

Ekins, B.R.; Rollins, D.E.; Duffy, D.P.; Gregory, M.C.

1985-03-01

485

Synthetic method and biological activities of cis-fused alpha-methylene gamma-lactones.  

PubMed

A reliable method was developed for the synthesis of cis-fused alpha-methylene gamma-lactones via alpha-methyl gamma-lactones. Bromination of alpha-methyl gamma-lactones with LDA/CBr(4) or TMSOTf/PTAB and successive dehydrobromination with DBU or TBAF of the resulting alpha-bromo-alpha-methyl gamma-lactones gave the desired alpha-methylene gamma-lactones in high yield. This method was successfully applied to the synthesis of biologically active compounds. alpha-Methylene gamma-lactone derivatives 1c, 2c, 4c, and 17 showed cell growth inhibitory activity to P388 lymphocytic leukemia. They also showed significant activities to crop diseases. Thus, alpha-methylene gamma-lactone 1c showed preventive activity in controlling scab of apple caused by Venturia inaequalis. alpha-Methylene gamma-lactones 2c, 4c, 17, and 18 also showed significant preventive activities in controlling damping off of cucumber caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. PMID:12828467

Higuchi, Yohsuke; Shimoma, Fumito; Ando, Masayoshi

2003-06-01

486

Grayanotoxin (Mad Honey) - Ongoing Consumption After Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as “mad honey” in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Aims: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on complaints and findings of mad honey poisoning. Patient information and findings at the time of admission were compared with those at one month after discharge through telephone interviews. They were asked if either they or their relatives had continued consuming the same honey. Frequency data such as gender, purpose of honey consumption, first complaints and continuance of honey consumption are shown as number (n) and percentage (%). A Chi Square test was conducted to determine the difference between groups. Results: 38 patients were participated in this study; 18 of the patients had to be followed up in a coronary intensive care unit. We were able to reach 34 patients by phone after discharge. It was found that 12 of 16 patients discharged after emergency unit observation or their close relatives were continuing to consume mad honey, whereas 16 (88.9%) of the 18 patients under coronary intensive care had discontinued consuming mad honey. The difference in the continuation of mad honey consumption between patient groups followed-up in the intensive care unit and those discharged after emergency observation was statistically significant. Conclusion: Hazards associated with and serious consequences following the consumption of mad honey must be clearly explained to patients who are found to be consuming mad honey. PMID:25207122

Ero?lu, Serkan Emre; Urgan, O?uz; Onur, Özge Ecmel; Denizba??, Arzu; Ako?lu, Haldun

2013-01-01

487

Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

1985-01-01

488

Accidental benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) injection.  

PubMed

We report a case of an accidental injection of benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) instead of a local anesthetic agent during a tooth extraction. The sudden development of chin and neck swelling led to dyspnea and the patient lost consciousness. She was sent to an emergency clinic by her dentist immediately. After medical treatment for 20 days, the necrotic tissue was debrided and a gingival sulcoplasty was performed. Healing was uneventful. PMID:22014998

Kilic, Erdem; Er, Nilay; Alkan, Alper; Ferahbas, Ayten

2011-12-01

489

Physiology of food poisoning microorganisms and the major problems in food poisoning control.  

PubMed

There remains considerable public concern regarding the current high level of food poisoning disease in Europe and the fact that, year by year, it continues to rise rather than fall. At the same time, there are strong and increasing demands from consumers for foods that are more convenient, fresher, more natural, less heavily processed (e.g. 'REPFEDS' and 'Sous Vide' foods, mildly heated and distributed at chill temperatures; Lund and Notermans, 1992), less heavily preserved (e.g. less acid, less salt, less sugar; Gould, 1995) and less reliant on additive preservatives than hitherto (e.g. sulphite, nitrite, organic acids and esters; Russell and Gould, 1991). Most of these trends result in a general reduction in the intrinsic preservation of foods. Furthermore, many food poisoning microorganisms escape the attention of preservation techniques altogether, reaching the consumer more or less directly from contaminated foods, most often foods of animal origin. It has therefore been argued that a substantial reduction in food poisoning in the near future will be difficult to achieve unless we obtain a greatly improved understanding of the physiology of the most important target organisms (Knochel and Gould, 1995). This knowledge must then be exploited in ways which effectively improve our means for the control of these hazards and reduce the risk to the consumer. A three year AAIR Concerted Action Programme (PL920630: 'Physiology of Food Poisoning Microorganisms') was therefore initiated in 1992 in order to bring together research groups working on the physiology and related aspects of food poisoning microorganisms. The principal objectives of the programme were: 1. To determine the physiological, biochemical and genetical bases of the organisms' survival of and responses to food-relevant stresses; 2. to determine the physiological and genetical factors influencing infectivity and toxinogenesis; 3. to understand the physiological bases of those synergistic systems that are already empirically applied or that have future potential; 4. to make a wide range of modern techniques in which particular members have expertise more widely available. As can be read in the subsequent contributions to this special issue, the area is a fruitful one for microbiological research and the Programme has been successful in bringing together disparate strands of the topic. It has also highlighted areas where this scientific knowledge may be better exploited in improving the microbiological safety of foods for the consumer. PMID:8750661

Gould, G W; Abee, T; Granum, P E; Jones, M V

1995-12-01

490

The interaction between methylene blue and the cholinergic system  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effects of methylene blue (MB) on different types of cholinesterases and [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) binding to muscarinic receptors were studied. Human plasma from young healthy male volunteers, purified human pseudocholinesterase and purified bovine true acetylcholinesterase were incubated with acetylcholine and increasing concentrations of MB (0.1–100??mol?l?1) in the presence of the pH-indicator m-nitrophenol for 30?min at 25°C. The amount of acetic acid produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylcholine was determined photometrically. Rat cardiac left ventricle homogenate was incubated with [3H]-NMS and with increasing concentrations of MB (0.1?nmol?l?1–100??mol?l?1) at 37°C for 20?min. The binding of [3H]-NMS to the homogenate was quantified by a standard liquid scintillation technique. MB inhibited the esterase activity of human plasma, human pseudocholinesterase and bovine acetylcholinesterase concentration-dependently with IC50 values of 1.05±0.05??mol?l?1, 5.32±0.36??mol?l?1 and 0.42±0.09??mol?l?1, respectively. MB induced complete inhibition of the esterase activity of human plasma and human pseudocholinesterase, whereas bovine acetylcholinesterase was maximally inhibited by 73±3.3%. MB was able to inhibit specific [3H]-NMS binding to rat cardiac left ventricle homogenate completely with an IC50 value of 0.77±0.03??mol?l?1, which resulted in a Ki value for MB of 0.58±0.02??mol?l?1. In conclusion, MB may be considered as a cholinesterase inhibitor with additional, relevant affinity for muscarinic binding sites at concentrations at which MB is used for investigations into the endothelial system. In our opinion these interactions between MB and the cholinergic system invalidate the use of MB as a tool for the investigation of the L-arginine-NO-pathway, in particular when muscarinic receptor stimulation is involved. PMID:9298533

Pfaffendorf, M; Bruning, T A; Batink, H D; van Zwieten, P A

1997-01-01

491

Utility of methylene blue for the reversal of excessive levels of methemoglobin  

SciTech Connect

Many new prophylactic and therapeutic compounds are being studied as potential sources of methemoglobin useful in counteracting the lethal effects of cyanide intoxication. The formation of methemoglobin also leads to a reduction in the blood oxygen carrying capacity which may, in extreme cases, lead to lethal consequences. The i.v. administration of Methylene blue rapidly reverses methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Unanticipated high levels of methemoglobin (65 - 85%) in three sheep exposed to propiophenone derivatives led to a lethal outcome in one untreated sheep and complete recovery in two sheep which were treated with 3.0 mg/kg methylene blue i.v. methemoglobin was reduced to safe levels within minutes following administration. A similar exposure of dogs to propriophenone derivatives led to high levels (77 - 78%) of methemoglobin which were readily reversed following the intravenous administration of the same dose of methylene blue.

Vick, J.; Von Bredow, J.; Brown, L.; Kaminskis, A.; Bossone, C.

1993-05-13

492

Heinz-body hemolytic anemia associated with ingestion of methylene blue in a river otter.  

PubMed

Heinz-body hemolytic anemia and nephrosis associated with hemoglobinuria were diagnosed in a North American river otter. Fluids were administered, and the signs of renal failure improved immediately. Severe anemia developed, and the otter received a semisynthetic hemoglobin product to maintain the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood until a blood transfusion could be given. Immediate clinical improvement was observed following hemoglobin administration, and adverse effects were not seen. Six days after admission, the otter began to produce its own RBC and recovered without complications. The Heinz-body anemia was determined to be caused by methylene blue that was in the water of minnows consumed by the otter the night before it became ill. Methylene blue is a common ingredient in products used to extend the life of bait fish. Bait fish kept in water treated with methylene blue should not be used as food for fish-eating animals. PMID:11829270

Narurkar, Neelesh S; Thomas, Jennifer S; Phalen, David N

2002-02-01

493

A case of homicidal poisoning involving several drugs.  

PubMed

Accidental or suicidal poisonings due to benzodiazepines have been previously reported. A case of fatal, homicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines, antipyretic analgesics (anti-inflammatory drugs), and beer is described here. In this homicidal poisoning, the drugs and beer were given to the decedent by his wife. Autopsy findings showed no clinically significant macroscopic findings except for slight postmortem change. Capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was employed to quantitate the drugs in biological fluids and stomach contents. Six drugs (brotizolam, triazolam, ibuprofen, dihydrocodeine, phenylpropanolamine, and chlorpheniramine) were identified and quantitated in blood, urine, and stomach contents. Although each drug was present in a very small quantity, the cause of death was determined to be the combination of these drugs and alcohol poisoning. PMID:9399131

Saito, T; Takeichi, S; Nakajima, Y; Yukawa, N; Osawa, M

1997-01-01

494

[Clinical practice guidelines in acetaminophen poisoning--pre-hospital management].  

PubMed

We described guidelines for personel working in poison information service in case of acute paracetamol overdose. The guidelines were created with respect to EBM (Evidence Based Medicine) by the American Association of Control Centers. PMID:19788141

Pach, Janusz; Targosz, Dorota; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Anand, Jacek Sein

2009-01-01

495

Reassessment of the microcytic anemia of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Hematologic abnormalities in childhood lead poisoning may be due, in part, to the presence of other disorders, such as iron deficiency or thalassemia minor. In order to reassess increased lead burden as a cause of microcytic anemia, we studied 58 children with class III or IV lead poisoning, normal iron stores, and no inherited hemoglobinopathy. Anemia occurred in 12% and microcytosis in 21% of these children. The combination of anemia and microcytosis was found in only one of 58 patients (2%). When only children with class IV lead poisoning were studied, the occurrence of microcytosis increased to 46%. However, the combination of microcytosis and anemia was found in only one of these 13 more severely affected patients. Microcytic anemia was similarly uncommon in children with either blood lead concentration greater than or equal to 50 microgram/100 ml. These data indicate that microcytosis and anemia occur much less commonly than previously reported in childhood lead poisoning uncomplicated by other hematologic disorders.

Cohen, A.R.; Trotzky, M.S.; Pincus, D.

1981-06-01

496

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2012-04-01

497

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2014-04-01

498

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2010-04-01

499

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2013-04-01

500

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2011-04-01